WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerator controls infrastructure

  1. Diamon2- Improved Monitoring of CERN’s Accelerator Controls Infrastructure

    Buczak, W; Ehm, F; Jurcso, P; Mitev, M

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of heterogeneous systems in large organizations like CERN is always challenging. CERN's accelerators infrastructure includes large number of equipment (servers, consoles, FECs, PLCs), some still running legacy software like LynxOS 4 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 on older hardware with very limited resources. DIAMON2 is based on CERN Common Monitoring platform. Using Java industry standards, notably Spring, Ehcache and the Java Message Service, together with a small footprint C++ -based monitoring agent for real time systems and wide variety of additional data acquisition components (SNMP, JMS, JMX etc.), DIAMON2 targets CERN’s environment, providing easily extensible, dynamically reconfigurable, reliable and scalable monitoring solution. This article explains the evolution of the CERN diagnostics and monitoring environment until DIAMON2, describes the overall system’s architecture, main components and their functionality as well as the first operational experiences with the new system, observed...

  2. 77 FR 36903 - Accelerating Broadband Infrastructure Deployment

    2012-06-20

    ... Infrastructure Development Through More Efficient and Effective Permitting and Environmental Review). (b) The..., Washington, June 14, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-15183 Filed 6-19-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13616 of June 14, 2012 Accelerating Broadband Infrastructure Deployment...

  3. Accelerators for Society - TIARA 2012 Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area (in Polish)

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    TIARA (Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - Preparatory Phae) is an European Collaboration of Accelerator Technology, which by running research projects, technical, networks and infrastructural has a duty to integrate the research and technical communities and infrastructures in the global scale of Europe. The Collaboration gathers all research centers with large accelerator infrastructures. Other ones, like universities, are affiliated as associate members. TIARA-PP (preparato...

  4. Accelerators for Society - TIARA 2012 Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area (in Polish)

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    TIARA (Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - Preparatory Phae) is an European Collaboration of Accelerator Technology, which by running research projects, technical, networks and infrastructural has a duty to integrate the research and technical communities and infrastructures in the global scale of Europe. The Collaboration gathers all research centers with large accelerator infrastructures. Other ones, like universities, are affiliated as associate members. TIARA-PP (preparatory phase) is an European infrastructural project run by this Consortium and realized inside EU-FP7. The paper presents a general overview of TIARA activities, with an introduction containing a portrait of contemporary accelerator technology and a digest of its applications in modern society.

  5. Technical infra-structure for accelerators in Brazil

    A minimal technical support infra-structura for, operation, maintenance and development suitable to a multi-user laboratory is presented. The costs of this infra-structure are 1.300 MCr$ in equipment and 700 MCr$ in people. A coordinated utilization of a particle accelerator network existing in the country and its corresponding costs are shown. Considerations in relation to the local of the sinchrotron radiation laboratory implantation are done. (L.C.)

  6. Controllable Laser Ion Acceleration

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Wang, W. M.; Limpouch, J.; Andreev, A.; Bulanov, S. V.; Sheng, Z. M.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a future laser ion accelerator is discussed to make the laser-based ion accelerator compact and controllable. Especially a collimation device is focused in this paper. The future laser ion accelerator should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers, and ion post acceleration devices [Laser Therapy 22, 103(2013)]: the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled to meet requirements for a future compact laser ion accelerator for ion cancer therapy or for other purposes. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching would be successfully realized by a multistage laser-target interaction.

  7. Review of EuCARD project on accelerator infrastructure in Europe

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of big infrastructural and research programs (like pan-European Framework Programs) and individual projects realized inside these programs in Europe is to structure the European Research Area - ERA in this way as to be competitive with the leaders of the world. One of this projects in EuCARD (European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development) with the aim to structure and modernize accelerator, (including accelerators for big free electron laser machines) research infrastructure. This article presents the periodic development of EuCARD which took place between the annual meeting, April 2012 in Warsaw and SC meeting in Uppsala, December 2012. The background of all these efforts are achievements of the LHC machine and associated detectors in the race for new physics. The LHC machine works in the regime of p-p, Pb-p, Pb-Pb (protons and lead ions). Recently, a discovery by the LHC of Higgs like boson, has started vivid debates on the further potential of this machine and the future. The periodic EuCARD conference, workshop and meetings concern building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The aim of the discussion is not only summarize the current status but make plans and prepare practically to building new infrastructures. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. Accelerator technology is intensely developed in all developed nations and regions of the world. The EuCARD project contains a lot of subjects related directly and indirectly to photon

  8. Network infrastructure control for virtual campuses

    Cardoso, Igor Duarte

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation provides a way to merge Cloud Computing infrastructures with traditional or legacy network deployments, leveraging the best in both worlds and enabling a logically centralized control for it. A design/architecture is proposed to extend existing Cloud Computing software stacks so they are able to manage networks outside the Cloud Computing infrastructure, by extending the internal, virtualized network segments. This is useful in a variety of use cases such a...

  9. Infrastructure of the Gemini Observatory control system

    Gillies, Kim K.; Walker, Shane

    1998-07-01

    Construction of the first Gemini 8-m telescope is well underway. The software that provides the user interface and high-level control of the observatory, the observatory control system (OCS), is also proceeding on track. The OCS provides tools that assist the astronomer from the proposal submission phase through planning, observation execution, and data review. A capable and flexible software infrastructure is required to support this comprehensive approach. New software technologies and industry standards have played a large part in the implementation of this infrastructure. For instance, the use of CORBA has provided many benefits in the software including object distribution, an interface definition language, and implementation language independence. In this paper, we describe the infrastructure of the OCS that supports observation planning and execution. Important software decisions and interfaces that allow Internet access and the ability to substitute alternate implementations easily are discussed as a model for other similar projects.

  10. The CERN accelerators controls convergence project

    Van den Eynden, Marc

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. The CERN PS and SL Accelerators controls groups have started in March 1998 a convergence effort aimed at building a common controls infrastructure for year 2001. The first activities concentrated on the definition of an object oriented Accelerator Device Model and Application Programming Interface (API) aimed at offering to high level application software developers a narrow and coherent view of the accelerator components. Efforts have also started to build the underlying middleware architecture that will support this model, including services based on the publish- subscribe paradigm. This presentation will highlight some aspects of this Accelerator Device model as seen form the application software level. A logical view of the associated middleware architecture that will transport Accelerator device data will also be discussed.

  11. Broadband accelerator control network

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel

  12. LANSCE Control System front-end and infrastructure hardware upgrades

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) linear accelerator drives user facilities for isotope production, proton radiography, ultra-cold neutrons, weapons neutron research and various sciences using neutron scattering. The LANSCE Control System which is in part more than 40 years old provides control and data monitoring for most devices in the linac and for some of its associated experimental-area beam lines. In Fiscal Year 2011, the control system went through an upgrade process that affected different areas of the LANSCE Control System. We improved our network infrastructure and we converted part of our front-end control system hardware to Allen Bradley ControlsLogix 5000 and National Instruments Compact RIO programmable automation controller (PAC). In this paper, we will discuss what we have done, what we have learned about upgrading the existing control system and how this will affect our future plans. (authors)

  13. CARE Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe: integrating activity implemented as integrated infrastructure initiative

    Aleksan, R

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the CARE project was to generate a structured and integrated European area in the field of accelerator research and related R&D. A set of integrating activities involving the largest European infrastructure laboratories and their user communities “active in accelerator R&D”, including industrial partners was established with the following general objectives: 1) To optimise the use of existing infrastructures for improving the European knowledge on accelerator physics  By promoting a coherent and coordinated utilization and development of infrastructures and to facilitate the access to accelerators and test facilities for carrying accelerator studies  By understanding accelerator operation and reliability issues 2) To tackle new or state-of-the-art technologies in a more co-ordinated and collaborative approach  By developing a coherent and coordinated accelerator R&D program in Europe and carrying out joint R&D projects allowing one to enhance the existing (or...

  14. Distributed control in the electricity infrastructure

    Different driving forces push the electricity production towards decentralization. As a result, the current electricity infrastructure is expected to evolve into a network of networks, in which all system parts communicate with each other and influence each other. Multiagent systems and electronic markets form an appropriate technology needed for control and coordination tasks in the future electricity network. We present the PowerMatcher, a market-based control concept for supply demand matching (SDM) in electricity networks. In a simulation study we show the ability of this approach to raise the simultaneousness of electricity production and consumption within (local) control clusters. This control concept can be applied in different business cases like reduction of imbalance costs in commercial portfolios or virtual power plant operation of distributed generators. Two PowerMatcher-based field test configurations are described, one currently in operation, one currently under construction

  15. CERN Front-End Software Architecture for Accelerator Controls

    Arruat, M; Guerrero, A; Jackson, S; Ludwig, M; Nougaret, J L

    2003-01-01

    To overcome the current diversity in AB front end equipment software and pave the way towards LHC for efficient development, diagnostic and maintenance in this area, the CERN Accelerator Controls group launched in April 2003 a project to develop the new CERN accelerator standard infrastructure for front end software. This development is based on the infrastructure recently born to handle the SPS beam measurement systems and extends it to handle the PS and SPS multi-cycling schemes, the future requirements needed for LHC as well as providing a good backward compatibility with the existing infrastructures. The project, approach and first deliverables are presented.

  16. Vibration control in accelerators

    Montag, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.

  17. INFRASTRUCTURE

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  18. Hacking control systems, switching… accelerators off?

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    In response to our article in the last Bulletin, we received the following comment: “Wasn’t Stuxnet designed to stop the Iranian nuclear programme? Why then all this noise with regard to CERN accelerators? Don’t you realize that ‘computer security’ is not the raison d'être of CERN?”. Thank you for this golden opportunity to delve into this issue.   Given the sophistication of Stuxnet, it might have been hard to detect such a targeted attack against CERN, if at all. But this is not the point. There are much simpler risks for our accelerator complex and infrastructure. And, while “‘computer security’ is [indeed] not the raison d' être”, it is our collective responsibility to keep this risk at bay.   Examples? Just think of a simple computer virus infecting Windows-based control PCs connected to the accelerator network (the Technical Network, &ld...

  19. Accelerator control systems in China

    Three accelerator facilities were built in the past few years, the 2.8 GeV electron positron collider BEPC, the heavy ion SSC cyclotron accelerator HIRFL and the 800 MeV synchrotron radiation storage ring HESYRL. Aimed at different research areas, they represent a new generation of accelerator in China. This report describes the design philosophy, the structure, performance as well as future improvements of the control systems of the these facilities. (author)

  20. Efficient control of accelerator maps

    Boreux, Jehan; Carletti, Timoteo; Skokos, Charalampos; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Vittot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Hamiltonian Control Theory was used in [Boreux et al.] to increase the dynamic aperture of a ring particle accelerator having a localized thin sextupole magnet. In this letter, these results are extended by proving that a simplified version of the obtained general control term leads to significant improvements of the dynamic aperture of the uncontrolled model. In addition, the dynamics of flat beams based on the same accelerator model can be significantly improved by a reduced c...

  1. Robust control of accelerators

    Joel, W.; Johnson, D.; Chaouki, Abdallah T.

    1991-07-01

    The problem of controlling the variations in the rf power system can be effectively cast as an application of modern control theory. Two components of this theory are obtaining a model and a feedback structure. The model inaccuracies influence the choice of a particular controller structure. Because of the modelling uncertainty, one has to design either a variable, adaptive controller or a fixed, robust controller to achieve the desired objective. The adaptive control scheme usually results in very complex hardware; and, therefore, shall not be pursued in this research. In contrast, the robust control method leads to simpler hardware. However, robust control requires a more accurate mathematical model of the physical process than is required by adaptive control. Our research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) has led to the development and implementation of a new robust rf power feedback system. In this article, we report on our research progress. In section 1, the robust control problem for the rf power system and the philosophy adopted for the beginning phase of our research is presented. In section 2, the results of our proof-of-principle experiments are presented. In section 3, we describe the actual controller configuration that is used in LANL FEL physics experiments. The novelty of our approach is that the control hardware is implemented directly in rf. without demodulating, compensating, and then remodulating.

  2. Controlling Infrastructure Costs: Right-Sizing the Mission Control Facility

    Martin, Keith; Sen-Roy, Michael; Heiman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center is a space vehicle, space program agnostic facility. The current operational design is essentially identical to the original facility architecture that was developed and deployed in the mid-90's. In an effort to streamline the support costs of the mission critical facility, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) has sponsored an exploratory project to evaluate and inject current state-of-the-practice Information Technology (IT) tools, processes and technology into legacy operations. The general push in the IT industry has been trending towards a data-centric computer infrastructure for the past several years. Organizations facing challenges with facility operations costs are turning to creative solutions combining hardware consolidation, virtualization and remote access to meet and exceed performance, security, and availability requirements. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) organization at the Johnson Space Center has been chartered to build and evaluate a parallel Mission Control infrastructure, replacing the existing, thick-client distributed computing model and network architecture with a data center model utilizing virtualization to provide the MCC Infrastructure as a Service. The OTF will design a replacement architecture for the Mission Control Facility, leveraging hardware consolidation through the use of blade servers, increasing utilization rates for compute platforms through virtualization while expanding connectivity options through the deployment of secure remote access. The architecture demonstrates the maturity of the technologies generally available in industry today and the ability to successfully abstract the tightly coupled relationship between thick-client software and legacy hardware into a hardware agnostic "Infrastructure as a Service" capability that can scale to meet future requirements of new space programs and spacecraft. This paper discusses the benefits

  3. A portable accelerator control toolkit

    In recent years, the expense of creating good control software has led to a number of collaborative efforts among laboratories to share this cost. The EPICS collaboration is a particularly successful example of this trend. More recently another collaborative effort has addressed the need for sophisticated high level software, including model driven accelerator controls. This work builds upon the CDEV (Common DEVice) software framework, which provides a generic abstraction of a control system, and maps that abstraction onto a number of site-specific control systems including EPICS, the SLAC control system, CERN/PS and others. In principle, it is now possible to create portable accelerator control applications which have no knowledge of the underlying and site-specific control system. Applications based on CDEV now provide a growing suite of tools for accelerator operations, including general purpose displays, an on-line accelerator model, beamline steering, machine status displays incorporating both hardware and model information (such as beam positions overlaid with beta functions) and more. A survey of CDEV compatible portable applications will be presented, as well as plans for future development

  4. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-05-01

    This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

  5. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors

  6. INFRASTRUCTURE

    Andrea Gaddi.

    The various water-cooling circuits ran smoothly over the summer. The overall performance of the cooling system is satisfactory, even if some improvements are possible, concerning the endcap water-cooling and the C6F14 circuits. In particular for the endcap cooling circuit, we aim to lower the water temperature, to provide more margin for RPC detectors. An expert-on-call piquet has been established during the summer global run, assuring the continuous supervision of the installations. An effort has been made to collect and harmonize the existing documentation on the cooling infrastructures at P5. The last six months have seen minor modifications to the electrical power network at P5. Among these, the racks in USC55 for the Tracker and Sniffer systems, which are backed up by the diesel generator in case of power outage, have been equipped with new control boxes to allow a remote restart. Other interventions have concerned the supply of assured power to those installations that are essential for CMS to run eff...

  7. INFRASTRUCTURE

    A. Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages were completed. On the surface, the site cooling facility has passed the annual maintenance process that includes the cleaning of the two evaporative cooling towers, the maintenance of the chiller units and the safety checks on the software controls. In parallel, CMS teams, reinforced by PH-DT group personnel, have worked to shield the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR against the magnetic stray field in the CMS Forward region, to add labels to almost all the valves underground and to clean all the filters in UXC55, USC55 and SCX5. Following the insertion of TOTEM T1 detector, the cooling circuit has been branched off and commissioned. The demineraliser cartridges have been replaced as well, as they were shown to be almost saturated. New instrumentation has been installed in the SCX5 PC farm cooling and ventilation network, in order to monitor the performance of the HVAC system...

  8. Personal computers in accelerator control

    Anderssen, P. S.

    1988-07-01

    The advent of the personal computer has created a popular movement which has also made a strong impact on science and engineering. Flexible software environments combined with good computational performance and large storage capacities are becoming available at steadily decreasing costs. Of equal importance, however, is the quality of the user interface offered on many of these products. Graphics and screen interaction is available in ways that were only possible on specialized systems before. Accelerator engineers were quick to pick up the new technology. The first applications were probably for controllers and data gatherers for beam measurement equipment. Others followed, and today it is conceivable to make personal computer a standard component of an accelerator control system. This paper reviews the experience gained at CERN so far and describes the approach taken in the design of the common control center for the SPS and the future LEP accelerators. The design goal has been to be able to integrate personal computers into the accelerator control system and to build the operator's workplace around it.

  9. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to

  10. Modern control techniques for accelerators

    Goodwin, R.W.; Shea, M.F.

    1984-05-01

    Beginning in the mid to late sixties, most new accelerators were designed to include computer based control systems. Although each installation differed in detail, the technology of the sixties and early to mid seventies dictated an architecture that was essentially the same for the control systems of that era. A mini-computer was connected to the hardware and to a console. Two developments have changed the architecture of modern systems: (a) the microprocessor and (b) local area networks. This paper discusses these two developments and demonstrates their impact on control system design and implementation by way of describing a possible architecture for any size of accelerator. Both hardware and software aspects are included.

  11. INDIRECT ACCELERATED ADAPTIVE FUZZY CONTROLLER

    ZHU Liye; FANG Yuan; ZHANG Weidong

    2008-01-01

    According to a type of normal nonlinear system, an indirect adaptive fuzzy (IAF) controller has been applied to those systems where no accurate mathematical models of the systems under control are available. To satisfy with system performance, an indirect accelerated adaptive fuzzy (IAAF) controller is proposed, and its general form is presented. The general form IAAF controller ensures necessary control criteria and system's global stability using Lyapunov Theorem. It has been proved that the close-loop system error converges to a small neighborhood of equilibrium point. The optimal IAAF controller is derived to guarantee the process's shortest settling time. Simulation results indicate the IAAF controller make the system more stable, accurate, and fast.

  12. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    Melen, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors.

  13. Radiation control in accelerator facilities

    In view of radiation control, particle accelerator facilities have posed various problems involving radiation (mainly neutron) leakage, occupational exposure, environmental aspects in the surrounding area, and waste management. The intent of the workshop was to discuss these problems. This report contains nine topics that were presented and discussed: (1) Radiation safety system for the AVF cyclotron and the cyclotron cascade project at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University; (2) Calculation for the shielding design in the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron Facility; (3) Shielding design method for high-energy protons in the National Laboratory for High-energy Physics (KEK); (4) Radiation safety programme for the uses of medical accelerators in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences; (5) Development of the new stack air monitor; (6) Environmental radiation monitoring in the vicinity of the intense 14 Mev neutron source facility; (7) Radiation control around the KEK-proton synchroton; (8) Radiation safety control system for the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron; (9) Evaluation of radioactivity and skyshine induced by neutron production in an accelerator facility. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  15. Infrastruktura akceleratorowa w Europie - EuCARD 2011 (Accelerator infrastructure in Europe), Elektronika, vol.52, no 8/2011, pp.117-120

    Romaniuk, R S

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the annual meeting of the EuCARD – European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development. The conference concerns building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement – control networks of l...

  16. INFRASTRUCTURE

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are preparing for the LS1 activities. A long list of maintenance, consolidation and upgrade projects for CMS Infrastructures is on the table and is being discussed among Technical Coordination and sub-detector representatives. Apart from the activities concerning the cooling infrastructures (see below), two main projects have started: the refurbishment of the SX5 building, from storage area to RP storage and Muon stations laboratory; and the procurement of a new dry-gas (nitrogen and dry air) plant for inner detector flushing. We briefly present here the work done on the first item, leaving the second one for the next CMS Bulletin issue. The SX5 building is entering its third era, from main assembly building for CMS from 2000 to 2007, to storage building from 2008 to 2012, to RP storage and Muon laboratory during LS1 and beyond. A wall of concrete blocks has been erected to limit the RP zone, while the rest of the surface has been split between the ME1/1 and the CSC/DT laborat...

  17. INFRASTRUCTURE

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2011-01-01

    Most of the work relating to Infrastructure has been concentrated in the new CSC and RPC manufactory at building 904, on the Prevessin site. Brand new gas distribution, powering and HVAC infrastructures are being deployed and the production of the first CSC chambers has started. Other activities at the CMS site concern the installation of a new small crane bridge in the Cooling technical room in USC55, in order to facilitate the intervention of the maintenance team in case of major failures of the chilled water pumping units. The laser barrack in USC55 has been also the object of a study, requested by the ECAL community, for the new laser system that shall be delivered in few months. In addition, ordinary maintenance works have been performed during the short machine stops on all the main infrastructures at Point 5 and in preparation to the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), when most of the systems will be carefully inspected in order to ensure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. After the incide...

  18. Trends in accelerator control systems

    Over the years, we have seen a revolution in control systems that has followed the ever decreasing cost of computer power and memory. It started with the data gathering, when people distrusted the computer to perform control actions correctly, through the stage of using a computer to perform control actions correctly, through the stage of using a computer system to provide a convenient remote look and adjust facility, to the present day, when more and more emphasis is being placed on using a computer system to simulate or model all or parts of the accelerator, feed in the required performance and calling for the computers to set the various parameters and then measure the actual performance, with iteration if necessary. The progress that has been made in the fields of architecture, communications, computers, interface, software design and operator interface is reviewed

  19. INFRASTRUCTURE

    A. Gaddi

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are constantly ensuring the smooth operation of the different services during this critical period when the detector is taking data at full speed. A single failure would spoil hours of high luminosity beam and everything is put in place to avoid such an eventuality. In the meantime however, the fast approaching LS1 requires that we take a look at the various activities to take place from the end of the year onwards. The list of infrastructures consolidation and upgrade tasks is already long and will touch all the services (cooling, gas, inertion, powering, etc.). The definitive list will be available just before the LS1 start. One activity performed by the CMS cooling team that is worth mentioning is the maintenance of the cooling circuits at the CMS Electronics Integration Centre (EIC) at building 904. The old chiller has been replaced by a three-units cooling plant that also serves the HVAC system for the new CSC and RPC factories. The commissioning of this new plant has tak...

  20. INFRASTRUCTURE

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the intense campaign of replacement of the leaky bushing on the Endcap circuits, other important activities have also been completed, with the aim of enhancing the overall reliability of the cooling infrastructures at CMS. Remaining with the Endcap circuit, the regulating valve that supplies cold water to the primary side of the circuit heat-exchanger, is not well adapted in flow capability and a new part has been ordered, to be installed during a stop of LHC. The instrumentation monitoring of the refilling rate of the circuits has been enhanced and we can now detect leaks as small as 0.5 cc/sec, on circuits that have nominal flow rates of some 20 litres/sec. Another activity starting now that the technical stop is over is the collection of spare parts that are difficult to find on the market. These will be stored at P5 with the aim of reducing down-time in case of component failure. Concerning the ventilation infrastructures, it has been noticed that in winter time the relative humidity leve...

  1. INFRASTRUCTURE

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the last six months, the main activity on the cooling circuit has essentially been preventive maintenance. At each short machine technical stop, a water sample is extracted out of every cooling circuit to measure the induced radioactivity. Soon after, a visual check of the whole detector cooling network is done, looking for water leaks in sensitive locations. Depending on sub-system availability, the main water filters are replaced; the old ones are inspected and sent to the CERN metallurgical lab in case of suspicious sediments. For the coming winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages are foreseen. A few faulty valves, found on the muon system cooling circuit, will be replaced; the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR, in the CMS Forward region, will be either changed or shielded against the magnetic stray field. The demineralizer cartridges will be replaced as well. New instrumentation will also be installed in the SCX5 PC farm ...

  2. INFRASTRUCTURE

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2013-01-01

      Most of the CMS infrastructures at P5 will go through a heavy consolidation-work period during LS1. All systems, from the cryogenic plant of the superconducting magnet to the rack powering in the USC55 counting rooms, from the cooling circuits to the gas distribution, will undergo consolidation work. As announced in the last issue of the CMS Bulletin, we present here one of the consolidation projects of LS1: the installation of a new dry-gas plant for inner detectors inertion. So far the oxygen and humidity suppression inside the CMS Tracker and Pixel volumes were assured by flushing dry nitrogen gas evaporated from a large liquid nitrogen tank. For technical reasons, the maximum flow is limited to less than 100 m3/h and the cost of refilling the tank every two weeks with liquid nitrogen is quite substantial. The new dry-gas plant will supply up to 400 m3/h of dry nitrogen (or the same flow of dry air, during shut-downs) with a comparatively minimal operation cost. It has been evaluated that the...

  3. INFRASTRUCTURE

    Andrea Gaddi

    With all the technical services running, the attention has moved toward the next shutdown that will be spent to perform those modifications needed to enhance the reliability of CMS Infrastructures. Just to give an example for the cooling circuit, a set of re-circulating bypasses will be installed into the TS/CV area to limit the pressure surge when a circuit is partially shut-off. This problem has affected especially the Endcap Muon cooling circuit in the past. Also the ventilation of the UXC55 has to be revisited, allowing the automatic switching to full extraction in case of magnet quench. (Normally 90% of the cavern air is re-circulated by the ventilation system.) Minor modifications will concern the gas distribution, while the DSS action-matrix has to be refined according to the experience gained with operating the detector for a while. On the powering side, some LV power lines have been doubled and the final schematics of the UPS coverage for the counting rooms have been released. The most relevant inte...

  4. INFRASTRUCTURE

    A. Gaddi

    The long winter shut-down allows for modifications that will improve the reliability of the detector infrastructures at P5. The annual maintenance of detector services is taking place as well. This means a full stop of water-cooling circuits from November 24th with a gradual restart from mid January 09. The annual maintenance service includes the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers, service of the chiller plants on the surface, and the cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet. In addition, the overall site power is reduced from 8MW to 2MW, compatible with the switchover to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power will be available again from end of January. Among the modification works planned, the Low Voltage cabinets are being refurbished; doubling the cable sections and replacing the 40A circuit breakers with 60A types. This will reduce the overheating that has been experienced. Moreover, two new LV transformers will be bought and pre-cabled in order to assure a quick swap in case of failure of any...

  5. RoadRunner: Infrastructure-less vehicular congestion control

    Gao, Jason Hao; Peh, Li-Shiuan

    2014-01-01

    RoadRunner is an in-vehicle app for traffic congestion control without costly roadside infrastructure, instead judiciously harnessing vehicle-to-vehicle communications, cellular connectivity, and onboard computation and sensing to enable large-scale traffic congestion control at higher penetration and finer granularity than previously possible. RoadRunner limits the number of vehicles in a congested region or road by requiring each to possess a token for entry. Tokens can circulate and be reu...

  6. INFRASTRUCTURES

    Andrea Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important tasks for LS1 was achieved this autumn when all the electronics racks in the USC55 counting rooms were switched from the standard powering network to the CMS low-voltage UPS. This long-sought move will prevent fastidious power cuts of the CMS electronics in case of short power glitches on the main powering network, as already assured to the detector front-end electronics in UXC55. In the same time, a study to update the dedicated UPS units for some crucial detector sub-systems, as the Magnet Control System (MCS), the Detector Safety System (DSS) and the IT Network Star-points, has been lunched. A new architecture, with fully redundant UPS units, able to assure power supply in case of long network outage (up to a maximum of five hours, in the case of the Magnet) has been recently presented by the EN-EL group and is currently under evaluation. The dry-gas plant recently commissioned in SH5 has passed a first test in order to understand the time needed to switch from dry-air to dry-n...

  7. INFRASTRUCTURE

    Andrea Gaddi

    The various water-cooling circuits have been running smoothly since the last maintenance stop. The temperature set-points are being tuned to the actual requests from sub-detectors. As the RPC chambers seem to be rather sensitive to temperature fluctuations, the set-point on the Barrel and Endcap Muon circuits has been lowered by one degree Celsius, reaching the minimum temperature possible with the current hardware. A further decrease in temperature will only be possible with a substantial modification of the heat exchanger and related control valve on the primary circuit. A study has been launched to investigate possible solutions and related costs. The two cooling skids for Totem and Castor have been installed on top of the HF platform. They will supply demineralized water to the two forward sub-detectors, transferring the heat to the main rack circuit via an on-board heat exchanger. A preliminary analysis of the cooling requirements of the SCX5 computer farm has been done. As a first result, two precision...

  8. Research of Virtual Accelerator Control System

    DongJinmei; YuanYoujin; ZhengJianhua

    2003-01-01

    A Virtual Accelerator is a computer process which simulates behavior of beam in an accelerator and responds to the accelerator control program under development in a same way as an actual accelerator. To realize Virtual Accelerator, control system should provide the same program interface to top layer Application Control Program, it can make 'Real Accelerator' and 'Virtual Accelerator'use the same GUI, so control system should have a layer to hide hardware details, Application Control Program access control devices through logical name but not through coded hardware address. Without this layer, it is difficult to develop application program which can access both 'Virtual' and 'Real' Accelerators using same program interfaces. For this reason, we can create CSR Runtime Database which allows application program to access hardware devices and data on a simulation process in a unified way. A device 'is represented as a collection of records in CSR Runtime Database. A control program on host computer can access devices in the system only through names of record fields, called channel.

  9. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  10. Maximizing oyster-reef growth supports green infrastructure with accelerating sea-level rise.

    Ridge, Justin T; Rodriguez, Antonio B; Joel Fodrie, F; Lindquist, Niels L; Brodeur, Michelle C; Coleman, Sara E; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Theuerkauf, Ethan J

    2015-01-01

    Within intertidal communities, aerial exposure (emergence during the tidal cycle) generates strong vertical zonation patterns with distinct growth boundaries regulated by physiological and external stressors. Forecasted accelerations in sea-level rise (SLR) will shift the position of these critical boundaries in ways we cannot yet fully predict, but landward migration will be impaired by coastal development, amplifying the importance of foundation species' ability to maintain their position relative to rising sea levels via vertical growth. Here we show the effects of emergence on vertical oyster-reef growth by determining the conditions at which intertidal reefs thrive and the sharp boundaries where reefs fail, which shift with changes in sea level. We found that oyster reef growth is unimodal relative to emergence, with greatest growth rates occurring between 20-40% exposure, and zero-growth boundaries at 10% and 55% exposures. Notably, along the lower growth boundary (10%), increased rates of SLR would outpace reef accretion, thereby reducing the depth range of substrate suitable for reef maintenance and formation, and exacerbating habitat loss along developed shorelines. Our results identify where, within intertidal areas, constructed or natural oyster reefs will persist and function best as green infrastructure to enhance coastal resiliency under conditions of accelerating SLR. PMID:26442712

  11. Electron beam accelerator energy control system

    A control system has been developed for the energy control of the electron beam accelerator using PLC. The accelerating voltage of 3 MV has been obtained by using parallel coupled voltage multiplier circuit. A autotransformer controlled variable 0-10 KV DC is fed to a tube based push pull oscillator to generate 120 Khz, 10 KV AC. Oscillator output voltage is stepped up to 0-300 KV/AC using a transformer. 0-300 KVAC is fed to the voltage multiplier column to generate the accelerating voltage at the dome 0-3 MV/DC. The control system has been designed to maintain the accelerator voltage same throughout the operation by adjusting the input voltage in close loop. Whenever there is any change in the output voltage either because of beam loading or arcing in the accelerator. The instantaneous accelerator voltage or energy is a direct proportional to 0-10 KVDC obtained from autotransformer. A PLC based control system with user settable energy level has been installed for 3 MeV, EB accelerator. The PLC takes the user defined energy value through a touch screen and compares it to the actual accelerating voltage (obtained using resistive divider). Depending upon the error the PLC generates the pulses to adjust the autotransformer to bring the actual voltage to the set value within the window of error (presently set to +/- 0.1%). (author)

  12. Update on the CERN Computing and Network Infrastructure for Controls (CNIC)

    Lueders, S

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years modern accelerator and experiment control systems have increasingly been based on commercial-off-the-shelf products (VME crates, PLCs, SCADA systems, etc.), on Windows or Linux PCs, and on communication infrastructures using Ethernet and TCP/IP. Despite the benefits coming with this (r)evolution, new vulnerabilities are inherited too: Worms and viruses spread within seconds via the Ethernet cable, and attackers are becoming interested in control systems. Unfortunately, control PCs cannot be patched as fast as office PCs. Even worse, vulnerability scans at CERN using standard IT tools have shown that commercial automation systems lack fundamental security precautions: Some systems crashed during the scan, others could easily be stopped or their process data be altered. During the two years following the presentation of the CNIC Security Policy at ICALEPCS2005, a "Defense-in-Depth" approach has been applied to protect CERN's control systems. This presentation will give a review of its th...

  13. Robust rf control of accelerators

    The problem of controlling the variations in the rf power systems can be effectively cast as an application of modern control theory. Two components of this theory are obtaining a model and a feedback structure. The model inaccuracies influence the choice of a particular controller structure. One can design wither a variable, adaptive controller or a fixed, robust controller to achieve the desired objective. The adaptive control scheme usually results in very complex hardware; and therefore, shall not be pursued. In contrast, the robust control method leads to simplified hardware. However, robust control requires a more accurate mathematical model of the physical process than is required by adaptive control. Our research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico has led to the development and implementation of a new rf power feedback system. In this paper, we report on our research progress. In section one, the robust control problem for the rf power system and the philosophy adopted for the beginning phase of our research is presented. In section two, results of our proof-of-principle experiments are presented. In section three, we describe the actual controller configuration that is used in LANL FEL physics experiments. The novelty of our approach is that the control hardware is implemented directly in rf without demodulating, compensating, and then remodulating

  14. Robust RF control of accelerators

    The problem of controlling the variations in the rf power system can be effectively cast as an application of modern control theory. Two components of this theory are obtaining a model and a feedback structure. The model inaccuracies influence the choice of a particular controller structure. One can design either a variable, adaptive controller or a fixed, robust controller to achieve the desired objective. The adaptive control scheme usually results in very complex hardware; and, therefore, shall not be pursued. In contrast, the robust control method leads to simpler hardware. However, robust control requires a more accurate mathematical model of the physical process than is required by adaptive control. The research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) has led to the development and implementation of a new rf power feedback system. In this paper, the authors report on their research progress. In section one, the robust control problem for the rf power system and the philosophy adopted for the beginning phase of our research is presented. In section two, the results of their proof-of principle experiments are represented. In section three, they describe the actual controller configuration that is used in LANL FEL physics experiments. The novelty of their approach is that the control hardware is implemented directly in rf without demodulating, compensating, and the remodulating

  15. Control problems in very large accelerators

    There is no fundamental difference of kind in the control requirements between a small and a large accelerator since they are built of the same types of components, which individually have the same types of control inputs and outputs. The main difference is one of scale; the large machine has many more components of each type, and the distances involved are much greater. It is the purpose of this paper to look at the special control problems of large accelerators, which the author shall arbitrarily define as those with a length or circumference in excess of 10 km, and point out where special developments, or the adoption of developments from outside the accelerator control field, can be of assistance in minimizing the cost of the control system

  16. Control problems in very large accelerators

    There is no fundamental difference of kind in the control requirements between a small and a large accelerator since they are built of the same types of components, which individually have similar control inputs and outputs. The main difference is one of scale; the large machine has many more components of each type, and the distances involved are much greater. Both of these factors must be taken into account in determining the optimum way of carrying out the control functions. Small machines should use standard equipment and software for control as much as possible, as special developments for small quantities cannot normally be justified if all costs are taken into account. On the other hand, the very great number of devices needed for a large machine means that, if special developments can result in simplification, they may make possible an appreciable reduction in the control equipment costs. It is the purpose of this report to look at the special control problems of large accelerators, which the author shall arbitarily define as those with a length of circumference in excess of 10 km, and point out where special developments, or the adoption of developments from outside the accelerator control field, can be of assistance in minimizing the cost of the control system. Most of the first part of this report was presented as a paper to the 1985 Particle Accelerator Conference. It has now been extended to include a discussion on the special case of the controls for the SSC

  17. Common control system for the CERN accelerators

    The PS and SPS Accelerator Control Systems are becoming obsolete and need urgent rejuvenation. After a control users forum, where users expressed their needs, two main Working Groups were set up, consisting of Control and Equipment Specialists and experienced Machine Operators. One Working Group studied the architecture and the front-end processing and the other a common approach to the application software needed to run the CERN accelerator complex. The paper presents the technical conclusion of their work and the policy to implement it, taking into account the necessity to operate both machines without interruption of the Physics Program. (author)

  18. Accelerator control systems without minicomputers

    A paper given last year described in general terms a plan for the control of a large machine using assemblies of microcomputer units which simulate a conventional minicomputer by multiprocessing. In every other way the SPS control philosophy is followed. The design of a model assembly has allowed us to learn something about the protocols needed inside and between assemblies, as well as to assess more accurately what level of technology it is reasonable to apply. In any control system of this kind it would be desirable to allow engineering contributions from a variety of sources, and yet ensure the homogeneity needed for the system to remain reliable and comprehensible. Methods of achieving this are discussed. (Auth.)

  19. An Accelerator Control Middle Layer Using MATLAB

    Matlab is a matrix manipulation language originally developed to be a convenient language for using the LINPACK and EISPACK libraries. What makes Matlab so appealing for accelerator physics is the combination of a matrix oriented programming language, an active workspace for system variables, powerful graphics capability, built-in math libraries, and platform independence. A number of software toolboxes for accelerators have been written in Matlab--the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for machine simulations, LOCO for accelerator calibration, Matlab Channel Access Toolbox (MCA) for EPICS connections, and the Middle Layer. This paper will describe the ''middle layer'' software toolbox that resides between the high-level control applications and the low-level accelerator control system. This software was a collaborative effort between ALS (LBNL) and SPEAR3 (SSRL) but easily ports to other machines. Five accelerators presently use this software. The high-level Middle Layer functionality includes energy ramp, configuration control (save/restore), global orbit correction, local photon beam steering, insertion device compensation, beam-based alignment, tune correction, response matrix measurement, and script-based programs for machine physics studies

  20. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility control system

    Described is the VAX/CAMAC-based control system for Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility, a laser/linac research complex. Details of hardware and software configurations are presented along with experiences of using Vsystem, a commercial control system package

  1. Evolution of control systems for accelerators

    The author reviews the development of control systems for accelerators. After an historical survey and a general introduction the hardware and software of such systems is described. As example the control system of the CERN SP5 is considered. Finally an outlook is given to future developments with special regards to the LEP storage ring. (HSI)

  2. Towards MRI-guided linear accelerator control: gating on an MRI accelerator

    To boost the possibilities of image guidance in radiotherapy by providing images with superior soft-tissue contrast during treatment, we pursue diagnostic quality MRI functionality integrated with a linear accelerator. Large respiration-induced semi-periodic target excursions hamper treatment of cancer of the abdominal organs. Methods to compensate in real time for such motion are gating and tracking. These strategies are most effective in cases where anatomic motion can be visualized directly, which supports the use of an integrated MRI accelerator. We establish here an infrastructure needed to realize gated radiation delivery based on MR feedback and demonstrate its potential as a first step towards more advanced image guidance techniques. The position of a phantom subjected to one-dimensional periodic translation is tracked with the MR scanner. Real-time communication with the MR scanner and control of the radiation beam are established. Based on the time-resolved position of the phantom, gated radiation delivery to the phantom is realized. Dose distributions for dynamic delivery conditions with varying gating windows are recorded on gafchromic film. The similarity between dynamically and statically obtained dose profiles gradually increases as the gating window is decreased. With gating windows of 5 mm, we obtain sharp dose profiles. We validate our gating implementation by comparing measured dose profiles to theoretical profiles calculated using the knowledge of the imposed motion pattern. Excellent correspondence is observed. At the same time, we show that real-time on-line reconstruction of the accumulated dose can be performed using time-resolved target position information. This facilitates plan adaptation not only on a fraction-to-fraction scale but also during one fraction, which is especially valuable in highly accelerated treatment strategies. With the currently established framework and upcoming improvements to our prototype-integrated MRI accelerator

  3. PLOCAN, an Off-shore environmentally sustainable infrastructure to accelerate ocean research, development and innovation at increasing depths.

    Hernández Brito, Joaquín; Delory, Eric; Llinás, Octavio

    2010-01-01

    The Canary Islands Oceanic Platform (PLOCAN) is a public infrastructure for research, development and innovation in the fields of ocean science and technology at increasing depths. Located East of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, Spain), PLOCAN will provide rapid access to great depths at short distance from the shore, accelerating research and the generation of water column and deep-ocean knowledge. Specifically, PLOCAN will host a permanent deep-sea observatory, be a t...

  4. Accelerating community development through provision of rural infrastructure: An appraisal of the third national Fadama development project in Ondo State

    R. O. Akinbamowo; E. O. Atanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an appraisal of the performance of the National Fadama Development Programme (FADAMA III) towards accelerating community infrastructural development in Ondo State, Nigeria, based on the author's practical assessment and oral interviews of project participants as well as a collection of secondary data in form of reports and surveys produced by the Fadama III Project in Ondo State during the implementation period. The secondary data collected include the status of the differ...

  5. Controllability of intense-laser ion acceleration

    Shigeo; Kawata; Toshihiro; Nagashima; Masahiro; Takano; Takeshi; Izumiyama; Daiki; Kamiyama; Daisuke; Barada; Qing; Kong; Yan; Jun; Gu; Ping; Xiao; Wang; Yan; Yun; Ma; Wei; Ming; Wang; Wu; Zhang; Jiang; Xie; Huiran; Zhang; Dongbo; Dai

    2014-01-01

    An ion beam has the unique feature of being able to deposit its main energy inside a human body to kill cancer cells or inside material. However, conventional ion accelerators tend to be huge in size and cost. In this paper, a future intenselaser ion accelerator is discussed to make the laser-based ion accelerator compact and controllable. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching, and the ion particle energy control. In the study, each component is designed to control the ion beam quality by particle simulations. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical-density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching are successfully realized by a multi-stage laser–target interaction.

  6. Computer networks in future accelerator control systems

    Some findings of a study concerning a computer based control and monitoring system for the proposed ISABELLE Intersecting Storage Accelerator are presented. Requirements for development and implementation of such a system are discussed. An architecture is proposed where the system components are partitioned along functional lines. Implementation of some conceptually significant components is reviewed

  7. Application of Smalltalk language for accelerator control

    This paper describes the results of studies for object-oriented control system creation. Using VisualWorks environment based on Smalltalk we created a set of programs, such as Control Model Editor, Control Model Scanner and Control Views, for developing and running an object-oriented model of an accelerator. Our system allows the user to easily create a class library which can be used to develop a number of control programs. The object model defines the object under control, the control logic and graphics for displaying control objects' states. Our experience shows that object-oriented software development is faster compared with traditional languages, and provides more functionality. VisualWorks is a multiplatform environment, and all applications can be ported to different operating systems with only minor changes. VisualWorks also provides high performance, which is important for time-critical control applications. (orig.)

  8. STUXNET and the Impact on Accelerator Control Systems

    Lüders, S

    2011-01-01

    2010 has seen wide news coverage of a new kind of computer attack, named "Stuxnet", targeting control systems. Due to its level of sophistication, it is widely acknowledged that this attack marks the very first case of a cyber-war of one country against the industrial infrastructure of another, although there is still much speculation about the details. Worse yet, experts recognize that Stuxnet might just be the beginning and that similar attacks, eventually with much less sophistication, but with much more collateral damage, can be expected in the years to come. Stuxnet was targeting a special model of the Siemens 400 PLC series. Similar modules are also deployed for accelerator controls like the LHC cryogenics or vacuum systems as well as the detector control systems in LHC experiments. Therefore, the aim of this presentation is to give an insight into what this new attack does and why it is deemed to be special. In particular, the potential impact on accelerator and experiment control sys...

  9. An Accelerator Control Middle Layer Using MATLAB

    Matlab is an interpretive programming language originally developed for convenient use with the LINPACK and EISPACK libraries. Matlab is appealing for accelerator physics because it is matrix-oriented, provides an active workspace for system variables, powerful graphics capabilities, built-in math libraries, and platform independence. A number of accelerator software toolboxes have been written in Matlab -- the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for model-based machine simulations, LOCO for on-line model calibration, and Matlab Channel Access (MCA) to connect with EPICS. The function of the MATLAB ''MiddleLayer'' is to provide a scripting language for machine simulations and on-line control, including non-EPICS based control systems. The MiddleLayer has simplified and streamlined development of high-level applications including configuration control, energy ramp, orbit correction, photon beam steering, ID compensation, beam-based alignment, tune correction and response matrix measurement. The database-driven Middle Layer software is largely machine-independent and easy to port. Six accelerators presently use the software package with more scheduled to come on line soon

  10. Intelligent monitoring, control, and security of critical infrastructure systems

    Polycarpou, Marios

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the challenges that critical infrastructure systems face, and presents state of the art solutions to address them. How can we design intelligent systems or intelligent agents that can make appropriate real-time decisions in the management of such large-scale, complex systems? What are the primary challenges for critical infrastructure systems? The book also provides readers with the relevant information to recognize how important infrastructures are, and their role in connection with a society’s economy, security and prosperity. It goes on to describe state-of-the-art solutions to address these points, including new methodologies and instrumentation tools (e.g. embedded software and intelligent algorithms) for transforming and optimizing target infrastructures. The book is the most comprehensive resource to date for professionals in both the private and public sectors, while also offering an essential guide for students and researchers in the areas of modeling and analysis of critical in...

  11. HEPTech Academia – Industry Matching Event on Control Systems for Accelerators and Detectors

    Anastasios Charitonidis (FP/KT), on behalf of the organizing committee

    2013-01-01

    The HEPTech AIME (Academia – Industry Matching Event) on Controls for accelerators and detectors will take place from 2 to 3 December in Athens, Greece.   The HEPTech network invites you to Demokritos NCSR to participate in an event that aims to bring together Academia and Industry to share ideas and potential applications of Controls Technology. The event will provide an overview of current Controls Systems for large scale projects including the LHC, the CMS and ATLAS detectors, medical accelerator facilities and contributions from companies active in these fields. CERN Computer Centre. The programme will also address some of the challenges faced by future High Energy Physics projects in the controls area and provide a glimpse into the future requirements of research infrastructures such as the European Spallation Source (ESS), and the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI), while exploring different possible approaches to the commercialisation of controls technology. The event ...

  12. Workshop Engages PCs in Accelerator Controls

    To discuss the rapidly growing and changing use of personal computers (PCs) in accelerator control systems, 80 accelerator controls specialists from 26 institutions in North America, Europe and Asia attended the 6. International Workshop on Personal Computers and Particle Accelerator Controls, PCaPAC2006, held October 24-27 at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, Virginia. PCs have become increasingly applicable to the control of accelerators as their computing capacities have increased exponentially over the last 10 years. Capabilities that once required the power available only from expensive, small-market systems offered by DEC, Sun or IBM can now be obtained with commodity hardware offered by many vendors. The price/performance ratio presented by any standard PC makes a compelling case for using PC hardware in accelerator controls wherever possible. The PCaPAC meeting underscored the importance of collaborative control system development. Several talks focused on additions to three such systems, TINE, TANGO and EPICS. The diverse contributions to these toolkits, both in content and source, demonstrate the power of leveraged software development across a number of facilities. TINE originated in DESY's desire to give users a unified software bus above disparate underlying platforms. TINE discussions at PCaPAC centered on the toolkit's interface layers, including address redirection and integration with other control systems. TANGO has been a collaborative effort from its inception. Based on CORBA, this open-source controls toolkit is a registered project in the source forge system. The workshop TANGO presentation discussed contributions from four TANGO institutions, and mentioned a broad range of new tools, from user interface applications to code generators and database integration software. EPICS, which was started at LANL in the 1980s, includes contributions from dozens of institutions around the world. EPICS-related PCaPAC discussions included virtual machines at

  13. Present SLAC accelerator computer control system features

    The current functional organization and state of software development of the computer control system of the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. Included is a discussion of the distribution of functions throughout the system, the local controller features, and currently implemented features of the touch panel portion of the system. The functional use of our triplex of PDP11-34 computers sharing common memory is described. Also included is a description of the use of pseudopanel tables as data tables for closed loop control functions

  14. Control system for the NBS microtron accelerator

    As various subsystems of the National Bureau of Standards/Los Alamos racetrack microtron accelerator are being brought on-line, we are gaining experience with some of the innovations implemented in the control system. Foremost among these are the joystick-based operator controls, the hierarchical distribution of control system intelligence, and the independent secondary stations, permitting sectional stand-alone operation. The result of the distributed database philosophy and parallel data links has been very fast data updates, permitting joystick interaction with system elements. The software development was greatly simplified by using the hardware arbitration of several parallel processors in the Multibus system to split the software tasks into independent modules

  15. Object oriented programming interfaces for accelerator control

    Several years ago, the AGS controls group was given the task of developing software for the RHIC accelerator. Like the AGS, the RHIC control system needs to control and monitor equipment distributed around a relatively large geographic area. A local area network connects this equipment to a collection of UNIX workstations in a central control room. Similar software had been developed for the AGS about a decade earlier, but isn't well suited for RHIC use for a number of reasons. Rather than adapt the AGS software for RHIC use, the controls group opted to start with a clean slate. To develop software that would address the shortcomings of the AGS software, while preserving the useful features that evolved through years of use. A current trend in control system design is to provide an object oriented programming interface for application developers. This talk will discuss important aspects and features of object oriented application programming interfaces (APIs) for accelerator control systems, and explore why such interfaces are becoming the norm

  16. Accelerator controls at CERN: Some converging trends

    CERN's growing services to the high-energy physics community using frozen resources has led to the implementation of 'Technical Boards', mandated to assist the management by making recommendations for rationalizations in various technological domains. The Board on Process Control and Electronics for Accelerators, TEBOCO, has emphasized four main lines which might yield economy in resources. First, a common architecture for accelerator controls has been agreed between the three accelerator divisions. Second, a common hardware/software kit has been defined, from which the large majority of future process interfacing may be composed. A support service for this kit is an essential part of the plan. Third, high-level protocols have been developed for standardizing access to process devices. They derive from agreed standard models of the devices and involve a standard control message. This should ease application development and mobility of equipment. Fourth, a common software engineering methodology and a commercial package of application development tools have been adopted. Some rationalization in the field of the man-machine interface and in matters of synchronization is also under way. (orig.)

  17. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations

  18. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations.

  19. The new accelerator control system of GANIL

    The new computer control system is conducting the heavy ion accelerator GANIL from the beginning of 1993 and has reached a state of routine operation. It was carried out to supersede the obsolete initial system and to cope with the harsh experimental conditions required by the very high intensity beams envisioned for the next future. Hardware and software implementations, as well as human interface, are presented. Emphasis is placed on the three-layer distributed architecture adopted. An ETHERNET local area network (LAN) links the basic components: a VAX/VMS cluster, XWINDOWS interfaced operator consoles, VAXELN driven CAMAC crate controllers and programmable logic controllers for front end controls. Also data management with the INGRES relational database management system (RDBMS), as well as operating software written in ADA language, are described. First experience with the new control system is reported. Finally, trend considerations are addressed. (author) 8 refs., 6 figs

  20. Control system modelling for superconducting accelerator

    A digital control of superconducting cavities for a linear accelerator is presented. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. FPGA based controller supported by MATLAB system was developed to investigate the novel firmware implementation. Algebraic model in complex domain is proposed for the system analyzing. Calibration procedure of a signal path is considered for a multi-channel control. Identification of the system parameters is carried out by the least squares method application. Control tables: Feed-Forward and Set- Point are determined for the required cavity performance, according to the recognized process. Feedback loop is tuned by fitting a complex gain of a corrector unit. Adaptive control algorithm is applied for feed-forward and feedback modes. Experimental results are presented for a cavity representative operation. (orig.)

  1. Controlled rolling and accelerated cooling of steel

    Ranta, H.; Korhonen, A.S.; Partinen, S.

    1993-12-31

    The subproject `Controlled Rolling and Cooling of Steel` was carried out at the Helsinki University of Technology in the Laboratory of Processing and Heat Treatment of Materials during the years 1989-91. The work described here was a part of a SULA-project. The aim of the project at the Helsinki University of Technology was to study controlled rolling and accelerated cooling and the temperature and strain distributions in the steel during rolling. Modelling of accelerated cooling is important in ensuring that the desired shape and mechanical properties of steel are obtained without additional heat treatment. When no additional heat treatments are needed after the rolling process, it is possible to increase the volume of production and to save time and money. Mathematical models were studied and developed to describe the processes and to make it possible to predict the shape and mechanical properties of the final product. Models are also needed to study the influence of various processing parameters. Since full-scale experiments are expensive, a laboratory-scale cooling line for hot rolling experiments was constructed. During this project numerous hot forming and accelerated cooling experiments were carried out

  2. Controls for a Pulsed Ion Accelerator Using Apache Cassandra (No-SQL) and ZMQ

    Persaud, A; Stettler, M W; Vytla, V K

    2015-01-01

    We report on updates to the accelerator controls for the Neutral Drift Compression Experiment II, a pulsed accelerator for heavy ions. The control infrastructure is built around a LabVIEW interface combined with an Apache Cassandra (No-SQL) backend for data archiving. Recent upgrades added the storing and retrieving of device settings into the database, as well as adding ZMQ as a message broker that replaces LabVIEW's shared variables. Converting to ZMQ also allows easy access using other programming languages, such as Python.

  3. Accelerating community development through provision of rural infrastructure: An appraisal of the third national Fadama development project in Ondo State

    R. O. Akinbamowo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an appraisal of the performance of the National Fadama Development Programme (FADAMA III towards accelerating community infrastructural development in Ondo State, Nigeria, based on the author's practical assessment and oral interviews of project participants as well as a collection of secondary data in form of reports and surveys produced by the Fadama III Project in Ondo State during the implementation period. The secondary data collected include the status of the different classes of small-scale community-owned infrastructure, productive assets and Fadama Users Groups/Fadama Community Associations (FUG/FCA access to these infrastructures. In addition, the study reported on the means of access to agricultural product market, value additions to the agricultural commodities produced by the FUGs and changes in income from sales associated with value-added products. Data collected were analysed using basic descriptive statistics. The results of the study show that crop production is the primary occupation for a large proportion of the groups, accounting for over 45.1% of total FUG, Fishery and Livestock production each make up 12%. A look at the available Productive Small-scale Community-owned Infrastructure across FCAs in the 18 LGAs of the State from the study show that seven new access roads were constructed; 46 feeder roads were rehabilitated; and 22 markets facilities were provided. Seven culverts and four foot bridges were constructed along with several assets to service the enterprises. Generally, the results indicate that income decreased at the project preparation stage only to stabilise and peak as the enterprises are consolidated. Average income of $692.35, $561.42, $194.79 and $100.39 for crop production, livestock, fishing and Non-Farm enterprises were obtained.

  4. Industrial influences on an accelerator control system

    Industrial applications of a control system package have extended from industrial research to process control. While the requirements of these applications have much in common with accelerator controls, there are always extensions, different emphases, and additional requirements. These often add to the applicability of the software in all fields and certainly keep the development team challenged. This paper discusses some of the influences that industrial applications such as power distribution monitoring, casting and rolling mills, and aircraft engine testing have on software originally designed for scientific research. We also discuss some of the differences in the software development process between development for in-house use and development for sales and industrial use. (Author) ref., fig

  5. Adaptive, Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Accelerator Feedback Control Systems

    Variations in systems dynamics and modeling uncertainty(due to unmodeled systems behavior and/or presence of disturbances),have posed significant challenges to the effective luminosity and orbit control in accelerators.Problems of similar nature occur in a wide variety of other applications from chemical processes to power plants to financial systems.Adaptive control has long been pursued as a possible solution,but difficulties with online model identification and robust implementation of the adaptive control algorithms has prevented their widespread application.In general developing and maintaining appropriate models is the key to the success of any deployed control solution.Meanwhile the performance of the control system is contingent on the responsiveness of the control algorithm to the inevitable deviations of the model from the actual system.This project uses neural networks to detect significant changes in system behavior,and develops an optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control algorithm that enables the robust implementation of an effective control strategy that is applicable in a wide range of applications.Simulation studies were conducted to clearly demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of implementing model predictive control technology in accelerator control problems.The requirements for an effective commercial product that can meet the challenge of optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control technology were developed.A prototype for the optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control algorithm was developed for a well-known nonlinear temperature control problem for gas-phase reactors that proved the feasibility of the proposed approach.This research enables a commercial party to leverage the knowledge gained through collaboration with a national laboratory to develop new system identification and optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control software to address current and future challenges in process industries,power systems

  6. Accelerator optimization using a network control and acquisition system

    Accelerator optimization requires detailed study of many parameters, indicating the need for remote control and automated data acquisition systems. A control and data acquisition system based on a network of commodity PCs and applications with standards based inter-application communication is being built for the l'OASIS accelerator facility. This system allows synchronous acquisition of data at high (> 1 Hz) rates and remote control of the accelerator at low cost, allowing detailed study of the acceleration process

  7. Artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems

    An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined. Specific values were assigned in the knowledge base to represent each actual device. Relationships between devices are modeled using the artificial intelligence techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented methods. This symbolic model, built using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, provides a framework for analyzing faults, tutoring trainee operators, and offering suggestions to assist in beam tuning. Based on information provided by the domain expert responsible for tuning this portion of the beam line, additional rules were written to describe how he tunes, how he analyzes what is actually happening, and how he deals with failures. Initial results have shown that artificial intelligence techniques can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of numerical simulation. Successful and efficient operation of future accelerators may depend on the proper merging of symbolic reasoning and conventional numerical control algorithms

  8. Modern computer networks and distributed intelligence in accelerator controls

    Appropriate hardware and software network protocols are surveyed for accelerator control environments. Accelerator controls network topologies are discussed with respect to the following criteria: vertical versus horizontal and distributed versus centralized. Decision-making considerations are provided for accelerator network architecture specification. Current trends and implementations at Fermilab are discussed

  9. The intelligent gate control for the induction acceleration system in the KEK digital accelerator

    The renovation of the KEK PS-Booster as a digital accelerator (DA) is going on. Our plan is to accelerate Argon ion beam in the KEK-DA using the induction acceleration system, which was developed at KEK. An outline of the acceleration scenario is described and a necessary control system fully integrating the induction acceleration devices is given in details. For the induction acceleration in the KEK-DA, beam monitors and front-end processors to pick up information of the beam timing with accuracy are quite important. R and D works of those components are discussed. (author)

  10. Maximizing oyster-reef growth supports green infrastructure with accelerating sea-level rise

    Justin T. Ridge; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; F. Joel Fodrie; Niels L. Lindquist; Brodeur, Michelle C.; Coleman, Sara E.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Ethan J. Theuerkauf

    2015-01-01

    Within intertidal communities, aerial exposure (emergence during the tidal cycle) generates strong vertical zonation patterns with distinct growth boundaries regulated by physiological and external stressors. Forecasted accelerations in sea-level rise (SLR) will shift the position of these critical boundaries in ways we cannot yet fully predict, but landward migration will be impaired by coastal development, amplifying the importance of foundation species’ ability to maintain their position r...

  11. MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF FACULTY INFRASTRUCTURE USING SNMP PROTOCOL

    Saje, Tadeja

    2013-01-01

    Thesis presents a system to monitor and control computer systems and other devices. The system uses SNMP protocol. It permits better analyze, control and resolution of failures in operation of our systems. SNMP protocol is communication layer between controller and controlled device. Presented will be theoretical basis and security issues of SNMP. Practical part will be implementation of simple control system.

  12. Innovative Digitally Controlled Particle Accelerator Magnet Power Supply

    Nielsen, Rasmus Ørndrup; Bidoggia, Benoit; Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Török, Lajos

    Particle accelerator magnet power supplies needs to be extremely precise. A new and innovative power supply for particle accelerator magnets is proposed. The topologies for the input and the output converter are shown and the control architecture is described.......Particle accelerator magnet power supplies needs to be extremely precise. A new and innovative power supply for particle accelerator magnets is proposed. The topologies for the input and the output converter are shown and the control architecture is described....

  13. Intelligent control system for the KEK digital accelerator

    Studies are being conducted to develop a digital accelerator capable of accelerating ions with any charge state, based on the concept of the induction synchrotron. The digital accelerator is a modification of the KEK 500 MeV booster which employs induction acceleration. The digital accelerator is operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The accelerating pulse voltage is dynamically varied from 0 V to 2.4 kV. A novel technique combining the pulse trigger control and intermittent operation of multi-acceleration cells is developed. The acceleration scheme of the digital accelerator is verified by using computer simulations and it is demonstrated at our test facility by using a beam simulator to mimic a circulating beam-bunch signal in the KEK digital accelerator.

  14. Network information attacks on the control systems of power facilities belonging to the critical infrastructure

    Loginov, E. L.; Raikov, A. N.

    2015-04-01

    The most large-scale accidents occurred as a consequence of network information attacks on the control systems of power facilities belonging to the United States' critical infrastructure are analyzed in the context of possibilities available in modern decision support systems. Trends in the development of technologies for inflicting damage to smart grids are formulated. A volume matrix of parameters characterizing attacks on facilities is constructed. A model describing the performance of a critical infrastructure's control system after an attack is developed. The recently adopted measures and legislation acts aimed at achieving more efficient protection of critical infrastructure are considered. Approaches to cognitive modeling and networked expertise of intricate situations for supporting the decision-making process, and to setting up a system of indicators for anticipatory monitoring of critical infrastructure are proposed.

  15. Accelerator diagnosis and control by Neural Nets

    Neural Nets (NN) have been described as a solution looking for a problem. In the last conference, Artificial Intelligence (AI) was considered in the accelerator context. While good for local surveillance and control, its use for large complex systems (LCS) was much more restricted. By contrast, NN provide a good metaphor for LCS. It can be argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems, and therefore provide an ideal adaptive control system. Thus, where AI may be good for maintaining a 'golden orbit,' NN should be good for obtaining it via a quantitative approach to 'look and adjust' methods like operator tweaking which use pattern recognition to deal with hardware and software limitations, inaccuracies or errors as well as imprecise knowledge or understanding of effects like annealing and hysteresis. Further, insights from NN allow one to define feasibility conditions for LCS in terms of design constraints and tolerances. Hardware and software implications are discussed and several LCS of current interest are compared and contrasted. 15 refs., 5 figs

  16. Operational protocols for controlling accelerator equipment

    The equipment used to operate an accelerator is varied. However, the different devices may be divided into a limited number of classes for which operational protocols can be defined. Operational protocols permit: (i) a uniform operation, (ii) a clear definition of responsibility between the various specialists, (iii) independent development of programs and use of the most appropriate technology, (iv) the change of hardware and the transportability of software, and (v) the fabrication of devices by industry for general use. An operational protocol should be independent of any given control system and it must not be confused with a transmission protocol. As a first step, one defines an operational model of the device to be controlled. The model must represent a high-level description of the device as seen by the user. It will be characterized by a set of parameters and a set of rules. Although the particular requirements of specialists are not included in the operational protocol, allowances should be made for them. Emphasis will be placed on studies carried out on power converters and beam instrumentation. A general-purpose control message architecture is reported. (orig.)

  17. Operational protocols for controlling accelerator equipment

    Bailey, R.; Baribaud, G.; Benincasa, G.P.; Burla, P.; Casalegno, L.; Coudert, G.; Gelato, G.; Kuhn, H.K.; Saban, R.; Spinks, A. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). LEP Div.)

    1990-08-01

    The equipment used to operate an accelerator is varied. However, the different devices may be divided into a limited number of classes for which operational protocols can be defined. Operational protocols permit: (i) a uniform operation, (ii) a clear definition of responsibility between the various specialists, (iii) independent development of programs and use of the most appropriate technology, (iv) the change of hardware and the transportability of software, and (v) the fabrication of devices by industry for general use. An operational protocol should be independent of any given control system and it must not be confused with a transmission protocol. As a first step, one defines an operational model of the device to be controlled. The model must represent a high-level description of the device as seen by the user. It will be characterized by a set of parameters and a set of rules. Although the particular requirements of specialists are not included in the operational protocol, allowances should be made for them. Emphasis will be placed on studies carried out on power converters and beam instrumentation. A general-purpose control message architecture is reported. (orig.).

  18. Regulatory infrastructure for the control of radiation sources in Madagascar

    Radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry, research and education in Madagascar. Safety and security of these sources are the main statutory functions of the Regulatory Authority as defined by the regulations in Radiation Protection in Madagascar. These functions are carried out through the system of notification, authorization and inspection, inventory of radiation source and emergency preparedness. The law no. 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar was promulgated on 2nd January 1998. It governs all activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Madagascar in order to protect the public, the environment and for the safety of radiation sources. This law complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, IAEA Safety Series no. 115). Following the promulgation of the law, four decrees have been enacted by the Malagasy Government. With an effective implementation of these decrees, the ANPSR will be the Highest Administrative Authority in the Field of Radiation Protection and Waste Management in Madagascar. This body is supported by an Executive Secretariat, assisted by the OTR for Radiation Protection and the OCGDR for Waste Management.The paper includes an overview of the Regulatory infrastructure and the organizations of radiation protection in Madagascar. (author)

  19. Open Hardware For CERN's Accelerator Control Systems

    van der Bij, E; Ayass, M; Boccardi, A; Cattin, M; Gil Soriano, C; Gousiou, E; Iglesias Gonsálvez, S; Penacoba Fernandez, G; Serrano, J; Voumard, N; Wlostowski, T

    2011-01-01

    The accelerator control systems at CERN will be renovated and many electronics modules will be redesigned as the modules they will replace cannot be bought anymore or use obsolete components. The modules used in the control systems are diverse: analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules. Overall around 120 modules are supported that are used in systems such as beam instrumentation, cryogenics and power converters. Only a small percentage of the currently used modules are commercially available, while most of them had been specifically designed at CERN. The new developments are based on VITA and PCI-SIG standards such as FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card), PCI Express and VME64x using transition modules. As system-on-chip interconnect, the public domain Wishbone specification is used. For the renovation, it is considered imperative to have for each board access to the full hardware design and its firmware so that problems could quickly be resolved by CERN engineers or its ...

  20. BIOCONAID System (Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming). Final Report.

    Rogers, Dana B.; And Others

    The system described represents a new technique for enhancing the fidelity of flight simulators during high acceleration maneuvers. This technique forces the simulator pilot into active participation and energy expenditure similar to the aircraft pilot undergoing actual accelerations. The Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming (BIOCONAID)…

  1. Automated control system in charged particle accelerators

    A general approach to the design of automated radiation safety systems at charged particle accelerators is described. Parameters of high-energy electron accelerators of the Kharkov Physics and Engineering Institute are presented. Characteristics of the surrounding radiation fields are given. Ionizing radiation transducers which can be used in automated systems are considered. Local radiation monitoring station based on the LUE-2000 accelerator of the institute is described. 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  2. An Accelerator Control Middle Layer Using MATLAB

    Portmann, Gregory J.; Corbett, Jeff; Terebilo, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Matlab is a matrix manipulation language originally developed to be a convenient language for using the LINPACK and EISPACK libraries. What makes Matlab so appealing for accelerator physics is the combination of a matrix oriented programming language, an active workspace for system variables, powerful graphics capability, built-in math libraries, and platform independence. A number of software toolboxes for accelerators have been written in Matlab -- the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for mach...

  3. Control system for particle accelerator in LabVIEW

    Vitorovič, Miha

    2011-01-01

    The thesis presents the implementation of a control system for particle accelerator in the LabVIEW development environment. The first chapter gives an overview of the operation of the synchrotron accelerator and its parts. The second chapter describes how control system controls the accelerator. The third chapter gives an overview of the LabVIEW development environment, graphical language G and explains how graphical programs are written. It also lists some limitations of the language and how...

  4. Concurrent control system for the JAERI tandem accelerator

    Concurrent processing with a multiprocessor system is introduced to the particle accelerator control system region. The control system is a good application in both logical and physical aspects. A renewal plan of the control system for the JAERI tandem accelerator is discussed. (author)

  5. Protecting Accelerator Control Systems in the Face of Sophisticated Cyber Attacks

    Hartman, Steven M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Cyber security for industrial control systems has received significant attention in the past two years. The news coverage of the Stuxnet attack, believed to be targeted at the control system for a uranium enrichment plant, brought the issue to the attention of news media and policy makers. This has led to increased scrutiny of control systems for critical infrastructure such as power generation and distribution, and industrial systems such as chemical plants and petroleum refineries. The past two years have also seen targeted network attacks aimed at corporate and government entities including US Department of Energy National Laboratories. Both of these developments have potential repercussions for the control systems of particle accelerators. The need to balance risks from potential attacks with the operational needs of an accelerator present a unique challenge for the system architecture and access model.

  6. Protecting Accelerator Control Systems in the Face of Sophisticated Cyber Attacks

    Cyber security for industrial control systems has received significant attention in the past two years. The news coverage of the Stuxnet attack, believed to be targeted at the control system for a uranium enrichment plant, brought the issue to the attention of news media and policy makers. This has led to increased scrutiny of control systems for critical infrastructure such as power generation and distribution, and industrial systems such as chemical plants and petroleum refineries. The past two years have also seen targeted network attacks aimed at corporate and government entities including US Department of Energy National Laboratories. Both of these developments have potential repercussions for the control systems of particle accelerators. The need to balance risks from potential attacks with the operational needs of an accelerator present a unique challenge for the system architecture and access model.

  7. Status of the KEKB accelerator control system development

    KEKB, an asymmetric electron-positron collider, is in the last phase of its construction. The status of the development and installation of the control system for the KEKB will be reported in this paper. Installation of the basic equipment for the KEKB accelerator control system, including FDDI network cables between the central control room and sub-control rooms, was finished in spring 1997. This basic system is now being used for the development of software for the KEKB accelerator control system. Extension of the system for the first commissioning is scheduled later this year. The KEKB accelerator control system is based on the EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) tool kits for accelerator control system. EPICS tool kits uses the variant of so-called 'standard model' of an accelerator control system. Use of EPICS tool kits reduces needs for the development of basic software. Relational database is another key component in the KEKB accelerator control system. An end user interface using the WWW browser is developed and is under the field test. Power supply controller board has been developed and tested. The board uses ARCnet as the communication interface to the VME controller module in the KEKB accelerator control system. (author)

  8. Controlling Hazardous Releases while Protecting Passengers in Civil Infrastructure Systems

    Rimer, Sara P.; Katopodes, Nikolaos D.

    2015-11-01

    The threat of accidental or deliberate toxic chemicals released into public spaces is a significant concern to public safety, and the real-time detection and mitigation of such hazardous contaminants has the potential to minimize harm and save lives. Furthermore, the safe evacuation of occupants during such a catastrophe is of utmost importance. This research develops a comprehensive means to address such scenarios, through both the sensing and control of contaminants, and the modeling of and potential communication to occupants as they evacuate. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed of a simplified public space characterized by a long conduit (e.g. airport terminal) with unidirectional ambient flow that is capable of detecting and mitigating the hazardous contaminant (via boundary ports) over several time horizons using model predictive control optimization. Additionally, a physical prototype is built to test the real-time feasibility of this computational flow control model. The prototype is a blower wind-tunnel with an elongated test section with the capability of sensing (via digital camera) an injected `contaminant' (propylene glycol smoke), and then mitigating that contaminant using actuators (compressed air operated vacuum nozzles) which are operated by a set of pressure regulators and a programmable controller. Finally, an agent-based model is developed to simulate ``agents'' (i.e. building occupants) as they evacuate a public space, and is coupled with the computational flow control model such that agents must interact with a dynamic, threatening environment. NSF-CMMI #0856438.

  9. Control and accelerating voltage automatic pulse acquisition system for ''LIU-5/5000'' linear accelerators

    A system prowiding continuous control and automatic correction of actuation of accelerating voltage pulse generators of a linear induction accelerator is described. TGI-2500/50 thyratrons are switching elements of the generators. Shaped pulses have a bell form, their duration on the foundation constitues 300 ns. The device operation is based on the determination of a sign of time error between generator and reference pulses. Depending on the error sign performed is correction of the delay value included into the actuation circuit of the corresponding generator. Such operation is accomplished in each working pulse of the accelerator. Data on the delay condition go to the digital panel and digital print-out. Technical characteristics of the system are the following: 56 cynchronization channels, 155 ns control interval, 5 ns control pitch, error of the error determination is not worse than +-2.5 ns. The system permitted to improve accelerated beam stability and to simplify accelerator tuning and control

  10. Torque-based optimal acceleration control for electric vehicle

    Lu, Dongbin; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-03-01

    The existing research of the acceleration control mainly focuses on an optimization of the velocity trajectory with respect to a criterion formulation that weights acceleration time and fuel consumption. The minimum-fuel acceleration problem in conventional vehicle has been solved by Pontryagin's maximum principle and dynamic programming algorithm, respectively. The acceleration control with minimum energy consumption for battery electric vehicle(EV) has not been reported. In this paper, the permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) is controlled by the field oriented control(FOC) method and the electric drive system for the EV(including the PMSM, the inverter and the battery) is modeled to favor over a detailed consumption map. The analytical algorithm is proposed to analyze the optimal acceleration control and the optimal torque versus speed curve in the acceleration process is obtained. Considering the acceleration time, a penalty function is introduced to realize a fast vehicle speed tracking. The optimal acceleration control is also addressed with dynamic programming(DP). This method can solve the optimal acceleration problem with precise time constraint, but it consumes a large amount of computation time. The EV used in simulation and experiment is a four-wheel hub motor drive electric vehicle. The simulation and experimental results show that the required battery energy has little difference between the acceleration control solved by analytical algorithm and that solved by DP, and is greatly reduced comparing with the constant pedal opening acceleration. The proposed analytical and DP algorithms can minimize the energy consumption in EV's acceleration process and the analytical algorithm is easy to be implemented in real-time control.

  11. Managing Infrastructure in the ALICE Detector Control System

    Lechman, M; Bond, P M; Chochula, P.Ch; Kurepin, A N; Pinazza, O; Rosinsky, P; Kurepin, A N; Pinazza, O

    2014-01-01

    The main role of the ALICE Detector Control System (DCS) is to ensure safe and efficient operation of one of the large high energy physics experiments at CERN. The DCS design is based on the commercial SCADA software package WinCC Open Architecture.

  12. Smart control panel: Developing conventional domestic infrastructures into ambient media

    Li, Andol X; Bonner, John V.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present novel development of domestic central heating control panel from conventional wall-mounted device to ambient media. We perform cycles of designs and evaluations in order to refine the understanding of the new media. Based on that we investigate potential methodologies to develop conventional devices into ambient media and, explore types of massages which may be provided by new ambient media.

  13. Towards a common monitoring system for the accelerator and technical control rooms at CERN

    Arduini, Gianluigi; Bätz, M; Carron de la Morinais, J M; Manglunki, Django; Priestnall, K; Robin, G; Ruette, M; Sollander, P

    2000-01-01

    The communication and coordination between the CERN accelerator and technical control rooms will be a critical issue for an efficient operation of the LHC and its injectors, which are expected to provide also beams for fixed target experiments, for detector component tests and for other activities including machine development. Early detection of faults in the accelerator and technical infrastructure (electricity, cooling, etc.) and their possible consequences on operation are useful not only to prevent major breakdowns but also to recover from them and to reschedule efficiently machine operation to satisfy the overall beam time requests from the different and concurrent users. To meet these requirements a method to define and provide common monitoring tools for all the actors involved in machine operation has been established. This method has been applied to the SPS accelerator and is being implemented in the PS complex and in the SPS experimental areas.

  14. Delayless acceleration measurement method for motion control applications

    Vaeliviita, S.; Ovaska, S.J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    Delayless and accurate sensing of angular acceleration can improve the performance of motion control in motor drives. Acceleration control is, however, seldom implemented in practical drive systems due to prohibitively high costs or unsatisfactory results of most acceleration measurement methods. In this paper we propose an efficient and accurate acceleration measurement method based on direct differentiation of the corresponding velocity signal. Polynomial predictive filtering is used to smooth the resulting noisy signal without delay. This type of prediction is justified by noticing that a low-degree polynomial can usually be fitted into the primary acceleration curve. No additional hardware is required to implement the procedure if the velocity signal is already available. The performance of the acceleration measurement method is evaluated by applying it to a demanding motion control application. (orig.) 12 refs.

  15. The KN-3000 particle accelerator control expert system (PACES)

    The particle accelerator control expert system (PACES) is a computer-based operator aid, retrofitted to a model KN-3000 Van de Graaff accelerator, that is used during the start-up, steady state and shut-down phases of the accelerator. Using PACES, the operator can control the accelerator through a graphical control panel, or call upon an expert system to perform automatic start-up or shut-down. PACES then automatically stabilizes and optimizes particle beam parameters. PACES is also able to detect, diagnose and respond to operating faults, such as high-voltage sparks, vacuum system failure or loss of source gas. This paper demonstrates the novel features and utility of the PACES artificial intelligence accelerator controller

  16. Application of Kalman filter in the accelerator power control

    In order to boost accelerator controlling accuracy and improve beam quality, a best filtering method that is Kalman filter was proposed. In the article given general model of the accelerator power and used Matlab to modeling the Kalman filter on the accelerator power model and simulate. Compared the chart of filtering effect, showed that Kalman filter can effectively filter out the effect of random noise. After kalman filtering, Mean square error of the control system was reduced to 23% of the original, Kalman filter especially can reduce the impact of the peak pulse to make the control accuracy improve. (authors)

  17. NODAL - The second life of the accelerator control language

    NODAL has been a popular interpreter language for accelerator controls since the beginning of the 1970s. NODAL has been rewritten in the C language to be easily portable to the different computer platforms which are in use in accelerator controls. The paper describes the major features of this new version of NODAL, the major software packages which are available through this implementation, the platforms on which it is currently running, and some relevant performances. The experience gained during the rejuvenation project of the CERN accelerator control systems is presented. The benefit of this is discussed, in particular in a view of the prevailing strong constraints in personnel and money resources. ((orig.))

  18. Techniques for increasing the reliability of accelerator control system electronics

    As the physical size of modern accelerators becomes larger and larger, the number of required control system circuit boards increases, and the probability of one of those circuit boards failing while in service also increases. In order to do physics, the experimenters need the accelerator to provide beam reliably with as little down time as possible. With the advent of colliding beams physics, reliability becomes even more important due to the fact that a control system failure can cause the loss of painstakingly produced antiprotons. These facts prove the importance of keeping reliability in mind when designing and maintaining accelerator control system electronics

  19. BNL ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY CONTROL SYSTEM UPGRADE.

    MALONE,R.; BEN-ZVI,I.; WANG,X.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2001-06-18

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) has embarked on a complete upgrade of its decade old computer system. The planned improvements affect every major component: processors (Intel Pentium replaces VAXes), operating system (Linux/Real-Time Linux supplants OpenVMS), and data acquisition equipment (fast Ethernet equipment replaces CAMAC serial highway.) This paper summarizes the strategies and progress of the upgrade along with plans for future expansion.

  20. Computer Based Dose Control System on Linear Accelerator

    The accelerator technology has been used for radio therapy. DokterKaryadi Hospital in Semarang use electron or X-ray linear accelerator (Linac)for cancer therapy. One of the control parameter of linear accelerator isdose rate. It is particle current or amount of photon rate to the target. Thecontrol of dose rate in linac have been done by adjusting repetition rate ofanode pulse train of electron source. Presently the control is stillproportional control. To enhance the quality of the control result (minimalstationer error, velocity and stability), the dose control system has beendesigned by using the PID (Proportional Integral Differential) controlalgorithm and the derivation of transfer function of control object.Implementation of PID algorithm control system is done by giving an input ofdose error (the different between output dose and dose rate set point). Theoutput of control system is used for correction of repetition rate set pointfrom pulse train of electron source anode. (author)

  1. Development of new elements of automated control systems linear accelerator

    For monitoring systems and control of linear electron accelerators have been designed, manufactured and introduced new elements instead of physically and morally outdated. This family of analog-to-digital converters ADC 01, ADC-02 ADC-03, ADC-05 ADC-06 have been developed in cooperation with the KNURE, and synchronizer for linear accelerator LUE-60M, designed forces of employees the research complex ''ACCELERATOR'' KIPT. Purpose, characteristics, technical description, block diagrams of family of analog-to-digital converters ADC01...ADC06 and of synchronizer of linear accelerator LUE-60M is presented in a report. These devices are developed on a new element base and inculcated in automated control systems of linear accelerators.

  2. Controlling electron injection in laser plasma accelerators using multiple pulses

    Use of counter-propagating pulses to control electron injection in laser-plasma accelerators promises to be an important ingredient in the development of stable devices. We discuss the colliding pulse scheme and associated diagnostics.

  3. Critical Infrastructure Modeling: An Approach to Characterizing Interdependencies of Complex Networks & Control Systems

    Stuart Walsh; Shane Cherry; Lyle Roybal

    2009-05-01

    Critical infrastructure control systems face many challenges entering the 21st century, including natural disasters, cyber attacks, and terrorist attacks. Revolutionary change is required to solve many existing issues, including gaining greater situational awareness and resiliency through embedding modeling and advanced control algorithms in smart sensors and control devices instead of in a central controller. To support design, testing, and component analysis, a flexible simulation and modeling capability is needed. Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are developing and evaluating such a capability through their CIPRsim modeling and simulation framework.

  4. Down-ramp injection and independently controlled acceleration of electrons in a tailored laser wakefield accelerator

    Hansson, M.; Davoine, X.; Ekerfelt, H.; Svensson, K.; Persson, A.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Lundh, O.; 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.071303

    2015-01-01

    We report on a study on controlled injection of electrons into the accelerating phase of a plasma wakefield accelerator by tailoring the target density distribution using two independent sources of gas. The tailored density distribution is achieved experimentally by inserting a narrow nozzle, with an orifice diameter of only 400  μm , into a jet of gas supplied from a 2 mm diameter nozzle. The combination of these two nozzles is used to create two regions of different density connected by a density gradient. Using this setup we show independent control of the charge and energy distribution of the bunches of accelerated electron as well as decreased shot-to-shot fluctuations in these quantities compared to self-injection in a single gas jet. Although the energy spectra are broad after injection, simulations show that further acceleration acts to compress the energy distribution and to yield peaked energy spectra.

  5. Control and optimization of a staged laser-wakefield accelerator

    Golovin, G.; Banerjee, S.; Chen, S.; Powers, N.; Liu, C.; Yan, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, B.; Umstadter, D.

    2016-09-01

    We report results of an experimental study of laser-wakefield acceleration of electrons, using a staged device based on a double-jet gas target that enables independent injection and acceleration stages. This novel scheme is shown to produce stable, quasi-monoenergetic, and tunable electron beams. We show that optimal accelerator performance is achieved by systematic variation of five critical parameters. For the injection stage, we show that the amount of trapped charge is controlled by the gas density, composition, and laser power. For the acceleration stage, the gas density and the length of the jet are found to determine the final electron energy. This independent control over both the injection and acceleration processes enabled independent control over the charge and energy of the accelerated electron beam while preserving the quasi-monoenergetic character of the beam. We show that the charge and energy can be varied in the ranges of 2-45 pC, and 50-450 MeV, respectively. This robust and versatile electron accelerator will find application in the generation of high-brightness and controllable x-rays, and as the injector stage for more conventional devices.

  6. Interdependency control : compensation strategies for the inherent vulnerability of critical infrastructure networks

    Today's increasingly interacting national critical infrastructures (NCIs) can tolerate most stochastic local disturbances. However, they are extremely fragile under global disturbances, as the latter may either push the whole system into a critical state or reveal many unexpected hidden interdependencies, inducing or triggering cascading failures among all possible layers. This robust yet fragile duality is an inherent vulnerability of modern infrastructures. It is therefore expected that weather-related disasters will be more frequent under a changing climate. This paper proposed an interdependency control strategy (ICS) that would maintain the survival of the most critical services, and compensate for this inherent vulnerability during emergency states. The paper also proposed a generalized adjacency matrix (GAM) to represent the physical interdependencies intra/inter of various infrastructure networks. The vulnerable section in the network can be identified, based on computed results of GAM, number of islands in the network, and influence domain(s) of each component. These features render ICS more effective and convincing. Last, the paper proposed a survivability index for isolated sub-networks and described relevant measures for improving this index during the four phases of emergency management. It was concluded that the proposed strategy is an effective means to reduce the inherent vulnerability and increase the resiliency of these critical infrastructures networks. 20 refs., 5 figs

  7. AstroCloud, a Cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research: Data Archiving and Quality Control

    He, Boliang; Fan, Dongwei; Li, Changhua; Xiao, Jian; Yu, Ce; Wang, Chuanjun; Cao, Zihuang; Chen, Junyi; Yi, Weimin; Li, Shanshan; Mi, Linying; Yang, Sisi

    2014-01-01

    AstroCloud is a cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) under funding support from NDRC (National Development and Reform commission) and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences){\\url{http://astrocloud.china-vo.org}}\\citep{O8-5_Cui_adassxxiv}. To archive the astronomical data in China, we present the implementation of the astronomical data archiving system (ADAS). Data archiving and quality control are the infrastructure for the AstroCloud. Throughout the data of the entire life cycle, data archiving system standardized data, transferring data, logging observational data, archiving ambient data, And storing these data and metadata in database. Quality control covers the whole process and all aspects of data archiving.

  8. Optimal railway infrastructure maintenance and repair policies to manage risk under uncertainty with adaptive control

    Romera, Rosario; Carretero Pérez, Jesús; Pérez, Jose M.; González, Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply two adaptive control formulations under uncertainty, say open-loop and closed-loop, to the process of developing maintenance and repair policies for railway infrastructures. To establish the optimal maintenance and repair policies for railway lines, we use a previous design of risk model based on two factors: the criticality and the deterioration ratios of the facilities. Thus, our theory benefits from the Reliability Centered Management methodology applicati...

  9. Implementing Role Based Access Controls using X.509 Privilege Management - the PERMIS Authorisation Infrastructure

    Chadwick, David W; Otenko, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the PERMIS role based access control infrastructure that uses X.509 attribute certificates (ACs) to store the users roles. Users roles can be assigned by multiple widely distributed management authorities (called Attribute Authorities in X.509), thereby easing the burden of management. All the ACs can be stored in one or more LDAP directories, thus making them widely available. The PERMIS distribution includes a Privilege Allocator GUI tool, and a bulk loader tool, that a...

  10. Smart Grid, Smart Controllers and Home Energy Automation—Creating the Infrastructure for Future

    Abhishek Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Integration of unpredictable renewable power sources into the Grid is leading to the development of wide area control algorithms and smart grid. Smart meters are the first step in the building a smart consumer interface. Much more, however, would be required in building a smart grid than just smart meters. This paper explores the conceptual architecture of smart grid. It highlights the need for additional infrastructure to realize full potential of smart grid. The information presented in thi...

  11. Rf control system for a rocket-borne accelerator

    The Beam Experiments Aboard Rockets (BEAR) accelerator experiment imposes several nonstandard requirements on the rf control system. The experiment is entirely hands-off and must operate under local computer control. The rf control system must be extremely reliable, which implies excellence in design and fabrication as well as redundancy whenever possible. This paper describes the design of the frequency-source, frequency-control, and amplitude-control systems for the BEAR experiment

  12. Accelerator Control and Global Networks State of the Art

    Gurd, D P

    2004-01-01

    As accelerators increase in size and complexity, demands upon their control systems increase correspondingly. Machine complexity is reflected in complexity of control system hardware and software and careful configuration management is essential. Model-based procedures and fast feedback based upon even faster beam instrumentation are often required. Managing machine protection systems with tens of thousands of inputs is another significant challenge. Increased use of commodity hardware and software introduces new issues of security and control. Large new facilities will increasingly be built by national (e.g. SNS) or international (e.g. a linear collider) collaborations. Building an integrated control system for an accelerator whose development is geographically widespread presents particular problems, not all of them technical. Recent discussions of a “Global Accelerator Network” include the possibility of multiple remote control rooms and no more night shifts. Based upon current experien...

  13. Full predictive control of induction acceleration in the KEK digital accelerator

    The KEK Digital Accelerator is a small-scale induction synchrotron which can accelerate any ion species with their possible charge states from a low energy to high energy, no using a large scale injector. It is so busy to carry out beam commissioning now, after installing new position monitors in April. An ion beam is accelerated and confined with induction cells that are 1-to-1 and 2-to-1 pulse transformers, respectively. The induction acceleration system has technical limitations, such as constant and maximum output voltage, finite pulse length, and maximum repetition rate. These limitations are overcome by introducing multiple induction cells and by gate controlling of the solid-state switching power supply to drive the induction cell. This is carried out by a completely programmed FPGA code maneuvering the gate trigger. (author)

  14. IPNS Chopper Control and Accelerator Interface Systems

    Several of the instruments at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne use rotating Fermi choppers. The techniques used to control the speed and phase of these rotating devices are discussed

  15. Readout control for high luminosity accelerators

    In this article we discuss some aspects of data acquisition at high luminosities and offer a set of design principles concerning readout control electronics and related software. As an example we include a brief description of a data transfer and processing system for future hadron colliders, featuring a transputer-based crate controller and a set of readout cards. This is a simplified and more efficient version of our design recently published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods. (orig.)

  16. Readout control for high luminosity accelerators

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G.

    1991-09-01

    In this article we discuss some aspects of data acquisition at high luminosities and offer a set of design principles concerning readout control electronics and related software. As an example we include a brief description of a data transfer and processing system for future hadron colliders, featuring a transputer-based crate controller and a set of readout cards. This is a simplified and more efficient version of our design recently published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods. [A295 (1991) 391].

  17. Readout control for high luminosity accelerators

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G. (University Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1991-09-15

    In this article we discuss some aspects of data acquisition at high luminosities and offer a set of design principles concerning readout control electronics and related software. As an example we include a brief description of a data transfer and processing system for future hadron colliders, featuring a transputer-based crate controller and a set of readout cards. This is a simplified and more efficient version of our design recently published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods. (orig.).

  18. Accelerators for Physics Experiments : From Diagnostics and Control to Design

    Wildner, Elena

    2008-01-01

    This thesis develops techniques of control-methods, optimization, and diagnostics of accelerator equipment and the produced particle beams with emphasis on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. From a solid knowledge of the characteristics of the manufactured accelerator equipment gained from in-depth measurements and analysis of measured data, a link to an enhanced equipment design can be made. These techniques will be demonstrated in applications related to the LHC magnet product...

  19. ISABELLE accelerator software, control system, and beam diagnostic philosophy

    The ISABELLE Project combines two large proton accelerators with two storage rings in the same facility using superconducting magnet technology. This combination leads to severe constraints on beam loss in magnets and involves complex treatment of magnetic field imperfections and correction elements. The consequent demands placed upon beam diagnostics, accelerator model programs, and the computer oriented control system are discussed in terms of an illustrative operation scenario

  20. Development of a fast voltage control method for electrostatic accelerators

    The concept of a novel fast voltage control loop for tandem electrostatic accelerators is described. This control loop utilises high-frequency components of the ion beam current intercepted by the image slits to generate a correction voltage that is applied to the first few gaps of the low- and high-energy acceleration tubes adjoining the high voltage terminal. New techniques for the direct measurement of the transfer function of an ultra-high impedance structure, such as an electrostatic accelerator, have been developed. For the first time, the transfer function for the fast feedback loop has been measured directly. Slow voltage variations are stabilised with common corona control loop and the relationship between transfer functions for the slow and new fast control loops required for optimum operation is discussed. The main source of terminal voltage instabilities, which are due to variation of the charging current caused by mechanical oscillations of charging chains, has been analysed

  1. Development of a fast voltage control method for electrostatic accelerators

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.; Linardakis, Peter; Tsifakis, Dimitrios

    2014-12-11

    The concept of a novel fast voltage control loop for tandem electrostatic accelerators is described. This control loop utilises high-frequency components of the ion beam current intercepted by the image slits to generate a correction voltage that is applied to the first few gaps of the low- and high-energy acceleration tubes adjoining the high voltage terminal. New techniques for the direct measurement of the transfer function of an ultra-high impedance structure, such as an electrostatic accelerator, have been developed. For the first time, the transfer function for the fast feedback loop has been measured directly. Slow voltage variations are stabilised with common corona control loop and the relationship between transfer functions for the slow and new fast control loops required for optimum operation is discussed. The main source of terminal voltage instabilities, which are due to variation of the charging current caused by mechanical oscillations of charging chains, has been analysed.

  2. General man-machine interface used in accelerators controls

    A large community is now using Workstations as Accelerators Computer Controls Interface, through the concepts of windows - menus - synoptics - icons. Some standards were established for the CERN-PS control systems rejuvenation. The Booster-to-PS transfer and injection process is now entirely operated with these tools. This application constitutes a global environment providing the users with the controls, analysis, visualization of a part of an accelerator. Individual commands, measurements, and specialized programs including complex treatments are available in a homogeneous frame. Some months of experience in current operation have shown that this model can be extended to the whole project. (author)

  3. Linear IFMIF prototype accelerator (LIPAc) control system: design and development

    Calvo Pinto, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Distributed real time control systems in scientific instruments, such as particle accelerators or telescopes, have emerged as a solution to control multiple interconnected devices, which required constant attention and observation, along with a complete integration of each of its parts. This enhancement is provided by the intense technological development that control devices have suffered in recent years. With respect to the control software, libraries and applications have also emerged in r...

  4. Discovery Mondays "Controlling the accelerators: tracking the protons"

    2007-01-01

    Le Centre de contrôle des accélérateurs du CERN.Like a train of particles that picks up speed every time it passes a set of points, by the time they collide the protons and ions in the LHC will have followed their path through the six stages of the CERN accelerator complex, picking up speed at each stage. Operating the controls of this huge complex designed to accelerate the infinitesimally small are its peerless controllers. From the CERN Control Centre, they will be on duty day and night to accelerate the "wagon-loads" of particles, ensuring that they stay on track and lining them up for head-on collisions. At the next Discovery Monday you will discover the path taken by the particles through the accelerator chain. You will gain an insight into the complex work performed by those controlling the particles and learn more about the CERN accelerator complex and its Control Centre. Hop on board for a speed-of-light tour of the C...

  5. Distributed computer controls for accelerator systems

    A distributed control system has been designed and installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Multi-user Tandem Facility using an extremely modular approach in hardware and software. The two tiered, geographically organized design allowed total system implementation with four months with a computer and instrumentation cost of approximately $100K. Since the system structure is modular, application to a variety of facilities is possible. Such a system allows rethinking and operational style of the facilities, making possible highly reproducible and unattended operation. The impact of industry standards, i.e., UNIX, CAMAC, and IEEE-802.3, and the use of a graphics-oriented controls software suite allowed the efficient implementation of the system. The definition, design, implementation, operation and total system performance will be discussed. 3 refs

  6. Design of control system for accelerator

    Laboratory of Nuclear Science in Tohoku University has made a plan to construct a pulse beam stretcher boostering (STB) the fiscal year from 1995 to 1996. STB has two characteristic functions, one of them is pulse beam stretcher function to change 250 MeV pulse electron beam from Linac to direct current' beam and another is booster ring one to increase from 250 MeV to 1.2 GeV beam. Today, the detailed design is going to proceed. The subjects of control system are the direct current electromagnet, the pulse electromagnet, RF system, the vacuum system, the beam monitor system, the triggered system and the inter rock system. We will construct a control program of our own making. Another characteristic function is to adopt the directional object data base. The construction of hardware and software and the future planning are explained. (S.Y.)

  7. CDP - Adaptive Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Technology for Infrastructure Protection

    Marco Carvalho; Richard Ford

    2012-05-14

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are a type of Industrial Control System characterized by the centralized (or hierarchical) monitoring and control of geographically dispersed assets. SCADA systems combine acquisition and network components to provide data gathering, transmission, and visualization for centralized monitoring and control. However these integrated capabilities, especially when built over legacy systems and protocols, generally result in vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers, with potentially disastrous consequences. Our research project proposal was to investigate new approaches for secure and survivable SCADA systems. In particular, we were interested in the resilience and adaptability of large-scale mission-critical monitoring and control infrastructures. Our research proposal was divided in two main tasks. The first task was centered on the design and investigation of algorithms for survivable SCADA systems and a prototype framework demonstration. The second task was centered on the characterization and demonstration of the proposed approach in illustrative scenarios (simulated or emulated).

  8. Controllability in Multi-Stage Laser Ion Acceleration

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.

    2015-11-01

    The present paper shows a concept for a future laser ion accelerator, which should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers and ion post acceleration devices. Based on the laser ion accelerator components, the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled, and a future compact laser ion accelerator would be designed for ion cancer therapy or for ion material treatment. In this study each component is designed to control the ion beam quality. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching are successfully realized by a multi-stage laser-target interaction. A combination of each component provides a high controllability of the ion beam quality to meet variable requirements in various purposes in the laser ion accelerator. The work was partly supported by MEXT, JSPS, ASHULA project/ ILE, Osaka University, CORE (Center for Optical Research and Education, Utsunomiya University, Japan), Fudan University and CDI (Creative Dept. for Innovation) in CCRD, Utsunomiya University.

  9. Nodal the second life of the accelerator control language

    Cuisinier, G; Ribeiro, P; Kagarmanov, A; Kovaltsov, V I

    1993-01-01

    Nodal is a popular interpreter language for accelerator controls since the beginning of the 70's. Nodal has been rewritten in the C language to be easily portable to the different computer platforms which are in use in today's accelerator controls. The paper describes the major features of this new version of Nodal, the major software packages which are available through this implementation, the platforms on which it is currently running, and some relevant performances.The paper presents the major domains of usage of Nodal and its capability for these classes of applications. The experience gained during the rejuvenation project of the CERN accelerator control systems is presented. The benefit of this use is discussed, in particular with a view to the prevailing strong constraints in personnel and money resources.

  10. New control architecture for the SPS accelerator at CERN

    The Control System for the 450 Gev proton accelerator SPS at CERN was conceived and implemented some 18 years ago. The 16 Bit minicomputers with their proprietary operating system and interconnection with a dedicated network do not permit the use of modern workstations, international communication standards and industrial software packages. The upgrading of the system has therefore become necessary. After a short review of the history and the current state of the SPS control system, the paper describes how CERN's new control architecture, which will be common to all accelerators, will be realized at the SPS. The migration path ensuring a smooth transition to the final system is outlined. Once the SPS upgrade is complete and following some enhancements to the LEP control system, the operator in the SPS/LEP control center will be working in a single uniform control environment. (author)

  11. Regulatory infrastructure for the control of radiation sources in the Africa region: Status, needs and programmes

    In recent years, several African countries have taken steps towards creating or strengthening legal, administrative and technical mechanisms for the regulation and control of peaceful uses of nuclear technology, and towards improving the effectiveness and sustainability of radiation protection measures based on international standards. This stems from a growing awareness that a proper national infrastructure is a prerequisite for the implementation of safety standards to achieve and maintain the desired level of protection and safety, particularly in such sectors as public health and industry. Also, other issues of global and regional interest, such as the control of radiation sources, including the handling of hazardous waste, and response capabilities in the case of a radiological emergency, have contributed to a better perception of risks associated with deficiencies in or lack of adequate national radiation protection control mechanisms. Too often, however, this awareness has not been matched with adequate progress in the establishment of a regulatory framework for the control of radiation sources. This paper presents a summary of the current status of radiation protection infrastructure in all African Member States. On a background of still existing weaknesses and challenges, an overview of the Agency's response to assistance needs and programmes in this field is discussed. (author)

  12. The impact of new computer technology on accelerator control

    This paper describes some recent developments in computing and stresses their application in accelerator control systems. Among the advances that promise to have a significant impact are (1) low cost scientific workstations; (2) the use of ''windows'', pointing devices and menus in a multi-tasking operating system; (3) high resolution large-screen graphics monitors; (4) new kinds of high bandwidth local area networks. The relevant features are related to a general accelerator control system. For example, this paper examines the implications of a computing environment which permits and encourages graphical manipulation of system components, rather than traditional access through the writing of programs or ''canned'' access via touch panels

  13. A count rate based contamination control standard for electron accelerators

    May, R.T.; Schwahn, S.O.

    1996-12-31

    Accelerators of sufficient energy and particle fluence can produce radioactivity as an unwanted byproduct. The radioactivity is typically imbedded in structural materials but may also be removable from surfaces. Many of these radionuclides decay by positron emission or electron capture; they often have long half lives and produce photons of low energy and yield making detection by standard devices difficult. The contamination control limit used throughout the US nuclear industry and the Department of Energy is 1,000 disintegrations per minute. This limit is based on the detection threshold of pancake type Geiger-Mueller probes for radionuclides of relatively high radiotoxicity, such as cobalt-60. Several radionuclides of concern at a high energy electron accelerator are compared in terms of radiotoxicity with radionuclides commonly found in the nuclear industry. Based on this comparison, a count-rate based contamination control limit and associated measurement strategy is proposed which provides adequate detection of contamination at accelerators without an increase in risk.

  14. Resonance control for a cw [continuous wave] accelerator

    A resonance-control technique is described that has been successfully applied to several cw accelerating structures built by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the National Bureau of Standards and for the University of Illinois. The technique involves sensing the rf fields in an accelerating structure as well as the rf power feeding into the cavity and, then, using the measurement to control the resonant frequency of the structure by altering the temperature of the structure. The temperature of the structure is altered by adjusting the temperature of the circulating cooling water. The technique has been applied to continuous wave (cw) side-coupled cavities only but should have applications with most high-average-power accelerator structures. Some additional effort would be required for pulsed systems

  15. Monitoring and Control of Urban Critical Infrastructures: A Novel Approach to System Design and Data Fusion

    Mario La Manna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and control of urban critical infrastructures consists of the protection of assets such as houses, offices, government and private buildings, with low cost, high quality and high dependability. In order to satisfy all these requirements at the same time, the control of a number of assets has to be performed by means of automated systems based on networks of heterogeneous sensors. This new concept idea is based on the use of unmanned operations at each of the many remote assets (each asset is monitored through a network of sensors and a man-in-the-loop automated control in a central site (Operational Center, which performs alarm detection and system management.

  16. A Cache Considering Role-Based Access Control and Trust in Privilege Management Infrastructure

    ZHANG Shaomin; WANG Baoyi; ZHOU Lihua

    2006-01-01

    PMI(privilege management infrastructure) is used to perform access control to resource in an E-commerce or E-government system. With the ever-increasing need for secure transaction, the need for systems that offer a wide variety of QoS (quality-of-service) features is also growing. In order to improve the QoS of PMI system, a cache based on RBAC(Role-based Access Control) and trust is proposed. Our system is realized based on Web service. How to design the cache based on RBAC and trust in the access control model is described in detail. The algorithm to query role permission in cache and to add records in cache is dealt with. The policy to update cache is introduced also.

  17. High performance current controller for particle accelerator magnets supply

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Bidoggia, Benoit; Munk-Nielsen, Stig;

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnets in modern particle accelerators require high performance power supply whose output is required to track the current reference with a very high accuracy (down to 50 ppm). This demands very high bandwidth controller design. A converter based on buck converter topology is used in...

  18. Application of embedded EPICS to SuperKEKB accelerator control

    Recently, more and more modern frontend controllers tend to be equipped with high-performance CPUs running Operating Systems (OSs). It opens the way for running the core program of Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) on such controllers, which directly interface the various devices of accelerator components. Embedding the EPICS core program on the controllers (Embedded EPICS) has two major advantages. One is that it enables Channel Access (CA) clients to reach the front-most part of the control system directly. The other is that the rich functionality of EPICS core program becomes available at the exact part where the I/O signals to be handled comes in and/or goes out. As a result, Embedded EPICS allows us to make full use of existing software, i.e. the Channel Access library and EPICS core program, to the full extent to reduce the effort for developing and maintaining control software and, hence, to improve the reliability of the system. For this reason, parts of the control system of SuperKEKB accelerator are under renewal based on Embedded EPICS. It includes monitoring the personal protection system, a newly developed digital low level RF control system, the vacuum control system, and a specific part of the magnet power supply control system. This paper describes the configurations and features of the Embedded EPICS-based control subsystems. (author)

  19. Towards full automation of accelerators through computer control

    Gamble, J; Kemp, D; Keyser, R; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Martucci, P P; Tausch, Lothar A; Vos, L

    1980-01-01

    The computer control system of the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) at CERN has always laid emphasis on two particular operational aspects, the first being the reproducibility of machine conditions and the second that of giving the operators the possibility to work in terms of machine parameters such as the tune. Already certain phases of the operation are optimized by the control system, whilst others are automated with a minimum of manual intervention. The authors describe this present control system with emphasis on the existing automated facilities and the features of the control system which make it possible. It then discusses the steps needed to completely automate the operational procedure of accelerators. (7 refs).

  20. Quick setup of test unit for accelerator control system

    Testing a single hardware unit of an accelerator control system often requires the setup of a program with graphical user interface. Developing a dedicated application for a specific hardware unit test could be time consuming and the application may become obsolete after the unit tests. This paper documents a methodology for quick design and setup of an interface focused on performing unit tests of accelerator equipment with minimum programming work. The method has three components. The first is a generic accelerator device object (ADO) manager which can be used to setup, store, and log testing controls parameters for any unit testing system. The second involves the design of a TAPE (Tool for Automated Procedure Execution) sequence file that specifies and implements all te testing and control logic. The sting third is the design of a PET (parameter editing tool) page that provides the unit tester with all the necessary control parameters required for testing. This approach has been used for testing the horizontal plane of the Stochastic Cooling Motion Control System at RHIC.

  1. Personal computer control system for small size tandem accelerator

    As the analysis apparatus using tandem accelerator has a lot of control parameter, numbers of control parts set on control panel are so many to make the panel more complex and its operativity worse. In order to improve these faults, development and design of a control system using personal computer for the control panel mainly constituted by conventional hardware parts were tried. Their predominant characteristics are shown as follows: 1) To make the control panel construction simpler and more compact, because the hardware device on the panel surface becomes the smallest limit as required by using a personal computer for man-machine interface. 2) To make control speed more rapid, because sequence control is closed within each block by driving accelerator system to each block and installing local station of the sequencer network at each block. 3) To make expandability larger, because of few improvement of the present hardware by interrupting the sequencer local station into the net and correcting image of the computer when increasing a new beamline. And, 4) to make control system cheaper, because of cheaper investment and easier programming by using the personal computer. (G.K.)

  2. A distributed control system for picosecond accelerator at SINAP

    CAO Hong-Ping; CHEN Huan-Guang; LI De-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The picosecond accelerator (PA) is a low energy electron linear accelerator facility under commissioning,which is built for the experiment of ps level pulse radiolysis in Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP). A practical distributed DA&C system for this facility has been developed. In view of the upgrading-ability and maintainability of the control system and controlled devices, Advantech(c) distributed intelligent DA&C products are adopted into the control system. ADAM 5000/TCPs with the protocol of Modbus/TCP are employed to accomplish data acquisition and device control. The PC-compatible programmable logic controller, ADAM-5511, is also adopted to handle the interlocks and the emergency events. On the software side, the integrated software package Kingview(c)V6.5, which friendly supports all Advantech products, has been used to develop the upper layer control logic and process the data. This paper describes the control system design and system architecture. The intelligent ADAM controllers and the software platform are also discussed in detail.

  3. Controls and Beam Diagnostics for Therapy-Accelerators

    Eickhoff, H

    2000-01-01

    During the last four years GSI has developed a new procedure for cancer treatment by means of the intensity controlled rasterscan-method. This method includes active variations of beam parameters during the treatment session and the integration of 'on-line' PET monitoring. Starting in 1997 several patients have been successfully treated within this GSI experimental cancer treatment program; within this program about 350 patients shall be treated in the next 5 years. The developments and experiences of this program accompanied by intensive discussions with the medical community led to a proposal for a hospital based light ion accelerator facility for the clinic in Heidelberg. An essential part for patients treatments is the measurement of the beam properties within acceptance and constancy tests and especially for the rasterscan method during the treatment sessions. The presented description of the accelerator controls and beam diagnostic devices mainly covers the requests for the active scanning method, which...

  4. Monitoring and control system of the Saclay electron linear accelerator

    A description is given of the automatic monitoring and control system of the 60MeV electron linear accelerator of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. The paper is mostly concerned with the programmation of the system. However, in a real time device, there is a very close association between computer and electronics, the latter are therefore described in details and make up most of the paper.

  5. Measurements and simulation of controlled beamfront motion in the Laser Controlled Collective Accelerator

    Yao, R.L.; Destler, W.W.; Striffler, C.D.; Rodgers, J.; Scgalov, Z.

    1989-01-01

    In the Laser Controlled Collective Accelerator, an intense electron beam is injected at a current above the vacuum space charge limit into an initially evacuated drift tube. A plasma channel, produced by time-sequenced, multiple laser beam ionization of a solid target on the drift tube wall, provides the necessary neutralization to allow for effective beam propagation. By controlling the rate of production of the plasma channel as a function of time down the drift tube, control of the electron beamfront can be achieved. Recent experimental measurements of controlled beamfront motion in this configuration are presented, along with results of ion acceleration experiments conducted using two different accelerating gradients. These results are compared with numerical simulations of the system in which both controlled beamfront motion and ion acceleration is observed consistent with both design expectations and experimental results. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Controlled Electron Injection into Plasma Accelerators and Space Charge Estimates

    Plasma based accelerators are capable of producing electron sources which are ultra-compact (a few microns) and high energies (up to hundreds of MeVs) in much shorter distances than conventional accelerators. This is due to the large longitudinal electric field that can be excited without the limitation of breakdown as in RF structures.The characteristic scale length of the accelerating field is the plasma wavelength and for typical densities ranging from 1018 - 1019 cm-3, the accelerating fields and scale length can hence be on the order of 10-100GV/m and 10-40 mu m, respectively. The production of quasimonoenergetic beams was recently obtained in a regime relying on self-trapping of background plasma electrons, using a single laser pulse for wakefield generation. In this dissertation, we study the controlled injection via the beating of two lasers (the pump laser pulse creating the plasma wave and a second beam being propagated in opposite direction) which induce a localized injection of background plasma electrons. The aim of this dissertation is to describe in detail the physics of optical injection using two lasers, the characteristics of the electron beams produced (the micrometer scale plasma wavelength can result in femtosecond and even attosecond bunches) as well as a concise estimate of the effects of space charge on the dynamics of an ultra-dense electron bunch with a large energy spread

  7. An Integrated Enterprise Accelerator Database for the SLC Control System

    Since its inception in the early 1980's, the SLC Control System has been driven by a highly structured memory-resident real-time database. While efficient, its rigid structure and file-based sources makes it difficult to maintain and extract relevant information. The goal of transforming the sources for this database into a relational form is to enable it to be part of a Control System Enterprise Database that is an integrated central repository for SLC accelerator device and Control System data with links to other associated databases. We have taken the concepts developed for the NLC Enterprise Database and used them to create and load a relational model of the online SLC Control System database. This database contains data and structure to allow querying and reporting on beamline devices, their associations and parameters. In the future this will be extended to allow generation of EPICS and SLC database files, setup of applications and links to other databases such as accelerator maintenance, archive data, financial and personnel records, cabling information, documentation etc. The database is implemented using Oracle 8i. In the short term it will be updated daily in batch from the online SLC database. In the longer term, it will serve as the primary source for Control System static data, an R and D platform for the NLC, and contribute to SLC Control System operations

  8. Device Configuration Handler for Accelerator Control Applications at Jefferson Lab

    The accelerator control system at Jefferson Lab uses hundreds of physical devices with such popular instrument bus interfaces as Industry Pack (IPAC), GPIB, RS-232, etc. To properly handle all these components, control computers (IOCs) must be provided with the correct information about the unique memory addresses of the used interface cards, interrupt numbers (if any), data communication channels and protocols. In these conditions, the registration of a new control device in the control system is not an easy task for software developers. Because the device configuration is distributed, it requires the detailed knowledge about not only the new device but also the configuration of all other devices on the existing system. A configuration handler implemented at Jefferson Lab centralizes the information about all control devices making their registration user-friendly and very easy to use. It consists of a device driver framework and the device registration software developed on the basis of ORACLE database and freely available scripting tools (perl, php)

  9. The new control system of the Saclay linear accelerator

    A new control system for the Safety Linear Accelerator is now being designed. The computer control architecture is based on 3 dedicated VME crates with MC68000 micro-processors: one crate with a disk-based operating system will run the high level application programs and the data base management facilities, another one will manage the man-machine communications and the third one will interface the system to the linac equipments. Communications between the VME microcomputers will be done through 16 bit parallel links. The software is modular and organized in specific layers, the data base is fully distributed. About 90% of the code is written in Fortran

  10. MADOCA. Accelerator and beamline control framework developed by SPring-8

    The framework of the SPring-8 control system called MADOCA was developed by an independent standpoint. It consists of a device interface, a middle-ware and a man-machine interface as usual, but satisfying the following conditions: (1) Users are not required to know how the signal cables are connected, (2) The status of the beam and the apparatuses can be recorded and can be seen anytime, and the operational status of the accelerator can be reproduced, (3) Data acquisition for the apparatus can be easily made, and (4) Control programs can be easily written. (K.Y.)

  11. Merging AI and numerical modeling for accelerator control

    The authors report the beginnings of an experiment to evaluate the power and limitations of artificial intelligence techniques combined with beam-line modeling for solving problems in accelerator control. Using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, they have built a knowledge base that describes the characteristics and the relationships of about 30 devices in a typical accelerator beam line. Each device in the line is categorized and pertinent attributes for each category are defined. Specific values for each device are assigned in the knowledge base to represent static characteristics. Device-specific slots are also provided for dynamic attributes. The definition of these slots reflects the data type and any limitations or restrictions on the range of the data. The authors model relationships between the various beam-line devices using the techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented models. The knowledge base provides a framework for analyzing faults and offering suggestions to assist in tuning, based on information provided by the accelerator physicists (domain experts) responsible for designing and tuning this beam line. Our knowledge base has a powerful graphical interface. It allows the operator to mouse on an icon for a particular icon in the schematic of the beam line and obtain device-specific information and control over that device. The beam optics code Transport is used to model the beam line numerically. 11 refs., 7 figs

  12. WAN environment test for joint development of accelerator control programs

    By the heightening of the processing capability of personal computers, also in the field of accelerator control, the system using personal computers as the main body can be constructed. Also it has become possible to supplement functions by combining different applications and offering the means of communication between applications by operating systems. At present, new accelerators are planned in Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, and National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, and the development environment using WAN was prepared for the purposes of the OMT analysis of accelerator domain from the viewpoint of control, the joint verification of the programs being made, and the efficient exchange of information. Windows NT was adopted, and its features are shown. The environment was constructed by using the personal computer on which Windows NT functions, and the specification of the used personal computer is shown. The performance was measured by using this environment, and its method and the results are reported. The operation mode for hereafter is explained. The construction of the development environment using Windows NT was completed with good results. (K.I.)

  13. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  14. Customizable software architectures in the accelerator control system environment

    Mejuev, I; Kadokura, E

    2001-01-01

    Tailoring is further evolution of an application after deployment in order to adapt it to requirements that were not accounted for in the original design. End-user customization has been extensively researched in applied computer science from HCI and software engineering perspectives. Customization allows coping with flexibility requirements, decreasing maintenance and development costs of software products. In general, dynamic or diverse software requirements constitute the need for implementing end-user customization in computer systems. In accelerator physics research the factor of dynamic requirements is especially important, due to frequent software and hardware modifications resulting in correspondingly high upgrade and maintenance costs. We introduce the results of feasibility study on implementing end-user tailorability in the software for accelerator control system, considering the design and implementation of a distributed monitoring application for the 12 GeV KEK Proton Synchrotron as an example. T...

  15. Precise RF control system of the SCSS test accelerator

    We present development and performance of the low-level rf control system of the SCSS test accelerator. The low-level rf system consists of IQ modulators / demodulators and VME waveform generators / digitizers. Recent improvements of them established high-resolution phase and amplitude setting capabilities of 0.01 degree and 0.01%, respectively. In addition, temperature drifts of the injector acceleration cavities were reduced by tuning a precise temperature regulation system. The temperature fluctuation was improved to be 0.01 K rms. As a result, the rf phase and amplitude stabilities of sub-harmonic buncher cavities were achieved to be 0.02 degree rms and 0.03% rms, respectively. The saturated FEL radiation in the wavelength region of 50-60 nm is stably generated by this improvement. (author)

  16. Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities

    Czarski, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...

  17. RF low level control system at SCSS prototype accelerator

    The constriction of XFEL facilities is under progress at the SPring-8 site. The SCSS prototype accelerator to check the feasibility of XFEL is in operation. And the amplification of VUV light having a wavelength of 49 nm was observed in June. The stability and controllability requirements on an RF phase and amplitude, concerning with the RF system of the prototype accelerator, are less than 1 degree and 0.3%. To satisfy the requirements, we developed a low noise RF signal source, and an IQ (In phase and in Quardrature) modulator and an IQ demodulator. The RF phase and amplitude are controlled by the IQ modulator. The detection of them are performed by using the IQ demodulator. Both IQ functions of them are handled by VME DAC and ADC boards developed by us. Furthermore, the DAC module can handle the adaptive control method. We confirmed, that these instruments satisfied the requirements, by the beam test. The configuration of the RF low level system, its performance, and the preliminary results of the adaptive control experiment are described in this paper. (author)

  18. MobileCoDaC – A transportable control, data acquisition and communication infrastructure for Wendelstein 7-X

    Highlights: • MobileCoDaC is a transportable CoDaC infrastructure for Wendelstein 7-X. • It allows in situ testing and commissioning of components to be used at W7-X by providing W7-X CoDaC infrastructure. • It has been used successfully for test and commissioning of the HEXOS diagnostic at Forschungszentrum Jülich. - Abstract: MobileCoDaC is a test bed allowing in situ testing and commissioning the control and data acquisition of components to be operated at Wendelstein 7-X. It is a minimized replica of the functionality of the complete W7-X CoDaC infrastructure and can be operated independently. MobileCoDaC contains a set of W7-X CoDaC servers, network infrastructure, and accessories for remote access. All hardware is mounted in a single transportable rack system. Moreover, it provides the software infrastructure and user applications for experiment preparation, experiment operation, trouble shooting and experiment data access. MobileCoDaC has been operated successfully for test and commissioning of the control and data acquisition of the HEXOS (high efficiency extreme ultraviolet overview spectrometer) diagnostic at Forschungszentrum Jülich

  19. Global Accelerator Network, Control Systems And Beam Diagnostics

    Raich, U

    2003-01-01

    Falling funds force all accelerator centers to look for new sources of financing and for the most efficient way of implementing new projects. This very often leads to collaborations between institutes scattered around the globe, a problem well known to big high energy physics experiments. The collaborations working on big detectors e.g. for LHC started thinking about detector acquisition and control systems which can be remotely used from their respective home institutes with minimal support on the spot. This idea was taken up by A. Wagner from DESY for the TESLA machine, who proposed the “Global Accelerator Network” (GAN) enabling users from around the world to run an accelerator remotely. Questions around this subject that immediately come to mind Is the GAN only relevant to big labs ? Or is it reasonable e.g. for operators or engineers in charge to do certain manipulations from home? Are our instruments ready for the GAN? Does the fact of being “GAN ready” increa...

  20. Magnetically Controlled Plasma Waveguide For Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; Davis, P; Palastro, J; Michel, P; Leurent, V; Glenzer, S H; Pollock, B; Tynan, G

    2008-05-14

    An external magnetic field applied to a laser plasma is shown produce a plasma channel at densities relevant to creating GeV monoenergetic electrons through laser wakefield acceleration. Furthermore, the magnetic field also provides a pressure to help shape the channel to match the guiding conditions of an incident laser beam. Measured density channels suitable for guiding relativistic short-pulse laser beams are presented with a minimum density of 5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} which corresponds to a linear dephasing length of several centimeters suitable for multi-GeV electron acceleration. The experimental setup at the Jupiter Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where a 1-ns, 150 J 1054 nm laser will produce a magnetically controlled channel to guide a < 75 fs, 10 J short-pulse laser beam through 5-cm of 5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} plasma is presented. Calculations presented show that electrons can be accelerated to 3 GeV with this system. Three-dimensional resistive magneto-hydrodynamic simulations are used to design the laser and plasma parameters and quasi-static kinetic simulations indicate that the channel will guide a 200 TW laser beam over 5-cm.

  1. Integrating a commercial industrial control system to the accelerator control system: a case study

    At CERN a large number of systems providing services (cooling and ventilation, cryogenics, electricity distribution, personnel and building safety, etc.) are controlled by industrial PLCs. A commercial supervision package is used as a gateway to the accelerator control system. The integration of such a system in the CERN accelerator control environment addresses issues such as the connection to control-rooms and desktop computers, alarm logging and remote or alien man-machine interfaces. The paper describes the components of the system and reports the first operational experience. ((orig.))

  2. Overview of Fermi National Accelerator Lab Control System

    Various facets of the control of the Fermilab accelerators, in particular the Tevatron, are presented. Since Fermilab contains a superconducting machine and a sophisticated injection complex, much of the controls functionality will of necessity be the same at the SSC. The various functions required at a large laboratory are discussed; these include computer-based fire and security alarms and a cable television system, as well as computer networks connected to accelerator hardware components. A description is given of that hardware, of which much is Camac but with considerable computer backplane bus equipment also present. A large fraction of the controls hardware has access to high precision real-time clocks. Our various networks are introduced, with the physical layer being a combination of copper and more modern optic cables, with the primary intercomputer link being Token Ring. A description of the computers is presented - basically these consist of operators' consoles, host VAXs, and link driving front ends. The software effort is detailed, with emphasis on consoles and microprocessors where the majority of effort has been placed. Future plans for the system are presented briefly. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. High performance/low cost accelerator control system

    Implementation of a high performance computer control system tailored to the requirements of the SuperHILAC accelerator is described. This system uses a distributed (star-type) structure with fiber optic data links; multiple CPU's operate in parallel at each node. A large number (20) of the latest 16-bit microcomputer boards are used to get a significant processor bandwidth (exceeding that of many mini-computers) at a reasonable price. Because of the large CPU bandwidth, software costs and complexity are significantly reduced and programming can be less real-time critical. In addition all programming can be in a high level language. Dynamically assigned and labeled knobs together with touch-screens allow a flexible operator interface. An X-Y vector graphics system allows display and labeling of real-time signals as well as general plotting functions. Both the accelerator parameters and the graphics system can be driven from BASIC interactive programs in addition to the pre-canned user routines. This allows new applications to be developed quickly and efficiently by physicists, operators, etc. The system, by its very nature and design, is easily upgraded (via next generation of boards) and repaired (by swapping of boards) without a large hardware support group. This control system is now being tested on an existing beamline and is performing well. The techniques used in this system can be readily applied to industrial control systems

  4. Design of a Normal Acceleration and Angle of Attack Control System for a Missile Having Front and Rear Control Surfaces

    Ochi, Yoshimasa

    Precise normal acceleration control is essential for missile guidance. Missiles with both front and rear control surfaces have a higher ability to control normal acceleration than missiles with front or rear control surfaces only. From the viewpoint of control, however, the control problem becomes a two-input-one-output problem, where generally control input cannot be determined uniquely. This paper proposes controlling angle of attack as well as normal acceleration, which makes the problem a two-input-two-output one and determines the controls uniquely. Normal acceleration command is given by a guidance system, but angle of attack command must be generated in accordance to the acceleration command without affecting the normal acceleration control. This paper also proposes such a command generator for angle of attack. Computer simulation is conducted using a nonlinear missile model to investigate the effectiveness of the control system along with control systems designed using three other methods.

  5. Initial investigation using statistical process control for quality control of accelerator beam steering

    Able Charles M; Hampton Carnell J; Baydush Alan H; Munley Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study seeks to increase clinical operational efficiency and accelerator beam consistency by retrospectively investigating the application of statistical process control (SPC) to linear accelerator beam steering parameters to determine the utility of such a methodology in detecting changes prior to equipment failure (interlocks actuated). Methods Steering coil currents (SCC) for the transverse and radial planes are set such that a reproducibly useful photon or electron...

  6. An artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems

    An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined. Specific values were assigned in the knowledge base to represent each actual device. Relationships between devices are modeled using the artificial intelligence techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented methods. This symbolic model, built using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, provides a framework for analyzing faults, tutoring trainee operators, and offering suggestions to assist in beam tuning. Based on information provided by the domain expert responsible for tuning this portion of the beam line, additional rules were written to describe how he tunes, how he analyzes what is actually happening, and how he deals with failures. Initial results have shown that artificial intelligence techniques can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of numerical simulation. Successful and efficient operation of future accelerators may depend on the proper merging of symbolic reasoning and conventional numerical control algorithms

  7. Computer control of large accelerators design concepts and methods

    Beck, F.; Gormley, M.

    1984-05-01

    Unlike most of the specialities treated in this volume, control system design is still an art, not a science. These lectures are an attempt to produce a primer for prospective practitioners of this art. A large modern accelerator requires a comprehensive control system for commissioning, machine studies and day-to-day operation. Faced with the requirement to design a control system for such a machine, the control system architect has a bewildering array of technical devices and techniques at his disposal, and it is our aim in the following chapters to lead him through the characteristics of the problems he will have to face and the practical alternatives available for solving them. We emphasize good system architecture using commercially available hardware and software components, but in addition we discuss the actual control strategies which are to be implemented since it is at the point of deciding what facilities shall be available that the complexity of the control system and its cost are implicitly decided. 19 references.

  8. Computer control of large accelerators design concepts and methods

    Unlike most of the specialities treated in this volume, control system design is still an art, not a science. These lectures are an attempt to produce a primer for prospective practitioners of this art. A large modern accelerator requires a comprehensive control system for commissioning, machine studies and day-to-day operation. Faced with the requirement to design a control system for such a machine, the control system architect has a bewildering array of technical devices and techniques at his disposal, and it is our aim in the following chapters to lead him through the characteristics of the problems he will have to face and the practical alternatives available for solving them. We emphasize good system architecture using commercially available hardware and software components, but in addition we discuss the actual control strategies which are to be implemented since it is at the point of deciding what facilities shall be available that the complexity of the control system and its cost are implicitly decided. 19 references

  9. Technical infrastructure monitoring at CERN

    Stowisek, Jan; Suwalska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Technical Infrastructure Monitoring system (TIM) is used to monitor and control CERN's technical services from the CERN Control Centre (CCC). The system's primary function is to provide CCC operators with reliable real-time information about the state of the laboratory's extensive and widely distributed technical infrastructure. TIM is also used to monitor all general services required for the operation of CERN's accelerator complex and the experiments. A flexible data acquisition mechanism allows TIM to interface with a wide range of technically diverse installations, using industry standard protocols wherever possible and custom designed solutions where needed. The complexity of the data processing logic, including persistence, logging, alarm handling, command execution and the evaluation of datadriven business rules is encapsulated in the system's business layer. Users benefit from a suite of advanced graphical applications adapted to operations (synoptic views, alarm consoles, data analysis tools etc....

  10. API manager implementation and its use for Indus accelerator control

    The control system software needed for operation of Indus accelerators is coupled to the underlying firmware and hardware of the control system by the Application Programming Interface (API) manager. In the three layered architecture of Indus control system, PVSS-II SCADA is being used at the layer-1(L1) for control and monitoring of various sub-systems. The layer-2(L2) consists of VME bus based system. The API manager plays a crucial role in interfacing the L1 and L2 of the control system. It has to interact with both the PVSS database and the L2. In order to access the PVSS database it uses the PVSS API, a C++ class library, whereas in order to access the L2 custom functions have been built. Several other custom functionalities have also been implemented. The paper presents the important aspects of the API manager like its implementation, its interface mechanism to the lower layer and features like configurability, reusable classes, multithreading capability etc. (author)

  11. A Framework for a General Purpose Intelligent Control System for Particle Accelerators. Phase II Final Report

    Vista Control Systems, Inc. has developed a portable system for intelligent accelerator control. The design is general in scope and is thus configurable to a wide range of accelerator facilities and control problems. The control system employs a multi-layer organization in which knowledge-based decision making is used to dynamically configure lower level optimization and control algorithms

  12. Tailorable software architectures in the accelerator control system environment

    Tailoring is further evolution of an application after deployment in order to adapt it to requirements that were not accounted for in the original design. End-user tailorability has been extensively researched in applied computer science from HCl and software engineering perspectives. Tailorability allows coping with flexibility requirements, decreasing maintenance and development costs of software products. In general, dynamic or diverse software requirements constitute the need for implementing end-user tailorability in computer systems. In accelerator physics research the factor of dynamic requirements is especially important, due to frequent software and hardware modifications resulting in correspondingly high upgrade and maintenance costs. In this work we introduce the results of feasibility study on implementing end-user tailorability in the software for accelerator control system, considering the design and implementation of distributed monitoring application for 12 GeV KEK Proton Synchrotron as an example. The software prototypes used in this work are based on a generic tailoring platform (VEDICI), which allows decoupling of tailoring interfaces and runtime components. While representing a reusable application-independent framework, VEDICI can be potentially applied for tailoring of arbitrary compositional Web-based applications

  13. Design of time control system of high current proton linear accelerator

    The high current proton linear accelerator with high duty ratio will be used in accelerator driven sub-critical system. Time control system of high current proton linear accelerator is introduced. During accelerator operation, the system provides necessary trigger and clock signal. Accuracy and stability of the system has important implications for operation of the linear accelerator. Design of serial communication hardware based on ALTERA company cyclone Ⅲ FPGA, programming of serial communication drivers and functional modules, and implement of human-computer interface based on LabVIEW are realized. The testing results show that the whole system meets requirements of time control system of the high current proton accelerator. (authors)

  14. Upgrade of the Control System of the IFUNAM's Pelletron Accelerator

    Macias, R; Ortiz, M E; López, K; Huerta, A; Verde, M C

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 a 9SDH-2 Pelletron from NEC was installed at IFUNAM (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico). Two beam lines have been operational since then and two new lines have been built. In order to perform the planned projects in this grown facility, an upgrading of the original manual control system is required. The proposed new control system takes advantage of the existing devices and incorporates the electronics needed for the newer beam lines. The control software from NEC, has been modified to accommodate the larger requirements. It runs on the same dedicated computer but receives commands from a new installed host. Both computers communicate through a local network sharing the accelerator database. The new host computer also handles all parameters related to the new lines. In the future, the old computer will be replaced in order to expand the possibilities of the system and use a friendlier graphical interface. In this work we present the changes made to the control software, the ...

  15. Tuners, microphonics, and control systems in superconducting accelerating structures

    Manufacturing tolerances, thermal stresses, acoustic noise, and cooling fluid pressure fluctuations all conspire to make the field in the cavity not precisely what the accelerator physicist has in mind. Tuners and control systems are the tools used to fight back: they regulate the field in the cavity to the desired magnitude and phase. Amplitude and phase stabilities are usually of greater concern in superconducting cavities than in copper cavities. The key to achieving a stable gradient and phase is feedback. A probe must be placed in the cavity itself to sense the present cavity status. Electronic control is then given the responsibility to correct for any measured disturbance. The electronic modulation of forward power has been implemented in a number of ways. Perhaps the easiest implementation to understand has two separate control loops, one for amplitude and one for phase (phase-amplitude loops). Other major electronic control devices include complex phasor modulator (CPM-amplitude loops), vector loop, and variable reactance. 'Slow' tuners are used when the tuning range of the 'fast' tuner plus electronic tuning is not enough to compensate for unpredictability or drift in the static frequency setting. (N.K.)

  16. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard: a real-time web application for the ATLAS TDAQ control infrastructure

    Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Magnoni, Luca; Sloper, John Erik

    2011-12-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) infrastructure is responsible for filtering and transferring ATLAS experimental data from detectors to mass storage systems. It relies on a large, distributed computing system composed of thousands of software applications running concurrently. In such a complex environment, information sharing is fundamental for controlling applications behavior, error reporting and operational monitoring. During data taking, the streams of messages sent by applications and data published via information services are constantly monitored by experts to verify the correctness of running operations and to understand problematic situations. To simplify and improve system analysis and errors detection tasks, we developed the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard, a web application that aims to collect, correlate and visualize effectively this real time flow of information. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard is composed of two main entities that reflect the twofold scope of the application. The first is the engine, a Java service that performs aggregation, processing and filtering of real time data stream and computes statistical correlation on sliding windows of time. The results are made available to clients via a simple web interface supporting SQL-like query syntax. The second is the visualization, provided by an Ajax-based web application that runs on client's browser. The dashboard approach allows to present information in a clear and customizable structure. Several types of interactive graphs are proposed as widgets that can be dynamically added and removed from visualization panels. Each widget acts as a client for the engine, querying the web interface to retrieve data with desired criteria. In this paper we present the design, development and evolution of the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard. We also present the statistical analysis computed by the application in this first period of high energy data taking operations for the ATLAS experiment.

  17. A Multi-Domain Access Control Infrastructure Based on Diameter and EAP

    Ben Ayed, Souheil; Teraoka, Fumio

    The evolution of Internet, the growth of Internet users and the new enabled technological capabilities place new requirements to form the Future Internet. Many features improvements and challenges were imposed to build a better Internet, including securing roaming of data and services over multiple administrative domains. In this research, we propose a multi-domain access control infrastructure to authenticate and authorize roaming users through the use of the Diameter protocol and EAP. The Diameter Protocol is a AAA protocol that solves the problems of previous AAA protocols such as RADIUS. The Diameter EAP Application is one of Diameter applications that extends the Diameter Base Protocol to support authentication using EAP. The contributions in this paper are: 1) first implementation of Diameter EAP Application, called DiamEAP, capable of practical authentication and authorization services in a multi-domain environment, 2) extensibility design capable of adding any new EAP methods, as loadable plugins, without modifying the main part, and 3) provision of EAP-TLS plugin as one of the most secure EAP methods. DiamEAP Server basic performances were evaluated and tested in a real multi-domain environment where 200 users attempted to access network using the EAP-TLS method during an event of 4 days. As evaluation results, the processing time of DiamEAP using the EAP-TLS plugin for authentication of 10 requests is about 20ms while that for 400 requests/second is about 1.9 second. Evaluation and operation results show that DiamEAP is scalable and stable with the ability to handle more than 6 hundreds of authentication requests per second without any crashes. DiamEAP is supported by the AAA working group of the WIDE Project.

  18. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard: a real-time web application for the ATLAS TDAQ control infrastructure

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) infrastructure is responsible for filtering and transferring ATLAS experimental data from detectors to mass storage systems. It relies on a large, distributed computing system composed of thousands of software applications running concurrently. In such a complex environment, information sharing is fundamental for controlling applications behavior, error reporting and operational monitoring. During data taking, the streams of messages sent by applications and data published via information services are constantly monitored by experts to verify the correctness of running operations and to understand problematic situations. To simplify and improve system analysis and errors detection tasks, we developed the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard, a web application that aims to collect, correlate and visualize effectively this real time flow of information. The TDAQ Analytics Dashboard is composed of two main entities that reflect the twofold scope of the application. The first is the engine, a Java service that performs aggregation, processing and filtering of real time data stream and computes statistical correlation on sliding windows of time. The results are made available to clients via a simple web interface supporting SQL-like query syntax. The second is the visualization, provided by an Ajax-based web application that runs on client's browser. The dashboard approach allows to present information in a clear and customizable structure. Several types of interactive graphs are proposed as widgets that can be dynamically added and removed from visualization panels. Each widget acts as a client for the engine, querying the web interface to retrieve data with desired criteria. In this paper we present the design, development and evolution of the TDAQ Analytics Dashboard. We also present the statistical analysis computed by the application in this first period of high energy data taking operations for the ATLAS experiment.

  19. Control system analysis for the perturbed linear accelerator rf system

    Sung Il Kwon

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the modeling problem of the linear accelerator RF system in SNS. Klystrons are modeled as linear parameter varying systems. The effect of the high voltage power supply ripple on the klystron output voltage and the output phase is modeled as an additive disturbance. The cavity is modeled as a linear system and the beam current is modeled as the exogenous disturbance. The output uncertainty of the low level RF system which results from the uncertainties in the RF components and cabling is modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. Also, the feedback loop uncertainty and digital signal processing signal conditioning subsystem uncertainties are lumped together and are modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. Finally, the time delays in the loop are modeled as a lumped time delay. For the perturbed open loop system, the closed loop system performance, and stability are analyzed with the PI feedback controller.

  20. Development of synchrotron control for Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerators

    Kadowaki, T., E-mail: kadowaki@aec-beam.co.jp [Accelerator Engineering Corporation (AEC), 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Iwata, Y., E-mail: y_iwata@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Noda, K., E-mail: noda_k@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takada, E., E-mail: takada@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shirai, T., E-mail: t_shirai@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Furukawa, T., E-mail: t_furu@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uchiyama, H., E-mail: aechebt@nirs.go.jp [Accelerator Engineering Corporation (AEC), 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Fujimoto, T., E-mail: t.fujimoto@aec-beam.co.jp [Accelerator Engineering Corporation (AEC), 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The power supplies for the main bending and quadrupole magnets of the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba are controlled by preset current and voltage patterns, which are created by a pattern-creation program. It has been observed that a deviation between the preset current and the actual one becomes very large when newly created patterns are applied to the power supplies. This deviation is attributed to the incorrect parameters used for calculations of the voltage pattern in the pattern-creation program. In order to reduce the deviation, we have analyzed the values of resistance and inductance using the actual data of the current and voltage patterns. As a result, more than 10% difference was found between the conventional and newly calculated parameters. By applying the new parameters to the pattern-creation program a reduction of the deviation was confirmed.

  1. Beam control in the ETA-II linear induction accelerator

    Corkscrew beam motion is caused by chromatic aberration and misalignment of a focusing system. We have taken some measures to control the corkscrew motion on the ETA-II induction accelerator. To minimize chromatic aberration, we have developed an energy compensation scheme which reduces energy sweep and differential phase advance within a beam pulse. To minimize the misalignment errors, we have developed a time-independent steering algorithm which minimizes the observed corkscrew amplitude averaged over the beam pulse. The steering algorithm can be used even if the monitor spacing is much greater than the system's cyclotron wavelength and the corkscrew motion caused by a given misaligned magnet is fully developed, i.e., the relative phase advance is greater than 2π. (Author) 5 figs., 11 refs

  2. Development of synchrotron control for Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerators

    The power supplies for the main bending and quadrupole magnets of the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba are controlled by preset current and voltage patterns, which are created by a pattern-creation program. It has been observed that a deviation between the preset current and the actual one becomes very large when newly created patterns are applied to the power supplies. This deviation is attributed to the incorrect parameters used for calculations of the voltage pattern in the pattern-creation program. In order to reduce the deviation, we have analyzed the values of resistance and inductance using the actual data of the current and voltage patterns. As a result, more than 10% difference was found between the conventional and newly calculated parameters. By applying the new parameters to the pattern-creation program a reduction of the deviation was confirmed.

  3. A Study of the Design of Acceleration Control System for Missiles

    Kajita, Takanori; Eguchi, Hirofumi

    A 2-degrees of freedom PID controller is designed for a maneuvering acceleration control system. This design method is based on the combination of PID and IPD controller. Results show that (1) IP controller is superior to PI controller for the damper loop controller, (2) the selection of PI or IP controller as for the acceleration controller depends on the tradeoffs between the responsibility and the reduction of inverse response.

  4. FPGA Mezzanine Cards for CERN’s Accelerator Control System

    Alvarez, P R; Lewis, J; Serrano, J; Wlostowski, T

    2009-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have become a key player in modern real time control systems. They offer determinism, simple design, high performance and versatility. A typical hardware architecture consists of an FPGA interfaced with a control bus and a variable number of digital IOs, ADCs and DACs depending on the application. Until recently the low-cost hardware paradigm has been using mezzanines containing a front end interface plus custom logic (typically an FPGA) and a local bus that interfaces the mezzanine to a carrier. As FPGAs grow in size and shrink in price, hardware reuse, testability and bus access speed could be improved if the user logic is moved to the carrier. The new FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) Vita 57 standard is a good example of this new paradigm. In this paper we present a standard kit of FPGA carriers and IO mezzanines for accelerator control. Carriers form factors will be VME, PCI and PCIe. The carriers will feature White Rabbit support for accurate synchronization of distributed...

  5. Large Scale Investments in Infrastructure : Competing Policy regimes to Control Connections

    Otsuki, K.; Read, M.L.; Zoomers, E.B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes to analyse implications of large-scale investments in physical infrastructure for social and environmental justice. While case studies on the global land rush and climate change have advanced our understanding of how large-scale investments in land, forests and water affect natur

  6. Database application research in real-time data access of accelerator control system

    The control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is a large-scale distributed real-time control system, It involves many types and large amounts of real-time data access during the operating. Database system has wide application prospects in the large-scale accelerator control system. It is the future development direction of the accelerator control system, to replace the differently dedicated data structures with the mature standardized database system. This article discusses the application feasibility of database system in accelerators based on the database interface technology, real-time data access testing, and system optimization research and to establish the foundation of the wide scale application of database system in the SSRF accelerator control system. Based on the database interface technology, real-time data access testing and system optimization research, this article will introduce the application feasibility of database system in accelerators, and lay the foundation of database system application in the SSRF accelerator control system. (authors)

  7. Preliminary research on safety and control characteristics of accelerator driven reactor

    The safety and control characteristics of accelerator driven reactor are studied with calculation and simulation running. The results show that the prompt criticality for accelerator driven reactor does not easily happen, its safety characteristics are better than critical reactor's, the higher the subcritical degree, the better the safety. The control loop of accelerator driven reactor has a little time constant, a little overshoot, and short regulating time, its control characteristics are also better than critical reactor's

  8. High-performance control system for a heavy-ion medical accelerator

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species

  9. A high performance control system for a heavy ion medical accelerator

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species

  10. Bike Infrastructures

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.; Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard

    Bike Infrastructures aims to identify bicycle infrastructure typologies and design elements that can help promote cycling significantly. It is structured as a case study based research where three cycling infrastructures with distinct typologies were analyzed and compared. The three cases are Ves......, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy....

  11. Implementation to spanish protocol of quality control of accelerators to daily control of electron beams

    A revised procedure for daily control of the electron beams to make measurements more meaningful physically, having a better reproducibility and more in line with the recommendations of the Spanish Protocol for Quality Control in Electron Linear Accelerators Clinical Use. The daily quality control beams of high energy electrons that had been done so far was the finding that the record of a series of measures (symmetry, uniformity, stability, energy, beam central dose) were within tolerance values established. The amendment is to check the beam quality by directly measuring changes in absorption depth at which the dose is reduced to half its maximum value, R50.

  12. Infrastructure sensing.

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors. PMID:27499845

  13. Computational means of the new control system for the U-70 accelerating complex

    Computational means of the new control system (CS) of the U-70 accelerating complex are described. The last includes the LU-30 linear accelerator, U-15 booster ring injector, U-70 main accelerator, systems for fast and slow beam extraction. The new integrated CS is based on the standard three-level architecture. Control of the CS network is realized with a special computer, fulfilling also the security functions

  14. A distributed control system status report of the munich accelerator control

    A system of computers connected by a local area network (ARCNET) controls the Munich accelerator facility. This includes ion sources, the tandem accelerator, the beam transport system, the gas handling plant, parts of experimental setup and also an ion source test bench. ARCNET is a deterministic multi-master network with arbitrary topology, using coax cables and optical fibers. Crates with single board computers and I/O-boards (analog, parallel or serial digital), dependent on the devices being controlled, are distributed all over the building. Personal computers serve as user interfaces. The LAN communication protocol is a client/server protocol. Communication language and programming language for the single board computers is Forth. The user mode drivers in the personal computers are also written in Forth. The tools for the operators are MS-Windows applications, programmed in Forth, C++ or Visual Basic. Links to MS-Office applications are available, too

  15. A Shot Parameter Specification Subsystem for automated control of PBFA [Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator] II accelerator shots

    The Shot Parameter Specification Subsystem (SPSS) is an integral part of the automatic control system developed for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) by the Control Monitor (C/M) Software Development Team. This system has been designed to fully utilize the accelerator by tailoring shot parameters to the needs of the experimenters. The SPSS is the key to this flexibility. Automatic systems will be required on many pulsed power machines for the fastest turnaround, the highest reliability, and most cost effective operation. These systems will require the flexibility and the ease of use that is part of the SPSS. The PBFA II control system has proved to be an effective modular system, flexible enough to meet the demands of both the fast track construction of PBFA II and the control needs of Hermes III at the Simulation Technology Laboratory. This system is expected to meet the demands of most future machine changes

  16. Telecom infrastructure leasing

    Slides to accompany a discussion about leasing telecommunications infrastructure, including radio/microwave tower space, radio control buildings, paging systems and communications circuits, were presented. The structure of Alberta Power Limited was described within the ATCO group of companies. Corporate goals and management practices and priorities were summarized. Lessons and experiences in the infrastructure leasing business were reviewed

  17. Medium Access Control for Thermal Energy Harvesting in Advanced Metering Infrastructures

    Vithanage, Madava D.; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Andersen, Claus Bo; Dragoni, Nicola

    In this paper we investigate the feasibility of powering wireless metering devices, namely heat cost allocators, by thermal energy harvested from radiators. The goal is to take a first step toward the realization of Energy-Harvesting Advanced Metering Infrastructures (EH-AMIs). While traditional...... the potential energy that can be harvested from Low Surface Temperature (LST) radiators. The experiments are based on a developed Energy-Harvesting Heat Cost Allocator (EH-HCA) prototype. On the basis of this measured power budget, we model and analytically compare the currently used Medium Access...

  18. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Ronald Grasman

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan

  19. Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages

    Diamant, Kevin David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel Joseph

    2014-05-13

    Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.

  20. Pulse control in an accelerator for heavy-ion fusion

    In induction accelerators proposed for heavy-ion fusion, the ion beam is usually confined longitudinally by an axial electric field tailored to balance the space-charge field. Since generating such electric field 'ears' is costly and imprecise, it is important to know how frequently the ears must be applied and what errors in the waveform are tolerable. For practical parameters, cell breakdown is found to impose the principal limit on the spacing of the acceleration modules applying the ear field. Also, it is demonstrated that ear fields may be approximated in several ways by discrete field steps with little impairment of the longitudinal confinement. (Author) 4 figs., 2 refs

  1. Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519

    This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included

  2. Development of Grid Control Electron Gun for Multi-energy Irradiation Accelerator

    HAN; Guang-wen; ZHU; Zhi-bin; WANG; Shu-xian

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the project of multi-energy electron irradiation accelerator, It is necessary to adjust the electron beam pulse inject to the accelerating tube. Under the same conditions of the injection energy, the grid controlled electron gun was used in the accelerator. Using cathode-grid assembly, after the simulation of electron optics program design, we manufactured focus electrode, the anode, and built an experiment

  3. Sync control of X-ray pulse in ICT driven by linear accelerator

    It is very important to synchronize the ray pulse frequency of accelerator with data acquisition cycle of Industrial Computed Tomography (ICT) when using accelerator as ray source. This paper analyzes the original signal of CT and designs a sync control circuit which can make the accelerator produce respectively 2, 3 or 4 X-ray pulses in one data acquisition cycle. The minimum average rate of X-ray intensity can meet the requirement of image reconstruction for high density material

  4. Instrumentation for diagnostics and control of laser-accelerated proton (ion) beams

    Bolton, P. R.; Borghesi, M. (Massimo); Brenner, C.; Carroll, D C; Martinis, C.; Fiorini, F.; Flacco, A.; Floquet, V; J. Fuchs; Gallegos, P.; Giove, D.; Green, J S; Green, S; Jones, B.; Kirby, D.

    2014-01-01

    Suitable instrumentation for laser-accelerated proton (ion) beams is critical for development of integrated, laser-driven ion accelerator systems. Instrumentation aimed at beam diagnostics and control must be applied to the driving laser pulse, the laser-plasma that forms at the target and the emergent proton (ion) bunch in a correlated way to develop these novel accelerators. This report is a brief overview of established diagnostic techniques and new developments based on material presented...

  5. Control of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) infesting wheat through accelerated electrons

    Based on the findings of this paper, it could be recommended that wheat has to be irradiated with accelerated electrons with the dose of 250 Gy, so as to make it completely safe against the development of eventually existing R. dominica populations

  6. Missile Acceleration Controller Design using PI and Time-Delay Adaptive Feedback Linearization Methodology

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Seo, Min-Guk; Tahk, Min-Jea; Lee, Jin-Ik; Jun, Byung-Eul

    2012-01-01

    A straight forward application of feedback linearization to the missile autopilot design for acceleration control may be limited due to the nonminimum characteristics and the model uncertainties. As a remedy, this paper presents a cascade structure of an acceleration controller based on approximate feedback linearization methodology with a time-delay adaptation scheme. The inner loop controller is constructed by applying feedback linearization to the approximate system which is a minimum phas...

  7. Longitudinal Acceleration Tracking Control of Low Speed Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    WANG Yuejian; BIN Yang; LI Keqiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model matching control (MMC) method based on the sliding mode control(SMC) method for longitudinal acceleration tracking control in a vehicular stop-and-go cruise control system.The nonlinearity of the vehicle acceleration response at low speeds was analyzed to develop a transfer function model of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics using the least-mean-square system identification technique.This transfer function was then used to design the MMC controller,including an SMC feedback compensator.The system combines the advantages of the two control methods with robust control and rapid response.Simulations show that the controller enhances the rapid trackability to the vehicle acceleration and improves the system's robustness at low speeds compared with conventional PID MMC controllers.

  8. The operator console for accelerator control systems on a virtual machine

    TBy progress of computer technology, the performance of PC is growing and the price is low. PC is used for control of a small-scale accelerator facility from the merit of availability and low price. However, the reliability of PC is lower than the computer for factories, such as VME, cPCI, and TCA. It seems that using virtual PC has an advantage in maintenance of an accelerator control system. This paper describes the advantage and problem of virtual PC for accelerator control. (author)

  9. Evolution and development of the Oak Ridge 25URC tandem accelerator control system

    Since acceptance of the 25URC accelerator in 1982, we have continued to develop and improve both the accelerator control system and associated software. In this paper, we describe these improvements and also discuss how our experience with the present system would influence the architecture and design of future, similar systems

  10. 77 FR 22637 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems

    2012-04-16

    ... driven portion of hybrid vehicles. Finally, the 2002 NPRM proposed a new procedure which would use engine... to recalls, most notably the Jan. 2010 recall of accelerator pedal assemblies in Toyota vehicles . We... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems; Proposed Rule...

  11. Validation of a new control system for Elekta accelerators facilitating continuously variable dose rate

    Bertelsen, Anders; Lorenzen, Ebbe L; Brink, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    ) as well as BVDR. Using CVDR opposed to BVDR for VMAT has the potential of reducing the treatment time but may lead to lower dosimetric accuracy due to faster moving accelerator parts. Using D7 and a test version of Integrity, differences in ability to control the accelerator, treatment efficiency...

  12. Control of seeding phase for a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator with gradient injection

    We demonstrated experimentally the seeding-phase control for a two-stage laser wakefield accelerator with gradient injection. By optimizing the seeding phase of electrons into the second stage, electron beams beyond 0.5 GeV with a 3% rms energy spread were produced over a short acceleration distance of ∼2 mm. Peak energy of the electron beam was further extended beyond 1 GeV by lengthening the second acceleration stage to 5 mm. Time-resolved magnetic field measurements via magneto-optical Faraday polarimetry allowed us to monitor the processes of electron seeding and acceleration in the second stage

  13. Real-time Optical Network for Accelerator Control

    Lee, Keun

    2012-06-27

    The timing requirements of a modern accelerator complex call for several features. The first is a system for high precision relative timing among accelerator components. Stabilized fiber links have already been demonstrated to achieve sub-10 femtoseconds relative timing precision. The second is a system for timing distribution of absolute time with sufficient precision to identify a specific RF bucket. The White Rabbit technology is a promising candidate to deliver the absolute time that is linked to the GPS clock. In this study we demonstrated that these two technologies can be combined in a way that the absolute time information can be delivered to the stabilized fiber link system. This was accomplished by researching the design of the stabilized fiber and White Rabbit systems and devising adaptation modules that facilitate co-existence of both systems in the same FPGA environment. We built a prototype system using off-the-shelf products and implemented a proof-of-concept version of the FPGA firmware. The test verified that the White Rabbit features operate correctly under the stabilized fiber system environment. This work demonstrates that turn-key femtosecond timing systems with absolute time information can be built cost effectively and deployed in various accelerator environments. This will lead to many new applications in chemistry, biology and surface dynamics, to name a few.

  14. Efficiency of transport infrastructure and ICT development

    Yoon, Chang-Ho; Na, Kyoung-Youn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of ICT growth on the productivity effects of transportation infrastructure. Using dynamic panel data of OECD member countries, the study finds econometrically meaningful results on examining the complementarity between ICT and transportation infrastructures. The network effect of growth of motorway infrastructure in advanced countries tends to accelerate when the ICT network grows beyond a certain threshold level.

  15. Infrastructure and regulatory control for radiation protection in the nuclear industry in India

    The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), constituted in November 1983 by the Government of India, carries out certain safety and regulatory functions envisaged under the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The paper describes the legal provisions, responsibilities, structure and organization of AERB, with special emphasis on radiation protection. The responsibilities of the Board cover nuclear, radiological and industrial safety within the installations of the Department of Atomic Energy and radiological safety in the manifold applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources within the country. An adequate and competent infrastructure has been built to cater to the diverse radiation protection requirements of all nuclear installations in India, arising at different stages from site selection to day-to-day operation. The paper describes the multilevel review which is carried out by the Board prior to issue of authorization for nuclear installations. A number of safety codes, guides and manuals have been prepared to provide specific guidance to design, construction and operating organizations of nuclear power plants. The Regulatory Board receives considerable support from the Health and Safety Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in discharging its responsibility with regard to radiation protection surveillance. The Safety Review Committee of AERB monitors the safety status of all nuclear fuel cycle facilities in operation. In addition, periodic inspections of the installations are carried out. AERB has conducted an in-depth study of specific areas of operational safety of nuclear power plants. AERB ensures that the radiation exposures of workers and radioactive releases to the environment are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and that the installations maintain at all times a capability to handle local, site and off-site emergencies. (author). 3 figs

  16. Computer network for on-lne control system of the IHEP ring accelerator

    A block-diagram for computer network of the IHEP ring accelerator control system is substantiated. The interface card for ES-1010 computer is described, it operates simultaneously on 4 channels. The system software for computer network is considered

  17. Thermionic gun control system for the CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] injector

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Software and cyber-infrastructure development to control the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ)

    Yanes-Díaz, A.; Antón, J. L.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Guillén-Civera, L.; Bello, R.; Jiménez-Mejías, D.; Chueca, S.; Lasso-Cabrera, N. M.; Suárez, O.; Rueda-Teruel, F.; Cenarro, A. J.; Cristobal-Hornillos, D.; Marin-Franch, A.; Luis-Simoes, R.; López-Alegre, G.; Rodríguez-Hernández, M. A. C.; Moles, M.; Ederoclite, A.; Varela, J.; Vazquez Ramió, H.; Díaz-Martín, M. C.; Iglesias-Marzoa, R.; Maicas, N.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Lopez-Sainz, A.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; Valdivielso, L.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Penteado, P.; Schoenell, W.; Kanaan, A.

    2014-07-01

    The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) is a new astronomical facility located at the Sierra de Javalambre (Teruel, Spain) whose primary role will be to conduct all-sky astronomical surveys with two unprecedented telescopes of unusually large fields of view: the JST/T250, a 2.55m telescope of 3deg field of view, and the JAST/T80, an 83cm telescope of 2deg field of view. CEFCA engineering team has been designing the OAJ control system as a global concept to manage, monitor, control and maintain all the observatory systems including not only astronomical subsystems but also infrastructure and other facilities. In order to provide quality, reliability and efficiency, the OAJ control system (OCS) design is based on CIA (Control Integrated Architecture) and OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) as a key to improve day and night operation processes. The OCS goes from low level hardware layer including IOs connected directly to sensors and actuators deployed around the whole observatory systems, including telescopes and astronomical instrumentation, up to the high level software layer as a tool to perform efficiently observatory operations. We will give an overview of the OAJ control system design and implementation from an engineering point of view, giving details of the design criteria, technology, architecture, standards, functional blocks, model structure, development, deployment, goals, report about the actual status and next steps.

  19. Operations Structure for the Management, Control and Support of the INFN-GRID/Grid.It Production Infrastructure

    Vistoli, M C; Calzolari, F; Vistoli, Maria Cristina; Gaido, Luciano; Calzolari, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Moving from a National Grid Testbed to a Production quality Grid service for the HEP applications requires an effective operations structure and organization, proper user and operations support, flexible and efficient management and monitoring tools. Moreover the middleware releases should be easily deployable using flexible configuration tools, suitable for various and different local computing farms. The organizational model, the available tools and the agreed procedures for operating the national/regional grid infrastructures that are part of the world-wide EGEE grid as well as the interconnection of the regional operations structures with the global management, control and support structure play a key role for the success of a real production grid. In this paper we describe the operations structure that we are currently using at the Italian Grid Operation and Support Center. The activities described cover monitoring, management and support for the INFN-GRID/Grid.It production grid (spread over more than 3...

  20. Digital low-level RF control system for high intensity proton RFQ accelerator

    The resonant frequency of the high intensity proton RFQ accelerator at the Institute of High Energy Physics is 352.2 MHz, and the control precision of the accelerating field is ± 1 degree in phase, respectively. In order to accomplish these requirements, a digital low-level RF (LLRF) control system is adopted. This system includes three parts: the accelerating field amplitude and phase control, the cavity resonant frequency control and the high power interlock protection. The down-conversion of the cavity sampling signal and the up-conversion of the feedback excitation signal are realized by the analog devices. The real time feedback control of amplitude and phase adopts digital I/Q demodulation, and is assembled in a FPGA block, where three DSP blocks are used for communication and cooperate the FPGA to process data. The online debugging result satisfies the requirements of the control precision. (authors)

  1. On designing a control system for a new generation of accelerators

    A well-conceived plan of attack is essential to the task of designing a control system for a large accelerator. Several aspects of such a plan have been investigated during recent work at LAMPF on design strategies for an Advanced Hadron Facility control system. Aspects discussed in this paper include: identification of requirements, creation and enforcement of standards, interaction with users, consideration of commercial controls products, integration with existing control systems, planning for continual change, and establishment of design reviews. We emphasize the need for the controls group to acquire and integrate accelerator design information from the start of the design process. We suggest that a controls design for a new generation of accelerators be done with a new generation of software tools. 12 refs

  2. Distributed Networked Control System for Power Supply System of the Accelerator Based on Canopen Protocol

    Network based control system for a power supply unit of the linear accelerator was developed. Front-end level of the system is based on CAN fieldbus with CANopen and CANEX application level protocols. Both local and remote control foe each CANopen node is provided. Level 2 control stations of the system are ARM9 CPU based machines, operating under Linux OS

  3. Overview of the control system for the IFMIF/EVEDA accelerator

    The accelerator for Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity (EVEDA) of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) will produce 9 MeV/125 mA CW beam. The IFMIF/EVEDA accelerator consists of Injector, RFQ, the first section of SC HWR Linac, etc. The control system for the IFMIF/EVEDA accelerator consists of Personnel Protection System (PPS), Machine Protection System (MPS), Central Control System (CCS), Local Area Network (LAN), Timing System (TS) and Local Control System (LCS). The PPS, MPS, CCS, LAN and TS have been developed by JAEA, and the LCS has been charged by EU. For these JAEA tasks, the design scenario taking into account of radio-activation, the development status and the development schedule for each accelerator components (Injector, RFQ, SC HWR linac, RF system, etc.) are presented in details. (author)

  4. Initial investigation using statistical process control for quality control of accelerator beam steering

    Able Charles M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study seeks to increase clinical operational efficiency and accelerator beam consistency by retrospectively investigating the application of statistical process control (SPC to linear accelerator beam steering parameters to determine the utility of such a methodology in detecting changes prior to equipment failure (interlocks actuated. Methods Steering coil currents (SCC for the transverse and radial planes are set such that a reproducibly useful photon or electron beam is available. SCC are sampled and stored in the control console computer each day during the morning warm-up. The transverse and radial - positioning and angle SCC for photon beam energies were evaluated using average and range (Xbar-R process control charts (PCC. The weekly average and range values (subgroup n = 5 for each steering coil were used to develop the PCC. SCC from September 2009 (annual calibration until two weeks following a beam steering failure in June 2010 were evaluated. PCC limits were calculated using the first twenty subgroups. Appropriate action limits were developed using conventional SPC guidelines. Results PCC high-alarm action limit was set at 6 standard deviations from the mean. A value exceeding this limit would require beam scanning and evaluation by the physicist and engineer. Two low alarms were used to indicate negative trends. Alarms received following establishment of limits (week 20 are indicative of a non-random cause for deviation (Xbar chart and/or an uncontrolled process (R chart. Transverse angle SCC for 6 MV and 15 MV indicated a high-alarm 90 and 108 days prior to equipment failure respectively. A downward trend in this parameter continued, with high-alarm, until failure. Transverse position and radial angle SCC for 6 and 15 MV indicated low-alarms starting as early as 124 and 116 days prior to failure, respectively. Conclusion Radiotherapy clinical efficiency and accelerator beam consistency may be improved by

  5. Initial investigation using statistical process control for quality control of accelerator beam steering

    This study seeks to increase clinical operational efficiency and accelerator beam consistency by retrospectively investigating the application of statistical process control (SPC) to linear accelerator beam steering parameters to determine the utility of such a methodology in detecting changes prior to equipment failure (interlocks actuated). Steering coil currents (SCC) for the transverse and radial planes are set such that a reproducibly useful photon or electron beam is available. SCC are sampled and stored in the control console computer each day during the morning warm-up. The transverse and radial - positioning and angle SCC for photon beam energies were evaluated using average and range (Xbar-R) process control charts (PCC). The weekly average and range values (subgroup n = 5) for each steering coil were used to develop the PCC. SCC from September 2009 (annual calibration) until two weeks following a beam steering failure in June 2010 were evaluated. PCC limits were calculated using the first twenty subgroups. Appropriate action limits were developed using conventional SPC guidelines. PCC high-alarm action limit was set at 6 standard deviations from the mean. A value exceeding this limit would require beam scanning and evaluation by the physicist and engineer. Two low alarms were used to indicate negative trends. Alarms received following establishment of limits (week 20) are indicative of a non-random cause for deviation (Xbar chart) and/or an uncontrolled process (R chart). Transverse angle SCC for 6 MV and 15 MV indicated a high-alarm 90 and 108 days prior to equipment failure respectively. A downward trend in this parameter continued, with high-alarm, until failure. Transverse position and radial angle SCC for 6 and 15 MV indicated low-alarms starting as early as 124 and 116 days prior to failure, respectively. Radiotherapy clinical efficiency and accelerator beam consistency may be improved by instituting SPC methods to monitor the beam steering process

  6. Magnetically Controlled Optical Plasma Waveguide for Electron Acceleration

    Pollock, B B; Froula, D H; Tynan, G R; Divol, L; Davis, P; Palastro, J P; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

    2008-08-28

    In order to produce multi-Gev electrons from Laser Wakefield Accelerators, we present a technique to guide high power laser beams through underdense plasma. Experimental results from the Jupiter Laser Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that show density channels with minimum plasma densities below 5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} are presented. These results are obtained using an external magnetic field (<5 T) to limit the radial heat flux from a pre-forming laser beam. The resulting increased plasma pressure gradient produces a parabolic density gradient which is tunable by changing the external magnetic field strength. These results are compared with 1-D hydrodynamic simulations, while quasi-static kinetic simulations show that for these channel conditions 90% of the energy in a 150 TW short pulse beam is guided over 5 cm and predict electron energy gains of 3 GeV.

  7. The Ground Test Accelerator control system database: Configuration, run-time operation, and access

    A database is used to implement the interface between the control system and the accelerator and to provide flexibility in configuring the I/O. This flexibility is necessary to allow the control system to keep pace with the changing requirements that are inherent in an experimental environmental environment. This is not achieved without cost. Problems often associated with using databases are painful data entry, poor performance, and embedded knowledge of the database structure in code throughout the control system. This report describes how the database configuration, access, conversion, and execution in the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) Control System overcome these problems. 2 figs

  8. Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    Lehman, Tom [USC; Ghani, Nasir [UNM; Boyd, Eric [UCAID

    2010-08-31

    At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, Control plane software release, Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, Network Virtualization architecture, Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  9. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    Patrick O' Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests

  10. Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    Summerhill, Richard

    2009-08-14

    There were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing, o Simulation, o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  11. The Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) System Concept: Infrastructure for ISHM

    Gwaltney, David A.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) architectures for spacecraft will include hard real-time, critical subsystems and soft real-time monitoring subsystems. Interaction between these subsystems will be necessary and an architecture supporting multiple criticality levels will be required. Demonstration hardware for the Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication & Control (ISAACC) system has been developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. It is a modular system using a commercially available time-triggered protocol, ?Tp/C, that supports hard real-time distributed control systems independent of the data transmission medium. The protocol is implemented in hardware and provides guaranteed low-latency messaging with inherent fault-tolerance and fault-containment. Interoperability between modules and systems of modules using the TTP/C is guaranteed through definition of messages and the precise message schedule implemented by the master-less Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communications protocol. "Plug-and-play" capability for sensors and actuators provides automatically configurable modules supporting sensor recalibration and control algorithm re-tuning without software modification. Modular components of controlled physical system(s) critical to control algorithm tuning, such as pumps or valve components in an engine, can be replaced or upgraded as "plug and play" components without modification to the ISAACC module hardware or software. ISAACC modules can communicate with other vehicle subsystems through time-triggered protocols or other communications protocols implemented over Ethernet, MIL-STD- 1553 and RS-485/422. Other communication bus physical layers and protocols can be included as required. In this way, the ISAACC modules can be part of a system-of-systems in a vehicle with multi-tier subsystems of varying criticality. The goal of the ISAACC architecture development is control and monitoring of safety critical systems of a

  12. The CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] control system architecture

    The focus of this paper is on CEBAF's computer control system. This control system will utilize computers in a distributed, networked configuration. The architecture, networking and operating system of the computers, and preliminary performance data are presented. We will also discuss the design of the operator consoles and the interfacing between the computers and CEBAF's instrumentation and operating equipment

  13. Control of linear accelerator noise in the Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL)

    The Los Alamos FEL requires tight control of the amplitudes and phases of the fields in two linear accelerator tanks to obtain stable lasing. The accelerator control loops must establish constant, stable, repeatable amplitudes and phases of the rf fields and must have excellent bandwidth to control high-frequency noise components. A model of the feedback loops has been developed that agrees well with measurements and allows easy substitution of components and circuits, thus reducing breadboarding requirements. The model permits both frequency and time-domain analysis. This paper describes the accelerator control scheme and our model and discusses the control of noise in feedback loops, showing how low-frequency-noise components (errors) can be corrected, but high-frequency-noise components (errors) are actually amplified by the feedback circuit. Measurements of noise in both open- and closed-loop modes are shown and comparison is made with results from the model calculations

  14. Database Foundation For The Configuration Management Of The CERN Accelerator Controls Systems

    Zaharieva, Z; Peryt, M

    2011-01-01

    The Controls Configuration Database (CCDB) and its interfaces have been developed over the last 25 years in order to become nowadays the basis for the Configuration Management of the Controls System for all accelerators at CERN. The CCDB contains data for all configuration items and their relationships, required for the correct functioning of the Controls System. The configuration items are quite heterogeneous, depicting different areas of the Controls System – ranging from 3000 Front-End Computers, 75 000 software devices allowing remote control of the accelerators, to valid states of the Accelerators Timing System. The article will describe the different areas of the CCDB, their interdependencies and the challenges to establish the data model for such a diverse configuration management database, serving a multitude of clients. The CCDB tracks the life of the configuration items by allowing their clear identification, triggering of change management processes as well as providing status accounting and aud...

  15. Analyzing Non-Functional Capabilities of ICT Infrastructures Supporting Power System Wide Area Monitoring and Control

    Chenine, Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    The strain on modern electrical power systems has led to an ever-increasing utilization of new information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve their efficiency and reliability. Wide area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems offer many opportunities to improve the real-time situational awareness in the power system. These systems are essen-tially SCADA systems but with continuous streaming of measurement data from the power system. The quality of WAMC systems and the applications ...

  16. Design of an Integrated Role-Based Access Control Infrastructure for Adaptive Workflow Systems

    C Narendra, Nanjangud

    2003-01-01

    With increasing numbers of organizations automating their business processes by using workflow systems, security aspects of workflow systems has become a heavily researched area. Also, most workflow processes nowadays need to be adaptive, i.e., constantly changing, to meet changing business conditions. However, little attention has been paid to integrating Security and Adaptive Workflow. In this paper, we investigate this important research topic, with emphasis on Role Based Access Control (R...

  17. GENERATION AND CONTROL OF HIGH PRECISION BEAMS AT LEPTON ACCELERATORS

    Yu-Chiu Chao

    2007-06-25

    Parity violation experiments require precision manipulation of helicity-correlated beam coordinates on target at the nm/nrad-level. Achieving this unprecedented level of control requires a detailed understanding of the particle optics and careful tuning of the beam transport to keep anomalies from compromising the design adiabatic damping. Such efforts are often hindered by machine configuration and instrumentation limitations at the low energy end. A technique has been developed at CEBAF including high precision measurements, Mathematica-based analysis for obtaining corrective solutions, and control hardware/software developments for realizing such level of control at energies up to 5 GeV.

  18. A flexible graphic display system for accelerator control

    A flexible graphic display system for controlling the KEK Photon Factory storage ring has been developed. A VME computer locally controls the graphic display system and communicates with the host control computer through a RS-232C link. Graphic pictures are prepared in the local system by an interactive operation using either a tablet or a keyboard. The host control computer is free from any load due to graphics processing. In an on-line operation, pictures are displayed and modified by simple command strings from the host computer. A 'picture stack' method has been developed for this graphics system. The latest demanded picture always has top priority to be presented on each display monitor. Previous pictures are saved in a stack and can reappear when the current picture has been freed. (author)

  19. Instrumentation for diagnostics and control of laser-accelerated proton (ion) beams.

    Bolton, P R; Borghesi, M; Brenner, C; Carroll, D C; De Martinis, C; Fiorini, Francesca; Flacco, A; Floquet, V; Fuchs, J; Gallegos, P; Giove, D; Green, J S; Green, S; Jones, B; Kirby, D; McKenna, P; Neely, D; Nuesslin, F; Prasad, R; Reinhardt, S; Roth, M; Schramm, U; Scott, G G; Ter-Avetisyan, S; Tolley, M; Turchetti, G; Wilkens, J J

    2014-05-01

    Suitable instrumentation for laser-accelerated proton (ion) beams is critical for development of integrated, laser-driven ion accelerator systems. Instrumentation aimed at beam diagnostics and control must be applied to the driving laser pulse, the laser-plasma that forms at the target and the emergent proton (ion) bunch in a correlated way to develop these novel accelerators. This report is a brief overview of established diagnostic techniques and new developments based on material presented at the first workshop on 'Instrumentation for Diagnostics and Control of Laser-accelerated Proton (Ion) Beams' in Abingdon, UK. It includes radiochromic film (RCF), image plates (IP), micro-channel plates (MCP), Thomson spectrometers, prompt inline scintillators, time and space-resolved interferometry (TASRI) and nuclear activation schemes. Repetition-rated instrumentation requirements for target metrology are also addressed. PMID:24100298

  20. Medium Access Control for Thermal Energy Harvesting in Advanced Metering Infrastructures

    Vithanage, Madava D.; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Andersen, Claus Bo;

    2013-01-01

    the potential energy that can be harvested from Low Surface Temperature (LST) radiators. The experiments are based on a developed Energy-Harvesting Heat Cost Allocator (EH-HCA) prototype. On the basis of this measured power budget, we model and analytically compare the currently used Medium Access...... Control (MAC) scheme of an industrial case study (IMR+) to a MAC scheme specifically designed for energy harvesting systems (ODMAC). Our analytical comparison shows the efficiency of the latter, as well as its ability to adapt to harvested ambient energy....

  1. Strengthening national infrastructures for the control of radiation sources in Armenia

    The paper describes the work carried out in Armenia to establish and strengthen regulatory control over radiation sources, including the development of legislation and regulations, the establishment of a national registry of sources, and the development of licensing procedures and training programmes in the area of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources. The paper also describes the Regulatory Information System of ANRA, inventarization and licensing process of radiation sources, implementation of the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in Armenia. (author)

  2. Redundancy scheme for multi-layered accelerator control system

    The control system for SRS Indus-2 has three-layered architecture. There are VMEbus based stations at the lower two layers that are controlled by their respective CPU board. The 'Profibus' fieldbus standard is used for communication between these VME stations distributed in the field. There is a Profibus controller board at each station to implement the communication protocol. The mode of communication is master-slave (command-response) type. This paper proposes a scheme to implement redundancy at the lower two layers namely Layer-2 (Supervisory Layer / Profibus-master) and Layer-3 (Equipment Unit Interface Layer / Profibus-slave). The redundancy is for both the CPU and the communication board. The scheme uses two CPU boards and two Profi controller boards at each L-3 station. This helps in decreasing any downtime resulting either from CPU faults or communication board faults that are placed in the field area. Redundancy of Profi boards provides two active communication channels between the stations that can be used in different ways thereby increasing the availability on a communication link. Redundancy of CPU boards provides certain level of auto fault-recovery as one CPU remains active and the other CPU remains in standby mode, which takes over the control of VMEbus in case of any fault in the main CPU. (author)

  3. High Power RF Test of the Digital Feedback Control System for the PEFP Accelerator

    To control the RF field in the accelerating cavity for the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) proton accelerator, a digital feedback control system has been developed. The stability requirements of the RF field are ±1% in amplitude and ± .deg. in phase. The digital feedback control system is based on the commercial FPGA PMC board hosted in VME board. The analog front-end was also developed which contains the IQ modulator, RF mixer, attenuators etc. To check the performance of the digital feedback control system, low power test with a dummy cavity has been performed with an intentional perturbation and shown that the feedback system rejected the perturbation as expected. High power RF test with a klystron has been performed and an accelerating field profile was measured. In addition, the pulse-to-pulse stability was checked by pulse operation with 0.1 Hz repetition rate. The detailed high power test results will be given in this paper

  4. The control system of CERN accelerators vacuum (current status and recent improvements)

    The vacuum control system of most of the CERN accelerators is based on Siemens PLCs and on PVSS SCADA. After the transition from the LHC commissioning phase to its regular operation, there has been a number of additions and improvements to the vacuum control system. They were driven by new technical requirements and by feedback from the accelerator operators and vacuum specialists. New control functions have been implemented in the PLCs; new tools have been developed for the SCADA, while its ergonomic and navigation have been enhanced. (authors)

  5. Application of software and hardware components of can-technology for accelerator control

    CAN-technology was developed for embedded hard real time automotive applications. Software components of CAN-technology consist of high level application protocols, programs for testing, monitoring and configuring of CAN-nodes as well as the components which bind CAN-components with SCADA systems and ensure control through the WEB-browsers. CAN-technology is used in INP to control accelerators, for beam diagnostic and, in cooperation with the RRC Kurchatov Institute, in automation of the large neutrino detector Borexino. Long-term positive experience of CAN-technology usage allows us to recommend this technology for accelerator control especially if industrial style and compatibility is desired

  6. The Control System of CERN Accelerators Vacuum (Current Status and Recent Improvements)

    Gomes, P; Blanchard, S; Boccioli, M; Girardot, G; Vestergard, H; Kopylov, L; Mikheev, M

    2011-01-01

    The vacuum control system of most of the CERN accelerators is based on Siemens PLCs and on PVSS SCADA. After the transition from the LHC commissioning phase to its regular operation, there has been a number of additions and improvements to the vacuum control system. They were driven by new technical requirements and by feedback from the accelerator operators and vacuum specialists. New control functions have been implemented in the PLCs; new tools have been developed for the SCADA, while its ergonomics and navigation have been enhanced.

  7. Program-adapted system for control of accelerators for national economy

    To unify control, interlocking and signalling systems (CIS) for accelerators of applied purporses results of CIS tests and checking of its algorithmic principles are given. A logic unit of CIS is made on the base of a specialized computing system. Control of accelerator systems were carried out on a special small-sized panel in the form of monocircuit. Realized apparatus part and fast response of controlling device have determined the following restrictions in a volume of processed data: quantity of binary data transducers-128, quantity of binary executive elements-32, quantity of program commands in mass memory-600, mean time of data processingf - 2s

  8. The Landscape Evolution Observatory: a large-scale controllable infrastructure to study coupled Earth-surface processes

    Pangle, Luke A.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Abramson, Nate; Adams, John; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Breshears, David D.; Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Dietrich, William E.; Dontsova, Katerina; Durcik, Matej; Espeleta, Javier; Ferre, T. P. A.; Ferriere, Regis; Henderson, Whitney; Hunt, Edward A.; Huxman, Travis E.; Millar, David; Murphy, Brendan; Niu, Guo-Yue; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Pelletier, Jon D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Ruiz, Joaquin; Saleska, Scott; Schaap, Marcel; Sibayan, Michael; Troch, Peter A.; Tuller, Markus; van Haren, Joost; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-01-01

    Zero-order drainage basins, and their constituent hillslopes, are the fundamental geomorphic unit comprising much of Earth's uplands. The convergent topography of these landscapes generates spatially variable substrate and moisture content, facilitating biological diversity and influencing how the landscape filters precipitation and sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide. In light of these significant ecosystem services, refining our understanding of how these functions are affected by landscape evolution, weather variability, and long-term climate change is imperative. In this paper we introduce the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO): a large-scale controllable infrastructure consisting of three replicated artificial landscapes (each 330 m2 surface area) within the climate-controlled Biosphere 2 facility in Arizona, USA. At LEO, experimental manipulation of rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed are possible at unprecedented scale. The Landscape Evolution Observatory was designed as a community resource to advance understanding of how topography, physical and chemical properties of soil, and biological communities coevolve, and how this coevolution affects water, carbon, and energy cycles at multiple spatial scales. With well-defined boundary conditions and an extensive network of sensors and samplers, LEO enables an iterative scientific approach that includes numerical model development and virtual experimentation, physical experimentation, data analysis, and model refinement. We plan to engage the broader scientific community through public dissemination of data from LEO, collaborative experimental design, and community-based model development.

  9. The Landscape Evolution Observatory: A large-scale controllable infrastructure to study coupled Earth-surface processes

    Pangle, Luke A.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Abramson, Nate; Adams, John; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Breshears, David D.; Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Dietrich, William E.; Dontsova, Katerina; Durcik, Matej; Espeleta, Javier; Ferre, T. P. A.; Ferriere, Regis; Henderson, Whitney; Hunt, Edward A.; Huxman, Travis E.; Millar, David; Murphy, Brendan; Niu, Guo-Yue; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Pelletier, Jon D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Ruiz, Joaquin; Saleska, Scott; Schaap, Marcel; Sibayan, Michael; Troch, Peter A.; Tuller, Markus; van Haren, Joost; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-09-01

    Zero-order drainage basins, and their constituent hillslopes, are the fundamental geomorphic unit comprising much of Earth's uplands. The convergent topography of these landscapes generates spatially variable substrate and moisture content, facilitating biological diversity and influencing how the landscape filters precipitation and sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide. In light of these significant ecosystem services, refining our understanding of how these functions are affected by landscape evolution, weather variability, and long-term climate change is imperative. In this paper we introduce the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO): a large-scale controllable infrastructure consisting of three replicated artificial landscapes (each 330 m2 surface area) within the climate-controlled Biosphere 2 facility in Arizona, USA. At LEO, experimental manipulation of rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed are possible at unprecedented scale. The Landscape Evolution Observatory was designed as a community resource to advance understanding of how topography, physical and chemical properties of soil, and biological communities coevolve, and how this coevolution affects water, carbon, and energy cycles at multiple spatial scales. With well-defined boundary conditions and an extensive network of sensors and samplers, LEO enables an iterative scientific approach that includes numerical model development and virtual experimentation, physical experimentation, data analysis, and model refinement. We plan to engage the broader scientific community through public dissemination of data from LEO, collaborative experimental design, and community-based model development.

  10. Phase and amplitude control system for Stanford Linear Accelerator

    The computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 micro-second 2856 MHz rf pulse at a 180 Hz rate. This will be used for phase feedback control, and also for phase and amplitude jitter measurement. The program, which was originally written by John Fox and Keith Jobe, has been modified to improve the function of the system. The software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system

  11. On-line system for control of vacuum pump stations of an accelerating complex

    On-line system for control of vacuum pump stations of the heavy ion accelerator is described. Block diagram of hardware part of the system is considered and main functions of software are described. ELEKTRONIKA MS-0507 microcomputer is used for control. The developed system of control is oriented to CAMAC, VECTOR standards and it allows to use microcomputer of another type at application of the respective controller

  12. Non-linear stochastic optimal control of acceleration parametrically excited systems

    Wang, Yong; Jin, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhilong

    2016-02-01

    Acceleration parametrical excitations have not been taken into account due to the lack of physical significance in macroscopic structures. The explosive development of microtechnology and nanotechnology, however, motivates the investigation of the acceleration parametrically excited systems. The adsorption and desorption effects dramatically change the mass of nano-sized structures, which significantly reduces the precision of nanoscale sensors or can be reasonably utilised to detect molecular mass. This manuscript proposes a non-linear stochastic optimal control strategy for stochastic systems with acceleration parametric excitation based on stochastic averaging of energy envelope and stochastic dynamic programming principle. System acceleration is approximately expressed as a function of system displacement in a short time range under the conditions of light damping and weak excitations, and the acceleration parametrically excited system is shown to be equivalent to a constructed system with an additional displacement parametric excitation term. Then, the controlled system is converted into a partially averaged Itô equation with respect to the total system energy through stochastic averaging of energy envelope, and the optimal control strategy for the averaged system is derived from solving the associated dynamic programming equation. Numerical results for a controlled Duffing oscillator indicate the efficacy of the proposed control strategy.

  13. Equipment for controlling test benches charged particle accelerator pulse power supply systems

    Composition of the off-line and manual control device system designed for experimental testing the pulse supply systems of charged particle accelereators is considered. The system includes following devices: a manual remote control desk, a sysnchronization device with fibre-optical commutation programmed pulse shape generator digital sources of reference voltage. Performances of all these devices are presented. 1 ref

  14. An interface from LabVIEW to the accelerator controls NETwork

    An interface from the graphical programming language LabVIEW to the Fermilab control system has been created according to the Accelerator Controls NETwork (Acnet) protocol. Using LabVIEW's signal processing capabilities in combination with the VXI crate, a powerful and user-friendly instrumentation platform is made accessible

  15. Controlling friction-induced instability by recursive time-delayed acceleration feedback

    Chatterjee, S.; Mahata, P.

    2009-11-01

    A novel time-delayed acceleration feedback method of controlling friction-induced instability is proposed. A single degree-of-freedom mechanical oscillator on a moving belt represents the basic friction-driven system. The control force is synthesized based on an infinite weighted sum of the acceleration of the vibrating mass measured at regular intervals in the past. Such a control force can be effectively produced by the recursive summation of the time-delayed acceleration and the time-delayed control signal, and hence the technique is termed as the recursive time-delayed acceleration feedback control. The local stability analysis of the equilibrium reveals nontrivial and beneficial influences of the recursive gain on the system performance. Robustness of the control is shown to improve with the increasing value of the recursive gain. A multiple time scale based analysis of the system elucidates the role of the recursive gain in enhancing the amount of dissipation produced by the control action. The influences of the time-delay and the control gain on the optimized performance of the system are also discussed. Numerical simulations of the system equations corroborate the analytical results. The present method is believed to be applicable to any self-excited system having a large degree of instability that is not removable by an ordinary time-delayed feedback.

  16. Optimizing a mobile robot control system using GPU acceleration

    Tuck, Nat; McGuinness, Michael; Martin, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes our attempt to optimize a robot control program for the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) by running computationally intensive portions of the system on a commodity graphics processing unit (GPU). The IGVC Autonomous Challenge requires a control program that performs a number of different computationally intensive tasks ranging from computer vision to path planning. For the 2011 competition our Robot Operating System (ROS) based control system would not run comfortably on the multicore CPU on our custom robot platform. The process of profiling the ROS control program and selecting appropriate modules for porting to run on a GPU is described. A GPU-targeting compiler, Bacon, is used to speed up development and help optimize the ported modules. The impact of the ported modules on overall performance is discussed. We conclude that GPU optimization can free a significant amount of CPU resources with minimal effort for expensive user-written code, but that replacing heavily-optimized library functions is more difficult, and a much less efficient use of time.

  17. Implementing portable channel access server software in the KEKB accelerator control system

    KEKB (KEK B-factory) accelerators are under construction and the control computer system for them is also in the last phase of installation. KEKB accelerators are composed of two storage rings, namely, HER (High Energy Ring for electrons of 8 GeV) and LER (Low Energy Ring for positrons of 3.5 GeV). These rings are placed in the underground tunnel in which former TRISTAN electron-positron colliding accelerator was. We have been constructing control system for KEKB from the scratch based on EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Systems). But, for the injector linac, its control computer system was rejuvenated just a few years ago and it is not an EPICS based system but an original one. To operate KEKB accelerators, tuning of the linac as the injector for the KEKB rings is thought to be very essential. Ideally, KEKB control system can control both KEKB rings and linac. And both operators at linac control room and at KEKB control room should be able to monitor and adjust equipment of the other accelerators. For that purpose, we have to develop suitable method in between two systems to communicate with each other. In the EPICS collaborations, there is a Portable CA (Channel Access) Server for EPICS developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for SUN workstations. We decided to modify it for our purposes and have been implementing it to KEKB control system step by step. And now, we can monitor and set magnetic field of Q-magnets in the linac, control beam transport magnets in the linac beam line, control klystrons, and measure beam positions by strip-line monitors through EPICS. In the near future, other equipment of the linac will be added to the CA server before the commissioning of the KEKB rings. (author)

  18. Research on cubic polynomial acceleration and deceleration control model for high speed NC machining

    Hong-bin LENG; Yi-jie WU; Xiao-hong PAN

    2008-01-01

    To satisfy the need of high speed NC (numerical control) machining, an acceleration and deceleration (aec/dec) control model is proposed, and the speed curve is also constructed by the cubic polynomial. The proposed control model provides continuity of acceleration, which avoids the intense vibration in high speed NC machining. Based on the discrete characteristic of the data sampling interpolation, the acc/dec control discrete mathematical model is also set up and the discrete expression of the theoretical deceleration length is obtained furthermore. Aiming at the question of hardly predetermining the deceleration point in acc/dec control before interpolation, the adaptive acc/dec control algorithm is deduced from the expressions of the theoretical deceleration length. The experimental result proves that the acc/dec control model has the characteristic of easy implementation, stable movement and low impact. The model has been applied in multi-axes high speed micro fabrication machining successfully.

  19. Database foundation for the configuration management of the CERN accelerator controls systems

    The Controls Configuration Database (CCDB) and its interfaces have been developed over the last 25 years in order to become nowadays the basis for the Configuration Management of the Control System for all accelerators at CERN. The CCDB contains data for all configuration items and their relationships, required for the correct functioning of the Control System. The configuration items are quite heterogeneous, depicting different areas of the Control System - ranging from 3000 Front-End Computers, 75000 software devices allowing remote control of the accelerators, to valid states of the Accelerators Timing System. The article will describe the different areas of the CCDB, their inter-dependencies and the challenges to establish the data model for such a diverse configuration management database, serving a multitude of clients. The CCDB tracks the life of the configuration items by allowing their clear identification, triggering of change management processes as well as providing status accounting and audits. This required the development and implementation of a combination of tailored processes and tools. The Controls System is a data-driven one - the data stored in the CCDB is extracted and propagated to the controls hardware in order to configure it remotely. Therefore a special attention is placed on data security and data integrity as an incorrectly configured item can have a direct impact on the operation of the accelerators. (authors)

  20. Modern approaches to accelerator simulation and on-line control

    COMFORT-PLUS consists of three parts: (1) COMFORT (Control Of Machine Function, ORbits, and Trajectories), which computes the machine lattice functions and transport matrices along a beamline; (2) PLUS (Prediction from Lattice Using Simulation) which finds or compensates for errors in the beam parameters or machine elements; and (3) a highly graphical interface to PLUS. The COMFORT-PLUS package has been developed on a SUN-3 workstation. The structure and use of COMFORT-PLUS are described, and an example of the use of the package is presented

  1. Artificial intelligence research in particle accelerator control systems for beam line tuning

    Pieck, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Tuning particle accelerators is time consuming and expensive, with a number of inherently non-linear interactions between system components. Conventional control methods have not been successful in this domain and the result is constant and expensive monitoring of the systems by human operators. This is particularly true for the start-up and conditioning phase after a maintenance period or an unexpected fault. In turn, this often requires a step-by-step restart of the accelerator. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to apply intelligent accelerator control techniques to help with beam tuning, fault detection, and fault recovery problems. The reason for that might be that accelerator facilities are rare and difficult to understand systems that require detailed expert knowledge about the underlying physics as well as months if not years of experience to understand the relationship between individual components, particularly if they are geographically disjoint. This paper will give an overview about the research effort in the accelerator community that has been dedicated to the use of artificial intelligence methods for accelerator beam line tuning.

  2. Status of the Advanced Photon Source and its accelerator control system

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), its control system and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) tools being used to implement this control system. The status of the physical plant and each of the accelerators as well as detailed descriptions of the software tools used to build the accelerator control system are presented. The control system uses high-performance graphic workstations and the X-windows graphical user interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high-performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities

  3. Automatic Control System of Ion Electrostatic Accelerator and Anti-Interference Measures

    An automatic control system for the electrostatic accelerator has been developed by adopting the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control technique, infrared and optical-fibre transmission technique and network communication with the purpose to improve the intelligence level of the accelerator and to enhance the ability of monitoring, collecting and recording parameters. In view of the control system' structure, some anti-interference measures have been adopted after analyzing the interference sources. The measures in hardware include controlling the position of the corona needle, using surge arresters, shielding, ground connection and stabilizing the voltage. The measures in terms of software involve inter-blocking protection, soft-spacing, time delay, and diagnostic and protective programs. The electromagnetic compatible ability of the control system has thus been effectively improved

  4. POPS: the 60MW power converter for the PS accelerator: Control strategy and performances

    Boattini, Fulvio; Skawinski, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The main power supply of Proton-Synchrotron (PS) accelerator is one of the biggest at CERN. The old rotating machine system has been replaced with a new NPC based DC/DC power supply named POPS (Power system for PS main magnets) with capacitor banks as energy storage mean. POPS is in operation since February 2011. The operation of the PS accelerator requires a specific design of the control system with very high performance requirements in term of accuracy and precision. This paper describes the main lines of the control strategies analyzing the problems encountered and the solutions adopted. The performances of the converter are presented throughout the paper.

  5. Tools for man-machine interface development in accelerator control applications

    For the UNK Project a development of the Accelerator Control Applications is in the progress. These applications will use a specific Graphical User Interface for data presentation and accelerator parameter management. A number of tools have been developed based on the Motif Tool Kit. They contain a set of problem oriented screen templates and libraries. Using these tools, full scale prototype applications of the UNK Tune and Orbit measurement and correction were developed and are described, as examples. A subset of these allows the creation of the synoptic control screens from the Autocad pictures files and Oracle DB equipment descriptions. The basic concepts and a few application examples are presented. ((orig.))

  6. Hamiltonian control used to improve the beam stability in particle accelerator models

    Boreux, J; Carletti, T.; Skokos, Ch.; Vittot, M

    2012-01-01

    We develop a Hamiltonian control theory suitable for a 4D symplectic map that models a ring particle accelerator composed of elements with sextupole nonlinearity. The controlled system is designed to exhibit a more regular orbital behavior than the uncontrolled one. Using the Smaller Alignement Index (SALI) chaos indicator, we are able to show that the controlled system has a dynamical aperture up to 1.7 times larger than the original model.

  7. Improving beam stability in particle accelerator models by using Hamiltonian control

    Boreux, J; Carletti, T.; Skokos, Ch.; Vittot, M

    2010-01-01

    We derive a Hamiltonian control theory which can be applied to a 4D symplectic map that models a ring particle accelerator composed of elements with sextupole nonlinearity. The controlled system is designed to exhibit a more regular orbital behavior than the uncontrolled one. Using the Smaller Alignement Index (SALI) chaos indicator, we are able to show that the controlled system has a dynamical aperture up to 1.7 times larger than the original mode

  8. Industrial infrastructure

    A substantial prerequisite for an increase of the domestic participation is the existence of an ''industrial infrastructure''. As long as a structure such as that described in this paper does not exist, domestic industry participation will continue to be confined to the assembly of components, while most of the supplies (materials, accessory parts) would have to be imported. The scope and set-up of the ''industrial infrastructure'' will be determined by a study of the required capacity and organization, which has to be prepared at a very early stage (second phase of an envisaged transfer of technology), and which will be included within the scope of a nuclear programme. Experience has shown that the different state institutes, the universities, private industry and the State companies work independently without any co-ordination of their activities. By the assignment of tasks, after taking into account existing conditions, an infrastructure can be built up which can be developed more intensively in the different fields co-operating with the institutes of the partner country. In the past good co-ordination of the different activities by an experienced partner has turned out to be absolutely necessary. This, too, presents the opportunity of co-operation with the main contractor who has extensive experience in constructing nuclear power plants. In the course of time, this co-ordination function can be transferred to a specially qualified domestic institute or company, which will undertake further development and co-ordination. (author)

  9. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    Patrick O' Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests

  10. Phase control and intra-pulse phase compensation of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    Rf power for the APS linear accelerator is provided by five klystrons, each of which feeds one linac ''sector,'' containing accelerating structures and SLED cavities. A VXI-based subsystem measures the phase of each sector of the linac with respect to a thermally stabilized reference line. The resulting information is used to control a linearized varactor phase shifter. Error correction is done by software, using operator-controllable parameters. A second phase shifter provides an intra-pulse correction to the phase of the klystron drive pulse. When the intra-pulse correction is applied, the resulting phase is flat to within 0.5 degrees after 2.5 μsec. A second correction, made after the PSK trigger to the SLED and during the filling of the accelerating structures, resulted in an energy gain of 5 MeV from a single sector

  11. VME control system for synchrotrons of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    Beam of accelerated ions such as carbon, neon, argon etc., is called heavy ion beam. When heavy ion beam irradiates a human body, its interaction with tissues becomes strong sharply at the certain depth which is determined by its energy. Heavy ion is expected to be very effective and suitable radiotherapy tool because it can hit a deep-seated cancer while a damage to normal organs along the path will be minimal. HIMAC(Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba), now under construction in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, is the first accelerator facility that is dedicated to heavy ion radiotherapy in the world. This paper describes about Timing System and Magnet Power Supply Control System of HIMAC synchrotron. These are among VME-based control systems, of which Hitachi Zosen Corp. is in charge, under subcontract through Hitachi Ltd. (author)

  12. A Relational Database Model for Managing Accelerator Control System Software at Jefferson Lab

    The operations software group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility faces a number of challenges common to facilities which manage a large body of software developed in-house. Developers include members of the software group, operators, hardware engineers and accelerator physicists.One management problem has been ensuring that all software has an identified owner who is still working at the lab. In some cases, locating source code for ''orphaned'' software has also proven to be difficult. Other challenges include ensuring that working versions of all operational software are available, testing changes to operational software without impacting operations, upgrading infrastructure software (OS, compilers, interpreters, commercial packages, share/freeware, etc), ensuring that appropriate documentation is available and up to date, underutilization of code reuse, input/output file management,and determining what other software will break if a software package is upgraded. This paper will describe a relational database model which has been developed to track this type of information and make it available to managers and developers.The model also provides a foundation for developing productivity-enhancing tools for automated building, versioning, and installation of software. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE contract No. DE-AC05-84ER40150

  13. Accelerated aging and controlled deterioration for the determination of the physiological potential of onion seeds

    Rodo Angelica Brod

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available International research on vegetable seed vigor is not at the same level attained for grain crops species. This study was conducted to identify reliable procedures for the accelerated aging and controlled deterioration tests to rank onion (Allium cepa L. seed lots according to their physiological potential. Six seed lots of the cultivars Aurora and Petroline were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, first count, seedling vigor classification, traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h, controlled deterioration (24% of water / 45masculineC / 24 h and seedling emergence tests. Seed moisture content after the saturated salt accelerated aging test was lower and uniform, which is considered an important advantage in comparison to the traditional procedure. The saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h and controlled deterioration (moisture content adjusted to 24% / 45masculineC / 24 h tests were the best procedures to assess the physiological potential of onion seeds, and are indicated for use in quality control programs.

  14. EPICS on F3RP61 for SuperKEKB accelerator control

    Control systems of modern accelerators tend to adopt Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) as their front-end controllers. This means that, as to control system based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), yet another front-end controllers (PLCs) have been placed under the Input/output Controllers (IOCs), which are supposed to function as front-end controllers. The doubled layers of front-end controllers, i.e. PLCs and IOCs makes the control system pointlessly complex in many cases. It also increases the cost for implementation and maintenance of application programs. Recently, PLC's CPUs that can execute real-time OS have become available on the market. It opened a way to consolidate a PLC and an IOC into a new type of front-end controller. In particular, F3RP61 CPU adopted Linux for its OS to allow developers to reduce turnaround time for the implementation and debugging of the application programs. The PLC-based IOC, EPICS on F3RP61, have been adopted to control many subsystems of SuperKEKB accelerator. This paper describes several applications as well as basic performance of EPICS on F3RP61. (author)

  15. Infrastructure Development

    Williams, Idongesit

    2012-01-01

    It is the quest of every government to achieve universal Access and service of telecommunication services and ICTs. Unfortunately due to the high cost of deploying infrastructure in rural areas of developing countries due to non-significant or no economic activity, this dream of achieving Universal...... access and service of telecommunications/ICTs have been stalled. This paper throws light on a possible Public Private Partnership framework as a development path that will enable affordable network technologies to be deployed in rural areas at a cost that will translate to what the rural dweller...... in a developing country in Africa can afford. The paper is a conceptual paper...

  16. A novel beam focus control at the entrance to the ANU 14UD accelerator

    Tandem electrostatic accelerators often require the flexibility to operate at variety of terminal voltages to cater for various user needs. However beam transmission will only be optimal for a limited range of terminal voltages. This paper describes a focussing system that greatly expands the range of terminal voltages for optimal transmission. This is achieved by controlling the gradient of the entrance of the low-energy tube providing an additional controllable focusing element. Up to 150 kV is applied to the fifth electrode of the first unit of the accelerator tube giving control of the tube entrance lens strength. Beam tests to confirm the efficacy of the lens have been performed. These tests demonstrate that the entrance lens control eliminates the need to short out sections of the tube for low terminal voltage operation. (authors)

  17. A novel beam focus control at the entrance to the ANU 14UD accelerator

    De Cesare M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tandem electrostatic accelerators often require the flexibility to operate at variety of terminal voltages to cater for various user needs. However beam transmission will only be optimal for a limited range of terminal voltages. This paper describes a focussing system that greatly expands the range of terminal voltages for optimal transmission. This is achieved by controlling the gradient of the entrance of the low-energy tube providing an additional controllable focusing element. Up to 150 kV is applied to the fifth electrode of the first unit of the accelerator tube giving control of the tube entrance lens strength. Beam tests to confirm the efficacy of the lens have been performed. These tests demonstrate that the entrance lens control eliminates the need to short out sections of the tube for low terminal voltage operation.

  18. A novel beam focus control at the entrance to the ANU 14UD accelerator

    De Cesare, M.; Weisser, D. C.; Fifield, L. K.; Tunningley, T. B.; Lobanov, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Tandem electrostatic accelerators often require the flexibility to operate at variety of terminal voltages to cater for various user needs. However beam transmission will only be optimal for a limited range of terminal voltages. This paper describes a focussing system that greatly expands the range of terminal voltages for optimal transmission. This is achieved by controlling the gradient of the entrance of the low-energy tube providing an additional controllable focusing element. Up to 150 kV is applied to the fifth electrode of the first unit of the accelerator tube giving control of the tube entrance lens strength. Beam tests to confirm the efficacy of the lens have been performed. These tests demonstrate that the entrance lens control eliminates the need to short out sections of the tube for low terminal voltage operation.

  19. Particle accelerator control and data acquisition in the context of VAX/VMS

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) Control System monitors and controls a linear accelerator through more than 10,000 widely disparate I/O devices. The heart of the Control System software is the Data System, which provides a uniform application program interface based on symbolic device names. In many ways the Data System parallels the VAX/VMS Record Management Services (RMS) in its needs for asynchronous operations, protection, and locks for multiprocess interactions. Since the accelerator control hardware is continually changing, it is important that privileged code be kept to a minimum or be testable in a non-privileged environment. This paper describes the LAMPF Data System design including the use of VAX/VMS user written system services (both kernel and supervisor mode), a user supplied image rundown routine, the VAX/VMS lock manager, and a large (3.5 Mbyte) protected global section

  20. Coiled-coil protein composition of 22 proteomes – differences and common themes in subcellular infrastructure and traffic control

    Meier Iris

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long alpha-helical coiled-coil proteins are involved in diverse organizational and regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells. They provide cables and networks in the cyto- and nucleoskeleton, molecular scaffolds that organize membrane systems and tissues, motors, levers, rotating arms, and possibly springs. Mutations in long coiled-coil proteins have been implemented in a growing number of human diseases. Using the coiled-coil prediction program MultiCoil, we have previously identified all long coiled-coil proteins from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and have established a searchable Arabidopsis coiled-coil protein database. Results Here, we have identified all proteins with long coiled-coil domains from 21 additional fully sequenced genomes. Because regions predicted to form coiled-coils interfere with sequence homology determination, we have developed a sequence comparison and clustering strategy based on masking predicted coiled-coil domains. Comparing and grouping all long coiled-coil proteins from 22 genomes, the kingdom-specificity of coiled-coil protein families was determined. At the same time, a number of proteins with unknown function could be grouped with already characterized proteins from other organisms. Conclusion MultiCoil predicts proteins with extended coiled-coil domains (more than 250 amino acids to be largely absent from bacterial genomes, but present in archaea and eukaryotes. The structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins and their relatives are the only long coiled-coil protein family clearly conserved throughout all kingdoms, indicating their ancient nature. Motor proteins, membrane tethering and vesicle transport proteins are the dominant eukaryote-specific long coiled-coil proteins, suggesting that coiled-coil proteins have gained functions in the increasingly complex processes of subcellular infrastructure maintenance and trafficking control of the eukaryotic cell.

  1. The distributed control system of Shanghai mini-cyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer (SMCAMS)

    It is mainly introduced the composition, structure, hardware and software designing, function, and the method of communication between the host computer and the ADAM modules of the distributed control system on Shanghai Mini-cyclotron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (SMCAMS). Some detail problems such as controlling the devices staying on high voltage by ADAM-4541 (RS-485 to Fiber Optic Convertor) and optical fiber are also introduced

  2. Build and Release Management: Supporting development of accelerator control software at CERN

    Enes, Petter

    2007-01-01

    Software configuration management deals with control of the evolution of complex computer systems. The ability to handle changes, corrections and extensions is decisive for the outcome of a software project. Automated processes for handling these elements are therefore a crucial part of software development. This thesis focuses on build and release management, in the context of developing a control system for the world s biggest particle accelerator. Build and release cover topics such as bui...

  3. Stabilization of Gyrotron Frequency by PID Feedback Control on the Acceleration Voltage

    Khutoryan, E. M.; Idehara, T.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

    2015-12-01

    The results of frequency stabilization by proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback control of acceleration voltage in the 460-GHz Gyrotron FU CW GVI (the official name in Osaka University is Gyrotron FU CW GOI) are presented. The experiment was organized on the basis of the frequency modulation by modulation of acceleration voltage of beam electrons. The frequency stabilization during 10 h experiment was better than 10-6, which is compared with the results of the frequency deviation in free-running gyrotron operation.

  4. Design and status of the SuperKEKB accelerator control network system

    We have upgraded the accelerator control network system for SuperKEKB, the next generation B-factory experiment in Japan. The new network system has the higher performance based on the wider bandwidth data transfer, and more reliable and redundant network configuration. We have changed the network configuration on the connection of the KEK laboratory network to enhance the network security. We also introduced the VLAN segmentation into the new network system. For the SuperKEKB construction, the new wireless network system has installed into the whole 3 km circumference accelerator tunnel. (author)

  5. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Endo, S.; Ukawa, H. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K.; Kitagawa, A. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Complex Event Processing Approach To Automated Monitoring Of Particle Accelerator And Its Control System

    Karol Grzegorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and implementation of a software component for automated monitoring and diagnostic information analysis of a particle accelerator and its control system. The information that is analyzed can be seen as streams of events. A Complex Event Processing (CEP approach to event processing was selected. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to continuously query data coming from several streams. The presented software component is based on Esper, the most popular open-source implementation of CEP. As a test bed, the control system of the accelerator complex located at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, was chosen. The complex includes the Large Hadron Collider, the world’s most powerful accelerator. The main contribution to knowledge is by showing that the CEP approach can successfully address many of the challenges associated with automated monitoring of the accelerator and its control system that were previously unsolved. Test results, performance analysis, and a proposal for further works are also presented.

  7. The evolution of tooling, techniques, and quality control for accelerator dipole magnet cables

    The present generation of particle accelerators are utilizing the flattened, compacted, single layer cable design introduced nearly 20 years ago at Rutherford Laboratory. However, the requirements for current density, filament size, dimensional control long lengths, and low current degradation are much more stringent for the present accelerators compared with the earlier Tevatron and HERA accelerators. Also, in order to achieve higher field strengths with efficient use of superconductor, the new designs require wider cables with more strands. These requirements have stimulated an active research effort which has led to significant improvements in critical current density and conductor manufacturing. In addition they have stimulated the development of new cabling techniques, improved tooling, and better measurement techniques. The need to produce over 20 million meters of cable has led to the development of high speed cabling machines and on-line quality assurance measurements. These new developments will be discussed, and areas still requiring improvement will be identified

  8. Multichannel computerized control system of current pulses in LIU-30 electron accelerator

    In LIU-30 power linear pulsed induction electron accelerator (40 MeV, 10 kA, 25 ns) 288 radial lines with water insulation serve as energy accumulators and shapers of accelerating voltage pulses. The lines are charged simultaneously up to 500 kV using a system comprising 72 Arkadiev-Marx screened generators. To control parameter of synchronous pulses of charging current with up to 60 kA amplitude and 0.85 μs duration in every of 72 charging circuits one applies a computer-aided system. Current pulse is recorded at output of every generator using the Rogowski coil signal from which via a cable line is transmitted to an analog-digital converter, is processed with 50 ns sampling and is recorded to a memory unit. Upon actuation of accelerator the signals are sequentially or selectively displayed and are compared with pulse typical shape

  9. Multichannel computerized control system of current pulses in LIU-30 electron accelerator

    Gerasimov, A I; Kulgavchuk, V V; Pluzhnikov, A V

    2002-01-01

    In LIU-30 power linear pulsed induction electron accelerator (40 MeV, 10 kA, 25 ns) 288 radial lines with water insulation serve as energy accumulators and shapers of accelerating voltage pulses. The lines are charged simultaneously up to 500 kV using a system comprising 72 Arkadiev-Marx screened generators. To control parameter of synchronous pulses of charging current with up to 60 kA amplitude and 0.85 mu s duration in every of 72 charging circuits one applies a computer-aided system. Current pulse is recorded at output of every generator using the Rogowski coil signal from which via a cable line is transmitted to an analog-digital converter, is processed with 50 ns sampling and is recorded to a memory unit. Upon actuation of accelerator the signals are sequentially or selectively displayed and are compared with pulse typical shape

  10. Power supply and control system of the gun for an electron pulse high-current accelerator

    The control and supply system is described intended for a gun of the EhLIT-L high-current pulsed electron accelerator. The accelerator parameters are as follows: electron energy of 500 KeV, current of 600 A, accelerating voltage semiwave duration of 15 μs, current pulse duration of 0.5 μs, pulse frequency of 5 Hz, max. The required parameters of the master pulse are: voltage of 0 to 60 kV; current up to 200 A; pulse duration of 500 ns; edge duration below 70 ns; amplitude instability +-5%; pulse frequency of 10 Hz, max.; the filament power drain of the gun is 1500 W

  11. Design, construction and installation of the electromechanical components of the current control of filament of the Pelletron Electron Accelerator

    For the operation of the Pelletron electron accelerator is required to have control of the filament current. For it was designed, built and installed an electromechanical system located in the Acceleration Unit inside the Accelerator tank and operated from the Control console. All the components located inside the tank operated under the following conditions: Pressure: until 7.03 Kg/cm2; High voltage: 106 V (only the insulating arrow); Atmosphere: mixture of N2 and CO2 or SF6. (Author)

  12. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    Mare Lõhmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  13. The Los Alamos accelerator control system data base: A generic instrumentation interface

    Controlling experimental-physics applications requires a control system that can be quickly integrated and easily modified. One aspect of the control system is the interface to the instrumentation. An instrumentation set has been chosen to implement the basic functions needed to monitor and control these applications. A data-driven interface to this instrumentation set provides the required quick integration of the control system. This type of interface is limited by its built-in capabilities. Therefore, these capabilities must provide an adequate range of functions to be of any use. The data-driven interface must support the instrumentation range requird, the events on which to read or control the instrumentation and a method for manipulating the data to calculate terms or close control loops. The database for the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System addresses these requirements. (orig.)

  14. Building a Modular Authorization Infrastructure

    Chadwick, David W; Zhao, Gansen; Otenko, Sassa; LABORDE, Romain; Su, Linying; Nguyen, Tuan Anh

    2006-01-01

    Authorization infrastructures manage privileges and render access control decisions, allowing applications to adjust their behavior according to the privileges allocated to users. This paper describes the PERMIS role based authorization infrastructure along with its conceptual authorisation, access control, and trust models. PERMIS has the novel concept of a credential validation service, which verifies a user’s credentials prior to access control decision making and enables ...

  15. PERMIS: a modular authorization infrastructure

    Chadwick, David W; Zhao, Gansen; Otenko, Sassa; LABORDE, Romain; Su, Linying; Nguyen, Tuan Anh

    2008-01-01

    Authorization infrastructures manage privileges and render access control decisions, allowing applications to adjust their behavior according to the privileges allocated to users. This paper describes the PERMIS role-based authorization infrastructure along with its conceptual authorization, access control, and trust models. PERMIS has the novel concept of a credential validation service, which verifies a user's credentials prior to access control decision-making and enables the distributed m...

  16. The Datacon Master -- Renovation of a Datacon field bus communications system for accelerator control

    The Datacon system is a serial coaxial transformer isolated communication field bus system used to control and monitor accelerator remote devices. The Datacon field bus has been a BNL accelerator standard since its initial use in 1965. A single Datacon field bus supports up to 256 devices on a multidrop RG62A/U coaxial cable with up to 33 devices or 2,000 feet between repeaters or buffered branches. The forcing factor to renovate was the inability to repair the aging PDP-8E and PDP10 computers. The maintenance on this aging system was costly and the large number of accelerator devices dependent on the Datacon system could not be converted in a reasonable period of time to a new modern field bus. A commercial VMEbus host CPU mated with a custom designed VMEbus SBC event driven serial communications engine featuring a superscaler RISC 32-bit Intel i960 CPU met the design challenge. The commercial VMEbus host runs the VxWorks real-time operating system and connects to UNIX workstations over a Ethernet LAN. The V110 Datacon Master is the custom designed front end computer that integrates an accelerator event time line system with accelerator devices for up to 8 ppm users adding new capabilities

  17. A Java-based control system for the Orsay tandem accelerator

    A new control system was designed for the Tandem MP-9 at Orsay. Because of the existing devices located on high voltage platforms and the lack of space inside the accelerator, in-house electronic cards based on micro-controllers and an optical fieldbus were developed to collect data. VME processors under VxWorks, a real time operating system, manage the fieldbus, concentrate the accelerator information and transmit it to the supervisory software through the ethernet network. This software consists of a collection of Java virtual machines (JVM) running on several Unix workstations and PCs under Windows. Some of the Java virtual machines manage apparatus, instruments, local display and connections to an object database and VME concentrators. Others manage general synoptics. JVMs communicate between themselves with RMI protocol and JRPC with VME concentrators. So the supervisory software can be spread over several control stations throughout the network. (author)

  18. Economical launching and accelerating control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus

    Yang, Chao; Song, Jian; Li, Liang; Li, Shengbo; Cao, Dongpu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an economical launching and accelerating mode, including four ordered phases: pure electrical driving, clutch engagement and engine start-up, engine active charging, and engine driving, which can be fit for the alternating conditions and improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric bus (HEB) during typical city-bus driving scenarios. By utilizing the fast response feature of electric motor (EM), an adaptive controller for EM is designed to realize the power demand during the pure electrical driving mode, the engine starting mode and the engine active charging mode. Concurrently, the smoothness issue induced by the sequential mode transitions is solved with a coordinated control logic for engine, EM and clutch. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed launching and accelerating mode and its control methods are effective in improving the fuel economy and ensure the drivability during the fast transition between the operation modes of HEB.

  19. Disturbance rejection control based on acceleration projection method for walking robots

    Xu-yang WANG; Zhao-hong XU; Tian-sheng LU

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a disturbance rejection scheme for walking robots under unknown external forces and moments.The disturbance rejection strategy,which combines the inverse dynamics control with the acceleration projection onto the ZMP (zero moment point)-plane,can ensure the overall dynamic stability of the robot during tracking the pre-computed trajectories.Under normal conditions,I.e.,the system is dynamically balanced,a primary inverse dynamics control is utilized.In the case that the system becomes unbalanced due to external disturbances,the acceleration projection control(APC)loop,will be activated to keep the dynamic stability of the walking robot through modifying the input torques.The preliminary experimental results on a robot leg demonstrate that the proposed method can actually make the robot keep a stable motion under unknown external per-turbations.

  20. A Java-based control system for the Orsay tandem accelerator

    Dominique Delbourg; Gérard Penillault; Tran Khan Tuong; Martial Decourt; Nicole Borome; Henri Harroch; Bertrand Lessellier; Bernard Waast; Jean Pierre Mouffron

    2002-12-01

    A new control system was designed for the tandem MP-9 at Orsay. Because of the existing devices located on high voltage platforms and the lack of space inside the accelerator, in-house electronic cards based on micro-controllers and an optical fieldbus were developed to collect data. VME processors under VxWorks, a real time operating system, manage the fieldbus, concentrate the accelerator information and transmit it to the supervisory software through the ethernet network. This software consists of a collection of Java virtual machines (JVM) running on several Unix work-stations and PCs under Windows. Some of the Java virtual machines manage apparatus, instruments, local display and connections to an object database and VME concentrators. Others manage general synoptics. JVMs communicate between themselves with RMI protocol and JRPC with VME concentrators. So the supervisory software can be spread over several control stations throughout the network.

  1. A shot parameter specification subsystem for automated control of PBFA II accelerator shots

    The author reports on the shot parameter specification subsystem (SPSS), an integral part of the automatic control system developed for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). This system has been designed to fully utilize the accelerator by tailoring shot parameters to the needs of the experimenters. The SPSS is the key to this flexibility. Automatic systems will be required on many pulsed power machines for the fastest turnaround, the highest reliability, and most cost effective operation. These systems will require the flexibility and the ease of use that is part of the SPSS. The author discusses how the PBFA II control system has proved to be an effective modular system, flexible enough to meet the demands of both the fast track construction of PBFA II and the control needs of Hermes III. This system is expected to meet the demands of most future machine changes

  2. Evolution of the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) control system

    Given that the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) recently celebrated its 25. anniversary, this paper will explore the past, present, and future of the ATLAS Control System, and how it has evolved along with the accelerator and control system technology. ATLAS as we know it today, originated with a Tandem Van de Graff in the sixties. With the addition of the Booster section in the late seventies, came the first computerized control. ATLAS itself was placed into service on June 25, 1985, and was the world's first superconducting linear accelerator for ions. Since its dedication as a National User Facility, more than a thousand experiments by more than 2,000 users worldwide, have taken advantage of the unique capabilities it provides. Today, ATLAS continues to be a user facility for physicists who study the particles that form the heart of atoms. Its most recent addition, CARIBU (Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade), creates special beams that feed into ATLAS. ATLAS is similar to a living organism, changing and responding to new technological challenges and research needs. As it continues to evolve, so does the control system: from the original days using a DEC PDP-11/34 computer and two CAMAC crates, to a DEC Alpha computer running Vsystem software and more than twenty CAMAC crates, to distributed computers and VME systems. Future upgrades are also in the planning stages that will continue to evolve the control system. (authors)

  3. Construction features of procedural simulator for objective control expert systems management devices of rocket and space technology ground infrastructure objects

    Pashchenko Dmitry; Sinev Michael; Trokoz Dmitriy; Sineva Mary; Tokarev Andrey; Dubravin Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Paper refers to the construction of procedural simulators for expert systems management devices of rocket and space technology ground infrastructure objects. A classification of courses, which allows to realize the development of skills with both hardware and software components of a diagnostic expert systems. A method of calculating the integrated assessment of the student mastery of the material.

  4. Experimental study of liquid-metal target designs of accelerating-controlled systems

    Models of a liquid-metal target of an accelerator-controlled system have been experimentally studied at the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University to develop an optimal design of the flow part of the target. The main explored variants of liquid-metal targets are: Design with a diaphragm (firm-and-impervious plug) mounted on the pipe tap of particle transport from the accelerator cavity to the working cavity of the liquid-metal target. Design without a diaphragm on the pipe tab of particle transport from the accelerator. The study was carried out in a high-temperature liquid-metal test bench under the conditions close to full-scale ones: the temperature of the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy was 260degC - 400degC, the coolant mass flow was 5-80 t/h, and the rarefaction in the gas cavity was 105 Pa, the coefficient of geometric similarity equal to 1. The experimental studies of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow parts in the designs of targets under full-scale conditions indicated high efficiency of a target in triggering, operating, and deactivating modes. Research and technology instructions for designs of the flow part of the liquid-metal target, the target design as a whole, and the target circuit of accelerator-controlled systems were formulated as a result of the studies. (author)

  5. Status Of The RBAC Infrastructure And Lessons Learnt From Its Deployment in LHC

    Yastrebov, I; Charrue, P

    2011-01-01

    The distributed control system for the LHC accelerator poses many challenges due to its inherent heterogeneity and highly dynamic nature. One of the important aspects is to protect the machine against unauthorised access and unsafe operation of the control system, from the low-level front-end machines up to the high-level control applications running in the control room. In order to prevent an unauthorized access to the control system and accelerator equipment and to address the possible security issues, the Role Based Access Control (RBAC) project was designed and developed at CERN, with a major contribution from Fermilab laboratory. Furthermore, RBAC became an integral part of the CERN Controls Middleware (CMW) infrastructure and it was deployed and commissioned in the LHC operation in the summer 2008, well before the first beam in LHC. This paper presents the current status of the RBAC infrastructure, together with an outcome and gathered experience after a massive deployment in the LHC operations. Moreove...

  6. A Stable Formation Control Using Approximation of Translational and Angular Accelerations

    Viet-Hong Tran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a stable leader-following formation control for multiple non-holonomic mobile robot systems using only limited on-board sensor information is proposed. The control can be used for the conventional single leader - single follower (SLSF or for novel two leaders - single follower (TLSF schemes. The control algorithm utilizes estimations of the leaders' translational and angular accelerations in a simple form to reduce the measurement of indirect information. Simulation results show that the TLSF scheme can suppress the oscillation and damping in formation of large robot teams.

  7. Asynchronous data change notification between database server and accelerator controls system

    Database data change notification (DCN) is a commonly used feature. Not all database management systems (DBMS) provide an explicit DCN mechanism. Even for those DBMS's which support DCN (such as Oracle and MS SQL server), some server side and/or client side programming may be required to make the DCN system work. This makes the setup of DCN between database server and interested clients tedious and time consuming. In accelerator control systems, there are many well established software client/server architectures (such as CDEV, EPICS, and ADO) that can be used to implement data reflection servers that transfer data asynchronously to any client using the standard SET/GET API. This paper describes a method for using such a data reflection server to set up asynchronous DCN (ADCN) between a DBMS and clients. This method works well for all DBMS systems which provide database trigger functionality. Asynchronous data change notification (ADCN) between database server and clients can be realized by combining the use of a database trigger mechanism, which is supported by major DBMS systems, with server processes that use client/server software architectures that are familiar in the accelerator controls community (such as EPICS, CDEV or ADO). This approach makes the ADCN system easy to set up and integrate into an accelerator controls system. Several ADCN systems have been set up and used in the RHIC-AGS controls system.

  8. The Acceleration/Deceleration Control Algorithm Based on Trapezoid-Curve Jerk in CNC Machining

    Guoyong Zhao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose the acceleration/deceleration control algorithm based on trapezoid-curve jerk in CNC machining. In aviation and mould and die industry, it is much significant to achieve high accuracy CNC machining on complex profile parts. The unsmooth Acceleration/Deceleration (ab. Acc/Dec control in feed movement is one of the main reasons to bring about machine tools impact and vibration in practical machining. After analyzing the CNC machine tools dynamic model, an Acc/Dec control algorithm based on trapezoid-curve jerk is put forward in order to avoid step change in jerk curve in the study; Moreover, the motion profile smooth control approach based on continuous jerk is developed in details to decrease machine tools impact according to various kinematics constraint conditions, such as the maximum acceleration, the maximum jerk, the machining program segment displacement, the instruction feedrate and so on; Finally, the developed Acc/Dec approach and the traditional linear Acc/Dec approach are compared in the CNC experimental table. The results reveal that the developed approach can achieve more smooth and flexible motion profile, which is helpful to minish machine tools impact and enhance parts machining surface quality.

  9. The CERN Control Centre is up and running!

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The CERN Control Centre (CCC) that combines all the control rooms for the accelerators, the cryogenic system and the technical infrastructure came into operation on 1st February. On 1st February, at 2.00 p.m., Patrick Villeton Pachot started the first Technical Infrastructure shift at the brand new CERN Control Centre.

  10. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  11. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    Amin, Munib

    2008-12-15

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  12. Visions for the future of particle accelerators

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    The ambitions of accelerator based science, technology and applications far exceed the present accelerator possibilities. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results and visions for the future in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the final fourth annual meeting of the EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development. The conference concerns building of the research infrastructure, including advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The main subject is however the vision for the future of particle accelerators and next generation light sources.

  13. Fast digital feedback control systems for accelerator RF system using FPGA

    Feedback control system plays important role for proper injection and acceleration of beam in particle accelerators by providing the required amplitude and phase stability of RF fields in accelerating structures. Advancement in the field of digital technology enables us to develop fast digital feedback control system for RF applications. Digital Low Level RF (LLRF) system offers the inherent advantages of Digital System like flexibility, adaptability, good repeatability and reduced long time drift errors compared to analog system. To implement the feedback control algorithm, I/Q control scheme is used. By properly sampling the down converted IF signal using fast ADC we get accurate feedback signal and also eliminates the need of two separate detectors for amplitude and phase detection. Controller is implemented in Vertex-4 FPGA. Codes for control algorithms which controls the amplitude and phase in all four quadrants with good accuracy are written in the VHDL. I/Q modulator works as common actuator for both amplitude and phase correction. Synchronization between RF, LO and ADC clock is indispensable and has been achieved by deriving the clock and LO signal from RF signal itself. Control system has been successfully tested in lab with phase and amplitude stability better then ±1% and ±1° respectively. High frequency RF signal is down converted to IF using the super heterodyne technique. Super heterodyne principal not only brings the RF signal to the Low IF frequency at which it can be easily processed but also enables us to use the same hardware and software for other RF frequencies with some minor modification. (author)

  14. Water chemistry control for the target/blanket region of the accelerator production of tritium

    High-energy particle interactions in the various components of the target/blanket region of the Accelerator Production of Tritium lead to heat generation and deposition. Heavy-water and light-water systems are used to cool the target/blanket system and associated equipment. Structural materials include Inconel alloy 718, aluminum-clad lead rods, aluminum tubes containing helium-3 and tritium gas, and stainless steel components. Proper coolant chemistry is required to maximize neutron production, minimize corrosion of components, and minimize activity buildup. Corrosion-related phenomena and development of coolant and moderator corrosion control for both power and defense fission reactors has been studied extensively over the past 50 years. Less is known, however, about cooling systems for accelerators where a variety of transient chemical species and spallation products may be formed. The following provides a discussion on the issues that need to be addressed for proper water chemistry control for the APT system

  15. A study of an electron gun controlled with a meshless grid for a linear accelerator

    An electron gun for a linear accelerator with a control grid of meshless electrode (meshless grid) is expected to overcome some disadvantages of beam quality using an ordinary mesh grid. A gun of this type was designed and its characteristics were numerically analyzed. The simulation program code Egn2 with a boundary setting routine POLYGON was used. The result indicated that the grid can control the beam launched from the cathode to the anode electrode. It also indicated the Ip-Vp and Ip-Vp characteristics which are different from an ordinary triode gun with a mesh-grid. The mutual conductance gm of 0.4[mS], the maximum average current of 1.6[A] and cut-off voltage -200[V] were obtained under a condition of 200[kV] acceleration voltage. (author)

  16. On-line control system for KUTI-20 heavy ion collective accelerator

    The structure and design peculiarities of the control system for the first part of the KUTI-20 heavy ion collective accelerator comprising the SILUND-20 linear induction accelerator and Adhesator-20 charged toroide adiabatic generator are considered; electron ring shaping and their loading with ions is realized in the generator. The control system has centralized hierarchial structure with autonomous subsystems. The system includes the SM-4 minicomputer equipped with a set of external devices; the SM-4 is interfaced with two the ''Electronika-60'' and one the KM001 microcomputers by means of the KI021 series interframe communication units. The ''Elektronika-60'' microcomputers are equipped with memory units and interfaces for connection of CAMAC equipment

  17. Engineering a large application software project: the controls of the CERN PS accelerator complex

    The CERN PS accelerator complex has been progressively converted to full computer controls without interrupting its full-time operation (more than 6000 hours per year with on average not more than 1% of the total down-time due to controls). The application software amounts to 120 man-years and 450'000 instructions: it compares with other large software projects, also outside the accelerator world: e.g. Skylab's ground support software. This paper outlines the application software structure which takes into account technical requirements and constraints (resulting from the complexity of the process and its operation) and economical and managerial ones. It presents the engineering and management techniques used to promote implementation, testing and commissioning within budget, manpower and time constraints and concludes with experience gained

  18. Operating experience with a new accelerator control system based upon microprocessors

    This paper describes the design and operating experience with a high performance control system tailored to the requirements of the SuperHILAC accelerator. A large number (20) of the latest 16-bit microcomputer boards are used in a parallel-distributed manner to get a high system bandwidth. Because of the high bandwidth, software costs and complexity are significantly reduced. The system by its very nature and design is easily upgraded and repaired. Dynamically assigned and labeled knobs, together with touch-panels, allow a flexible and efficient operator interface. An X-Y vector graphics system provides for display and labeling of real-time signals as well as general plotting functions. This control system allows attachment of a powerful auxiliary computer for scientific processing with access to accelerator parameters

  19. Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure

    Department of Transportation — The Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (AVS INF) provides authentication and access control to AVS network resources for users. This is done via a distributed...

  20. Application of EPICS on F3RP61 to accelerator control

    A new type of Input/Output Controller (IOC) has been developed based on F3RP61, a CPU module of FA-M3 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Since the CPU module runs Linux, it takes no special effort to run EPICS IOC core program on the CPU module. With the aid of wide variety of I/O modules of FA-M3 PLC, the F3RP61-based IOC has various applications in accelerator controls, such as magnet power supply control, monitoring interlock status, stepping motor control, data acquisition from beam monitors and so forth. The adoption of the new IOC makes the architecture of accelerator control systems simpler by unifying the two layers of front-end computers, i.e., the IOC layer and the PLC layer, into one layer. We found that the simplification of the control system architecture helps us to reduce the time and cost for the development and maintenance of application software. (author)

  1. Micro ball lightning and its accelerator proposed to control natural phenomena

    Matsumoto, T A

    2002-01-01

    Micro Ball Lightning (BL) was recently discovered in laboratory. It was also observed during natural phenomena such as volcanic eruption and earthquake. This paper described a brief review of micro BL observed in laboratory as well as during two natural phenomena. Being based on a hypothesis of that those natural phenomena could have been caused by explosive reactions of micro BL, a potential accelerator of micro BL was proposed to control the natural phenomena. (author)

  2. Complex Event Processing Approach To Automated Monitoring Of Particle Accelerator And Its Control System

    Karol Grzegorczyk; Vito Baggiolini; Krzysztof Zieliński

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a software component for automated monitoring and diagnostic information analysis of a particle accelerator and its control system. The information that is analyzed can be seen as streams of events. A Complex Event Processing (CEP) approach to event processing was selected. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to continuously query data coming from several streams. The presented software component is based on Esper, the most...

  3. Micro ball lightning and its accelerator proposed to control natural phenomena

    Micro Ball Lightning (BL) was recently discovered in laboratory. It was also observed during natural phenomena such as volcanic eruption and earthquake. This paper described a brief review of micro BL observed in laboratory as well as during two natural phenomena. Being based on a hypothesis of that those natural phenomena could have been caused by explosive reactions of micro BL, a potential accelerator of micro BL was proposed to control the natural phenomena. (author)

  4. 15th International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems

    2015-01-01

    ICALEPCS is a biennial series of conferences that is intended to: * Provide a forum for the interchange of ideas and information between control system specialists working on large experimental physics facilities around the world (accelerators, particle detectors, fusion reactors, telescopes, etc.); * Create an archival literature of developments and progress in this rapidly changing discipline; * Promote, where practical, standardization in both hardware and software; Promote collaboration between laboratories, institutes and industry.

  5. Status and Control Requirements of the Planned Heavy Ion Tumor Therapy Accelerator Facility HICAT

    Baer, R C; Haberer, T; Baer, Ralph C.; Eickhoff, Hartmut; Haberer, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The HICAT project is a Heavy Ion accelerator for light ion Cancer Treatment to be built for the clinics in Heidelberg, Germany. It consists of a 7 MeV/u linac, a compact synchrotron and three treatment places, one of them equipped with a 360 degree gantry beam-line. The facility will implement the intensity controlled raster-scanning technique that was developed and successfully demonstrated at GSI with over 100 patients at present. In order to produce the beams with the characteristics requested by the treatment sequencer, the accelerator must operate on a pulse-to-pulse basis with different settings. This concept imposes strict and challenging demands on the operation of the accelerators and hence the control system of the facility. The control system should be developed, installed and maintained by and under the complete responsibility of an industrial system provider, using a state-of-the-art system and wide-spread industrial components wherever possible. The presentation covers the status of the project ...

  6. Controlled Electron Injection into Plasma Accelerators and SpaceCharge Estimates

    Fubiani, Gwenael J.

    2005-09-01

    Plasma based accelerators are capable of producing electron sources which are ultra-compact (a few microns) and high energies (up to hundreds of MeVs) in much shorter distances than conventional accelerators. This is due to the large longitudinal electric field that can be excited without the limitation of breakdown as in RF structures.The characteristic scale length of the accelerating field is the plasma wavelength and for typical densities ranging from 1018 - 1019 cm-3, the accelerating fields and scale length can hence be on the order of 10-100GV/m and 10-40 mu m, respectively. The production of quasimonoenergetic beams was recently obtained in a regime relying on self-trapping of background plasma electrons, using a single laser pulse for wakefield generation. In this dissertation, we study the controlled injection via the beating of two lasers (the pump laser pulse creating the plasma wave and a second beam being propagated in opposite direction) which induce a localized injection of background plasma electrons. The aim of this dissertation is to describe in detail the physics of optical injection using two lasers, the characteristics of the electron beams produced (the micrometer scale plasma wavelength can result in femtosecond and even attosecond bunches) as well as a concise estimate of the effects of space charge on the dynamics of an ultra-dense electron bunch with a large energy spread.

  7. Development of PLC based chiller control system for 3 MeV DC electron beam accelerator

    A 3 MeV DC electron beam accelerator is under development at Electron beam center, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. The accelerator has various sections, where heat is generated during operation due to factors contributed by efficiency. The areas that produce heat such as beam dump, HV oscillator, scan horn region etc need to be cooled. A 5TR chiller unit has been installed in a room in the vicinity of the accelerator. Standard chiller unit available in the market do not provide a remote control interface, instead they provide on panel local controllers for the operation of the system. A PLC based interlock has been developed to control all the chiller components such as Cooling tower fan, cooling tower pump, ON/OFF operation of compressor etc. All the components used in chiller unit are interfaced to PLC besides temperature sensor. All machine safety interlock have been introduced by using suitable hardware such as antifreeze coil used to trip compressor in case of control failure may make the ice of water being cooled. The operating point of the chiller has been set to provide water 22-24 degree C. The PLC has been programmed using ladder logic programming method. The system is fully automatic. The system can be operated by setting the set temperature say 22 degree C and temperature hysteresis say 2 degree C. Pressing start button operates different units of the system automatically. Its starts the compressor when the water temperature is 22+2 degree C and stops the compressor when temp reaches at 22 degree C. Any unexpected failure such as 3Phase sequence change/phase failure, over load relay trip, excess temp are indicated by a hooter sound along with fault display on the HMI. A touch screen panel has been provided for human machine interface. This development of control system for chiller sub-system of accelerator has helped us in bringing the chiller unit control from the control room using Ethernet link using Modbus TCP-IP. The implementation of PLC controlled chiller

  8. SNS Accelerator Facility Target Safety and Non-Safety Control Systems

    The SNS is a proton accelerator facility that generates neutrons for scientific researchers by spallation of neutrons from a mercury target. The SNS became operational on April 28, 2006 with first beam on target at approximately 200 watts. The SNS accelerator, target, and conventional facilities controls are integrated by standardized hardware and software throughout the facility and were designed and fabricated to SNS conventions to ensure compatibility of systems with Experimental Physics Integrated Control System (EPICS). ControlLogix PLCs interface to instruments and actuators, and EPICS performs the high-level integration of the PLCs such that all operator control can be accomplished from the Central Control room using EPICS graphical screens that pass process variables to and from the PLCs. Three active safety systems were designed to industry standards ISA S84.01 and IEEE 603 to meet the desired reliability for these safety systems. The safety systems protect facility workers and the environment from mercury vapor, mercury radiation, and proton beam radiation. The facility operators operated many of the systems prior to beam on target and developed the operating procedures. The safety and non-safety control systems were tested extensively prior to beam on target. This testing was crucial to identify wiring and software errors and failed components, the result of which was few problems during operation with beam on target. The SNS has continued beam on target since April to increase beam power, check out the scientific instruments, and continue testing the operation of facility subsystems

  9. Exploring a new paradigm for accelerators and large experimental apparatus control systems

    The integration of web technologies and web services has been, in the recent years, one of the major trends in upgrading and developing control systems for accelerators and large experimental apparatuses. Usually, web technologies have been introduced to complement the control systems with smart add-on and user friendly services or, for instance, to safely allow access to the control system to users from remote sites. Despite this still narrow spectrum of employment, some software technologies developed for high performance web services, although originally intended and optimized for these particular applications, deserve some features that would allow their deeper integration in a control system and, eventually, using them to develop some of the control system's core components. In this paper we present the conclusion of the preliminary investigations of a new design for an accelerator control system and associated machine data acquisition system (DAQ), based on a synergic combination of network distributed object caching (DOC) and a non-relational key/value database (KVDB). We investigated these technologies with particular interest on performances, namely speed of data storage and retrieve for the distributed caching, data throughput and queries execution time for the database and, especially, how much this performances can benefit from their inherent adaptability. (authors)

  10. Software for virtual accelerator designing

    The article discusses appropriate technologies for software implementation of the Virtual Accelerator. The Virtual Accelerator is considered as a set of services and tools enabling transparent execution of computational software for modeling beam dynamics in accelerators on distributed computing resources. Distributed storage and information processing facilities utilized by the Virtual Accelerator make use of the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) according to a cloud computing paradigm. Control system tool-kits (such as EPICS, TANGO), computing modules (including high-performance computing), realization of the GUI with existing frameworks and visualization of the data are discussed in the paper. The presented research consists of software analysis for realization of interaction between all levels of the Virtual Accelerator and some samples of middle-ware implementation. A set of the servers and clusters at St.-Petersburg State University form the infrastructure of the computing environment for Virtual Accelerator design. Usage of component-oriented technology for realization of Virtual Accelerator levels interaction is proposed. The article concludes with an overview and substantiation of a choice of technologies that will be used for design and implementation of the Virtual Accelerator. (authors)

  11. Ant colony method to control variance reduction techniques in the Monte Carlo simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators

    The ant colony method is used to control the application of variance reduction techniques to the simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators of use in cancer therapy. In particular, splitting and Russian roulette, two standard variance reduction methods, are considered. The approach can be applied to any accelerator in a straightforward way and permits, in addition, to investigate the 'hot' regions of the accelerator, an information which is basic to develop a source model for this therapy tool

  12. Internet: Infrastructure, users, regulation

    Mikhail Doroshevich; Marina Sokolova

    2014-01-01

    By the end of 2014, Belarus totaled over 5 million Internet users, which constitutes 70% of the population aged 15 to 74. The Internet has become not only an integral part of everyday life, but also a platform for activities of state-controlled and private companies and organizations. Infrastructural development (like broadband Internet) remains a key element of the strategy of an informationoriented society. The download speed in Belarus is lower than in the neighboring countries and the cos...

  13. Systems Infrastructure (SYS 18)

    Richard Guy; John Hicks; Karen Weeks

    2006-01-01

    The Systems Infrastructure team assembles, tests, and provides complete sensor network solutions containing both exploratory and hardened components, from high-level applications and analysis tools, down to hardware at the sensor platform level. Recent significant progress is seen in SensorBase and ESS2 at the database and application levels; in disruption-tolerant data delivery and system control software and in the integration of the latest wireless routing algorithms.

  14. Operation status of EPICS IOC works on various systems in KEKB accelerator control system

    At the KEKB, many accelerator equipments are controlled by EPICS based control system. EPICS(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is a toolkit to construct control systems. At the time of KEKB operation started, EPICS IOC(Input Output Controller) could execute on VxWorks OS only. So we use VME computers with VxWorks OS as IOC. However, recently, EPICS IOC is able to execute on multi-platform, for example, Linux, Windows and Mac OS X.We introduced EPICS IOC which worked in not only VME computer with VxWorks but also Linux PC, PLC CPU with Linux and Windows-based Oscilloscope. In this paper, we will present status of EPICS IOC works on various systems in KEKB. (author)

  15. Instrumentation and control system for the AT-2 accelerator test stand

    A data-driven subroutine package, written for our accelerator test stand (ATS), is described. This flexible package permits the rapid writing and modifying of data acquisition, control, and analysis programs for the many diverse experiments performed on the ATS. These structurally simple and easy to maintain routines help to control administratively the integrity of the ATS through the use of the database. Our operating experience indicates that the original design goals have been met. We describe the subroutines, database, and our experiences with this system

  16. Cavity control system advanced modeling and simulations for TESLA linear accelerator and free electron laser

    Czarski, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Simrock, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    The cavity control system for the TESLA -- TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator project is initially introduced. The elementary analysis of the cavity resonator on RF (radio frequency) level and low level frequency with signal and power considerations is presented. For the field vector detection the digital signal processing is proposed. The electromechanical model concerning Lorentz force detuning is applied for analyzing the basic features of the system performance. For multiple cavities driven by one klystron the field vector sum control is considered. Simulink model implementation is developed to explore the feedback and feed-forward system operation and some experimental results for signals and power considerations are presented.

  17. State-of-the-Art developments in accelerator controls at the APS

    The performance requirements of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) challenge the control system in a number of areas. This paper will review a few applications of advanced technology in the control and monitoring of the APS. The application of digital signal processors (DSPs) and techniques will be discussed, both from the perspective of a large distributed multiprocessor system and from that of embedded systems. In particular, two embedded applications will be highlighted, a beam position monitor processor and a DSP-based power supply controller. Fast data distribution is often a requirement. The application of a high-speed network based on reflective memory will also be discussed in the context of the APS global orbit feedback system. Timing systems provide opportunities to apply technologies such as high-speed logic and fiber optics. Examples of the use of these technologies will also be included. Finally, every modern accelerator control system of any size requires networking. Features of the APS accelerator controls network will be discussed

  18. A new LabVIEW-based control system for the Naval Research Laboratory Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometer

    A new LabVIEW-based control system for the existing tandem accelerator and new AMS components has been implemented at the Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Through the use of Device Interfaces (DIs) distributed along a fiber optic network, virtually every component of the accelerator system can be controlled from any networked computer terminal as well as remotely via modem or the internet. This paper discusses the LabVIEW-based control software, including remote operation, automatic calculation of ion optical component parameters, beam optimization, and data logging and retrieval

  19. Design of a new controller for vacuum interlock system at BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility has been operational for last twenty two years with progressively increased efficiency. The entire beam transport line is maintained under ultra high vacuum (UHV), Turbo Pumps, Getter and Ion Pumps are being used to maintain UHV in beam transport line. Safety of the pumps is ensured by interlocking operation of gate valves with the safe vacuum level. A new type of controller has been designed using CMOS ICs' for vacuum interlock system. Three pneumatically controlled UHV gate valves can be operated from this unit. This unit is interfaced with a multi cold cathode controller (Pfeiffer make) unit and accordingly generates signal to operate three gate valves. This paper presents the design features of the controller and its utilization. (author)

  20. Upgrading the control system for the Accelerators at the Svedberg Laboratory

    Two accelerators at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, the Gustaf Werner cyclotron and the CELSIUS ring, will get a new control system. At present both the cyclotron and the ring have their own control systems based on S99 and PDP-11 minicomputers respectively. There are also a number of subsystems which are controlled separately from the stand-alone PC based consoles (ECR ion source, electron cooler, vacuum system). The goal of the rejuvenation is to integrate all existing control systems and provide the new system with an uniform operators interface based on workstations. The obsolete S99 microcomputers will be substituted with a VME system and all subsystems will be connected to the Ethernet. The upgrade strategy enabling the transformation of the system without any long shut-down period is discussed. Hardware and software planned for the upgrade is presented together with a discussion of expected problems. (author)

  1. Upgrade of the server architecture for the accelerator control system at the Heidelberg ion therapy center

    The Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) is a heavy ion accelerator facility located at the Heidelberg university hospital and intended for cancer treatment with heavy ions and protons. It provides three treatment rooms for therapy of which two using horizontal beam nozzles are in clinical use and the unique gantry with a 360 degrees rotating beam port is currently under commissioning. The proprietary accelerator control system runs on several classical server machines, including a main control server, a database server running Oracle, a device settings modeling server (DSM) and several gateway servers for auxiliary system control. As the load on some of the main systems, especially the database and DSM servers, has become very high in terms of CPU and I/O load, a change to a more up-to-date blade server enclosure with four redundant blades and a 10 Gbit internal network architecture has been decided. Due to budgetary reasons, this enclosure will at first only replace the main control, database and DSM servers and consolidate some of the services now running on auxiliary servers. The internal adaptable network will improve the communication between servers and database. As all blades in the enclosure are configured identically, one dedicated spare blade is used to provide redundancy in case of hardware failure. Additionally we plan to use simulation software to further improve redundancy and consolidate the services running on gateways and to make dynamic load balancing available to account for different performance needs e.g. in commissioning or therapy use of the accelerator. (authors)

  2. Project and implementation of the control system for the microtron accelerator

    The racetrack microtron under construction at the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, is a recirculated electron accelerator that has a few hundred parameters to be monitored and controlled. These parameters belong to several subsystems like transport, vacuum, RF, and diagnostics. To decrease the cognitive burden of the operator and help him to control the machine a computerized control system was built, pervading all subsystems. This system allows the operator to measure and change the parameters of interest, or alerts him when some of these parameters exceed a pre-defined value. The system was built using the three-layer model methodology: input and output device layer; device server layer; and the user interface layer. In the input and output device layer, several instruments with different communication interfaces were used, either commercial or in-house built. In the device server layer industrial PCs were used. The user interface layer uses a conventional PC running a human-computer interface built with assistance of the Lab Windows/CVI software (National Instruments). The control system must satisfy requirements of flexibility, upgradability and cost, must stand during the accelerator lifetime and allow maintenance by the Lab's technical support. (author)

  3. EuCARD 2010 Accelerator Technology in Europe

    Romaniuk, R S

    2010-01-01

    Accelerators are basic tools of the experimental physics of elementary particles, nuclear physics, light sources of the fourth generation. They are also used in myriad other applications in research, industry and medicine. For example, there are intensely developed transmutation techniques for nuclear waste from nuclear power and atomic industries. The European Union invests in the development of accelerator infrastructures inside the framework programs to build the European Research Area. The aim is to build new infrastructure, develop the existing, and generally make the infrastructure available to competent users. The paper summarizes the first year of activities of the EU FP7 Project Capacities EuCARD –European Coordination of Accelerator R&D. Several teams from this country participate actively in this project. The contribution from Polish research teams concerns: photonic and electronic measurement – control systems, RF-gun co-design, thin-film superconducting technology, superconducting transpo...

  4. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  5. Social experience infrastructure

    Kvistgaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Using the case of Kühlungsborn in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern as an example of a resort in which social experience infrastructure plays a pivotal role in the ongoing success of attracting German tourists from especially Berlin, Hamburg and Hanover it is the aim of this article in a descriptive and...... explorative fashion to share with others thoughts and ideas concerning the development of new ways to construct/reconstruct recreational spaces with a better coherence with regard to designing experiences. This article claims that it is possible to design recreational spaces with good social experience...... infrastructure in order to create experience spaces for personal experiences (in line with Schultze’s social constructivist view of experiences) without completely adhering to the economic rationalist thoughts and guidelines of Pine & Gilmore that claim that experiences can be designed and controlled by...

  6. Spallation Neutron Source Accelerator Facility Target Safety and Non-safety Control Systems

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a proton accelerator facility that generates neutrons for scientific researchers by spallation of neutrons from a mercury target. The SNS became operational on April 28, 2006, with first beam on target at approximately 200 W. The SNS accelerator, target, and conventional facilities controls are integrated by standardized hardware and software throughout the facility and were designed and fabricated to SNS conventions to ensure compatibility of systems with Experimental Physics Integrated Control System (EPICS). ControlLogix Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) interface to instruments and actuators, and EPICS performs the high-level integration of the PLCs such that all operator control can be accomplished from the Central Control room using EPICS graphical screens that pass process variables to and from the PLCs. Three active safety systems were designed to industry standards ISA S84.01 and IEEE 603 to meet the desired reliability for these safety systems. The safety systems protect facility workers and the environment from mercury vapor, mercury radiation, and proton beam radiation. The facility operators operated many of the systems prior to beam on target and developed the operating procedures. The safety and non-safety control systems were tested extensively prior to beam on target. This testing was crucial to identify wiring and software errors and failed components, the result of which was few problems during operation with beam on target. The SNS has continued beam on target since April to increase beam power, check out the scientific instruments, and continue testing the operation of facility subsystems

  7. Infrastructure and Trade: A Meta-Analysis

    Guney Celbis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of infrastructure quality and quantity can create trade impediments through increased transport costs. Since the late 1990s an increasing number of trade studies have taken infrastructure into account. The purpose of the present paper is to quantify the importance of infrastructure for trade by means of meta-analysis and meta-regression techniques that synthesize various studies. The type of infrastructure that we focus on is mainly public infrastructure in transportation and communication. We examine the impact of infrastructure on trade by means of estimates obtained from 36 primary studies that yielded 542 infrastructure elasticities of trade. We explicitly take into account that infrastructure can be measured in various ways and that its impact depends on the location of the infrastructure. We estimate several meta-regression models that control for observed heterogeneity in terms of variation across different methodologies, infrastructure types, geographical areas and their economic features, model specifications, and publication characteristics. Additionally, random effects account for between-study unspecified heterogeneity, while publication bias is explicitly addressed by means of the Hedges model.  After controlling for all these issues we find that a 1 percent increase in own infrastructure increases exports by about 0.6 percent and imports by about 0.3 percent. Such elasticities are generally larger for developing countries, land infrastructure, IV or panel data estimation, and macro-level analyses. They also depend on the inclusion or exclusion of various common covariates in trade regressions.

  8. Control of Switching Characteristics of Silicon-based Semiconductor Diode Using High Energy Linear Accelerator

    N. Harihara Krishnan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports control of switching characteristics of silicon-based semiconductor diode using electron beam produced using linear accelerator. Conventionally, p-n junction chips of diode are exposed to gamma rays from a radioactive source or electron beam from a microtron, depending upon the required level of correction. High energy linear accelerators featuring simultaneous exposure of multiple chips are recent advancements in radiation technology. The paper presents the results of the radiation process using a 10 MeV linear accelerator as applied in industrial manufacturing of a high voltage diode (2600 V. The achieved values of reverse recovery time were found to be within the design limits. The suitability of the new process was verified by constructing the trade-off curve between the switching and conduction parameters of the diode for the complete range using large number of experimental samples. The paper summarizes the advantages of the new process over the conventional methods specifically with reference to industrial requirements. The developed process has been successfully implemented in semiconductor manufacturing.

  9. Control, timing, and data acquisition for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA)

    Schoessow, P.; Ho, C.; Power, J.; Chojnacki, E.

    1993-08-01

    The AWA is a new facility primarily designed for wakefield acceleration experiments at the 100 MV/m scale, which incorporates a high current linac and rf photocathode electron source, a low emittance rf electron gun for witness beam generation, and associated beamlines and diagnostics. The control system is based on VME and CA-MAC electronics interfaced to a high performance work-station and provides some distributed processing capability. In addition to the control of linac rf, laser optics, and beamlines, the system is also used for acquisition of video data both from luminescent beam position monitors and from streak camera pulse length diagnostics. Online image feature extraction will permit wakefields to be computed during the course of data taking. The linac timing electronics and its interface to the control system is described.

  10. Control, timing, and data acquisition for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA)

    The AWA is a new facility primarily designed for wakefield acceleration experiments at the 100 MV/m scale, which incorporates a high current linac and rf photocathode electron source, a low emittance rf electron gun for witness beam generation, and associated beamlines and diagnostics. The control system is based on VME and CA-MAC electronics interfaced to a high performance work-station and provides some distributed processing capability. In addition to the control of linac rf, laser optics, and beamlines, the system is also used for acquisition of video data both from luminescent beam position monitors and from streak camera pulse length diagnostics. Online image feature extraction will permit wakefields to be computed during the course of data taking. The linac timing electronics and its interface to the control system is described

  11. Distribution of computer functionality for accelerator control at the Brookhaven AGS

    A set of physical and functional system components and their interconnection protocols have been established for all controls work at the AGS. Portions of these designs were tested as part of enhanced operation of the AGS as a source of polarized protons and additional segments will be implemented during the continuing construction efforts which are adding heavy ion capability to our facility. Included in our efforts are the following computer and control system elements: a broad band local area network, which embodies MODEMS; transmission systems and branch interface units; a hierarchical layer, which performs certain data base and watchdog/alarm functions; a group of work station processors (Apollo's) which perform the function of traditional minicomputer host(s) and a layer, which provides both real time control and standardization functions for accelerator devices and instrumentation. Data base and other accelerator functionality is assigned to the most correct level within our network for both real time performance, long-term utility, and orderly growth

  12. Control of target-normal-sheath-accelerated protons from a guiding cone

    Zou, D. B. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf 40225 (Germany); Zhuo, H. B., E-mail: hongbin.zhuo@gmail.com [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, X. H.; Yu, T. P.; Shao, F. Q. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Pukhov, A. [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf 40225 (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    It is demonstrated through particle-in-cell simulations that target-normal-sheath-accelerated protons can be well controlled by using a guiding cone. Compared to a conventional planar target, both the collimation and number density of proton beams are substantially improved, giving a high-quality proton beam which maintained for a longer distance without degradation. The effect is attributed to the radial electric field resulting from the charge due to the hot target electrons propagating along the cone surface. This electric field can effectively suppress the spatial spread of the protons after the expansion of the hot electrons.

  13. Control of target-normal-sheath-accelerated protons from a guiding cone

    It is demonstrated through particle-in-cell simulations that target-normal-sheath-accelerated protons can be well controlled by using a guiding cone. Compared to a conventional planar target, both the collimation and number density of proton beams are substantially improved, giving a high-quality proton beam which maintained for a longer distance without degradation. The effect is attributed to the radial electric field resulting from the charge due to the hot target electrons propagating along the cone surface. This electric field can effectively suppress the spatial spread of the protons after the expansion of the hot electrons

  14. Optimization and control of two-component radially self-accelerating beams

    We report on the properties of radially self-accelerating intensity distributions consisting of two components in the angular frequency domain. We show how this subset of solutions, in literature also known as helicon beams, possesses peculiar characteristics that enable a better control over its properties. In this work, we present a step-by-step optimization procedure to achieve the best possible intensity contrast, a distinct rotation rate and long propagation lengths. All points are discussed on a theoretical basis and are experimentally verified

  15. Accelerator and klystron (3). Klystron failure analysis, emission control, phase variation and maintenance

    Klystron failure analysis, emission control, phase variation and maintenance are described in this last paper of three successive series. Four main failure causes extracted from SLAC data of SLAC 1965-1982, and KEK data are explained in detail. Regarding to Klystron life, KEKs dip test which is a quick way to examine the emission is explained. The phase variation should be small for accelerator and good stability on applied voltage and cooling water temperature are essential. Klystron maintenance which is important for the effective use is explained. (author)

  16. Optimization and control of two-component radially self-accelerating beams

    Vetter, Christian; Eichelkraut, Toni; Ornigotti, Marco; Szameit, Alexander [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-11-23

    We report on the properties of radially self-accelerating intensity distributions consisting of two components in the angular frequency domain. We show how this subset of solutions, in literature also known as helicon beams, possesses peculiar characteristics that enable a better control over its properties. In this work, we present a step-by-step optimization procedure to achieve the best possible intensity contrast, a distinct rotation rate and long propagation lengths. All points are discussed on a theoretical basis and are experimentally verified.

  17. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  18. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  19. Critical infrastructure protection

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    The need to protect critical electrical infrastructure from terrorist attacks, or other physical damage, including weather related events, or the potential impact of computer viruses and other attacks on IT resources are discussed. Activities of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) are highlighted which seek to safeguard the North American bulk electric power system principally through the Information Sharing and Analysis Sector (ES-ISAC). ES-ISAC serves the electricity sector by facilitating communication between electric sector participants, federal government and other critical infrastructure industries by disseminating threat indications, analyses and warnings, together with interpretations, to assist the industry in taking infrastructure protection actions. Attention is drawn to the numerous cyber incidents in recent years, which although resulted in no loss of service to electricity customers so far, in at least one instance (the January 25th SOL-Slammer worm incident) resulted in degradation of service in a number of sectors, including financial, transportation and telecommunication services. The increasing frequency of cyber-based attacks, coupled with the industry's growing dependence on e-commerce and electronic controls, are good reasons to believe that critical infrastructure protection (CIP) poses a serious challenge to the industry's risk management practices. The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) is an active participant in ES-ISAC and works cooperatively with a range of partners, such as the Edison Electric Institute and the American Public Power Association to ensure coordination and effective protection program delivery for the electric power sector. The Early Warning System (EWS) developed by the CIP Working Group is one of the results of this cooperation. EWS uses the Internet, e-mail, web-enabled cell phones and Blackberry hand-held devices to deliver real-time threat information to members on a 24/7 basis. EWS

  20. Local control of T3 carcinomas after accelerated fractionation: a look at the 'gap'

    Purpose: To study the effects of midcourse treatment break or gaps related to the local control of T3 carcinoma of the oropharynx and larynx following accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: All patients were treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 1979 through 1994 with treatment consisting of 1.6 Gy per fraction, two fractions a day for the treatment of T3 carcinoma of the oropharynx and larynx. They were entered in the head and neck data base. Their treatment dates, treatment breaks, and doses vs. local control were analyzed and compared. A p-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 162 patients were available for review. Due to the acute severe mucosal effects, most of the patients required a midcourse pause or 'break' after a dose of 38.4-48 Gy before treatment could be resumed and completed. The data indicate that (a) prolongation of the treatment gap for more than 14 days, (b) total treatment course longer than 45 days, (c) total dose less than 67 Gy, and (d) male gender adversely affected local control. In spite of the gaps, the female patients with advanced carcinomas enjoyed the benefits of improved local control after the accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy. Conclusions: Accelerated hyperfractionation radiation therapy using 1.6 Gy per fraction/twice-a-day (b.i.d.) for a total dose of 70.4 Gy in 6 weeks is effective in achieving high local control of T3 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and larynx. The midcourse treatment gap should be as short as possible with the projected total dose and time. Should the gaps be unduly prolonged due to various circumstances, further increase in the total dose, for example, 72-75 Gy, and/or increase of the fraction sizes, for example, 1.8-2.0 Gy/f b.i.d. after the gap may be necessary to compensate for the adverse effects of the tumor regeneration from the prolonged gap

  1. An improved phase-control system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures

    Microphonic fluctuations in the rf eigenfrequency of superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the rf phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the tuning range and the rf energy content of the resonant cavity. The accelerating field level of many of the SC cavities forming the ATLAS linac has been limited by the rf power capacity of the presently used PIN-diode based fast-tuner. A new system has been developed, utilizing PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen, with the diodes controlled by a high-voltage VMOS FET driver. The system has operated at reactive power levels above 20 KVA, a factor of four increase over an earlier design. 7 refs., 2 figs

  2. The application software of the CERN PS accelerator controls system - analysis of its cost and resources

    The CERN PS accelerators have evolved into one of the world's most sophisticated high energy physics facility. The variety of beams and their high repetition rate means that a most sophisticated controls system is required. This reflects on the application software. At the time of the completion of the new control system, nearly 1000 programs, amounting to around 450 000 lines of code, have been developed at the cost of approximately 120 man-years. The span of this software ranges from real-time application programs to special purpose development and management tools. This paper documents the cost, resources and production of this software project. These are analyzed in terms of the structure of the application software. Rules-of-thumb are suggested for estimating the required effort at various phases of the project and to define the implementation strategy. (orig.)

  3. Modular system for the control of complex accelerators using portable software

    When designing the Mainz Microtron control system, care was taken to achieve an expandable system with long-lived application software. A multi-processor system was built from the beginning. The software is split into modules, according to function and position in hierarchy, which are distributed over the computers. The decoupling which results from modularity eases software development and maintainance. RATFOR was chosen as implementation language. With a message system for communication between the modules, several aims were reached at once: (1) symbolic addressing of the accelerator components throughout the software layers, (2) transparent access to I/O devices (CAMAC) at remote computers, (3) multitasking in FORTRAN (and RATFOR) programs, (4) a separating layer for adaptation to different operating systems - essential points for software portability. The system is in operation since April 1979 for the control of MAMI stage I

  4. Application of IEEE 1588 to the real-time control system of accelerator

    Background: Time synchronization is one of the core technology of realizing the real-time control of accelerator under the distributed control system architecture. The ordinary crystal frequency deviation of IEEE 1588 causes low synchronous accuracy, which doesn't meet the needs of high precision synchronization. Purpose: This paper proposes an algorithm to improve the synchronization precision caused by the crystal frequency deviation. Methods: According to the basic principle of IEEE 1588 time synchronization, a dynamic frequency compensation (DFC) algorithm module was designed and a test platform was built to verify the feasibility and practicability of the algorithm. The influence of the synchronous cycle and delay jitter of the switch on the synchronization accuracy were analyzed. Results: Experimental results showed the great precision improvement of synchronization after using DFC algorithm. Conclusion: Low synchronous accuracy caused by the crystal frequency deviation can be improved by using DFC algorithm implemented for precision time protocol (PTP) of IEEE 1588. (authors)

  5. Future directions in controlling the LAMPF-PSR accelerator complex at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Four interrelated projects are underway whose purpose is to migrate the LAMPF-PSR Accelerator Complex control systems to a system with a common set of hardware and software components. Project goals address problems in performance, maintenance and growth potential. Front-end hardware, operator interface hardware and software, computer systems, network systems and data system software are being simultaneously upgraded as part of these efforts. The efforts are being coordinated to provide for a smooth and timely migration to a client-server model-based data acquisition and control system. An increased use of distributed intelligence at both the front-end and the operator interface is a key element of the projects. (author)

  6. Future directions in controlling the LAMPF-PSR Accelerator Complex at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Four interrelated projects are underway whose purpose is to migrate the LAMPF-PSR Accelerator Complex control systems to a system with a common set of hardware and software components. Project goals address problems in performance, maintenance and growth potential. Front-end hardware, operator interface hardware and software, computer systems, network systems and data system software are being simultaneously upgraded as part of these efforts. The efforts are being coordinated to provide for a smooth and timely migration to a client-sever model-based data acquisition and control system. An increased use of the distributed intelligence at both the front-end and operator interface is a key element of the projects. 2 refs., 2 figs

  7. Client Server design and implementation issues in the Accelerator Control System environment

    In distributed system communication software design, the Client Server model has been widely used. This paper addresses the design and implementation issues of such a model, particularly when used in Accelerator Control Systems. in designing the Client Server model one needs to decide how the services will be defined for a server, what types of messages the server will respond to, which data formats will be used for the network transactions and how the server will be located by the client. Special consideration needs to be given to error handling both on the server and client side. Since the server usually is located on a machine other than the client, easy and informative server diagnostic capability is required. The higher level abstraction provided by the Client Server model simplifies the application writing, however fine control over network parameters is essential to improve the performance. Above mentioned design issues and implementation trade-offs are discussed in this paper

  8. Utilization of Integrated Process Control, Data Capture, and Data Analysis in Construction of Accelerator Systems

    Jefferson Lab has developed a web-based system that integrates commercial database, data analysis, document archiving and retrieval, and user interface software, into a coherent knowledge management product (Pansophy). This product provides important tools for the successful pursuit of major projects such as accelerator system development and construction, by offering elements of process and procedure control, data capture and review, and data mining and analysis. After a period of initial development, Pansophy is now being used in Jefferson Lab's SNS superconducting linac construction effort, as a means for structuring and implementing the QA program, for process control and tracking, and for cryomodule test data capture and presentation/analysis. Development of Pansophy is continuing, in particular data queries and analysis functions that are the cornerstone of its utility

  9. Electron Accelerator Facilities

    Lecture presents main aspects of progress in development of industrial accelerators: adaptation of accelerators primary built for scientific experiments, electron energy and beam power increase in certain accelerator constructions, computer control system managing accelerator start-up, routine operation and technological process, maintenance (diagnostics), accelerator technology perfection (electrical efficiency, operation cost), compact and more efficient accelerator constructions, reliability improvement according to industrial standards, accelerators for MW power levels and accelerators tailored for specific use

  10. MAGNET / INFRASTRUCTURE

    D. Campi

    The final fast discharge of the Magnet took place on 3rd of November. The Coil reached a temperature of 70K by internal energy dissipation. By injecting a current of 200 A room temperature was reached on the 23rd November. During the heating of the coil un-connecting of the first magnet connectors on YBO was started to give the earliest possible access to the assembly groups and to continue the installation of the muon chambers. The removal of the pumping lines and the disconnection of the vacuum system was instead done as soon as the room temperature was reached: more precisely from the 4 to the 18 December. The disconnection of the transfer line from the cold box and the completion of the removal of the control cables of the vacuum system and cryogenics was done at last. In January 2007 the disconnection of MCS-MSS, CDS, vacuum racks and their cable trays was also achieved. After coil disconnection the effort of the magnet team has been mainly devoted in optimizing the lowering and reassembly of the a...

  11. Control system for linear induction accelerator LIA-2: the structure and hardware

    The Power Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) for flash radiography is commissioned in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk. It is a facility producing pulsed electron beam with energy 2 MeV, current 1 kA and spot size less than 2 mm. Beam quality and reliability are required for radiography experiments. The control system of LIA is functionally divided into four subsystems: pulsed power control subsystem, timing subsystem, waveform recording subsystem and interlock subsystem. Features and structure of distributed control system ensuring these demands are discussed. Control system hardware based on CompactPCI and PMC standards is embedded directly into power pulsed generators. CAN-BUS and Ethernet are used as interconnection protocols. Parameters and essential details for measuring equipment and control electronics produced in BINP and available COTS are presented. LIA was tested at single pulse regime of operation and a diameter of the electron beam less than 1.3 mm was achieved. High reliability of the hardware was demonstrated in an environment of high-voltage discharges

  12. Retrospective analysis of linear accelerator output constancy checks using process control techniques.

    Sanghangthum, Taweap; Suriyapee, Sivalee; Srisatit, Somyot; Pawlicki, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Shewhart control charts have previously been suggested as a process control tool for use in routine linear accelerator (linac) output verifications. However, a comprehensive approach to process control has not been investigated for linac output verifications. The purpose of this work is to investigate a comprehensive process control approach to linac output constancy quality assurance (QA). The RBA-3 dose constancy check was used to verify outputs of photon beams and electron beams delivered by a Varian Clinac 21EX linac. The data were collected during 2009 to 2010. Shewhart-type control charts, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) charts, and capability indices were applied to these processes. The Shewhart-type individuals chart (X-chart) was used and the number of data points used to calculate the control limits was varied. The parameters tested for the EWMA charts (smoothing parameter (λ) and the control limit width (L)) were λ = 0.05, L = 2.492; λ = 0.10, L = 2.703; and λ = 0.20, L = 2.860, as well as the number of points used to estimate the initial process mean and variation. Lastly, the number of in-control data points used to determine process capability (C(p)) and acceptability (C(pk)) were investigated, comparing the first in-control run to the longest in-control run of the process data. C(p) and C(pk) values greater than 1.0 were considered acceptable. The 95% confidence intervals were reported. The X-charts detected systematic errors (e.g., device setup errors). In-control run lengths on the X-charts varied from 5 to 30 output measurements (about one to seven months). EWMA charts showed in-control runs ranging from 9 to 33 output measurements (about two to eight months). The C(p) and C(pk) ratios are higher than 1.0 for all energies, except 12 and 20 MeV. However, 10 MV and 6, 9, and 16 MeV were in question when considering the 95% confidence limits. The X-chart should be calculated using 8-12 data points. For EWMA chart, using 4 data points

  13. Development of Java libraries for accelerator control applications in J-PARC

    For efficiently management of several thousands of equipments in J-PARC, we need the control applications with united UI (User Interface). Moreover, for efficiently development of such applications, we need to make libraries to share basic modules of them. On the other hand, we are developing such control applications with a programming language Java because of the following advantages. (1) Java is a standard object-oriented language and independent from platforms, so applications written with Java have advantages to maintain, (2) There are many general and good quality libraries developed by Java, moreover there are libraries specialized to accelerators, such like JCA and XAL, (3) The development of the technologies around Java are remarkable in these days, so there are potentialities to apply such high technologies to the applications. So we have been developing the libraries for the control applications with Java. The libraries provide the basic parts of the function such a I/O or UI, etc. which will be often appeared in the control applications, and moreover modulate concepts of devices and channels. The one of final goals is to use the libraries in the high-level applications, which work on a variety of kinds of equipments for many purposes of commissioning, and also have the functions of the simulations. In this paper we will describe the basic concepts, structures, problems, and directions to the future of the libraries. (author)

  14. A distributed CAN bus based embedded control system for 750 KeV DC accelerator

    This paper describes a distributed embedded system that uses a high performance mixed signal controller C8051F040 for its DAQ nodes and is based on CAN bus protocol for remote monitoring and controlling of various subsystems of 750 KeV DC accelerator based irradiation facility at RRCAT, Indore. A PC with integrated PCI CAN card communicates with intelligent DAQ nodes over CAN bus and each node is interfaced with a subsystem. An opto isolated SN65HVD230 CAN driver is interfaced between each node and physical bus. Remote frames and message prioritising are used for efficient control. The PC application is developed using LabVIEW 8.6. The proposed system is more reliable and noise immune as compared to previously used systems that initially used a centralized system based on C8051 controller. This was then upgraded to a distributed system that used microcontroller AduC812 and communicated over RS485 link. The new system has been integrated and tested satisfactorily for its designed performance with test jigs that simulated the actual subsystems with a bus length of 75 meters. First the complete scheme of the system is presented, and then the hardware and software designs are discussed. (author)

  15. A microcomputer real-time monitor for the control of a particle accelerator

    The physical management of a particle accelerator requests the supervision and the control of a great number of parameters and various devices. A hierarchically structured multicomputer control system was implemented on the Synchrocyclotron of the 'Institut de Physique Nucleaire' at Orsay (France). A set of 3 microcomputers MICRAL (manufactured in France around an Intel 8080 microprocessor chip) is connected through a CAMAC link to an IBM 1130 central computer used for the general control. At the lowest level, measurements and supervisions are made by the means of special hardwired systems built in the Laboratory (the CSTIs). On the other hand, some measurements are done by using a conventional industrial data acquisition system. All these systems are managed by the 3 MICRALs, as also some independent devices (function generator, radioprotection beacons, beam profile encoders). A real-time monitor resident in the MICRAL computers is responsible for task activations, resource allocation and data exchange management, especially with the main control computer. It uses for the 6 interrupt levels of the MICRAL and it builds and manages in the memory a set of descriptive block and of data stacks

  16. A modified feed-forward control system at the Accelerator Test Facility

    A modified feed-forward control system has been operated at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility to control the phase and amplitude of two high power klystron rf systems used to power a photocathode rf gun and a traveling wave electron linac. The changes to the control algorithm include an improved handling of cross coupling between the amplitude and the phase channels, an improved calibration routine that allows for changes in the matrix elements due to the variable base-line and improved filtering. The modifications to the software include modularity, portability, and user-friendliness. Improvements to the hardware include a linearized phase and amplitude controller with dc biasing for an improved dynamic range. The feed-forward system can handle nonlinear and noninstantaneous systems. With simultaneous regulation of two channels, the phase and the amplitude fluctuations over a time span of more than 3 μS were reduced to less than ±0.2 degree and ±0.2%, from the initial ±2.7 degree and ±1.8%, respectively. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Role of vestibular sensor on body sway control: coherence between head acceleration and stabilogram.

    Teixeira, Felipe G; Jesus, Igor R T; Mello, Roger G T; Nadal, Jurandir

    2012-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the role of the vestibular system in the postural sway control using the coherence function. A sample of 19 young, healthy male adults was monitored with a three axial accelerometer placed over the head during a stabilometric test, standing on a force platform during 3 min in four conditions: eyes closed and open, and feet apart and together. The magnitude squared coherence (MSC) function and Monte Carlo simulation was used to correlate changes in body sway with head accelerations. Significant MSC values were found in the frequency range 0.1-0.5 Hz, mainly in conditions of larger oscillations: eyes closed and feet together. These results may be related to utricular otoliths responses and ankle strategy. PMID:23367028

  18. Beam steering: A Test bench for generic algorithms in accelerator controls

    The operation of a complex accelerator system such as LEP or the future LHC at CERN demands automatic and standard controls to make it easy to use and reliable in all circumstances. A class of beam manipulations is the steering in the various machines and transfer channels. An algorithm has been devised to satisfy the required condition of genericity. It is based on a least squares method and yields a correction system which is not necessarily well conditioned in a usual operational environment where correctors and monitors may be either missing or redundant. The algorithm has been coded in Mathematica and implemented in the CERN PS control system. It is called through the MathLink protocol by an application program linked to standard beam position measurement software. With this technique, the development of the algorithm and its linkage to the control system are fully de-coupled. The application will become generic as soon as the magnetic and optical parameters will be loaded in data bases

  19. Radiation protection infrastructure

    A prerequisite for the safe use of ionizing radiation in a country is the availability of an adequate infrastructure to achieve the desired degree of protection. The extent of such an infrastructure, generally comprising regulatory mechanisms and technical capabilities for application and enforcement of regulations, has to be commensurate with the stage of technological development. The expanding application of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research calls for vigorous promotion of effective radiation protection efforts, not only to prevent any unsafe practices but also to assess correctly and provide authoritative information on the safety of adopted practices. Experience reveals that radiation protection practices vary considerably from one country to another. The regulatory structures and type of organization with regard to radiation protection are very different, depending on a number of factors such as the constitutional framework, the legal and administrative systems of the country concerned, the state of technical development, the status of application of radiation sources, the existence of research and associated institutions, and the technical skills and financial resources available. Radiation protection principles evolve with time as further experience is gained and as new research evidence becomes available. Regulation of radiation protection has to take account of such changes and adapt to changing conditions. Forty-eight papers from 29 Member States and two International Organizations were presented in nine scientific sessions. Topics included radiation protection regulation and licensing notification, registration, inspection and control programmes, education and training, the role of supporting institutions such as national laboratories and research institutes, the role of professional associations, the contribution of radiation protection services, and international activities. A concluding panel addressed development strategies to

  20. Infrastructure Concessions in Chile

    Gómez-Lobo, Andrés; Hinojosa, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    To increase investment in infrastructure, in the early 1990s Chiles government introduced private capital into the transport infrastructure sector, covering roads and highways, bridges, tunnels, and airports. The chosen mechanism: a concession scheme through which private firms would finance and build a given project and then operate the infrastructure for a set of number of years, recover...

  1. An overview of application and radiation safety aspects of linear accelerators in Brazilian industry

    This work presents a brief description of the situation of Brazilian Regulatory Authority about safety control on Industrial Linear Accelerators Installations. It shows the national regulatory infrastructure responsible for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure, the national inventory of industrial installations, the national system of inspection and enforcement and the national system for qualifying the radiation protection officer. Some results of regulatory safety inspections are also showed in this work. (author)

  2. An overview of applications and radiation safety aspects of linear accelerators in Brazilian industry

    This work presents a brief description of the situation of Brazilian Regulatory Authority about safety control on Industrial Linear Accelerators Installations. It shows the national regulatory infrastructure responsible for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure, the national inventory of industrial installations, the national system of inspection and enforcement and the national system for qualifying the radiation protection officer. Some results of regulatory safety inspections are also showed in this work. (author)

  3. Composite multi-modal vibration control for a stiffened plate using non-collocated acceleration sensor and piezoelectric actuator

    A novel active method for multi-mode vibration control of an all-clamped stiffened plate (ACSP) is proposed in this paper, using the extended-state-observer (ESO) approach based on non-collocated acceleration sensors and piezoelectric actuators. Considering the estimated capacity of ESO for system state variables, output superposition and control coupling of other modes, external excitation, and model uncertainties simultaneously, a composite control method, i.e., the ESO based vibration control scheme, is employed to ensure the lumped disturbances and uncertainty rejection of the closed-loop system. The phenomenon of phase hysteresis and time delay, caused by non-collocated sensor/actuator pairs, degrades the performance of the control system, even inducing instability. To solve this problem, a simple proportional differential (PD) controller and acceleration feed-forward with an output predictor design produce the control law for each vibration mode. The modal frequencies, phase hysteresis loops and phase lag values due to non-collocated placement of the acceleration sensor and piezoelectric patch actuator are experimentally obtained, and the phase lag is compensated by using the Smith Predictor technology. In order to improve the vibration control performance, the chaos optimization method based on logistic mapping is employed to auto-tune the parameters of the feedback channel. The experimental control system for the ACSP is tested using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed composite active control algorithm is an effective approach for suppressing multi-modal vibrations. (paper)

  4. A piezo-driven micro-inclination stage for calibration of a micro-acceleration transducer: structure and control strategy

    Shao, Shubao; Song, Siyang; Xu, Minglong; Xie, Shilin; Li, Liang

    2016-02-01

    In some space applications, such as space navigation and vibration control of the large space structures, micro-acceleration transducers are required and have to be calibrated accurately. Unfortunately, providing extremely small static and quasi-static stimuli (accelerations) for the calibration of the micro-acceleration transducer has been a challenging task. This paper proposes a novel piezo-driven micro-inclination stage (PMIS) that can produce both discrete and continuous tumbles in a gravity field so that extremely small static and quasi-static stimuli (accelerations) can be obtained from a tiny component of the gravity constant. The proposed PMIS, which is driven by the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stack, employs a rhombic mechanism to provide the PZT stack with a proper preload for the purpose of outputting a bidirectional force. To produce accurate static and quasi-static stimuli, the hysteresis non-linearity inherent in PZT stack is compensated by employing the strain feedback based adaptive control where the hysteresis property is identified online using the controlled auto-regressive moving average model. Furthermore, to improve the resolution of strain feedback, the strain sensitivity is maximized through structure optimization of the rhombic mechanism. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed PMIS can produce minimal micro-inclination of {{0.1}\\prime \\prime} (corresponding to the induced micro-acceleration of 0.5μ g ) with the frequency ranging from 0 (DC) to 2 Hz.

  5. Microstructural changes after control rolling and interrupted accelerated cooling simulations in pipeline steel

    Sanchez-Mourino, Nuria; Petrov, Roumen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Bae, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kisoo [Sheet Products and Process Research Group, POSCO, Jeonnam, 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Kestens, Leo A.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The {gamma}-{alpha} transformation and final microstructure in pipeline steel was studied by carrying out a number of physical simulations of industrial hot rolling schedules. Particularly, the effect of the reheating temperature, deformation and cooling parameters on the transformation temperatures and final grain size were considered with a goal to obtain an appropriate thermo-mechanical processing route which will generate appropriate microstructures for pipeline applications. The CCT diagram of the steel was derived experimentally by means of dilatometric tests. Hot torsion experiments were applied in a multi-deformation cycle at various temperatures in the austenite region to simulate industrial rolling schedules. By variation of the reheating temperature, equivalent strain, and accelerated cooling, different types of microstructures were obtained. It was found that the deformation increases the transformation temperatures whereas the higher cooling rates after deformation decrease them. Post-deformation microstructure consists of fine bainitic-ferrite grains with dispersed carbides and small amount of dispersed martensite/austenite islands which can be controlled by varying the reheating temperature, deformation and post-deformation cooling. The detailed microstructure characteristics obtained from the present work could be used to optimize the mechanical properties, strength and toughness of pipeline steel grades by an appropriate control of the thermo-mechanical processing. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  7. Optimization of active distribution networks: Design and analysis of significative case studies for enabling control actions of real infrastructure

    Moneta Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of Distributed Generation (DG based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES requires new strategies to ensure reliable and economic operation of the distribution networks and to support the diffusion of DG itself. An advanced algorithm (DISCoVER – DIStribution Company VoltagE Regulator is being developed to optimize the operation of active network by means of an advanced voltage control based on several regulations. Starting from forecasted load and generation, real on-field measurements, technical constraints and costs for each resource, the algorithm generates for each time period a set of commands for controllable resources that guarantees achievement of technical goals minimizing the overall cost. Before integrating the controller into the telecontrol system of the real networks, and in order to validate the proper behaviour of the algorithm and to identify possible critical conditions, a complete simulation phase has started. The first step is concerning the definition of a wide range of “case studies”, that are the combination of network topology, technical constraints and targets, load and generation profiles and “costs” of resources that define a valid context to test the algorithm, with particular focus on battery and RES management. First results achieved from simulation activity on test networks (based on real MV grids and actual battery characteristics are given, together with prospective performance on real case applications.

  8. Specific features of planning algorithms for dispatching software of a digital computer, operating in an accelerator control system

    The main principles are presented of a program dispatching system (DS) of the computer operating in the control and data acquisition system of the accelerator. The DS is intended for planning and execution of operating program sequence in accordance with the operational features of the accelerator. Modularity and hierarchy principles are the main characteristics of the system. The ''Planner'' module is described. The module regulates inquiries for utilization of the processor and memory and ensures their service. The ''Planner'' operation algorithm provides a simultaneous execution of programs with the processes occurring in the accelerator. The ''Planner'' planning algorithm controls presence of the programs requested and ensures their execution under multiprogram conditions. Brief characteristics of other modules of the DS are given. They are the ''distributor'', ''loader'', and ''interrupter''. Characteristics of the planning algorithms described have been realized in the DS and found in full agreement with all the conditions and limitations of the system

  9. Joint deployment of refuelling infrastructure and vehicles

    A wide range of fuels will be used in future transportation technologies. This presentation discussed refuelling infrastructure solutions for alternative fuels. A well-placed demonstration infrastructure will help to accelerate market development. Stakeholder collaboration is needed to create high value business paradigms and identify stakeholder benefits. Infrastructure paradigms include the home; businesses; retail public refuelling forecourts; and multi-fuel waste heat recovery sites. Commercial nodes can be developed along major transportation routes. Stakeholder groups include technology providers, supply chain and service providers, commercial end-users, and government. A successful alternative fuel infrastructure model will consider market development priorities, time frames and seed investment opportunities. Applications must be market-driven in order to expand. A case study of the natural gas vehicle (NGV) program in Ontario was also discussed, as well as various hydrogen projects. tabs., figs.

  10. A control system on production line of 200 kV self-shielded electron accelerator coating solidification

    A description on a control system on production line of 200 kV self-shielded electron accelerator coating solidification, including interface module assignment, the methods of mouse operation, chinese display in english DOS is presented. Although it is designed for special use, yet transformation for other purpose is very simple

  11. The Infrastructure for regulatory Control of Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in Sierra Leone. National Report

    Regulatory control of radioactive materials and source commenced in 2001 with the enactment of the Protection from Radiation Act, 2001. The Act established the Radiation Protection Board as the sole regulatory body for the control of the uses of radiation. The Act was found to be inconsistent with the IAEA and other International Requirements by an Integral Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) Mission in 2008. The Act was revised and replaced by the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Act, 2012. The 2012 Act established the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Authority as the sole regulatory body for control of the use of radiation in Sierra Leone. The Authority has a supervisory Board known as the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board, comprising of 11 (eleven) Members and a Chairman. All the eleven Board Members are Ex-officio representing various Stakeholder Institutions/Establishments. The Chairman is the Dean of the Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone. The Board has a Secretariat which carries out the day-to-day technical duties of the Authority. There are 14 (Fourteen) Scientists and 10 (Ten) Support Staff Members making a total of 24 (Twenty-Four) Staff Members. Through the Secretariat, the Authority now undertakes Notification, Inspection, Authorization and Enforcement for all radiation sources in the country. Inspections are regularly conducted on all radiation facilities in the country. An Inventory of radiation sources has been developed and a National Register of all radiation sources prepared. There are 148 facilities registered in the source register and a total of 741 radiation sources in the country. Monitoring of occupational exposed workers is being carried out using a Rados Semi-Automatic TLD Readers. Most of the monitored workers are at the Mines, Medical Facilities, Construction Companies and the Brewery. Some monitoring of NORMS is carried out particularly at the Mines. Some minerals

  12. 控制建设项目投资的对策分析%ANALYSIS ON THE STRATEGY OF CONTROLLING INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS

    徐宇昕

    2001-01-01

    Currently,the cost of infrastruchure projets is often overrun thecost estimated. How to take effective measures to control the inve st ment to ensure there is no cost overrun has been a major issue of concem for dep artment of examination and approval,responsible sections and projects owners.The reasons causing cost overruns in the infrastructure projects at present in Chin a is preliminarily analyzed and the relevant strategies on investment control ar e discussed.%目前建设项目超概的现象非常普遍,如何采取有效的措施控制投资,确保投资不突破设计概算,是项目审批部门、行业主管部门及业主十分关心的问题.本文对目前我国建设项目超概的原因进行初步分析,并探讨控制投资的相关对策.

  13. Asynchronous data change notification between database server and accelerator control systems

    Database data change notification (DCN) is a commonly used feature, it allows to be informed when the data has been changed on the server side by another client. Not all database management systems (DBMS) provide an explicit DCN mechanism. Even for those DBMS's which support DCN (such as Oracle and MS SQL server), some server side and/or client side programming may be required to make the DCN system work. This makes the setup of DCN between database server and interested clients tedious and time consuming. In accelerator control systems, there are many well established software client/server architectures (such as CDEV, EPICS, and ADO) that can be used to implement data reflection servers that transfer data asynchronously to any client using the standard SET/GET API. This paper describes a method for using such a data reflection server to set up asynchronous DCN (ADCN) between a DBMS and clients. This method works well for all DBMS systems which provide database trigger functionality. (authors)

  14. WindoWorks: A flexible program for computerized testing of accelerator control system electronic circuit boards

    Since most accelerator control system circuit boards reside in a commercial bus architecture, such as CAMAC or VMEbus, a computerized test station is needed for exercising the boards. This test station is needed for the development of newly designed prototypes, for commissioning newly manufactured boards, for diagnosing boards which have failed in service, and for long term testing of boards with intermittent failure problems. WindoWorks was created to address these needs. It is a flexible program which runs on a PC compatible computer and uses a PC to bus crate interface. WindoWorks was designed to give the user a flexible way to test circuit boards. Each test is incapsulated into a window. By bringing up several different windows the user can run several different tests simultaneously. The windows are sizable, and moveable. They have data entry boxes so that the test can be customized to the users preference. The windows can be used in conjunction with each other in order to create supertests. There are several windows which are generic. They can be used to test basic functions on any VME (or CAMAC) board. There are other windows which have been created to test specific boards. New windows for testing specific boards can be easily created by a Pascal programmer using the WindoWorks framework

  15. Separations in steels subjected to controlled rolling, followed by accelerated cooling

    Farber, V. M.; Khotinov, V. A.; Belikov, S. V.; Selivanova, O. V.; Lezhnin, N. V.; Morozova, A. N.; Karabonalov, M. S.; Zhilyakov, A. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    Zones on the fracture surfaces of Charpy specimens and profiles of the fractures of these specimens are examined using impact-bending tests carried out in the temperature range of +20 to-90°C and fractography. The specimens were cut out of hot-rolled plates produced from 05G2B super-low-carbon steels that contained Ti, Nb, V, and Cu microadditives using controlled rolling, followed by accelerated cooling. A detailed analysis of separations, including a study of the morphology, number, area of separations, and the surrounding stress-relaxation zones, and the structure of the walls, has allowed us to identify the mechanisms of the origination and growth of the separations. It has been found that the correlated changes in the length, width, and depth of the separations are accompanied by the formation and expansion of the stress-relaxation zones around the separations. The rate of expansion of the area of these zones is higher than that of the area of the separations, which favors the macroplastic fracture of the specimens.

  16. Acceleratr Infrastructure in Europe EuCARD 2011, International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunication, vol.57, no 3, pp.413-419, September 2011

    Romaniuk, R S

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the annual meeting of the EuCARD – European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development. The conference concerns building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement – control networks of l...

  17. Temperature control system for the study of single event effects in integrated circuits using a cyclotron accelerator

    Bakerenkov, A.S., E-mail: as_bakerenkov@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Belyakov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozyukov, A.E. [Joint-Stock Company Institute of Space Device Engineering (JSC ISDE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershenkov, V.S.; Solomatin, A.V.; Shurenkov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-11

    The temperature control system for the study of single event disruptions produced by hard ion impacts in integrated circuits is described. Heating and cooling of the irradiated device are achieved using thermoelectric modules (Peltier modules). The thermodynamic performance of the system is estimated. The technique for the numerical estimation of the main parameters of the temperature control system for cooling and heating is considered. The results of a test of the system in a vacuum cell of an accelerator are presented.

  18. Do Functional Keratin Dressings Accelerate Epithelialization in Human Partial Thickness Wounds? A Randomized Controlled Trial on Skin Graft Donor Sites

    Davidson, Andrew; Jina, N. Hamesh; Marsh, Clive; Than, Martin; Simcock, Jeremy W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine if the experimental (keratin-based) dressing accelerates epithelialization rates during healing of partial-thickness wounds, relative to a Standard Care dressing. Method: A randomized control trial was conducted using a Standard Care dressing side by side with the experimental dressing on a sample (n=26) of partial-thickness donor site wounds. The proximal/distal placement of the control and treatment was randomized. Percentage epithelialization after approximately 7 d...

  19. Temperature control system for the study of single event effects in integrated circuits using a cyclotron accelerator

    The temperature control system for the study of single event disruptions produced by hard ion impacts in integrated circuits is described. Heating and cooling of the irradiated device are achieved using thermoelectric modules (Peltier modules). The thermodynamic performance of the system is estimated. The technique for the numerical estimation of the main parameters of the temperature control system for cooling and heating is considered. The results of a test of the system in a vacuum cell of an accelerator are presented

  20. VMAT linear accelerator commissioning and quality assurance: dose control and gantry speed tests.

    Barnes, Michael P; Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Greer, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    In VMAT treatment delivery the ability of the linear accelerator (linac) to accurately control dose versus gantry angle is critical to delivering the plan correctly. A new VMAT test delivery was developed to specifically test the dose versus gantry angle with the full range of allowed gantry speeds and dose rates. The gantry-mounted IBA MatriXX with attached inclinometer was used in movie mode to measure the instantaneous relative dose versus gantry angle during the plan every 0.54 s. The results were compared to the expected relative dose at each gantry angle calculated from the plan. The same dataset was also used to compare the instantaneous gan-try speeds throughout the delivery compared to the expected gantry speeds from the plan. Measurements performed across four linacs generally show agreement between measurement and plan to within 1.5% in the constant dose rate regions and dose rate modulation within 0.1 s of the plan. Instantaneous gantry speed was measured to be within 0.11°/s of the plan (1 SD). An error in one linac was detected in that the nominal gantry speed was incorrectly calibrated. This test provides a practical method to quality-assure critical aspects of VMAT delivery including dose versus gantry angle and gantry speed control. The method can be performed with any detector that can acquire time-resolved dosimetric information that can be synchronized with a measurement of gantry angle. The test fulfils several of the aims of the recent Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry (NCS) Report 24, which provides recommendations for comprehensive VMAT quality assurance. PMID:27167282

  1. Non-actively controlled double-inverted-pendulum-like dynamics can minimize center of mass acceleration during human quiet standing.

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Morimoto, Hiroki; Kiyono, Ken; Morasso, Pietro; Nomura, Taishin

    2015-08-01

    Multiple joint movements during human quiet standing exhibit characteristic inter-joint coordination, shortly referred to as reciprocal relationship, in which angular acceleration of the hip joint is linearly and negatively correlated with that of the ankle joint (antiphase coordination) and, moreover, acceleration of the center of mass (CoM) of the double-inverted-pendulum (DIP) model of the human body is close to zero constantly. A question considered in this study is whether the reciprocal relationship is established by active neural control of the posture, or rather it is a biomechanical consequence of non-actively controlled body dynamics. To answer this question, we consider a DIP model of quiet standing, and show that the reciprocal relationship always holds by Newton's second law applied to the DIP model with human anthropometric dimensions, regardless of passive and active joint torque patterns acting on the ankle and hip joints. We then show that characteristic frequencies included in experimental sway trajectories with the reciprocal relationship match with harmonics of the eigenfrequency of the stable antiphase eigenmode of the non-actively controlled DIP-like unstable body dynamics. The results suggest that non-actively controlled DIP-like mechanical dynamics is a major cause of the minimization of the CoM acceleration during quiet standing, which is consistent with a type of control strategy that allows switching off active neural control intermittently for suitable periods of time during quiet standing. PMID:26736538

  2. Infrastructure and trade

    Nordås, Hildegunn Kyvik; Piermartini, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the role that quality of infrastructure has on a country's trade performance, estimating a gravity model that incorporates bilateral tariffs and a number of indicators for the quality of infrastructure. The paper looks at the impact of the quality of infrastructure (road, airport, port and telecommunication, and the time required for customs clearance) on total bilateral trade and on trade in the automotive, clothing and textile sectors. In order to obtain unbiased estimat...

  3. Trends in infrastructure

    Greg Coombs; Chris Roberts

    2007-01-01

    The adequacy of Australia’s infrastructure has been a long-standing topic of debate. This article provides some insight into the question of infrastructure adequacy by examining trends in investment across OECD countries, and discusses some of the fundamental factors influencing Australia’s investment relative to other OECD countries. The article also looks at the question of the changing composition of public and private infrastructure spending in Australia over recent decades.

  4. Company infrastructure management system

    Rykunich Anastasiya Yu.; Shvydanenko Genefa A.

    2013-01-01

    The article studies the content, structure and methods of organisational influence upon the company infrastructure. It offers definition of the company infrastructure from the point of view of a complex approach and also functional structure of the infrastructural complex, which allowed allocation of component elements and analysis of their role in servicing main production. The article analyses advantages and risks under conditions of attraction of outsourcing companies into company infrastr...

  5. Cavity digital control testing system by Simulink step operation method for TESLA linear accelerator and free electron laser

    Czarski, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Simrock, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    The cavity control system for the TESLA -- TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator project is initially introduced in this paper. The FPGA -- Field Programmable Gate Array technology has been implemented for digital controller stabilizing cavity field gradient. The cavity SIMULINK model has been applied to test the hardware controller. The step operation method has been developed for testing the FPGA device coupled to the SIMULINK model of the analog real plant. The FPGA signal processing has been verified according to the required algorithm of the reference MATLAB controller. Some experimental results have been presented for different cavity operational conditions.

  6. Geospatial Information Infrastructure

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Information Infrastructure (GII) system is the Departments common solution architecture for the enterprise geospatial segment administered by the DHS...

  7. Capture and Control of Laser-Accelerated Proton Beams: Experiment and Simulation

    This paper summarizes the ongoing studies on the possibilities for transport and RF capture of laser-accelerated proton beams in conventional accelerator structures. First results on the capture of laser-accelerated proton beams are presented, supported by Trace3D, CST particle studio and Warp simulations. Based on these results, the development of the pulsed high-field solenoid is guided by our desire to optimize the output particle number for this highly divergent beam with an exponential energy spectrum. A future experimental test stand is proposed to do studies concerning the application as a new particle source

  8. Fiber-optic control system for LAE 10 accelerator and pulse radiolysis experimental set

    The LAE 10 accelerator is used in nanosecond pulse radiolysis experiments as a source of 10 ns pulses of high energy electrons. The accelerator system was elaborated in the years 1991-1993. Inseparable connections of the optical fiber marrow with E/O and O/E converters (executed in welding technique) ensured a high stability of the optical parameters at a very long time. The preparation of connections needed adoption of expensive instrumentation from an optoelectronic laboratory in Warsaw. In presented paper authors describe their own action to improve operation of the LAE 10 accelerator existing in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

  9. open-quote BUBBANET close-quote - A high performance network for the SSC Accelerator Control System

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory imposes particularly strict requirements on data networks used in the control and monitoring of accelerator equipment. These requirements are a consequence of the large size (approximately 100 km of accelerators), large number of control points (544,000), and the complexity of the equipment. An overview of the technical systems to be monitored and the projected data rates is presented, emphasizing systems with stringent data communications requirements. The authors can characterize these requirements in terms of expected network traffic, network throughput or average latency. Analysis of these traffic patterns as applied to different network architectures will aid in identifying the essential components of the final network architecture which meets or exceeds these requirements. They will report on the design decisions and initial results of performance tests on the controls communications network

  10. Use of the TACL [Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic] system at CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] for control of the Cryogenic Test Facility

    A logic-based control software system, called Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic (TACL), is under development at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA. The first version of the software was placed in service in November, 1987 for control of cryogenics during the first superconducting RF cavity tests at CEBAF. In August, 1988 the control system was installed at the Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) at CEBAF. CTF generated liquid helium in September, 1988 and is now in full operation for the current round of cavity tests. TACL is providing a powerful and flexible controls environment for the operation of CTF. 3 refs

  11. Fibre optic control for electron gun power supplies and data acquisition of 3 MeV DC accelerator

    A 3 MeV, 10 mA DC Industrial Electron Beam Accelerator is being commissioned at Electron Beam Centre, Navi Mumbai. The electron beam is generated by a triode electron gun and injected into the accelerating column at 5 keV. The gun and its power supplies, (5 kV anode, 3 kV grid and 15V/20A filament), are floating at 3 Million volts, and are situated in a tank which is pressurized with SF6 at 6 kg/cm2. These power supplies are required to be controlled remotely. The various accelerator parameters like Beam Energy, Beam Current, RF Electrode Voltage, Power Oscillator Plate Voltage / Current and Vacuum are required to be monitored during beam operation. The software was developed in VB.Net for control and data acquisition. The database is provided in SQL 2005 for storing the data. For this purpose, control system using ADAM modules and Optical fibre has been designed and developed. This paper describes the design features of the control system and experience of use of control software during initial beam trials. (author)

  12. High-frequency driving device with wide-range phase control at the I-2 accelerator

    Ahigh-frequency driving device, providing pulse excitation of three high-power RF generators at the frequency of 148.5 MHz,and also assigning drive and maintaining of any ratios between HF oscillation phases in accelerator cavity resonators is designed for the I-2 proton accelerator. Pghase shifters are designed on the basis of artificial lines with LC-sections. 3 refs.; 4 figs

  13. Green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  14. Supporting clinicians in infrastructuring

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Karasti, Helena

    2015-01-01

    notion of infrastructuring, we carry out an infrastructural analysis of eWBs and approach our joint efforts as unfolding and continuing the con-figuration of participatory design activities. We identify a need for local support and novel competences among the clinicians in order for them to engage in...

  15. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  16. Clustering of Infrastructure

    Willems, J.K.C.A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Bundling or converging infrastructure has been the leading principle for locating infrastructure since the mid seventies. It is assumed to offer certain advantages, such as a restriction of severance, consumption of free space and environmental hindrance. However, the concept of converging infrastru

  17. Modeling and Managing Risk in Billing Infrastructures

    Baiardi, Fabrizio; Telmon, Claudio; Sgandurra, Daniele

    This paper discusses risk modeling and risk management in information and communications technology (ICT) systems for which the attack impact distribution is heavy tailed (e.g., power law distribution) and the average risk is unbounded. Systems with these properties include billing infrastructures used to charge customers for services they access. Attacks against billing infrastructures can be classified as peripheral attacks and backbone attacks. The goal of a peripheral attack is to tamper with user bills; a backbone attack seeks to seize control of the billing infrastructure. The probability distribution of the overall impact of an attack on a billing infrastructure also has a heavy-tailed curve. This implies that the probability of a massive impact cannot be ignored and that the average impact may be unbounded - thus, even the most expensive countermeasures would be cost effective. Consequently, the only strategy for managing risk is to increase the resilience of the infrastructure by employing redundant components.

  18. Acceleration feedback control (AFC) enhanced by disturbance observation and compensation (DOC) for high precision tracking in telescope systems

    Wang, Qiang; Cai, Hua-Xiang; Huang, Yong-Mei; Ge, Liang; Tang, Tao; Su, Yan-Rui; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jin-Ying; He, Dong; Du, Sheng-Ping; Ling, Yu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a cascade acceleration feedback control (AFC) enhanced by a disturbance observation and compensation (DOC) method is proposed to improve the tracking precision of telescope systems. Telescope systems usually suffer some uncertain disturbances, such as wind load, nonlinear friction and other unknown disturbances. To ensure tracking precision, an acceleration feedback loop which can increase the stiffness of such a system is introduced. Moreover, to further improve the tracking precision, we introduce the DOC method which can accurately estimate the disturbance and compensate it. Furthermore, the analysis of tracking accuracy used by this method is proposed. Finally, a few comparative experimental results show that the proposed control method has excellent performance for reducing the tracking error of a telescope system.

  19. Using Patterns for Multivariate Monitoring and Feedback Control of Linear Accelerator Performance: Proof-of-Concept Research

    The report discusses preliminary proof-of-concept research for using the Advanced Data Validation and Verification System (ADVVS), a new INEEL software package, to add validation and verification and multivariate feedback control to the operation of non-destructive analysis (NDA) equipment. The software is based on human cognition, the recognition of patterns and changes in patterns in time-related data. The first project applied ADVVS to monitor operations of a selectable energy linear electron accelerator, and showed how the software recognizes in real time any deviations from the optimal tune of the machine. The second project extended the software method to provide model-based multivariate feedback control for the same linear electron accelerator. The projects successfully demonstrated proof-of-concept for the applications and focused attention on the common application of intelligent information processing techniques

  20. Development of the integrated control system for the microwave ion source of the PEFP 100-MeV proton accelerator

    Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 20-MeV proton linear accelerator is currently operating at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ion source of the 100-MeV proton linac needs at least a 100-hour operation time. To meet the goal, we have developed a microwave ion source that uses no filament. For the ion source, a remote control system has been developed by using experimental physics and the industrial control system (EPICS) software framework. The control system consists of a versa module europa (VME) and EPICS-based embedded applications running on a VxWorks real-time operating system. The main purpose of the control system is to control and monitor the operational variables of the components remotely and to protect operators from radiation exposure and the components from critical problems during beam extraction. We successfully performed the operation test of the control system to confirm the degree of safety during the hardware performance.

  1. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    elimination of methane production and acceleration of waste decomposition. In the first phase of this project a 12-acre module that contains a 9.5-acre anaerobic cell and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell has been constructed and filled with over 220,000 tons of municipal solid waste. Water and leachate addition began in April 2002 and to date less than 200,000 gallons of liquid has been added to the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell. The waste filling phase of the aerobic cell was completed in June of 2002 and a 12-inches soil cover and 12-inches of greenwaste compost cover was placed on top of the cell. A vacuum will be applied to the piping within the waste to draw air through the landfill. Instrumentations have been installed to monitor the following parameters: waste temperature, moisture, leachate volumes, leachate hydraulic head over the primary liner, leachate composition, gas volumes and composition. A supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system has been installed to monitor and control the operation of the bioreactor cells. Waste samples were taken from each cell for laboratory testing in early June 2002.

  2. Information infrastructure(s) boundaries, ecologies, multiplicity

    Mongili, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book marks an important contribution to the fascinating debate on the role that information infrastructures and boundary objects play in contemporary life, bringing to the fore the concern of how cooperation across different groups is enabled, but also constrained, by the material and immaterial objects connecting them. As such, the book itself is situated at the crossroads of various paths and genealogies, all focusing on the problem of the intersection between different levels of scale...

  3. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  4. MAGNET/INFRASTRUCTURE

    A. Gaddi

    Most of the infrastructure at Pt5 has been completed and is now passing their commissioning phase. The power distribution is almost completed. During autumn the powering of UXC55 racks from USC55 cabinets has been achieved. The full control/safety chain has been tested by injecting smoke into the sensitive rack volume in YE+ racks and is being extended to all the other racks as soon as cabling is done. The USC55 cooling station has all the water circuits commissioned and running. The annual maintenance of the surface cooling towers has been done during weeks 45 and 46 and a special plan has been set up, in close coordination with the CERN technical department. All the USC55 racks have passed a campaign of cleaning of the water filters and quality checks. A new partition of the USC55 area, for the function of the AUG (General Emergency Stop) buttons, is being done. This has an impact on the design of the underground UPS (Uninterruptible Power System) that secure the Magnet system and the electronics racks ...

  5. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    None

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  6. CERN printing infrastructure

    Otto, R

    2008-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer regis...

  7. Infrastructure package. Draft position statement

    The European Commission published on 17 November 2010 the communication entitled: 'COM(2010)0677 - Energy infrastructure priorities for 2020 and beyond - A Blueprint for an integrated European energy network'. It aims at ensuring that strategic energy networks and storage facilities are completed by 2020. To this end, the EC has identified 12 priority corridors and areas covering electricity, gas, oil and carbon dioxide transport networks. It proposes a regime of 'common interest' for projects contributing to implementing these priorities and having obtained this label. The UFE, the professional association for the electricity sector, has analyzed the EC communication and presents its remarks in this document. UFE's focusses its analysis on 5 key points: 1. Towards a European 'strategic planning' tool for future investment; 2. The correlation between networks and security of Supply (production capacities, energy mix); 3. Financing; 4. Acceptability of projects; 5. Accelerate authorisation procedures

  8. Monitoring Infrastructure Capacity

    David Levinson

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the issues around monitoring of the capacity of public sector infrastructure to absorb land development.This paper first introduces Montgomery County¹s growth management system. It then offers two theories to justify monitoring infrastructure utilization for the purposes of establishing development capacity. The first, drawn from ecology is based on the notion of environmental carrying capacity. The second, from economics, employs the notion of externalities. However, neit...

  9. e-Infrastructures Austria

    Sánchez Solís, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In January 2014, the three-year partner project entitled e-Infrastructures Austria was initiated. The overall objective of this project is the coordinated establishment and development of repository infrastructures for digital resources in research throughout Austria. The initial situation at the 25 participating scientific institutions is very heterogeneous. Through networking and pooling of expertise and resources, a network of knowledge and professional competence is created, which f...

  10. Monitoring Infrastructure Affordances

    Björn, Ståhl

    2013-01-01

    Computing has made its way into most of our lives as a key processor of vast quantities of information. This has happened directly in terms of gadgets and devices that assists us in everyday life, but also indirectly, through the critical infrastructures that enables these devices to function. A key issue with critical infrastructures such as transportation, communication, power-grids and finance, is increasingly circular interdependencies. Because of this issue, a disruption in either one ca...

  11. Cyberspace and Critical Information Infrastructures

    Dan COLESNIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every economy of an advanced nation relies on information systems and interconnected networks, thus in order to ensure the prosperity of a nation, making cyberspace a secure place becomes as crucial as securing society. Cyber security means ensuring the safety of this cyberspace from threats which can take different forms, such as stealing secret information from national companies and government institutions, attacking infrastructure vital for the functioning of the nation or attacking the privacy of the single citizen. The critical information infrastructure (CII represents the indispensable "nervous system", that allow modern societies to work and live. Besides, without it, there would be no distribution of energy, no services like banking or finance, no air traffic control and so on. But at the same time, in the development process of CII, security was never considered a top priority and for this reason they are subject to a high risk in relation to the organized crime.

  12. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  13. High-resolution 3D-GRE imaging of the abdomen using controlled aliasing acceleration technique - a feasibility study

    To assess the feasibility of high-resolution 3D-gradient-recalled echo (GRE) fat-suppressed T1-weighted images using controlled aliasing acceleration technique (CAIPIRINHA-VIBE), and compare image quality and lesion detection to standard-resolution 3D-GRE images using conventional acceleration technique (GRAPPA-VIBE). Eighty-four patients (41 males, 43 females; age range: 14-90 years, 58.8 ± 15.6 years) underwent abdominal MRI at 1.5 T with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 0.76 ± 0.04 mm] and GRAPPA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 1.17 ± 0.14 mm]. Two readers independently reviewed image quality, presence of artefacts, lesion conspicuity, and lesion detection. Kappa statistic was used to assess interobserver agreement. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for image qualitative pairwise comparisons. Logistic regression with post-hoc testing was used to evaluate statistical significance of lesions evaluation. Interobserver agreement ranged between 0.45-0.93. Pre-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and lesion conspicuity with decreased residual aliasing, but more noise enhancement and inferior image quality. Post-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and higher lesion conspicuity, with less respiratory motion and residual aliasing artefacts. Inferior fat-suppression was noticeable on CAIPIRINHA-VIBE sequences (p < 0.001). High in-plane resolution abdominal 3D-GRE fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging using controlled-aliasing acceleration technique is feasible and yields sharper images compared to standard-resolution images using standard acceleration, with higher post-contrast image quality and trend for improved hepatic lesions detection. (orig.)

  14. High-resolution 3D-GRE imaging of the abdomen using controlled aliasing acceleration technique - a feasibility study

    AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Busireddy, Kiran K.R.; Liu, Baodong; Burke, Lauren M.; Altun, Ersan; Semelka, Richard C. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Dale, Brian M. [Siemens Medical Solutions, MR Research and Development, Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To assess the feasibility of high-resolution 3D-gradient-recalled echo (GRE) fat-suppressed T1-weighted images using controlled aliasing acceleration technique (CAIPIRINHA-VIBE), and compare image quality and lesion detection to standard-resolution 3D-GRE images using conventional acceleration technique (GRAPPA-VIBE). Eighty-four patients (41 males, 43 females; age range: 14-90 years, 58.8 ± 15.6 years) underwent abdominal MRI at 1.5 T with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 0.76 ± 0.04 mm] and GRAPPA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 1.17 ± 0.14 mm]. Two readers independently reviewed image quality, presence of artefacts, lesion conspicuity, and lesion detection. Kappa statistic was used to assess interobserver agreement. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for image qualitative pairwise comparisons. Logistic regression with post-hoc testing was used to evaluate statistical significance of lesions evaluation. Interobserver agreement ranged between 0.45-0.93. Pre-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and lesion conspicuity with decreased residual aliasing, but more noise enhancement and inferior image quality. Post-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and higher lesion conspicuity, with less respiratory motion and residual aliasing artefacts. Inferior fat-suppression was noticeable on CAIPIRINHA-VIBE sequences (p < 0.001). High in-plane resolution abdominal 3D-GRE fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging using controlled-aliasing acceleration technique is feasible and yields sharper images compared to standard-resolution images using standard acceleration, with higher post-contrast image quality and trend for improved hepatic lesions detection. (orig.)

  15. An Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Four-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Sliding Mode Control

    Hongwen He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation (ASR system for four-wheel drive (4WD electric vehicles, which are driven by the front and rear axles simultaneously. The ASR control strategy includes three control modes: average distribution of inter-axle torque, optimal distribution of inter-axle torque and independent control of optimal slip rate, respectively, which are designed based on the torque adaptive principle of inter-axle differential and sliding mode control theory. Furthermore, in order to accurately describe the longitudinal tyre force characteristic, a slip rate calculation formula in the form of a state equation was used for solving the numerical problem posed by the traditional way. A simulation was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed ASR system can fully use the road friction condition, inhibit the drive-wheels from slipping, and improve the vehicle longitudinal driving stability.

  16. The Quality Control of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for ONCOR Siemens Linear Accelerators Using Film Dosimetry

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy has made a significant progress in radiation therapy centers in recent years. In this method, each radiation beam is divided into many subfields that create a field with a modulated intensity. Considering the complexity of this method, the quality control for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy is a topic of interest for researchers. This article is about the various steps of planning and quality control of Siemens linear accelerators for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, using film dosimetry. This article in addition to review of the techniques, discusses the details of experiments and possible sources of errors which are not mentioned in the protocols and other references. This project was carried out in Isfahan Milad hospital which has two Siemens ONCOR linear accelerators. Both accelerators are equipped with Multi-Leaf Collimators which enables us to perform Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy delivery in the step-and-shoot method. The quality control consists of various experiments related to the sections of radiation therapy. In these experiments, the accuracy of some components such as treatment planning system, imaging device (CT), Multi-Leaf Collimators, control system of accelerator, and stability of the output are evaluated. The dose verification is performed using film dosimetry method. The films were KODAK-EDR2, which were calibrated before the experiments. One of the important steps is the comparison of the calculated dose with planning system and the measured dose in experiments. The results of the experiments in various steps have been acceptable according to the standard protocols. The calibration of Multi-Leaf Collimators and evaluation of the leakage through the leaves of Multi-Leaf Collimator was performed by using the film dosimetry and visual check. In comparison with calculated and measured dose, more that 80% of the points have to be in agreement within 3% of the value. In our experiments

  17. Status of the RBAC infrastructure and lessons learnt from its deployment in LHC

    The distributed control system for the LHC accelerator poses many challenges due to its inherent heterogeneity and highly dynamic nature. One of the important aspects is to protect the machine against unauthorized access and unsafe operation of the control system, from the low-level front-end machines up to the high-level control applications running in the control room. In order to prevent an unauthorized access to the control system and accelerator equipment and to address the possible security issues, the Role Based Access Control (RBAC) project was designed and developed at CERN, with a major contribution from Fermilab laboratory. Furthermore, RBAC became an integral part of the CERN Controls Middle-ware (CMW) infrastructure and it was deployed and commissioned in the LHC operation in the summer 2008, well before the first beam in LHC. This paper presents the current status of the RBAC infrastructure, together with an outcome and gathered experience after a massive deployment in the LHC operation. Moreover, we outline how the project evolved over the last three years and give an overview of the major extensions introduced to improve integration, stability and its functionality. The paper also describes the plans of future project evolution and possible extensions, based on gathered users requirements and operational experience. (authors)

  18. Timing control of a high voltage pulse deflector to stabilize EUV laser light at the SCSS test accelerator

    A high-voltage pulse deflector cuts out a single bunch beam of 1 ns from a long beam pulse of more than 2 μs generated with a single crystal thermionic gun at the SCSS test accelerator. In order to realize a stable EUV laser, we should precisely control the deflector gate timing, which determines a beam arrival time at a 238-MHz pre-buncher cavity. Unfortunately, the deflector timing system was not enough for our requirement in an early stage, because the gate timing drifted due to a temperature change of a timing module. In addition, machine operators of the accelerator often manually had to tune the gate timing for the stable machine operation. To ameliorate this situation, we improved the timing monitor system of the high-voltage pulse passing through the deflector strip line. The detail of the improvements were exchanging an IC in a level converter module to improve a temperature coefficient and replacing a manual delay line with a remote control one. We also introduced a PID control system using the remote control delay line to automatically stabilize the timing. At the result, the stability of the EUV laser is not affected by the deflector gate timing anymore. (author)

  19. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  20. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems.

    Middleton, Eliza J T; Latty, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  1. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems

    2016-01-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  2. Indonesia National Report on the Infrastructure for Regulatory Control of Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (Paragraphs 8, 18-22 of the Code)

    Badan Pengawas Tenaga Nuklir, abbreviated as BAPETEN or Indonesia Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency is a national regulatory institution for nuclear energy utilization in Indonesia. BAPETEN has missions to ensure safety and health of public, workers and environment in term of nuclear energy uses and to maintain the legal order in the use of nuclear energy. Based on Indonesia regulatory framework, BAPETEN has followed more than 90% of the infrastructure for regulatory control of safety and security of radioactive sources stated in paragraphs 8 , 18-22 of the Code, except paragraph 2 2 m). BAPETEN has not yet to provide guidance on appropriate levels of information, instruction and training on the safety and security of radioactive sources and the devices or facilities in which they are housed, to manufacturers, suppliers and users of radioactive sources. Inspection can be performed regularly for all licensees or prior to the license granted as a method for verification of licensing data given by the applicant. Inspection frequencies have been established based on legally prescribed risk categories, i.e. GR No.3312007 and GR No.29l2008; this categorization is based on IAEA TECDOC 1526 Inspection of Radiation Sources and Regulatory Enforcement. BAPETEN takes enforcement actions through inspection on radiation safety and security of radioactive sources, as appropriate, to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. BAPETEN is empowered to issue sanctions including written notices of violations, or the revocation of the license. There are also monetary penalties/fines. Guidance on procedures to be followed with enforcement actions has been formalized. Intensive collaborations with other enforcement agencies( e.g. Police, Justice, etc.) have been established.B APETEN has an enforcement procedure to ensure that an operator has effectively implemented any remedial actions within the specified time frame. BAPETEN participates in international conventions, conference and

  3. Sustainability of Urban Infrastructures

    Mine Tanac Zeren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to overview the different approaches for evaluation of urban infrastructure sustainability. In this context, urban infrastructure covers transportation, energy, water, sewage and information networks as well as waste management and blue-green infrastructure, in terms of both the supply and demand side. A common effort of partners in the European project “C8—Best Practice in Sustainable Urban Infrastructure”, developed under the Cooperation in Science and Technology program (COST, in brief COST C8, was focused on defining the methods, indicators and criteria for evaluation of sustainability, and resulted in a guidebook for decision-makers in local authorities. Here, the COST C8 matrix for simple sustainability assessment of urban infrastructure is applied to The Path (POT case—a circular memorial and recreational park around the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. The applicability and acceptance of the matrix in 43 other cases of sustainable urban infrastructure, collected in the COST C8 project, is presented and discussed.

  4. Vacuum control system of the synchrotron light source PF-AR and progress of the accelerator commissioning

    Tanimoto, Y; Nogami, T; Hori, Y

    2003-01-01

    Upgrading project of the synchrotron light source PF-AR was carried out in 2001, and vacuum system was entirely renewed to realize longer beam lifetime and higher stored current. Vacuum control system was unified to the EPICS, which had been already adopted in the KEKB and the injector linear-accelerator control systems. In this system, all of the vacuum devices of the PF-AR except for rough pumps can be controlled and monitored remotely on graphical operation panels. Commissioning of the upgraded PF-AR started successfully in January 2002, and the beam lifetime has been getting longer as the vacuum ducts cleaning process with synchrotron radiation has progressed. In November 2002, the lifetime of a 6.5 GeV-50 mA single-bunched beam is 900 minutes, which is 6 times as long as the value of the old PF-AR. (author)

  5. Studying the high-voltage strength of the accelerating tube of a relativistic klystron with grid control for VLEPP

    Studying results of the high-voltage accelerating tube (HAT) of a relativistic klystron with grid control are presented. The HAT with the external diameter of 205 mm consists of 16 high-voltage gaps from aluminium ceramics. The design direct voltage of HAT supply is to 120 kV. Results of testing every separate gap of the HAT and the HAT system as a whole are presented. The value of maximum electric field of HAT electrodes from stainless steel and oxygenless copper are given too

  6. Micro-controller based fiber optic data telemetry system for the ion source of low energy accelerator facility at BARC

    The Low Energy Accelerator Facility (LEAF) is a 50 keV, high intensity, negative ion accelerator facility that has been set up indigenously at Nuclear Physics Division, BARC. This facility is capable of delivering a wide range of negative ion beams of both light and heavy ions across the periodic table using a SNICS II (Source of Negative Ion by Caesium Sputtering) source. A micro-controller based control and monitoring system has been developed exclusively for the ion source parameters of LEAF. The data control and monitoring system mainly targets acquiring the data from the field in the terms of parameters such as voltages and currents. There are processes which need to be monitored continuously in order to keep certain parameters under check. The microcontroller based fiber optic data telemetry system allows us to perform the aforesaid task. The voltages can be controlled and monitored by providing the inputs and receiving the feedback through a user friendly graphic user interface. With this system one can control the status as well as analog value of the high voltage power supplies like extractor, cathode, filament, focus line heater and oven. This system consists of Fiber optic transceiver, which is connected on serial port (RS 232C) of microcontroller as well as RS232 port of PC. The whole control system is reliable even in noisy environments including RF and worse EMI conditions. This compact modular design is implemented using low cost devices and allows easy and fast maintainability. In the paper, the details of the system are presented. (author)

  7. Tandem accelerators

    After the installation of Ti-acceleration tubes and substantial modifications and additions to the EN tandem accelerator the performance of the machine has stabilized. The voltage behaviour of the tubes obviously improves as conditioning times necessary to run up to 6 MV decrease. A gridded lens has been added at the entrance of the first acceleration tube, and a second foil stripper is now installed in the short dead section between the high-energy tubes. The MP tandem also has been running stably during most of the year. However, beam instabilities originating from the last tube section and wear problems at the low-energy set of pelletron-chains caused some loss of beam time. During the fall, one set of pelletron charging chains has to be replaced after 49,000 hours of operation. In the course of the year, the MP and the EN tandem accelerators finished their 100,000th and 150,000th hours of operations, respectively. Preparations for the installation of the 3 MV negative heavy ion injector for the MP are progressing steadily. External beam transport, terminal ion optics, and data acquisition and control systems are to a major extent completed; the integration of the terminal power supplies has started. After the final assembly of the accelerator column structure, first voltage runs can be performed. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of quality control data of eight modern radiotherapy linear accelerators: the short- and long-term behaviours of the outputs and the reproducibility of quality control measurements

    Kapanen, Mika [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Laippatie 4, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Tenhunen, Mikko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 4, 00029 Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, Tuomo [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 4, 00029 Helsinki (Finland); Sipilae, Petri [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Laippatie 4, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Parkkinen, Ritva [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Laippatie 4, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Jaervinen, Hannu [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Laippatie 4, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-21

    Quality control (QC) data of radiotherapy linear accelerators, collected by Helsinki University Central Hospital between the years 2000 and 2004, were analysed. The goal was to provide information for the evaluation and elaboration of QC of accelerator outputs and to propose a method for QC data analysis. Short- and long-term drifts in outputs were quantified by fitting empirical mathematical models to the QC measurements. Normally, long-term drifts were well ({<=}1%) modelled by either a straight line or a single-exponential function. A drift of 2% occurred in 18 {+-} 12 months. The shortest drift times of only 2-3 months were observed for some new accelerators just after the commissioning but they stabilized during the first 2-3 years. The short-term reproducibility and the long-term stability of local constancy checks, carried out with a sealed plane parallel ion chamber, were also estimated by fitting empirical models to the QC measurements. The reproducibility was 0.2-0.5% depending on the positioning practice of a device. Long-term instabilities of about 0.3%/month were observed for some checking devices. The reproducibility of local absorbed dose measurements was estimated to be about 0.5%. The proposed empirical model fitting of QC data facilitates the recognition of erroneous QC measurements and abnormal output behaviour, caused by malfunctions, offering a tool to improve dose control.

  9. Analysis of quality control data of eight modern radiotherapy linear accelerators: the short- and long-term behaviours of the outputs and the reproducibility of quality control measurements

    Quality control (QC) data of radiotherapy linear accelerators, collected by Helsinki University Central Hospital between the years 2000 and 2004, were analysed. The goal was to provide information for the evaluation and elaboration of QC of accelerator outputs and to propose a method for QC data analysis. Short- and long-term drifts in outputs were quantified by fitting empirical mathematical models to the QC measurements. Normally, long-term drifts were well (≤1%) modelled by either a straight line or a single-exponential function. A drift of 2% occurred in 18 ± 12 months. The shortest drift times of only 2-3 months were observed for some new accelerators just after the commissioning but they stabilized during the first 2-3 years. The short-term reproducibility and the long-term stability of local constancy checks, carried out with a sealed plane parallel ion chamber, were also estimated by fitting empirical models to the QC measurements. The reproducibility was 0.2-0.5% depending on the positioning practice of a device. Long-term instabilities of about 0.3%/month were observed for some checking devices. The reproducibility of local absorbed dose measurements was estimated to be about 0.5%. The proposed empirical model fitting of QC data facilitates the recognition of erroneous QC measurements and abnormal output behaviour, caused by malfunctions, offering a tool to improve dose control

  10. Railway infrastructure security

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  11. Building safeguards infrastructure

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the clean and safe growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports these three areas should be robust. The focus of this paper will be on the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards, and the integration of safeguards infrastructure with other elements critical to ensuring nuclear energy security

  12. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

    Natalay Kouprina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly (MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  13. Warp simulations for capture and control of laser-accelerated proton beams

    The capture of laser-accelerated proton beams accompanied by co-moving electrons via a solenoid field has been studied with particle-in-cell simulations. The main advantages of the Warp simulation suite that was used, relative to envelope or tracking codes, are the possibility of including all source parameters energy resolved, adding electrons as second species and considering the non-negligible space-charge forces and electrostatic self-fields. It was observed that the influence of the electrons is of vital importance. The magnetic effect on the electrons out balances the space-charge force. Hence, the electrons are forced onto the beam axis and attract protons. Besides the energy dependent proton density increase on axis, the change in the particle spectrum is also important for future applications. Protons are accelerated/decelerated slightly, electrons highly. 2/3 of all electrons get lost directly at the source and 27% of all protons hit the inner wall of the solenoid.

  14. Optical control of electron phase space in plasma accelerators with incoherently stacked laser pulses

    It is demonstrated that synthesizing an ultrahigh-bandwidth, negatively chirped laser pulse by incoherently stacking pulses of different wavelengths makes it possible to optimize the process of electron self-injection in a dense, highly dispersive plasma (n0∼1019 cm−3). Avoiding transformation of the driving pulse into a relativistic optical shock maintains a quasi-monoenergetic electron spectrum through electron dephasing and boosts electron energy far beyond the limits suggested by existing scaling laws. In addition, evolution of the accelerating bucket in a plasma channel is shown to produce a background-free, tunable train of femtosecond-duration, 35–100 kA, time-synchronized quasi-monoenergetic electron bunches. The combination of the negative chirp and the channel permits acceleration of electrons beyond 1 GeV in a 3 mm plasma with 1.4 J of laser pulse energy, thus offering the opportunity of high-repetition-rate operation at manageable average laser power

  15. Optical control of electron phase space in plasma accelerators with incoherently stacked laser pulses

    Kalmykov, S. Y., E-mail: skalmykov2@unl.edu; Shadwick, B. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0299 (United States); Davoine, X. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon F-91297 (France); Lehe, R.; Lifschitz, A. F. [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-CNRS-École Polytechnique UMR 7639, Palaiseau F-91761 (France)

    2015-05-15

    It is demonstrated that synthesizing an ultrahigh-bandwidth, negatively chirped laser pulse by incoherently stacking pulses of different wavelengths makes it possible to optimize the process of electron self-injection in a dense, highly dispersive plasma (n{sub 0}∼10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}). Avoiding transformation of the driving pulse into a relativistic optical shock maintains a quasi-monoenergetic electron spectrum through electron dephasing and boosts electron energy far beyond the limits suggested by existing scaling laws. In addition, evolution of the accelerating bucket in a plasma channel is shown to produce a background-free, tunable train of femtosecond-duration, 35–100 kA, time-synchronized quasi-monoenergetic electron bunches. The combination of the negative chirp and the channel permits acceleration of electrons beyond 1 GeV in a 3 mm plasma with 1.4 J of laser pulse energy, thus offering the opportunity of high-repetition-rate operation at manageable average laser power.

  16. Warp simulations for capture and control of laser-accelerated proton beams

    The capture of laser-accelerated proton beams accompanied by co-moving electrons via a solenoid field has been studied with particle-in-cell simulations. The main advantages of the Warp simulation suite that we have used, relative to envelope or tracking codes, are the possibility of including all source parameters energy resolved, adding electrons as second species and considering the non-negligible space-charge forces and electrostatic self-fields. It was observed that the influence of the electrons is of vital importance. The magnetic effect on the electrons outbalances the space-charge force. Hence, the electrons are forced onto the beam axis and attract protons. Beside the energy dependent proton density increase on axis, the change in the particle spectrum is also important for future applications. Protons are accelerated/decelerated slightly, electrons highly. 2/3 of all electrons get lost directly at the source and 27% of all protons hit the inner wall of the solenoid.

  17. Design and implementation of a slow orbit control package at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    The authors describe the design and implementation of a C++ client/server based slow orbit and energy control package based on the CDEV software control bus. Several client applications are described and operational experience is given

  18. Control of Laser Plasma Based Accelerators up to 1 GeV

    This dissertation documents the development of a broadband electron spectrometer (ESM) for GeV class Laser Wakefield Accelerators (LWFA), the production of high quality GeV electron beams (e-beams) for the first time in a LWFA by using a capillary discharge guide (CDG), and a statistical analysis of CDG-LWFAs. An ESM specialized for CDG-LWFAs with an unprecedented wide momentum acceptance, from 0.01 to 1.1 GeV in a single shot, has been developed. Simultaneous measurement of e-beam spectra and output laser properties as well as a large angular acceptance (> ± 10 mrad) were realized by employing a slitless scheme. A scintillating screen (LANEX Fast back, LANEX-FB)--camera system allowed faster than 1 Hz operation and evaluation of the spatial properties of e-beams. The design provided sufficient resolution for the whole range of the ESM (below 5% for beams with 2 mrad divergence). The calibration between light yield from LANEX-FB and total charge, and a study on the electron energy dependence (0.071 to 1.23 GeV) of LANEX-FB were performed at the Advanced light source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Using this calibration data, the developed ESM provided a charge measurement as well. The production of high quality electron beams up to 1 GeV from a centimeter-scale accelerator was demonstrated. The experiment used a 310 (micro)m diameter gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide that channeled relativistically-intense laser pulses (42 TW, 4.5 x 1018 W/cm2) over 3.3 centimeters of sufficiently low density (≅ 4.3 x 1018/cm3) plasma. Also demonstrated was stable self-injection and acceleration at a beam energy of ≅ 0.5 GeV by using a 225 (micro)m diameter capillary. Relativistically-intense laser pulses (12 TW, 1.3 x 1018W/cm2) were guided over 3.3 centimeters of low density (≅ 3.5 x 1018/cm3) plasma in this experiment. A statistical analysis of the CDG-LWFAs performance was carried out. By taking advantage of the high repetition rate

  19. Control of Laser Plasma Based Accelerators up to 1 GeV

    Nakamura, Kei

    2007-12-03

    This dissertation documents the development of a broadband electron spectrometer (ESM) for GeV class Laser Wakefield Accelerators (LWFA), the production of high quality GeV electron beams (e-beams) for the first time in a LWFA by using a capillary discharge guide (CDG), and a statistical analysis of CDG-LWFAs. An ESM specialized for CDG-LWFAs with an unprecedented wide momentum acceptance, from 0.01 to 1.1 GeV in a single shot, has been developed. Simultaneous measurement of e-beam spectra and output laser properties as well as a large angular acceptance (> {+-} 10 mrad) were realized by employing a slitless scheme. A scintillating screen (LANEX Fast back, LANEX-FB)--camera system allowed faster than 1 Hz operation and evaluation of the spatial properties of e-beams. The design provided sufficient resolution for the whole range of the ESM (below 5% for beams with 2 mrad divergence). The calibration between light yield from LANEX-FB and total charge, and a study on the electron energy dependence (0.071 to 1.23 GeV) of LANEX-FB were performed at the Advanced light source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Using this calibration data, the developed ESM provided a charge measurement as well. The production of high quality electron beams up to 1 GeV from a centimeter-scale accelerator was demonstrated. The experiment used a 310 {micro}m diameter gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide that channeled relativistically-intense laser pulses (42 TW, 4.5 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) over 3.3 centimeters of sufficiently low density ({approx_equal} 4.3 x 10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3}) plasma. Also demonstrated was stable self-injection and acceleration at a beam energy of {approx_equal} 0.5 GeV by using a 225 {micro}m diameter capillary. Relativistically-intense laser pulses (12 TW, 1.3 x 10{sup 18}W/cm{sup 2}) were guided over 3.3 centimeters of low density ({approx_equal} 3.5 x 10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3}) plasma in this experiment. A statistical analysis of the CDG

  20. The ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adorisio, Cristina; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmed, Hossain; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Aktas, Adil; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Antunovic, Bijana; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Arutinov, David; Asai, Makoto; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asner, David; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Mark; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Baranov, Sergey; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Bazalova, Magdalena; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Becerici, Neslihan; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Graham; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benincasa, Gianpaolo; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bocci, Andrea; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodet, Eyal; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Françcois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Byatt, Tom; Caballero, Jose; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D.; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Tcherniatine, Valeri; Chesneanu, Daniela; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cranshaw, Jack; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Daly, Colin; Dam, Mogens; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawson, Ian; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De Mora, Lee; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Deng, Wensheng; Denisov, Sergey; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen , Michael; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Dushkin, Andrei; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ermoline, Iouri; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Fayard, Louis; Fayette, Florent; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; Freestone, Julian; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K K; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gautard, Valerie; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Girtler, Peter; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goggi, Virginio; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçcalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gong, Chenwei; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Green, Barry; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Groh, Manfred; Groll, Marius; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Härtel, Roland; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hashemi, Kevan; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Hemperek, Tomasz; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Hori, Takuya; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howe, Travis; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issakov, Vladimir; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kalinowski, Artur; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kastoryano, Michael; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kayumov, Fred; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kind, Oliver; Kind, Peter; King, Barry; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Klute, Markus; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kolos, Serguei; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konovalov, Serguei; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostka, Peter; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotov, Konstantin; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Henri; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kwee, Regina; La Rotonda, Laura; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Vine, Micheal; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Leyton, Michael; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shumin; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lilley, Joseph; Lim, Heuijin; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Tiankuan; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Lovas, Lubomir; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Luehring, Frederick; Luisa, Luca; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmood, A.; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makouski, Mikhail; Makovec, Nikola; Malecki, Piotr; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mambelli, Marco; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March , Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Alex; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martini, Agnese; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W. Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Mills, Bill; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Misawa, Shigeki; Miscetti, Stefano; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mladenov, Dimitar; Moa, Torbjoern; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Garcia, Raul; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nderitu, Simon Kirichu; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Notz, Dieter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, John; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Ottersbach, John; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozone, Kenji; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Park, Su-Jung; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parker, Sherwood; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor , Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Patwa, Abid; Pauly, Thilo; Peak, Lawrence; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poffenberger, Paul; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Ponsot, Patrick; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Popule, Jiri; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potekhin, Maxim; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Potter, Keith; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puigdengoles, Carles; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qi, Ming; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Weiming; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renkel, Peter; Rescia, Sergio; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richards, Ronald; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Roa Romero, Diego Alejandro; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryan, Patrick; Rybkin, Grigori; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sanny, Bernd; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Savard, Pierre; Savine, Alexandre; Savinov, Vladimir; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R.~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schreiner, Alexander; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schroers, Marcel; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Sluka, Tomas; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yuri; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soluk, Richard; Sondericker, John; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spencer, Edwin; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stancu, Stefan Nicolae; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stastny, Jan; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Su, Dong; Soh, Dart-yin; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Takuya; Suzuki, Yu; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szymocha, Tadeusz; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Ryan P.; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Stan; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thomson, Evelyn; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomasek, Michal; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tuggle, Joseph; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasilyeva, Lidia; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Villa, Mauro; Villani, Giulio; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Viret, Sébastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale , Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vudragovic, Dusan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jin; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Wastie, Roy; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Manuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Dennis; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xu, Da; Xu, Neng; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zambrano, Valentina; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Qizhi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    The simulation software for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is being used for large-scale production of events on the LHC Computing Grid. This simulation requires many components, from the generators that simulate particle collisions, through packages simulating the response of the various detectors and triggers. All of these components come together under the ATLAS simulation infrastructure. In this paper, that infrastructure is discussed, including that supporting the detector description, interfacing the event generation, and combining the GEANT4 simulation of the response of the individual detectors. Also described are the tools allowing the software validation, performance testing, and the validation of the simulated output against known physics processes.

  1. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    , the evolution of large technological systems and theories about organisational and technological transformationprocesses. The empirical work consist of three analysis at three different levels: socio-technical descriptions of each sector, an envestigation of one municipality and envestigations of one......The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  2. Collaborative financial infrastructure protection

    Baldoni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection Survey recently released by Symantec found that 53% of interviewed IT security experts from international companies experienced at least ten cyber attacks in the last five years, and financial institutions were often subject to some of the most sophisticated and large-scale cyber attacks and frauds. The book by Baldoni and Chockler analyzes the structure of software infrastructures found in the financial domain, their vulnerabilities to cyber attacks and the existing protection mechanisms. It then shows the advantages of sharing information among financia

  3. Indonesian infrastructure development

    It is with the achievement of a competitive advantage as a motivating factor that the Indonesian coal industry is engaged in infrastructure development including both small regionally trade-based terminals and high capacity capesize bulk terminals to support large scale coal exports. The unique characteristics of Indonesian coal quality, low production costs and the optimization of transport economics in accordance with vessel size provides great incentives for the European and U.S. market. This paper reports on the infrastructure development, Indonesian coal resources, and coal exports

  4. The Advanced Light Source Accelerator Control System at Ten Years from Commissioning

    Biocca, A.; Brown, W.; Domning, E.; Fowler, K; Jacobson, S; McDonald, J.; Molinari, P.; Robb, A; Shalz, L.; Spring, J; Timossi, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source was commissioned 10 years ago using the newly constructed control system. Further experience with the control system was reported in 1993. In this publication, we report on recent experience with the operation and especially growth of the computer control system and expansion to accommodate the new superconducting bend magnets and fast orbit feedback for the ALS electron storage ring.

  5. Basis Function Repetitive And Feedback Control With Application To A Particle Accelerator

    Akogyeram, R A

    2002-01-01

    The thesis addresses three problem areas within repetitive control. Firstly, it addresses issues concerning the ability of repetitive control and feedback control systems to eliminate periodic disturbances occurring above the Nyquist frequency of the hardware. Methods are developed for decomposing and unfolding notch filter or comb filter feedback control so that disturbances above Nyquist frequency can be canceled. Phenomena affecting final error levels are discussed, including error in unfolding, coarseness of zero-order hold cancellation, and waterbed effects in the feedback control system frequency response for different sample rates. Secondly, matched basis function repetitive control laws are developed for batch mode and real time implementation to converge to zero tracking error in the presence of periodic disturbances. For both control methods, conditions are given that guarantee asymptotic and monotonic convergence. Stability tests are formulated to examine stability when the period of a disturbance ...

  6. Software problems of on-line control system of the multi-section linear electron accelerator and some estimations of its efficiency

    Problems of software management of automation control system of electron linac, the main purpose of which is to ensure data acquisition, processing and representation for all the levels of accelerating complex control, are considered. The software comprises 14 computer codes with total volume of about 13 thousand commands and it is oriented for the following task conduction: the accelerator operation control, diagnostics, failure forecasting and investigation of the accelerator systems, forecasting of the accelerator operation on the whole, repair work planning. The system efficiency is estimated on the basis of data recieved during several years of test and industrial operation. Thus, operation cycles during 1975-1977 when the first stage of information-measurement system reached its designed capacity, the average time of mean-cycles-between-failures increased by 30%. About half the time of mean-cycles-between-failures may be referred to the direct or indirect effects caused by the information-measurement system

  7. Colliding pulse injection experiments in non-collinear geometryfor controlled laser plasma wakefield acceleration of electrons

    Toth, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric H.; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Leemans,Wim P.; Nakamura, Kei; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Schroeder, Carl B.; Bruhwiler,D.; Cary, J.R.

    2007-06-25

    An optical injection scheme for a laser-plasma basedaccelerator which employs a non-collinear counter-propagating laser beamto push background electrons in the focusing and acceleration phase viaponderomotive beat with the trailing part of the wakefield driver pulseis discussed. Preliminary experiments were performed using a drive beamof a_0 = 2.6 and colliding beam of a_1 = 0.8 both focused on the middleof a 200 mu m slit jet backed with 20 bar, which provided ~; 260 mu mlong gas plume. The enhancement in the total charge by the collidingpulse was observed with sharp dependence on the delay time of thecolliding beam. Enhancement of the neutron yield was also measured, whichsuggests a generation of electrons above 10 MeV.

  8. A simple, digitally controlled, automatic, hysteresis free, high precision energy scanning system for Van de Graaff type accelerators. Pt. 1

    A digitally controlled energy scanning system is described which may be coupled in a simple and inexpensive way to any accelerator which is high voltage stabilized by a beam position sensing 'slit control' system like all single ended or tandem Van de Graaff type machines. The basic idea is to 'fool' the existing stabilization system by deflecting the beam at two well chosen points through small angles using electrostatic deflection plates biased to variable voltages U. It is shown that the ensuing terminal potential variation δV is linearly related to U, the system acting as a U -> δV closed loop feedback amplifier with a gain G0 set only by the beam trajectory in the analyzing magnet and between the plates. G0 is hence independent of acceleration potential, beam particle mass or charge state, the long term stability of G0 being set only by mechanical components. The calibration can thus be made once and for all. The system is strictly hysteresis free and provides means of varying the bombarding energy in small precisely equal steps in a fast and reproducible way. (orig./WL)

  9. Network Infrastructure Security

    Wong, Angus

    2009-01-01

    Attacks to network infrastructure affect large portions of the Internet at a time and create large amounts of service disruption, due to breaches such as IP spoofing, routing table poisoning and routing loops. This book includes conceptual examples that show how network attacks can be run, along with appropriate countermeasures and solutions

  10. Supporting Clinicians in Infrastructuring

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Karasti, Helena

    the notion of infrastructuring, we carry out an in- frastructural analysis of eWBs and approach our joint efforts as unfolding and continuing the configuration of participatory design activities. We identify a need for local support and novel competences among the clinicians in order for them to...

  11. Infrastructuring for Quality

    Bossen, Claus; Danholt, Peter; Ubbesen, Morten Bonde

    2015-01-01

    indicators for quality in treatment to guide and govern their performance, in order to investigate whether this may generate a new performance measurement infrastructure that will improve quality of healthcare. The project is entitled: “New governance in the patient’s perspective”....

  12. Documentation of Infrastructure

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the software infrastructure developed within the WorkSPACE  project, both from a software architectural point of view and from a user point of  view. We first give an overview of the system architecture, then go on to present the  more prominent features of the 3D graphical ...

  13. CERN Printing Infrastructure

    Otto, R

    2007-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today’s situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer ...

  14. CERN printing infrastructure

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer registration in the network database. At the end of 2006 we have moved all (∼1200) CERN printers and all users' connections at CERN to the new service. This paper will describe the new architecture and summarize the process of migration

  15. Hercules finances research infrastructure

    Vanden Berghe, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the Flemish government created a structural funding channel to support investment in research infrastructure: Hercules. On 15 October 2008 the Hercules Foundation approved a first list of investment proposals. In this article specific features of this first call are examined.

  16. Infrastructure network vulnerability

    Kamissoko, Daouda; Pérès, François; ZARATÉ, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this paper aims to propose a methodology of analyzing infrastructure network vulnerability in the field of prevention or reduction of the natural disaster consequences. After a state of the art on vulnerability models in the academic literature, the various vulnerability factors are classified and discussed. Eventually, a general model of vulnerability analysis including societal parameters is presented.

  17. Control system and environmental parameters monitoring of the Tandetron Accelerator clean room

    A control system and monitoring of humidity and temperature implemented by means of a system based on a microcontroller, an intelligent sensor and a stage of power for the actuators handling is described. The change of the levels of reference of the control system and the monitoring of the physical controlled variables can be carried out from any connected computer to a local net or Internet. (Author)

  18. Definition of the loading of process digital computer, used in the same class of accelerator control systems

    A relationship has been studied between computer loading on the one part and the properties of the parameter under control and discrete interval value on the other part. The computer loading is characterized by an inquiry probability value per calculation of the correcting signal. A mathematic expressing has been obtained which determined the inquiry probability. The expression is a multidimensional integral. The Monte-Carlo method has been employed for computation of the integral. A structural diagram of the algorithm is presented which elaborates the method so as to compute the probability. An error of the method has been assessed. The algorithm has been employed on the M-220 computer. The results obtained confirm correctness of the suggested methods of determination of the computer loading for operation in the accelerator control system

  19. Wireless based Operation and control of Electron Gun for Medical LINAC (Linear Accelerator)

    Rupali V Satpute, Dr. Ram Chand Sethi, Prof. N S Killarikar

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives brief idea about wireless based operation and control of electron gun for medical LINAC. A medical LINAC that use to destroy tumors using high-energy beams. The electron gun is a source of electron beams. Todays leading technologies, such as ZigBee, Bluetooth, GPRS/GSM can help to make wireless operation and control which gives reliability and security as well reduce the wiring and cost.The aim of this project is to make operation and control of electron gun through a long d...

  20. Control protocol: the proposed new CERN standard access procedure to accelerator equipment

    Control protocol provides a normalized access procedure for equipment of the same kind from a control system. Modelisation and the subsequent identification of functionalities with their parameters, variables and attributes have now been carried out at CERN for representative families of devices. ISO specifications, such as the ASN.1 metalanguage for data structure representation and MMS definitions and services have, to some extent, been introduced in the design for generality and compatibility with external world. The final product of this design is totally independent of the control systems and permits object oriented implementations in any controls frame. The present paper describes the different phases of the project with a short overview of the various implementations under development at CERN. (author)