WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerator control system

  1. Accelerator control systems in China

    Three accelerator facilities were built in the past few years, the 2.8 GeV electron positron collider BEPC, the heavy ion SSC cyclotron accelerator HIRFL and the 800 MeV synchrotron radiation storage ring HESYRL. Aimed at different research areas, they represent a new generation of accelerator in China. This report describes the design philosophy, the structure, performance as well as future improvements of the control systems of the these facilities. (author)

  2. Trends in accelerator control systems

    Over the years, we have seen a revolution in control systems that has followed the ever decreasing cost of computer power and memory. It started with the data gathering, when people distrusted the computer to perform control actions correctly, through the stage of using a computer to perform control actions correctly, through the stage of using a computer system to provide a convenient remote look and adjust facility, to the present day, when more and more emphasis is being placed on using a computer system to simulate or model all or parts of the accelerator, feed in the required performance and calling for the computers to set the various parameters and then measure the actual performance, with iteration if necessary. The progress that has been made in the fields of architecture, communications, computers, interface, software design and operator interface is reviewed

  3. Research of Virtual Accelerator Control System

    DongJinmei; YuanYoujin; ZhengJianhua

    2003-01-01

    A Virtual Accelerator is a computer process which simulates behavior of beam in an accelerator and responds to the accelerator control program under development in a same way as an actual accelerator. To realize Virtual Accelerator, control system should provide the same program interface to top layer Application Control Program, it can make 'Real Accelerator' and 'Virtual Accelerator'use the same GUI, so control system should have a layer to hide hardware details, Application Control Program access control devices through logical name but not through coded hardware address. Without this layer, it is difficult to develop application program which can access both 'Virtual' and 'Real' Accelerators using same program interfaces. For this reason, we can create CSR Runtime Database which allows application program to access hardware devices and data on a simulation process in a unified way. A device 'is represented as a collection of records in CSR Runtime Database. A control program on host computer can access devices in the system only through names of record fields, called channel.

  4. Accelerator control systems without minicomputers

    A paper given last year described in general terms a plan for the control of a large machine using assemblies of microcomputer units which simulate a conventional minicomputer by multiprocessing. In every other way the SPS control philosophy is followed. The design of a model assembly has allowed us to learn something about the protocols needed inside and between assemblies, as well as to assess more accurately what level of technology it is reasonable to apply. In any control system of this kind it would be desirable to allow engineering contributions from a variety of sources, and yet ensure the homogeneity needed for the system to remain reliable and comprehensible. Methods of achieving this are discussed. (Auth.)

  5. Electron beam accelerator energy control system

    A control system has been developed for the energy control of the electron beam accelerator using PLC. The accelerating voltage of 3 MV has been obtained by using parallel coupled voltage multiplier circuit. A autotransformer controlled variable 0-10 KV DC is fed to a tube based push pull oscillator to generate 120 Khz, 10 KV AC. Oscillator output voltage is stepped up to 0-300 KV/AC using a transformer. 0-300 KVAC is fed to the voltage multiplier column to generate the accelerating voltage at the dome 0-3 MV/DC. The control system has been designed to maintain the accelerator voltage same throughout the operation by adjusting the input voltage in close loop. Whenever there is any change in the output voltage either because of beam loading or arcing in the accelerator. The instantaneous accelerator voltage or energy is a direct proportional to 0-10 KVDC obtained from autotransformer. A PLC based control system with user settable energy level has been installed for 3 MeV, EB accelerator. The PLC takes the user defined energy value through a touch screen and compares it to the actual accelerating voltage (obtained using resistive divider). Depending upon the error the PLC generates the pulses to adjust the autotransformer to bring the actual voltage to the set value within the window of error (presently set to +/- 0.1%). (author)

  6. Evolution of control systems for accelerators

    The author reviews the development of control systems for accelerators. After an historical survey and a general introduction the hardware and software of such systems is described. As example the control system of the CERN SP5 is considered. Finally an outlook is given to future developments with special regards to the LEP storage ring. (HSI)

  7. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility control system

    Described is the VAX/CAMAC-based control system for Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility, a laser/linac research complex. Details of hardware and software configurations are presented along with experiences of using Vsystem, a commercial control system package

  8. Computer networks in future accelerator control systems

    Some findings of a study concerning a computer based control and monitoring system for the proposed ISABELLE Intersecting Storage Accelerator are presented. Requirements for development and implementation of such a system are discussed. An architecture is proposed where the system components are partitioned along functional lines. Implementation of some conceptually significant components is reviewed

  9. Common control system for the CERN accelerators

    The PS and SPS Accelerator Control Systems are becoming obsolete and need urgent rejuvenation. After a control users forum, where users expressed their needs, two main Working Groups were set up, consisting of Control and Equipment Specialists and experienced Machine Operators. One Working Group studied the architecture and the front-end processing and the other a common approach to the application software needed to run the CERN accelerator complex. The paper presents the technical conclusion of their work and the policy to implement it, taking into account the necessity to operate both machines without interruption of the Physics Program. (author)

  10. Control system for the NBS microtron accelerator

    As various subsystems of the National Bureau of Standards/Los Alamos racetrack microtron accelerator are being brought on-line, we are gaining experience with some of the innovations implemented in the control system. Foremost among these are the joystick-based operator controls, the hierarchical distribution of control system intelligence, and the independent secondary stations, permitting sectional stand-alone operation. The result of the distributed database philosophy and parallel data links has been very fast data updates, permitting joystick interaction with system elements. The software development was greatly simplified by using the hardware arbitration of several parallel processors in the Multibus system to split the software tasks into independent modules

  11. Present SLAC accelerator computer control system features

    The current functional organization and state of software development of the computer control system of the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. Included is a discussion of the distribution of functions throughout the system, the local controller features, and currently implemented features of the touch panel portion of the system. The functional use of our triplex of PDP11-34 computers sharing common memory is described. Also included is a description of the use of pseudopanel tables as data tables for closed loop control functions

  12. The new accelerator control system of GANIL

    The new computer control system is conducting the heavy ion accelerator GANIL from the beginning of 1993 and has reached a state of routine operation. It was carried out to supersede the obsolete initial system and to cope with the harsh experimental conditions required by the very high intensity beams envisioned for the next future. Hardware and software implementations, as well as human interface, are presented. Emphasis is placed on the three-layer distributed architecture adopted. An ETHERNET local area network (LAN) links the basic components: a VAX/VMS cluster, XWINDOWS interfaced operator consoles, VAXELN driven CAMAC crate controllers and programmable logic controllers for front end controls. Also data management with the INGRES relational database management system (RDBMS), as well as operating software written in ADA language, are described. First experience with the new control system is reported. Finally, trend considerations are addressed. (author) 8 refs., 6 figs

  13. Control system modelling for superconducting accelerator

    A digital control of superconducting cavities for a linear accelerator is presented. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. FPGA based controller supported by MATLAB system was developed to investigate the novel firmware implementation. Algebraic model in complex domain is proposed for the system analyzing. Calibration procedure of a signal path is considered for a multi-channel control. Identification of the system parameters is carried out by the least squares method application. Control tables: Feed-Forward and Set- Point are determined for the required cavity performance, according to the recognized process. Feedback loop is tuned by fitting a complex gain of a corrector unit. Adaptive control algorithm is applied for feed-forward and feedback modes. Experimental results are presented for a cavity representative operation. (orig.)

  14. Automated control system in charged particle accelerators

    A general approach to the design of automated radiation safety systems at charged particle accelerators is described. Parameters of high-energy electron accelerators of the Kharkov Physics and Engineering Institute are presented. Characteristics of the surrounding radiation fields are given. Ionizing radiation transducers which can be used in automated systems are considered. Local radiation monitoring station based on the LUE-2000 accelerator of the institute is described. 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Industrial influences on an accelerator control system

    Industrial applications of a control system package have extended from industrial research to process control. While the requirements of these applications have much in common with accelerator controls, there are always extensions, different emphases, and additional requirements. These often add to the applicability of the software in all fields and certainly keep the development team challenged. This paper discusses some of the influences that industrial applications such as power distribution monitoring, casting and rolling mills, and aircraft engine testing have on software originally designed for scientific research. We also discuss some of the differences in the software development process between development for in-house use and development for sales and industrial use. (Author) ref., fig

  16. Artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems

    An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined. Specific values were assigned in the knowledge base to represent each actual device. Relationships between devices are modeled using the artificial intelligence techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented methods. This symbolic model, built using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, provides a framework for analyzing faults, tutoring trainee operators, and offering suggestions to assist in beam tuning. Based on information provided by the domain expert responsible for tuning this portion of the beam line, additional rules were written to describe how he tunes, how he analyzes what is actually happening, and how he deals with failures. Initial results have shown that artificial intelligence techniques can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of numerical simulation. Successful and efficient operation of future accelerators may depend on the proper merging of symbolic reasoning and conventional numerical control algorithms

  17. Accelerator optimization using a network control and acquisition system

    Accelerator optimization requires detailed study of many parameters, indicating the need for remote control and automated data acquisition systems. A control and data acquisition system based on a network of commodity PCs and applications with standards based inter-application communication is being built for the l'OASIS accelerator facility. This system allows synchronous acquisition of data at high (> 1 Hz) rates and remote control of the accelerator at low cost, allowing detailed study of the acceleration process

  18. Open Hardware For CERN's Accelerator Control Systems

    van der Bij, E; Ayass, M; Boccardi, A; Cattin, M; Gil Soriano, C; Gousiou, E; Iglesias Gonsálvez, S; Penacoba Fernandez, G; Serrano, J; Voumard, N; Wlostowski, T

    2011-01-01

    The accelerator control systems at CERN will be renovated and many electronics modules will be redesigned as the modules they will replace cannot be bought anymore or use obsolete components. The modules used in the control systems are diverse: analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules. Overall around 120 modules are supported that are used in systems such as beam instrumentation, cryogenics and power converters. Only a small percentage of the currently used modules are commercially available, while most of them had been specifically designed at CERN. The new developments are based on VITA and PCI-SIG standards such as FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card), PCI Express and VME64x using transition modules. As system-on-chip interconnect, the public domain Wishbone specification is used. For the renovation, it is considered imperative to have for each board access to the full hardware design and its firmware so that problems could quickly be resolved by CERN engineers or its ...

  19. Adaptive, Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Accelerator Feedback Control Systems

    Variations in systems dynamics and modeling uncertainty(due to unmodeled systems behavior and/or presence of disturbances),have posed significant challenges to the effective luminosity and orbit control in accelerators.Problems of similar nature occur in a wide variety of other applications from chemical processes to power plants to financial systems.Adaptive control has long been pursued as a possible solution,but difficulties with online model identification and robust implementation of the adaptive control algorithms has prevented their widespread application.In general developing and maintaining appropriate models is the key to the success of any deployed control solution.Meanwhile the performance of the control system is contingent on the responsiveness of the control algorithm to the inevitable deviations of the model from the actual system.This project uses neural networks to detect significant changes in system behavior,and develops an optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control algorithm that enables the robust implementation of an effective control strategy that is applicable in a wide range of applications.Simulation studies were conducted to clearly demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of implementing model predictive control technology in accelerator control problems.The requirements for an effective commercial product that can meet the challenge of optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control technology were developed.A prototype for the optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control algorithm was developed for a well-known nonlinear temperature control problem for gas-phase reactors that proved the feasibility of the proposed approach.This research enables a commercial party to leverage the knowledge gained through collaboration with a national laboratory to develop new system identification and optimal model-predictive-based adaptive control software to address current and future challenges in process industries,power systems

  20. Concurrent control system for the JAERI tandem accelerator

    Concurrent processing with a multiprocessor system is introduced to the particle accelerator control system region. The control system is a good application in both logical and physical aspects. A renewal plan of the control system for the JAERI tandem accelerator is discussed. (author)

  1. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations

  2. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations.

  3. Hacking control systems, switching… accelerators off?

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    In response to our article in the last Bulletin, we received the following comment: “Wasn’t Stuxnet designed to stop the Iranian nuclear programme? Why then all this noise with regard to CERN accelerators? Don’t you realize that ‘computer security’ is not the raison d'être of CERN?”. Thank you for this golden opportunity to delve into this issue.   Given the sophistication of Stuxnet, it might have been hard to detect such a targeted attack against CERN, if at all. But this is not the point. There are much simpler risks for our accelerator complex and infrastructure. And, while “‘computer security’ is [indeed] not the raison d' être”, it is our collective responsibility to keep this risk at bay.   Examples? Just think of a simple computer virus infecting Windows-based control PCs connected to the accelerator network (the Technical Network, &ld...

  4. BNL ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY CONTROL SYSTEM UPGRADE.

    MALONE,R.; BEN-ZVI,I.; WANG,X.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2001-06-18

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) has embarked on a complete upgrade of its decade old computer system. The planned improvements affect every major component: processors (Intel Pentium replaces VAXes), operating system (Linux/Real-Time Linux supplants OpenVMS), and data acquisition equipment (fast Ethernet equipment replaces CAMAC serial highway.) This paper summarizes the strategies and progress of the upgrade along with plans for future expansion.

  5. Status of the KEKB accelerator control system development

    KEKB, an asymmetric electron-positron collider, is in the last phase of its construction. The status of the development and installation of the control system for the KEKB will be reported in this paper. Installation of the basic equipment for the KEKB accelerator control system, including FDDI network cables between the central control room and sub-control rooms, was finished in spring 1997. This basic system is now being used for the development of software for the KEKB accelerator control system. Extension of the system for the first commissioning is scheduled later this year. The KEKB accelerator control system is based on the EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) tool kits for accelerator control system. EPICS tool kits uses the variant of so-called 'standard model' of an accelerator control system. Use of EPICS tool kits reduces needs for the development of basic software. Relational database is another key component in the KEKB accelerator control system. An end user interface using the WWW browser is developed and is under the field test. Power supply controller board has been developed and tested. The board uses ARCnet as the communication interface to the VME controller module in the KEKB accelerator control system. (author)

  6. Control system for particle accelerator in LabVIEW

    Vitorovič, Miha

    2011-01-01

    The thesis presents the implementation of a control system for particle accelerator in the LabVIEW development environment. The first chapter gives an overview of the operation of the synchrotron accelerator and its parts. The second chapter describes how control system controls the accelerator. The third chapter gives an overview of the LabVIEW development environment, graphical language G and explains how graphical programs are written. It also lists some limitations of the language and how...

  7. BIOCONAID System (Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming). Final Report.

    Rogers, Dana B.; And Others

    The system described represents a new technique for enhancing the fidelity of flight simulators during high acceleration maneuvers. This technique forces the simulator pilot into active participation and energy expenditure similar to the aircraft pilot undergoing actual accelerations. The Bionic Control of Acceleration Induced Dimming (BIOCONAID)…

  8. Distributed computer controls for accelerator systems

    A distributed control system has been designed and installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Multi-user Tandem Facility using an extremely modular approach in hardware and software. The two tiered, geographically organized design allowed total system implementation with four months with a computer and instrumentation cost of approximately $100K. Since the system structure is modular, application to a variety of facilities is possible. Such a system allows rethinking and operational style of the facilities, making possible highly reproducible and unattended operation. The impact of industry standards, i.e., UNIX, CAMAC, and IEEE-802.3, and the use of a graphics-oriented controls software suite allowed the efficient implementation of the system. The definition, design, implementation, operation and total system performance will be discussed. 3 refs

  9. Design of control system for accelerator

    Laboratory of Nuclear Science in Tohoku University has made a plan to construct a pulse beam stretcher boostering (STB) the fiscal year from 1995 to 1996. STB has two characteristic functions, one of them is pulse beam stretcher function to change 250 MeV pulse electron beam from Linac to direct current' beam and another is booster ring one to increase from 250 MeV to 1.2 GeV beam. Today, the detailed design is going to proceed. The subjects of control system are the direct current electromagnet, the pulse electromagnet, RF system, the vacuum system, the beam monitor system, the triggered system and the inter rock system. We will construct a control program of our own making. Another characteristic function is to adopt the directional object data base. The construction of hardware and software and the future planning are explained. (S.Y.)

  10. The intelligent gate control for the induction acceleration system in the KEK digital accelerator

    The renovation of the KEK PS-Booster as a digital accelerator (DA) is going on. Our plan is to accelerate Argon ion beam in the KEK-DA using the induction acceleration system, which was developed at KEK. An outline of the acceleration scenario is described and a necessary control system fully integrating the induction acceleration devices is given in details. For the induction acceleration in the KEK-DA, beam monitors and front-end processors to pick up information of the beam timing with accuracy are quite important. R and D works of those components are discussed. (author)

  11. The KN-3000 particle accelerator control expert system (PACES)

    The particle accelerator control expert system (PACES) is a computer-based operator aid, retrofitted to a model KN-3000 Van de Graaff accelerator, that is used during the start-up, steady state and shut-down phases of the accelerator. Using PACES, the operator can control the accelerator through a graphical control panel, or call upon an expert system to perform automatic start-up or shut-down. PACES then automatically stabilizes and optimizes particle beam parameters. PACES is also able to detect, diagnose and respond to operating faults, such as high-voltage sparks, vacuum system failure or loss of source gas. This paper demonstrates the novel features and utility of the PACES artificial intelligence accelerator controller

  12. Techniques for increasing the reliability of accelerator control system electronics

    As the physical size of modern accelerators becomes larger and larger, the number of required control system circuit boards increases, and the probability of one of those circuit boards failing while in service also increases. In order to do physics, the experimenters need the accelerator to provide beam reliably with as little down time as possible. With the advent of colliding beams physics, reliability becomes even more important due to the fact that a control system failure can cause the loss of painstakingly produced antiprotons. These facts prove the importance of keeping reliability in mind when designing and maintaining accelerator control system electronics

  13. Computer Based Dose Control System on Linear Accelerator

    The accelerator technology has been used for radio therapy. DokterKaryadi Hospital in Semarang use electron or X-ray linear accelerator (Linac)for cancer therapy. One of the control parameter of linear accelerator isdose rate. It is particle current or amount of photon rate to the target. Thecontrol of dose rate in linac have been done by adjusting repetition rate ofanode pulse train of electron source. Presently the control is stillproportional control. To enhance the quality of the control result (minimalstationer error, velocity and stability), the dose control system has beendesigned by using the PID (Proportional Integral Differential) controlalgorithm and the derivation of transfer function of control object.Implementation of PID algorithm control system is done by giving an input ofdose error (the different between output dose and dose rate set point). Theoutput of control system is used for correction of repetition rate set pointfrom pulse train of electron source anode. (author)

  14. Rf control system for a rocket-borne accelerator

    The Beam Experiments Aboard Rockets (BEAR) accelerator experiment imposes several nonstandard requirements on the rf control system. The experiment is entirely hands-off and must operate under local computer control. The rf control system must be extremely reliable, which implies excellence in design and fabrication as well as redundancy whenever possible. This paper describes the design of the frequency-source, frequency-control, and amplitude-control systems for the BEAR experiment

  15. Control system analysis for the perturbed linear accelerator rf system

    Sung Il Kwon

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the modeling problem of the linear accelerator RF system in SNS. Klystrons are modeled as linear parameter varying systems. The effect of the high voltage power supply ripple on the klystron output voltage and the output phase is modeled as an additive disturbance. The cavity is modeled as a linear system and the beam current is modeled as the exogenous disturbance. The output uncertainty of the low level RF system which results from the uncertainties in the RF components and cabling is modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. Also, the feedback loop uncertainty and digital signal processing signal conditioning subsystem uncertainties are lumped together and are modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. Finally, the time delays in the loop are modeled as a lumped time delay. For the perturbed open loop system, the closed loop system performance, and stability are analyzed with the PI feedback controller.

  16. Development of new elements of automated control systems linear accelerator

    For monitoring systems and control of linear electron accelerators have been designed, manufactured and introduced new elements instead of physically and morally outdated. This family of analog-to-digital converters ADC 01, ADC-02 ADC-03, ADC-05 ADC-06 have been developed in cooperation with the KNURE, and synchronizer for linear accelerator LUE-60M, designed forces of employees the research complex ''ACCELERATOR'' KIPT. Purpose, characteristics, technical description, block diagrams of family of analog-to-digital converters ADC01...ADC06 and of synchronizer of linear accelerator LUE-60M is presented in a report. These devices are developed on a new element base and inculcated in automated control systems of linear accelerators.

  17. Control and accelerating voltage automatic pulse acquisition system for ''LIU-5/5000'' linear accelerators

    A system prowiding continuous control and automatic correction of actuation of accelerating voltage pulse generators of a linear induction accelerator is described. TGI-2500/50 thyratrons are switching elements of the generators. Shaped pulses have a bell form, their duration on the foundation constitues 300 ns. The device operation is based on the determination of a sign of time error between generator and reference pulses. Depending on the error sign performed is correction of the delay value included into the actuation circuit of the corresponding generator. Such operation is accomplished in each working pulse of the accelerator. Data on the delay condition go to the digital panel and digital print-out. Technical characteristics of the system are the following: 56 cynchronization channels, 155 ns control interval, 5 ns control pitch, error of the error determination is not worse than +-2.5 ns. The system permitted to improve accelerated beam stability and to simplify accelerator tuning and control

  18. IPNS Chopper Control and Accelerator Interface Systems

    Several of the instruments at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne use rotating Fermi choppers. The techniques used to control the speed and phase of these rotating devices are discussed

  19. ISABELLE accelerator software, control system, and beam diagnostic philosophy

    The ISABELLE Project combines two large proton accelerators with two storage rings in the same facility using superconducting magnet technology. This combination leads to severe constraints on beam loss in magnets and involves complex treatment of magnetic field imperfections and correction elements. The consequent demands placed upon beam diagnostics, accelerator model programs, and the computer oriented control system are discussed in terms of an illustrative operation scenario

  20. Linear IFMIF prototype accelerator (LIPAc) control system: design and development

    Calvo Pinto, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Distributed real time control systems in scientific instruments, such as particle accelerators or telescopes, have emerged as a solution to control multiple interconnected devices, which required constant attention and observation, along with a complete integration of each of its parts. This enhancement is provided by the intense technological development that control devices have suffered in recent years. With respect to the control software, libraries and applications have also emerged in r...

  1. Integrating a commercial industrial control system to the accelerator control system: a case study

    At CERN a large number of systems providing services (cooling and ventilation, cryogenics, electricity distribution, personnel and building safety, etc.) are controlled by industrial PLCs. A commercial supervision package is used as a gateway to the accelerator control system. The integration of such a system in the CERN accelerator control environment addresses issues such as the connection to control-rooms and desktop computers, alarm logging and remote or alien man-machine interfaces. The paper describes the components of the system and reports the first operational experience. ((orig.))

  2. A distributed control system for picosecond accelerator at SINAP

    CAO Hong-Ping; CHEN Huan-Guang; LI De-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The picosecond accelerator (PA) is a low energy electron linear accelerator facility under commissioning,which is built for the experiment of ps level pulse radiolysis in Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP). A practical distributed DA&C system for this facility has been developed. In view of the upgrading-ability and maintainability of the control system and controlled devices, Advantech(c) distributed intelligent DA&C products are adopted into the control system. ADAM 5000/TCPs with the protocol of Modbus/TCP are employed to accomplish data acquisition and device control. The PC-compatible programmable logic controller, ADAM-5511, is also adopted to handle the interlocks and the emergency events. On the software side, the integrated software package Kingview(c)V6.5, which friendly supports all Advantech products, has been used to develop the upper layer control logic and process the data. This paper describes the control system design and system architecture. The intelligent ADAM controllers and the software platform are also discussed in detail.

  3. Monitoring and control system of the Saclay electron linear accelerator

    A description is given of the automatic monitoring and control system of the 60MeV electron linear accelerator of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. The paper is mostly concerned with the programmation of the system. However, in a real time device, there is a very close association between computer and electronics, the latter are therefore described in details and make up most of the paper.

  4. Quick setup of test unit for accelerator control system

    Testing a single hardware unit of an accelerator control system often requires the setup of a program with graphical user interface. Developing a dedicated application for a specific hardware unit test could be time consuming and the application may become obsolete after the unit tests. This paper documents a methodology for quick design and setup of an interface focused on performing unit tests of accelerator equipment with minimum programming work. The method has three components. The first is a generic accelerator device object (ADO) manager which can be used to setup, store, and log testing controls parameters for any unit testing system. The second involves the design of a TAPE (Tool for Automated Procedure Execution) sequence file that specifies and implements all te testing and control logic. The sting third is the design of a PET (parameter editing tool) page that provides the unit tester with all the necessary control parameters required for testing. This approach has been used for testing the horizontal plane of the Stochastic Cooling Motion Control System at RHIC.

  5. Personal computer control system for small size tandem accelerator

    As the analysis apparatus using tandem accelerator has a lot of control parameter, numbers of control parts set on control panel are so many to make the panel more complex and its operativity worse. In order to improve these faults, development and design of a control system using personal computer for the control panel mainly constituted by conventional hardware parts were tried. Their predominant characteristics are shown as follows: 1) To make the control panel construction simpler and more compact, because the hardware device on the panel surface becomes the smallest limit as required by using a personal computer for man-machine interface. 2) To make control speed more rapid, because sequence control is closed within each block by driving accelerator system to each block and installing local station of the sequencer network at each block. 3) To make expandability larger, because of few improvement of the present hardware by interrupting the sequencer local station into the net and correcting image of the computer when increasing a new beamline. And, 4) to make control system cheaper, because of cheaper investment and easier programming by using the personal computer. (G.K.)

  6. An Integrated Enterprise Accelerator Database for the SLC Control System

    Since its inception in the early 1980's, the SLC Control System has been driven by a highly structured memory-resident real-time database. While efficient, its rigid structure and file-based sources makes it difficult to maintain and extract relevant information. The goal of transforming the sources for this database into a relational form is to enable it to be part of a Control System Enterprise Database that is an integrated central repository for SLC accelerator device and Control System data with links to other associated databases. We have taken the concepts developed for the NLC Enterprise Database and used them to create and load a relational model of the online SLC Control System database. This database contains data and structure to allow querying and reporting on beamline devices, their associations and parameters. In the future this will be extended to allow generation of EPICS and SLC database files, setup of applications and links to other databases such as accelerator maintenance, archive data, financial and personnel records, cabling information, documentation etc. The database is implemented using Oracle 8i. In the short term it will be updated daily in batch from the online SLC database. In the longer term, it will serve as the primary source for Control System static data, an R and D platform for the NLC, and contribute to SLC Control System operations

  7. The new control system of the Saclay linear accelerator

    A new control system for the Safety Linear Accelerator is now being designed. The computer control architecture is based on 3 dedicated VME crates with MC68000 micro-processors: one crate with a disk-based operating system will run the high level application programs and the data base management facilities, another one will manage the man-machine communications and the third one will interface the system to the linac equipments. Communications between the VME microcomputers will be done through 16 bit parallel links. The software is modular and organized in specific layers, the data base is fully distributed. About 90% of the code is written in Fortran

  8. Intelligent control system for the KEK digital accelerator

    Studies are being conducted to develop a digital accelerator capable of accelerating ions with any charge state, based on the concept of the induction synchrotron. The digital accelerator is a modification of the KEK 500 MeV booster which employs induction acceleration. The digital accelerator is operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The accelerating pulse voltage is dynamically varied from 0 V to 2.4 kV. A novel technique combining the pulse trigger control and intermittent operation of multi-acceleration cells is developed. The acceleration scheme of the digital accelerator is verified by using computer simulations and it is demonstrated at our test facility by using a beam simulator to mimic a circulating beam-bunch signal in the KEK digital accelerator.

  9. High performance/low cost accelerator control system

    Implementation of a high performance computer control system tailored to the requirements of the SuperHILAC accelerator is described. This system uses a distributed (star-type) structure with fiber optic data links; multiple CPU's operate in parallel at each node. A large number (20) of the latest 16-bit microcomputer boards are used to get a significant processor bandwidth (exceeding that of many mini-computers) at a reasonable price. Because of the large CPU bandwidth, software costs and complexity are significantly reduced and programming can be less real-time critical. In addition all programming can be in a high level language. Dynamically assigned and labeled knobs together with touch-screens allow a flexible operator interface. An X-Y vector graphics system allows display and labeling of real-time signals as well as general plotting functions. Both the accelerator parameters and the graphics system can be driven from BASIC interactive programs in addition to the pre-canned user routines. This allows new applications to be developed quickly and efficiently by physicists, operators, etc. The system, by its very nature and design, is easily upgraded (via next generation of boards) and repaired (by swapping of boards) without a large hardware support group. This control system is now being tested on an existing beamline and is performing well. The techniques used in this system can be readily applied to industrial control systems

  10. Precise RF control system of the SCSS test accelerator

    We present development and performance of the low-level rf control system of the SCSS test accelerator. The low-level rf system consists of IQ modulators / demodulators and VME waveform generators / digitizers. Recent improvements of them established high-resolution phase and amplitude setting capabilities of 0.01 degree and 0.01%, respectively. In addition, temperature drifts of the injector acceleration cavities were reduced by tuning a precise temperature regulation system. The temperature fluctuation was improved to be 0.01 K rms. As a result, the rf phase and amplitude stabilities of sub-harmonic buncher cavities were achieved to be 0.02 degree rms and 0.03% rms, respectively. The saturated FEL radiation in the wavelength region of 50-60 nm is stably generated by this improvement. (author)

  11. Customizable software architectures in the accelerator control system environment

    Mejuev, I; Kadokura, E

    2001-01-01

    Tailoring is further evolution of an application after deployment in order to adapt it to requirements that were not accounted for in the original design. End-user customization has been extensively researched in applied computer science from HCI and software engineering perspectives. Customization allows coping with flexibility requirements, decreasing maintenance and development costs of software products. In general, dynamic or diverse software requirements constitute the need for implementing end-user customization in computer systems. In accelerator physics research the factor of dynamic requirements is especially important, due to frequent software and hardware modifications resulting in correspondingly high upgrade and maintenance costs. We introduce the results of feasibility study on implementing end-user tailorability in the software for accelerator control system, considering the design and implementation of a distributed monitoring application for the 12 GeV KEK Proton Synchrotron as an example. T...

  12. STUXNET and the Impact on Accelerator Control Systems

    Lüders, S

    2011-01-01

    2010 has seen wide news coverage of a new kind of computer attack, named "Stuxnet", targeting control systems. Due to its level of sophistication, it is widely acknowledged that this attack marks the very first case of a cyber-war of one country against the industrial infrastructure of another, although there is still much speculation about the details. Worse yet, experts recognize that Stuxnet might just be the beginning and that similar attacks, eventually with much less sophistication, but with much more collateral damage, can be expected in the years to come. Stuxnet was targeting a special model of the Siemens 400 PLC series. Similar modules are also deployed for accelerator controls like the LHC cryogenics or vacuum systems as well as the detector control systems in LHC experiments. Therefore, the aim of this presentation is to give an insight into what this new attack does and why it is deemed to be special. In particular, the potential impact on accelerator and experiment control sys...

  13. RF low level control system at SCSS prototype accelerator

    The constriction of XFEL facilities is under progress at the SPring-8 site. The SCSS prototype accelerator to check the feasibility of XFEL is in operation. And the amplification of VUV light having a wavelength of 49 nm was observed in June. The stability and controllability requirements on an RF phase and amplitude, concerning with the RF system of the prototype accelerator, are less than 1 degree and 0.3%. To satisfy the requirements, we developed a low noise RF signal source, and an IQ (In phase and in Quardrature) modulator and an IQ demodulator. The RF phase and amplitude are controlled by the IQ modulator. The detection of them are performed by using the IQ demodulator. Both IQ functions of them are handled by VME DAC and ADC boards developed by us. Furthermore, the DAC module can handle the adaptive control method. We confirmed, that these instruments satisfied the requirements, by the beam test. The configuration of the RF low level system, its performance, and the preliminary results of the adaptive control experiment are described in this paper. (author)

  14. Overview of Fermi National Accelerator Lab Control System

    Various facets of the control of the Fermilab accelerators, in particular the Tevatron, are presented. Since Fermilab contains a superconducting machine and a sophisticated injection complex, much of the controls functionality will of necessity be the same at the SSC. The various functions required at a large laboratory are discussed; these include computer-based fire and security alarms and a cable television system, as well as computer networks connected to accelerator hardware components. A description is given of that hardware, of which much is Camac but with considerable computer backplane bus equipment also present. A large fraction of the controls hardware has access to high precision real-time clocks. Our various networks are introduced, with the physical layer being a combination of copper and more modern optic cables, with the primary intercomputer link being Token Ring. A description of the computers is presented - basically these consist of operators' consoles, host VAXs, and link driving front ends. The software effort is detailed, with emphasis on consoles and microprocessors where the majority of effort has been placed. Future plans for the system are presented briefly. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Global Accelerator Network, Control Systems And Beam Diagnostics

    Raich, U

    2003-01-01

    Falling funds force all accelerator centers to look for new sources of financing and for the most efficient way of implementing new projects. This very often leads to collaborations between institutes scattered around the globe, a problem well known to big high energy physics experiments. The collaborations working on big detectors e.g. for LHC started thinking about detector acquisition and control systems which can be remotely used from their respective home institutes with minimal support on the spot. This idea was taken up by A. Wagner from DESY for the TESLA machine, who proposed the “Global Accelerator Network” (GAN) enabling users from around the world to run an accelerator remotely. Questions around this subject that immediately come to mind Is the GAN only relevant to big labs ? Or is it reasonable e.g. for operators or engineers in charge to do certain manipulations from home? Are our instruments ready for the GAN? Does the fact of being “GAN ready” increa...

  16. Upgrade of the Control System of the IFUNAM's Pelletron Accelerator

    Macias, R; Ortiz, M E; López, K; Huerta, A; Verde, M C

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 a 9SDH-2 Pelletron from NEC was installed at IFUNAM (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico). Two beam lines have been operational since then and two new lines have been built. In order to perform the planned projects in this grown facility, an upgrading of the original manual control system is required. The proposed new control system takes advantage of the existing devices and incorporates the electronics needed for the newer beam lines. The control software from NEC, has been modified to accommodate the larger requirements. It runs on the same dedicated computer but receives commands from a new installed host. Both computers communicate through a local network sharing the accelerator database. The new host computer also handles all parameters related to the new lines. In the future, the old computer will be replaced in order to expand the possibilities of the system and use a friendlier graphical interface. In this work we present the changes made to the control software, the ...

  17. An artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems

    An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined. Specific values were assigned in the knowledge base to represent each actual device. Relationships between devices are modeled using the artificial intelligence techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented methods. This symbolic model, built using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, provides a framework for analyzing faults, tutoring trainee operators, and offering suggestions to assist in beam tuning. Based on information provided by the domain expert responsible for tuning this portion of the beam line, additional rules were written to describe how he tunes, how he analyzes what is actually happening, and how he deals with failures. Initial results have shown that artificial intelligence techniques can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of numerical simulation. Successful and efficient operation of future accelerators may depend on the proper merging of symbolic reasoning and conventional numerical control algorithms

  18. Database application research in real-time data access of accelerator control system

    The control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is a large-scale distributed real-time control system, It involves many types and large amounts of real-time data access during the operating. Database system has wide application prospects in the large-scale accelerator control system. It is the future development direction of the accelerator control system, to replace the differently dedicated data structures with the mature standardized database system. This article discusses the application feasibility of database system in accelerators based on the database interface technology, real-time data access testing, and system optimization research and to establish the foundation of the wide scale application of database system in the SSRF accelerator control system. Based on the database interface technology, real-time data access testing and system optimization research, this article will introduce the application feasibility of database system in accelerators, and lay the foundation of database system application in the SSRF accelerator control system. (authors)

  19. Tailorable software architectures in the accelerator control system environment

    Tailoring is further evolution of an application after deployment in order to adapt it to requirements that were not accounted for in the original design. End-user tailorability has been extensively researched in applied computer science from HCl and software engineering perspectives. Tailorability allows coping with flexibility requirements, decreasing maintenance and development costs of software products. In general, dynamic or diverse software requirements constitute the need for implementing end-user tailorability in computer systems. In accelerator physics research the factor of dynamic requirements is especially important, due to frequent software and hardware modifications resulting in correspondingly high upgrade and maintenance costs. In this work we introduce the results of feasibility study on implementing end-user tailorability in the software for accelerator control system, considering the design and implementation of distributed monitoring application for 12 GeV KEK Proton Synchrotron as an example. The software prototypes used in this work are based on a generic tailoring platform (VEDICI), which allows decoupling of tailoring interfaces and runtime components. While representing a reusable application-independent framework, VEDICI can be potentially applied for tailoring of arbitrary compositional Web-based applications

  20. A Framework for a General Purpose Intelligent Control System for Particle Accelerators. Phase II Final Report

    Vista Control Systems, Inc. has developed a portable system for intelligent accelerator control. The design is general in scope and is thus configurable to a wide range of accelerator facilities and control problems. The control system employs a multi-layer organization in which knowledge-based decision making is used to dynamically configure lower level optimization and control algorithms

  1. Design of time control system of high current proton linear accelerator

    The high current proton linear accelerator with high duty ratio will be used in accelerator driven sub-critical system. Time control system of high current proton linear accelerator is introduced. During accelerator operation, the system provides necessary trigger and clock signal. Accuracy and stability of the system has important implications for operation of the linear accelerator. Design of serial communication hardware based on ALTERA company cyclone Ⅲ FPGA, programming of serial communication drivers and functional modules, and implement of human-computer interface based on LabVIEW are realized. The testing results show that the whole system meets requirements of time control system of the high current proton accelerator. (authors)

  2. Distributed Networked Control System for Power Supply System of the Accelerator Based on Canopen Protocol

    Network based control system for a power supply unit of the linear accelerator was developed. Front-end level of the system is based on CAN fieldbus with CANopen and CANEX application level protocols. Both local and remote control foe each CANopen node is provided. Level 2 control stations of the system are ARM9 CPU based machines, operating under Linux OS

  3. Tuners, microphonics, and control systems in superconducting accelerating structures

    Manufacturing tolerances, thermal stresses, acoustic noise, and cooling fluid pressure fluctuations all conspire to make the field in the cavity not precisely what the accelerator physicist has in mind. Tuners and control systems are the tools used to fight back: they regulate the field in the cavity to the desired magnitude and phase. Amplitude and phase stabilities are usually of greater concern in superconducting cavities than in copper cavities. The key to achieving a stable gradient and phase is feedback. A probe must be placed in the cavity itself to sense the present cavity status. Electronic control is then given the responsibility to correct for any measured disturbance. The electronic modulation of forward power has been implemented in a number of ways. Perhaps the easiest implementation to understand has two separate control loops, one for amplitude and one for phase (phase-amplitude loops). Other major electronic control devices include complex phasor modulator (CPM-amplitude loops), vector loop, and variable reactance. 'Slow' tuners are used when the tuning range of the 'fast' tuner plus electronic tuning is not enough to compensate for unpredictability or drift in the static frequency setting. (N.K.)

  4. FPGA Mezzanine Cards for CERN’s Accelerator Control System

    Alvarez, P R; Lewis, J; Serrano, J; Wlostowski, T

    2009-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have become a key player in modern real time control systems. They offer determinism, simple design, high performance and versatility. A typical hardware architecture consists of an FPGA interfaced with a control bus and a variable number of digital IOs, ADCs and DACs depending on the application. Until recently the low-cost hardware paradigm has been using mezzanines containing a front end interface plus custom logic (typically an FPGA) and a local bus that interfaces the mezzanine to a carrier. As FPGAs grow in size and shrink in price, hardware reuse, testability and bus access speed could be improved if the user logic is moved to the carrier. The new FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) Vita 57 standard is a good example of this new paradigm. In this paper we present a standard kit of FPGA carriers and IO mezzanines for accelerator control. Carriers form factors will be VME, PCI and PCIe. The carriers will feature White Rabbit support for accurate synchronization of distributed...

  5. Design of a Normal Acceleration and Angle of Attack Control System for a Missile Having Front and Rear Control Surfaces

    Ochi, Yoshimasa

    Precise normal acceleration control is essential for missile guidance. Missiles with both front and rear control surfaces have a higher ability to control normal acceleration than missiles with front or rear control surfaces only. From the viewpoint of control, however, the control problem becomes a two-input-one-output problem, where generally control input cannot be determined uniquely. This paper proposes controlling angle of attack as well as normal acceleration, which makes the problem a two-input-two-output one and determines the controls uniquely. Normal acceleration command is given by a guidance system, but angle of attack command must be generated in accordance to the acceleration command without affecting the normal acceleration control. This paper also proposes such a command generator for angle of attack. Computer simulation is conducted using a nonlinear missile model to investigate the effectiveness of the control system along with control systems designed using three other methods.

  6. High-performance control system for a heavy-ion medical accelerator

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species

  7. A high performance control system for a heavy ion medical accelerator

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species

  8. A Study of the Design of Acceleration Control System for Missiles

    Kajita, Takanori; Eguchi, Hirofumi

    A 2-degrees of freedom PID controller is designed for a maneuvering acceleration control system. This design method is based on the combination of PID and IPD controller. Results show that (1) IP controller is superior to PI controller for the damper loop controller, (2) the selection of PI or IP controller as for the acceleration controller depends on the tradeoffs between the responsibility and the reduction of inverse response.

  9. The CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] control system architecture

    The focus of this paper is on CEBAF's computer control system. This control system will utilize computers in a distributed, networked configuration. The architecture, networking and operating system of the computers, and preliminary performance data are presented. We will also discuss the design of the operator consoles and the interfacing between the computers and CEBAF's instrumentation and operating equipment

  10. Computational means of the new control system for the U-70 accelerating complex

    Computational means of the new control system (CS) of the U-70 accelerating complex are described. The last includes the LU-30 linear accelerator, U-15 booster ring injector, U-70 main accelerator, systems for fast and slow beam extraction. The new integrated CS is based on the standard three-level architecture. Control of the CS network is realized with a special computer, fulfilling also the security functions

  11. Evolution and development of the Oak Ridge 25URC tandem accelerator control system

    Since acceptance of the 25URC accelerator in 1982, we have continued to develop and improve both the accelerator control system and associated software. In this paper, we describe these improvements and also discuss how our experience with the present system would influence the architecture and design of future, similar systems

  12. A flexible graphic display system for accelerator control

    A flexible graphic display system for controlling the KEK Photon Factory storage ring has been developed. A VME computer locally controls the graphic display system and communicates with the host control computer through a RS-232C link. Graphic pictures are prepared in the local system by an interactive operation using either a tablet or a keyboard. The host control computer is free from any load due to graphics processing. In an on-line operation, pictures are displayed and modified by simple command strings from the host computer. A 'picture stack' method has been developed for this graphics system. The latest demanded picture always has top priority to be presented on each display monitor. Previous pictures are saved in a stack and can reappear when the current picture has been freed. (author)

  13. Computer network for on-lne control system of the IHEP ring accelerator

    A block-diagram for computer network of the IHEP ring accelerator control system is substantiated. The interface card for ES-1010 computer is described, it operates simultaneously on 4 channels. The system software for computer network is considered

  14. A distributed control system status report of the munich accelerator control

    A system of computers connected by a local area network (ARCNET) controls the Munich accelerator facility. This includes ion sources, the tandem accelerator, the beam transport system, the gas handling plant, parts of experimental setup and also an ion source test bench. ARCNET is a deterministic multi-master network with arbitrary topology, using coax cables and optical fibers. Crates with single board computers and I/O-boards (analog, parallel or serial digital), dependent on the devices being controlled, are distributed all over the building. Personal computers serve as user interfaces. The LAN communication protocol is a client/server protocol. Communication language and programming language for the single board computers is Forth. The user mode drivers in the personal computers are also written in Forth. The tools for the operators are MS-Windows applications, programmed in Forth, C++ or Visual Basic. Links to MS-Office applications are available, too

  15. Evolution of the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) control system

    Given that the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) recently celebrated its 25. anniversary, this paper will explore the past, present, and future of the ATLAS Control System, and how it has evolved along with the accelerator and control system technology. ATLAS as we know it today, originated with a Tandem Van de Graff in the sixties. With the addition of the Booster section in the late seventies, came the first computerized control. ATLAS itself was placed into service on June 25, 1985, and was the world's first superconducting linear accelerator for ions. Since its dedication as a National User Facility, more than a thousand experiments by more than 2,000 users worldwide, have taken advantage of the unique capabilities it provides. Today, ATLAS continues to be a user facility for physicists who study the particles that form the heart of atoms. Its most recent addition, CARIBU (Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade), creates special beams that feed into ATLAS. ATLAS is similar to a living organism, changing and responding to new technological challenges and research needs. As it continues to evolve, so does the control system: from the original days using a DEC PDP-11/34 computer and two CAMAC crates, to a DEC Alpha computer running Vsystem software and more than twenty CAMAC crates, to distributed computers and VME systems. Future upgrades are also in the planning stages that will continue to evolve the control system. (authors)

  16. Phase and amplitude control system for Stanford Linear Accelerator

    The computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 micro-second 2856 MHz rf pulse at a 180 Hz rate. This will be used for phase feedback control, and also for phase and amplitude jitter measurement. The program, which was originally written by John Fox and Keith Jobe, has been modified to improve the function of the system. The software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system

  17. Overview of the control system for the IFMIF/EVEDA accelerator

    The accelerator for Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity (EVEDA) of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) will produce 9 MeV/125 mA CW beam. The IFMIF/EVEDA accelerator consists of Injector, RFQ, the first section of SC HWR Linac, etc. The control system for the IFMIF/EVEDA accelerator consists of Personnel Protection System (PPS), Machine Protection System (MPS), Central Control System (CCS), Local Area Network (LAN), Timing System (TS) and Local Control System (LCS). The PPS, MPS, CCS, LAN and TS have been developed by JAEA, and the LCS has been charged by EU. For these JAEA tasks, the design scenario taking into account of radio-activation, the development status and the development schedule for each accelerator components (Injector, RFQ, SC HWR linac, RF system, etc.) are presented in details. (author)

  18. Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages

    Diamant, Kevin David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel Joseph

    2014-05-13

    Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.

  19. Thermionic gun control system for the CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] injector

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Optimizing a mobile robot control system using GPU acceleration

    Tuck, Nat; McGuinness, Michael; Martin, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes our attempt to optimize a robot control program for the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) by running computationally intensive portions of the system on a commodity graphics processing unit (GPU). The IGVC Autonomous Challenge requires a control program that performs a number of different computationally intensive tasks ranging from computer vision to path planning. For the 2011 competition our Robot Operating System (ROS) based control system would not run comfortably on the multicore CPU on our custom robot platform. The process of profiling the ROS control program and selecting appropriate modules for porting to run on a GPU is described. A GPU-targeting compiler, Bacon, is used to speed up development and help optimize the ported modules. The impact of the ported modules on overall performance is discussed. We conclude that GPU optimization can free a significant amount of CPU resources with minimal effort for expensive user-written code, but that replacing heavily-optimized library functions is more difficult, and a much less efficient use of time.

  1. Fast digital feedback control systems for accelerator RF system using FPGA

    Feedback control system plays important role for proper injection and acceleration of beam in particle accelerators by providing the required amplitude and phase stability of RF fields in accelerating structures. Advancement in the field of digital technology enables us to develop fast digital feedback control system for RF applications. Digital Low Level RF (LLRF) system offers the inherent advantages of Digital System like flexibility, adaptability, good repeatability and reduced long time drift errors compared to analog system. To implement the feedback control algorithm, I/Q control scheme is used. By properly sampling the down converted IF signal using fast ADC we get accurate feedback signal and also eliminates the need of two separate detectors for amplitude and phase detection. Controller is implemented in Vertex-4 FPGA. Codes for control algorithms which controls the amplitude and phase in all four quadrants with good accuracy are written in the VHDL. I/Q modulator works as common actuator for both amplitude and phase correction. Synchronization between RF, LO and ADC clock is indispensable and has been achieved by deriving the clock and LO signal from RF signal itself. Control system has been successfully tested in lab with phase and amplitude stability better then ±1% and ±1° respectively. High frequency RF signal is down converted to IF using the super heterodyne technique. Super heterodyne principal not only brings the RF signal to the Low IF frequency at which it can be easily processed but also enables us to use the same hardware and software for other RF frequencies with some minor modification. (author)

  2. Operation status of EPICS IOC works on various systems in KEKB accelerator control system

    At the KEKB, many accelerator equipments are controlled by EPICS based control system. EPICS(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is a toolkit to construct control systems. At the time of KEKB operation started, EPICS IOC(Input Output Controller) could execute on VxWorks OS only. So we use VME computers with VxWorks OS as IOC. However, recently, EPICS IOC is able to execute on multi-platform, for example, Linux, Windows and Mac OS X.We introduced EPICS IOC which worked in not only VME computer with VxWorks but also Linux PC, PLC CPU with Linux and Windows-based Oscilloscope. In this paper, we will present status of EPICS IOC works on various systems in KEKB. (author)

  3. 77 FR 22637 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems

    2012-04-16

    ... driven portion of hybrid vehicles. Finally, the 2002 NPRM proposed a new procedure which would use engine... to recalls, most notably the Jan. 2010 recall of accelerator pedal assemblies in Toyota vehicles . We... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems; Proposed Rule...

  4. Redundancy scheme for multi-layered accelerator control system

    The control system for SRS Indus-2 has three-layered architecture. There are VMEbus based stations at the lower two layers that are controlled by their respective CPU board. The 'Profibus' fieldbus standard is used for communication between these VME stations distributed in the field. There is a Profibus controller board at each station to implement the communication protocol. The mode of communication is master-slave (command-response) type. This paper proposes a scheme to implement redundancy at the lower two layers namely Layer-2 (Supervisory Layer / Profibus-master) and Layer-3 (Equipment Unit Interface Layer / Profibus-slave). The redundancy is for both the CPU and the communication board. The scheme uses two CPU boards and two Profi controller boards at each L-3 station. This helps in decreasing any downtime resulting either from CPU faults or communication board faults that are placed in the field area. Redundancy of Profi boards provides two active communication channels between the stations that can be used in different ways thereby increasing the availability on a communication link. Redundancy of CPU boards provides certain level of auto fault-recovery as one CPU remains active and the other CPU remains in standby mode, which takes over the control of VMEbus in case of any fault in the main CPU. (author)

  5. The Ground Test Accelerator control system database: Configuration, run-time operation, and access

    A database is used to implement the interface between the control system and the accelerator and to provide flexibility in configuring the I/O. This flexibility is necessary to allow the control system to keep pace with the changing requirements that are inherent in an experimental environmental environment. This is not achieved without cost. Problems often associated with using databases are painful data entry, poor performance, and embedded knowledge of the database structure in code throughout the control system. This report describes how the database configuration, access, conversion, and execution in the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) Control System overcome these problems. 2 figs

  6. Equipment for controlling test benches charged particle accelerator pulse power supply systems

    Composition of the off-line and manual control device system designed for experimental testing the pulse supply systems of charged particle accelereators is considered. The system includes following devices: a manual remote control desk, a sysnchronization device with fibre-optical commutation programmed pulse shape generator digital sources of reference voltage. Performances of all these devices are presented. 1 ref

  7. The operator console for accelerator control systems on a virtual machine

    TBy progress of computer technology, the performance of PC is growing and the price is low. PC is used for control of a small-scale accelerator facility from the merit of availability and low price. However, the reliability of PC is lower than the computer for factories, such as VME, cPCI, and TCA. It seems that using virtual PC has an advantage in maintenance of an accelerator control system. This paper describes the advantage and problem of virtual PC for accelerator control. (author)

  8. On-line system for control of vacuum pump stations of an accelerating complex

    On-line system for control of vacuum pump stations of the heavy ion accelerator is described. Block diagram of hardware part of the system is considered and main functions of software are described. ELEKTRONIKA MS-0507 microcomputer is used for control. The developed system of control is oriented to CAMAC, VECTOR standards and it allows to use microcomputer of another type at application of the respective controller

  9. Status of the Advanced Photon Source and its accelerator control system

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), its control system and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) tools being used to implement this control system. The status of the physical plant and each of the accelerators as well as detailed descriptions of the software tools used to build the accelerator control system are presented. The control system uses high-performance graphic workstations and the X-windows graphical user interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high-performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities

  10. On designing a control system for a new generation of accelerators

    A well-conceived plan of attack is essential to the task of designing a control system for a large accelerator. Several aspects of such a plan have been investigated during recent work at LAMPF on design strategies for an Advanced Hadron Facility control system. Aspects discussed in this paper include: identification of requirements, creation and enforcement of standards, interaction with users, consideration of commercial controls products, integration with existing control systems, planning for continual change, and establishment of design reviews. We emphasize the need for the controls group to acquire and integrate accelerator design information from the start of the design process. We suggest that a controls design for a new generation of accelerators be done with a new generation of software tools. 12 refs

  11. Database Foundation For The Configuration Management Of The CERN Accelerator Controls Systems

    Zaharieva, Z; Peryt, M

    2011-01-01

    The Controls Configuration Database (CCDB) and its interfaces have been developed over the last 25 years in order to become nowadays the basis for the Configuration Management of the Controls System for all accelerators at CERN. The CCDB contains data for all configuration items and their relationships, required for the correct functioning of the Controls System. The configuration items are quite heterogeneous, depicting different areas of the Controls System – ranging from 3000 Front-End Computers, 75 000 software devices allowing remote control of the accelerators, to valid states of the Accelerators Timing System. The article will describe the different areas of the CCDB, their interdependencies and the challenges to establish the data model for such a diverse configuration management database, serving a multitude of clients. The CCDB tracks the life of the configuration items by allowing their clear identification, triggering of change management processes as well as providing status accounting and aud...

  12. Non-linear stochastic optimal control of acceleration parametrically excited systems

    Wang, Yong; Jin, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhilong

    2016-02-01

    Acceleration parametrical excitations have not been taken into account due to the lack of physical significance in macroscopic structures. The explosive development of microtechnology and nanotechnology, however, motivates the investigation of the acceleration parametrically excited systems. The adsorption and desorption effects dramatically change the mass of nano-sized structures, which significantly reduces the precision of nanoscale sensors or can be reasonably utilised to detect molecular mass. This manuscript proposes a non-linear stochastic optimal control strategy for stochastic systems with acceleration parametric excitation based on stochastic averaging of energy envelope and stochastic dynamic programming principle. System acceleration is approximately expressed as a function of system displacement in a short time range under the conditions of light damping and weak excitations, and the acceleration parametrically excited system is shown to be equivalent to a constructed system with an additional displacement parametric excitation term. Then, the controlled system is converted into a partially averaged Itô equation with respect to the total system energy through stochastic averaging of energy envelope, and the optimal control strategy for the averaged system is derived from solving the associated dynamic programming equation. Numerical results for a controlled Duffing oscillator indicate the efficacy of the proposed control strategy.

  13. Program-adapted system for control of accelerators for national economy

    To unify control, interlocking and signalling systems (CIS) for accelerators of applied purporses results of CIS tests and checking of its algorithmic principles are given. A logic unit of CIS is made on the base of a specialized computing system. Control of accelerator systems were carried out on a special small-sized panel in the form of monocircuit. Realized apparatus part and fast response of controlling device have determined the following restrictions in a volume of processed data: quantity of binary data transducers-128, quantity of binary executive elements-32, quantity of program commands in mass memory-600, mean time of data processingf - 2s

  14. Digital low-level RF control system for high intensity proton RFQ accelerator

    The resonant frequency of the high intensity proton RFQ accelerator at the Institute of High Energy Physics is 352.2 MHz, and the control precision of the accelerating field is ± 1 degree in phase, respectively. In order to accomplish these requirements, a digital low-level RF (LLRF) control system is adopted. This system includes three parts: the accelerating field amplitude and phase control, the cavity resonant frequency control and the high power interlock protection. The down-conversion of the cavity sampling signal and the up-conversion of the feedback excitation signal are realized by the analog devices. The real time feedback control of amplitude and phase adopts digital I/Q demodulation, and is assembled in a FPGA block, where three DSP blocks are used for communication and cooperate the FPGA to process data. The online debugging result satisfies the requirements of the control precision. (authors)

  15. High Power RF Test of the Digital Feedback Control System for the PEFP Accelerator

    To control the RF field in the accelerating cavity for the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) proton accelerator, a digital feedback control system has been developed. The stability requirements of the RF field are ±1% in amplitude and ± .deg. in phase. The digital feedback control system is based on the commercial FPGA PMC board hosted in VME board. The analog front-end was also developed which contains the IQ modulator, RF mixer, attenuators etc. To check the performance of the digital feedback control system, low power test with a dummy cavity has been performed with an intentional perturbation and shown that the feedback system rejected the perturbation as expected. High power RF test with a klystron has been performed and an accelerating field profile was measured. In addition, the pulse-to-pulse stability was checked by pulse operation with 0.1 Hz repetition rate. The detailed high power test results will be given in this paper

  16. Implementing portable channel access server software in the KEKB accelerator control system

    KEKB (KEK B-factory) accelerators are under construction and the control computer system for them is also in the last phase of installation. KEKB accelerators are composed of two storage rings, namely, HER (High Energy Ring for electrons of 8 GeV) and LER (Low Energy Ring for positrons of 3.5 GeV). These rings are placed in the underground tunnel in which former TRISTAN electron-positron colliding accelerator was. We have been constructing control system for KEKB from the scratch based on EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Systems). But, for the injector linac, its control computer system was rejuvenated just a few years ago and it is not an EPICS based system but an original one. To operate KEKB accelerators, tuning of the linac as the injector for the KEKB rings is thought to be very essential. Ideally, KEKB control system can control both KEKB rings and linac. And both operators at linac control room and at KEKB control room should be able to monitor and adjust equipment of the other accelerators. For that purpose, we have to develop suitable method in between two systems to communicate with each other. In the EPICS collaborations, there is a Portable CA (Channel Access) Server for EPICS developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for SUN workstations. We decided to modify it for our purposes and have been implementing it to KEKB control system step by step. And now, we can monitor and set magnetic field of Q-magnets in the linac, control beam transport magnets in the linac beam line, control klystrons, and measure beam positions by strip-line monitors through EPICS. In the near future, other equipment of the linac will be added to the CA server before the commissioning of the KEKB rings. (author)

  17. The control system of CERN accelerators vacuum (current status and recent improvements)

    The vacuum control system of most of the CERN accelerators is based on Siemens PLCs and on PVSS SCADA. After the transition from the LHC commissioning phase to its regular operation, there has been a number of additions and improvements to the vacuum control system. They were driven by new technical requirements and by feedback from the accelerator operators and vacuum specialists. New control functions have been implemented in the PLCs; new tools have been developed for the SCADA, while its ergonomic and navigation have been enhanced. (authors)

  18. The Control System of CERN Accelerators Vacuum (Current Status and Recent Improvements)

    Gomes, P; Blanchard, S; Boccioli, M; Girardot, G; Vestergard, H; Kopylov, L; Mikheev, M

    2011-01-01

    The vacuum control system of most of the CERN accelerators is based on Siemens PLCs and on PVSS SCADA. After the transition from the LHC commissioning phase to its regular operation, there has been a number of additions and improvements to the vacuum control system. They were driven by new technical requirements and by feedback from the accelerator operators and vacuum specialists. New control functions have been implemented in the PLCs; new tools have been developed for the SCADA, while its ergonomics and navigation have been enhanced.

  19. Database foundation for the configuration management of the CERN accelerator controls systems

    The Controls Configuration Database (CCDB) and its interfaces have been developed over the last 25 years in order to become nowadays the basis for the Configuration Management of the Control System for all accelerators at CERN. The CCDB contains data for all configuration items and their relationships, required for the correct functioning of the Control System. The configuration items are quite heterogeneous, depicting different areas of the Control System - ranging from 3000 Front-End Computers, 75000 software devices allowing remote control of the accelerators, to valid states of the Accelerators Timing System. The article will describe the different areas of the CCDB, their inter-dependencies and the challenges to establish the data model for such a diverse configuration management database, serving a multitude of clients. The CCDB tracks the life of the configuration items by allowing their clear identification, triggering of change management processes as well as providing status accounting and audits. This required the development and implementation of a combination of tailored processes and tools. The Controls System is a data-driven one - the data stored in the CCDB is extracted and propagated to the controls hardware in order to configure it remotely. Therefore a special attention is placed on data security and data integrity as an incorrectly configured item can have a direct impact on the operation of the accelerators. (authors)

  20. PROLOG language application for alarm system realization in accelerator control

    Such PROLOG features as backtracking, matching and recursive data representation are powerful tools for ALARM system realization. Although the main idea is the possibility to describe some technical system in recursive form, backtracking and matching are ideal for processing recursive data structures. This paper represents a technique which would allow PROLOG language application for ALARM system realization using an example of the KEK LINAC magnet system. The technique is based on an object-oriented internal data representation in terms of objects, properties, relations and knowledge conception. In addition, each property value is characterized by a typical 'time life'. (author)

  1. Protecting Accelerator Control Systems in the Face of Sophisticated Cyber Attacks

    Hartman, Steven M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Cyber security for industrial control systems has received significant attention in the past two years. The news coverage of the Stuxnet attack, believed to be targeted at the control system for a uranium enrichment plant, brought the issue to the attention of news media and policy makers. This has led to increased scrutiny of control systems for critical infrastructure such as power generation and distribution, and industrial systems such as chemical plants and petroleum refineries. The past two years have also seen targeted network attacks aimed at corporate and government entities including US Department of Energy National Laboratories. Both of these developments have potential repercussions for the control systems of particle accelerators. The need to balance risks from potential attacks with the operational needs of an accelerator present a unique challenge for the system architecture and access model.

  2. Protecting Accelerator Control Systems in the Face of Sophisticated Cyber Attacks

    Cyber security for industrial control systems has received significant attention in the past two years. The news coverage of the Stuxnet attack, believed to be targeted at the control system for a uranium enrichment plant, brought the issue to the attention of news media and policy makers. This has led to increased scrutiny of control systems for critical infrastructure such as power generation and distribution, and industrial systems such as chemical plants and petroleum refineries. The past two years have also seen targeted network attacks aimed at corporate and government entities including US Department of Energy National Laboratories. Both of these developments have potential repercussions for the control systems of particle accelerators. The need to balance risks from potential attacks with the operational needs of an accelerator present a unique challenge for the system architecture and access model.

  3. Automatic Control System of Ion Electrostatic Accelerator and Anti-Interference Measures

    An automatic control system for the electrostatic accelerator has been developed by adopting the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control technique, infrared and optical-fibre transmission technique and network communication with the purpose to improve the intelligence level of the accelerator and to enhance the ability of monitoring, collecting and recording parameters. In view of the control system' structure, some anti-interference measures have been adopted after analyzing the interference sources. The measures in hardware include controlling the position of the corona needle, using surge arresters, shielding, ground connection and stabilizing the voltage. The measures in terms of software involve inter-blocking protection, soft-spacing, time delay, and diagnostic and protective programs. The electromagnetic compatible ability of the control system has thus been effectively improved

  4. Design and status of the SuperKEKB accelerator control network system

    We have upgraded the accelerator control network system for SuperKEKB, the next generation B-factory experiment in Japan. The new network system has the higher performance based on the wider bandwidth data transfer, and more reliable and redundant network configuration. We have changed the network configuration on the connection of the KEK laboratory network to enhance the network security. We also introduced the VLAN segmentation into the new network system. For the SuperKEKB construction, the new wireless network system has installed into the whole 3 km circumference accelerator tunnel. (author)

  5. Broadband accelerator control network

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel

  6. Artificial intelligence research in particle accelerator control systems for beam line tuning

    Pieck, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Tuning particle accelerators is time consuming and expensive, with a number of inherently non-linear interactions between system components. Conventional control methods have not been successful in this domain and the result is constant and expensive monitoring of the systems by human operators. This is particularly true for the start-up and conditioning phase after a maintenance period or an unexpected fault. In turn, this often requires a step-by-step restart of the accelerator. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to apply intelligent accelerator control techniques to help with beam tuning, fault detection, and fault recovery problems. The reason for that might be that accelerator facilities are rare and difficult to understand systems that require detailed expert knowledge about the underlying physics as well as months if not years of experience to understand the relationship between individual components, particularly if they are geographically disjoint. This paper will give an overview about the research effort in the accelerator community that has been dedicated to the use of artificial intelligence methods for accelerator beam line tuning.

  7. VME control system for synchrotrons of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    Beam of accelerated ions such as carbon, neon, argon etc., is called heavy ion beam. When heavy ion beam irradiates a human body, its interaction with tissues becomes strong sharply at the certain depth which is determined by its energy. Heavy ion is expected to be very effective and suitable radiotherapy tool because it can hit a deep-seated cancer while a damage to normal organs along the path will be minimal. HIMAC(Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba), now under construction in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, is the first accelerator facility that is dedicated to heavy ion radiotherapy in the world. This paper describes about Timing System and Magnet Power Supply Control System of HIMAC synchrotron. These are among VME-based control systems, of which Hitachi Zosen Corp. is in charge, under subcontract through Hitachi Ltd. (author)

  8. Asynchronous data change notification between database server and accelerator controls system

    Database data change notification (DCN) is a commonly used feature. Not all database management systems (DBMS) provide an explicit DCN mechanism. Even for those DBMS's which support DCN (such as Oracle and MS SQL server), some server side and/or client side programming may be required to make the DCN system work. This makes the setup of DCN between database server and interested clients tedious and time consuming. In accelerator control systems, there are many well established software client/server architectures (such as CDEV, EPICS, and ADO) that can be used to implement data reflection servers that transfer data asynchronously to any client using the standard SET/GET API. This paper describes a method for using such a data reflection server to set up asynchronous DCN (ADCN) between a DBMS and clients. This method works well for all DBMS systems which provide database trigger functionality. Asynchronous data change notification (ADCN) between database server and clients can be realized by combining the use of a database trigger mechanism, which is supported by major DBMS systems, with server processes that use client/server software architectures that are familiar in the accelerator controls community (such as EPICS, CDEV or ADO). This approach makes the ADCN system easy to set up and integrate into an accelerator controls system. Several ADCN systems have been set up and used in the RHIC-AGS controls system.

  9. The Los Alamos accelerator control system data base: A generic instrumentation interface

    Controlling experimental-physics applications requires a control system that can be quickly integrated and easily modified. One aspect of the control system is the interface to the instrumentation. An instrumentation set has been chosen to implement the basic functions needed to monitor and control these applications. A data-driven interface to this instrumentation set provides the required quick integration of the control system. This type of interface is limited by its built-in capabilities. Therefore, these capabilities must provide an adequate range of functions to be of any use. The data-driven interface must support the instrumentation range requird, the events on which to read or control the instrumentation and a method for manipulating the data to calculate terms or close control loops. The database for the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System addresses these requirements. (orig.)

  10. The Datacon Master -- Renovation of a Datacon field bus communications system for accelerator control

    The Datacon system is a serial coaxial transformer isolated communication field bus system used to control and monitor accelerator remote devices. The Datacon field bus has been a BNL accelerator standard since its initial use in 1965. A single Datacon field bus supports up to 256 devices on a multidrop RG62A/U coaxial cable with up to 33 devices or 2,000 feet between repeaters or buffered branches. The forcing factor to renovate was the inability to repair the aging PDP-8E and PDP10 computers. The maintenance on this aging system was costly and the large number of accelerator devices dependent on the Datacon system could not be converted in a reasonable period of time to a new modern field bus. A commercial VMEbus host CPU mated with a custom designed VMEbus SBC event driven serial communications engine featuring a superscaler RISC 32-bit Intel i960 CPU met the design challenge. The commercial VMEbus host runs the VxWorks real-time operating system and connects to UNIX workstations over a Ethernet LAN. The V110 Datacon Master is the custom designed front end computer that integrates an accelerator event time line system with accelerator devices for up to 8 ppm users adding new capabilities

  11. Operating experience with a new accelerator control system based upon microprocessors

    This paper describes the design and operating experience with a high performance control system tailored to the requirements of the SuperHILAC accelerator. A large number (20) of the latest 16-bit microcomputer boards are used in a parallel-distributed manner to get a high system bandwidth. Because of the high bandwidth, software costs and complexity are significantly reduced. The system by its very nature and design is easily upgraded and repaired. Dynamically assigned and labeled knobs, together with touch-panels, allow a flexible and efficient operator interface. An X-Y vector graphics system provides for display and labeling of real-time signals as well as general plotting functions. This control system allows attachment of a powerful auxiliary computer for scientific processing with access to accelerator parameters

  12. Controllable Laser Ion Acceleration

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Wang, W. M.; Limpouch, J.; Andreev, A.; Bulanov, S. V.; Sheng, Z. M.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a future laser ion accelerator is discussed to make the laser-based ion accelerator compact and controllable. Especially a collimation device is focused in this paper. The future laser ion accelerator should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers, and ion post acceleration devices [Laser Therapy 22, 103(2013)]: the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled to meet requirements for a future compact laser ion accelerator for ion cancer therapy or for other purposes. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching would be successfully realized by a multistage laser-target interaction.

  13. The distributed control system of Shanghai mini-cyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer (SMCAMS)

    It is mainly introduced the composition, structure, hardware and software designing, function, and the method of communication between the host computer and the ADAM modules of the distributed control system on Shanghai Mini-cyclotron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (SMCAMS). Some detail problems such as controlling the devices staying on high voltage by ADAM-4541 (RS-485 to Fiber Optic Convertor) and optical fiber are also introduced

  14. HEPTech Academia – Industry Matching Event on Control Systems for Accelerators and Detectors

    Anastasios Charitonidis (FP/KT), on behalf of the organizing committee

    2013-01-01

    The HEPTech AIME (Academia – Industry Matching Event) on Controls for accelerators and detectors will take place from 2 to 3 December in Athens, Greece.   The HEPTech network invites you to Demokritos NCSR to participate in an event that aims to bring together Academia and Industry to share ideas and potential applications of Controls Technology. The event will provide an overview of current Controls Systems for large scale projects including the LHC, the CMS and ATLAS detectors, medical accelerator facilities and contributions from companies active in these fields. CERN Computer Centre. The programme will also address some of the challenges faced by future High Energy Physics projects in the controls area and provide a glimpse into the future requirements of research infrastructures such as the European Spallation Source (ESS), and the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI), while exploring different possible approaches to the commercialisation of controls technology. The event ...

  15. Upgrading the control system for the Accelerators at the Svedberg Laboratory

    Two accelerators at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, the Gustaf Werner cyclotron and the CELSIUS ring, will get a new control system. At present both the cyclotron and the ring have their own control systems based on S99 and PDP-11 minicomputers respectively. There are also a number of subsystems which are controlled separately from the stand-alone PC based consoles (ECR ion source, electron cooler, vacuum system). The goal of the rejuvenation is to integrate all existing control systems and provide the new system with an uniform operators interface based on workstations. The obsolete S99 microcomputers will be substituted with a VME system and all subsystems will be connected to the Ethernet. The upgrade strategy enabling the transformation of the system without any long shut-down period is discussed. Hardware and software planned for the upgrade is presented together with a discussion of expected problems. (author)

  16. Complex Event Processing Approach To Automated Monitoring Of Particle Accelerator And Its Control System

    Karol Grzegorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and implementation of a software component for automated monitoring and diagnostic information analysis of a particle accelerator and its control system. The information that is analyzed can be seen as streams of events. A Complex Event Processing (CEP approach to event processing was selected. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to continuously query data coming from several streams. The presented software component is based on Esper, the most popular open-source implementation of CEP. As a test bed, the control system of the accelerator complex located at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, was chosen. The complex includes the Large Hadron Collider, the world’s most powerful accelerator. The main contribution to knowledge is by showing that the CEP approach can successfully address many of the challenges associated with automated monitoring of the accelerator and its control system that were previously unsolved. Test results, performance analysis, and a proposal for further works are also presented.

  17. Multichannel computerized control system of current pulses in LIU-30 electron accelerator

    In LIU-30 power linear pulsed induction electron accelerator (40 MeV, 10 kA, 25 ns) 288 radial lines with water insulation serve as energy accumulators and shapers of accelerating voltage pulses. The lines are charged simultaneously up to 500 kV using a system comprising 72 Arkadiev-Marx screened generators. To control parameter of synchronous pulses of charging current with up to 60 kA amplitude and 0.85 μs duration in every of 72 charging circuits one applies a computer-aided system. Current pulse is recorded at output of every generator using the Rogowski coil signal from which via a cable line is transmitted to an analog-digital converter, is processed with 50 ns sampling and is recorded to a memory unit. Upon actuation of accelerator the signals are sequentially or selectively displayed and are compared with pulse typical shape

  18. Multichannel computerized control system of current pulses in LIU-30 electron accelerator

    Gerasimov, A I; Kulgavchuk, V V; Pluzhnikov, A V

    2002-01-01

    In LIU-30 power linear pulsed induction electron accelerator (40 MeV, 10 kA, 25 ns) 288 radial lines with water insulation serve as energy accumulators and shapers of accelerating voltage pulses. The lines are charged simultaneously up to 500 kV using a system comprising 72 Arkadiev-Marx screened generators. To control parameter of synchronous pulses of charging current with up to 60 kA amplitude and 0.85 mu s duration in every of 72 charging circuits one applies a computer-aided system. Current pulse is recorded at output of every generator using the Rogowski coil signal from which via a cable line is transmitted to an analog-digital converter, is processed with 50 ns sampling and is recorded to a memory unit. Upon actuation of accelerator the signals are sequentially or selectively displayed and are compared with pulse typical shape

  19. SNS Accelerator Facility Target Safety and Non-Safety Control Systems

    The SNS is a proton accelerator facility that generates neutrons for scientific researchers by spallation of neutrons from a mercury target. The SNS became operational on April 28, 2006 with first beam on target at approximately 200 watts. The SNS accelerator, target, and conventional facilities controls are integrated by standardized hardware and software throughout the facility and were designed and fabricated to SNS conventions to ensure compatibility of systems with Experimental Physics Integrated Control System (EPICS). ControlLogix PLCs interface to instruments and actuators, and EPICS performs the high-level integration of the PLCs such that all operator control can be accomplished from the Central Control room using EPICS graphical screens that pass process variables to and from the PLCs. Three active safety systems were designed to industry standards ISA S84.01 and IEEE 603 to meet the desired reliability for these safety systems. The safety systems protect facility workers and the environment from mercury vapor, mercury radiation, and proton beam radiation. The facility operators operated many of the systems prior to beam on target and developed the operating procedures. The safety and non-safety control systems were tested extensively prior to beam on target. This testing was crucial to identify wiring and software errors and failed components, the result of which was few problems during operation with beam on target. The SNS has continued beam on target since April to increase beam power, check out the scientific instruments, and continue testing the operation of facility subsystems

  20. Exploring a new paradigm for accelerators and large experimental apparatus control systems

    The integration of web technologies and web services has been, in the recent years, one of the major trends in upgrading and developing control systems for accelerators and large experimental apparatuses. Usually, web technologies have been introduced to complement the control systems with smart add-on and user friendly services or, for instance, to safely allow access to the control system to users from remote sites. Despite this still narrow spectrum of employment, some software technologies developed for high performance web services, although originally intended and optimized for these particular applications, deserve some features that would allow their deeper integration in a control system and, eventually, using them to develop some of the control system's core components. In this paper we present the conclusion of the preliminary investigations of a new design for an accelerator control system and associated machine data acquisition system (DAQ), based on a synergic combination of network distributed object caching (DOC) and a non-relational key/value database (KVDB). We investigated these technologies with particular interest on performances, namely speed of data storage and retrieve for the distributed caching, data throughput and queries execution time for the database and, especially, how much this performances can benefit from their inherent adaptability. (authors)

  1. A Java-based control system for the Orsay tandem accelerator

    A new control system was designed for the Tandem MP-9 at Orsay. Because of the existing devices located on high voltage platforms and the lack of space inside the accelerator, in-house electronic cards based on micro-controllers and an optical fieldbus were developed to collect data. VME processors under VxWorks, a real time operating system, manage the fieldbus, concentrate the accelerator information and transmit it to the supervisory software through the ethernet network. This software consists of a collection of Java virtual machines (JVM) running on several Unix workstations and PCs under Windows. Some of the Java virtual machines manage apparatus, instruments, local display and connections to an object database and VME concentrators. Others manage general synoptics. JVMs communicate between themselves with RMI protocol and JRPC with VME concentrators. So the supervisory software can be spread over several control stations throughout the network. (author)

  2. A Java-based control system for the Orsay tandem accelerator

    Dominique Delbourg; Gérard Penillault; Tran Khan Tuong; Martial Decourt; Nicole Borome; Henri Harroch; Bertrand Lessellier; Bernard Waast; Jean Pierre Mouffron

    2002-12-01

    A new control system was designed for the tandem MP-9 at Orsay. Because of the existing devices located on high voltage platforms and the lack of space inside the accelerator, in-house electronic cards based on micro-controllers and an optical fieldbus were developed to collect data. VME processors under VxWorks, a real time operating system, manage the fieldbus, concentrate the accelerator information and transmit it to the supervisory software through the ethernet network. This software consists of a collection of Java virtual machines (JVM) running on several Unix work-stations and PCs under Windows. Some of the Java virtual machines manage apparatus, instruments, local display and connections to an object database and VME concentrators. Others manage general synoptics. JVMs communicate between themselves with RMI protocol and JRPC with VME concentrators. So the supervisory software can be spread over several control stations throughout the network.

  3. On-line control system for KUTI-20 heavy ion collective accelerator

    The structure and design peculiarities of the control system for the first part of the KUTI-20 heavy ion collective accelerator comprising the SILUND-20 linear induction accelerator and Adhesator-20 charged toroide adiabatic generator are considered; electron ring shaping and their loading with ions is realized in the generator. The control system has centralized hierarchial structure with autonomous subsystems. The system includes the SM-4 minicomputer equipped with a set of external devices; the SM-4 is interfaced with two the ''Electronika-60'' and one the KM001 microcomputers by means of the KI021 series interframe communication units. The ''Elektronika-60'' microcomputers are equipped with memory units and interfaces for connection of CAMAC equipment

  4. Cavity control system advanced modeling and simulations for TESLA linear accelerator and free electron laser

    Czarski, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Simrock, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    The cavity control system for the TESLA -- TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator project is initially introduced. The elementary analysis of the cavity resonator on RF (radio frequency) level and low level frequency with signal and power considerations is presented. For the field vector detection the digital signal processing is proposed. The electromechanical model concerning Lorentz force detuning is applied for analyzing the basic features of the system performance. For multiple cavities driven by one klystron the field vector sum control is considered. Simulink model implementation is developed to explore the feedback and feed-forward system operation and some experimental results for signals and power considerations are presented.

  5. Power supply and control system of the gun for an electron pulse high-current accelerator

    The control and supply system is described intended for a gun of the EhLIT-L high-current pulsed electron accelerator. The accelerator parameters are as follows: electron energy of 500 KeV, current of 600 A, accelerating voltage semiwave duration of 15 μs, current pulse duration of 0.5 μs, pulse frequency of 5 Hz, max. The required parameters of the master pulse are: voltage of 0 to 60 kV; current up to 200 A; pulse duration of 500 ns; edge duration below 70 ns; amplitude instability +-5%; pulse frequency of 10 Hz, max.; the filament power drain of the gun is 1500 W

  6. Experimental study of liquid-metal target designs of accelerating-controlled systems

    Models of a liquid-metal target of an accelerator-controlled system have been experimentally studied at the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University to develop an optimal design of the flow part of the target. The main explored variants of liquid-metal targets are: Design with a diaphragm (firm-and-impervious plug) mounted on the pipe tap of particle transport from the accelerator cavity to the working cavity of the liquid-metal target. Design without a diaphragm on the pipe tab of particle transport from the accelerator. The study was carried out in a high-temperature liquid-metal test bench under the conditions close to full-scale ones: the temperature of the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy was 260degC - 400degC, the coolant mass flow was 5-80 t/h, and the rarefaction in the gas cavity was 105 Pa, the coefficient of geometric similarity equal to 1. The experimental studies of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow parts in the designs of targets under full-scale conditions indicated high efficiency of a target in triggering, operating, and deactivating modes. Research and technology instructions for designs of the flow part of the liquid-metal target, the target design as a whole, and the target circuit of accelerator-controlled systems were formulated as a result of the studies. (author)

  7. Development of PLC based chiller control system for 3 MeV DC electron beam accelerator

    A 3 MeV DC electron beam accelerator is under development at Electron beam center, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. The accelerator has various sections, where heat is generated during operation due to factors contributed by efficiency. The areas that produce heat such as beam dump, HV oscillator, scan horn region etc need to be cooled. A 5TR chiller unit has been installed in a room in the vicinity of the accelerator. Standard chiller unit available in the market do not provide a remote control interface, instead they provide on panel local controllers for the operation of the system. A PLC based interlock has been developed to control all the chiller components such as Cooling tower fan, cooling tower pump, ON/OFF operation of compressor etc. All the components used in chiller unit are interfaced to PLC besides temperature sensor. All machine safety interlock have been introduced by using suitable hardware such as antifreeze coil used to trip compressor in case of control failure may make the ice of water being cooled. The operating point of the chiller has been set to provide water 22-24 degree C. The PLC has been programmed using ladder logic programming method. The system is fully automatic. The system can be operated by setting the set temperature say 22 degree C and temperature hysteresis say 2 degree C. Pressing start button operates different units of the system automatically. Its starts the compressor when the water temperature is 22+2 degree C and stops the compressor when temp reaches at 22 degree C. Any unexpected failure such as 3Phase sequence change/phase failure, over load relay trip, excess temp are indicated by a hooter sound along with fault display on the HMI. A touch screen panel has been provided for human machine interface. This development of control system for chiller sub-system of accelerator has helped us in bringing the chiller unit control from the control room using Ethernet link using Modbus TCP-IP. The implementation of PLC controlled chiller

  8. Complex Event Processing Approach To Automated Monitoring Of Particle Accelerator And Its Control System

    Karol Grzegorczyk; Vito Baggiolini; Krzysztof Zieliński

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a software component for automated monitoring and diagnostic information analysis of a particle accelerator and its control system. The information that is analyzed can be seen as streams of events. A Complex Event Processing (CEP) approach to event processing was selected. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to continuously query data coming from several streams. The presented software component is based on Esper, the most...

  9. 15th International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems

    2015-01-01

    ICALEPCS is a biennial series of conferences that is intended to: * Provide a forum for the interchange of ideas and information between control system specialists working on large experimental physics facilities around the world (accelerators, particle detectors, fusion reactors, telescopes, etc.); * Create an archival literature of developments and progress in this rapidly changing discipline; * Promote, where practical, standardization in both hardware and software; Promote collaboration between laboratories, institutes and industry.

  10. Modular system for the control of complex accelerators using portable software

    When designing the Mainz Microtron control system, care was taken to achieve an expandable system with long-lived application software. A multi-processor system was built from the beginning. The software is split into modules, according to function and position in hierarchy, which are distributed over the computers. The decoupling which results from modularity eases software development and maintainance. RATFOR was chosen as implementation language. With a message system for communication between the modules, several aims were reached at once: (1) symbolic addressing of the accelerator components throughout the software layers, (2) transparent access to I/O devices (CAMAC) at remote computers, (3) multitasking in FORTRAN (and RATFOR) programs, (4) a separating layer for adaptation to different operating systems - essential points for software portability. The system is in operation since April 1979 for the control of MAMI stage I

  11. Spallation Neutron Source Accelerator Facility Target Safety and Non-safety Control Systems

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a proton accelerator facility that generates neutrons for scientific researchers by spallation of neutrons from a mercury target. The SNS became operational on April 28, 2006, with first beam on target at approximately 200 W. The SNS accelerator, target, and conventional facilities controls are integrated by standardized hardware and software throughout the facility and were designed and fabricated to SNS conventions to ensure compatibility of systems with Experimental Physics Integrated Control System (EPICS). ControlLogix Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) interface to instruments and actuators, and EPICS performs the high-level integration of the PLCs such that all operator control can be accomplished from the Central Control room using EPICS graphical screens that pass process variables to and from the PLCs. Three active safety systems were designed to industry standards ISA S84.01 and IEEE 603 to meet the desired reliability for these safety systems. The safety systems protect facility workers and the environment from mercury vapor, mercury radiation, and proton beam radiation. The facility operators operated many of the systems prior to beam on target and developed the operating procedures. The safety and non-safety control systems were tested extensively prior to beam on target. This testing was crucial to identify wiring and software errors and failed components, the result of which was few problems during operation with beam on target. The SNS has continued beam on target since April to increase beam power, check out the scientific instruments, and continue testing the operation of facility subsystems

  12. Project and implementation of the control system for the microtron accelerator

    The racetrack microtron under construction at the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, is a recirculated electron accelerator that has a few hundred parameters to be monitored and controlled. These parameters belong to several subsystems like transport, vacuum, RF, and diagnostics. To decrease the cognitive burden of the operator and help him to control the machine a computerized control system was built, pervading all subsystems. This system allows the operator to measure and change the parameters of interest, or alerts him when some of these parameters exceed a pre-defined value. The system was built using the three-layer model methodology: input and output device layer; device server layer; and the user interface layer. In the input and output device layer, several instruments with different communication interfaces were used, either commercial or in-house built. In the device server layer industrial PCs were used. The user interface layer uses a conventional PC running a human-computer interface built with assistance of the Lab Windows/CVI software (National Instruments). The control system must satisfy requirements of flexibility, upgradability and cost, must stand during the accelerator lifetime and allow maintenance by the Lab's technical support. (author)

  13. Instrumentation and control system for the AT-2 accelerator test stand

    A data-driven subroutine package, written for our accelerator test stand (ATS), is described. This flexible package permits the rapid writing and modifying of data acquisition, control, and analysis programs for the many diverse experiments performed on the ATS. These structurally simple and easy to maintain routines help to control administratively the integrity of the ATS through the use of the database. Our operating experience indicates that the original design goals have been met. We describe the subroutines, database, and our experiences with this system

  14. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors

  15. An improved phase-control system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures

    Microphonic fluctuations in the rf eigenfrequency of superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the rf phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the tuning range and the rf energy content of the resonant cavity. The accelerating field level of many of the SC cavities forming the ATLAS linac has been limited by the rf power capacity of the presently used PIN-diode based fast-tuner. A new system has been developed, utilizing PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen, with the diodes controlled by a high-voltage VMOS FET driver. The system has operated at reactive power levels above 20 KVA, a factor of four increase over an earlier design. 7 refs., 2 figs

  16. A portable accelerator control toolkit

    In recent years, the expense of creating good control software has led to a number of collaborative efforts among laboratories to share this cost. The EPICS collaboration is a particularly successful example of this trend. More recently another collaborative effort has addressed the need for sophisticated high level software, including model driven accelerator controls. This work builds upon the CDEV (Common DEVice) software framework, which provides a generic abstraction of a control system, and maps that abstraction onto a number of site-specific control systems including EPICS, the SLAC control system, CERN/PS and others. In principle, it is now possible to create portable accelerator control applications which have no knowledge of the underlying and site-specific control system. Applications based on CDEV now provide a growing suite of tools for accelerator operations, including general purpose displays, an on-line accelerator model, beamline steering, machine status displays incorporating both hardware and model information (such as beam positions overlaid with beta functions) and more. A survey of CDEV compatible portable applications will be presented, as well as plans for future development

  17. Upgrade of the server architecture for the accelerator control system at the Heidelberg ion therapy center

    The Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) is a heavy ion accelerator facility located at the Heidelberg university hospital and intended for cancer treatment with heavy ions and protons. It provides three treatment rooms for therapy of which two using horizontal beam nozzles are in clinical use and the unique gantry with a 360 degrees rotating beam port is currently under commissioning. The proprietary accelerator control system runs on several classical server machines, including a main control server, a database server running Oracle, a device settings modeling server (DSM) and several gateway servers for auxiliary system control. As the load on some of the main systems, especially the database and DSM servers, has become very high in terms of CPU and I/O load, a change to a more up-to-date blade server enclosure with four redundant blades and a 10 Gbit internal network architecture has been decided. Due to budgetary reasons, this enclosure will at first only replace the main control, database and DSM servers and consolidate some of the services now running on auxiliary servers. The internal adaptable network will improve the communication between servers and database. As all blades in the enclosure are configured identically, one dedicated spare blade is used to provide redundancy in case of hardware failure. Additionally we plan to use simulation software to further improve redundancy and consolidate the services running on gateways and to make dynamic load balancing available to account for different performance needs e.g. in commissioning or therapy use of the accelerator. (authors)

  18. Design of a new controller for vacuum interlock system at BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility has been operational for last twenty two years with progressively increased efficiency. The entire beam transport line is maintained under ultra high vacuum (UHV), Turbo Pumps, Getter and Ion Pumps are being used to maintain UHV in beam transport line. Safety of the pumps is ensured by interlocking operation of gate valves with the safe vacuum level. A new type of controller has been designed using CMOS ICs' for vacuum interlock system. Three pneumatically controlled UHV gate valves can be operated from this unit. This unit is interfaced with a multi cold cathode controller (Pfeiffer make) unit and accordingly generates signal to operate three gate valves. This paper presents the design features of the controller and its utilization. (author)

  19. A distributed CAN bus based embedded control system for 750 KeV DC accelerator

    This paper describes a distributed embedded system that uses a high performance mixed signal controller C8051F040 for its DAQ nodes and is based on CAN bus protocol for remote monitoring and controlling of various subsystems of 750 KeV DC accelerator based irradiation facility at RRCAT, Indore. A PC with integrated PCI CAN card communicates with intelligent DAQ nodes over CAN bus and each node is interfaced with a subsystem. An opto isolated SN65HVD230 CAN driver is interfaced between each node and physical bus. Remote frames and message prioritising are used for efficient control. The PC application is developed using LabVIEW 8.6. The proposed system is more reliable and noise immune as compared to previously used systems that initially used a centralized system based on C8051 controller. This was then upgraded to a distributed system that used microcontroller AduC812 and communicated over RS485 link. The new system has been integrated and tested satisfactorily for its designed performance with test jigs that simulated the actual subsystems with a bus length of 75 meters. First the complete scheme of the system is presented, and then the hardware and software designs are discussed. (author)

  20. INDIRECT ACCELERATED ADAPTIVE FUZZY CONTROLLER

    ZHU Liye; FANG Yuan; ZHANG Weidong

    2008-01-01

    According to a type of normal nonlinear system, an indirect adaptive fuzzy (IAF) controller has been applied to those systems where no accurate mathematical models of the systems under control are available. To satisfy with system performance, an indirect accelerated adaptive fuzzy (IAAF) controller is proposed, and its general form is presented. The general form IAAF controller ensures necessary control criteria and system's global stability using Lyapunov Theorem. It has been proved that the close-loop system error converges to a small neighborhood of equilibrium point. The optimal IAAF controller is derived to guarantee the process's shortest settling time. Simulation results indicate the IAAF controller make the system more stable, accurate, and fast.

  1. A new LabVIEW-based control system for the Naval Research Laboratory Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometer

    A new LabVIEW-based control system for the existing tandem accelerator and new AMS components has been implemented at the Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Through the use of Device Interfaces (DIs) distributed along a fiber optic network, virtually every component of the accelerator system can be controlled from any networked computer terminal as well as remotely via modem or the internet. This paper discusses the LabVIEW-based control software, including remote operation, automatic calculation of ion optical component parameters, beam optimization, and data logging and retrieval

  2. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  3. The application software of the CERN PS accelerator controls system - analysis of its cost and resources

    The CERN PS accelerators have evolved into one of the world's most sophisticated high energy physics facility. The variety of beams and their high repetition rate means that a most sophisticated controls system is required. This reflects on the application software. At the time of the completion of the new control system, nearly 1000 programs, amounting to around 450 000 lines of code, have been developed at the cost of approximately 120 man-years. The span of this software ranges from real-time application programs to special purpose development and management tools. This paper documents the cost, resources and production of this software project. These are analyzed in terms of the structure of the application software. Rules-of-thumb are suggested for estimating the required effort at various phases of the project and to define the implementation strategy. (orig.)

  4. Client Server design and implementation issues in the Accelerator Control System environment

    In distributed system communication software design, the Client Server model has been widely used. This paper addresses the design and implementation issues of such a model, particularly when used in Accelerator Control Systems. in designing the Client Server model one needs to decide how the services will be defined for a server, what types of messages the server will respond to, which data formats will be used for the network transactions and how the server will be located by the client. Special consideration needs to be given to error handling both on the server and client side. Since the server usually is located on a machine other than the client, easy and informative server diagnostic capability is required. The higher level abstraction provided by the Client Server model simplifies the application writing, however fine control over network parameters is essential to improve the performance. Above mentioned design issues and implementation trade-offs are discussed in this paper

  5. Utilization of Integrated Process Control, Data Capture, and Data Analysis in Construction of Accelerator Systems

    Jefferson Lab has developed a web-based system that integrates commercial database, data analysis, document archiving and retrieval, and user interface software, into a coherent knowledge management product (Pansophy). This product provides important tools for the successful pursuit of major projects such as accelerator system development and construction, by offering elements of process and procedure control, data capture and review, and data mining and analysis. After a period of initial development, Pansophy is now being used in Jefferson Lab's SNS superconducting linac construction effort, as a means for structuring and implementing the QA program, for process control and tracking, and for cryomodule test data capture and presentation/analysis. Development of Pansophy is continuing, in particular data queries and analysis functions that are the cornerstone of its utility

  6. Validation of a new control system for Elekta accelerators facilitating continuously variable dose rate

    Bertelsen, Anders; Lorenzen, Ebbe L; Brink, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    ) as well as BVDR. Using CVDR opposed to BVDR for VMAT has the potential of reducing the treatment time but may lead to lower dosimetric accuracy due to faster moving accelerator parts. Using D7 and a test version of Integrity, differences in ability to control the accelerator, treatment efficiency...

  7. Modern control techniques for accelerators

    Goodwin, R.W.; Shea, M.F.

    1984-05-01

    Beginning in the mid to late sixties, most new accelerators were designed to include computer based control systems. Although each installation differed in detail, the technology of the sixties and early to mid seventies dictated an architecture that was essentially the same for the control systems of that era. A mini-computer was connected to the hardware and to a console. Two developments have changed the architecture of modern systems: (a) the microprocessor and (b) local area networks. This paper discusses these two developments and demonstrates their impact on control system design and implementation by way of describing a possible architecture for any size of accelerator. Both hardware and software aspects are included.

  8. Control system for linear induction accelerator LIA-2: the structure and hardware

    The Power Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) for flash radiography is commissioned in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk. It is a facility producing pulsed electron beam with energy 2 MeV, current 1 kA and spot size less than 2 mm. Beam quality and reliability are required for radiography experiments. The control system of LIA is functionally divided into four subsystems: pulsed power control subsystem, timing subsystem, waveform recording subsystem and interlock subsystem. Features and structure of distributed control system ensuring these demands are discussed. Control system hardware based on CompactPCI and PMC standards is embedded directly into power pulsed generators. CAN-BUS and Ethernet are used as interconnection protocols. Parameters and essential details for measuring equipment and control electronics produced in BINP and available COTS are presented. LIA was tested at single pulse regime of operation and a diameter of the electron beam less than 1.3 mm was achieved. High reliability of the hardware was demonstrated in an environment of high-voltage discharges

  9. A modified feed-forward control system at the Accelerator Test Facility

    A modified feed-forward control system has been operated at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility to control the phase and amplitude of two high power klystron rf systems used to power a photocathode rf gun and a traveling wave electron linac. The changes to the control algorithm include an improved handling of cross coupling between the amplitude and the phase channels, an improved calibration routine that allows for changes in the matrix elements due to the variable base-line and improved filtering. The modifications to the software include modularity, portability, and user-friendliness. Improvements to the hardware include a linearized phase and amplitude controller with dc biasing for an improved dynamic range. The feed-forward system can handle nonlinear and noninstantaneous systems. With simultaneous regulation of two channels, the phase and the amplitude fluctuations over a time span of more than 3 μS were reduced to less than ±0.2 degree and ±0.2%, from the initial ±2.7 degree and ±1.8%, respectively. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Personal computers in accelerator control

    Anderssen, P. S.

    1988-07-01

    The advent of the personal computer has created a popular movement which has also made a strong impact on science and engineering. Flexible software environments combined with good computational performance and large storage capacities are becoming available at steadily decreasing costs. Of equal importance, however, is the quality of the user interface offered on many of these products. Graphics and screen interaction is available in ways that were only possible on specialized systems before. Accelerator engineers were quick to pick up the new technology. The first applications were probably for controllers and data gatherers for beam measurement equipment. Others followed, and today it is conceivable to make personal computer a standard component of an accelerator control system. This paper reviews the experience gained at CERN so far and describes the approach taken in the design of the common control center for the SPS and the future LEP accelerators. The design goal has been to be able to integrate personal computers into the accelerator control system and to build the operator's workplace around it.

  11. Application of IEEE 1588 to the real-time control system of accelerator

    Background: Time synchronization is one of the core technology of realizing the real-time control of accelerator under the distributed control system architecture. The ordinary crystal frequency deviation of IEEE 1588 causes low synchronous accuracy, which doesn't meet the needs of high precision synchronization. Purpose: This paper proposes an algorithm to improve the synchronization precision caused by the crystal frequency deviation. Methods: According to the basic principle of IEEE 1588 time synchronization, a dynamic frequency compensation (DFC) algorithm module was designed and a test platform was built to verify the feasibility and practicability of the algorithm. The influence of the synchronous cycle and delay jitter of the switch on the synchronization accuracy were analyzed. Results: Experimental results showed the great precision improvement of synchronization after using DFC algorithm. Conclusion: Low synchronous accuracy caused by the crystal frequency deviation can be improved by using DFC algorithm implemented for precision time protocol (PTP) of IEEE 1588. (authors)

  12. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    Melen, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors.

  13. Robust control of accelerators

    Joel, W.; Johnson, D.; Chaouki, Abdallah T.

    1991-07-01

    The problem of controlling the variations in the rf power system can be effectively cast as an application of modern control theory. Two components of this theory are obtaining a model and a feedback structure. The model inaccuracies influence the choice of a particular controller structure. Because of the modelling uncertainty, one has to design either a variable, adaptive controller or a fixed, robust controller to achieve the desired objective. The adaptive control scheme usually results in very complex hardware; and, therefore, shall not be pursued in this research. In contrast, the robust control method leads to simpler hardware. However, robust control requires a more accurate mathematical model of the physical process than is required by adaptive control. Our research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) has led to the development and implementation of a new robust rf power feedback system. In this article, we report on our research progress. In section 1, the robust control problem for the rf power system and the philosophy adopted for the beginning phase of our research is presented. In section 2, the results of our proof-of-principle experiments are presented. In section 3, we describe the actual controller configuration that is used in LANL FEL physics experiments. The novelty of our approach is that the control hardware is implemented directly in rf. without demodulating, compensating, and then remodulating.

  14. Temperature control system for the study of single event effects in integrated circuits using a cyclotron accelerator

    Bakerenkov, A.S., E-mail: as_bakerenkov@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Belyakov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozyukov, A.E. [Joint-Stock Company Institute of Space Device Engineering (JSC ISDE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershenkov, V.S.; Solomatin, A.V.; Shurenkov, V.V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-11

    The temperature control system for the study of single event disruptions produced by hard ion impacts in integrated circuits is described. Heating and cooling of the irradiated device are achieved using thermoelectric modules (Peltier modules). The thermodynamic performance of the system is estimated. The technique for the numerical estimation of the main parameters of the temperature control system for cooling and heating is considered. The results of a test of the system in a vacuum cell of an accelerator are presented.

  15. Temperature control system for the study of single event effects in integrated circuits using a cyclotron accelerator

    The temperature control system for the study of single event disruptions produced by hard ion impacts in integrated circuits is described. Heating and cooling of the irradiated device are achieved using thermoelectric modules (Peltier modules). The thermodynamic performance of the system is estimated. The technique for the numerical estimation of the main parameters of the temperature control system for cooling and heating is considered. The results of a test of the system in a vacuum cell of an accelerator are presented

  16. Fiber-optic control system for LAE 10 accelerator and pulse radiolysis experimental set

    The LAE 10 accelerator is used in nanosecond pulse radiolysis experiments as a source of 10 ns pulses of high energy electrons. The accelerator system was elaborated in the years 1991-1993. Inseparable connections of the optical fiber marrow with E/O and O/E converters (executed in welding technique) ensured a high stability of the optical parameters at a very long time. The preparation of connections needed adoption of expensive instrumentation from an optoelectronic laboratory in Warsaw. In presented paper authors describe their own action to improve operation of the LAE 10 accelerator existing in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

  17. Asynchronous data change notification between database server and accelerator control systems

    Database data change notification (DCN) is a commonly used feature, it allows to be informed when the data has been changed on the server side by another client. Not all database management systems (DBMS) provide an explicit DCN mechanism. Even for those DBMS's which support DCN (such as Oracle and MS SQL server), some server side and/or client side programming may be required to make the DCN system work. This makes the setup of DCN between database server and interested clients tedious and time consuming. In accelerator control systems, there are many well established software client/server architectures (such as CDEV, EPICS, and ADO) that can be used to implement data reflection servers that transfer data asynchronously to any client using the standard SET/GET API. This paper describes a method for using such a data reflection server to set up asynchronous DCN (ADCN) between a DBMS and clients. This method works well for all DBMS systems which provide database trigger functionality. (authors)

  18. Specific features of planning algorithms for dispatching software of a digital computer, operating in an accelerator control system

    The main principles are presented of a program dispatching system (DS) of the computer operating in the control and data acquisition system of the accelerator. The DS is intended for planning and execution of operating program sequence in accordance with the operational features of the accelerator. Modularity and hierarchy principles are the main characteristics of the system. The ''Planner'' module is described. The module regulates inquiries for utilization of the processor and memory and ensures their service. The ''Planner'' operation algorithm provides a simultaneous execution of programs with the processes occurring in the accelerator. The ''Planner'' planning algorithm controls presence of the programs requested and ensures their execution under multiprogram conditions. Brief characteristics of other modules of the DS are given. They are the ''distributor'', ''loader'', and ''interrupter''. Characteristics of the planning algorithms described have been realized in the DS and found in full agreement with all the conditions and limitations of the system

  19. Radiation control in accelerator facilities

    In view of radiation control, particle accelerator facilities have posed various problems involving radiation (mainly neutron) leakage, occupational exposure, environmental aspects in the surrounding area, and waste management. The intent of the workshop was to discuss these problems. This report contains nine topics that were presented and discussed: (1) Radiation safety system for the AVF cyclotron and the cyclotron cascade project at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University; (2) Calculation for the shielding design in the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron Facility; (3) Shielding design method for high-energy protons in the National Laboratory for High-energy Physics (KEK); (4) Radiation safety programme for the uses of medical accelerators in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences; (5) Development of the new stack air monitor; (6) Environmental radiation monitoring in the vicinity of the intense 14 Mev neutron source facility; (7) Radiation control around the KEK-proton synchroton; (8) Radiation safety control system for the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron; (9) Evaluation of radioactivity and skyshine induced by neutron production in an accelerator facility. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. FMIT accelerator vacuum system

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility accelerator is being designed to continuously accelerate 100-mA deuterons to 25 MeV. High vacuum pumping of the accelerator structure and beam lines will be done by ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. The design of the roughing system includes a Roots blower/mechanical pump package. For economy the size of the system has been designed to operate at 10-6 torr, where beam particle scattering on residual gases is negligible. For minimum maintenance in this neutron factory, the FMIT vacuum system is designed from the point of view of simplicity and reliability

  1. Towards a common monitoring system for the accelerator and technical control rooms at CERN

    Arduini, Gianluigi; Bätz, M; Carron de la Morinais, J M; Manglunki, Django; Priestnall, K; Robin, G; Ruette, M; Sollander, P

    2000-01-01

    The communication and coordination between the CERN accelerator and technical control rooms will be a critical issue for an efficient operation of the LHC and its injectors, which are expected to provide also beams for fixed target experiments, for detector component tests and for other activities including machine development. Early detection of faults in the accelerator and technical infrastructure (electricity, cooling, etc.) and their possible consequences on operation are useful not only to prevent major breakdowns but also to recover from them and to reschedule efficiently machine operation to satisfy the overall beam time requests from the different and concurrent users. To meet these requirements a method to define and provide common monitoring tools for all the actors involved in machine operation has been established. This method has been applied to the SPS accelerator and is being implemented in the PS complex and in the SPS experimental areas.

  2. WindoWorks: A flexible program for computerized testing of accelerator control system electronic circuit boards

    Since most accelerator control system circuit boards reside in a commercial bus architecture, such as CAMAC or VMEbus, a computerized test station is needed for exercising the boards. This test station is needed for the development of newly designed prototypes, for commissioning newly manufactured boards, for diagnosing boards which have failed in service, and for long term testing of boards with intermittent failure problems. WindoWorks was created to address these needs. It is a flexible program which runs on a PC compatible computer and uses a PC to bus crate interface. WindoWorks was designed to give the user a flexible way to test circuit boards. Each test is incapsulated into a window. By bringing up several different windows the user can run several different tests simultaneously. The windows are sizable, and moveable. They have data entry boxes so that the test can be customized to the users preference. The windows can be used in conjunction with each other in order to create supertests. There are several windows which are generic. They can be used to test basic functions on any VME (or CAMAC) board. There are other windows which have been created to test specific boards. New windows for testing specific boards can be easily created by a Pascal programmer using the WindoWorks framework

  3. Vibration control in accelerators

    Montag, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.

  4. A control system on production line of 200 kV self-shielded electron accelerator coating solidification

    A description on a control system on production line of 200 kV self-shielded electron accelerator coating solidification, including interface module assignment, the methods of mouse operation, chinese display in english DOS is presented. Although it is designed for special use, yet transformation for other purpose is very simple

  5. Development of the integrated control system for the microwave ion source of the PEFP 100-MeV proton accelerator

    Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 20-MeV proton linear accelerator is currently operating at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ion source of the 100-MeV proton linac needs at least a 100-hour operation time. To meet the goal, we have developed a microwave ion source that uses no filament. For the ion source, a remote control system has been developed by using experimental physics and the industrial control system (EPICS) software framework. The control system consists of a versa module europa (VME) and EPICS-based embedded applications running on a VxWorks real-time operating system. The main purpose of the control system is to control and monitor the operational variables of the components remotely and to protect operators from radiation exposure and the components from critical problems during beam extraction. We successfully performed the operation test of the control system to confirm the degree of safety during the hardware performance.

  6. Research on feedback system of synchrotron accelerator

    It is a very complex problem to use feedback control system in synchrotron accelerator. Some scientists design feedback control system to make high energy beam stable in synchrotron accelerator, but it is very rare to see theoretically analysis feedback system in synchrotron accelerator by using new concept of control model. One new feedback control model is a fresh idea to discuss the feedback system more deeply. A topic about feedback control system discussed here will be useful for synchrotron accelerator design and operation. It is an good idea for some scientists and technician to continue study. (authors)

  7. The Advanced Light Source Accelerator Control System at Ten Years from Commissioning

    Biocca, A.; Brown, W.; Domning, E.; Fowler, K; Jacobson, S; McDonald, J.; Molinari, P.; Robb, A; Shalz, L.; Spring, J; Timossi, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source was commissioned 10 years ago using the newly constructed control system. Further experience with the control system was reported in 1993. In this publication, we report on recent experience with the operation and especially growth of the computer control system and expansion to accommodate the new superconducting bend magnets and fast orbit feedback for the ALS electron storage ring.

  8. Acceleration feedback control (AFC) enhanced by disturbance observation and compensation (DOC) for high precision tracking in telescope systems

    Wang, Qiang; Cai, Hua-Xiang; Huang, Yong-Mei; Ge, Liang; Tang, Tao; Su, Yan-Rui; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jin-Ying; He, Dong; Du, Sheng-Ping; Ling, Yu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a cascade acceleration feedback control (AFC) enhanced by a disturbance observation and compensation (DOC) method is proposed to improve the tracking precision of telescope systems. Telescope systems usually suffer some uncertain disturbances, such as wind load, nonlinear friction and other unknown disturbances. To ensure tracking precision, an acceleration feedback loop which can increase the stiffness of such a system is introduced. Moreover, to further improve the tracking precision, we introduce the DOC method which can accurately estimate the disturbance and compensate it. Furthermore, the analysis of tracking accuracy used by this method is proposed. Finally, a few comparative experimental results show that the proposed control method has excellent performance for reducing the tracking error of a telescope system.

  9. open-quote BUBBANET close-quote - A high performance network for the SSC Accelerator Control System

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory imposes particularly strict requirements on data networks used in the control and monitoring of accelerator equipment. These requirements are a consequence of the large size (approximately 100 km of accelerators), large number of control points (544,000), and the complexity of the equipment. An overview of the technical systems to be monitored and the projected data rates is presented, emphasizing systems with stringent data communications requirements. The authors can characterize these requirements in terms of expected network traffic, network throughput or average latency. Analysis of these traffic patterns as applied to different network architectures will aid in identifying the essential components of the final network architecture which meets or exceeds these requirements. They will report on the design decisions and initial results of performance tests on the controls communications network

  10. Cavity digital control testing system by Simulink step operation method for TESLA linear accelerator and free electron laser

    Czarski, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Simrock, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    The cavity control system for the TESLA -- TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator project is initially introduced in this paper. The FPGA -- Field Programmable Gate Array technology has been implemented for digital controller stabilizing cavity field gradient. The cavity SIMULINK model has been applied to test the hardware controller. The step operation method has been developed for testing the FPGA device coupled to the SIMULINK model of the analog real plant. The FPGA signal processing has been verified according to the required algorithm of the reference MATLAB controller. Some experimental results have been presented for different cavity operational conditions.

  11. Control system and environmental parameters monitoring of the Tandetron Accelerator clean room

    A control system and monitoring of humidity and temperature implemented by means of a system based on a microcontroller, an intelligent sensor and a stage of power for the actuators handling is described. The change of the levels of reference of the control system and the monitoring of the physical controlled variables can be carried out from any connected computer to a local net or Internet. (Author)

  12. Efficient control of accelerator maps

    Boreux, Jehan; Carletti, Timoteo; Skokos, Charalampos; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Vittot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Hamiltonian Control Theory was used in [Boreux et al.] to increase the dynamic aperture of a ring particle accelerator having a localized thin sextupole magnet. In this letter, these results are extended by proving that a simplified version of the obtained general control term leads to significant improvements of the dynamic aperture of the uncontrolled model. In addition, the dynamics of flat beams based on the same accelerator model can be significantly improved by a reduced c...

  13. Use of the TACL [Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic] system at CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] for control of the Cryogenic Test Facility

    A logic-based control software system, called Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic (TACL), is under development at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA. The first version of the software was placed in service in November, 1987 for control of cryogenics during the first superconducting RF cavity tests at CEBAF. In August, 1988 the control system was installed at the Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) at CEBAF. CTF generated liquid helium in September, 1988 and is now in full operation for the current round of cavity tests. TACL is providing a powerful and flexible controls environment for the operation of CTF. 3 refs

  14. Vacuum control system of the synchrotron light source PF-AR and progress of the accelerator commissioning

    Tanimoto, Y; Nogami, T; Hori, Y

    2003-01-01

    Upgrading project of the synchrotron light source PF-AR was carried out in 2001, and vacuum system was entirely renewed to realize longer beam lifetime and higher stored current. Vacuum control system was unified to the EPICS, which had been already adopted in the KEKB and the injector linear-accelerator control systems. In this system, all of the vacuum devices of the PF-AR except for rough pumps can be controlled and monitored remotely on graphical operation panels. Commissioning of the upgraded PF-AR started successfully in January 2002, and the beam lifetime has been getting longer as the vacuum ducts cleaning process with synchrotron radiation has progressed. In November 2002, the lifetime of a 6.5 GeV-50 mA single-bunched beam is 900 minutes, which is 6 times as long as the value of the old PF-AR. (author)

  15. Micro-controller based fiber optic data telemetry system for the ion source of low energy accelerator facility at BARC

    The Low Energy Accelerator Facility (LEAF) is a 50 keV, high intensity, negative ion accelerator facility that has been set up indigenously at Nuclear Physics Division, BARC. This facility is capable of delivering a wide range of negative ion beams of both light and heavy ions across the periodic table using a SNICS II (Source of Negative Ion by Caesium Sputtering) source. A micro-controller based control and monitoring system has been developed exclusively for the ion source parameters of LEAF. The data control and monitoring system mainly targets acquiring the data from the field in the terms of parameters such as voltages and currents. There are processes which need to be monitored continuously in order to keep certain parameters under check. The microcontroller based fiber optic data telemetry system allows us to perform the aforesaid task. The voltages can be controlled and monitored by providing the inputs and receiving the feedback through a user friendly graphic user interface. With this system one can control the status as well as analog value of the high voltage power supplies like extractor, cathode, filament, focus line heater and oven. This system consists of Fiber optic transceiver, which is connected on serial port (RS 232C) of microcontroller as well as RS232 port of PC. The whole control system is reliable even in noisy environments including RF and worse EMI conditions. This compact modular design is implemented using low cost devices and allows easy and fast maintainability. In the paper, the details of the system are presented. (author)

  16. A simple, digitally controlled, automatic, hysteresis free, high precision energy scanning system for Van de Graaff type accelerators. Pt. 1

    A digitally controlled energy scanning system is described which may be coupled in a simple and inexpensive way to any accelerator which is high voltage stabilized by a beam position sensing 'slit control' system like all single ended or tandem Van de Graaff type machines. The basic idea is to 'fool' the existing stabilization system by deflecting the beam at two well chosen points through small angles using electrostatic deflection plates biased to variable voltages U. It is shown that the ensuing terminal potential variation δV is linearly related to U, the system acting as a U -> δV closed loop feedback amplifier with a gain G0 set only by the beam trajectory in the analyzing magnet and between the plates. G0 is hence independent of acceleration potential, beam particle mass or charge state, the long term stability of G0 being set only by mechanical components. The calibration can thus be made once and for all. The system is strictly hysteresis free and provides means of varying the bombarding energy in small precisely equal steps in a fast and reproducible way. (orig./WL)

  17. BLED: a top-down approach to accelerator control system design

    In many existing controls projects the central database/inventory was introduced late in the project, usually to support installation or maintenance activities. Thus construction of this database was done in a bottom-up fashion by reverse engineering of the installation. However, there are several benefits if the central database is introduced early in the machine design, such as the ability to simulate the system as a whole without having all the IOCs in place, it can be used as an input to the installation/commissioning plan, or act as an enforcer of certain conventions and quality processes. Based on our experience with control systems, we have designed a central database BLED, which is used for storage of machine configuration and parameters as well as control system configuration, inventory, and cabling. The first implementation of BLED supports EPICS, meaning it is capable of storage and generation of EPICS templates and substitution files as well as archive, alarm and other configurations. With a goal in mind to provide functionality of several existing central databases (IRMIS, SNS db, DBSF etc.) a lot of effort has been made to design the database in a way to handle extremely large set-ups, consisting of millions of control system points. Furthermore, BLED also stores the lattice data, thus providing additional information (e.g. survey data) required by different engineering groups. The lattice import/export tools among others support MAD and TraceWin tools formats which are widely used in the machine design community. (author)

  18. Development of control system for critical parameters of medical device sterilization at an electron accelerator

    The hard- and software interfaces that provide on-line control and archiving of the basic parameters of the medical device sterilization (electron energy, beam current, width and shape of the beam scan, the conveyor speed and the absorbed dose in the treated products) have been developed at a radiation-industrial installation LU-10 of NSC KIPT. The main primary sensor of the control system is a stack-type monitor-absorber of the beam located behind the line of movement of the processed objects. Continuous monitoring of the processing parameters is performed by measuring and analyzing the currents from the plates of the monitor in a mode of ''radiation shadow'' created by irradiated objects. The structure of the control system, how it works and the calibration procedures for measuring channels are described.

  19. Better dynamic closed loop control of the PSB rf accelerating system

    Gelato, G.; Magnani, L.

    1977-06-01

    The introduction of pulse-to-pulse modulation (PPM) in the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) requires that a large number of settings be changed on a pulse-to-pulse basis, imposing a very heavy load on the control system and the operators. Many systems, originally not designed for this type of operation, have to be modified either to accept new settings every cycle (values to be adjusted by the operators, switching to be performed by the control system), or to be self-adaptive, i.e., automatically adjusting to the required conditions. The second approach seems preferable, if feasible without excessive increase in complexity or decrease in reliability. In some cases it was actually possible to reduce the complexity and increase the reliability. The modifications in the beam control system are discussed. While reviewing the system's design, additional improvements were found to be possible at moderate cost: they were also, or will be, introduced, and are mentioned accordingly. Mention is made also of a relatively simple method of longitudinal stabilization which has been tested at the PSB.

  20. Better dynamic closed loop control of the PSB rf accelerating system

    The introduction of pulse-to-pulse modulation (PPM) in the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) requires that a large number of settings be changed on a pulse-to-pulse basis, imposing a very heavy load on the control system and the operators. Many systems, originally not designed for this type of operation, have to be modified either to accept new settings every cycle (values to be adjusted by the operators, switching to be performed by the control system), or to be self-adaptive, i.e., automatically adjusting to the required conditions. The second approach seems preferable, if feasible without excessive increase in complexity or decrease in reliability. In some cases it was actually possible to reduce the complexity and increase the reliability. The modifications in the beam control system are discussed. While reviewing the system's design, additional improvements were found to be possible at moderate cost: they were also, or will be, introduced, and are mentioned accordingly. Mention is made also of a relatively simple method of longitudinal stabilization which has been tested at the PSB

  1. Control problems in very large accelerators

    There is no fundamental difference of kind in the control requirements between a small and a large accelerator since they are built of the same types of components, which individually have the same types of control inputs and outputs. The main difference is one of scale; the large machine has many more components of each type, and the distances involved are much greater. It is the purpose of this paper to look at the special control problems of large accelerators, which the author shall arbitrarily define as those with a length or circumference in excess of 10 km, and point out where special developments, or the adoption of developments from outside the accelerator control field, can be of assistance in minimizing the cost of the control system

  2. An Accelerator Control Middle Layer Using MATLAB

    Matlab is a matrix manipulation language originally developed to be a convenient language for using the LINPACK and EISPACK libraries. What makes Matlab so appealing for accelerator physics is the combination of a matrix oriented programming language, an active workspace for system variables, powerful graphics capability, built-in math libraries, and platform independence. A number of software toolboxes for accelerators have been written in Matlab--the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for machine simulations, LOCO for accelerator calibration, Matlab Channel Access Toolbox (MCA) for EPICS connections, and the Middle Layer. This paper will describe the ''middle layer'' software toolbox that resides between the high-level control applications and the low-level accelerator control system. This software was a collaborative effort between ALS (LBNL) and SPEAR3 (SSRL) but easily ports to other machines. Five accelerators presently use this software. The high-level Middle Layer functionality includes energy ramp, configuration control (save/restore), global orbit correction, local photon beam steering, insertion device compensation, beam-based alignment, tune correction, response matrix measurement, and script-based programs for machine physics studies

  3. Software problems of on-line control system of the multi-section linear electron accelerator and some estimations of its efficiency

    Problems of software management of automation control system of electron linac, the main purpose of which is to ensure data acquisition, processing and representation for all the levels of accelerating complex control, are considered. The software comprises 14 computer codes with total volume of about 13 thousand commands and it is oriented for the following task conduction: the accelerator operation control, diagnostics, failure forecasting and investigation of the accelerator systems, forecasting of the accelerator operation on the whole, repair work planning. The system efficiency is estimated on the basis of data recieved during several years of test and industrial operation. Thus, operation cycles during 1975-1977 when the first stage of information-measurement system reached its designed capacity, the average time of mean-cycles-between-failures increased by 30%. About half the time of mean-cycles-between-failures may be referred to the direct or indirect effects caused by the information-measurement system

  4. Temperature measurement and control system of the superconducting accelerator - nuclotron elements

    The system provides the temperature measurement of magnetic elements, nitrogen shield and some non-structure elements of Nuclotron in more than 600 control points. As temperature sensors the serial resistors TVO are used. The 7th power polynomial describes the resistance dependence of the element's temperature. Under such condition the measurement accuracy at the cryogenic temperature (∼ 4 K) is about ∼ 0,8%. The system is based on the computer INDUSTRIAL PC, connected to the Nuclotron local computer network. The measuring electronic apparatus is made in PC and CAMAC standards. The system provides the measurement of the helium pressure in direct and back flows, the helium and nitrogen levels and pressure in the separators and in the tank, as well. The measured results are stored on the network server disk to permit the observation of the current and archive information by means of any Nuclotron local network computer. (author)

  5. Development of the nanometer order vibration control system for advanced accelerators

    For the International Linear Collider (ILC) project, we must align electromagnets near the IR (Interaction Region) by the accuracy of 1 nm. This is because the beams are stopped down to several nm in the vertical direction to improve its luminosity. Therefore, the plinth that was able to align in 1 nm accuracy was produced. Six piezo actuators are built into the plinth, and we can adjust the position by these expansion and contraction. However, the ground vibration with the amplitude of several nm that are originated by traffic and waves obstructs the alignment. Therefore, we developed the vibration control system to deny this ground vibration. This is a feedback system that denies the vibration of the plinth by moving the piezo actuator at high speed. It is understood that the vibration with the amplitude more than the nm order is limited to the frequency band of 30 Hz or less. So the speed of the feedback system is enough if it is about 50 Hz. The displacement of the plinth is monitored with the electrostatic capacity type displacement sensor, and data is processed by PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). We can succeed to confirm the operation, and weaken the vibration of about 100 nm to about 20 nm for 10 - 20 Hz. However, the system has the delay of 8 ms. So our system is too slow to feed back for 50 Hz vibration. And the displacement sensor with a laser interferometer is scheduled to be developed to improve accuracy because the electrostatic capacity type displacement sensor's resolution is about 20 nm. (author)

  6. Control problems in very large accelerators

    There is no fundamental difference of kind in the control requirements between a small and a large accelerator since they are built of the same types of components, which individually have similar control inputs and outputs. The main difference is one of scale; the large machine has many more components of each type, and the distances involved are much greater. Both of these factors must be taken into account in determining the optimum way of carrying out the control functions. Small machines should use standard equipment and software for control as much as possible, as special developments for small quantities cannot normally be justified if all costs are taken into account. On the other hand, the very great number of devices needed for a large machine means that, if special developments can result in simplification, they may make possible an appreciable reduction in the control equipment costs. It is the purpose of this report to look at the special control problems of large accelerators, which the author shall arbitarily define as those with a length of circumference in excess of 10 km, and point out where special developments, or the adoption of developments from outside the accelerator control field, can be of assistance in minimizing the cost of the control system. Most of the first part of this report was presented as a paper to the 1985 Particle Accelerator Conference. It has now been extended to include a discussion on the special case of the controls for the SSC

  7. Accelerator vacuum system elements

    Some elements of vacuum systems are investigated. Considerable attention has been given to the investigation into peculiarities in pumping out of a ionoguide for transportation of an accelerated charged particles beam the spread of which often attains a considerable length. The number of pumps over the ionoguide length is experimentally determined. It is shown that as a result of ionoguide warm-up the pumping out time is considerably reduced maximum permissible pressure is decreased by two orders and lesser rate of pump pumping out is required. The investigations have shown that when operating the ionoguide there is no necessity in setting up seals between the ionoguide and magnetodischarged pump. The causes of the phenomenon in which the pressure near the pump is greater than in the end of the ionoguide, are impurities carried in by the pump into the ionoguide volume and the pumping out capacity of the pressure converter

  8. The equipment access software for a distributed UNIX-based accelerator control system

    This paper presents a generic equipment access software package for a distributed control system using computers with UNIX or UNIX-like operating systems. The package consists of three main components, an application Equipment Access Library, Message Handler and Equipment Data Base. An application task, which may run in any computer in the network, sends requests to access equipment through Equipment Library calls. The basic request is in the form Equipment-Action-Data and is routed via a remote procedure call to the computer to which the given equipment is connected. In this computer the request is received by the Message Handler. According to the type of the equipment connection, the Message Handler either passes the request to the specific process software in the same computer or forwards it to a lower level network of equipment controllers using MIL1553B, GPIB, RS232 or BITBUS communication. The answer is then returned to the calling application. Descriptive information required for request routing and processing is stored in the real-time Equipment Data Base. The package has been written to be portable and is currently available on DEC Ultrix, LynxOS, HPUX, XENIX, OS-9 and Apollo domain. ((orig.))

  9. Definition of the loading of process digital computer, used in the same class of accelerator control systems

    A relationship has been studied between computer loading on the one part and the properties of the parameter under control and discrete interval value on the other part. The computer loading is characterized by an inquiry probability value per calculation of the correcting signal. A mathematic expressing has been obtained which determined the inquiry probability. The expression is a multidimensional integral. The Monte-Carlo method has been employed for computation of the integral. A structural diagram of the algorithm is presented which elaborates the method so as to compute the probability. An error of the method has been assessed. The algorithm has been employed on the M-220 computer. The results obtained confirm correctness of the suggested methods of determination of the computer loading for operation in the accelerator control system

  10. Application of Smalltalk language for accelerator control

    This paper describes the results of studies for object-oriented control system creation. Using VisualWorks environment based on Smalltalk we created a set of programs, such as Control Model Editor, Control Model Scanner and Control Views, for developing and running an object-oriented model of an accelerator. Our system allows the user to easily create a class library which can be used to develop a number of control programs. The object model defines the object under control, the control logic and graphics for displaying control objects' states. Our experience shows that object-oriented software development is faster compared with traditional languages, and provides more functionality. VisualWorks is a multiplatform environment, and all applications can be ported to different operating systems with only minor changes. VisualWorks also provides high performance, which is important for time-critical control applications. (orig.)

  11. Acceleration Feedback-Based Active and Semi-Active Seismic Response Control of Rail-Counterweight Systems of Elevators

    Rildova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the observations in the past earthquake events, the traction elevators in buildings are known to be vulnerable to earthquake induced ground motions. Among several components of an elevator, the counterweight being heaviest is also known to be more susceptible than others. The inertial effects of the counterweight can overstress the guide rails on which it moves. Here we investigate to use the well-known acceleration feedback-based active and semi-active control methods to reduce stresses in the rails. The only way a control action can be applied to a moving counterweight-rail system is through a mass damper placed in the plane of the counterweight. For this, a part of the counterweight mass can be configured as a mass damper attached to a small actuator for an active scheme or to a magneto-rheological damper for a semi-active scheme. A comprehensive numerical study is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed configuration of control system. It is observed that the two control schemes are effective in reducing the stress response by about 20 to 25% and improve the system fragility over a good range of seismic intensities.

  12. Accelerator modeling system for the future

    Many computer programs and a variety of models exist for the design of accelerator lattices and the correction of errors. Many physicists contributed to this work by developing codes to suit a variety of machines. At present, we are integrating some of these codes into a unified framework to design and control any type of machine. We will refer to this system of interactive accelerator design, control, and analysis codes as the All-In-One Modeling system (AIM). This paper will explore the utilities of AIM for future accelerator modeling and control. As an example, we will describe a procedure to produce both a linear and a nonlinear model for SPEAR

  13. A Relational Database Model for Managing Accelerator Control System Software at Jefferson Lab

    The operations software group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility faces a number of challenges common to facilities which manage a large body of software developed in-house. Developers include members of the software group, operators, hardware engineers and accelerator physicists.One management problem has been ensuring that all software has an identified owner who is still working at the lab. In some cases, locating source code for ''orphaned'' software has also proven to be difficult. Other challenges include ensuring that working versions of all operational software are available, testing changes to operational software without impacting operations, upgrading infrastructure software (OS, compilers, interpreters, commercial packages, share/freeware, etc), ensuring that appropriate documentation is available and up to date, underutilization of code reuse, input/output file management,and determining what other software will break if a software package is upgraded. This paper will describe a relational database model which has been developed to track this type of information and make it available to managers and developers.The model also provides a foundation for developing productivity-enhancing tools for automated building, versioning, and installation of software. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE contract No. DE-AC05-84ER40150

  14. Workshop Engages PCs in Accelerator Controls

    To discuss the rapidly growing and changing use of personal computers (PCs) in accelerator control systems, 80 accelerator controls specialists from 26 institutions in North America, Europe and Asia attended the 6. International Workshop on Personal Computers and Particle Accelerator Controls, PCaPAC2006, held October 24-27 at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, Virginia. PCs have become increasingly applicable to the control of accelerators as their computing capacities have increased exponentially over the last 10 years. Capabilities that once required the power available only from expensive, small-market systems offered by DEC, Sun or IBM can now be obtained with commodity hardware offered by many vendors. The price/performance ratio presented by any standard PC makes a compelling case for using PC hardware in accelerator controls wherever possible. The PCaPAC meeting underscored the importance of collaborative control system development. Several talks focused on additions to three such systems, TINE, TANGO and EPICS. The diverse contributions to these toolkits, both in content and source, demonstrate the power of leveraged software development across a number of facilities. TINE originated in DESY's desire to give users a unified software bus above disparate underlying platforms. TINE discussions at PCaPAC centered on the toolkit's interface layers, including address redirection and integration with other control systems. TANGO has been a collaborative effort from its inception. Based on CORBA, this open-source controls toolkit is a registered project in the source forge system. The workshop TANGO presentation discussed contributions from four TANGO institutions, and mentioned a broad range of new tools, from user interface applications to code generators and database integration software. EPICS, which was started at LANL in the 1980s, includes contributions from dozens of institutions around the world. EPICS-related PCaPAC discussions included virtual machines at

  15. The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator system design

    Henderson, S., E-mail: stuarth@fnal.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Abraham, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Aleksandrov, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Allen, C. [Techsource, Inc., 1475 Central Avenue, Suite 250, Los Alamos, NM 87544-3291 (United States); Alonso, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Anderson, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Arthur, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Assadi, S. [Techsource, Inc., 1475 Central Avenue, Suite 250, Los Alamos, NM 87544-3291 (United States); Ayers, J.; Bach, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Badea, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Battle, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Beebe-Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Bergmann, B.; Bernardin, J.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Birke, T.; Bjorklund, E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was designed and constructed by a collaboration of six U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories. The SNS accelerator system consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator and an accumulator ring providing 1.4 MW of proton beam power in microsecond-long beam pulses to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. The accelerator complex consists of a front-end negative hydrogen-ion injector system, an 87 MeV drift tube linear accelerator, a 186 MeV side-coupled linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, a 248-m circumference accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines. The accelerator complex is supported by ∼100 high-power RF power systems, a 2 K cryogenic plant, ∼400 DC and pulsed power supply systems, ∼400 beam diagnostic devices and a distributed control system handling ∼100,000 I/O signals. The beam dynamics design of the SNS accelerator is presented, as is the engineering design of the major accelerator subsystems.

  16. An Accelerator Control Middle Layer Using MATLAB

    Matlab is an interpretive programming language originally developed for convenient use with the LINPACK and EISPACK libraries. Matlab is appealing for accelerator physics because it is matrix-oriented, provides an active workspace for system variables, powerful graphics capabilities, built-in math libraries, and platform independence. A number of accelerator software toolboxes have been written in Matlab -- the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for model-based machine simulations, LOCO for on-line model calibration, and Matlab Channel Access (MCA) to connect with EPICS. The function of the MATLAB ''MiddleLayer'' is to provide a scripting language for machine simulations and on-line control, including non-EPICS based control systems. The MiddleLayer has simplified and streamlined development of high-level applications including configuration control, energy ramp, orbit correction, photon beam steering, ID compensation, beam-based alignment, tune correction and response matrix measurement. The database-driven Middle Layer software is largely machine-independent and easy to port. Six accelerators presently use the software package with more scheduled to come on line soon

  17. Robust rf control of accelerators

    The problem of controlling the variations in the rf power systems can be effectively cast as an application of modern control theory. Two components of this theory are obtaining a model and a feedback structure. The model inaccuracies influence the choice of a particular controller structure. One can design wither a variable, adaptive controller or a fixed, robust controller to achieve the desired objective. The adaptive control scheme usually results in very complex hardware; and therefore, shall not be pursued. In contrast, the robust control method leads to simplified hardware. However, robust control requires a more accurate mathematical model of the physical process than is required by adaptive control. Our research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico has led to the development and implementation of a new rf power feedback system. In this paper, we report on our research progress. In section one, the robust control problem for the rf power system and the philosophy adopted for the beginning phase of our research is presented. In section two, results of our proof-of-principle experiments are presented. In section three, we describe the actual controller configuration that is used in LANL FEL physics experiments. The novelty of our approach is that the control hardware is implemented directly in rf without demodulating, compensating, and then remodulating

  18. Robust RF control of accelerators

    The problem of controlling the variations in the rf power system can be effectively cast as an application of modern control theory. Two components of this theory are obtaining a model and a feedback structure. The model inaccuracies influence the choice of a particular controller structure. One can design either a variable, adaptive controller or a fixed, robust controller to achieve the desired objective. The adaptive control scheme usually results in very complex hardware; and, therefore, shall not be pursued. In contrast, the robust control method leads to simpler hardware. However, robust control requires a more accurate mathematical model of the physical process than is required by adaptive control. The research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) has led to the development and implementation of a new rf power feedback system. In this paper, the authors report on their research progress. In section one, the robust control problem for the rf power system and the philosophy adopted for the beginning phase of our research is presented. In section two, the results of their proof-of principle experiments are represented. In section three, they describe the actual controller configuration that is used in LANL FEL physics experiments. The novelty of their approach is that the control hardware is implemented directly in rf without demodulating, compensating, and the remodulating

  19. Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in the 2005 Toyota Camry Electronic Throttle Control System

    Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Part of the US DOT investigation of Toyota SUA involved analysis of the throttle control software. JPL LaRS applied several techniques, including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software. A handful of logic models were built. Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found. The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses

  20. Upgrade of accelerator radiation safety system for SPring-8

    The accelerator safety interlock system to protect persons from the radiation damages has been operated in SPring-8. The accelerator safety interlock system is monitoring the condition of safety equipment. If the condition is unsafe, the system stops the electron beam. The accelerator safety interlock system currently running is based on the operation mode control. Since the operation mode based system is quite complex, the system has some problems. Therefore, we are planning to construct new accelerator safety interlock system. We'll report the situation of current accelerator safety interlock system and the conceptual design of new accelerator safety interlock system. (author)

  1. Lorentz contraction and accelerated systems

    Tartaglia, Angelo; Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of the Lorentz contraction in accelerated systems, in the context of the special theory of relativity. Equal proper accelerations along different world lines are considered, showing the differences arising when the world lines correspond to physically connected or disconnected objects. In all cases the special theory of relativity proves to be completely self-consistent

  2. Lorentz contraction and accelerated systems

    The paper discusses the problem of the Lorentz contraction in accelerated systems, in the context of the special theory of relativity. Equal proper accelerations along different world lines are considered, showing the differences arising when the world lines correspond to physically connected or disconnected objects. In all cases the special theory of relativity proves to be completely self-consistent

  3. Object oriented programming interfaces for accelerator control

    Several years ago, the AGS controls group was given the task of developing software for the RHIC accelerator. Like the AGS, the RHIC control system needs to control and monitor equipment distributed around a relatively large geographic area. A local area network connects this equipment to a collection of UNIX workstations in a central control room. Similar software had been developed for the AGS about a decade earlier, but isn't well suited for RHIC use for a number of reasons. Rather than adapt the AGS software for RHIC use, the controls group opted to start with a clean slate. To develop software that would address the shortcomings of the AGS software, while preserving the useful features that evolved through years of use. A current trend in control system design is to provide an object oriented programming interface for application developers. This talk will discuss important aspects and features of object oriented application programming interfaces (APIs) for accelerator control systems, and explore why such interfaces are becoming the norm

  4. A variable acceleration calibration system

    Johnson, Thomas H.

    2011-12-01

    A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

  5. The development of accelerator mass spectroscopy system

    Mitarai, Shiro; Machida, Atsushi; Iwata, Yasunao; Tsubusaki, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Maeda, Toyokazu; Nakajima, Takao [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Inverse PIXE method was applied to the differentiation of Chlorine 36 and Sulfur 36. The contaminated soil from the USSR nuclear test site was measured. Terminal potential of the tandem accelerator was controlled by GVM. A new AMS system, using time-of flight method is under development. The development of beam buncher and beam chopper for the system is briefly described. (A. Yamamoto)

  6. JAERI accelerator driven system project

    In Japan a national program called OMEGA was started in 1988 for research and development of new technologies for partitioning and transmutation of nuclear waste. Under this program JAERI is carrying out research and development for proton accelerator-driven transmutation, together with transmutation with fast burner reactor and advanced partitioning technology. Two types of accelerator driven transmutation systems are proposed: a solid system and a molten-salt system. An outline of the OMEGA program and the partitioning and transmutation studies at JAERI are presented in this report

  7. A flexible and testable software architecture: applying presenter first to a device server for the DOOCS accelerator control system of the European XFEL

    Presenter First (PF) uses a variant of Model View Presenter design pattern to add implementation flexibility and to improve testability of complex event-driven applications. It has been introduced in the context of GUI applications, but can easily be adapted to server applications. This paper describes how Presenter First methodology is used to develop a device server for the Programmable Logic Controls (PLC) of the European XFEL undulator systems, which are Windows PCs running PLC software from Beckhoff. The server implements a ZeroMQ message interface to the PLC allowing the DOOCS accelerator control system of the European XFEL to exchange data with the PLC by sending messages over the network. Our challenge is to develop a well-tested device server with a flexible architecture that allows integrating the server into other accelerator control systems like EPICS. (author)

  8. Development of a knowledge-based control system for a model FN Van de Graaff accelerator: An operator's perspective

    In light of the manpower- and monetary restraint situation at the FN Tandem Accelerator facility of McMaster University and the difficulty in acquiring experienced personnel to operate and maintain the machine, an approach to solving this problem has been to firstly construct and operate a computer based knowledge system. This passive expert system directs an experienced or inexperienced person in the operation of the accelerator and helps diagnose many simple problems incurring in day-to-day operation. The system leads the person on a step by step diagnostic journey to the solution of the problem or at least to a reasonable response that will protect personnel and equipment until qualified experts can be contacted. The expert system contains all the required formulae, log readings, safety procedures and operating procedures in either database or knowledge base forms that are used to set the sequential steps in the consultation mode of the diagnostician. As the completion of this system nears, phase two will be initiated with the development of an active expert system where the interfacing of all machine variables will allow direct parameter assignments. At this time, the interface between expert system and operator of the machine will no longer require a human, except in a supervisory capacity. (orig.)

  9. Development of an embedded system for a multi-channel high voltage control and monitoring in 1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator

    A 1.7MV Tandetron accelerator at Materials Science Group of IGCAR is regularly used for carrying out radiation damage studies, particle irradiation based materials research. A dual beam irradiation facility is being setup which uses heavy ion beam from the 1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator through the 30 ° beam line and helium ion beam from a 400 kV accelerator. In the beam line, a set of beam handling devices such as quadrupole focus lens and electrostatic steerers with +/-30 kV and +/-10 kV power supplies are used to focus and steer the ion beam. A PIC16F877A microcontroller (UC) based embedded system has been developed to facilitate remote control and monitoring of these power supplies from the control PC of the Tandetron accelerator, resulting in improved focusing and fine tuning of the ion beam. The prototype of the embedded system was designed, developed, tested and installed in the beam line. The system works satisfactorily and is under regular use. Working principle, design details, salient features of the embedded system are discussed in the paper. (author)

  10. Delayless acceleration measurement method for motion control applications

    Vaeliviita, S.; Ovaska, S.J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    Delayless and accurate sensing of angular acceleration can improve the performance of motion control in motor drives. Acceleration control is, however, seldom implemented in practical drive systems due to prohibitively high costs or unsatisfactory results of most acceleration measurement methods. In this paper we propose an efficient and accurate acceleration measurement method based on direct differentiation of the corresponding velocity signal. Polynomial predictive filtering is used to smooth the resulting noisy signal without delay. This type of prediction is justified by noticing that a low-degree polynomial can usually be fitted into the primary acceleration curve. No additional hardware is required to implement the procedure if the velocity signal is already available. The performance of the acceleration measurement method is evaluated by applying it to a demanding motion control application. (orig.) 12 refs.

  11. Torque-based optimal acceleration control for electric vehicle

    Lu, Dongbin; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-03-01

    The existing research of the acceleration control mainly focuses on an optimization of the velocity trajectory with respect to a criterion formulation that weights acceleration time and fuel consumption. The minimum-fuel acceleration problem in conventional vehicle has been solved by Pontryagin's maximum principle and dynamic programming algorithm, respectively. The acceleration control with minimum energy consumption for battery electric vehicle(EV) has not been reported. In this paper, the permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) is controlled by the field oriented control(FOC) method and the electric drive system for the EV(including the PMSM, the inverter and the battery) is modeled to favor over a detailed consumption map. The analytical algorithm is proposed to analyze the optimal acceleration control and the optimal torque versus speed curve in the acceleration process is obtained. Considering the acceleration time, a penalty function is introduced to realize a fast vehicle speed tracking. The optimal acceleration control is also addressed with dynamic programming(DP). This method can solve the optimal acceleration problem with precise time constraint, but it consumes a large amount of computation time. The EV used in simulation and experiment is a four-wheel hub motor drive electric vehicle. The simulation and experimental results show that the required battery energy has little difference between the acceleration control solved by analytical algorithm and that solved by DP, and is greatly reduced comparing with the constant pedal opening acceleration. The proposed analytical and DP algorithms can minimize the energy consumption in EV's acceleration process and the analytical algorithm is easy to be implemented in real-time control.

  12. Accelerator management system using GIS

    We developed accelerator management systems using Web-based GIS (Geographical Information Systems). GIS unifies location related data like position of equipment, drawings, images etc. and displays them on interactive map on web browsers. GIS can be used various phenomena, machine management, map-drawing management, asset management and scheduler etc. We build two systems, one is equipment management system of SPring-8 and another is real-time alarm display system for SCSS prototype 250 MeV linac. We describe those systems in this paper. (author)

  13. Quality control of virtual wedge in a linear electron accelerator with a computerized radiography system (CR); Control de calidad de la cuna virtual en un acelerador lineal de electrones mediante un sistema de radiografia competerizada (CR)

    Ordiales, J. M.; Alvarez, F. J.; Falero, B.

    2011-07-01

    For quality control of the virtual wedge there are several systems on the market as arrays of detectors or ionization chambers, linear or 2D configuration, radiochromic films or digital imaging systems incorporated in electron linear accelerators (ALE ). The present work aims at implementing a system of Computed Radiography (CR) for a routine check of the virtual wedge.

  14. The Study of Expert System Utilization for the Accelerator Operation

    The utilization of expert system in the accelerator laboratory has been studied. The study covers the utilization of expert system in the setting up experiment (tuning parameter), controlling system, safety or warning system. The results study shows, that using the expert system in the accelerator would be easy to operate the accelerator for user and operator. Increasing the skill of expert system could be updated without logical mechanism modification. (author)

  15. An Accelerator Control Middle Layer Using MATLAB

    Portmann, Gregory J.; Corbett, Jeff; Terebilo, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Matlab is a matrix manipulation language originally developed to be a convenient language for using the LINPACK and EISPACK libraries. What makes Matlab so appealing for accelerator physics is the combination of a matrix oriented programming language, an active workspace for system variables, powerful graphics capability, built-in math libraries, and platform independence. A number of software toolboxes for accelerators have been written in Matlab -- the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for mach...

  16. The ILC control system

    Since the last ICALEPCS, a small multi-region team has developed a reference design model for a control system for the International Linear Collider as part of the ILC Global Design Effort. The scale and performance parameters of the ILC accelerator require new thinking in regards to control system design. Technical challenges include the large number of accelerator systems to be controlled, the large scale of the accelerator facility, the high degree of automation needed during accelerator operations, and control system equipment requiring 'Five Nines' availability. The R and D path for high availability touches the control system hardware, software, and overall architecture, and extends beyond traditional interfaces into the technical systems. Software considerations for HA include fault detection through exhaustive out-of-band monitoring and automatic state migration to redundant systems, while the telecom industry's emerging ATCA standard - conceived, specified, and designed for High Availability - is being evaluated for suitability for ILC front-end electronics.

  17. The CERN accelerators controls convergence project

    Van den Eynden, Marc

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. The CERN PS and SL Accelerators controls groups have started in March 1998 a convergence effort aimed at building a common controls infrastructure for year 2001. The first activities concentrated on the definition of an object oriented Accelerator Device Model and Application Programming Interface (API) aimed at offering to high level application software developers a narrow and coherent view of the accelerator components. Efforts have also started to build the underlying middleware architecture that will support this model, including services based on the publish- subscribe paradigm. This presentation will highlight some aspects of this Accelerator Device model as seen form the application software level. A logical view of the associated middleware architecture that will transport Accelerator device data will also be discussed.

  18. Development of a postal system for dosimetry quality control performed in photon beams produced by linear accelerators of clinical use

    In this work a different system is proposed which is able to verify the absorbed depth dose given at two different depths, the irradiation field homogeneity and its coincidence with the light field of the machine, the source to surface distance used and the beam nominal energy. These radiation field parameters are very important in the tumour treatment and they may help in the determination of the error sources of the absorbed depth dose. The system developed uses a water phantom, LiF thermoluminescent dosemeters and a radiographic film to evaluate such parameters. The postal system developed in this work has been tested in linear accelerators of 4 to 18 MV with good results. (author)

  19. Application of Kalman filter in the accelerator power control

    In order to boost accelerator controlling accuracy and improve beam quality, a best filtering method that is Kalman filter was proposed. In the article given general model of the accelerator power and used Matlab to modeling the Kalman filter on the accelerator power model and simulate. Compared the chart of filtering effect, showed that Kalman filter can effectively filter out the effect of random noise. After kalman filtering, Mean square error of the control system was reduced to 23% of the original, Kalman filter especially can reduce the impact of the peak pulse to make the control accuracy improve. (authors)

  20. NODAL - The second life of the accelerator control language

    NODAL has been a popular interpreter language for accelerator controls since the beginning of the 1970s. NODAL has been rewritten in the C language to be easily portable to the different computer platforms which are in use in accelerator controls. The paper describes the major features of this new version of NODAL, the major software packages which are available through this implementation, the platforms on which it is currently running, and some relevant performances. The experience gained during the rejuvenation project of the CERN accelerator control systems is presented. The benefit of this is discussed, in particular in a view of the prevailing strong constraints in personnel and money resources. ((orig.))

  1. Accelerator as a repairable system

    An accelerator is a prime example of a repairable system which is the type of device that can be restored to a fully operational condition via a process of repair other than replacement of the entire system. Since repairable systems can fail two or more times, the analysis of their reliability focuses on predicting the trends in the pattern of failures and repairs rather than the time to first failure. Thus, it needs to focus on the underlying random processes rather than the probability distribution function of the component failures. This paper summarises the analysis methods available today and proposes an approach to development of a simulation. (author)

  2. Design of a control system for a macro-micro dual-drive high acceleration high precision positioning stage for IC packaging

    2009-01-01

    A macro-micro dual-drive positioning system showing good potential for high acceleration and high precision positioning required in IC packaging applications is devised in this paper. The dual-drive positioning stage uses a VCM (voice coil motor) driven macro positioning stage and a PZT piezo-electric driven micro positioning stage. The coupling characteristics of the system are analyzed to produce a control structure with a micro positioning stage that can dynamically compensate for the positioning error produced by the macro positioning stage. Models of the two positioning stages are described. The models cover both the mechanism and the actuator. For the macro positioning stage, friction characteristics are taken into account, and a controller with an LQG (linear-quadratic-Gaussian) control algorithm combining a feed-forward compensation algorithm is derived. A PID controller is used to control the micro positioning stage. Detailed designs are derived for the proposed approach, and the performance is validated by simulation.

  3. Accelerator Control and Global Networks State of the Art

    Gurd, D P

    2004-01-01

    As accelerators increase in size and complexity, demands upon their control systems increase correspondingly. Machine complexity is reflected in complexity of control system hardware and software and careful configuration management is essential. Model-based procedures and fast feedback based upon even faster beam instrumentation are often required. Managing machine protection systems with tens of thousands of inputs is another significant challenge. Increased use of commodity hardware and software introduces new issues of security and control. Large new facilities will increasingly be built by national (e.g. SNS) or international (e.g. a linear collider) collaborations. Building an integrated control system for an accelerator whose development is geographically widespread presents particular problems, not all of them technical. Recent discussions of a “Global Accelerator Network” include the possibility of multiple remote control rooms and no more night shifts. Based upon current experien...

  4. Accelerator diagnosis and control by Neural Nets

    Neural Nets (NN) have been described as a solution looking for a problem. In the last conference, Artificial Intelligence (AI) was considered in the accelerator context. While good for local surveillance and control, its use for large complex systems (LCS) was much more restricted. By contrast, NN provide a good metaphor for LCS. It can be argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems, and therefore provide an ideal adaptive control system. Thus, where AI may be good for maintaining a 'golden orbit,' NN should be good for obtaining it via a quantitative approach to 'look and adjust' methods like operator tweaking which use pattern recognition to deal with hardware and software limitations, inaccuracies or errors as well as imprecise knowledge or understanding of effects like annealing and hysteresis. Further, insights from NN allow one to define feasibility conditions for LCS in terms of design constraints and tolerances. Hardware and software implications are discussed and several LCS of current interest are compared and contrasted. 15 refs., 5 figs

  5. Lattice design of FELI accelerator system

    FELI is constructing an S-band linac accelerator system for generating wide range FEL (Free Electron Laser). The accelerator system has for lasing sections, almost isochronous offsetting lattices, and returning lattices. This paper describes the lattice design. (author)

  6. GPUs as Storage System Accelerators

    Al-Kiswany, Samer; Ripeanu, Matei

    2012-01-01

    Massively multicore processors, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), provide, at a comparable price, a one order of magnitude higher peak performance than traditional CPUs. This drop in the cost of computation, as any order-of-magnitude drop in the cost per unit of performance for a class of system components, triggers the opportunity to redesign systems and to explore new ways to engineer them to recalibrate the cost-to-performance relation. This project explores the feasibility of harnessing GPUs' computational power to improve the performance, reliability, or security of distributed storage systems. In this context, we present the design of a storage system prototype that uses GPU offloading to accelerate a number of computationally intensive primitives based on hashing, and introduce techniques to efficiently leverage the processing power of GPUs. We evaluate the performance of this prototype under two configurations: as a content addressable storage system that facilitates online similarity detectio...

  7. New control architecture for the SPS accelerator at CERN

    The Control System for the 450 Gev proton accelerator SPS at CERN was conceived and implemented some 18 years ago. The 16 Bit minicomputers with their proprietary operating system and interconnection with a dedicated network do not permit the use of modern workstations, international communication standards and industrial software packages. The upgrading of the system has therefore become necessary. After a short review of the history and the current state of the SPS control system, the paper describes how CERN's new control architecture, which will be common to all accelerators, will be realized at the SPS. The migration path ensuring a smooth transition to the final system is outlined. Once the SPS upgrade is complete and following some enhancements to the LEP control system, the operator in the SPS/LEP control center will be working in a single uniform control environment. (author)

  8. The impact of new computer technology on accelerator control

    This paper describes some recent developments in computing and stresses their application in accelerator control systems. Among the advances that promise to have a significant impact are (1) low cost scientific workstations; (2) the use of ''windows'', pointing devices and menus in a multi-tasking operating system; (3) high resolution large-screen graphics monitors; (4) new kinds of high bandwidth local area networks. The relevant features are related to a general accelerator control system. For example, this paper examines the implications of a computing environment which permits and encourages graphical manipulation of system components, rather than traditional access through the writing of programs or ''canned'' access via touch panels

  9. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

    P N Prakash; T S Datta; B P Ajith Kumar; J Antony; P Barua; J Chacko; A Choudhury; G K Chadhari; S Ghosh; S Kar; S A Krishnan; Manoj Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; A Mandal; D S Mathuria; R S Meena; R Mehta; K K Mistri; A Pandey; M V Suresh Babu; B K Sahu; A Sarkar; S S K Sonti; A Rai; S Venkatramanan; J Zacharias; R K Bhowmik; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    This paper reports the construction of a superconducting linear accelerator as a booster to the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The LINAC will use superconducting niobium quarter wave resonators as the accelerating element. Construction of the linear accelerator has progressed sufficiently. Details of the entire accelerator system including the cryogenics facility, RF electronics development, facilities for fabricating niobium resonators indigenously, and present status of the project are presented.

  10. Operational protocols for controlling accelerator equipment

    The equipment used to operate an accelerator is varied. However, the different devices may be divided into a limited number of classes for which operational protocols can be defined. Operational protocols permit: (i) a uniform operation, (ii) a clear definition of responsibility between the various specialists, (iii) independent development of programs and use of the most appropriate technology, (iv) the change of hardware and the transportability of software, and (v) the fabrication of devices by industry for general use. An operational protocol should be independent of any given control system and it must not be confused with a transmission protocol. As a first step, one defines an operational model of the device to be controlled. The model must represent a high-level description of the device as seen by the user. It will be characterized by a set of parameters and a set of rules. Although the particular requirements of specialists are not included in the operational protocol, allowances should be made for them. Emphasis will be placed on studies carried out on power converters and beam instrumentation. A general-purpose control message architecture is reported. (orig.)

  11. Operational protocols for controlling accelerator equipment

    Bailey, R.; Baribaud, G.; Benincasa, G.P.; Burla, P.; Casalegno, L.; Coudert, G.; Gelato, G.; Kuhn, H.K.; Saban, R.; Spinks, A. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). LEP Div.)

    1990-08-01

    The equipment used to operate an accelerator is varied. However, the different devices may be divided into a limited number of classes for which operational protocols can be defined. Operational protocols permit: (i) a uniform operation, (ii) a clear definition of responsibility between the various specialists, (iii) independent development of programs and use of the most appropriate technology, (iv) the change of hardware and the transportability of software, and (v) the fabrication of devices by industry for general use. An operational protocol should be independent of any given control system and it must not be confused with a transmission protocol. As a first step, one defines an operational model of the device to be controlled. The model must represent a high-level description of the device as seen by the user. It will be characterized by a set of parameters and a set of rules. Although the particular requirements of specialists are not included in the operational protocol, allowances should be made for them. Emphasis will be placed on studies carried out on power converters and beam instrumentation. A general-purpose control message architecture is reported. (orig.).

  12. Study of technical and economic feasibility of using a portal dosimetry system for quality control of linear accelerators; Estudio de viabilidad tecnica y economica del uso de un sistema de dosimetria portal para el control de calidad de aceleradores lineales

    Fax, X.; Piro, N.; Sanchez, N.; Toribio, I.; Hermida, M.; Seioane, A.; Saez, J.; Beltran, M.

    2011-07-01

    We have studied the feasibility of Varian portal vision system AS500-II, dosimetry calibration mode, as a substitute for radiochromic plates in quality control tests that required the use of such film. Over a period of two months have been analyzed both the dosimetric characteristics of the system and the mechanical positioning. In addition there has been a financial estimate of annual savings that would result from replacing the radiochromic film by the portal system in a multi-energy accelerator.

  13. Vacuum system for Advanced Test Accelerator

    Denhoy, B.S.

    1981-09-03

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear electron beam accelerator designed to study charged particle beam propagation. ATA is designed to produce a 10,000 amp 50 MeV, 70 ns electron beam. The electron beam acceleration is accomplished in ferrite loaded cells. Each cell is capable of maintaining a 70 ns 250 kV voltage pulse across a 1 inch gap. The electron beam is contained in a 5 inch diameter, 300 foot long tube. Cryopumps turbomolecular pumps, and mechanical pumps are used to maintain a base pressure of 2 x 10/sup -6/ torr in the beam tube. The accelerator will be installed in an underground tunnel. Due to the radiation environment in the tunnel, the controlling and monitoring of the vacuum equipment, pressures and temperatures will be done from the control room through a computer interface. This paper describes the vacuum system design, the type of vacuum pumps specified, the reasons behind the selection of the pumps and the techniques used for computer interfacing.

  14. Vacuum system for Advanced Test Accelerator

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear electron beam accelerator designed to study charged particle beam propagation. ATA is designed to produce a 10,000 amp 50 MeV, 70 ns electron beam. The electron beam acceleration is accomplished in ferrite loaded cells. Each cell is capable of maintaining a 70 ns 250 kV voltage pulse across a 1 inch gap. The electron beam is contained in a 5 inch diameter, 300 foot long tube. Cryopumps turbomolecular pumps, and mechanical pumps are used to maintain a base pressure of 2 x 10-6 torr in the beam tube. The accelerator will be installed in an underground tunnel. Due to the radiation environment in the tunnel, the controlling and monitoring of the vacuum equipment, pressures and temperatures will be done from the control room through a computer interface. This paper describes the vacuum system design, the type of vacuum pumps specified, the reasons behind the selection of the pumps and the techniques used for computer interfacing

  15. PLC-based control system for 10 MeV linear accelerator (LCS) at EBC Kharghar, BARC

    Currently the 10 MeV Linac is being used for different research and industrial applications. The control system in operation was developed using CAMAC based Data Acquisition System (DAS) and Hard-wired Interlock System. It is proposed to replace the CAMAC system with a state-of-the-art indigenously developed Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) that is verified to the level of a Class IB computer-based system used in nuclear power plants. A PLC node comprises of two VME bus based CPU boards (PowerPC MPC7447, 600MHz) working in redundant mode. The inputs and outputs are common to both CPUs. The I/O boards are hot swappable and intelligent. An intelligent Ethernet board is used for communication with a PC running the SCADA software and industry standard communication protocols drivers. The PLC hardware and software has undergone rigorous verification and validation. A user-friendly 'Application Development Environment' is provided to the process engineer for building the application using pre-defined function blocks. The LCS developed using PLC is to be used for operating the Linac irradiation facility, remotely as well as locally in a fail-safe mode, with sequential start-up and sequential shut-down. Apart from system status monitoring, data archiving, alarm generation and setpoint adjustments, it monitors the important parameters and trips the Gun Modulator High Voltage (GM HV), the Klystron Modulator High Voltage (KM HV) and the Electron Gun Power Supply (EG PS) on fault conditions. (author)

  16. Controllability of intense-laser ion acceleration

    Shigeo; Kawata; Toshihiro; Nagashima; Masahiro; Takano; Takeshi; Izumiyama; Daiki; Kamiyama; Daisuke; Barada; Qing; Kong; Yan; Jun; Gu; Ping; Xiao; Wang; Yan; Yun; Ma; Wei; Ming; Wang; Wu; Zhang; Jiang; Xie; Huiran; Zhang; Dongbo; Dai

    2014-01-01

    An ion beam has the unique feature of being able to deposit its main energy inside a human body to kill cancer cells or inside material. However, conventional ion accelerators tend to be huge in size and cost. In this paper, a future intenselaser ion accelerator is discussed to make the laser-based ion accelerator compact and controllable. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching, and the ion particle energy control. In the study, each component is designed to control the ion beam quality by particle simulations. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical-density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching are successfully realized by a multi-stage laser–target interaction.

  17. Control system and environmental parameters monitoring of the Tandetron Accelerator clean room; Sistema de control y monitoreo de parametros ambientales del cuarto limpio del acelerador Tandetron

    Mejia V, M.E.; Garcia H, J.M.; Flores M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mmejia@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    A control system and monitoring of humidity and temperature implemented by means of a system based on a microcontroller, an intelligent sensor and a stage of power for the actuators handling is described. The change of the levels of reference of the control system and the monitoring of the physical controlled variables can be carried out from any connected computer to a local net or Internet. (Author)

  18. Application of embedded EPICS to SuperKEKB accelerator control

    Recently, more and more modern frontend controllers tend to be equipped with high-performance CPUs running Operating Systems (OSs). It opens the way for running the core program of Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) on such controllers, which directly interface the various devices of accelerator components. Embedding the EPICS core program on the controllers (Embedded EPICS) has two major advantages. One is that it enables Channel Access (CA) clients to reach the front-most part of the control system directly. The other is that the rich functionality of EPICS core program becomes available at the exact part where the I/O signals to be handled comes in and/or goes out. As a result, Embedded EPICS allows us to make full use of existing software, i.e. the Channel Access library and EPICS core program, to the full extent to reduce the effort for developing and maintaining control software and, hence, to improve the reliability of the system. For this reason, parts of the control system of SuperKEKB accelerator are under renewal based on Embedded EPICS. It includes monitoring the personal protection system, a newly developed digital low level RF control system, the vacuum control system, and a specific part of the magnet power supply control system. This paper describes the configurations and features of the Embedded EPICS-based control subsystems. (author)

  19. General man-machine interface used in accelerators controls

    A large community is now using Workstations as Accelerators Computer Controls Interface, through the concepts of windows - menus - synoptics - icons. Some standards were established for the CERN-PS control systems rejuvenation. The Booster-to-PS transfer and injection process is now entirely operated with these tools. This application constitutes a global environment providing the users with the controls, analysis, visualization of a part of an accelerator. Individual commands, measurements, and specialized programs including complex treatments are available in a homogeneous frame. Some months of experience in current operation have shown that this model can be extended to the whole project. (author)

  20. Towards full automation of accelerators through computer control

    Gamble, J; Kemp, D; Keyser, R; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Martucci, P P; Tausch, Lothar A; Vos, L

    1980-01-01

    The computer control system of the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) at CERN has always laid emphasis on two particular operational aspects, the first being the reproducibility of machine conditions and the second that of giving the operators the possibility to work in terms of machine parameters such as the tune. Already certain phases of the operation are optimized by the control system, whilst others are automated with a minimum of manual intervention. The authors describe this present control system with emphasis on the existing automated facilities and the features of the control system which make it possible. It then discusses the steps needed to completely automate the operational procedure of accelerators. (7 refs).

  1. Development of the power system for accelerator

    The 100-MeV proton linac needs 4 modulators whose specification is as follows, -115kV, 55A, and 9%. The development of the modulators were successfully finished and installed at Gyeongju site of KAERI. One of them was used and successfully tested in the 20-MeV linac operation at Daejeon site. The klystron is used to supply the high power RF into the accelerating structure. There are 2 klystrons for 20-MeV part of the linac and 7 klystrons from 20-MeV to 100-MeV region. The maximum voltage is ?105kV, the peak power is 1.6 MW, and the duty is 9%. All of the 7 klystrons have been fabricated, tested and installed. The high power RF system includes circulators, dummy lodes, RF windows, and wave-guides. The development of the high power RF components was finished and they were installed at the Gyeongju site. The 11 sets of RCCS (resonant control cooling system) will be used to control the cooling water temperature inside the accelerating structure. The temperature range of the cooling water covers between 21 .deg. C and 33 .deg. C with the 0.1 .deg. C control. All RCCSs were installed in the klystron gallery. Purposes of the 20-MeV linac operation at Daejeon site of KAERI (2007∼2011) are to supply proton beams to user, to porve the accelerator performance, to test the developed components including LLRF, diagnostics, and control system, and to measure the proton beam properties. During the period, the total number of samples reaches to 1,603 and the average machine availability becomes 96.2%. The 20-MeV linac was disassembled, moved and installed at Gyeongju site after finishing the test operation

  2. Full predictive control of induction acceleration in the KEK digital accelerator

    The KEK Digital Accelerator is a small-scale induction synchrotron which can accelerate any ion species with their possible charge states from a low energy to high energy, no using a large scale injector. It is so busy to carry out beam commissioning now, after installing new position monitors in April. An ion beam is accelerated and confined with induction cells that are 1-to-1 and 2-to-1 pulse transformers, respectively. The induction acceleration system has technical limitations, such as constant and maximum output voltage, finite pulse length, and maximum repetition rate. These limitations are overcome by introducing multiple induction cells and by gate controlling of the solid-state switching power supply to drive the induction cell. This is carried out by a completely programmed FPGA code maneuvering the gate trigger. (author)

  3. Data logging system upgrade for Indus accelerator

    An accelerator has various subsystems like Magnet Power Supply, Beam Diagnostics and Vacuum etc. which are required to work in a stable manner to ensure required machine performance. Logging of system parameters at a faster rate plays a crucial role in analysing and understanding machine behaviour. Logging all the machine parameters consistently at the rate of typically more than 1 Hz has been the aim of a recent data logging system upgrade. Nearly ten thousand parameters are being logged at varying intervals of one second to one minute in Indus accelerator complex. The present logging scheme is augmented to log all these parameters at a rate equal to or more than 1 Hz. The database schema is designed according to the data type of the parameter. The data is distributed into historical table and intermediate table which comprises of recent data. Machine control applications read the parameter values from the control system and store them into the text files of finite time duration for each sub-system. The logging application of each sub-system passes these text files to database for bulk insertion. The detail design of database, logging scheme and its architecture is presented in the paper. (author)

  4. Control system integration

    Shea, T J

    2008-01-01

    This lecture begins with a definition of an accelerator control system, and then reviews the control system architectures that have been deployed at the larger accelerator facilities. This discussion naturally leads to identification of the major subsystems and their interfaces. We shall explore general strategies for integrating intelligent devices and signal processing subsystems based on gate arrays and programmable DSPs. The following topics will also be covered: physical packaging; timing and synchronization; local and global communication technologies; interfacing to machine protection systems; remote debugging; configuration management and source code control; and integration of commercial software tools. Several practical realizations will be presented.

  5. Design of a control system for a macro-micro dual-drive high acceleration high precision positioning stage for IC packaging

    LIU YanJie; LI Teng; SUN LiNing

    2009-01-01

    A macro-micro dual-drive positioning system showing good potential for high acceleration and high precision positioning required in IC packaging applications is devised in this paper. The dual-drive positioning stage uses a VCM (voice coil motor) driven macro positioning stage and a PZT piezo-electric driven micro positioning stage. The coupling characteristics of the system are analyzed to produce a control structure with a micro positioning stage that can dynamically compensate for the positioning error produced by the macro positioning stage. Models of the two positioning stages are described. The models cover both the mechanism and the actuator. For the macro positioning stage,friction characteristics are taken into account, and a controller with an LQG (linear-quadratic-Gaussian)control algorithm combining a feed-forward compensation algorithm is derived. A PID controller is used to control the micro positioning stage. Detailed designs are derived for the proposed approach,and the performance is validated by simulation.

  6. Introducing a system for automated control of rotation axes, collimator and laser adjustment for a medical linear accelerator

    Winkler, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Karl-Franzens University Medical School, Auenbruggerplatz 32, 8036-Graz (Austria); Bergmann, Helmar [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, University of Vienna (Austria); Stuecklschweiger, Georg [Department of Radiation Oncology, Karl-Franzens University Medical School, Auenbruggerplatz 32, 8036-Graz (Austria); Guss, Helmuth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Karl-Franzens University Medical School, Auenbruggerplatz 32, 8036-Graz (Austria)

    2003-05-07

    Mechanical stability and precise adjustment of rotation axes, collimator and room lasers are essential for the success of radiotherapy and particularly stereotactic radiosurgery with a linear accelerator. Quality assurance procedures, at present mainly based on visual tests and radiographic film evaluations, should desirably be little time consuming and highly accurate. We present a method based on segmentation and analysis of digital images acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) that meets these objectives. The method can be employed for routine quality assurance with a square field formed by the built-in collimator jaws as well as with a circular field using an external drill hole collimator. A number of tests, performed to evaluate accuracy and reproducibility of the algorithm, yielded very satisfying results. Studies performed over a period of 18 months prove the applicability of the inspected accelerator for stereotactic radiosurgery.

  7. Introducing a system for automated control of rotation axes, collimator and laser adjustment for a medical linear accelerator

    Winkler, Peter; Bergmann, Helmar; Stuecklschweiger, Georg; Guss, Helmuth

    2003-05-01

    Mechanical stability and precise adjustment of rotation axes, collimator and room lasers are essential for the success of radiotherapy and particularly stereotactic radiosurgery with a linear accelerator. Quality assurance procedures, at present mainly based on visual tests and radiographic film evaluations, should desirably be little time consuming and highly accurate. We present a method based on segmentation and analysis of digital images acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) that meets these objectives. The method can be employed for routine quality assurance with a square field formed by the built-in collimator jaws as well as with a circular field using an external drill hole collimator. A number of tests, performed to evaluate accuracy and reproducibility of the algorithm, yielded very satisfying results. Studies performed over a period of 18 months prove the applicability of the inspected accelerator for stereotactic radiosurgery.

  8. Framework for control system development

    Control systems being developed for the present generation of accelerators will need to adapt to changing machine and operating state conditions. Such systems must also be capable of evolving over the life of the accelerator operation. In this paper we present a framework for the development of adaptive control systems

  9. Accelerator controls at CERN: Some converging trends

    CERN's growing services to the high-energy physics community using frozen resources has led to the implementation of 'Technical Boards', mandated to assist the management by making recommendations for rationalizations in various technological domains. The Board on Process Control and Electronics for Accelerators, TEBOCO, has emphasized four main lines which might yield economy in resources. First, a common architecture for accelerator controls has been agreed between the three accelerator divisions. Second, a common hardware/software kit has been defined, from which the large majority of future process interfacing may be composed. A support service for this kit is an essential part of the plan. Third, high-level protocols have been developed for standardizing access to process devices. They derive from agreed standard models of the devices and involve a standard control message. This should ease application development and mobility of equipment. Fourth, a common software engineering methodology and a commercial package of application development tools have been adopted. Some rationalization in the field of the man-machine interface and in matters of synchronization is also under way. (orig.)

  10. Nodal the second life of the accelerator control language

    Cuisinier, G; Ribeiro, P; Kagarmanov, A; Kovaltsov, V I

    1993-01-01

    Nodal is a popular interpreter language for accelerator controls since the beginning of the 70's. Nodal has been rewritten in the C language to be easily portable to the different computer platforms which are in use in today's accelerator controls. The paper describes the major features of this new version of Nodal, the major software packages which are available through this implementation, the platforms on which it is currently running, and some relevant performances.The paper presents the major domains of usage of Nodal and its capability for these classes of applications. The experience gained during the rejuvenation project of the CERN accelerator control systems is presented. The benefit of this use is discussed, in particular with a view to the prevailing strong constraints in personnel and money resources.

  11. Controlled rolling and accelerated cooling of steel

    Ranta, H.; Korhonen, A.S.; Partinen, S.

    1993-12-31

    The subproject `Controlled Rolling and Cooling of Steel` was carried out at the Helsinki University of Technology in the Laboratory of Processing and Heat Treatment of Materials during the years 1989-91. The work described here was a part of a SULA-project. The aim of the project at the Helsinki University of Technology was to study controlled rolling and accelerated cooling and the temperature and strain distributions in the steel during rolling. Modelling of accelerated cooling is important in ensuring that the desired shape and mechanical properties of steel are obtained without additional heat treatment. When no additional heat treatments are needed after the rolling process, it is possible to increase the volume of production and to save time and money. Mathematical models were studied and developed to describe the processes and to make it possible to predict the shape and mechanical properties of the final product. Models are also needed to study the influence of various processing parameters. Since full-scale experiments are expensive, a laboratory-scale cooling line for hot rolling experiments was constructed. During this project numerous hot forming and accelerated cooling experiments were carried out

  12. RHIC sextant test: Accelerator systems and performance

    One sextant of the RHIC Collider was commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the performance of the accelerator systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. We also describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems performance and their impact on the planning for RHIC installation and commissioning

  13. Control system of ATF

    A computer control system of Accelerator Test Facility(ATF) is described in detail. The ATF presently consists of 60MeV electron injector linac and two klystron Lest stands, and is controlled by a workstation computer with CAMAC interfaces. For its nature of R and D accelerator aimed to realize TeV region linear collider, the control system also should have a flexibility in both hardware and software. Programmable sequence controllers are introduced in the electron gun system and klystron modulator systems and their performances are tested. The control software which is coded using FORTRAN consists in many independent programs. Each program can access to full functions of a specified device or can control the function which is common to many devices

  14. Digital BPM Systems for Hadron Accelerators

    Belleman, J; Kasprowicz, G; Raich, U

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Proton Synchrotron has been fitted with a new trajectory measurement system (TMS). Analogue signals from forty beam position monitors are digitized at 125MS/s, and then further treated entirely in the digital domain to derive the positions of all individual particle bunches on the fly. Large FPGAs handle all digital processing. The system fits in fourteen plug-in modules distributed over three half-width cPCI crates. Data are stored in circular buffers of large enough size to keep a fewseconds-worth of position data. Multiple clients can then request selected portions of the data, possibly representing many thousands of consecutive turns, for display on operator consoles. The system uses digital phase-locked loops to derive its beamlocked timing reference. Programmable state machines, driven by accelerator timing pulses and information from the accelerator control system, direct the order of operations. The cPCI crates are connected to a standard Linux computer by means of a private Gigabit Ethernet ...

  15. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  16. Resonance control for a cw [continuous wave] accelerator

    A resonance-control technique is described that has been successfully applied to several cw accelerating structures built by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the National Bureau of Standards and for the University of Illinois. The technique involves sensing the rf fields in an accelerating structure as well as the rf power feeding into the cavity and, then, using the measurement to control the resonant frequency of the structure by altering the temperature of the structure. The temperature of the structure is altered by adjusting the temperature of the circulating cooling water. The technique has been applied to continuous wave (cw) side-coupled cavities only but should have applications with most high-average-power accelerator structures. Some additional effort would be required for pulsed systems

  17. Subcritical reactivity monitoring in accelerator driven systems

    In this paper, an absolute measurements technique for the subcriticality determination is presented. The development of accelerator driven systems (ADS) requires the development of methods to monitor and control the subcriticality of this kind of system, without interfering with its normal operation mode. This method is based on the stochastic neutron and photon transport theory that can be implemented by presently available neutron transport codes. As a by-product of the methodology a monitoring measurement technique has been developed and verified using two coupled Monte Carlo programs. The first one, LAHET, simulates the spallation collisions and the high energy transport and the other, MCNPDSP, is used to estimate the counting statistics from neutron ray counter in fissile system, and the transport for neutrons with energies less than 20 Mev. Through the analysis of the counter detectors it is possible to determine the kinetics parameters and the keff value. We present two different ways to obtain these parameters using the accelerator or using a Cf-252 source. A good agreement between theory and simulations has been obtained with both sources

  18. Measurements and simulation of controlled beamfront motion in the Laser Controlled Collective Accelerator

    Yao, R.L.; Destler, W.W.; Striffler, C.D.; Rodgers, J.; Scgalov, Z.

    1989-01-01

    In the Laser Controlled Collective Accelerator, an intense electron beam is injected at a current above the vacuum space charge limit into an initially evacuated drift tube. A plasma channel, produced by time-sequenced, multiple laser beam ionization of a solid target on the drift tube wall, provides the necessary neutralization to allow for effective beam propagation. By controlling the rate of production of the plasma channel as a function of time down the drift tube, control of the electron beamfront can be achieved. Recent experimental measurements of controlled beamfront motion in this configuration are presented, along with results of ion acceleration experiments conducted using two different accelerating gradients. These results are compared with numerical simulations of the system in which both controlled beamfront motion and ion acceleration is observed consistent with both design expectations and experimental results. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  19. CERN Front-End Software Architecture for Accelerator Controls

    Arruat, M; Guerrero, A; Jackson, S; Ludwig, M; Nougaret, J L

    2003-01-01

    To overcome the current diversity in AB front end equipment software and pave the way towards LHC for efficient development, diagnostic and maintenance in this area, the CERN Accelerator Controls group launched in April 2003 a project to develop the new CERN accelerator standard infrastructure for front end software. This development is based on the infrastructure recently born to handle the SPS beam measurement systems and extends it to handle the PS and SPS multi-cycling schemes, the future requirements needed for LHC as well as providing a good backward compatibility with the existing infrastructures. The project, approach and first deliverables are presented.

  20. Sharing control system software

    Building a custom accelerator control system requires effort in the range of 30-100 person-years. This represents a significant investment of time, effort, and risk, as well as challenges for management. Even when the system is successful, the software has not yet been applied to the particular project; no custom control algorithms, either engineering or physics-based, have been implemented; and the system has not been documented for long-term maintenance and use. This paper reviews the requirements for sharing software between accelerator control system projects. It also reviews the three mechanisms by which control system software has been shared in the past and is being shared now, as well as some of the experiences. After reviewing the mechanisms and experiences, one can conclude there is no one best solution. The right software sharing mechanism depends upon the needs of the client site, the client resources available, and the services the provider can give

  1. Distributed control system for LEHIPA

    Accelerator Driven System (ADS) has spurred tremendous interest in developing high intensity proton accelerator and set challenging demands in terms of developing high current and high intensity proton accelerator. LEHIPA is the the first stage in the development of ADS purpose and portable (MS/ Windows and LINUX) Operator Interface for Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) is designed and developed. This operator interface is already deployed in the field for control of Low Energy Beam Tube section of the LEHIPA. This paper discusses the salient points and features of the operator interface for LEHIPA. LEHIPA will have several subsystems. All subsystems will have their respective control and instrumentation system with required protection. All subsystems will be connected to a centralized control system. To meet the the requirement of phased development and various sub system integration the control system is a distributed system. The paper will describe the distributed control systems features and selected architecture for LEHIPA. (author)

  2. Modern computer networks and distributed intelligence in accelerator controls

    Appropriate hardware and software network protocols are surveyed for accelerator control environments. Accelerator controls network topologies are discussed with respect to the following criteria: vertical versus horizontal and distributed versus centralized. Decision-making considerations are provided for accelerator network architecture specification. Current trends and implementations at Fermilab are discussed

  3. Lighting control system of PEFP

    In this paper, we described lighting control system for effective management of lighting system according to the size and use of each building of the Proton Accelerator Research Center of PEFP. By introducing lighting control system, it helps work environment enhancement, work efficiency increases and electric power consumption reduction. We also described the organization and function of the lighting control system of PEFP

  4. Lighting control system of PEFP

    Jung, Hoi Won; Mun, Kyeong Jun; Han, Yung Gu; Park, Sung Sik; Song, In Teak; Kim, Jun Yeon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, we described lighting control system for effective management of lighting system according to the size and use of each building of the Proton Accelerator Research Center of PEFP. By introducing lighting control system, it helps work environment enhancement, work efficiency increases and electric power consumption reduction. We also described the organization and function of the lighting control system of PEFP.

  5. Small type accelerator. Try for accelerator driven system

    Mori, Y

    2003-01-01

    FFAG (Fixed-field alternating gradient) accelerator for accelerator driven subcritical reactor, which aims to change from long-lived radioactive waste to short-lived radioactivity, is introduced. It is ring accelerator. The performance needed is proton as accelerator particle, 10MW (total) beam power, about 1GeV beam energy, >30% power efficiency and continuous beam. The feature of FFAG accelerator is constant magnetic field. PoP (Proof-of-principle)-FFAG accelerator, radial type, was run at first in Japan in 2000. The excursion is about some ten cm. In principle, beam can be injected and extracted at any place of ring. The 'multi-fish' acceleration can accelerate beams to 100% duty by repeating acceleration. 150MeV-FFAG accelerator has been started since 2001. It tried to practical use, for example, treatment of cancer. (S.Y.)

  6. A new relativistic kinematics of accelerated systems

    We consider transformations between uniformly accelerated systems, assuming that the clock hypothesis is false. We use the proper velocity-time description of events rather than the usual space-time description in order to obtain linear transformations. Based on the generalized principle of relativity and the ensuing symmetry, we obtain transformations of Lorentz type. We predict the existence of a maximal acceleration and time dilation due to acceleration. We also predict a Doppler shift due to acceleration of the source in addition to the shift due to the source's velocity. Based on our results, we explain the Kuendig experiment (Kuendig 1963 Phys. Rev. 129 2371), as reanalyzed by Kholmetski et al (2008 Phys. Scr. 77 035302), and obtain an estimate of the maximal acceleration.

  7. Device Configuration Handler for Accelerator Control Applications at Jefferson Lab

    The accelerator control system at Jefferson Lab uses hundreds of physical devices with such popular instrument bus interfaces as Industry Pack (IPAC), GPIB, RS-232, etc. To properly handle all these components, control computers (IOCs) must be provided with the correct information about the unique memory addresses of the used interface cards, interrupt numbers (if any), data communication channels and protocols. In these conditions, the registration of a new control device in the control system is not an easy task for software developers. Because the device configuration is distributed, it requires the detailed knowledge about not only the new device but also the configuration of all other devices on the existing system. A configuration handler implemented at Jefferson Lab centralizes the information about all control devices making their registration user-friendly and very easy to use. It consists of a device driver framework and the device registration software developed on the basis of ORACLE database and freely available scripting tools (perl, php)

  8. Innovative Digitally Controlled Particle Accelerator Magnet Power Supply

    Nielsen, Rasmus Ørndrup; Bidoggia, Benoit; Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Török, Lajos

    Particle accelerator magnet power supplies needs to be extremely precise. A new and innovative power supply for particle accelerator magnets is proposed. The topologies for the input and the output converter are shown and the control architecture is described.......Particle accelerator magnet power supplies needs to be extremely precise. A new and innovative power supply for particle accelerator magnets is proposed. The topologies for the input and the output converter are shown and the control architecture is described....

  9. Protection of Accelerator Hardware: RF systems

    Kim, S-H

    2016-01-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) system is the key element that generates electric fields for beam acceleration. To keep the system reliable, a highly sophisticated protection scheme is required, which also should be designed to ensure a good balance between beam availability and machine safety. Since RF systems are complex, incorporating high-voltage and high-power equipment, a good portion of machine downtime typically comes from RF systems. Equipment and component damage in RF systems results in long and expensive repairs. Protection of RF system hardware is one of the oldest machine protection concepts, dealing with the protection of individual high-power RF equipment from breakdowns. As beam power increases in modern accelerators, the protection of accelerating structures from beam-induced faults also becomes a critical aspect of protection schemes. In this article, an overview of the RF system is given, and selected topics of failure mechanisms and examples of protection requirements are introduced.

  10. Accelerator system for neutron radiography

    The field of x-ray radiography is well established for doing non-destructive evaluation of a vast array of components, assemblies, and objects. While x-rays excel in many radiography applications, their effectiveness diminishes rapidly if the objects of interest are surrounded by thick, high-density materials that strongly attenuate photons. Due to the differences in interaction mechanisms, neutron radiography is highly effective in imaging details inside such objects. To obtain a high intensity neutron source suitable for neutron imaging a 9-MeV linear accelerator is being evaluated for putting a deuteron beam into a high-pressure deuterium gas cell. As a windowless aperture is needed to transport the beam into the gas cell, a low-emittance is needed to minimize losses along the high-energy beam transport (HEBT) and the end station. A description of the HEBT, the transport optics into the gas cell, and the requirements for the linac will be presented

  11. Motion control systems

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  12. Applications of radiation monitoring system at Indus Accelerator Complex

    Indus Accelerator Complex (IAC) at RRCAT, Indore houses two high energy electron accelerators Indus-I (450 MeV, 100 mA) and Indus-2 (2.5 GeV, 300 mA). The Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) comprises of area monitoring and personnel monitoring. RMS at IAC provides very useful information about radiation levels, beam loss scenario, unusual incidents etc. In this system the remotely displayed radiation data in control room matches well with the local readings of the respective area radiation monitor. The paper describes various features of Radiation Monitoring System and its applications in radiation exposure control in IAC. (author)

  13. Weapon plutonium in accelerator driven power system

    Accelerator Driven Systems are planned to be developed for the use (or destruction) of dozens of tons of weapon-grade Plutonium (W-Pu) resulted from the reducing of nuclear weapons. In the paper are compared the parameters of various types of accelerators, the physical properties of various types of targets and blankets, and the results of fuel cycle simulation. Some economical aspects are also discussed

  14. Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities

    Czarski, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...

  15. IGISOL control system modernization

    Koponen, J.; Hakala, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010, the IGISOL research facility at the Accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä has gone through major changes. Comparing the new IGISOL4 facility to the former IGISOL3 setup, the size of the facility has more than doubled, the length of the ion transport line has grown to about 50 m with several measurement setups and extension capabilities, and the accelerated ions can be fed to the facility from two different cyclotrons. The facility has evolved to a system comprising hundreds of manual, pneumatic and electronic devices. These changes have prompted the need to modernize also the facility control system taking care of monitoring and transporting the ion beams. In addition, the control system is also used for some scientific data acquisition tasks. Basic guidelines for the IGISOL control system update have been remote control, safety, usability, reliability and maintainability. Legacy components have had a major significance in the control system hardware and for the renewed control system software the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been chosen as the architectural backbone.

  16. RHIC Sextant Test - Accelerator Systems and Performance

    Pilat, F.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Connolly, R.; dell, G. F.; Fischer, W.; Kewisch, J.; Mackay, W.; Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Thompson, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Wei, J.

    1997-05-01

    One sextant of the RHIC collider and the full AtR (AGS to RHIC) transfer line have been commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the design and performance of the accelerator systems during the test, such as the magnet and power supply systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. After reviewing the main milestones of the commissioning we describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems preformance and their impact on the plannig for RHIC installation and commissioning.

  17. Readout control for high luminosity accelerators

    In this article we discuss some aspects of data acquisition at high luminosities and offer a set of design principles concerning readout control electronics and related software. As an example we include a brief description of a data transfer and processing system for future hadron colliders, featuring a transputer-based crate controller and a set of readout cards. This is a simplified and more efficient version of our design recently published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods. (orig.)

  18. Readout control for high luminosity accelerators

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G.

    1991-09-01

    In this article we discuss some aspects of data acquisition at high luminosities and offer a set of design principles concerning readout control electronics and related software. As an example we include a brief description of a data transfer and processing system for future hadron colliders, featuring a transputer-based crate controller and a set of readout cards. This is a simplified and more efficient version of our design recently published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods. [A295 (1991) 391].

  19. Readout control for high luminosity accelerators

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G. (University Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1991-09-15

    In this article we discuss some aspects of data acquisition at high luminosities and offer a set of design principles concerning readout control electronics and related software. As an example we include a brief description of a data transfer and processing system for future hadron colliders, featuring a transputer-based crate controller and a set of readout cards. This is a simplified and more efficient version of our design recently published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods. (orig.).

  20. Accelerator-Driven System with Current Technology

    Lee, Hee Seok; Lee, Tae Yeon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    World needs a safer and cleaner nuclear power plant. A nuclear power plant that will not cause a disaster and that will produce radiotoxic nuclear waste as small as possible. At the moment, the closest system is the accelerator driven system (ADS) making use of the Thorium fuel. First of all, it is safer in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. And, there won't be a Fukushima-like accident, because this Thorium ADS reactor uses air cooling. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of ADS was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty of accelerator. The accelerator-based system needs 0.6-1 GeV and at least a few MW power proton beam, which is an unprecedentedly high power. The most powerful 1 GeV proton linear accelerator is the Spallation Neutron Source, USA, which operates now at the power of 1.5 MW with the length of 350 m. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. Another difficulty is reliability of accelerator operation. To be used as a power plant facility, accelerator should obviously operate such that the power plant may continuously generate electricity at least for months with no interruption. However, the reality is that a high power proton accelerator is hardly operated even a few hours without interruption, although very short interruptions are tolerable. Anyway, it will take a time to develop an accelerator sufficiently reliable to be used for power generation. Now the question is if it is possible to realize ADS with the current level of accelerator technology. This paper seeks the possibility.

  1. Accelerator-Driven System with Current Technology

    World needs a safer and cleaner nuclear power plant. A nuclear power plant that will not cause a disaster and that will produce radiotoxic nuclear waste as small as possible. At the moment, the closest system is the accelerator driven system (ADS) making use of the Thorium fuel. First of all, it is safer in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. And, there won't be a Fukushima-like accident, because this Thorium ADS reactor uses air cooling. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of ADS was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty of accelerator. The accelerator-based system needs 0.6-1 GeV and at least a few MW power proton beam, which is an unprecedentedly high power. The most powerful 1 GeV proton linear accelerator is the Spallation Neutron Source, USA, which operates now at the power of 1.5 MW with the length of 350 m. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. Another difficulty is reliability of accelerator operation. To be used as a power plant facility, accelerator should obviously operate such that the power plant may continuously generate electricity at least for months with no interruption. However, the reality is that a high power proton accelerator is hardly operated even a few hours without interruption, although very short interruptions are tolerable. Anyway, it will take a time to develop an accelerator sufficiently reliable to be used for power generation. Now the question is if it is possible to realize ADS with the current level of accelerator technology. This paper seeks the possibility

  2. GPUs as Storage System Accelerators

    Al-Kiswany, Samer; Gharaibeh, Abdullah; Ripeanu, Matei

    2012-01-01

    Massively multicore processors, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), provide, at a comparable price, a one order of magnitude higher peak performance than traditional CPUs. This drop in the cost of computation, as any order-of-magnitude drop in the cost per unit of performance for a class of system components, triggers the opportunity to redesign systems and to explore new ways to engineer them to recalibrate the cost-to-performance relation. This project explores the feasibility of harn...

  3. MADOCA. Accelerator and beamline control framework developed by SPring-8

    The framework of the SPring-8 control system called MADOCA was developed by an independent standpoint. It consists of a device interface, a middle-ware and a man-machine interface as usual, but satisfying the following conditions: (1) Users are not required to know how the signal cables are connected, (2) The status of the beam and the apparatuses can be recorded and can be seen anytime, and the operational status of the accelerator can be reproduced, (3) Data acquisition for the apparatus can be easily made, and (4) Control programs can be easily written. (K.Y.)

  4. Injection system of the minicyclotron accelerator massspectrometer

    1999-01-01

    The existing injection system of the SMCAMS (super-sensitiveminicyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer) is described togetherwith the discussion of its disadvantages exposed after having beenoperating for fiveyears, which provides a basis for consideration ofimprovements to the injectionsystem. An optimized injection system with an analyticalmagnet added prior to theminicyclotron has been proposed and calculated.

  5. A Shot Parameter Specification Subsystem for automated control of PBFA [Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator] II accelerator shots

    The Shot Parameter Specification Subsystem (SPSS) is an integral part of the automatic control system developed for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) by the Control Monitor (C/M) Software Development Team. This system has been designed to fully utilize the accelerator by tailoring shot parameters to the needs of the experimenters. The SPSS is the key to this flexibility. Automatic systems will be required on many pulsed power machines for the fastest turnaround, the highest reliability, and most cost effective operation. These systems will require the flexibility and the ease of use that is part of the SPSS. The PBFA II control system has proved to be an effective modular system, flexible enough to meet the demands of both the fast track construction of PBFA II and the control needs of Hermes III at the Simulation Technology Laboratory. This system is expected to meet the demands of most future machine changes

  6. WAN environment test for joint development of accelerator control programs

    By the heightening of the processing capability of personal computers, also in the field of accelerator control, the system using personal computers as the main body can be constructed. Also it has become possible to supplement functions by combining different applications and offering the means of communication between applications by operating systems. At present, new accelerators are planned in Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, and National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, and the development environment using WAN was prepared for the purposes of the OMT analysis of accelerator domain from the viewpoint of control, the joint verification of the programs being made, and the efficient exchange of information. Windows NT was adopted, and its features are shown. The environment was constructed by using the personal computer on which Windows NT functions, and the specification of the used personal computer is shown. The performance was measured by using this environment, and its method and the results are reported. The operation mode for hereafter is explained. The construction of the development environment using Windows NT was completed with good results. (K.I.)

  7. Computer control of large accelerators design concepts and methods

    Beck, F.; Gormley, M.

    1984-05-01

    Unlike most of the specialities treated in this volume, control system design is still an art, not a science. These lectures are an attempt to produce a primer for prospective practitioners of this art. A large modern accelerator requires a comprehensive control system for commissioning, machine studies and day-to-day operation. Faced with the requirement to design a control system for such a machine, the control system architect has a bewildering array of technical devices and techniques at his disposal, and it is our aim in the following chapters to lead him through the characteristics of the problems he will have to face and the practical alternatives available for solving them. We emphasize good system architecture using commercially available hardware and software components, but in addition we discuss the actual control strategies which are to be implemented since it is at the point of deciding what facilities shall be available that the complexity of the control system and its cost are implicitly decided. 19 references.

  8. Computer control of large accelerators design concepts and methods

    Unlike most of the specialities treated in this volume, control system design is still an art, not a science. These lectures are an attempt to produce a primer for prospective practitioners of this art. A large modern accelerator requires a comprehensive control system for commissioning, machine studies and day-to-day operation. Faced with the requirement to design a control system for such a machine, the control system architect has a bewildering array of technical devices and techniques at his disposal, and it is our aim in the following chapters to lead him through the characteristics of the problems he will have to face and the practical alternatives available for solving them. We emphasize good system architecture using commercially available hardware and software components, but in addition we discuss the actual control strategies which are to be implemented since it is at the point of deciding what facilities shall be available that the complexity of the control system and its cost are implicitly decided. 19 references

  9. The ILC global control system

    The scale and performance parameters of the ILC require new thinking in regards to control system design. This design work has begun quite early in comparison to most accelerator projects, with the goal of uniquely high overall accelerator availability. Among the design challenges are high control system availability, precision timing and rf phase reference distribution, standardizing of interfaces, operability, and maintainability. We present the current state of the design and take a prospective look at ongoing research and development projects.

  10. IAEA activities on accelerator-driven systems

    A brief account is given of the following IAEA programmes and events: Special Scientific Programme on 'Use of High Energy Accelerators for Transmutation of Actinides and Power Production'; Status report on actinide and fission product transmutation studies; Accelerator-driven systems: energy generation and transmutation of nuclear waste (status report); Coordinated Research Programme on the Use of Thorium-based Fuel Cycle in Accelerator Driven Systems to Incinerate Plutonium and to Reduce Long-term Waste Toxicities; Technical Committee Meeting on 'Feasibility and Motivation for Hybrid Concepts for Nuclear Energy Generation and Transmutation'; Data-base on experimental facilities and computer codes for ADS related research and development; Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Safety, Environmental and Non-Proliferation Aspects of Partitioning and Transmutation of Actinides and Long-lived Fission Products. (P.A.)

  11. API manager implementation and its use for Indus accelerator control

    The control system software needed for operation of Indus accelerators is coupled to the underlying firmware and hardware of the control system by the Application Programming Interface (API) manager. In the three layered architecture of Indus control system, PVSS-II SCADA is being used at the layer-1(L1) for control and monitoring of various sub-systems. The layer-2(L2) consists of VME bus based system. The API manager plays a crucial role in interfacing the L1 and L2 of the control system. It has to interact with both the PVSS database and the L2. In order to access the PVSS database it uses the PVSS API, a C++ class library, whereas in order to access the L2 custom functions have been built. Several other custom functionalities have also been implemented. The paper presents the important aspects of the API manager like its implementation, its interface mechanism to the lower layer and features like configurability, reusable classes, multithreading capability etc. (author)

  12. Merging AI and numerical modeling for accelerator control

    The authors report the beginnings of an experiment to evaluate the power and limitations of artificial intelligence techniques combined with beam-line modeling for solving problems in accelerator control. Using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, they have built a knowledge base that describes the characteristics and the relationships of about 30 devices in a typical accelerator beam line. Each device in the line is categorized and pertinent attributes for each category are defined. Specific values for each device are assigned in the knowledge base to represent static characteristics. Device-specific slots are also provided for dynamic attributes. The definition of these slots reflects the data type and any limitations or restrictions on the range of the data. The authors model relationships between the various beam-line devices using the techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented models. The knowledge base provides a framework for analyzing faults and offering suggestions to assist in tuning, based on information provided by the accelerator physicists (domain experts) responsible for designing and tuning this beam line. Our knowledge base has a powerful graphical interface. It allows the operator to mouse on an icon for a particular icon in the schematic of the beam line and obtain device-specific information and control over that device. The beam optics code Transport is used to model the beam line numerically. 11 refs., 7 figs

  13. Pre Design of Beam Parameter Control System for Electron Beam Machine (EBM) 350 keV/10 mA in the Center for Accelerator and Material Process Technology - BATAN Yogyakarta

    Pre design of beam parameter control system for Electron Beam Machine (EBM) 350 keV/10 mA had an objective to find a control system algorithm for EBM in The Center For Accelerator and Material Process Technology (Pusat Teknologi dan Proses Bahan/PTAPB) - BATAN Yogyakarta. The design was based on the beam parameter model of EBM. The model shown a relationship between the dose parameter setting and the beam energy setting which it was being a problem in setting the beam parameters.The control system algorithm was found by getting compensator equations from the beam parameter model of EBM. The equations would omit the relation between the radiation dose parameter and beam energy parameter, so that the parameters could be adjusted easily. The result of the control system algorithm examine based on simulation shown that the setting of beam parameter value could be done by giving the accelerating voltage value and the filament current value as the operator had determined the value. The value of radiation dose and beam energy would be adjusted as its function of the filament current value and the accelerating voltage value. (author)

  14. Longitudinal Acceleration Tracking Control of Low Speed Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    WANG Yuejian; BIN Yang; LI Keqiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model matching control (MMC) method based on the sliding mode control(SMC) method for longitudinal acceleration tracking control in a vehicular stop-and-go cruise control system.The nonlinearity of the vehicle acceleration response at low speeds was analyzed to develop a transfer function model of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics using the least-mean-square system identification technique.This transfer function was then used to design the MMC controller,including an SMC feedback compensator.The system combines the advantages of the two control methods with robust control and rapid response.Simulations show that the controller enhances the rapid trackability to the vehicle acceleration and improves the system's robustness at low speeds compared with conventional PID MMC controllers.

  15. CLIA - a Compact Linear Induction Accelerator System

    CLIA (Compact Linear Induction Accelerator) is a 750 kV, 10 kA, 60 ns, 200 Hz pulse generator that has been designed, constructed, and operated at Physics International. The CLIA system consists of (from the load back to the mains) a ten-cell linear induction voltage adder, ten magnetically switched water insulated pulse forming lines (PFL's), a two-stage Magnetic Compression Unit (MCU), and thyratron-switched Intermediate Energy Store (IES), and Command Resonant Charge (CRC) units. This system was conceived to drive repetitive e-beam loads for various types of repetitive testing. A linear induction accelerator system was used because it allows all pulse compression to be done at moderate voltage (40 to 150 kV) and then uses the accelerator structure to add parallel voltage pulses into a single high voltage output (750 kV). Nowhere except at the load does a voltage of higher than 150 kV appear. This allows the switching to be done at moderate voltage and the use of hydrogen thyratrons and magnetic switches is possible. This generator has been in operation at Physics International for over a year and has achieved all its design goals. The design and operational characteristics of the accelerator will be described in this paper

  16. Phase and amplitude detection system for the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    A computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system to measure and stabilize the rf power sources in the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. This system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 microsecond 2856 MHz rf pulse and will be used for phase feedback control and for amplitude and phase jitter detection. This paper discusses the measurement system performance requirements for the operation of the Stanford Linear Collider, and the design and implementation of the phase and amplitude detection system. The fundamental software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system

  17. An injection system for a linear accelerator

    An injection system for the Linear Accelerator is developed using the parameters of machines at the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and the Instituto Militar de Engenharia. The proposed system consists basically of a prebuncher and a chopper. The pre-buncher is used to improve the energy resolution and also to increase the accelerator target current. The chopper is used to remove from the beam the electrons that have no possibility of attaining the desired energy and that are usually lost in the walls and the cavity tube, thus producing undesirable background. Theoretical development of the chopper is performed in order to obtain its dimensions for future construction. The complete design the pre-buncher and its feed supply system and the experimental verication of its performance are also presented. It is intended to give the necessary information for the design and construction of the complete injection system proposed. (Author)

  18. FPGA-accelerated simulation of computer systems

    Angepat, Hari; Chung, Eric S; Hoe, James C; Chung, Eric S

    2014-01-01

    To date, the most common form of simulators of computer systems are software-based running on standard computers. One promising approach to improve simulation performance is to apply hardware, specifically reconfigurable hardware in the form of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This manuscript describes various approaches of using FPGAs to accelerate software-implemented simulation of computer systems and selected simulators that incorporate those techniques. More precisely, we describe a simulation architecture taxonomy that incorporates a simulation architecture specifically designed f

  19. Feedback system to stabilize accelerating field in the UNK

    To stabilize accelerating field in the UNK proton synchrotron, an HF feedback system is proposed with one-turn time delay and two loops of automatic voltage control having unequal gains. The system would handle a pair of crucial effects caused by the fundamental mode of the accelerating cavities: heavy transient beam loading, and strong dipole and quadrupole longitudinal instabilities of the beam. The beam-cavity coupling impedance near HF is shown to be split up by the feedback loops into a 2 x 2 matrix. Its elements are used to estimate the residual error of the voltage across the accelerating gap from its nominal, the instability driving impedances near HF, and the net current required to drive an HF amplifier. A new global parameters to outline technical contours of the system are evaluated. 8 refs., 8 figs

  20. Accelerating Science Driven System Design With RAMP

    Wawrzynek, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Researchers from UC Berkeley, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, are engaged in developing an Infrastructure for Synthesis with Integrated Simulation (ISIS). The ISIS Project was a cooperative effort for “application-driven hardware design” that engages application scientists in the early parts of the hardware design process for future generation supercomputing systems. This project served to foster development of computing systems that are better tuned to the application requirements of demanding scientific applications and result in more cost-effective and efficient HPC system designs. In order to overcome long conventional design-cycle times, we leveraged reconfigurable devices to aid in the design of high-efficiency systems, including conventional multi- and many-core systems. The resulting system emulation/prototyping environment, in conjunction with the appropriate intermediate abstractions, provided both a convenient user programming experience and retained flexibility, and thus efficiency, of a reconfigurable platform. We initially targeted the Berkeley RAMP system (Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors) as that hardware emulation environment to facilitate and ultimately accelerate the iterative process of science-driven system design. Our goal was to develop and demonstrate a design methodology for domain-optimized computer system architectures. The tangible outcome is a methodology and tools for rapid prototyping and design-space exploration, leading to highly optimized and efficient HPC systems.

  1. Switching system for the FXR accelerator

    A switching system has been designed for a 20 MeV flash x-ray linear induction accelerator which is being built at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The switching system fans out a single command pulse and amplifies it to obtain the voltage necessary for reliable, low-jitter triggering of the accelerator components. This system consists of two major subsystems: (1) the Blumlein Charging Subsystem which first triggers thirteen Marx generators, and then charges 54 water-filled Blumleins, and (2) the Blumlein Triggering Subsystem which triggers the already-charged Blumleins to produce a 90 nanosecond, 400 kV pulse in each of 54 ferrite-loaded accelerator modules. The first subsystem consists of charged high voltage cabling with two parallel switch gaps either of which will trigger the Marx generators. The major components of the second subsystem are three stages of switch gaps along with the necessary high voltage cabling. Two parallel first stage switch gaps trigger thirteen second stage gaps, which in turn trigger 54 third stage Blumlein switch gaps synchronous with the passage of the electron beam pulse. These spark gaps are operated at a voltage of 150 to 350 kV with a 1/3 hertz repetition rate. Varying the cable lengths creates the actual delay times in the triggering of each component. Redundancy is built into the system to insure the high reliability which is essential for the flash radiography application

  2. ISABELLE control system: design concepts

    ISABELLE is a Department of Energy funded proton accelerator/storage ring being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, New York). It is large (3.8 km circumference) and complicated (approx. 30,000 monitor and control variables). It is based on superconducting technology. Following the example of previous accelerators, ISABELLE will be operated from a single control center. The control system will be distributed and will incorporate a local computer network. An overview of the conceptual design of the ISABELLE control system will be presented

  3. Instrumentation for diagnostics and control of laser-accelerated proton (ion) beams

    Bolton, P. R.; Borghesi, M. (Massimo); Brenner, C.; Carroll, D C; Martinis, C.; Fiorini, F.; Flacco, A.; Floquet, V; J. Fuchs; Gallegos, P.; Giove, D.; Green, J S; Green, S; Jones, B.; Kirby, D.

    2014-01-01

    Suitable instrumentation for laser-accelerated proton (ion) beams is critical for development of integrated, laser-driven ion accelerator systems. Instrumentation aimed at beam diagnostics and control must be applied to the driving laser pulse, the laser-plasma that forms at the target and the emergent proton (ion) bunch in a correlated way to develop these novel accelerators. This report is a brief overview of established diagnostic techniques and new developments based on material presented...

  4. FMIT facility control system

    The control system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, under construction at Richland, Washington, uses current techniques in distributed processing to achieve responsiveness, maintainability and reliability. Developmental experience with the system on the FMIT Prototype Accelerator (FPA) being designed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is described as a function of the system's design goals and details. The functional requirements of the FMIT control system dictated the use of a highly operator-responsive, display-oriented structure, using state-of-the-art console devices for man-machine communications. Further, current technology has allowed the movement of device-dependent tasks into the area traditionally occupied by remote input-output equipment; the system's dual central process computers communicate with remote communications nodes containing microcomputers that are architecturally similar to the top-level machines. The system has been designed to take advantage of commercially available hardware and software

  5. Magnetically Controlled Plasma Waveguide For Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; Davis, P; Palastro, J; Michel, P; Leurent, V; Glenzer, S H; Pollock, B; Tynan, G

    2008-05-14

    An external magnetic field applied to a laser plasma is shown produce a plasma channel at densities relevant to creating GeV monoenergetic electrons through laser wakefield acceleration. Furthermore, the magnetic field also provides a pressure to help shape the channel to match the guiding conditions of an incident laser beam. Measured density channels suitable for guiding relativistic short-pulse laser beams are presented with a minimum density of 5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} which corresponds to a linear dephasing length of several centimeters suitable for multi-GeV electron acceleration. The experimental setup at the Jupiter Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where a 1-ns, 150 J 1054 nm laser will produce a magnetically controlled channel to guide a < 75 fs, 10 J short-pulse laser beam through 5-cm of 5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} plasma is presented. Calculations presented show that electrons can be accelerated to 3 GeV with this system. Three-dimensional resistive magneto-hydrodynamic simulations are used to design the laser and plasma parameters and quasi-static kinetic simulations indicate that the channel will guide a 200 TW laser beam over 5-cm.

  6. The CEBAF control system

    CEBAF has recently upgraded its accelerator control system to use EPICS, a control system toolkit being developed by a collaboration among laboratories in the US and Europe. The migration to EPICS has taken place during a year of intense commissioning activity, with new and old control systems operating concurrently. Existing CAMAC hardware was preserved by adding a CAMAC serial highway link to VME; newer hardware developments are now primarily in VME. Software is distributed among three tiers of computers: first, workstations and X terminals for operator interfaces and high level applications; second, VME single board computers for distributed access to hardware and for local control processing; third, embedded processors where needed for faster closed loop operation. This system has demonstrated the ability to scale EPICS to controlling thousands of devices, including hundreds of embedded processors, with control distributed among dozens of VME processors executing more than 125,000 EPICS database records. To deal with the large size of the control system, CEBAF has integrated an object oriented database, providing data management capabilities for both low level I/O and high level machine modeling. A new callable interface which is control system independent permits access to live EPICS data, data in other Unix processes, and data contained in the object oriented database

  7. Missile Acceleration Controller Design using PI and Time-Delay Adaptive Feedback Linearization Methodology

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Seo, Min-Guk; Tahk, Min-Jea; Lee, Jin-Ik; Jun, Byung-Eul

    2012-01-01

    A straight forward application of feedback linearization to the missile autopilot design for acceleration control may be limited due to the nonminimum characteristics and the model uncertainties. As a remedy, this paper presents a cascade structure of an acceleration controller based on approximate feedback linearization methodology with a time-delay adaptation scheme. The inner loop controller is constructed by applying feedback linearization to the approximate system which is a minimum phas...

  8. Controlling electron injection in laser plasma accelerators using multiple pulses

    Use of counter-propagating pulses to control electron injection in laser-plasma accelerators promises to be an important ingredient in the development of stable devices. We discuss the colliding pulse scheme and associated diagnostics.

  9. Fermilab Tevatron high level rf accelerating systems

    Eight tuned rf cavities have been installed and operated in the F0 straight section of the Tevatron. Their mechanical placement along the beam line enables them to be operated for colliding beams as two independent groups of four cavities, group 1-4 accelerating antiprotons and group 5-8 accelerating protons. The only difference is that the spacing between cavities 4 and 5 was increased to stay clear of the F0 colliding point. The cavities can easily be rephased by switching cables in a low-level distribution system (fan-out) so that the full accelerating capability of all eight cavities can be used during fixed target operations. Likewise, the cables from capacitive probes on each cavity gap can be switched to proper lengths and summed in a fan-back system to give an rf signal representing the amplitude and phase as ''seen by the beam,'' separately for protons and antiprotons. Such signals have been used to phase lock the Tevatron to the Main Ring for synchronous transfer

  10. Acceleration of hydrodynamic vortices in open systems

    Pashitskii, E; Naryshkin, R

    2007-01-01

    A new class of exact solutions of hydrodynamic equations for an incompressible fluid (gas) at the presence of a bulk sink and uprising vertical flows of matter is considered. The acceleration of the rotation velocity of classical non-stationary vortices is conditioned by the joint action of the convective and Coriolis hydrodynamic forces (accelerations), which appear due to the converging radial flows of the matter in the region of a bulk sink. It is shown that there exist velocity profiles that nullify viscous terms in the Navier-Stokes equations and represent a vortex structure with a "rigid-body" rotation of its core and converging radial flows. The concept of non-stationary vortices in open systems is applied to description of origination of power atmospheric vortices (whirlwinds, tornados, and typhoons). In the classical hydrodynamics a favorable condition for the origination and existence of such vortices is the exact nullification of the terms, which describe kinematic viscosity of an incompressible fl...

  11. Accelerated Stochastic Simulation of Large Chemical Systems

    CHEN Xiao; AO Ling

    2007-01-01

    For efficient simulation of chemical systems with large number of reactions, we report a fast and exact algorithm for direct simulation of chemical discrete Markov processes. The approach adopts the scheme of organizing the reactions into hierarchical groups. By generating a random number, the selection of the next reaction that actually occurs is accomplished by a few successive selections in the hierarchical groups. The algorithm which is suited for simulating systems with large number of reactions is much faster than the direct method or the optimized direct method. For a demonstration of its efficiency, the accelerated algorithm is applied to simulate the reaction-diffusion Brusselator model on a discretized space.

  12. Down-ramp injection and independently controlled acceleration of electrons in a tailored laser wakefield accelerator

    Hansson, M.; Davoine, X.; Ekerfelt, H.; Svensson, K.; Persson, A.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Lundh, O.; 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.071303

    2015-01-01

    We report on a study on controlled injection of electrons into the accelerating phase of a plasma wakefield accelerator by tailoring the target density distribution using two independent sources of gas. The tailored density distribution is achieved experimentally by inserting a narrow nozzle, with an orifice diameter of only 400  μm , into a jet of gas supplied from a 2 mm diameter nozzle. The combination of these two nozzles is used to create two regions of different density connected by a density gradient. Using this setup we show independent control of the charge and energy distribution of the bunches of accelerated electron as well as decreased shot-to-shot fluctuations in these quantities compared to self-injection in a single gas jet. Although the energy spectra are broad after injection, simulations show that further acceleration acts to compress the energy distribution and to yield peaked energy spectra.

  13. Variable Acceleration Force Calibration System (VACS)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Parker, Peter A.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Landman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, force balances have been calibrated manually, using a complex system of free hanging precision weights, bell cranks, and/or other mechanical components. Conventional methods may provide sufficient accuracy in some instances, but are often quite complex and labor-intensive, requiring three to four man-weeks to complete each full calibration. To ensure accuracy, gravity-based loading is typically utilized. However, this often causes difficulty when applying loads in three simultaneous, orthogonal axes. A complex system of levers, cranks, and cables must be used, introducing increased sources of systematic error, and significantly increasing the time and labor intensity required to complete the calibration. One aspect of the VACS is a method wherein the mass utilized for calibration is held constant, and the acceleration is changed to thereby generate relatively large forces with relatively small test masses. Multiple forces can be applied to a force balance without changing the test mass, and dynamic forces can be applied by rotation or oscillating acceleration. If rotational motion is utilized, a mass is rigidly attached to a force balance, and the mass is exposed to a rotational field. A large force can be applied by utilizing a large rotational velocity. A centrifuge or rotating table can be used to create the rotational field, and fixtures can be utilized to position the force balance. The acceleration may also be linear. For example, a table that moves linearly and accelerates in a sinusoidal manner may also be utilized. The test mass does not have to move in a path that is parallel to the ground, and no re-leveling is therefore required. Balance deflection corrections may be applied passively by monitoring the orientation of the force balance with a three-axis accelerometer package. Deflections are measured during each test run, and adjustments with respect to the true applied load can be made during the post-processing stage. This paper will

  14. Superpower linear proton accelerator for neutron generator and accelerator-driven system

    The perspectives of development of superpower linear proton accelerators for high-intensive neutron generators and accelerator-driven systems are discussed. The main technical characteristics of the projects on neutron generators based on linear accelerators are presented. These projects are developed in USA, Japan, Italy and Russia. The RFQ structures are used in all projects for the initial acceleration of protons up to 5-7 MeV. The different modifications of drift tubes are applied for acceleration up to 100 MeV. The main acceleration (up to 1 GeV) is supposed to perform in superconducting resonators

  15. Control and optimization of a staged laser-wakefield accelerator

    Golovin, G.; Banerjee, S.; Chen, S.; Powers, N.; Liu, C.; Yan, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, B.; Umstadter, D.

    2016-09-01

    We report results of an experimental study of laser-wakefield acceleration of electrons, using a staged device based on a double-jet gas target that enables independent injection and acceleration stages. This novel scheme is shown to produce stable, quasi-monoenergetic, and tunable electron beams. We show that optimal accelerator performance is achieved by systematic variation of five critical parameters. For the injection stage, we show that the amount of trapped charge is controlled by the gas density, composition, and laser power. For the acceleration stage, the gas density and the length of the jet are found to determine the final electron energy. This independent control over both the injection and acceleration processes enabled independent control over the charge and energy of the accelerated electron beam while preserving the quasi-monoenergetic character of the beam. We show that the charge and energy can be varied in the ranges of 2-45 pC, and 50-450 MeV, respectively. This robust and versatile electron accelerator will find application in the generation of high-brightness and controllable x-rays, and as the injector stage for more conventional devices.

  16. Uncertainty assessment for accelerator-driven systems

    The concept of a subcritical system driven by an external source of neutrons provided by an accelerator ADS (Accelerator Driver System) has been recently revived and is becoming more popular in the world technical community with active programs in Europe, Russia, Japan, and the U.S. A general consensus has been reached in adopting for the subcritical component a fast spectrum liquid metal cooled configuration. Both a lead-bismuth eutectic, sodium and gas are being considered as a coolant; each has advantages and disadvantages. The major expected advantage is that subcriticality avoids reactivity induced transients. The potentially large subcriticality margin also should allow for the introduction of very significant quantities of waste products (minor Actinides and Fission Products) which negatively impact the safety characteristics of standard cores. In the U.S. these arguments are the basis for the development of the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW), which has significant potential in reducing nuclear waste levels. Up to now, neutronic calculations have not attached uncertainties on the values of the main nuclear integral parameters that characterize the system. Many of these parameters (e.g., degree of subcriticality) are crucial to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of this concept. In this paper we will consider uncertainties related to nuclear data only. The present knowledge of the cross sections of many isotopes that are not usually utilized in existing reactors (like Bi, Pb-207, Pb-208, and also Minor Actinides and Fission Products) suggests that uncertainties in the integral parameters will be significantly larger than for conventional reactor systems, and this raises concerns on the neutronic performance of those systems

  17. Beam control in the ETA-II linear induction accelerator

    Corkscrew beam motion is caused by chromatic aberration and misalignment of a focusing system. We have taken some measures to control the corkscrew motion on the ETA-II induction accelerator. To minimize chromatic aberration, we have developed an energy compensation scheme which reduces energy sweep and differential phase advance within a beam pulse. To minimize the misalignment errors, we have developed a time-independent steering algorithm which minimizes the observed corkscrew amplitude averaged over the beam pulse. The steering algorithm can be used even if the monitor spacing is much greater than the system's cyclotron wavelength and the corkscrew motion caused by a given misaligned magnet is fully developed, i.e., the relative phase advance is greater than 2π. (Author) 5 figs., 11 refs

  18. Controls of maglev suspension systems

    Cai, Y.; Zhu, S.; Chen, S.S.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study investigates alternative control designs of maglev vehicle suspension systems. Active and semi-active control law designs are introduced into primary and secondary suspensions of maglev vehicles. A one-dimensional vehicle with two degrees of freedom, to simulate the German Transrapid Maglev System, is used for suspension control designs. The transient and frequency responses of suspension systems and PSDs of vehicle accelerations are calculated to evaluate different control designs. The results show that active and semi-active control designs indeed improve the response of vehicle and provide an acceptable ride comfort for maglev systems.

  19. NPL superconducting Linac control system

    The control system for the NPL Linac is based on a Microvax II host computer connected in a star network with 9 satellite computers. These satellites use single board varsions of DEC's PDP 11 processor. The operator's console uses high performance graphics and touch screen technology to display the current linac status and as the means for interactively controlling the operation of the accelerator

  20. ACCELERATORS: Timing system of HIRFL-CSR

    Dong, Jin-Mei; Yuan, You-Jin; Qiao, Wei-Min; Jing, Lan; Zhang, Wei

    2009-05-01

    The national science project HIRFL-CSR has recently been officially accepted. As a cyclotron and synchrotron complex, it puts some particularly high demands on the control system. There are hundreds of pieces of equipment that need to be synchronized. An integrated timing control system is built to meet these demands. The output rate and the accuracy of the controller are 16 bit/μs. The accuracy of the time delay reaches 40 ns. The timing control system is based on a typical event distribution system, which adopts the new event generation and the distribution scheme. The scheme of the timing control system with innovation points, the architecture and the implemented method are presented in the paper.

  1. Accelerator-based neutron radioscopic systems

    There is interest in non-reactor source, thermal neutron inspection systems for applications in aircraft maintenance, explosive devices, investment-cast turbine blades, etc. Accelerator sources, (d-T), RFQ accelerators and cyclotrons as examples, are available for either transportable or fixed neutron inspection systems. Sources are reviewed for neutron output, portability, ease of use and cost, and for use with an electronic neutron imaging camera (image intensifier or scintillator-camera system) to provide a prompt response, neutron inspection system. Particular emphasis is given to the current aircraft inspection problem to detect and characterize corrosion. Systems are analyzed to determine usefulness in providing an on-line inspection technique to detect corrosion in aluminum honeycomb aircraft components, either on-aircraft or in a shop environment. The neutron imaging sensitivity to hydrogenous aluminum corrosion product offers early detection advantages for aircraft corrosion, to levels of aluminum metal loss as small as 25 μm. The practical capability for a continuous scan thermal neutron radioscopic system to inspect up to 500 square feet of component surface per day is used as an evaluation criterion, with the system showing contrast sensitivity of at least 5% and image detail in the order of 4 mm for parts 10 cm thick. Under these practical conditions and 3-shift operation, the source must provide an incident thermal neutron flux of 5.6x104 n cm-2 s-1 at an L/D of 30. A stop and go inspection approach, offering improved resolution, would require a source with similar characteristics

  2. SEU-tolerant IQ detection algorithm for LLRF accelerator system

    Grecki, M.

    2007-08-01

    High-energy accelerators use RF field to accelerate charged particles. Measurements of effective field parameters (amplitude and phase) are tasks of great importance in these facilities. The RF signal is downconverted in frequency but keeping the information about amplitude and phase and then sampled in ADC. One of the several tasks for LLRF control system is to estimate the amplitude and phase (or I and Q components) of the RF signal. These parameters are further used in the control algorithm. The XFEL accelerator will be built using a single-tunnel concept. Therefore electronic devices (including LLRF control system) will be exposed to ionizing radiation, particularly to a neutron flux generating SEUs in digital circuits. The algorithms implemented in FPGA/DSP should therefore be SEU-tolerant. This paper presents the application of the WCC method to obtain immunity of IQ detection algorithm to SEUs. The VHDL implementation of this algorithm in Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA is presented, together with results of simulation proving the algorithm suitability for systems operating in the presence of SEUs.

  3. Integrated control system for LEHIPA

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) is a 20 MeV 30 mA proton accelerator which will be achieved in multiple stages. LEHIPA consists of several sub systems/devices located at different positions of the beam path which includes ION source, RF Power, RF Protection Interlock System, Low Conductivity Water plant, Low Level RF Control Systems, Vacuum System, Beam Diagnostics and Beam Line Devices. All these subsystems have their own local control systems (LCS) which will coordinate the operation of the corresponding subsystem. The control system for LEHIPA is thus being designed as a Distributed Control System with different teams developing each LCS. The control system will assist the operator to achieve a beam of desired characteristics by interacting with various sub systems of the accelerator in a seamless manner, protect the various parts of machine by generating the necessary interlocks, keep track of various parameters monitored periodically by suitably archiving them, alarms annunciation and trouble shoot from the control room. This paper describes approach to system design of ICS. (author)

  4. Accelerators for Physics Experiments : From Diagnostics and Control to Design

    Wildner, Elena

    2008-01-01

    This thesis develops techniques of control-methods, optimization, and diagnostics of accelerator equipment and the produced particle beams with emphasis on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. From a solid knowledge of the characteristics of the manufactured accelerator equipment gained from in-depth measurements and analysis of measured data, a link to an enhanced equipment design can be made. These techniques will be demonstrated in applications related to the LHC magnet product...

  5. The Accelerating Growth of Online Social Systems

    Wu, L; Lei, K; Mo, Q; Zhu, J J

    2011-01-01

    Research on the growth of online social systems not only is interesting in its own right, but also yields insights for website management and web crawling. Traditional models of growth of online systems can be divided between linear and nonlinear versions. Linear models, including the BA model, assume that the average activity of users in a system is a constant independent of system size. Hence the total activity is a linear function of the system size. On the contrary, nonlinear models suggest that the average activity is affected by the system size and the total activity is a nonlinear function of the system size. In the current study, we obtain supporting evidence for the nonlinear growth assumption from data on Internet users'file sharing and blogging behavior. We find that there is a power law relationship between the total activity F and the system size P, which can be expressed as F ~ P^gamma (gamma> 1). We call this pattern accelerating growth and attribute it to time-variant inequality in individual ...

  6. Development of a fast voltage control method for electrostatic accelerators

    The concept of a novel fast voltage control loop for tandem electrostatic accelerators is described. This control loop utilises high-frequency components of the ion beam current intercepted by the image slits to generate a correction voltage that is applied to the first few gaps of the low- and high-energy acceleration tubes adjoining the high voltage terminal. New techniques for the direct measurement of the transfer function of an ultra-high impedance structure, such as an electrostatic accelerator, have been developed. For the first time, the transfer function for the fast feedback loop has been measured directly. Slow voltage variations are stabilised with common corona control loop and the relationship between transfer functions for the slow and new fast control loops required for optimum operation is discussed. The main source of terminal voltage instabilities, which are due to variation of the charging current caused by mechanical oscillations of charging chains, has been analysed

  7. Development of a fast voltage control method for electrostatic accelerators

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.; Linardakis, Peter; Tsifakis, Dimitrios

    2014-12-11

    The concept of a novel fast voltage control loop for tandem electrostatic accelerators is described. This control loop utilises high-frequency components of the ion beam current intercepted by the image slits to generate a correction voltage that is applied to the first few gaps of the low- and high-energy acceleration tubes adjoining the high voltage terminal. New techniques for the direct measurement of the transfer function of an ultra-high impedance structure, such as an electrostatic accelerator, have been developed. For the first time, the transfer function for the fast feedback loop has been measured directly. Slow voltage variations are stabilised with common corona control loop and the relationship between transfer functions for the slow and new fast control loops required for optimum operation is discussed. The main source of terminal voltage instabilities, which are due to variation of the charging current caused by mechanical oscillations of charging chains, has been analysed.

  8. Discovery Mondays "Controlling the accelerators: tracking the protons"

    2007-01-01

    Le Centre de contrôle des accélérateurs du CERN.Like a train of particles that picks up speed every time it passes a set of points, by the time they collide the protons and ions in the LHC will have followed their path through the six stages of the CERN accelerator complex, picking up speed at each stage. Operating the controls of this huge complex designed to accelerate the infinitesimally small are its peerless controllers. From the CERN Control Centre, they will be on duty day and night to accelerate the "wagon-loads" of particles, ensuring that they stay on track and lining them up for head-on collisions. At the next Discovery Monday you will discover the path taken by the particles through the accelerator chain. You will gain an insight into the complex work performed by those controlling the particles and learn more about the CERN accelerator complex and its Control Centre. Hop on board for a speed-of-light tour of the C...

  9. Accelerator driven radiation clean nuclear power system conceptual research symposium

    The R and D of ADS (Accelerators Driven Subcritical System) in China introduced. 31 theses are presented. It includes the basic principle of ADS, accelerators, sub-critical reactors, neutron physics, nuclear data, partitioning and transmutation

  10. Upgrading the ATLAS control system

    Heavy-ion accelerators are tools used in the research of nuclear and atomic physics. The ATLAS facility at the Argonne National Laboratory is one such tool. The ATLAS control system serves as the primary operator interface to the accelerator. A project to upgrade the control system is presently in progress. Since this is an upgrade project and not a new installation, it was imperative that the development work proceed without interference to normal operations. An additional criteria for the development work was that the writing of additional ''in-house'' software should be kept to a minimum. This paper briefly describes the control system being upgraded, and explains some of the reasons for the decision to upgrade the control system. Design considerations and goals for the new system are described, and the present status of the upgrade is discussed

  11. Controlling friction-induced instability by recursive time-delayed acceleration feedback

    Chatterjee, S.; Mahata, P.

    2009-11-01

    A novel time-delayed acceleration feedback method of controlling friction-induced instability is proposed. A single degree-of-freedom mechanical oscillator on a moving belt represents the basic friction-driven system. The control force is synthesized based on an infinite weighted sum of the acceleration of the vibrating mass measured at regular intervals in the past. Such a control force can be effectively produced by the recursive summation of the time-delayed acceleration and the time-delayed control signal, and hence the technique is termed as the recursive time-delayed acceleration feedback control. The local stability analysis of the equilibrium reveals nontrivial and beneficial influences of the recursive gain on the system performance. Robustness of the control is shown to improve with the increasing value of the recursive gain. A multiple time scale based analysis of the system elucidates the role of the recursive gain in enhancing the amount of dissipation produced by the control action. The influences of the time-delay and the control gain on the optimized performance of the system are also discussed. Numerical simulations of the system equations corroborate the analytical results. The present method is believed to be applicable to any self-excited system having a large degree of instability that is not removable by an ordinary time-delayed feedback.

  12. Microgravity acceleration modeling for orbital systems

    Knabe, Walter; Baugher, Charles R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In view of the decisive importance of a disturbance-free environment on the Space Station, and on other orbital systems, for materials processing experiments, a theoretical and semi-experimental analysis of the acceleration environment to be expected on large orbiting spacecraft was undertaken. A unified model of such spacecraft cannot be established; therefore, a number of sub-models representing major components of typical large spacecraft must be investigated. In order to obtain experimental data of forces, a typical spacecraft - an engineering model of the Spacelab - was suspended on long ropes in a high-bay hangar, and equipped with a number of accelerometers. Active components on the Spacelab (fans, pumps, air conditioners, valves, levers) were operated, and astronautics moved boxes, drawers, sleds, and their own bodies. Generally speaking, the response of the Spacelab structure was very similar to the environment measured on Spacelabs SL-1, SL-2, and D-1. At frequencies in the broad range between 1 and about 100 Hz, acceleration peaks reached values of 10(exp -3) and 10(exp -2) g sub o, and even higher.

  13. Controllability in Multi-Stage Laser Ion Acceleration

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.

    2015-11-01

    The present paper shows a concept for a future laser ion accelerator, which should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers and ion post acceleration devices. Based on the laser ion accelerator components, the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled, and a future compact laser ion accelerator would be designed for ion cancer therapy or for ion material treatment. In this study each component is designed to control the ion beam quality. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching are successfully realized by a multi-stage laser-target interaction. A combination of each component provides a high controllability of the ion beam quality to meet variable requirements in various purposes in the laser ion accelerator. The work was partly supported by MEXT, JSPS, ASHULA project/ ILE, Osaka University, CORE (Center for Optical Research and Education, Utsunomiya University, Japan), Fudan University and CDI (Creative Dept. for Innovation) in CCRD, Utsunomiya University.

  14. SPS RF System an Accelerating Cavity

    1975-01-01

    The picture shows one of the two initially installed cavities. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also gradually increased: by end 1980 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412017X, 7411048X.

  15. Injection accelerator for proton therapy system

    We have developed the magnet-free alternating phase focusing (APF) linac for proton cancer therapy facilities. This new linac enhances the reliability and serviceability of such facilities. The newly developed linac uses radio-frequency electric field to accelerate as well as focus a beam of protons (hydrogen nuclei). The electric field is designed with 'sawtooth-shaped phase modulation technology', which can generate high-quality beam. The elimination of magnets has resulted in a simplified linac structure that requires very few adjustments, resulting in improved reliability and serviceability. The system uses a resonant coupler to distribute radio-frequency power, the first such commercial application in the world. The ratio-frequency power supply has been integrated into a single unit, simplifying the structure of the facility. There is no need to adjust the ratio-frequency power phase, for easy servicing. (author)

  16. Weapon plutonium in accelerator driven power system

    The purpose and problems of the research - creation of a safe and reliable ADS for processing of about 25 tons of weapons plutonium in 30 years on the basis of a proton-accelerator with energies 0.8-1.2 GeV and a current of 10-30 mA; liquid Pb/Bi eutectic targets; one-directionally coupled fast/thermal blanket with plutonium fuel. The approach to weapons-Pu utilization is based on the understanding of the unconditional priority of safety features of ADS over economic considerations and, accordingly, on the priority of subcritical systems over critical. The description of a variant of ADS from the point of view of possibilities of its realization in an acceptable period of time on the base of approbated technologies is presented here. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Implementation of the DIAC control system

    DIAC (Daejeon Ion Accelerator Complex) system was developed, and operated at JAEA of Japan by KEK team with a name of TRIAC (Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex) during 2004 to 2010. The TRIAC control system was based on LabView and had two independent control units for ion source and accelerator. To be an efficient system, it is necessary to have an integrated control capability. And the control software, which had implemented by using LabView at TRIAC, will be changed with EPICS in order to give an effective beam service to the users. In this presentation, the old TRIAC control system is described, and a new control system for DIAC is discussed. The control system of DIAC is based on TRIAC. But it is gradually improved performance using EPICS toolkits and changing some digital interface hardware of it. Details of the control system will be demonstrated during the conference

  18. Systems and methods for the magnetic insulation of accelerator electrodes in electrostatic accelerators

    Grisham, Larry R

    2013-12-17

    The present invention provides systems and methods for the magnetic insulation of accelerator electrodes in electrostatic accelerators. Advantageously, the systems and methods of the present invention improve the practically obtainable performance of these electrostatic accelerators by addressing, among other things, voltage holding problems and conditioning issues. The problems and issues are addressed by flowing electric currents along these accelerator electrodes to produce magnetic fields that envelope the accelerator electrodes and their support structures, so as to prevent very low energy electrons from leaving the surfaces of the accelerator electrodes and subsequently picking up energy from the surrounding electric field. In various applications, this magnetic insulation must only produce modest gains in voltage holding capability to represent a significant achievement.

  19. The APS control system network

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the open-quotes Standard Model.close quotes The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions

  20. Accelerator system for the Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Accelerator system for Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility that consists of 50MeV electron S-band linac, 1.2GeV full energy booster synchrotron and 1.2GeV storage ring, has been constructed. Eight 1.4T bending magnets and four 5T superconducting magnet with compact refrigerator system provide beam lines. For top-up operation, the 1ns single bunch electron beam from 50MeV injector linac is injected by on-axis injection scheme and accelerated up to 1.2GeV at booster synchrotron. The timing system is designed for injection from booster ring is possible for any bunch position of storage ring. To improve efficiency of booster injection, the electron gun trigger and RF frequency of 2856MHz is synchronized with storage ring frequency of 499.654MHz. The EPICS control system is used with timing control system for linac, pulse magnet and also for booster pattern memory system. The beam commissioning for 1.2GeV storage ring has been progressing. (author)

  1. POPS: the 60MW power converter for the PS accelerator: Control strategy and performances

    Boattini, Fulvio; Skawinski, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The main power supply of Proton-Synchrotron (PS) accelerator is one of the biggest at CERN. The old rotating machine system has been replaced with a new NPC based DC/DC power supply named POPS (Power system for PS main magnets) with capacitor banks as energy storage mean. POPS is in operation since February 2011. The operation of the PS accelerator requires a specific design of the control system with very high performance requirements in term of accuracy and precision. This paper describes the main lines of the control strategies analyzing the problems encountered and the solutions adopted. The performances of the converter are presented throughout the paper.

  2. A count rate based contamination control standard for electron accelerators

    May, R.T.; Schwahn, S.O.

    1996-12-31

    Accelerators of sufficient energy and particle fluence can produce radioactivity as an unwanted byproduct. The radioactivity is typically imbedded in structural materials but may also be removable from surfaces. Many of these radionuclides decay by positron emission or electron capture; they often have long half lives and produce photons of low energy and yield making detection by standard devices difficult. The contamination control limit used throughout the US nuclear industry and the Department of Energy is 1,000 disintegrations per minute. This limit is based on the detection threshold of pancake type Geiger-Mueller probes for radionuclides of relatively high radiotoxicity, such as cobalt-60. Several radionuclides of concern at a high energy electron accelerator are compared in terms of radiotoxicity with radionuclides commonly found in the nuclear industry. Based on this comparison, a count-rate based contamination control limit and associated measurement strategy is proposed which provides adequate detection of contamination at accelerators without an increase in risk.

  3. Personal safety system of the GSI and the planned FAIR accelerators

    Full text: GSI (facility for the research with heavy ions) operates heavy ion accelerators for the research in nuclear physics, atomic physics, material research, radiation biology and carbon ion cancer treatment. The accelerators consist of a linear accelerator (Unilac=Universal Linear Accelerator), a heavy ion synchrotron (SIS) and an experimental storage ring (ESR). At GSI, it is possible to prepare ions of all types of ion beams, up to and including uranium in any state of electric charge. The facility can also be used to create and accelerate beams of radioactive nuclei. The energy range of the ions are about 5 to 14 MeV per nucleon at the Unilac and 1 to 2 GeV per nucleon at the SIS and for the experimental areas. Due to beam depositions in the experiments and unavoidable beam losses during the acceleration and transport process of the ions, substantial amount of radiation is produced near the accelerator. Therefore big efforts for the shielding of the produced radiation are necessary. Furthermore for the safe operation of the accelerators and for the maintenance work at the accelerators during shutdown periods personal safety systems are running. The personal safety systems comprise personal access systems for the accelerators and for the experimental areas. During the accelerator operation interlock systems for the beam interruption are activated when humans would be in danger. In this work the concept of the personal safety systems including the interlock system is presented as well as descriptions on the technical solutions of the concept, like the booth access to radiological areas, components in the beam lines as e.g. beam-plugs, Faraday cups, HF interruption, control for the septa or the controls for dipoles. An outlook will be presented for the safety system of the new international accelerator project FAIR (Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research), which will be operated by means of the GSI accelerators as injectors. (author)

  4. An interface from LabVIEW to the accelerator controls NETwork

    An interface from the graphical programming language LabVIEW to the Fermilab control system has been created according to the Accelerator Controls NETwork (Acnet) protocol. Using LabVIEW's signal processing capabilities in combination with the VXI crate, a powerful and user-friendly instrumentation platform is made accessible

  5. Electron Accelerator Facilities

    Lecture presents main aspects of progress in development of industrial accelerators: adaptation of accelerators primary built for scientific experiments, electron energy and beam power increase in certain accelerator constructions, computer control system managing accelerator start-up, routine operation and technological process, maintenance (diagnostics), accelerator technology perfection (electrical efficiency, operation cost), compact and more efficient accelerator constructions, reliability improvement according to industrial standards, accelerators for MW power levels and accelerators tailored for specific use

  6. Hamiltonian control used to improve the beam stability in particle accelerator models

    Boreux, J; Carletti, T.; Skokos, Ch.; Vittot, M

    2012-01-01

    We develop a Hamiltonian control theory suitable for a 4D symplectic map that models a ring particle accelerator composed of elements with sextupole nonlinearity. The controlled system is designed to exhibit a more regular orbital behavior than the uncontrolled one. Using the Smaller Alignement Index (SALI) chaos indicator, we are able to show that the controlled system has a dynamical aperture up to 1.7 times larger than the original model.

  7. Improving beam stability in particle accelerator models by using Hamiltonian control

    Boreux, J; Carletti, T.; Skokos, Ch.; Vittot, M

    2010-01-01

    We derive a Hamiltonian control theory which can be applied to a 4D symplectic map that models a ring particle accelerator composed of elements with sextupole nonlinearity. The controlled system is designed to exhibit a more regular orbital behavior than the uncontrolled one. Using the Smaller Alignement Index (SALI) chaos indicator, we are able to show that the controlled system has a dynamical aperture up to 1.7 times larger than the original mode

  8. High performance current controller for particle accelerator magnets supply

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Bidoggia, Benoit; Munk-Nielsen, Stig;

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnets in modern particle accelerators require high performance power supply whose output is required to track the current reference with a very high accuracy (down to 50 ppm). This demands very high bandwidth controller design. A converter based on buck converter topology is used in...

  9. Particle accelerator control and data acquisition in the context of VAX/VMS

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) Control System monitors and controls a linear accelerator through more than 10,000 widely disparate I/O devices. The heart of the Control System software is the Data System, which provides a uniform application program interface based on symbolic device names. In many ways the Data System parallels the VAX/VMS Record Management Services (RMS) in its needs for asynchronous operations, protection, and locks for multiprocess interactions. Since the accelerator control hardware is continually changing, it is important that privileged code be kept to a minimum or be testable in a non-privileged environment. This paper describes the LAMPF Data System design including the use of VAX/VMS user written system services (both kernel and supervisor mode), a user supplied image rundown routine, the VAX/VMS lock manager, and a large (3.5 Mbyte) protected global section

  10. Controls and Machine Protection Systems

    Carrone, E

    2016-01-01

    Machine protection, as part of accelerator control systems, can be managed with a 'functional safety' approach, which takes into account product life cycle, processes, quality, industrial standards and cybersafety. This paper will discuss strategies to manage such complexity and the related risks, with particular attention to fail-safe design and safety integrity levels, software and hardware standards, testing, and verification philosophy. It will also discuss an implementation of a machine protection system at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).

  11. Accelerated Aging System for Prognostics of Power Semiconductor Devices

    Celaya, Jose R.; Vashchenko, Vladislav; Wysocki, Philip; Saha, Sankalita

    2010-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that focuses on estimation of the health state of a component and the prediction of its remaining useful life (RUL) before failure. Health state estimation is based on actual conditions and it is fundamental for the prediction of RUL under anticipated future usage. Failure of electronic devices is of great concern as future aircraft will see an increase of electronics to drive and control safety-critical equipment throughout the aircraft. Therefore, development of prognostics solutions for electronics is of key importance. This paper presents an accelerated aging system for gate-controlled power transistors. This system allows for the understanding of the effects of failure mechanisms, and the identification of leading indicators of failure which are essential in the development of physics-based degradation models and RUL prediction. In particular, this system isolates electrical overstress from thermal overstress. Also, this system allows for a precise control of internal temperatures, enabling the exploration of intrinsic failure mechanisms not related to the device packaging. By controlling the temperature within safe operation levels of the device, accelerated aging is induced by electrical overstress only, avoiding the generation of thermal cycles. The temperature is controlled by active thermal-electric units. Several electrical and thermal signals are measured in-situ and recorded for further analysis in the identification of leading indicators of failures. This system, therefore, provides a unique capability in the exploration of different failure mechanisms and the identification of precursors of failure that can be used to provide a health management solution for electronic devices.

  12. Tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in accelerated frames

    Khan, Salman, E-mail: sksafi@comsats.edu.pk

    2014-09-15

    The dynamics of tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in noninertial frames through linear contraction criterion when one or two observers are accelerated is investigated. In one observer accelerated case the entanglement measurement is not invariant with respect to the partial realignment of different subsystems and for two observers accelerated case it is invariant. It is shown that the acceleration of the frame does not generate entanglement in any bipartite subsystems. Unlike the bipartite states, the genuine tripartite entanglement does not completely vanish in both one observer accelerated and two observers accelerated cases even in the limit of infinite acceleration. The degradation of tripartite entanglement is fast when two observers are accelerated than when one observer is accelerated. It is shown that tripartite entanglement is a better resource for quantum information processing than the bipartite entanglement in noninertial frames. - Highlights: • Tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in noninertial frames is studied. • Linear contraction criterion for quantifying tripartite entanglement is used. • Acceleration does not produce any bipartite entanglement. • The invariance of entanglement quantifier depends on accelerated observers. • The tripartite entanglement degrades against the acceleration, it never vanishes.

  13. Tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in accelerated frames

    The dynamics of tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in noninertial frames through linear contraction criterion when one or two observers are accelerated is investigated. In one observer accelerated case the entanglement measurement is not invariant with respect to the partial realignment of different subsystems and for two observers accelerated case it is invariant. It is shown that the acceleration of the frame does not generate entanglement in any bipartite subsystems. Unlike the bipartite states, the genuine tripartite entanglement does not completely vanish in both one observer accelerated and two observers accelerated cases even in the limit of infinite acceleration. The degradation of tripartite entanglement is fast when two observers are accelerated than when one observer is accelerated. It is shown that tripartite entanglement is a better resource for quantum information processing than the bipartite entanglement in noninertial frames. - Highlights: • Tripartite entanglement of fermionic system in noninertial frames is studied. • Linear contraction criterion for quantifying tripartite entanglement is used. • Acceleration does not produce any bipartite entanglement. • The invariance of entanglement quantifier depends on accelerated observers. • The tripartite entanglement degrades against the acceleration, it never vanishes

  14. Design, construction and installation of the electromechanical components of the current control of filament of the Pelletron Electron Accelerator

    For the operation of the Pelletron electron accelerator is required to have control of the filament current. For it was designed, built and installed an electromechanical system located in the Acceleration Unit inside the Accelerator tank and operated from the Control console. All the components located inside the tank operated under the following conditions: Pressure: until 7.03 Kg/cm2; High voltage: 106 V (only the insulating arrow); Atmosphere: mixture of N2 and CO2 or SF6. (Author)

  15. Towards MRI-guided linear accelerator control: gating on an MRI accelerator

    To boost the possibilities of image guidance in radiotherapy by providing images with superior soft-tissue contrast during treatment, we pursue diagnostic quality MRI functionality integrated with a linear accelerator. Large respiration-induced semi-periodic target excursions hamper treatment of cancer of the abdominal organs. Methods to compensate in real time for such motion are gating and tracking. These strategies are most effective in cases where anatomic motion can be visualized directly, which supports the use of an integrated MRI accelerator. We establish here an infrastructure needed to realize gated radiation delivery based on MR feedback and demonstrate its potential as a first step towards more advanced image guidance techniques. The position of a phantom subjected to one-dimensional periodic translation is tracked with the MR scanner. Real-time communication with the MR scanner and control of the radiation beam are established. Based on the time-resolved position of the phantom, gated radiation delivery to the phantom is realized. Dose distributions for dynamic delivery conditions with varying gating windows are recorded on gafchromic film. The similarity between dynamically and statically obtained dose profiles gradually increases as the gating window is decreased. With gating windows of 5 mm, we obtain sharp dose profiles. We validate our gating implementation by comparing measured dose profiles to theoretical profiles calculated using the knowledge of the imposed motion pattern. Excellent correspondence is observed. At the same time, we show that real-time on-line reconstruction of the accumulated dose can be performed using time-resolved target position information. This facilitates plan adaptation not only on a fraction-to-fraction scale but also during one fraction, which is especially valuable in highly accelerated treatment strategies. With the currently established framework and upcoming improvements to our prototype-integrated MRI accelerator

  16. A shot parameter specification subsystem for automated control of PBFA II accelerator shots

    The author reports on the shot parameter specification subsystem (SPSS), an integral part of the automatic control system developed for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). This system has been designed to fully utilize the accelerator by tailoring shot parameters to the needs of the experimenters. The SPSS is the key to this flexibility. Automatic systems will be required on many pulsed power machines for the fastest turnaround, the highest reliability, and most cost effective operation. These systems will require the flexibility and the ease of use that is part of the SPSS. The author discusses how the PBFA II control system has proved to be an effective modular system, flexible enough to meet the demands of both the fast track construction of PBFA II and the control needs of Hermes III. This system is expected to meet the demands of most future machine changes

  17. Application of software and hardware components of can-technology for accelerator control

    CAN-technology was developed for embedded hard real time automotive applications. Software components of CAN-technology consist of high level application protocols, programs for testing, monitoring and configuring of CAN-nodes as well as the components which bind CAN-components with SCADA systems and ensure control through the WEB-browsers. CAN-technology is used in INP to control accelerators, for beam diagnostic and, in cooperation with the RRC Kurchatov Institute, in automation of the large neutrino detector Borexino. Long-term positive experience of CAN-technology usage allows us to recommend this technology for accelerator control especially if industrial style and compatibility is desired

  18. Time and data distribution systems at the Fermilab accelerator

    The operation of the Fermilab accelerator has become increasingly complex over the last several years with the commissioning of the Tevatron and Antiproton Source. Four special purpose communication links have been developed to broadcast time, beam synchronization, and machine data. These links have greatly facilitated the multi-mode operation of the accelerator complex. The most sophisticated of these links is the Tevatron clock (TCLK). Up to 256 unique events may be encoded onto TCLK with typical resolution of 100 ns. 123 events have been assigned to date. Beam-synchronized clocks have been implemented for both the Main Ring and Tevatron. These clocks operate at approximately 7.5 MHz and are derived from the Main Ring and Tevatron rf systems. Beam diagnostics, beam transfers between machines, and placement of colliding proton and antiproton bunches are coordinated by encoded events on these clocks. A custom integrated circuit was designed to accommodate detection of the serially encoded events present on both Tevatron and beam-synchronous clocks with a minimum of circuit overhead. The final link, MDAT, broadcasts machine data - most notably the value of bending current for both the Main Ring and Tevatron. Each of these links is distributed throughout the accelerator complex and is integrated into a significant number of control system components. (orig.)

  19. Radiation safety interlock system at Indus accelerator complex

    A Radiation Safety Interlock System (a part of Radiation Safety System) that ensures protection of personnel during the facility operation from radiation hazards induced by electron beam and synchrotron radiation has been in operation very effectively for over a decade at Indus Accelerator complex (IAC). Radiation Safety Interlock System (RSIS) consists of two parts - Safety Interlock Unit (SIU) and Mode Selection Unit (MSU). Separate Safety Interlock Units are provided for four machine areas of IAC, namely Microtron and Booster, Indus-1 storage ring, Indus-1 user hall and Indus-2 storage ring. The efficacy of the Safety Interlock Units of Indus-1 user hall, Indus-1 storage ring and Indus-2 storage ring is governed by the operation modes that are selected through Mode Selection Unit. RSIS has been modified during past 1 and 1/2 year by addition of new interlock features and changes in the final beam control scheme. Machine Safety Interlock System (MSIS) was also interlocked with RSIS to facilitate termination of machine operation in case of any unsafe condition of Indus-2 systems. This paper describes the design philosophy, recent modifications, implementation and future upgrade plans of the present Radiation Safety Interlock Systems at Indus accelerator complex. (author)

  20. Instrumentation for diagnostics and control of laser-accelerated proton (ion) beams.

    Bolton, P R; Borghesi, M; Brenner, C; Carroll, D C; De Martinis, C; Fiorini, Francesca; Flacco, A; Floquet, V; Fuchs, J; Gallegos, P; Giove, D; Green, J S; Green, S; Jones, B; Kirby, D; McKenna, P; Neely, D; Nuesslin, F; Prasad, R; Reinhardt, S; Roth, M; Schramm, U; Scott, G G; Ter-Avetisyan, S; Tolley, M; Turchetti, G; Wilkens, J J

    2014-05-01

    Suitable instrumentation for laser-accelerated proton (ion) beams is critical for development of integrated, laser-driven ion accelerator systems. Instrumentation aimed at beam diagnostics and control must be applied to the driving laser pulse, the laser-plasma that forms at the target and the emergent proton (ion) bunch in a correlated way to develop these novel accelerators. This report is a brief overview of established diagnostic techniques and new developments based on material presented at the first workshop on 'Instrumentation for Diagnostics and Control of Laser-accelerated Proton (Ion) Beams' in Abingdon, UK. It includes radiochromic film (RCF), image plates (IP), micro-channel plates (MCP), Thomson spectrometers, prompt inline scintillators, time and space-resolved interferometry (TASRI) and nuclear activation schemes. Repetition-rated instrumentation requirements for target metrology are also addressed. PMID:24100298

  1. NPL superconducting linac control system

    The control system for the Nuclear Physics Lab (NPL) linac is based on a Microvax II host computer connected in a star network with nine satellite computers. These satellites use single-board versions of DEC's PDP 11 processor. The operator's console uses high-performance graphics and touch-screen technology to display the current linac status and as the means for interactively controlling the operation of the accelerator

  2. METRIC OF ACCELERATING AND ROTATING REFERENCE SYSTEMS IN GENERAL RELATIVITY

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Metric describing the accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity in the case of an arbitrary dependence of acceleration and angular velocity on time has been proposed. It is established that the curvature tensor in such metrics is zero, which corresponds to movement in the flat spaces. It is shown that the motion of test bodies in the metric accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity is similarly to the classical motion in non-inertial reference frame...

  3. A regulated power supply for accelerator driven system

    This paper discusses a regulated high voltage power supply (RHVPS) developed for accelerator driven systems to drive a klystron. The RHVPS uses a large no. of small voltage choppers. These choppers are switched in tandem by a novel technique to regulate output voltage. Various parts of the system are novel. The front end is a pair of transformer with 40 secondaries each. Each secondary feeds a switched power module (SPM) which has a rectifier-filter unit followed by an IGBT switch to get 1.3 kV. All 80 SPMs are connected in series. The final output is taken from the two end SPMs. A central controller uses voltage sample from each SPM and generates switching pulses for each IGBT switch. IGBTs of all SPMs are switched with a fixed phase lag from each other, resulting in purely constant voltage with ripple limited to one SPM voltage. The frequency of ripple is high and can be filtered out with a simpler filter. The system can turn off for protection of the load in less than 2 microseconds, the essential attribute for a power supply to be used with klystrons. The results of wire burn tests measure the low stored energy at fault turn off (less than10 J). The power supply (rated for 100 kV at 2.5 MW) will be used for a continuous duty with the klystron for accelerator driven system at BARC (India). A power supply giving 80 kV, 75A is being used with an accelerator system for extraction of beam along with a Neutral Beam Injector. This paper discusses the technology and experimental results of the system. It also discusses various other options with similar power supply. (author)

  4. Real-time Optical Network for Accelerator Control

    Lee, Keun

    2012-06-27

    The timing requirements of a modern accelerator complex call for several features. The first is a system for high precision relative timing among accelerator components. Stabilized fiber links have already been demonstrated to achieve sub-10 femtoseconds relative timing precision. The second is a system for timing distribution of absolute time with sufficient precision to identify a specific RF bucket. The White Rabbit technology is a promising candidate to deliver the absolute time that is linked to the GPS clock. In this study we demonstrated that these two technologies can be combined in a way that the absolute time information can be delivered to the stabilized fiber link system. This was accomplished by researching the design of the stabilized fiber and White Rabbit systems and devising adaptation modules that facilitate co-existence of both systems in the same FPGA environment. We built a prototype system using off-the-shelf products and implemented a proof-of-concept version of the FPGA firmware. The test verified that the White Rabbit features operate correctly under the stabilized fiber system environment. This work demonstrates that turn-key femtosecond timing systems with absolute time information can be built cost effectively and deployed in various accelerator environments. This will lead to many new applications in chemistry, biology and surface dynamics, to name a few.

  5. Preparing accelerator systems for the RHIC sextant commissioning

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction is progressing steadily towards completion in 1999 when beams will circulate in both collider rings. One of the major tests of the RHIC project was the commissioning of the first sextant with gold ion beams in early 1997. This is a report on preparation of the RHIC accelerator systems for the first sextant test. It includes beam position monitors, timing, injection correction through the magnetic septum and kickers, current transformers, flags and the ionization beam profile monitors, beam loss monitors, beam and quench permit link system, power supply controls, and the configuration database system. The software and hardware development and coordination of the different systems before commissioning were regularly checked during bi-weekly, and (later) weekly, progress report meetings

  6. Accelerator modes of square well system

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Sheorey, V.B.

    2002-01-01

    We study accelerator modes of a particle, confined in an one-dimensional infinite square well potential, subjected to a time-periodic pulsed field. Dynamics of such a particle can be described by one generalization of the kicked rotor. In comparison with the kicked rotor, this generalization is shown to have a much larger parametric space for existence of the modes. Using this freedom we provide evidence that accelerator mode assisted anomalous transport is greatly enhanced when low order res...

  7. Development of Power System for Medium Energy Accelerator

    The main goal of the studies are to develop a power supply system used for 100MeV proton accelerator and to operate 20MeV accelerator which has been installed in KAERI site. The 100MeV proton accelerator uses RF cavity to accelerate beams and need RF amplifier, klystron. To operate the klystron, a high power pulse power supply is required and the power supply system should have high quality because the reliability of the power supply has critical impact on the overall reliability of accelerator system. Therefore, high power pulse power system and related technology development are inevitable for 100MeV accelerator system development. 20MeV accelerator system has been developed and installed in KAERI site, which will be used as an injector for 100MeV accelerator and supply 20MeV beam to users. A study on the 20MeV accelerator characteristics should be performed to operate the machine efficiently. In addition, this machine can be used as a test bench for developing the 100MeV accelerator components. Therefore, not only the hardware so called 'high voltage power supply', but the related technology of the high quality high voltage power system and man power can be obtained from the results of this studies. The test results of the 20MeV accelerator can be utilized as a basis for efficient operation of 100MeV accelerator and these are the ultimate objective and necessities of the study

  8. Crawling the Control System

    Theodore Larrieu

    2009-10-01

    Information about accelerator operations and the control system resides in various formats in a variety of places on the lab network. There are operating procedures, technical notes, engineering drawings, and other formal controlled documents. There are programmer references and API documentation generated by tools such as doxygen and javadoc. There are the thousands of electronic records generated by and stored in databases and applications such as electronic logbooks, training materials, wikis, and bulletin boards and the contents of text-based configuration files and log files that can also be valuable sources of information. The obvious way to aggregate all these sources is to index them with a search engine that users can then query from a web browser. Toward this end, the Google "mini" search appliance was selected and implemented because of its low cost and its simple web-based configuration and management. In addition to crawling and indexing electronic documents, the appliance provides an API that has been used to supplement search results with live control system data such as current values of EPICS process variables and graphs of recent data from the archiver.

  9. Crawling the Control System

    Information about accelerator operations and the control system resides in various formats in a variety of places on the lab network. There are operating procedures, technical notes, engineering drawings, and other formal controlled documents. There are programmer references and API documentation generated by tools such as doxygen and javadoc. There are the thousands of electronic records generated by and stored in databases and applications such as electronic logbooks, training materials, wikis, and bulletin boards and the contents of text-based configuration files and log files that can also be valuable sources of information. The obvious way to aggregate all these sources is to index them with a search engine that users can then query from a web browser. Toward this end, the Google 'mini' search appliance was selected and implemented because of its low cost and its simple web-based configuration and management. In addition to crawling and indexing electronic documents, the appliance provides an API that has been used to supplement search results with live control system data such as current values of EPICS process variables and graphs of recent data from the archiver.

  10. Dynamic response of an accelerator driven system to accelerator beam interruptions for criticality

    Subcritical nuclear reactors driven by intense neutron sources can be very suitable tools for nuclear waste transmutation, particularly in the case of minor actinides with very low fractions of delayed neutrons. A proper control of these systems needs to know at every time the absolute value of the reactor subcriticality (negative reactivity), which must be measured by fully reliable methods, usually conveying a short interruption of the accelerator beam in order to assess the neutron flux reduction. Those interruptions should be very short in time, for not disturbing too much the thermal magnitudes of the reactor. Otherwise, the cladding and the fuel would suffer from thermal fatigue produced by those perturbations, and the mechanical integrity of the reactor would be jeopardized. It is shown in this paper that beam interruptions of the order of 400 μs repeated every second would not disturb significantly the reactor thermal features, while enabling for an adequate measurement of the negative reactivity

  11. Creating the next generation control system software

    A new 1980's style support package for future accelerator control systems is proposed. It provides a way to create accelerator applications software without traditional programming. Visual Interactive Applications (VIA) is designed to meet the needs of expanded accelerator complexes in a more cost effective way than past experience with procedural languages by using technology from the personal computer and artificial intelligence communities. 4 refs

  12. Build and Release Management: Supporting development of accelerator control software at CERN

    Enes, Petter

    2007-01-01

    Software configuration management deals with control of the evolution of complex computer systems. The ability to handle changes, corrections and extensions is decisive for the outcome of a software project. Automated processes for handling these elements are therefore a crucial part of software development. This thesis focuses on build and release management, in the context of developing a control system for the world s biggest particle accelerator. Build and release cover topics such as bui...

  13. Low β ion acceleration with the FOM MEQALAC-system

    The FOM MEQALAC (Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear ACcelerator) system in which four He+ ion beams of 2.2 mA are accelerated from 40 to 120 keV is discussed. The cavity has a modified Interdigital H structure (TE111). In between the 20 acceleration gaps electrostatic quadrupole lenses are placed to achieve radial stability of the beams. Some fundamental considerations concerning the design of MEQALAC systems are presented. Furthermore, parameters for plasma diagnostics and ion implantation accelerators are given

  14. Controls and Beam Diagnostics for Therapy-Accelerators

    Eickhoff, H

    2000-01-01

    During the last four years GSI has developed a new procedure for cancer treatment by means of the intensity controlled rasterscan-method. This method includes active variations of beam parameters during the treatment session and the integration of 'on-line' PET monitoring. Starting in 1997 several patients have been successfully treated within this GSI experimental cancer treatment program; within this program about 350 patients shall be treated in the next 5 years. The developments and experiences of this program accompanied by intensive discussions with the medical community led to a proposal for a hospital based light ion accelerator facility for the clinic in Heidelberg. An essential part for patients treatments is the measurement of the beam properties within acceptance and constancy tests and especially for the rasterscan method during the treatment sessions. The presented description of the accelerator controls and beam diagnostic devices mainly covers the requests for the active scanning method, which...

  15. Transient analysis of a coupled accelerator and decelerator system

    For an energy-efficient accelerator system to be used for a free-electron laser, the stability of an energy-recovery system utilizing a bridge coupler placed between the accelerator and the decelerator is studied numerically. Energy is recovered by recirculating the accelerated electron beam through the decelerator; the recovered energy is then transported through the bridge coupler to the accelerator. The calculation shows that a large transient voltage oscillation is induced into the system. This transient oscillation can be reduced significantly by slowly applying both the electron-beam current and the klystron power at the beginning. Two types of instabilities are predicted according to the scraping of the electron beam between the accelerator and the decelerator. When the energy spectrum of the electron beam is scraped at the high end, the system induces an oscillation. However, when the low-energy end is scraped the electron recirculation may stop unless the klystron power is boosted by a feedback system

  16. A regulated high voltage power supply for accelerator driven system; A regulated high voltage power supply for accelerator driven system

    This paper discusses a regulated high voltage power supply (RHVPS) developed for accelerator driven systems to drive a klystron. The RHVPS uses a large no. of small voltage choppers. These choppers are switched in tandem by a novel technique to regulate output voltage. Various parts of the system are novel. The front end is a pair of transformer with 40 secondaries each. Each secondary feeds a switched power module (SPM) which has a rectifier-filter unit followed by an IGBT switch to get 1.3 kV. All 80 SPMs are connected in series. The final output is taken from the two end SPMs. A central controller uses voltage sample from each SPM and generates switching pulses for each IGBT switch. IGBTs of all SPMs are switched with a fixed phase lag from each other, resulting in purely constant voltage with ripple limited to one SPM voltage. The frequency of ripple is high and can be filtered out with a simpler filter. The system can turn off for protection of the load in less than 2 μs, the essential attribute for a power supply to be used with klystrons. The results of wire burn tests measure the low stored energy at fault turn off (less than 10 J). The power supply (rated for 100 kV at 2.5 MW) will be used for a continuous duty with the klystron for accelerator driven system at BARC (India). A power supply giving 80 kV. 75 A is being used with an accelerator system for extraction of beam along with a Neutral Beam Injector. This paper discusses the technology and experimental results of the system. It also discusses various other options with similar power supply. (author)

  17. Acceleration Workspace of Cooperating Multi-Finger Robot Systems

    Hyungwon Shim; Jihong Lee

    2008-01-01

    We present a mathematical method for acceleration workspace analysis of cooperating multi-finger robot systems using a model of point-contact with friction. A new unified formulation from dynamic equations of cooperating multi-finger robots is derived considering the force and acceleration relationships between the fingers and the object to be handled. From the dynamic equation, maximum translational and rotational acceleration bounds of an object are calculated under given constraints of contact conditions, configurations of fingers, and bounds on the torques of joint actuators for each finger. Here, the rotational acceleration bounds can be applied as an important manipulability index when the multi-finger robot grasps an object. To verify the proposed method, we used a set of case studies with a simple multi-finger mechanism system. The achievable acceleration boundary in task space can be obtained successfully with the proposed method and the acceleration boundary depends on the configurations of fingers.

  18. Electrophysical Systems Based On Charged Particle Accelerators

    Vorogushin, M F

    2004-01-01

    The advancement of the charged particle accelerator engineering affects appreciably the modern tendencies of the scientific and technological progress in the world. In a number of advanced countries, this trend is one of the most dynamically progressing in the field of applied science and high-technology production. Such internationally known firms as VARIAN, SIEMENS, PHILIPS, ELECTA, IBA, HITACHI, etc., with an annual budget of milliards of dollars and growth rate of tens of percent may serve as an example. Although nowadays the projects of new large-scale accelerators for physical research are not implemented so quickly and frequently as desired, accelerating facilities are finding ever-widening application in various fields of human activities. The contribution made by Russian scientists into high-energy beams physics is generally known. High scientific and technical potential in this field, qualified personnel with a high creative potential, modern production and test facilities and state-of-the-art techn...

  19. Development of operator requested control system applications: Experience with the SLC control system at SLAC

    The SLC Control system at SLAC has evolved into a powerful tool for operation of the accelerator and for troubleshooting the unique problems encountered in extracting maximum performance from the SLC. The evolution has included the development of many custom applications and user interface features generated from accelerator operator and accelerator physicist requests. These applications are written and maintained primarily by the Controls Software Engineering group, and not by the users themselves. The process of developing and supporting user requested control systems applications at SLAC is described, including the effects of organizational structure, formal and informal procedures, and control system architecture

  20. Controlled Electron Injection into Plasma Accelerators and Space Charge Estimates

    Plasma based accelerators are capable of producing electron sources which are ultra-compact (a few microns) and high energies (up to hundreds of MeVs) in much shorter distances than conventional accelerators. This is due to the large longitudinal electric field that can be excited without the limitation of breakdown as in RF structures.The characteristic scale length of the accelerating field is the plasma wavelength and for typical densities ranging from 1018 - 1019 cm-3, the accelerating fields and scale length can hence be on the order of 10-100GV/m and 10-40 mu m, respectively. The production of quasimonoenergetic beams was recently obtained in a regime relying on self-trapping of background plasma electrons, using a single laser pulse for wakefield generation. In this dissertation, we study the controlled injection via the beating of two lasers (the pump laser pulse creating the plasma wave and a second beam being propagated in opposite direction) which induce a localized injection of background plasma electrons. The aim of this dissertation is to describe in detail the physics of optical injection using two lasers, the characteristics of the electron beams produced (the micrometer scale plasma wavelength can result in femtosecond and even attosecond bunches) as well as a concise estimate of the effects of space charge on the dynamics of an ultra-dense electron bunch with a large energy spread

  1. Cooling systems for the lu-10 accelerating section

    Parameters and design of the cooling system of the accelerating section for industrial high power linac are given. It is shown that the heating of the outer surface of the accelerating section constitutes 1 degree C at average r.f.-power of 30 kW and cooling water flow of 80 l/min. Thermal deformations have little effect on the microwave-characteristics of the accelerating structure

  2. High power radiation guiding systems for laser driven accelerators

    This paper reviews the main problems encountered in the design of an optical system for transmitting high fluence radiation in a laser driven accelerator. Particular attention is devoted to the analysis of mirror and waveguide systems. (orig.)

  3. Problems of optimization of the accelerating system parameters of induction linear accelerators

    Optimization of the accelerating system of an induction linear accelerator (ILAC) is discussed. For computerized optimization of ILAC parameters, analytical dependences are required which relate accelerator elements to its operating conditions. In deriving the objective function the degree of importance of optimized parameters is taken account of in the weight factors whose value can vary from 0 to 1. One minimum in the objective function permitted the employment of a simple algorithm for optimization - the gradient method. In optimization it is assumed that most common criteria for estimating the ILAC are the efficiency, the relative cost, and the specific energy capacity

  4. Development status of personnel protection system for the IFMIF/EVEDA accelerator

    In the IFMIF/EVEDA Project, a prototype accelerator producing a deuteron (D+) beam with a beam current of 125 mA accelerated up to 9 MeV at the CW mode is planned. The Personnel Protection System (PPS), is a part of the control system of the accelerator and it has 2 functions which are radiation safety management and accelerator operation management in order to protect the personnel against unnecessary exposure, electrical shock hazard and other dangerous phenomena. Since the radiation safety management during and after beam operation is a critical issue for the IFMIF/EVEDA accelerator, a PPS with high reliability is required. To realize the high reliability, we decided to use and customize proven systems and hardware, and applying dual PLC system. The dual PLC system is adopted for higher reliability because the PPS only permit some actions when both PLC systems make the same judgment. The radiation controlled area consists of the accelerator vault and radiation hot area where equipment like heat exchangers for cooling water are installed. The PPS manages the entering/leaving of the radiation controlled area according 3 access modes: no access, controlled access and authorized access. A system of personal keys is used for unlocking the access door of the controlled area. For instance: every worker has to take a personal key to enter the controlled area. Unless all keys are returned to the key box, the beam operation is not permitted. 4 emergency stop buttons are installed in the accelerator vault. When an abnormal or an emergency phenomenon happens, it is possible to stop beam operation by pushing the nearest button. Monitoring cameras are installed in the accelerator building

  5. EPICS on F3RP61 for SuperKEKB accelerator control

    Control systems of modern accelerators tend to adopt Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) as their front-end controllers. This means that, as to control system based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), yet another front-end controllers (PLCs) have been placed under the Input/output Controllers (IOCs), which are supposed to function as front-end controllers. The doubled layers of front-end controllers, i.e. PLCs and IOCs makes the control system pointlessly complex in many cases. It also increases the cost for implementation and maintenance of application programs. Recently, PLC's CPUs that can execute real-time OS have become available on the market. It opened a way to consolidate a PLC and an IOC into a new type of front-end controller. In particular, F3RP61 CPU adopted Linux for its OS to allow developers to reduce turnaround time for the implementation and debugging of the application programs. The PLC-based IOC, EPICS on F3RP61, have been adopted to control many subsystems of SuperKEKB accelerator. This paper describes several applications as well as basic performance of EPICS on F3RP61. (author)

  6. TESLA test facility control system and its current status

    Tesla test facility electron linear accelerator control system (TTF CS) is described. The TTF CS subsystems and principles of their integration are presented. The integration is ensured with the distributed object oriented control system (DOOCS). The DOOCS architecture and device servers are discussed. At present the TTF CS provides reliable and flexible control of all systems of the TTF linear accelerator

  7. LINAC control automation system

    A 7 MeV Electron Beam Linear Accelerator (LINAC) being used for pulse radiolysis experiments at RC and CDD, B.A.R.C. has been automated with a PLC based control panel designed and developed by Computer Division, B.A.R.C.. The control panel after power on switches ON various units in a pre-defined sequence and intervals on a single turn of START key from OFF to ON position. The control panel also generates various ramp signals in a pre-defined sequence and rate and steady values and feeds to the LINAC bringing it to the ready for experiment condition. Similarly on a single turn of STOP key from OFF to ON position, the panel ramps down the various signals in pre-defined manners and makes OFF the various units in predefined sequence and timing providing safety to the machine. The steady values for various signals are on line settable as and when required so. This automation system relieves the operator from fatigue of time consuming manual ramping up or down of various signals and running around in four rooms for switching ON or OFF the various units enhancing efficiency and safety. This also facilitates the user scientist to do start up and shutdown operation in the absence of skilled operators and thus adds flexibility for working up to extended timing. This unit has been working satisfactorily since August 2002. For extraordinary condition automation to manual or vice versa change over has been provided. (author)

  8. Small system for tritium accelerator mass spectrometry

    Roberts, Mark L.; Davis, Jay C.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for ionizing and accelerating a sample containing isotopes of hydrogen and detecting the ratios of hydrogen isotopes contained in the sample is disclosed. An ion source generates a substantially linear ion beam including ions of tritium from the sample. A radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator is directly coupled to and axially aligned with the source at an angle of substantially zero degrees. The accelerator accelerates species of the sample having different mass to different energy levels along the same axis as the ion beam. A spectrometer is used to detect the concentration of tritium ions in the sample. In one form of the invention, an energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a foil to block the passage of hydrogen, deuterium and .sup.3 He ions, and a surface barrier or scintillation detector to detect the concentration of tritium ions. In another form of the invention, a combined momentum/energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a magnet to separate the ion beams, with Faraday cups to measure the hydrogen and deuterium and a surface barrier or scintillation detector for the tritium ions.

  9. Proliferation Potential of Accelerator-Drive Systems: Feasibility Calculations

    Riendeau, C.D.; Moses, D.L.; Olson, A.P.

    1998-11-01

    Accelerator-driven systems for fissile materials production have been proposed and studied since the early 1950s. Recent advances in beam power levels for small accelerators have raised the possibility that such use could be feasible for a potential proliferator. The objective of this study is to review the state of technology development for accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources and subcritical reactors. Energy and power requirements were calculated for a proton accelerator-driven neutron spallation source and subcritical reactors to produce a significant amount of fissile material--plutonium.

  10. Proliferation Potential of Accelerator-Driven Systems: Feasibility Calculations

    Accelerator-driven systems for fissile materials production have been proposed and studied since the early 1950s. Recent advances in beam power levels for small accelerators have raised the possibility that such use could be feasible for a potential proliferator. The objective of this study is to review the state of technology development for accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources and subcritical reactors. Energy and power requirements were calculated for a proton accelerator-driven neutron spallation source and subcritical reactors to produce a significant amount of fissile material--plutonium

  11. Design of H- injection system for FFAG accelerator at KURRI

    In Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a neutron source based on the accelerator driven subcritical reactor (ADSR) concept has been proposed in 1996. Aiming to demonstrate the basic feasibility of ADSR, proton Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator complex as a neutron production driver has been constructed and the ADSR experiment has been started in March 2009. In order to upgrade beam intensity, multi-turn charge exchange injection system for scaling FFAG accelerator is being studied. The injection scheme is converted from orbit shift single-turn injection to H- multi-turn injection. The method to escape the stripping foil is orbit shift by rf acceleration. The 11 MeV H- beam is injected from linac and is accelerated up to 100MeV in FFAG main ring. In this paper, the detail of injection system is described and feasibility of such a low energy H- injection system is discussed. (author)

  12. Instrumentation control system

    This book explains instrumentation control system, which mentions summary, basic theory, kinds, control device, and design of each instrumentation system. The contents of this book are introduction of instrumentation system, temperature detector, pressure sensor, flow detector, level detector, ingredient detector, signal convert and transmission, instructions, record and control of instrumentation system, PID controller control valve of instrumentation system, instrumentation equipment of water system, instrumentation facility of thermal power plant, examples of advance instrumentation facility and install and design of instrumentation system.

  13. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  14. RADIATION PROTECTION SYSTEM INSTALLATION FOR THE ACCELERATOR PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM/LOW ENERGY DEMONSTRATION ACCELERATOR PROJECT (APT/LEDA)

    The APT/LEDA personnel radiation protection system installation was accomplished using a flexible, modular proven system which satisfied regulatory orders, project design criteria, operational modes, and facility requirements. The goal of providing exclusion and safe access of personnel to areas where prompt radiation in the LEDA facility is produced was achieved with the installation of a DOE-approved Personnel Access Control System (PACS). To satisfy the facility configuration design, the PACS, a major component of the overall radiation safety system, conveniently provided five independent areas of personnel access control. Because of its flexibility and adaptability the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) designed Radiation Security System (RSS) was efficiently configured to provide the desired operational modes and satisfy the APT/LEDA project design criteria. The Backbone Beam Enable (BBE) system based on the LANSCE RSS provided the accelerator beam control functions with redundant, hardwired, tamper-resistant hardware. The installation was accomplished using modular components

  15. Radiation protection system installation for the accelerator production of tritium/low energy demonstration accelerator project (APT/LEDA)

    Wilmarth, J E; Tomei, T L

    2000-01-01

    The APT/LEDA personnel radiation protection system installation was accomplished using a flexible, modular proven system which satisfied regulatory orders, project design criteria, operational modes, and facility requirements. The goal of providing exclusion and safe access of personnel to areas where prompt radiation in the LEDA facility is produced was achieved with the installation of a DOE-approved Personnel Access Control System (PACS). To satisfy the facility configuration design, the PACS, a major component of the overall radiation safety system, conveniently provided five independent areas of personnel access control. Because of its flexibility and adaptability the Los-Alamos Neutron- Science-Center-(LANSCE)-designed Radiation Security System (RSS) was efficiently configured to provide the desired operational modes and satisfy the APT/LEDA project design criteria. The Backbone Beam Enable (BBE) system based on the LANSCE RSS provided the accelerator beam control functions with redundant, hardwired, ta...

  16. A study of diagnostics expert system for accelerator applications

    Knowledge based techniques are proving to be useful in a number of problem domains which typically requires human expertise. Expert systems employing knowledge based techniques are a recent product of artificial intelligence. Methods developed in the artificial intelligence area can be applied with success for certain classes of problems in accelerator. Accelerators are complex devices with thousands of components. The number of possible faults or problems that can appear is enormous. A diagnostics expert system can provide great help in finding and diagnosing problems in Indus-II accelerator sub-systems. (author)

  17. Accelerator system of neutron spallation source for nuclear energy technology development

    High intensity proton accelerators are at present and developed for applications in neutron spallation sources. The advantages of this source are better safety factor, easy in controlling and spent fuel free. A study of conceptual design of required accelerator system has been carried out. Considering the required proton beam and feasibility in the development stages, a stepped linac system is an adequate choice for now

  18. Upgrade of accelerator radiation safety system for SPring-8 (2)

    Radiation safety interlock system for the SPring-8 accelerator complex, which protects personnel from radiation hazard induced by electron beams and synchrotron radiation, has been operating over a decade. In the past 10 years, the accelerator was upgraded to extend accelerator/beam-transport areas, and it was implemented new functions. The safety interlock system was also extended. The extended radiation safety interlock system had the complicated safety logic to handle the upgraded accelerator because the safety interlock system was closely related to “Operation MODE” of the accelerator, which is the combination of accelerator/beam-transport areas in operation. This circumstance provoked extensive discussions on the design of new radiation safety interlock system to satisfy the requirements and smooth migration from the old system to the new one. The construction of the new radiation safety interlock system was finalized in September 2010. And the system started the user operation in October 2010. We will report the design of the new radiation safety interlock system and introduction results. (author)

  19. Application of geographical information system software to accelerator radiation protection

    We have used Geographical Information System software to develop several computer codes for radiological safety problems at proton accelerators. The GIS software provides a user-friendly graphical interface which allows for easy definition of the problems and intuitively obvious display of the solutions. The use of object-oriented programming techniques allows flexibility in tailoring the input data structures to suit the particular problem defined by the user. The particular applications which we have studied are the solution of shielding problems using both the results of an analytical accelerator shielding code and the Moyer model, the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive emissions from accelerator facilities and the design and display of accelerator safety interlock logic. Progress is being made in the development of an accelerator radiological ''expert system''. (authors). 2 refs., 7 figs

  20. Precision digital control systems

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  1. Parametric study of emerging high power accelerator applications using Accelerator Systems Model (ASM)

    Emerging applications for high power rf linacs include fusion materials testing, generation of intense spallation neutrons for neutron physics and materials studies, production of nuclear materials and destruction of nuclear waste. Each requires the selection of an optimal configuration and operating parameters for its accelerator, rf power system and other supporting subsystems. Because of the high cost associated with these facilities, economic considerations become paramount, dictating a full evaluation of the electrical and rf performance, system reliability/availability, and capital, operating, and life cycle costs. The Accelerator Systems Model (ASM), expanded and modified by Northrop Grumman during 1993-96, provides a unique capability for detailed layout and evaluation of a wide variety of normal and superconducting accelerator and rf power configurations. This paper will discuss the current capabilities of ASM, including the available models and data base, and types of trade studies that can be performed for the above applications. (author)

  2. A 7MeV S-Band 2998MHz Variable Pulse Length Linear Accelerator System

    Hernandez, Michael; Mishin, Andrey V; Saverskiy, Aleksandr J; Skowbo, Dave; Smith, Richard

    2005-01-01

    American Science and Engineering High Energy Systems Division (AS&E HESD) has designed and commissioned a variable pulse length 7 MeV electron accelerator system. The system is capable of delivering a 7 MeV electron beam with a pulse length of 10 nS FWHM and a peak current of 1 ampere. The system can also produce electron pulses with lengths of 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 nS and 3 uS FWHM with corresponding lower peak currents. The accelerator system consists of a gridded electron gun, focusing coil, an electrostatic deflector system, Helmholtz coils, a standing wave side coupled S-band linac, a 2.6 MW peak power magnetron, an RF circulator, a fast toroid, vacuum system and a PLC/PC control system. The system has been operated at repetition rates up to 250pps. The design, simulations and experimental results from the accelerator system are presented in this paper.

  3. Water chemistry control for the target/blanket region of the accelerator production of tritium

    High-energy particle interactions in the various components of the target/blanket region of the Accelerator Production of Tritium lead to heat generation and deposition. Heavy-water and light-water systems are used to cool the target/blanket system and associated equipment. Structural materials include Inconel alloy 718, aluminum-clad lead rods, aluminum tubes containing helium-3 and tritium gas, and stainless steel components. Proper coolant chemistry is required to maximize neutron production, minimize corrosion of components, and minimize activity buildup. Corrosion-related phenomena and development of coolant and moderator corrosion control for both power and defense fission reactors has been studied extensively over the past 50 years. Less is known, however, about cooling systems for accelerators where a variety of transient chemical species and spallation products may be formed. The following provides a discussion on the issues that need to be addressed for proper water chemistry control for the APT system

  4. The RF system for accelerator production of tritium

    A high-power proton linac (linear accelerator) is being proposed for the next generation tritium source for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The proposed proton linac requires a substantial continuous wave (CW) RF system. This paper presents an overview of accelerator-based tritium production and the details of the CW RF system design. Based on the current tritium production requirement, the proposed accelerator will require in excess of 200 MW of installed CW RF power. The availability requirements for the RF system are quite high and an efficient low-cost approach to providing redundancy will be discussed. Also presented are the baseline choices for the RF sources as well as the technology development goals and how they impact the RF system design

  5. Development of the pulsed power system of the accelerator module for the linear induction accelerator

    This paper presents a pulsed power system, the terminal load of which is an accelerator module, with this system, A 350 kV, 90 ns (FWHM) voltage with 30 ns rise-time accross the accelerating gap has been obtained. The jitter of the main switch operating at 280 kv is less than 1.5 ns (RMS). Further improvement on the performance of the coaxial field distortion switch is discussed and it is pointed out that the operating voltage of the switch can be increased by 8.2 %. If the triggering electrode is biased by means of equivalent electrical field stress. (author)

  6. Control system for the FFAG complex at KURRI

    A simple and convenient control system has been developed for the 150 MeV proton FFAG accelerator complex at Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. This control system is designed as a distributed control scheme and developed with simple and versatile tools, such as PLCs, LabVIEW and an IP based network, expecting applications in small accelerators, which are often operated by non-specialists in computer programming or in control systems. The control system for the FFAG accelerator complex has actually been developed by non-specialists, and the developed control system was successfully used for commissioning the FFAG complex.

  7. Control system design method

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  8. Touch panel system for control applications

    The use of finger-sensitive touch panels in association with computer-generated displays for control and monitoring of the Stanford linear accelerator is discussed. This control concept has proven to be very effective. The hardware and software aspects of the Touch Panel portion of the control system are described

  9. A GPU Accelerated Spring Mass System for Surgical Simulation

    Mosegaard, Jesper; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing demand for surgical simulators to dofast and precise calculations of tissue deformation to simulateincreasingly complex morphology in real-time. Unfortunately, evenfast spring-mass based systems have slow convergence rates for largemodels. This paper presents a method to accele...... accelerate computation of aspring-mass system in order to simulate a complex organ such as theheart. This acceleration is achieved by taking advantage of moderngraphics processing units (GPU)....

  10. The CEBAF control system for the CHL

    The CEBAF Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) control system consists of independent safety controls located at each subsystem, CAMAC computer interface hardware, and a CEBAF-designed control software called Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic (TACL). The paper describes how control software was interfaced with the subsystems of the CHL. Topics of configuration, editing, operator interface, datalogging, and internal logic functions are presented as they relate to the operational needs of the helium plant. The paper also describes the effort underway to convert from TACL to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), the new control system for the CEBAF accelerator. This software change will require customizing EPICS software to cryogenic process control

  11. Cryogenic systems for detectors and particle accelerators

    It's been one hundred years since the first successful experiments were carried out leading to the liquefaction of oxygen which birthed the field of cryogenics and about sixty years since cryogenics went commercial. Originally, cryogenics referred to the technology and art of producing low temperatures but today the definition adopted by the XII Congress of the International Institute of Refrigeration describes cryogenics as the study of phenomena, techniques, and concepts occurring at our pertaining to temperatures below 120 K. Modern acceptance of the importance and use of cryogenic fluids continues to grow. By far, the bulk of cryogenic products are utilized by industry for metal making, agriculture, medicine, food processing and as efficient storage of fuels. Cryogenics has found many uses in the scientific community as well, enabling the development of ultra low noise amplifiers, fast cold electronics, cryopumped ultra high vacuums, the production of intense magnetic fields and low loss power transmission through the sue of cryogenically cooled superconductors. High energy physic research has been and continues to use cryogenic hardware to produce liquids used as detector targets and to produce refrigeration necessary to cool superconducting magnets to design temperature for particle accelerator applications. In fact, today's super accelerators achieve energies that would be impossible to reach with conventional copper magnets, demonstrating that cryogenics has become an indispensable ingredient in today's scientific endeavors

  12. GCFR plant control system

    A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range

  13. The ISABELLE Control System: Design Concepts

    Humphrey, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    ISABELLE is a Department of Energy funded proton accelerator/storage ring being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, New York). It is large (3.8 km circumference) and complicated (approx. 30,000 monitor and control variables). It is based on superconducting technology. Following the example of previous accelerators, ISABELLE will be operated from a single control center. The control system will be distributed and will incorporate a local computer network. An overview of the conceptual design of the ISABELLE control system will be presented.

  14. Design and test results of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) RF systems

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. The APT accelerator requires over 200 RF systems each with a continuous wave output power of 1 MW. The reliability and availability of these RF systems is critical to the successful operation of the APT plant and prototypes of these systems are being developed and demonstrated on LEDA. The RF system design for LEDA includes three, 1.2 MW, 350 MHz continuous wave (CW), RF systems driving a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and one, 1.0 MW, CW, RF system driving a coupled-cavity drift tube linac (CCDTL). This paper presents the design and test results for these RF systems including the klystrons, cathode power supply, circulators, RF vacuum windows, accelerator field and resonance control system, and RF transmission components. The three RF systems driving the RFQ use the accelerating structure as a power combiner, and this places some unique requirements on the RF system. These requirements and corresponding operational implications will be discussed

  15. Cable systems for experimental facilities in JAERI TANDEM ACCELERATOR BUILDING

    Measuring cable systems for experimental facilities in JAERI TANDEM ACCELERATOR BUILDING were completed recently. Measures are taken to prevent penetration of noises into the measuring systems. The cable systems are described in detail, including power supplies and grounding for the measuring systems. (author)

  16. A System for Managing Critical Knowledge for Accelerator Subsystems: Pansophy

    Accelerator development and construction projects often intentionally push the envelope of well-established technical performance and manageable complexity. In addition, the desire for efficient retention and exploitation of accumulated experience across the multi-decade life cycles of major installations calls for a robust, yet user-friendly knowledge management system. To meet these needs, we are presently deploying a new web-based system at Jefferson Lab: Pansophy. This system is a custom integration of several commercial software utilities, DocushareTM, ColdFusionTM, MatlabTM, IngresTM, and common desktop programs. Users of the system range from process managers, shop-floor technicians, test engineers, to after-the-fact data miners and operations staff. The system integrates important QA elements of procedural control, automated data accumulation into a secured central database, prompt and reliable data query and retrieval, and online analysis tools, all accessed by the user via their platform-independent web browser. A system overview, completed pilot project, and implementation experience to date will be presented

  17. Disturbance rejection control based on acceleration projection method for walking robots

    Xu-yang WANG; Zhao-hong XU; Tian-sheng LU

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a disturbance rejection scheme for walking robots under unknown external forces and moments.The disturbance rejection strategy,which combines the inverse dynamics control with the acceleration projection onto the ZMP (zero moment point)-plane,can ensure the overall dynamic stability of the robot during tracking the pre-computed trajectories.Under normal conditions,I.e.,the system is dynamically balanced,a primary inverse dynamics control is utilized.In the case that the system becomes unbalanced due to external disturbances,the acceleration projection control(APC)loop,will be activated to keep the dynamic stability of the walking robot through modifying the input torques.The preliminary experimental results on a robot leg demonstrate that the proposed method can actually make the robot keep a stable motion under unknown external per-turbations.

  18. Tailoring the hardware to your control system

    In the very early days of computerized accelerator control systems the entire control system, from the operator interface to the front-end data acquisition hardware, was custom designed and built for that one machine. This was expensive, but the resulting product was a control system seamlessly integrated (mostly) with the machine it was to control. Later, the advent of standardized bus systems such as CAMAC, VME, and CANBUS, made it practical and attractive to purchase commercially available data acquisition and control hardware. This greatly simplified the design but required that the control system be tailored to accommodate the features and eccentricities of the available hardware. Today we have standardized control systems (Tango, EPICS, DOOCS) using commercial hardware on standardized busses. With the advent of FPGA technology and programmable automation controllers (PACs and PLCs) it now becomes possible to tailor commercial hardware to the needs of a standardized control system and the target machine. In this paper, we will discuss our experiences with tailoring a commercial industrial I/O system to meet the needs of the EPICS control system and the LANSCE accelerator. We took the National Instruments Compact RIO platform, embedded an EPICS IOC in its processor, and used its FPGA back-plane to create a 'standardized' industrial I/O system (analog in/out, binary in/out, counters, and stepper motors) that meets the specific needs of the LANSCE accelerator. (authors)

  19. Initial investigation using statistical process control for quality control of accelerator beam steering

    Able Charles M; Hampton Carnell J; Baydush Alan H; Munley Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study seeks to increase clinical operational efficiency and accelerator beam consistency by retrospectively investigating the application of statistical process control (SPC) to linear accelerator beam steering parameters to determine the utility of such a methodology in detecting changes prior to equipment failure (interlocks actuated). Methods Steering coil currents (SCC) for the transverse and radial planes are set such that a reproducibly useful photon or electron...

  20. Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test

    The intent of the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) is to obtain data for model verification and information on the magnitudes of pressures and voltages encountered in an accelerator environment. The ASST milestone run was achieved during July and August, 1992 and consisted of demonstrating the accelerator components could be configured together as a system operating at full current. Following the milestone run, the string was warmed to counteract some design flaws that impeded the operational range. The string was again cooled to cryogenic temperatures in October, and a comprehensive power testing program was conducted through the end of January, 1993. This paper describes how the collider arc components operate in an accelerator environment during quenches induced by firing both strip heaters and spot heaters. Evaluation of the data illustrates how variations in the design parameters on magnets used in a string environment can impact system performance

  1. Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC accelerator system string test

    The intent of the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) is to obtain data for model verification and information on the magnitudes of pressures and voltages encountered in an accelerator environment. The ASST milestone run was achieved during July and August, 1992 and consisted of demonstrating that the accelerator components could be configured together as a system operating at full current. Following the milestone run, the string was warmed to counteract some design flaws that impeded the operational range. The string was again cooled to cryogenic temperatures in October, and a comprehensive power testing program was conducted through the end of January, 1993. This paper describes how the collider arc components operate in an accelerator environment during quenches induced by firing both strip heaters and spot heaters. Evaluation of the data illustrates how variations in the design parameters on magnets used in a string environment can impact system performance

  2. Concept, implementation and commissioning of the automation system for the accelerator module test facility AMTF

    The European XFEL project launched on June 5, 2007 will require about 103 accelerator modules as a main part of the XFEL linear accelerator. All superconducting components constituting the accelerator module like cavities and magnets have to be tested before the assembly. For the tests of the individual cavities and the complete modules an XFEL Accelerator Module Test Facility (AMTF) has been erected at DESY. The process control system EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is used to control and operate the cryogenic plant and all its subcomponents. A complementary component of EPICS is the Open Source software suit CSS (Control System Studio). CSS is an integrated engineering, maintenance and operating tool for EPICS. CSS enables local and remote operating and monitoring of the complete system and thus represents the human machine interface. More than 250 PROFIBUS nodes work at the accelerator module test facility. DESY installed an extensive diagnostic and condition monitoring system. With these diagnostic tools it is possible to examine the correct installation and configuration of all PROFIBUS nodes in real time. The condition monitoring system based on FDT/DTM technology shows the state of the PROFIBUS devices at a glance. This information can be used for preventive maintenance which is mandatory for continuous operation of the AMTF facility. The poster will describe all steps form engineering to implementation and commissioning

  3. A novel beam focus control at the entrance to the ANU 14UD accelerator

    Tandem electrostatic accelerators often require the flexibility to operate at variety of terminal voltages to cater for various user needs. However beam transmission will only be optimal for a limited range of terminal voltages. This paper describes a focussing system that greatly expands the range of terminal voltages for optimal transmission. This is achieved by controlling the gradient of the entrance of the low-energy tube providing an additional controllable focusing element. Up to 150 kV is applied to the fifth electrode of the first unit of the accelerator tube giving control of the tube entrance lens strength. Beam tests to confirm the efficacy of the lens have been performed. These tests demonstrate that the entrance lens control eliminates the need to short out sections of the tube for low terminal voltage operation. (authors)

  4. A novel beam focus control at the entrance to the ANU 14UD accelerator

    De Cesare M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tandem electrostatic accelerators often require the flexibility to operate at variety of terminal voltages to cater for various user needs. However beam transmission will only be optimal for a limited range of terminal voltages. This paper describes a focussing system that greatly expands the range of terminal voltages for optimal transmission. This is achieved by controlling the gradient of the entrance of the low-energy tube providing an additional controllable focusing element. Up to 150 kV is applied to the fifth electrode of the first unit of the accelerator tube giving control of the tube entrance lens strength. Beam tests to confirm the efficacy of the lens have been performed. These tests demonstrate that the entrance lens control eliminates the need to short out sections of the tube for low terminal voltage operation.

  5. A novel beam focus control at the entrance to the ANU 14UD accelerator

    De Cesare, M.; Weisser, D. C.; Fifield, L. K.; Tunningley, T. B.; Lobanov, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Tandem electrostatic accelerators often require the flexibility to operate at variety of terminal voltages to cater for various user needs. However beam transmission will only be optimal for a limited range of terminal voltages. This paper describes a focussing system that greatly expands the range of terminal voltages for optimal transmission. This is achieved by controlling the gradient of the entrance of the low-energy tube providing an additional controllable focusing element. Up to 150 kV is applied to the fifth electrode of the first unit of the accelerator tube giving control of the tube entrance lens strength. Beam tests to confirm the efficacy of the lens have been performed. These tests demonstrate that the entrance lens control eliminates the need to short out sections of the tube for low terminal voltage operation.

  6. Centralization and decentralization in the TRIUMF control system

    The increased demands of an expanding accelerator laboratory have made it timely to consider strategies for expansion of the TRIUMF Control System. These requirements have led to reflections on one of the major themes of this conference - centralized vs. distributed digital control systems for accelerators. This paper discusses the way in which the TRIUMF system successfully combines elements of both approaches

  7. Internal Control System

    Pavésková, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is focused on internal control system. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the development and elements of internal control system, and then demonstrate the possible form of the internal control system in practice. The thesis is divided into two parts -- theoretical and practical. The beginning of the theoretical part is devoted to characteristics of internal controls and their relation to internal control, attention is also paid to economic crimes which the internal control syst...

  8. The RF system for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at Los Alamos

    To develop and demonstrate the crucial front end of the APT accelerator and some of the critical components for APT, Los Alamos is building a CW proton accelerator (LEDA) to provide 100 mA at up to 40 MeV. LEDA will be installed where the SDI-sponsored Ground Test Accelerator was located. The first accelerating structure for LEDA is a 7-MeV RFQ operating at 350 MHz, followed by several stages of a coupled-cavity Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) operating at 700 MHz. The first stage of LEDA will go to 12 MeV. Higher energies, up to 40 MeV, come later in the program. Three 1.2-MW CW RF systems will be used to power the RFQ. This paper describes the RF systems being assembled for LEDA, including the 350 and 700-MHz klystrons, the High Voltage Power Supplies, transmitters, RF transport, window/coupler assemblies, and controls. Some of the limitations imposed by the schedule and the building itself are addressed

  9. Rf System For The Industrial Linear Electron Accelerator At Kaeri (daejeon, Korea)

    Arbuzov, V S; Evtushenko, Yu A; Gorniker, E I; Kenjebulatov, E K; Kondakov, A A; Krutikhin, S A; Kurkin, G Ya; Motygin, S V; Osipov, V N; Petrov, V M; Pilan, Andrey M; Popov, A R; Shteinke, A M; Tribendis, A G

    2004-01-01

    Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics has developed and produced RF generators, feeder lines and a control system for an industrial linear electron accelerator at Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, Daejeon, Korea). The accelerator is based on two superconducting RF cavities produced by CERN. Design energy of the accelerator is 10 MeV and design beam current is 10 mA. A 2 MeV injector for the accelerator was made by BINP earlier. Two-channel RF system of the accelerator operates at the frequency of 352 MHz in CW mode. Each channel has two-stage tetrode amplifier with output power of 50 kW, 100 W transistor preamplifier and the control system. Both tetrode stages have identical design. TH571B tetrode tubes produced by THALES (France) are used. Output power of 45 kW per channel was reached in an equivalent resistive load. Now BINP continues development of the accelerator. The energy of 11 MeV and the beam current of 1.9 mA were achieved. The amplitude of accelerating voltage was 4.5 MV in each cavity,...

  10. SCANPLAN planning system for medical accelerators

    The SCANPLAN automatic system for planning and documentation of every treatment of the photon radiotherapy is described. The system is oriented at the operating systems Windows 98, 2000 and is developed with using the Visual Studio 6.0 technology. This system consists of the following components: planning unit, module for preparation of anatomical information, data base and patient catalogs

  11. Introduction to Physical and Technical Analysis of Accelerator Driven System

    In the present paper the main elements of the accelerator driven system (ADS) are discussed. Describing the spallation source it is underlined that beside the well accepted theory of spallation, the spallation phenomena is not yet sufficiently investigated. Dealing with the sub-critical reactor as an energy amplifier of the primary spallation source a suggestion for the specific neutron spectrum is proposed to obtain optimal conditions for energy production, burn-up and transmutation. In the chapter devoted for the accelerators which accelerates the charged particles, the two accelerator principles are presented on the examples of working accelerators: the linear accelerator - LINAC and cyclotron. Finally, there is presented the project of accelerator driven system - MYRHA for research and development worked out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre - SCK-CEN and the conception of nuclear power station of RBMK-1000 type with spallation source together with analysis of the balance of energy worked out by the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. (author)

  12. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details

  13. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  14. The GSI control system

    The GSI accelerator facility consists of an old linac and two modern machines, a synchrotron and a storage ring. It is operated from one control room. Only three operators at a time have to keep it running with only little assistance from machine specialists in daytime. So the control tools must provide a high degree of abstraction and modeling to relieve the operators from details on the device level. The program structures to achieve this are described in this paper. A coarse overview of the control architecture is given. (author)

  15. RFQ design for the RAON accelerator's ISOL system

    Choi, Bong Hyuk; Hong, In-Seok

    2015-10-01

    The heavy-ion accelerator RAON has the advantage of having both an in-flight (IF) and an isotope separator on-line (ISOL) system. Two radio frequency quadrupoles (RFQs) will be installed in the RAON: the main linear accelerator (LINAC) RFQ will be used to accelerate the two-charge state 238U for the IF system, while the post-accelerator RFQ will be used to accelerate low-current isotope beams from the ISOL system. In this paper, the post-accelerator RFQ design for the ISOL system is reported. A beam current of 1 pμA was used, and the input beam and the output beam energies were 5 keV/u and 400 keV/u, respectively. Moreover, the design was optimized by reducing the total length and power, adjusting the beam quality. To quantify the influence of thermal expansion on the frequency, we calculated the frequency difference according to deference between the vane's tip and the body's diameter.

  16. Control of the Tevatron Satellite Refrigeration system

    This chapter describes a computerized control system for 24 satellite refrigerators which cool a six kilometer ring of superconducting magnets. The control system consists of 31 independent microprocessors operating over 400 servo loops, and a central computer system which provides monitoring, alarms, logging and changing of parameters. Topics considered include pressure measurement, flow measurement, temperature measurement, gas analysis, control valves, expansion engine controllers, and control loops. Each refrigerator has 12 active microprocessor based control loops which tune the refrigerator to one of its four operating modes: satellite, liquefier, refrigerator, and stand-by. It is suggested that optimizing the refrigerator control loops and quench recovery scheme will minimize the accelerator down time

  17. Overview of the low energy accelerator scanning system

    This paper describes the specification of the low energy accelerator (Baby-EBM; Electron Beam Machine) scanning system. It comprises a discussion of coil inductance measurement, power supply design and the test results. The scanning horn system was completely assembled and tested; it was found that the system is able to scan the beam across the scanning window with a required beam profile. (Author)

  18. Optical system for measurement of pyrotechnic test accelerations

    Lieberman, Paul; Czajkowski, John; Rehard, John

    1992-12-01

    This effort was directed at comparing the response of several different accelerometer and amplifier combinations to the pyrotechnic pulse simulating the ordnance separation of stages of multistage missiles. These pyrotechnic events can contain peak accelerations in excess of 100,000 G and a frequency content exceeding 100,000 Hz. The main thrust of this work was to compare the several accelerometer systems with each other and with a very accurate laser Doppler displacement meter in order to establish the frequency bands and acceleration amplitudes where the accelerometer systems are in error. The comparisons were made in simple sine-wave and low-acceleration amplitude environments, as well as in very severe pyroshock environments. An optical laser Doppler displacement meter (LDDM) was used to obtain the displacement velocity and acceleration histories, as well as the corresponding shock spectrum.

  19. Helium refrigeration systems for super-conducting accelerators

    Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting technology which requires 4.5-K or 2-K helium refrigeration systems. These systems utilize superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and/or superconducting magnets which are packaged into vacuum vessels known as cryo-modules (CM’s). Many of the present day accelerators are optimized to operate primarily at around 2-K, requiring specialized helium refrigeration systems which are cost intensive to produce and to operate. Some of the cryogenic refrigeration system design considerations for these challenging applications are discussed

  20. Helium refrigeration systems for super-conducting accelerators

    Ganni, V.

    2015-12-01

    Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting technology which requires 4.5-K or 2-K helium refrigeration systems. These systems utilize superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and/or superconducting magnets which are packaged into vacuum vessels known as cryo-modules (CM's). Many of the present day accelerators are optimized to operate primarily at around 2-K, requiring specialized helium refrigeration systems which are cost intensive to produce and to operate. Some of the cryogenic refrigeration system design considerations for these challenging applications are discussed.

  1. Helium refrigeration systems for super-conducting accelerators

    Ganni, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606, USA Email: ganni@jlab.org (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting technology which requires 4.5-K or 2-K helium refrigeration systems. These systems utilize superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and/or superconducting magnets which are packaged into vacuum vessels known as cryo-modules (CM’s). Many of the present day accelerators are optimized to operate primarily at around 2-K, requiring specialized helium refrigeration systems which are cost intensive to produce and to operate. Some of the cryogenic refrigeration system design considerations for these challenging applications are discussed.

  2. Septum magnet for proton extraction system at the IHEP accelerator

    The paper gives a description of the suptum magnet SM for proton slow extraction from the IHEP synchrotron. The SM excitation coil and magnetic core are assembled outside the accelerator vacuum system. The SM is reliable in operation, can be adjusted with a high accuracy with respect to the accelerated beam, moreover it has a low outgassing in the vacuum under residual gas pressure Up to 1.35 10-8. The SM has operated 8 105 cycles

  3. Accelerator-driven transmutation reactor analysis code system (ATRAS)

    Sasa, Toshinobu; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    JAERI is proceeding a design study of the hybrid type minor actinide transmutation system which mainly consist of an intense proton accelerator and a fast subcritical core. Neutronics and burnup characteristics of the accelerator-driven system is important from a view point of the maintenance of subcriticality and energy balance during the system operation. To determine those characteristics accurately, it is necessary to involve reactions at high-energy region, which are not treated on ordinary reactor analysis codes. The authors developed a code system named ATRAS to analyze the neutronics and burnup characteristics of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor systems. ATRAS has a function of burnup analysis taking account of the effect of spallation neutron source. ATRAS consists of a spallation analysis code, a neutron transport codes and a burnup analysis code. Utility programs for fuel exchange, pre-processing and post-processing are also incorporated. (author)

  4. Accelerator-driven transmutation reactor analysis code system (ATRAS)

    JAERI is proceeding a design study of the hybrid type minor actinide transmutation system which mainly consist of an intense proton accelerator and a fast subcritical core. Neutronics and burnup characteristics of the accelerator-driven system is important from a view point of the maintenance of subcriticality and energy balance during the system operation. To determine those characteristics accurately, it is necessary to involve reactions at high-energy region, which are not treated on ordinary reactor analysis codes. The authors developed a code system named ATRAS to analyze the neutronics and burnup characteristics of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor systems. ATRAS has a function of burnup analysis taking account of the effect of spallation neutron source. ATRAS consists of a spallation analysis code, a neutron transport codes and a burnup analysis code. Utility programs for fuel exchange, pre-processing and post-processing are also incorporated. (author)

  5. Compact all-fiber interferometer system for shock acceleration measurement

    Zhao, Jiang; Pi, Shaohua; Hong, Guangwei; Zhao, Dong; Jia, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Acceleration measurement plays an important role in a variety of fields in science and engineering. In particular, the accurate, continuous and non-contact recording of the shock acceleration profiles of the free target surfaces is considered as a critical technique in shock physics. Various kinds of optical interferometers have been developed to monitor the motion of the surfaces of shocked targets since the 1960s, for instance, the velocity interferometer system for any reflector, the fiber optic accelerometer, the photonic Doppler velocimetry system and the displacement interferometer. However, most of such systems rely on the coherent quasi-monochromatic illumination and discrete optic elements, which are costly in setting-up and maintenance. In 1996, L. Levin et al reported an interferometric fiber-optic Doppler velocimeter with high-dynamic range, in which fiber-coupled components were used to replace the discrete optic elements. However, the fringe visibility of the Levin's system is low because of the coupled components, which greatly limits the reliability and accuracy in the shock measurement. In this paper, a compact all-fiber interferometer system for measuring the shock acceleration is developed and tested. The advantage of the system is that not only removes the non-interfering light and enhances the fringe visibility, but also reduces polarization induced signal fading and the polarization induced phase shift. Moreover, it also does not require a source of long coherence length. The system bases entirely on single-mode fiber optics and mainly consists of a polarization beam splitter, a faraday rotator, a depolarizer and a 3×3 single-mode fiber coupler which work at 1310 nm wavelength. The optical systems of the interferometer are described and the experimental results compared with a shock acceleration calibration system with a pneumatic exciter (PneuShockTM Model 9525C by The Modal Shop) are reported. In the shock acceleration test, the

  6. State-of-the-Art developments in accelerator controls at the APS

    The performance requirements of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) challenge the control system in a number of areas. This paper will review a few applications of advanced technology in the control and monitoring of the APS. The application of digital signal processors (DSPs) and techniques will be discussed, both from the perspective of a large distributed multiprocessor system and from that of embedded systems. In particular, two embedded applications will be highlighted, a beam position monitor processor and a DSP-based power supply controller. Fast data distribution is often a requirement. The application of a high-speed network based on reflective memory will also be discussed in the context of the APS global orbit feedback system. Timing systems provide opportunities to apply technologies such as high-speed logic and fiber optics. Examples of the use of these technologies will also be included. Finally, every modern accelerator control system of any size requires networking. Features of the APS accelerator controls network will be discussed

  7. A CAMAC based knob controller for the LAMPF control system

    The control computer for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) has been recently upgraded from an SEL-840 to a VAX 11/780 running the VMS operating system. As part of this upgrade, a CAMAC-based knob controller was developed for the new control system. The knobs allow the facility operators to have slew control over software selectable accelerator devices. An alphanumeric display associated with each knob monitors the progress of the selected device. This paper describes the system requirements for the new LAMPF knob controller, and the resulting hardware and software design

  8. RF acceleration system for 3 GeV proton synchrotron in JAERI-KEK joint project

    RF acceleration system for 3 GeV proton synchrotron in Joint JAERI-KEK high intensity proton accelerator project is described. In this synchrotron, since 8.3 x 1013 protons must be accelerated from 400 MeV to 3 GeV within 20 ms, wide-band frequency range and high accelerating voltage are required, and the system must be stable under heavy beam loading. From the results of R and D works over the past several years, high gradient rf cavity loaded with Magnetic Alloy and 1.2 MW class push-pull tetrode tube amplifier will be chosen for this system. Their design and R and D works for this synchrotron are reported. Furthermore, since longitudinal beam emittance will be controlled at injection and extraction by the rf manipulation because of alleviation of space charge effect, some simulation results for longitudinal motion by a particle tracking code are reported. (author)

  9. Adaptive shared control system

    Sanders, David

    2009-01-01

    A control system to aid mobility is presented that is intended to assist living independently and that provides physical guidance. The system has two levels: a human machine interface and an adaptive shared controller.

  10. Status and Control Requirements of the Planned Heavy Ion Tumor Therapy Accelerator Facility HICAT

    Baer, R C; Haberer, T; Baer, Ralph C.; Eickhoff, Hartmut; Haberer, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The HICAT project is a Heavy Ion accelerator for light ion Cancer Treatment to be built for the clinics in Heidelberg, Germany. It consists of a 7 MeV/u linac, a compact synchrotron and three treatment places, one of them equipped with a 360 degree gantry beam-line. The facility will implement the intensity controlled raster-scanning technique that was developed and successfully demonstrated at GSI with over 100 patients at present. In order to produce the beams with the characteristics requested by the treatment sequencer, the accelerator must operate on a pulse-to-pulse basis with different settings. This concept imposes strict and challenging demands on the operation of the accelerators and hence the control system of the facility. The control system should be developed, installed and maintained by and under the complete responsibility of an industrial system provider, using a state-of-the-art system and wide-spread industrial components wherever possible. The presentation covers the status of the project ...

  11. On Controlled P Systems

    Krithivasan, Kamala; Paun, Gheorghe; Ramanujan, Ajeesh; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and brie y investigate P systems with controlled computations. First, P systems with label restricted transitions are considered (in each step, all rules used have either the same label, or, possibly, the empty label, ), then P systems with the computations controlled by languages (as in context-free controlled grammars). The relationships between the families of sets of numbers computed by the various classes of controlled P systems are investigated, also comp...

  12. Web-based information sharing system for J-PARC accelerator operation

    A tool for browsing the accelerator operation history has been developed in the Web server so that information could be shared easily regardless of the platform. The following be cited as major services that run in the Web server currently. 1) Archive Data Viewer ... Reading of data from EPICS Archive System collecting the signal of 100000 points. 2) File Uploader ... Aggregation of related documents files, browse. 3) Retrieval system using RDB ... IP address search, EPICS record search, Screen shot search. 4) Electronic operation log system ... Accelerator operation log, log search. 5) Control Wiki ... Accelerator control information management system that employs MediaWiki. I will report on the operational status of the above. (author)

  13. Development of synchrotron control for Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerators

    Kadowaki, T., E-mail: kadowaki@aec-beam.co.jp [Accelerator Engineering Corporation (AEC), 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Iwata, Y., E-mail: y_iwata@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Noda, K., E-mail: noda_k@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takada, E., E-mail: takada@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shirai, T., E-mail: t_shirai@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Furukawa, T., E-mail: t_furu@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uchiyama, H., E-mail: aechebt@nirs.go.jp [Accelerator Engineering Corporation (AEC), 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Fujimoto, T., E-mail: t.fujimoto@aec-beam.co.jp [Accelerator Engineering Corporation (AEC), 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The power supplies for the main bending and quadrupole magnets of the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba are controlled by preset current and voltage patterns, which are created by a pattern-creation program. It has been observed that a deviation between the preset current and the actual one becomes very large when newly created patterns are applied to the power supplies. This deviation is attributed to the incorrect parameters used for calculations of the voltage pattern in the pattern-creation program. In order to reduce the deviation, we have analyzed the values of resistance and inductance using the actual data of the current and voltage patterns. As a result, more than 10% difference was found between the conventional and newly calculated parameters. By applying the new parameters to the pattern-creation program a reduction of the deviation was confirmed.

  14. Development of synchrotron control for Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerators

    The power supplies for the main bending and quadrupole magnets of the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba are controlled by preset current and voltage patterns, which are created by a pattern-creation program. It has been observed that a deviation between the preset current and the actual one becomes very large when newly created patterns are applied to the power supplies. This deviation is attributed to the incorrect parameters used for calculations of the voltage pattern in the pattern-creation program. In order to reduce the deviation, we have analyzed the values of resistance and inductance using the actual data of the current and voltage patterns. As a result, more than 10% difference was found between the conventional and newly calculated parameters. By applying the new parameters to the pattern-creation program a reduction of the deviation was confirmed.

  15. A Stable Formation Control Using Approximation of Translational and Angular Accelerations

    Viet-Hong Tran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a stable leader-following formation control for multiple non-holonomic mobile robot systems using only limited on-board sensor information is proposed. The control can be used for the conventional single leader - single follower (SLSF or for novel two leaders - single follower (TLSF schemes. The control algorithm utilizes estimations of the leaders' translational and angular accelerations in a simple form to reduce the measurement of indirect information. Simulation results show that the TLSF scheme can suppress the oscillation and damping in formation of large robot teams.

  16. Ashing vs. electric generation in accelerator driven system

    Accelerator Driven Systems have been conceived as an alternative for the processing of the radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants. These systems are formed by the coupling of a nuclear reactor - preferably a subcritical reactor - with a particle accelerator providing particles with energy in the order of the GeV. The long-lived fission products and actinides of the spent fuels are transformed by nuclear reactions in stable isotopes or in short-lived radioisotopes. The basic parameters for the electric energy production of the different systems are analysed. (author)

  17. An RFQ accelerator system for MeV ion implantation

    Hirakimoto, Akira; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Konishi, Ikuo; Nagamachi, Shinji; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Asari, Masatoshi

    1989-02-01

    A 4-vane-type Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator system for MeV ion implantation has been constructed and ion beams of boron and nitrogen have been accelerated successfully up to an energy of 1.01 and 1.22 MeV, respectively. The acceleration of phosphorus is now ongoing. The design was performed with two computer codes called SUPERFISH and PARMTEQ. The energy of the accelerated ions was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The obtained values agreed well with the designed ones. Thus we have confirmed the validity of our design and have found the possibility that the present RFQ will break through the production-use difficulty of MeV ion implantation.

  18. A new approach to modeling linear accelerator systems

    A novel computer code is being developed to generate system level designs of radiofrequency ion accelerators with specific applications to machines of interest to Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT). The goal of the Accelerator System Model (ASM) code is to create a modeling and analysis tool that is easy to use, automates many of the initial design calculations, supports trade studies used in accessing alternate designs and yet is flexible enough to incorporate new technology concepts as they emerge. Hardware engineering parameters and beam dynamics are to be modeled at comparable levels of fidelity. Existing scaling models of accelerator subsystems were used to produce a prototype of ASM (version 1.0) working within the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Code (SPARC) graphical user interface. A small user group has been testing and evaluating the prototype for about a year. Several enhancements and improvements are now being developed. The current version of ASM is described and examples of the modeling and analysis capabilities are illustrated. The results of an example study, for an accelerator concept typical of ADTT applications, is presented and sample displays from the computer interface are shown

  19. Advanced Computational Models for Accelerator-Driven Systems

    In the nuclear engineering scientific community, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) have been proposed and investigated for the transmutation of nuclear waste, especially plutonium and minor actinides. These fuels have a quite low effective delayed neutron fraction relative to uranium fuel, therefore the subcriticality of the core offers a unique safety feature with respect to critical reactors. The intrinsic safety of ADS allows the elimination of the operational control rods, hence the reactivity excess during burnup can be managed by the intensity of the proton beam, fuel shuffling, and eventually by burnable poisons. However, the intrinsic safety of a subcritical system does not guarantee that ADSs are immune from severe accidents (core melting), since the decay heat of an ADS is very similar to the one of a critical system. Normally, ADSs operate with an effective multiplication factor between 0.98 and 0.92, which means that the spallation neutron source contributes little to the neutron population. In addition, for 1 GeV incident protons and lead-bismuth target, about 50% of the spallation neutrons has energy below 1 MeV and only 15% of spallation neutrons has energies above 3 MeV. In the light of these remarks, the transmutation performances of ADS are very close to those of critical reactors.

  20. The Ganil computer control system renewal

    Since 1982 the GANIL heavy ion accelerator has been under the control of 16-bit minicomputers MITRA, programmable logic controllers and microprocessorized Camac controllers, structured into a partially centralized system. This control system has to be renewed to meet the increasing demands of the accelerator operation which aims to provide higher quality ion beams under more reliable conditions. This paper gives a brief description of the existing control system and then discusses the main issues of the design and the implementation of the future control system: distributed powerful processors federated through Ethernet and flexible network-wide database access, VME standard and front-end microprocessors, enhanced color graphic tools and workstation based operator interface

  1. Software engineering practices for control system reliability

    This paper will discuss software engineering practices used to improve Control System reliability. The authors begin with a brief discussion of the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model (CMM) which is a framework for evaluating and improving key practices used to enhance software development and maintenance capabilities. The software engineering processes developed and used by the Controls Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for accelerator control, are described. Examples are given of how their procedures have been used to minimized control system downtime and improve reliability. While their examples are primarily drawn from their experience with EPICS, these practices are equally applicable to any control system. Specific issues addressed include resource allocation, developing reliable software lifecycle processes and risk management

  2. Software engineering practices for control system reliability

    S. K. Schaffner; K. S White

    1999-04-01

    This paper will discuss software engineering practices used to improve Control System reliability. The authors begin with a brief discussion of the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model (CMM) which is a framework for evaluating and improving key practices used to enhance software development and maintenance capabilities. The software engineering processes developed and used by the Controls Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for accelerator control, are described. Examples are given of how their procedures have been used to minimized control system downtime and improve reliability. While their examples are primarily drawn from their experience with EPICS, these practices are equally applicable to any control system. Specific issues addressed include resource allocation, developing reliable software lifecycle processes and risk management.

  3. dc power system for deuteron accelerator

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility dc power system provides excitation current for all linac and High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) quadrupole and bending magnets, excitation for horizontal and vertical beam steering, and current-bypass shunts

  4. Virtual panel for FOTIA control and information system

    Use of computers has provided an easy environment to tune machines like accelerators by integrating different subsystems and providing interface to control whole machine from a single node. Use of virtual panel in place of conventional shaft encoders and hard wired controls has provided an easy and efficient and interactive environment for accelerator operation. A graphical user interface is provided for system configuration (system data base change). FOTIA (Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator) is an indigenously designed accelerator at BARC. This paper describes the Virtual Panel features of the FOTIA Control and Information System. (author)

  5. Design and simulation of an accelerating and focusing system

    A Sadeghipanah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic focusing lenses have a vast field of applications in electrostatic accelerators and particularly in electron guns. In this paper, we first express a parametric mathematical analysis of an electrostatic accelerator and focusing system for an electron beam. Next, we At design a system of electron emission slit, accelerating electrodes and focusing lens for an electron beam emitted from a cathode with 4 mm radius and 2 mA current, in a distance less than 10 cm and up to the energy of 30 keV with the beam divergence less than 5°. This is achieved by solving the yielded equations in mathematical analysis using MATLAB. At the end, we simulate the behavior of above electron beam in the designed accelerating and focusing system using CST EM Studio. The results of simulation are in high agreement with required specifications of the electron beam, showing the accuracy of the used method in analysis and design of the accelerating and focusing system.

  6. The Machine Protection System for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    Wu, Jinyuan [Fermilab; Warner, Arden [Fermilab; Liu, Ning [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden [Fermilab

    2015-11-15

    The Machine Protection System (MPS) for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility (FAST) has been implemented and tested. The system receives signals from several subsystems and devices which conveys the relevant status needed to the safely operate the accelerator. Logic decisions are made based on these inputs and some predefined user settings which in turn controls the gate signal to the laser of the photo injector. The inputs of the system have a wide variety of signal types, encoding methods and urgencies for which the system is designed to accommodate. The MPS receives fast shutdown (FSD) signals generated by the beam loss system and inhibits the beam or reduces the beam intensity within a macropulse when the beam losses at several places along the accelerator beam line are higher than acceptable values. TTL or relay contact signals from the vacuum system, toroids, magnet systems etc., are chosen with polarities that ensure safe operation of the accelerator from unintended events such as cable disconnection in the harsh industrial environment of the experimental hall. A RS422 serial communication scheme is used to interface the operation permit generator module and a large number of movable devices each reporting multi-bit status. The system also supports operations at user defined lower beam levels for system conunissioning. The machine protection system is implemented with two commercially available off-the-shelf VMEbus based modules with on board FPGA devices. The system is monitored and controlled via the VMEbus by a single board CPU

  7. IPNS accelerator system and neutron chopper synchronization

    Several of the neutron scattering instruments at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne use neutron choppers for monochromatization of the neutron beam. Since the neutron burst is produced by a proton beam extracted from the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), precise synchronization must be maintained between the RCS and the chopper aperture to minimize the degradation of energy resolution. The first attempts at synchronization were made in 1978 on the ZING-P' facility with a single chopper. Synchronization was further complicated after IPNS began operating in 1981 when a total of three chopper experiments came on-line. The system in use during that period of time was able to maintain synchronization with typical data collection efficiencies ranging from 20 to 70%. A synchronization system improvement, installed in late 1982, increased the data collection efficiencies of all the IPNS chopper systems to 99+%. The development of the RCS and neutron chopper synchronization system is described together with a detailed description of the present system

  8. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study

  9. LHC Report: Rehearsing the LHC accelerator systems for the Run 2 start-up with beam

    Reyes Alemany Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    While the commissioning of the superconducting circuits is ongoing, great care is also being taken to make sure that the other key LHC accelerator systems are qualified for beam. Since spring 2014, small-scale integration tests on the accelerator systems have been scheduled and carried out successfully to exercise them fully and thoroughly debug their multiple interfaces. The LHC Operations team leads this activity in tight collaboration with the equipment experts and the essential support of the Accelerator Controls group. The tests start once individual system qualification has been performed by the equipment owners and they are ready to be handed over to operations. These tests performed by Operations are called dry runs – dry because they are performed without beam – and they are carried out from the CERN Control Centre (CCC) using the same high-level software applications that will be used during beam operation. The dry runs are the first step towards a global integration test ...

  10. Application of EPICS on F3RP61 to accelerator control

    A new type of Input/Output Controller (IOC) has been developed based on F3RP61, a CPU module of FA-M3 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Since the CPU module runs Linux, it takes no special effort to run EPICS IOC core program on the CPU module. With the aid of wide variety of I/O modules of FA-M3 PLC, the F3RP61-based IOC has various applications in accelerator controls, such as magnet power supply control, monitoring interlock status, stepping motor control, data acquisition from beam monitors and so forth. The adoption of the new IOC makes the architecture of accelerator control systems simpler by unifying the two layers of front-end computers, i.e., the IOC layer and the PLC layer, into one layer. We found that the simplification of the control system architecture helps us to reduce the time and cost for the development and maintenance of application software. (author)

  11. Neutronic parameters characterizing accelerator driven system (ADS)

    An hybrid system is a reactor where an external source of spallation neutrons is supplied to a subcritical multiplying medium. The neutronic parameters characterising such a system include, in addition to the multiplication factor which measures the sub-criticality level, another physics parameter measuring the 'importance' of the external source. The aim of this thesis is, on the one hand, to investigate basic neutronic phenomena taking place in fast sub- critical media in either steady-state or transient operation, and, on the other hand, to assess the performance of the ERANOS neutronic code package applied to the analysis of such systems. To this aim, the first part of the work is focused on the MUSE program and in particular the MUSE3 experiment, which consists of different sub-critical configurations driven by a 14-MeV neutron source. This study has been pursued in two directions : the first one was the interpretation of the calculation-experiment (C-E) discrepancies which lead to the development of original calculation methods for sensitivity studies ; the second one was the experimental analysis which allowed an extensive neutronic characterization of the sub-critical system. A correlation between the external source importance and some directly measurable parameters (i.e. fission rate) was derived. The second part of the thesis addresses representativity issues between an experimental facility and an actual power reactor. Important conclusions have been drawn with regard to the operation of an ADS. Finally, representativity studies lead to the recommendation that a demonstration reactor should be built before an industrial plant is constructed. (author)

  12. The CERN SPS Control System

    CERN Neyrac Films

    2012-01-01

    Part of the series of films produced by CERN about the SPS. Names, facts and credits added on the 1975 version by Bengt Sagnell, Meyrin, Oct 2012. The project leader for the SPS accelerator (with 400 staff) was John Adams - later Sir John. The group responsible for the design and installation of the control system was led by Michael Crowley-Milling. 00:02:14 Bernard Sutton00:02:48 Michael Crowley-Milling, Head of the Controls Group00:03:01 Designed in the Controls Group, this was probably the first use of touch screens in an industrial control system00:04:37 Louis Burnod, Section leader, Beam Instrumentation00:05:36 Claes Frisk, Computer technician 00:06:03 The system contained 24 Norsk Data NORD-10 16-bit mini computers with 16-64 kB of magnetic core memory and external hard disks of from 5MB to 256 MB in size00:06:23 Frank Beck, Section leader, Central Controls00:06:26 Véronique Frammery, Programmer 00:06:31 Hans-Karl Kuhn, Power Supply Controls00:07:55 Raymond Rausch, Control electronics00:10:23 Paul Acti...

  13. Development of a Magnetron Resonance Frequency Auto Tuning System for Medical Xband [9300 MHz] RF Linear Accelerator

    The total components of the accelerator are the magnetron, electron gun, accelerating structure, a set of solenoid magnets, four sets of steering coils, a modulator, and a circulator. One of the accelerator components of the accelerating structure is made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC), and its volume is changed according to the ambient temperature. As the volume changes, the resonant frequency of the accelerating structure is changed. Accordingly, the resonance frequency is mismatched between the source of the magnetron and the accelerating structure. An automatic frequency tuning system is automatically matched with the resonant frequency of the magnetron and accelerating structure, which allows a high output power and reliable accelerator operation. An automatic frequency tuning system is composed of a step motor control part for correcting the frequency of the source and power measuring parts, i.e., the forward and reflected power between the magnetron and accelerating structure. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the automatic frequency tuning system for the X-band linac are presented. A frequency tuning system was developed to overcome an unstable accelerator operation owing to the frequency mismatch between the magnetron and accelerating structure. The frequency measurement accuracy is 100 kHz and 0.72 degree per pulse

  14. Future directions in controlling the LAMPF-PSR accelerator complex at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Four interrelated projects are underway whose purpose is to migrate the LAMPF-PSR Accelerator Complex control systems to a system with a common set of hardware and software components. Project goals address problems in performance, maintenance and growth potential. Front-end hardware, operator interface hardware and software, computer systems, network systems and data system software are being simultaneously upgraded as part of these efforts. The efforts are being coordinated to provide for a smooth and timely migration to a client-server model-based data acquisition and control system. An increased use of distributed intelligence at both the front-end and the operator interface is a key element of the projects. (author)

  15. Future directions in controlling the LAMPF-PSR Accelerator Complex at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Four interrelated projects are underway whose purpose is to migrate the LAMPF-PSR Accelerator Complex control systems to a system with a common set of hardware and software components. Project goals address problems in performance, maintenance and growth potential. Front-end hardware, operator interface hardware and software, computer systems, network systems and data system software are being simultaneously upgraded as part of these efforts. The efforts are being coordinated to provide for a smooth and timely migration to a client-sever model-based data acquisition and control system. An increased use of the distributed intelligence at both the front-end and operator interface is a key element of the projects. 2 refs., 2 figs

  16. PLS linac instrument and control system

    A plan for the instrument and control system of the PLS (Pohang Light Source) 2 GeV linear accelerator is described. Major beam diagnostic instruments consist of 2 ns beam current monitors, beam profile monitors, and beam loss monitors. The control system will adopt the VME bus. For the timing system, the basic timing pulses will be obtained from the storage ring's RF master oscillator and distributed to the gun pulser and klystrons through the time delay electronic modules

  17. ALFA Detector Control System

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  18. ALFA Detector Control System

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  19. Standard Bus System on Accelerator and the Possibility of Its Application in P3TM

    Usually accelerator in the research and applied laboratory already used standard bus system on their control systems. In the beginning several laboratories uses CAMAC system and then gradually use to VME or VXI bus such as at Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) in VA USA, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) in Tsukuba Japan, and National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Upton, NY, USA. On China since pre-requirement it has been decided to use VME bus. EPICS program have been developed in the world for physics experiment, VME bus control system. P3TM needs to study VME bus and its availability on the market, also to make collaboration with EPICS user and try to obtain it if standard bus for control system is to be considered. (author)

  20. Accelerating the transition to sustainable energy systems

    The slow pace of transition to sustainable energy systems is the result of several factors running in parallel. The starting points are very low. Even 30% per annum increases in rated capacity (for wind energy or solar PV, for example) take many years to make a big impact at the global level. Policy initiatives are for the most part ineffectual in relation to the urgency and scale of what is required, and often fail to address the fundamental causes of this slow progress. This reflects a 'top-down' approach-often accompanied by unrealistic targets and simultaneously undermined by a lack of consistency across policies, which reflect a 'utopian social engineering mentality', made worse because: 'The Planner's response to failure of previous interventions (is) to do more intensive and comprehensive interventions' as William Easterly has put it. In short, there is little or no accountability. This approach has failed to harness the sympathy, imagination, self-interest, or sound options of energy users-although it may attract developers, including those not hitherto noted for renewable energy projects or environmental concern. Targets are usually too short term and clearly unrealistic, especially where fossil fuel use is rising very rapidly, and renewable energy use expands modestly. Government subsidies for traditional energy forms continue. Insufficient attention is paid to what individuals might achieve in energy efficiency and renewable energy terms if permitted to have, or retain (in industrialized countries, where the burden of taxation is often inhibiting), the wherewithal to make the necessary investments. Subsidy systems often promote renewable energy schemes that are misdirected and buoyed up by grossly exaggerated claims. One or two mature renewable energy technologies are pushed nationally with insufficient regard for their costs, contribution to electricity generation, transportation fuels' needs, or carbon emission avoidance. Investors are rewarded

  1. Preliminary research on safety and control characteristics of accelerator driven reactor

    The safety and control characteristics of accelerator driven reactor are studied with calculation and simulation running. The results show that the prompt criticality for accelerator driven reactor does not easily happen, its safety characteristics are better than critical reactor's, the higher the subcritical degree, the better the safety. The control loop of accelerator driven reactor has a little time constant, a little overshoot, and short regulating time, its control characteristics are also better than critical reactor's

  2. A modular control system

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author)

  3. LU factorization for accelerator-based systems

    Agullo, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Multicore architectures enhanced with multiple GPUs are likely to become mainstream High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms in a near future. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of an LU factorization using tile algorithm that can fully exploit the potential of such platforms in spite of their complexity. We use a methodology derived from previous work on Cholesky and QR factorizations. Our contributions essentially consist of providing new CPU/GPU hybrid LU kernels, studying the impact on performance of the looking variants as well as the storage layout in presence of pivoting, tuning the kernels for two different machines composed of multiple recent NVIDIA Tesla S1070 (four GPUs total) and Fermi-based S2050 GPUs (three GPUs total), respectively. The hybrid tile LU asymptotically achieves 1 Tflop/s in single precision on both hardwares. The performance in double precision arithmetic reaches 500 Gflop/s on the Fermi-based system, twice faster than the old GPU generation of Tesla S1070. We also discuss the impact of the number of tiles on the numerical stability. We show that the numerical results of the tile LU factorization will be accurate enough for most applications as long as the computations are performed in double precision arithmetic. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Applied Control Systems Design

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  5. Control and optimization system

    Xinsheng, Lou

    2013-02-12

    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  6. The rejuvenation of TRISTAN control system

    The current TRISTAN accelerator control system uses CAMAC as a front end electronics, and they are controlled by twenty five Hitachi minicomputer HIDIC 80's which are linked with an N-to-N token ring network. After five years from now, these computers must be replaced. This is because of the life time of control system and we have to cope with the requirements imposed by our future project such as the KEK B-Factory and the main ring photon factory projects. The rejuvenation of this control has to be done under some constraints such as the lack of manpower, limited time and financing. First we review the problems of current control system, then the philosophy of the new generation control system is presented. Finally it is discussed how to move to the new generation control system from the current TRISTAN control system. (author)

  7. Data acquisition system for the Pelletron electron accelerator

    In this work, a system is developed that allows to know and view of immediate manner the conditions occurred during the operation of the Pelletron. This is carried out by means of the design of a data acquisition system which displays in graphic form, in the screen of a computer, the operation conditions like pressure of the tank, current of the electron beam, voltage in the inductors of the elctrostatic generator, level of produced radiation, etc., all of this parameters determine the behavior of the accelerator. The hardware of the system includes the design and construction of conditioning and transmission circuits used to send the information to an interface board that allows th communication between the analog world and the computer. In this case, the utilized board is the AT-MIO-16L-25, that is a high-performance multifunction analog, digital and timing input/output (I/O) board for the IBM PC/AT and compatibles. The software implicates the design of the necessary programs to manipulate the interface board, for the processing and presentation of information in the screen of the computer and also for the storage of the acquired data in a permanent medium. In this case, a relatively new tool, known like Virtual instrumentation is utilized. Concretely, the LabVIEW programming software package is used (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench), which is designed for applications in instrumentation and control. This programming package gives the necessary elements for the analysis and processing of the acquired data. The system is developed in base to the requirements done for the users and designers of the Pelletron. (Author)

  8. Step Motor Control System

    ZhangShuochengt; WangDan; QiaoWeimin; JingLan

    2003-01-01

    All kinds of step motors and servomotors are widely used in CSR control system, such as many vacuum valves control that set on the HIRFL-CSR; all kinds of electric switches and knobs of ECR Ion Source; equipment of CSR Beam Diagnostics and a lot of large equipment like Inside Gun Toroid and Collector Toroid of HIRFL. A typical control system include up to 32 16-I/O Control boards, and each 16-I/O Control board can control 4 motors at the same time (including 8 Limit Switches).

  9. Installation of wireless LAN system into the SuperKEKB accelerator tunnel

    We have installed the LCX (leaky coaxial cable) antennas and collinear antennas for the wireless LAN system of the SuperKEKB accelerator control network into the accelerator tunnel for SuperKEKB, which is the upgrade plan of the KEKB B-factory project. The wireless LAN system is used for the SuperKEKB accelerator components contraction and maintenance of the SuperKEKB accelerator. The 16 LCX antennas, 2000m length in total, are installed into the 4 arc sections, and 16 collinear antennas are installed into the 4 linear sections covering 1000m length area. For SuperKEKB, we have selected the LCX and collinear antennas which have good radiation hardness of more than 1 MGy. After the installation, we have test the wireless LAN system, and obtain the good network speed performance of ∼20 Mbps in the whole tunnel area. In this paper, we report the installation and obtained performance of the SuperKEKB accelerator control wireless LAN system. (author)

  10. METRIC OF ACCELERATING AND ROTATING REFERENCE SYSTEMS IN GENERAL RELATIVITY

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metric describing the accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity in the case of an arbitrary dependence of acceleration and angular velocity on time has been proposed. It is established that the curvature tensor in such metrics is zero, which corresponds to movement in the flat spaces. It is shown that the motion of test bodies in the metric accelerated and rotating reference system in general relativity is similarly to the classical motion in non-inertial reference frame. Consequently, there exist a metric in general relativity, in which the Coriolis theorem and classic velocity-addition formula are true. This means that classical mechanics is accurate rather than approximate model in general relativity. A theory of potential in non-inertial reference systems in general relativity is considered. The numerical model of wave propagation in non-inertial reference frames in the case when potential depending of one, two and three spatial dimensions has been developed. It is shown in numerical experiment that the acceleration of the reference system leads to retardation effects, as well as to a violation of the symmetry of the wave front, indicating that there is local change of wave speed

  11. Android Graphic System Acceleration Based on DirectFB

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, based on analyzing the hardware abstraction layer and native graphics libraries of Android graphics system, the drawback of Skia library which could only support software rendering is pointed out. And then the third-party open graphics library DirectFB which supports 2D hardware acceleration is introduced, the architecture and interface of DirectFB and Skia are analyzed and compared with each other in detail. After DirectFB being ported into Android system, a novel hardware acceleration layer with double-buffer technology is designed and implemented, which will make Skia and DirectFB coexist and complement with each other and ultimately implement the 2D hardware acceleration in Android system. A JNI interface is designed for Java programs. The optimization scheme is verified by the specialized test benchmarks df-dok, the experimental results indicated that the performance of Android graphics system in layer blending operations is accelerated by an average of 5.58x as well as 2.18x speedup on average in bitblit operations when processing complex graphics operations such as layer blending and bitblit etc.

  12. Injection and acceleration system of pulsed racetrack microtron

    Paper describes a pulsed racetrack microtron (RM) with 70 MeV beam maximal power. For this project one designed rare-earth permanent magnet base bending magnets, pattern to inject a bunched electron bean through a compact α-magnet and prismatic biperiodic accelerating structure (PBAS) characterized by compact transverse dimensions ensuring bar-free passing of electron beam through the first orbit. Besides, the PBAS has a high-frequency quadrupole focusing. These features facilitate essentially RM design and adjustment. Paper describes tests, technique of adjustment and of measuring of systems to inject and to accelerate a pulsed racetrack microtron

  13. Injection and acceleration system of pulsed racetrack microtron

    Ermakov, A N; Ishkhanov, B S

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes a pulsed racetrack microtron (RM) with 70 MeV beam maximal power. For this project one designed rare-earth permanent magnet base bending magnets, pattern to inject a bunched electron bean through a compact alpha-magnet and prismatic biperiodic accelerating structure (PBAS) characterized by compact transverse dimensions ensuring bar-free passing of electron beam through the first orbit. Besides, the PBAS has a high-frequency quadrupole focusing. These features facilitate essentially RM design and adjustment. Paper describes tests, technique of adjustment and of measuring of systems to inject and to accelerate a pulsed racetrack microtron

  14. Control, timing, and data acquisition for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA)

    Schoessow, P.; Ho, C.; Power, J.; Chojnacki, E.

    1993-08-01

    The AWA is a new facility primarily designed for wakefield acceleration experiments at the 100 MV/m scale, which incorporates a high current linac and rf photocathode electron source, a low emittance rf electron gun for witness beam generation, and associated beamlines and diagnostics. The control system is based on VME and CA-MAC electronics interfaced to a high performance work-station and provides some distributed processing capability. In addition to the control of linac rf, laser optics, and beamlines, the system is also used for acquisition of video data both from luminescent beam position monitors and from streak camera pulse length diagnostics. Online image feature extraction will permit wakefields to be computed during the course of data taking. The linac timing electronics and its interface to the control system is described.

  15. Control, timing, and data acquisition for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA)

    The AWA is a new facility primarily designed for wakefield acceleration experiments at the 100 MV/m scale, which incorporates a high current linac and rf photocathode electron source, a low emittance rf electron gun for witness beam generation, and associated beamlines and diagnostics. The control system is based on VME and CA-MAC electronics interfaced to a high performance work-station and provides some distributed processing capability. In addition to the control of linac rf, laser optics, and beamlines, the system is also used for acquisition of video data both from luminescent beam position monitors and from streak camera pulse length diagnostics. Online image feature extraction will permit wakefields to be computed during the course of data taking. The linac timing electronics and its interface to the control system is described

  16. Torque control system

    Studenick, D. K.; Tyler, A. L.; Squillari, W.

    1975-01-01

    System stabilizes aximuth of gondolas which are carried by high-altitude balloons as platforms for tracking telescopes. When telescopes must be constantly aimed at specific targets, control system stabilizes gondola to within 5 arc-seconds.

  17. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  18. Studies on a multichannel RF acceleration system (MEQALAC)

    The present thesis deals with the theoretical and experimental studies on a multichannel RF acceleration system for large currents of heavy ions. After a short introduction the high-frequency properties of the used modified interdigital H-structure was discussed. The resonator was treated in a model of an oscillating circuit with concentred switching elements. With the model the resonator capacitance and inductance were calculated from which the characteristic resonator parameters resulted. The measurements of the distribution of the electric field showed that by application of closed supports a nearly constant voltage slope could be reached for all studied structure types. The voltage distribution could within certain limits be influenced by the capacitance distribution and the distribution of the free area for the radial magnetic field along the accelerator structure. Starting from the KV differential equations by the approximation of a constant external focusing the influence of the misfit of the beams to the channel was described by a perturbation calculation. The beam measurements with the MEQALAC prove its suitability as accelerator for intense ion beams at low incident energy. A maximal He+ beam of fourfold 2 mA was accelerated from 40 to 115 keV by an assembly of four channels, each of them has a radius of only 3 mm. The acceleration efficiency amounts thereby to 50%. (orig./HSI)

  19. Discrete control systems

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  20. Computer-controlled radiation monitoring system

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-09-27

    A computer-controlled radiation monitoring system was designed and installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Multiuser Tandem Laboratory (10 MV tandem accelerator from High Voltage Engineering Corporation). The system continuously monitors the photon and neutron radiation environment associated with the facility and automatically suspends accelerator operation if preset radiation levels are exceeded. The system has proved reliable real-time radiation monitoring over the past five years, and has been a valuable tool for maintaining personnel exposure as low as reasonably achievable.