WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerator clean room

  1. Design and construction of the clean room for proton beam accelerator assembly

    The objective of this report is to design, construction and evaluation of clean room for proton beam accelerator assembly. The design conditions o Class : 1,000(1,000 ea ft3), o Flow Rate : 200 m3/h m2, o Temperature : 22 deg C±2, o Humidity : 55%±5. The main design results are summarized as follows: o Air-handling unit : Cooling Capacity : 13,500 kcal/h, Heating Capacity : 10,300 kcal/h, Humidity Capacity : 4 kg/h, Flow Rate : 150 CMM o Air Shower : Flow Rate : 35 CMM, Size : 1500 x 1000 x 2200, Material : In-steel, Out-SUS304, Filter : PRE + HEPA, AIR Velocity : 25 m/s o Relief Damper : Size : Φ250, Casing : SS41, Blade : AL, Shaft : SUS304, Weight Ring : SS41, Grill : AL o HEPA Filter Box : Filter Box Size : 670 x 670 x 630, Filter Size : 610 x 610 x 150, Frame: Poly Wood, Media : Glass Fiber, Filter Efficiency : 0.3μm, 99.97%, Separator : AL, Flow Rate : 17 CMM, Damper Size : Φ300 Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the clean room, for high precision apparatus assembly laboratory

  2. Clean-room robot implementation

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in2 blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator

  3. 'How To' Clean Room Video

    McCarty, Kaley Corinne

    2013-01-01

    One of the projects that I am completing this summer is a Launch Services Program intern 'How to' set up a clean room informational video. The purpose of this video is to go along with a clean room kit that can be checked out by employees at the Kennedy Space Center and to be taken to classrooms to help educate students and intrigue them about NASA. The video will include 'how to' set up and operate a clean room at NASA. This is a group project so we will be acting as a team and contributing our own input and ideas. We will include various activities for children in classrooms to complete, while learning and having fun. Activities that we will explain and film include: helping children understand the proper way to wear a bunny suit, a brief background on cleanrooms, and the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of a space craft. This project will be shown to LSP management and co-workers; we will be presenting the video once it is completed.

  4. True Cost of Amateur Clean rooms

    Ramsey, W. Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the cost factors for clean rooms that are not professionally built, monitored or maintained. These amateur clean rooms are built because scientist and engineers desire to create a clean room to build a part of an experiment that requires a clean room, and the program manager is looking to save money. However, in the long run these clean rooms may not save money, as the cost of maintenance may be higher due to the cost of transporting the crews, and if the materials were of lesser quality, the cost of modifications may diminish any savings, and the product may not be of the same quality. Several examples are shown of the clean rooms that show some of the problems that can arise from amateur clean rooms.

  5. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  6. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.

  7. I'm dreaming of a white clean room...

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    New HIE-ISOLDE cryomodules are now under construction in a state-of-the-art clean room facility in SM18.   The HIE-ISOLDE clean rooms in SM18. HIE-ISOLDE is set to be the world's leading nuclear physics site, ultimately accelerating radioactive nuclei to an impressive 10 MeV/u. Helping the facility reach this energy are new superconducting cryomodules, the first quarter-wave cavity module to be assembled at CERN and necessitating a custom clean-room in SM18. At a towering five metres tall, the new clean room houses a custom assembly frame and associated equipment, moving the components of the 6 tonne cryomodules both vertically and horizontally while they are being assembled. "Each cryomodule is made up of some 10,000 parts, which have come from across the continents to be assembled here," says CERN TE engineer Lloyd Williams, who is managing quality assurance for the project. "Each part is checked by the CERN team, catalogued and thoroughly cleaned, befor...

  8. Solvent-free cleaning using a centrifugal cryogenic pellet accelerator

    Haines, J.R.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    An advanced centrifuge that accelerates frozen CO{sub 2} pellets to high speeds for surface cleaning and paint removal is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The centrifuge-based accelerator was designed, fabricated, and tested under a program sponsored by the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air ``sandblast`` pellet accelerators, the centrifugal accelerator system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as energy efficient. Furthermore, the use of frozen CO{sub 2} pellets instead of conventional metal, plastic, sand, or other abrasive materials that remain solid at room temperature, minimizes the waste stream. This apparatus has been used to demonstrate cleaning of various surfaces, including removal of paint, oxide coatings, metal coatings, organic coatings, and oil and grease coatings from a variety of surfaces. The design and operation of the apparatus is discussed.

  9. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    J. C. Kapoor; Meenakshi Gupta

    2003-01-01

    The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA)/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA) filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow ...

  10. Clean room installations in a radiopharmaceutical facility

    The standards of radiopharmaceuticals on the facility, working environment and preparation control strategy are yet to be generated. In general, radiopharmaceuticals have short half-lives and emit gamma radiation. Due to its unique characteristics, its preparation has to be made in the fume hood and hot cell to avoid radiation exposure to workers. Considering radiation protection, the working environment has to be maintained under negative pressure so that dispersion of radiopharmaceuticals should be avoided. On the contrary, a positively pressurized working environment gives clean atmosphere and prevents contamination with harmful microorganisms during preparation. Hence, it is required to harmonize for mentioned contradictory conditions in preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for the safety of workers and its quality assurance as well. Therefore, it is reasonable that good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceutical production facility should be constituted according to the standards for production of biological agents accompanied with a radiation shielding

  11. CMS inner detector assembled in a clean room

    Serge Bellegarde

    2006-01-01

    The inner detector for the CMS experiment is assembled in a specially designed clean room. These rooms are sealed so that impurities in the air do not get trapped in the detector while it is being assembled. This inner detector will eventually be installed at the heart of the CMS experiment, taking measurements of particles produced in the collision of either proton or lead beams.

  12. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    J.C. Kapoor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow fields, face velocity, number of air changes, make-up air fractions and precise control of other environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, airflow, noise, vibrations, electrostatic discharge, etc. are equally important.

  13. Spanish Government delegation in the ISR workshop clean room

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Some delegates were particularly interested in advanced technologies. The picture shows them in the ISR workshop clean room looking at components of vacuum chambers for experiments. From left to right: a delegate, Director-General Herwig Schopper demonstrating the lightness of a titanium chamber, another delegate, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine and Romeo Perin. See also 8202369.

  14. Some problems on rf breakdown in room temperature accelerator structure, a possible criterion

    The discussion is confined to high gradient, room-temperature accelerators which have clean well-finished cavity surfaces and good vacuum conditions. Breakdown-initiating mechanisms due to ''cold'' field electron emission occurring at isolated sites on broad-area cavity surfaces, where the field is enhanced, are described. The influences of an alternating field and transition time tunneling are taken into account. The thermal instability resulting in vacuum voltage breakdown is hypothesized to derive a new criterion for room-temperature accelerator structure. 18 refs., 5 figs

  15. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments

    Graves, Corey A.; Lupisella, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of wearable computing technology in restrictive environments related to space applications offers promise in a number of domains. The clean room environment is one such domain in which hands-free, heads-up, wearable computing is particularly attractive for education and training because of the nature of clean room work We have developed and tested a Wearable Voice-Activated Computing (WEVAC) system based on clean room applications. Results of this initial proof-of-concept work indicate that there is a strong potential for WEVAC to enhance clean room activities.

  16. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct. The...... increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation that...

  17. Accelerating Clean Energy Commercialization. A Strategic Partnership Approach

    Adams, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Locklin, Ken [Impax Asset Management Group (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    Technology development in the clean energy and broader clean tech space has proven to be challenging. Long-standing methods for advancing clean energy technologies from science to commercialization are best known for relatively slow, linear progression through research and development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D); and characterized by well-known valleys of death for financing. Investment returns expected by traditional venture capital investors have been difficult to achieve, particularly for hardware-centric innovations, and companies that are subject to project finance risks. Commercialization support from incubators and accelerators has helped address these challenges by offering more support services to start-ups; however, more effort is needed to fulfill the desired clean energy future. The emergence of new strategic investors and partners in recent years has opened up innovative opportunities for clean tech entrepreneurs, and novel commercialization models are emerging that involve new alliances among clean energy companies, RDD&D, support systems, and strategic customers. For instance, Wells Fargo and Company (WFC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have launched a new technology incubator that supports faster commercialization through a focus on technology development. The incubator combines strategic financing, technology and technical assistance, strategic customer site validation, and ongoing financial support.

  18. Microbial diversity in European and South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Schwendner, Petra

    Spacecraft assembly clean rooms are unique environments for microbes: Due to low nutri-ent levels, desiccated, clean conditions, constant control of humidity and temperature, these environments are quite inhospitable to microbial life and even considered "extreme". Many procedures keep the contamination as low as possible, but these conditions are also highly se-lective for indigenous microbial communities. For space missions under planetary protection requirements, it is crucial to control the contaminating bioburden as much as possible; but for the development of novel cleaning/sterilization methods it is also important to identify and characterize (understand) the present microbial community of spacecraft clean rooms. In prepa-ration for the recently approved ESA ExoMars mission, two European and one South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms were analyzed with respect to their microbial diversity, using standard procedures, new cultivation approaches and molecular methods, that should shed light onto the presence of planetary protection relevant microorganisms. For this study, the Her-schel Space Observatory (launched in May 2009) and its housing clean rooms in Friedrichshafen (Germany), at ESTEC (The Netherlands) and CSG, Kourou (French Guyana) were sampled during assembly, test and launch operations. Although Herschel does not demand planetary protection requirements, all clean rooms were in a fully operating state during sampling. This gave us the opportunity to sample the microbial diversity under strict particulate and molecular contamination-control. Samples were collected from spacecraft and selected clean room surface areas and were subjected to cultivation assays (32 different media), molecular studies (based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis) and quantitative PCR. The results from different strategies will be compared and critically discussed, showing the advantages and limits of the selected methodologies. This talk will sum up the lessons

  19. Laminated primary ceiling barriers for medical accelerator rooms

    In this work the performance of a number of laminated shields used as the primary ceiling barrier for high-energy accelerator rooms was investigated. The neutron and photon dose equivalent rates were measured outside each shield. Based on the measured photon level and the calculated x-ray leakage level the dose equivalent rate due to photons produced by neutron interactions with the shield materials was estimated. Shielding parameters for polyethylene were established for photons and neutrons. It was found that the barriers designed using the techniques given in an NCRP report suffered from excessive radiation leakage. (author)

  20. Characterization of predominant bacteria isolates from clean rooms in a pharmaceutical production unit

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To screen for the predominant bacteria strains distributed in clean rooms and to analyze their phylogenetic relationships. Methods and Results: The bacteria distributed in air, surfaces and personnel in clean rooms were routinely monitored using agar plates. Five isolates frequently isolated from the clean rooms of an aseptic pharmaceutical production workshop were selected based on their colony and cell morphology characteristics. Their physiological and biochemical properties, as well as partial 16S rDNA sequences, were analyzed. Results showed that all the five isolates belong to Gram positive bacteria, of which three were Staphylococcus, one Microbacterium and one Bacillus species. Sensitivity tests for these bacteria isolates to 3 disinfectants showed that isolate F03 was obtuse, and had low susceptivity to UV irradiation, while isolates F02, F01 and F04 were not sensitive to phenol treatment. Isolates F04, F01 and F05 were resistant to chlorhexidine gluconate. Conclusion: Bacteria widely distributed in clean rooms are mainly a group of Gram positive strains, showing high resistance to selected disinfectants. Significance and impact of the study: Clean rooms are essential in aseptic pharmaceutical and food production. Screening bacteria isolates and identifying them is part of good manufacturing practices, and will aid in finding a more effective disinfection method.

  1. Occupational doses due to photoneutrons in medical linear accelerators rooms

    Medical linear accelerators, with maximum photon energies above 10 MeV, are becoming of common use in Brazil. Although desirable in the therapeutic point of view, the increase in photon energies causes the generation of undesired neutrons, which are produced through nuclear reactions between photons and the high Z target nuclei of the materials that constitute the accelerator head. In this work, MCNP simulation was undertaken to examine the neutron equivalent doses around the accelerators head and at the entrance of medical linear accelerators treatment rooms, some of them licensed in Brazil by the National Regulatory Agency (CNEN). The simulated neutron dose equivalents varied between 2 e 26 μ Sv/GyRX, and the results were compared with calculations performed with the use of some semi-empirical equations found in literature. It was found that the semi-empirical equations underestimate the simulated neutron doses in the majority of the cases, if compared to the simulated values, suggesting that these equations must be revised, due to the increasing number of high energy machines in the country. (author)

  2. Performance evaluation of control room HVAC and air cleaning systems under accident conditions

    In light water reactors, control rooms and technical support centers must be designed to provide habitable environments in accordance with the requirements specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. Therefore, the effectiveness of HVAC and air cleaning system designs with respect to plant operator protection has to be evaluated by the system designer. Guidance for performing the analysis has been previously given in ANSI/ASME N509-1980 as well as in presentations at past Air Cleaning Conferences. The previous work is extended and the methodology used in a generic, interactive computer program that performs Main Control Room and Technical Support Center (TSC) habitability analyses for LWR nuclear power plants is presented. For given accident concentrations of radionuclides or hazardous gases in the outdoor air intakes and plant spaces surrounding the Main Control Room (or TSC), the program models the performance of the HVAC and air cleaning system designs, and determines control room (or TSC) contaminant concentrations and plant operator protection factors. Calculated or actual duct leakage, air cleaning efficiency, and airborne contamination are taken into account. Flexibility of the model allows for the representation of most control rooms (or TSC) and associated HVAC and air cleaning system conceptual designs that have been used by the US architect/engineers. The program replaced tedious calculations to determine the effects of HVAC ductwork and equipment leakage and permits (1) parametric analyses of various HVAC system design options early in the conceptual phase of a project, and (2) analysis of the effects of leakage test results on contaminant room concentrations, and therefore operator doses

  3. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  4. Education and research at clean room laboratory for silicon device technology at Masaryk University

    Mikulík, P.; Humlíček, J.; Kulha, P.; Hovorka, Miloš; Kadlec, Filip

    Warsaw: University of Warsaw, 2010. s. 242. ["Jaszowiec" International School and Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors /39./. 19.06.2010-24.06.2010, Krynica Zdroj] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : silicon * clean room * microelectronics laboratory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  5. Education and research at clean room laboratory for silicon device technology at Masaryk University

    Mikulík, P.; Humlíček, J.; Hovorka, Miloš; Kulha, P.; Kadlec, F.

    Praha: IOP AS CR, 2012 - (Fejfar, A.; Vetushka, A.) ISBN 978-80-260-0619-0. [Physics at Nanoscale. IUVSTA International Summer School /10./. Devět skal (CZ), 30.05.2012-04.06.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : silicon device technology * education and research * clean room laboratory Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  6. Clean laboratories and clean rooms for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    requirements are summarized of clean laboratory environments, for construction materials as well as for materials used during routine analysis, maintenance, and pitfalls in the analysis of radionuclides and elements at trace- and ultra trace levels. Current methodologies and practices are described for planning the installation of a clean environment as well as protocols for maximizing the benefit-to-cost ratio and for achieving QA/QC. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of radionuclides, and measurement of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA and XRF. Also included are papers contributed by experts from India, the Netherlands, the United States of America and the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf

  7. Cleaning Hospital Room Surfaces to Prevent Health Care-Associated Infections: A Technical Brief.

    Han, Jennifer H; Sullivan, Nancy; Leas, Brian F; Pegues, David A; Kaczmarek, Janice L; Umscheid, Craig A

    2015-10-20

    The cleaning of hard surfaces in hospital rooms is critical for reducing health care-associated infections. This review describes the evidence examining current methods of cleaning, disinfecting, and monitoring cleanliness of patient rooms, as well as contextual factors that may affect implementation and effectiveness. Key informants were interviewed, and a systematic search for publications since 1990 was done with the use of several bibliographic and gray literature resources. Studies examining surface contamination, colonization, or infection with Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or vancomycin-resistant enterococci were included. Eighty studies were identified-76 primary studies and 4 systematic reviews. Forty-nine studies examined cleaning methods, 14 evaluated monitoring strategies, and 17 addressed challenges or facilitators to implementation. Only 5 studies were randomized, controlled trials, and surface contamination was the most commonly assessed outcome. Comparative effectiveness studies of disinfecting methods and monitoring strategies were uncommon. Future research should evaluate and compare newly emerging strategies, such as self-disinfecting coatings for disinfecting and adenosine triphosphate and ultraviolet/fluorescent surface markers for monitoring. Studies should also assess patient-centered outcomes, such as infection, when possible. Other challenges include identifying high-touch surfaces that confer the greatest risk for pathogen transmission; developing standard thresholds for defining cleanliness; and using methods to adjust for confounders, such as hand hygiene, when examining the effect of disinfecting methods. PMID:26258903

  8. Education and research at clean room laboratory for silicon device technology at Masaryk University

    Mikulík, P.; Humlíček, J.; Kulha, P.; Hovorka, Miloš; Kadlec, Filip

    Rožnov pod Radhoštěm: TECON Scientific s.r.o, 2010, s. 455-456. ISBN 978-80-254-7361-0. [SILICON 2010 /12./. Rožnov pod Radhoštěm (CZ), 02.11.2010-05.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100907 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : clean room * microelectronic * silicon device technology Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  9. Accelerator driven radiation clean nuclear power system conceptual research symposium

    The R and D of ADS (Accelerators Driven Subcritical System) in China introduced. 31 theses are presented. It includes the basic principle of ADS, accelerators, sub-critical reactors, neutron physics, nuclear data, partitioning and transmutation

  10. Air cleaning in clean rooms. Super-cleaning of mini-environments by UV/photoelectron method; Clean room ni okeru kuki seijo. UV/hikari denshiho ni yoru kyokusho kukan no cho clean ka

    Fujii, T.; Suzuki, T. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Sakamoto, K. [Saitama Univearsity, Saitama (Japan); Yokoyama, Ss.; Hirose, M. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-04-20

    Prevention of wafer surface contamination is an important issue in semiconductor manufacturing as such contamination decreases LSI productivity. Although particulate contamination in work rooms is being reduced by newer cleanroom techniques, there are still sources of particulate contaminants, such as wafer delivering systems, wafer stockers, and load-lock chambers. Not only fine particles but also gaseous contaminants need to be controlled. The following introduces an outlook on various methods of removing such particle and gaseous contaminants. (author)

  11. Abrasive blast cleaning method for the renewal of worn-out acceleration tubes

    The degradation of the electrical properties of acceleration tubes emerging with performance time is known to be assigned mainly to impurities and surface breakdown tracks appearing on the inner surface of the insulators. Consequently, a radical treatment for removing the surface layer may result in a renewal of the tube. An abrasive blast cleaning procedure has been used on a set of worn-out acceleration tube units. The cleaned tube exhibited its original electrical characteristics and it has been used for more than 4000 h of operation up to the maximum rated voltage of our 5 MV electrostatic accelerator without any observable degradation. XRF and PIXE analytical measurements performed on used and blast-treated insulators as well as on electrode and pump oil samples reveal the contribution of elementary processes in the acceleration tube to the ageing of the tube and indicate the effectness of the blasting process used for the re-establishment of clean surface conditions. (orig.)

  12. Research on cw electron accelerators using room-temperature rf structures: Annual report

    This joint NBS-Los Alamos project of ''Research on CW Electron Accelerators Using Room-Temperature RF Structures'' began seven years ago with the goal of developing a technology base for cw electron accelerators. In this report we describe our progress during FY 1986 and present our plans for completion of the project. First, however, it is appropriate to review the past contributions of the project, describe its status, and indicate its future benefits

  13. Study of ultra-clean surfaces for accelerator structures

    For a TeV energy physics R and D on electron/positron linear colliders has been conducted hard at many laboratories from technologies of both normal conducting and superconducting. The high field gradient issue is a key to realize such a machine. Field emission limits seriously field gradient of rf cavities. Its cure is to eliminate particle contamination on cavity surfaces. It is a common issue in both normal conducting and superconducting cavities. We have started to study ultra-clean surfaces of niobium and copper applying semiconductor technologies. In this paper several results by various rinsing methods are presented and its relation with cavity performance is discussed. (author)

  14. Standard Test Method for Sizing and Counting Particulate Contaminant In and On Clean Room Garments

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of detachable particulate contaminant 5 m or larger, in and on the fabric of clean room garments. 1.2 This test method does not apply to nonporous fabrics such as Tyvek or Gortex. It only applies to fabrics that are porous such as cotton or polyester. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This test method provides not only the traditional optical microscopic analysis but also a size distribution and surface obscuration analysis for particles on a fine-textured membrane filter or in a tape lift sample. It utilizes transmitted illumination to render all particles darker than the background for gray level detection. Particles collected on opaque plates must be transferred to a suitable membrane filter. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associat...

  15. Report of the consultants meeting on good manufacturing practices and clean room requirements for radiopharmaceuticals

    carried out in special facilities often with shielding and remote handling to protect the operators from radiation exposure. There are international norms for radiation exposure allowed for radiation workers and strong national organizations for monitoring and implementing radiation protection measures. Being part of the national nuclear programmes, radiopharmaceutical production has been from the very beginning subjected to regulations of radioactive material handling, transportation and use. However, the systems of surveillance and control for pharmaceutical products have not been implemented in many places to the same extent as for radiation protection. There are also technical difficulties in harmonizing the requirements of radiation safety and pharmaceutical safety. Simultaneously, there have been several technical developments in the field of Quality Assurance of pharmaceuticals. The concepts of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and the requirements for clean rooms define quality of air for pharmaceutical production areas. Efforts have been made in recent years to apply these concepts also to radiopharmaceutical production. Significant progress appears to have been made in the developed countries and in the technology needed to fulfil these standards. The technical problems in upgrading the facilities of radioisotope laboratories to conform with the clean air requirements and the cost involved are still to be clearly understood in many developing countries. In many countries the regulatory authorities apply the same set of regulations for radiopharmaceuticals as for other pharmaceuticals. Some guidelines for radiopharmaceuticals have been published, e.g. Scandinavian, US FDA, Australian, Canadian and EU guidelines. No such guidelines are yet available from international agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or World Health Organization (WHO). A guideline from an international body of this nature would be very useful for institutions working

  16. Impact of assembly, testing and launch operations on the airborne bacterial diversity within a spacecraft assembly facility clean-room

    Newcombe, David A.; La Duc, Myron T.; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2008-10-01

    In an effort to minimize the probability of forward contamination of pristine extraterrestrial environments, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration requires that all US robotic spacecraft undergo assembly, testing and launch operations (ATLO) in controlled clean-room environments. This study examines the impact of ATLO activity on the microbial diversity and overall bioburden contained within the air of the clean-room facility in which the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) underwent final preparations for launch. Air samples were collected from several facility locations and traditional culture-based and molecular methodologies were used to measure microbial burden and diversity. Surprisingly, the greatest estimates of airborne bioburden, as derived from ATP content and cultivation assays, were observed prior to the commencement of MER ATLO activities. Furthermore, airborne microbial diversity gradually declined from the initiation of ATLO on through to launch. Proteobacterial sequences were common in 16S rDNA clone libraries. Conspicuously absent were members of the Firmicutes phylum, which includes the genus Bacillus. In previous studies, species of this genus were repeatedly isolated from the surfaces of spacecraft and clean-room assembly facilities. Increased cleaning and maintenance initiated immediately prior to the start of ATLO activity could explain the observed declines in both airborne bioburden and microbial diversity.

  17. Laboratory installation for cleaning of exhausted gases by irradiation with accelerated electrons

    A laboratory installation for the cleaning of exhaust gas containing NOx and SO2, using electron beams generated by the linear accelerator ALIN-10 (6.23 MeV) was developed in the Electron Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Laser Plasma and Radiation Physics. The aim of this method is to obtain simultaneous removal by precipitation with ammonia of NOx and SO2 exhaust gases from fossil-fuel power plants and iron steel industry. The main successive stages of this process are: obtaining of gaseous mixture, heating of dry gaseous mixture, evaporation of ammonia, irradiation with electron beams and filtration. (author) 2 Figs.; 2 Tabs.; 5 Refs

  18. Towards a common monitoring system for the accelerator and technical control rooms at CERN

    Arduini, Gianluigi; Bätz, M; Carron de la Morinais, J M; Manglunki, Django; Priestnall, K; Robin, G; Ruette, M; Sollander, P

    2000-01-01

    The communication and coordination between the CERN accelerator and technical control rooms will be a critical issue for an efficient operation of the LHC and its injectors, which are expected to provide also beams for fixed target experiments, for detector component tests and for other activities including machine development. Early detection of faults in the accelerator and technical infrastructure (electricity, cooling, etc.) and their possible consequences on operation are useful not only to prevent major breakdowns but also to recover from them and to reschedule efficiently machine operation to satisfy the overall beam time requests from the different and concurrent users. To meet these requirements a method to define and provide common monitoring tools for all the actors involved in machine operation has been established. This method has been applied to the SPS accelerator and is being implemented in the PS complex and in the SPS experimental areas.

  19. Seismic simulation and functional performance evaluation of a safety related, seismic category I control room emergency air cleaning system

    Under a nuclear contract MSA was required to design, manufacture, seismically test and functionally test a complete Safety Related, Seismic Category I, Control Room Emergency Air Cleaning System before shipment to the Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Station in Rowe, Massachusetts. The installation of this system was required to satisfy the NRC requirements of NUREG-0737, Section III, D.3.4, ''Control Room Habitability''. The filter system tested was approximately 3 ft. wide by 8 ft. high by 18 ft. long and weighed an estimated 8300 pounds. It had a design flow rate of 3000 SCFM and contained four stages of filtration - prefilters, upstream and downstream HEPA filters and Type II sideload charcoal adsorber cells. The filter train design followed the guidelines set forth by ANSI/ASME N509-1980. Seismic Category I Qualification Testing consisted of resonance search testing and triaxial random multifrequency testing. In addition to ANSI/ASME N510-1980 testing, triaxial response accelerometers were placed at specific locations on designated prefilters, HEPA filters, charcoal adsorbers and test canisters along with accelerometers at the corresponding filter seal face locations. The purpose of this test was to demonstrate the integrity of the filters, filter seals, and monitor seismic response levels which is directly related to the system's ability to function during a seismic occurrence. The Control Room Emergency Air Cleaning System demonstrated the ability to withstand the maximum postulated earthquake for the plant site by remaining structurally sound and functional

  20. Estimation of neutron backgrounds at neutron target room in JAERI 20 MV Tandem Accelerator Facility

    Two-dimensional discrete-ordinates codes have been used to calculate neutron backgrounds in the neutron target room and dose-equivalent rate outside of the JAERI 20 MV Tandem Accelerator building. The energy range of source neutrons used for the calculations was from 10 to 40 MeV. It is shown that the background neutrons at the position of the neutron detector in the target room are mainly composed of the floor-scattered neutrons, and with increase of the energy of source neutrons it becomes difficult to shield the neutron detector against the floor-scattered neutrons. It is also shown that the thickness of the concrete wall of the building is sufficient to reduce the dose-equivalent rate outside of the building. (author)

  1. The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions

    The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI)

  2. Selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system

    38 theses are presented in this selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system. It includes reactor physics and experiment, accelerators physics and technology, nuclear physics, material research and partitioning. 13 abstracts, which has been presented on magazines home and abroad, are collected in the appendix

  3. Clean room for the production of cold kits: two year experience with the production of kits for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals

    A new clean room has been designed and constructed at Radiopharmaceuticals Programme, BRIT keeping in view the functional aspects for the production of 'cold' kits for the preparation of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals for supply to nuclear medicine centers and is in operation, since October, 2008. This clean room is the first clean room in the country designed exclusively for cold kit production. The clean room was validated and trial batches were produced and quality controlled prior to put it in regular production operation. The clean environment is maintained by separate AHU (air handling unit) located out side the clean room. A technical crew maintain the AHU unit and maintain record of parameters such as humidity, air flow, blower speed, chiller temperature etc. During a typical batch production not more than two persons are present in the formulation room. The formulated solution (filtered through 0.22μ membrane filter) is passed though a pass box between the formulation and dispensing area. The no. of people allowed in the dispensing area which is a critical area of class 100 is restricted to not more than four that too no person is allowed to be in between direct flow of HEPA filtered air and the dispensing table. The number of vials to be dispensed is arranged in trays and 1 ml of the formulated sterile solution is dispensed into each vial and the vials are transferred in to the lyophilization chamber. Sterile vials are introduced into class 100 area and the vials are removed after lyophilization though a pass box. After lyophilization vials are sealed with aluminum caps and stored at 2-10 deg C. Since the commissioning of the new clean room, about 120 batches of 10 different kit products were prepared and 1,20,000 kit vials were supplied to various hospitals for nuclear medicine investigation

  4. Evaluation of neutron doses beyond of primary shielding of rooms housing clinical linear accelerators

    The growing need to build radiotherapy rooms in places with lack of available space leads to the necessity of unconventional solutions for the shielding projects. In most cases, adding metals to the primary barriers is the best way to shield the rooms properly. However, when photons with energies equal to or great than 10 MeV interact with nuclei of materials with high atomic number, neutrons are ejected and can result in a problem of radioprotection both inside and outside the room. Currently, the only empirical formula existing in the literature to assess the dose equivalent due to neutrons beyond the laminated barriers works only under very specific conditions, and a validation of this formula had not yet been done. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to verify the validity of the above formula for cases of primary barriers containing lead or iron sheets in rooms that house linear accelerators with 10, 15 and 18 MV. Moreover, such a code was used to evaluate the coefficient of neutron production and tenth-value layer for neutrons in concrete, both parameters that directly influence the equation studied. The study results showed that over 90% of the values compared between the formula and the simulations present discrepancies above 100%, which led to conclude that the formula from the literature produces values that do not match the reality. In addition, there were inconsistencies in the parameters that make up the formula, leading to a need to review this formula in order to build a new model that will better represent the real case. (author)

  5. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries includingDenmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles andgases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermalplasma, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafineparticles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a cleanroom. It was found that...

  6. Simultaneous extraction, derivatization and clean-up of sterols from soil using accelerated solvent extraction

    A one-step extraction, derivatization and clean-up technique for the determination of sterols in soil by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is presented. In this method, in situ derivatization of sterols using 99 % N, O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) + 1 % trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) was carried out inside the extraction cell. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MSD) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The effects of solvent, sorbent and temperature on the in situ derivatization of sterols were investigated using Ottawa sand fortified at 50 ppm sterol mixture (cholestrol, stigmasterol and stigmastanol). The extraction performed using dichloromethane at extraction pressure of 1500 p.s.i, temperature 60 degree Celsius and static extraction time of 15 min gave recoveries from 87 to 96 %. The effect of several types of sorbents as on-line clean-up by inclusion of sorbents in the extraction cell on the extraction efficiencies were investigated using spiked soil sample. Increase in static extraction time significantly improved the recoveries of the analytes. The utilization of integrated extraction, derivatization and clean-up strategy simplify and shorten the sample preparation step in an analysis. (author)

  7. Accelerated solvent extraction method with one-step clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil

    The application of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using hexane combined with neutral silica gel and sulfuric acid/ silica gel (SA/ SG) to remove impurities prior to analysis by gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was studied. The efficiency of extraction was evaluated based on the three hydrocarbons; dodecane, tetradecane and pentadecane spiked to soil sample. The effect of ASE operating conditions (extraction temperature, extraction pressure, static time) was evaluated and the optimized condition obtained from the study was extraction temperature of 160 degree Celsius, extraction pressure of 2000 psi with 5 minutes static extraction time. The developed ASE with one-step clean-up method was applied in the extraction of hydrocarbons from spiked soil and the amount extracted was comparable to ASE extraction without clean-up step with the advantage of obtaining cleaner extract with reduced interferences. Therefore in the developed method, extraction and clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil can be achieved rapidly and efficiently with reduced solvent usage. (author)

  8. Clean Coal Technologies: Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment [Russian Version

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world’s most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry’s considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbonconstrained world.

  9. Some folded issues related to over-shielded and unplanned rooms for medical linear accelerators - A case study

    Muhammad, Wazir; Ullah, Asad; Hussain, Amjad; Ali, Nawab; Alam, Khan; Khan, Gulzar; Matiullah; Maeng, Seongjin; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2015-08-01

    A medical linear accelerator (LINAC) room must be properly shielded to limit the outside radiation exposure to an acceptable safe level defined by individual state and international regulations. However, along with this prime objective, some additional issues are also important. The current case-study was designed to unfold the issues related to over-shielded and unplanned treatment rooms for LINACs. In this connection, an apparently unplanned and over-shielded treatment room of 610 × 610 cm2 in size was compared with a properly designed treatment room of 762 × 762 cm2 in size ( i.e., by following the procedures and recommendations of the IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 47 and NCRP 151). Evaluation of the unplanned room indicated that it was over-shielded and that its size was not suitable for total body irradiation (TBI), although the license for such a treatment facility had been acquired for the installed machine. An overall 14.96% reduction in the total shielding volume ( i.e., concrete) for an optimally planned room as compared to a non-planned room was estimated. Furthermore, the inner room's dimensions were increased by 25%, in order to accommodate TBI patients. These results show that planning and design of the treatment rooms are imperative to avoid extra financial burden to the hospitals and to provide enough space for easy and safe handling of the patients. A spacious room is ideal for storing treatment accessories and facilitates TBI treatment.

  10. Photoneutron contamination from an 18 MV Saturne medical linear accelerator in the treatment room

    Dose escalation with high-energy X rays of medical linear accelerators (linacs) in radiotherapy offers several distinct advantages over the lower energy photons. However, owing to photoneutron reactions, interaction of high-energy photons (>8 MV) with various high-Z nuclei of the materials in the linac head components produces unavoidable neutrons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photoneutron dose equivalent per unit therapeutic X-ray dose of 18 MV, GE Saturne 20 linac in the treatment room using Monte Carlo (MC) MCNP linac head full simulation as well as thermoluminescence dosemeter measurements. This machine is one of the old linac models manufactured by General Electric Company; however, it is widely used in the developing countries because of low cost and simple maintenance for radiotherapy applications. The results showed a significant photoneutron dose from Saturne 20 linac head components especially at distances near the linac head (<150 cm). Results of this work could be used in several applications, especially designing bunker and entrance door shielding against neutrons produced by photoneutron reactions in GE Saturne 20. However, a detailed cost optimisation for a specific room would require a dedicated calculation. (authors)

  11. Improvement of high-voltage performance of acceleration tubes by cleaning the walls with a high-pressure water jet

    Takeuchi, S. E-mail: takeuchi@tandem.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Nakanoya, T.; Kabumoto, H.; Yoshida, T

    2003-11-11

    We cleaned electrostatic accelerator tubes by applying a high-pressure water jet and examined their high-voltage performances at 1 and 3 MV. The cleaning was very effective in reducing discharge activities at their rated voltages. We did some experimental investigations with the tubes and their ceramic insulators. We found that removal of microparticles loosely bound on the vacuum-side ceramic surfaces had an important effect in eliminating the discharge activities.

  12. Control system and environmental parameters monitoring of the Tandetron Accelerator clean room

    A control system and monitoring of humidity and temperature implemented by means of a system based on a microcontroller, an intelligent sensor and a stage of power for the actuators handling is described. The change of the levels of reference of the control system and the monitoring of the physical controlled variables can be carried out from any connected computer to a local net or Internet. (Author)

  13. Occupational hazards control of hazardous substances in clean room of semiconductor manufacturing plant using CFD analysis.

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ya-Fei

    2015-02-01

    The manufacturing processes in chip industries are complex, and many kinds of raw materials and solvents of different nature are used, most of which are highly toxic and dangerous. During the machine preventive maintenance period, these toxic and harmful substances will escape from the sealed reaction chamber to the clean workshop environment and endanger the health of the workers on-site, resulting in occupational diseases. From the perspective of prevention, the spread and prediction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) that escaped from the metal-etching chamber during maintenance were studied in this article. The computational fluid dynamics technology was used for a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the indoor air velocity field and the HCl concentration field, and the simulation results were then compared with the on-site monitoring data to verify the correctness and feasibility. The occupational hazards and control measures were analyzed based on the numerical simulation, and the optimal control measure was obtained. In this article, using the method of ambient air to analyze the occupational exposure can provide a new idea to the field of occupational health research in the integrated circuit industry and had theoretical and practical significance. PMID:23293134

  14. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: ► Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. ► Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. ► Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. ► Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. ► Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  15. On isocentre adjustment and quality control in linear accelerator based radiosurgery with circular collimators and room lasers

    Treuer, H.; Hoevels, M.; Luyken, K.; Gierich, A.; Kocher, M.; Müller, R.-P.; Sturm, V.

    2000-08-01

    We have developed a densitometric method for measuring the isocentric accuracy and the accuracy of marking the isocentre position for linear accelerator based radiosurgery with circular collimators and room lasers. Isocentric shots are used to determine the accuracy of marking the isocentre position with room lasers and star shots are used to determine the wobble of the gantry and table rotation movement, the effect of gantry sag, the stereotactic collimator alignment, and the minimal distance between gantry and table rotation axes. Since the method is based on densitometric measurements, beam spot stability is implicitly tested. The method developed is also suitable for quality assurance and has proved to be useful in optimizing isocentric accuracy. The method is simple to perform and only requires a film box and film scanner for instrumentation. Thus, the method has the potential to become widely available and may therefore be useful in standardizing the description of linear accelerator based radiosurgical systems.

  16. Microbiological monitoring of clean rooms in development of vaccines Monitoramento microbiológico de áreas classificadas em desenvolvimento de vacinas

    Carla Lílian de Agostini Utescher; Marcia Regina Franzolin; Luiz Rachid Trabulsi; Valderez Gambale

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate an environmental monitoring program for clean rooms, or classified environments, involved in the filling and quality control of biological products produced by Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. This monitoring established the quantification, characterization and seasonality of the microorganisms in air and operators and, moreover, determined the alert and action limits. The total detectable microbial number showed some contrasts in installed ai...

  17. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for BNL accelerator and storage ring components

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its UHV components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which had to be environmentally and personnel safe, was needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which was still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on Photon Stimulated Desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel and oxygen free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 ev. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 1022 and 1023 photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and H2O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories

  18. Assessment of the Forward Contamination Risk of Mars by Clean Room Isolates from Space-Craft Assembly Facilities through Aeolian Transport - a Model Study

    van Heereveld, Luc; Merrison, Jonathan; Nørnberg, Per; Finster, Kai

    2016-07-01

    The increasing number of missions to Mars also increases the risk of forward contamination. Consequently there is a need for effective protocols to ensure efficient protection of the Martian environment against terrestrial microbiota. Despite the fact of constructing sophisticated clean rooms for spacecraft assembly a 100 % avoidance of contamination appears to be impossible. Recent surveys of these facilities have identified a significant number of microbes belonging to a variety of taxonomic groups that survive the harsh conditions of clean rooms. These microbes may have a strong contamination potential, which needs to be investigate to apply efficient decontamination treatments. In this study we propose a series of tests to evaluate the potential of clean room contaminants to survive the different steps involved in forward contamination. We used Staphylococcus xylosus as model organism to illustrate the different types of stress that potential contaminants will be subjected to on their way from the spacecraft onto the surface of Mars. Staphylococcus xylosus is associated with human skin and commonly found in clean rooms and could therefore contaminate the spacecraft as a result of human activity during the assembling process. The path the cell will take from the surface of the spacecraft onto the surface of Mars was split into steps representing different stresses that include desiccation, freezing, aeolian transport in a Martian-like atmosphere at Martian atmospheric pressure, and UV radiation climate. We assessed the surviving fraction of the cellular population after each step by determining the integrated metabolic activity of the survivor population by measuring their oxygen consumption rate. The largest fraction of the starting culture (around 70 %) was killed during desiccation, while freezing, Martian vacuum and short-term UV radiation only had a minor additional effect on the survivability of Staphylococcus xylosus. The study also included a simulation

  19. Air-born contamination caused in a high-energy proton accelerator room

    Surface contamination caused during the operation of 12-GeV proton synchrotron, KEK have been studied by gamma-ray spectrometry and imaging plate technique. The surface of accelerator component was wiped with the filter paper. PSL value of imaging plate contacted on the filter paper decreased according to the half-life of 2 weeks. Therefore, it was assumed that 32P might be produced from Ar by the high-energy protons and neutrons and deposited on the accelerator components. (author)

  20. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions open-quotes How much?close quotes and open-quotes What kind?close quotes of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room, patient open-quotes scatterer,close quotes and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h-1 was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  1. The different grading of 'clean rooms'; Les differents classements des ''salles propres''

    Desjardins, C.

    2000-03-01

    The grading of clean rooms is performed according to precise criteria depending on the intended purpose of the rooms. Validation of this grading is different depending on the country. In this paper, the author proposes a synthesis of the different technical points which can give help in making a choice: grading families (particulates, biological hazards, risks, good manufacturing practices, contamination kinetics, air-flow), validation of grading (French and foreign standards, 'as built', 'at rest' and 'operational' grading), grading based on particulates (different classes, choice for a given class, consistency between definitions, extra-grading), grading based on microorganisms (efficiency of filters), grading based on air flow (integral or partial laminar flow, turbulent flow), grading based on air flow rates (different types of air, mixing ratio, new air inflow ratio). (J.S.)

  2. Bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with local air cleaning for improved IAQ in hospital patient rooms

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mizutani, Chiyomi;

    2016-01-01

    the exposure to body generated bio-effluents in a hospital room was determined. Full-scale experiments were conducted in a climate chamber furnished as a single-bed patient room. Two heated dummies were used to simulate a patient and a doctor in the room. The patient was lying on a bed equipped with...... the VM. The patient's body was covered with either a cotton sheet or with the ACF material used as a blanket. Ammonia gas released from the patient's groins simulated the body generated bio-effluents. At the location of the groins the surface area of the VM was perforated through which the...... efficiently reduced the generated bio-effluents in the room with about 70%. Reduction in the exposure to body-emitted ammonia was up to 96% when the VM was operated at only 1.5 L/s and the ACF was used as a blanket....

  3. Research on cw electron accelerators using room-temperature rf structures. Annual report

    Highlights reported include: measurement of the 100 keV chopped beam emittance, completion of installation of the entire 5 MeV injector linac system with all rf power and drive, extensive field mapping of one end magnet, completion of construction of the 12 MeV linac for the racetrack microtron (RTM), installation of most of the control system, and first acceleration of beam to 5 MeV. Plans for completion of the project are discussed. When the RTM is operating, it is expected to have many unique performance characteristics, including the cw nature of the beam, high current, easily variable energy over a wide range, excellent emittance, and small energy spread. Plans for future uses in the areas of nuclear physics, dosimetry research and standards, accelerator development, and free electron laser research are discussed. 19 refs

  4. Study on contamination control in a minienvironment inside clean room for yield enhancement based on particle concentration measurement and airflow CFD simulation

    Noh, Kwang-Chul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Kim, Hyuk-Soon; Oh, Myung-Do [Department of Mechanical and Information Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    A study was carried out to look for the source of contamination and examine the route of contaminant transfer in the minienvironment applied in LCD process clean room of Korea. As the minienvironment model, one of the clean room with much large space and low particle concentration was selected to investigate. Firstly, the particle concentrations were measured without any information on the source and the route of contaminants transfer. Through considering the results of particle measurements and CFD simulations simultaneously, however, it was revealed that the critical contamination source was the stocker and the contaminants were transferred by the airflow pattern in this study. As an improvement action, reducing the airflow rate of exhaust fans and installing additional fan filter units (FFUs) were carried out. As a result, the velocity distribution was improved and the particle concentration was reduced in the target minievironment. Also, the defect rate related to this minienvironment decreased. With the help of the experimental and the numerical tools, the effective method for contamination control was developed. Furthermore, this article provides recommendation for future work to improve the yield and save the energy consumption simultaneously. (author)

  5. Activation products in a treatment room of a 15 MV linear accelerator for medical use

    De Leon M, H. A.; Soto B, T. G.; Rivera P, E.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: asa_15@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Linacs working above 8 MV produce an undesirable neutron field mainly through ({gamma}, n) nuclear reactions. Due to room-return effect inside the vault there is a thermal neutron flux that is constant regarded the distance to the isocenter. When thermal neutrons collide with the bunker walls and the Linac head some radioisotopes are induced in the concrete, wedges and collimators due to neutron and photon activation. The aim of this work is to study the induced radioisotopes in concrete samples and a wedge, which emits gamma-ray during its decay, the presence of this protons will represent a radiological risk for the patient. Induced radioisotopes were studied with a 15 MV Linac, and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a Nal(Tl) scintillator where 846.8, 1368.6 and 1778.8 keV gamma-rays were observed, these photons are produced during the decay of {sup 54}Mn, {sup 24}Na and {sup 28}Al respectively, being in agreement with radionuclides reported in the literature. (Author)

  6. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

    Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy

    2007-10-01

    The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required. PMID:17868819

  7. Improved eradication of Clostridium difficile spores from toilets of hospitalized patients using an accelerated hydrogen peroxide as the cleaning agent

    Dueck Christine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C. difficle spores in the environment of patients with C. difficile associated disease (CDAD are difficult to eliminate. Bleach (5000 ppm has been advocated as an effective disinfectant for the environmental surfaces of patients with CDAD. Few alternatives to bleach for non-outbreak conditions have been evaluated in controlled healthcare studies. Methods This study was a prospective clinical comparison during non-outbreak conditions of the efficacy of an accelerated hydrogen peroxide cleaner (0.5% AHP to the currently used stabilized hydrogen peroxide cleaner (0.05% SHP at manufacturer recommended use-dilution with respect to spore removal from toilets in a tertiary care facility. The toilets used by patients who had diarrhea with and without C. difficile associated disease (CDAD were cultured for C. difficile and were monitored using an ultraviolet mark (UVM to assess cleaning compliance on a daily basis 5 days per week. A total of 243 patients and 714 samples were analysed. The culture results were included in the analysis only if the UVM audit from the same day confirmed that the toilet had been cleaned. Results Our data demonstrated that the efficacy of spore killing is formulation specific and cannot be generalized. The OxivirTB® AHP formulation resulted in statistically significantly (p = 0.0023 lower levels of toxigenic C. difficile spores in toilets of patients with CDAD compared to the SHP formulation that was routinely being used (28% vs 45% culture positive. The background level of toxigenic C. difficile spores was 10% in toilets of patients with diarrhea not due to CDAD. The UVM audit indicated that despite the enhanced twice-daily cleaning protocol for CDAD patients cleaning was not achieved on approximately 30 - 40% of the days tested. Conclusion Our data indicate that the AHP formulation evaluated that has some sporicidal activity was significantly better than the currently used SHP formulation. This AHP

  8. Re-injection accelerates groundwater clean up at Fernald, Fluor Fernald, Inc

    A successful one year long, field scale demonstration of the use of groundwater re-infection at Fernald was recently completed bringing DOE one step closer to achieving an accelerated site remediation (DOE 2000). The demonstration marks the end of a several year effort to evaluate whether: re-injection could be conducted efficiently at Fernald, and if the approved aquifer remedy at Fernald would benefit by incorporating re-infection. Evaluation of re-injection technology involved not only technical considerations, but also participation and cooperation of regulators and stakeholders. The demonstration was considered to be unique in that it was integrated into the design of the current approved aquifer remedy and utilized the existing remediation infrastructure. Information collected during the demonstration indicated that re-injection wells could be operated efficiently at Fernald and that the current approved groundwater remedy should be modified to include the use of re-injection

  9. Presentation of a semiempirical method for the calculation of doses due to neutrons and capture gamma rays inside high energy accelerators rooms

    Full text: Medical electron accelerators operating above 10 MeV produce radiation beams that are contaminated with neutrons. Therefore, shielding design for high energy accelerator rooms must consider the neutron component of the radiation field. In this paper a semiempirical method is presented to calculate doses due to neutrons and capture gamma rays inside the room and the maze. The calculation method is based on the knowledge of the neutron yield Q (neutrons/Gy of photons at isocenter) and the average energy of the primary beam of neutrons Eo (MeV). The method constitutes an appropriate tool for shielding facilities evaluation. The accuracy of the method has been contrasted with data obtained from the literature and an excellent correlation among the calculations and the measured values was achieved. In addition, the method has been used in the verification of experimental data corresponding to a 15 MeV linear accelerator installed in the country with similar results. (author)

  10. Investigation of the Contamination Control in a Cleaning Room with a Moving AGV by 3D Large-Scale Simulation

    Qing-He Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motions of the airflow induced by the movement of an automatic guided vehicle (AGV in a cleanroom are numerically studied by large-scale simulation. For this purpose, numerical experiments scheme based on domain decomposition method is designed. Compared with the related past research, the high Reynolds number is treated by large-scale computation in this work. A domain decomposition Lagrange-Galerkin method is employed to approximate the Navier-Stokes equations and the convection diffusion equation; the stiffness matrix is symmetric and an incomplete balancing preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG method is employed to solve the linear algebra system iteratively. The end wall effects are readily viewed, and the necessity of the extension to 3 dimensions is confirmed. The effect of the high efficiency particular air (HEPA filter on contamination control is studied and the proper setting of the speed of the clean air flow is also investigated. More details of the recirculation zones are revealed by the 3D large-scale simulation.

  11. Experimental research of dose distribution and protection for mobile intra-operative radiotherapy accelerator in operating room

    Objective: To study the dose distribution characteristics for mobile intra-operative radiotherapy accelerator (Mobetron) in an operating room, and to provide basic data for developing appropriate radiation protection measures and protection standard. Methods: For most commonly used electron energy 9 MeV, TLD dosimeters were placed at 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm high plane, respectively. For each plane,the measurement points were selected at every 50 cm from the central axis at every 45° at eight different directions. Also different electron energies, such as 4, 6, 9 and 12 MeV, were taken into consideration at the plane at 100 cm height. After 10 Gy with a dose rate of 10 Gy/min were delivered, the TLD dosimeters were used to read out the data. Results: For 9 MeV, at the phantom plane (100 cm high plane), the average doses were 169, 756, 395 and 241 μSv at 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm from the central axis,respectively. The maximum deviation between the doses at 50 cm from the central axis in different angles and their average values were 9.1%. In the identical angle, the average doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm high planes at the distance of 100 cm from central axis were 527, 756, 570 and 141 μSv, respectively. For the energies of 4, 6, 9 and 12 MeV, the average doses were 573, 486, 689 and 781 μSv at 100 cm from the central axis at 90° of 100 cm high plane. Conclusions: For the same energy,the dose values at different directions were decreased by the minus exponential function law with the distance. The doses were uniformly distributed at different directions at the same distance from the central axis. The doses on the plane of 100 cm height were much higher than those at other heights,and the dose values were increased with the election energy. (authors)

  12. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for Brookhaven National Laboratory accelerator and storage ring components

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which has to be environmentally and personnel safe, is needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which is still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on photon stimulated desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel, and oxygen-free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 eV. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils, and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 1022 and 1023 photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H2, CO, CO2, CH4, and H2O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories. After modification, the new UHV cleaning process was accepted by BNL

  13. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  14. Measurement of the neutron spectrum in a room with an accelerator Varian 2300C/D Linac using the Bonner multisphere spectrometer

    The generated neutron field varies considerably and depends on the beam energy, on the shielding of the accelerator, on the filters for beam homogeneity, and also on the mobile collimators and geometry of irradiation. The estimation of the component relative to the photoneutrons has practical interest for evaluation of the radiological risks for the workers and for the patient as well. Due to the high frequency magnetic field, and to the photon abundance resulting of the escape and scattering at treatment room, those measurements present some difficulties. Measurements of the neutron fields can be made with a Bonner spectrometer. Those system was calibrated with referred neutron standard sources and used for make measurements on a spot of the room where a Variant 2300C/D Linac is installed. The unfolding process used the BUNKI computer code for determination of the neutron spectra at the measurement spot

  15. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Isakson, K.; Vessell, A.L.

    1994-07-01

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ``best alternatives``: Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases.

  16. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ''best alternatives'': Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases

  17. Effect of cleaning and disinfection in dental treatment room%口腔诊疗环境清洁消毒效果的研究

    苏静; 张涛; 赵红

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京地区口腔诊疗环境现状,探讨提高口腔诊疗环境清洁消毒效果的方法及监测手段.方法 采用三磷酸腺苷(ATP)生物荧光检测法监测分层随机抽取的125所口腔医疗机构环境表面清洁现状,采用平行对照研究比较卡瓦布和乙醇棉的清洁消毒效果,分析菌落计数法与ATP生物荧光法数值的相关性.结果 采用ATP方法对医师侧操作台面、医师侧灯把手、患者左侧扶手分别对125份标本进行检测,医师侧操作台面合格率为45.6%;卡瓦布和乙醇棉经菌落计数法检测消毒合格率达100.0%,经ATP生物荧光检测法检测,合格率为50.0%;ATP法测定数值(RLU)与菌落计数法所计算的菌落形成单位(CFU)无明确相关性.结论 卡瓦布可以有效用于物体表面清洁消毒,口腔诊疗环境清洁状况需要加强监管,ATP生物荧光检测法可以作为快速监测的手段.%OBJECTIVE To identify the contamination status of general surface in dental treatment room in Beijing and to research on the disinfection and monitoring methods to improve the effect of environment cleaning. METHODS By means of ATP bioluminescence method, the contamination of object surfaces in 125 stratified randomly samples from Beijing dental clinics was evaluated. A parallel control study was conducted to compare the effect of alcohol gauze and CaviWipes. The correlation between the detected data of ATP bioluminescence method and plate culture method was analyzed. RESULTS With ATP bioluminescence method, among 125 groups of dental unit surface samples including light handle aside dentist, panel plate aside dentist and left armrest, the qualified rate in panel plate aside dentist was 45. 6%. With plate culture method, the qualified rate of alcohol gauze and CaviWipes was 100. 0%. The 1g RLU of bioluminescence method was not significantly associated with the lgCFU of plate-culture method. CONCLUSION CaviWipes can be effectively used in the

  18. Occupational doses due to photoneutrons in medical linear accelerators rooms; Doses ocupacionais devido a neutrons em salas de aceleradores lineares de uso medico

    Soares, Alessandro Facure Neves de Salles

    2006-04-15

    Medical linear accelerators, with maximum photon energies above 10 MeV, are becoming of common use in Brazil. Although desirable in the therapeutic point of view, the increase in photon energies causes the generation of undesired neutrons, which are produced through nuclear reactions between photons and the high Z target nuclei of the materials that constitute the accelerator head. In this work, MCNP simulation was undertaken to examine the neutron equivalent doses around the accelerators head and at the entrance of medical linear accelerators treatment rooms, some of them licensed in Brazil by the National Regulatory Agency (CNEN). The simulated neutron dose equivalents varied between 2 e 26 {mu} Sv/Gy{sub RX}, and the results were compared with calculations performed with the use of some semi-empirical equations found in literature. It was found that the semi-empirical equations underestimate the simulated neutron doses in the majority of the cases, if compared to the simulated values, suggesting that these equations must be revised, due to the increasing number of high energy machines in the country. (author)

  19. Microbiological monitoring of clean rooms in development of vaccines Monitoramento microbiológico de áreas classificadas em desenvolvimento de vacinas

    Carla Lílian de Agostini Utescher

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate an environmental monitoring program for clean rooms, or classified environments, involved in the filling and quality control of biological products produced by Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. This monitoring established the quantification, characterization and seasonality of the microorganisms in air and operators and, moreover, determined the alert and action limits. The total detectable microbial number showed some contrasts in installed air purification systems and in the operational impact on adopted procedures. The typical microbial population consisted of Staphylococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus sp and Penicillium sp. The highest microorganism concentration occurred during summer and springtime. The established internal alert and action limits supported the operational procedures. Therefore, the environmental monitoring program is recommended for other laboratories involved in the production of vaccines, hyperimmune sera and biopharmaceuticals.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar um programa de monitoramento microbiológico ambiental para áreas limpas, ou ambientes classificados, envolvidas na produção, envasamento e controle dos imunobiológicos produzidos pelo Instituto Butantan. Este monitoramento permitiu a quantificação, a caracterização e a sazonalidade da população microbiana presente no ar e nos operadores, e a determinação dos limites de alerta e ação. O número total de bactérias detectáveis revelou diferenças nos sistemas de purificação de ar instalados e o impacto operacional ocasionado pelos procedimentos realizados. A população microbiana característica foi composta por bactérias dos gêneros Staphylococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus sp e por fungos filamentosos do gênero Penicillium sp. A maior concentração de microrganismos ocorreu nos períodos de verão e primavera. Os limites internos de alerta e ação estabelecidos asseguram os

  20. Monitoring and evalution on the envirov mental clean level of hemodlalysis room%血液透析中心环境清洁水平的监测和改善

    唐钦妹; 郭淑霞; 叶亚莉; 黄文碧; 黄向红

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence and microbiological culture methods were used for evaluation of cleaning procedure changed before or after in hemodialysis room. These provide a real-time and effective method on monitoring and evaluation of the environmental clean level of hemodialysis room. Methods Choose five sites from the hemodiaylsis room and use ATP bioluminescence and microbiological culture methods to monitor and record the clean level of those sites before and after changing clean procedure, comparison of two results and evaluation of a new clean procedure. Results The mean of ATP bioluminescence method before changing clean procedure respectively is 788. 310. 530.600 and 900RLU, after cleaning procedure changed is 176. 130. 120. 220 and 239RLU. The mean of microbiological culture method respectively is 12. 4. 9. 6 and 8cfu, after cleaning procedure changed is 2. 1. 1. 1 and 2cfu. The surface contaminated level of homedialysis room was significantly reduced, the monitoring results of ATP bioluminescence are similar with microbiological culture method. Conclusions Effectively surface cleaning procedure can dramatically reduced the surface contaminated condition, ATP bioluminescence is much more quick and efficient technology used in monitoring and evaluation on the nosocomial environmental clean level.%目的 通过三磷酸腺苷(ATP)荧光监测法和微生物培养法去评价血液透析中心环境清洁程序改进前后的清洁水平变化情况,为血液透析中心环境清洁和监测提供一个实时有效的方法. 方法 选择透析室5个环境位点,通过ATP荧光监测法和微生物培养法去监测5个位点的清洁水平,通过改进现有的清洁方式再次进行监测并比较两次监测结果,评价改进后的清洁程序.结果 改进前5个监测位点ATP测量均值为788、310、530、600和900RLU,改进后清洁程序ATP测量均值176、130、1 20、220和239RLU.改进前微生

  1. Accelerating Protons to Therapeutic Energies with Ultra-Intense Ultra-Clean and Ultra-Short Laser Pulses

    Bulanov, Stepan S.; Brantov, Andrei; Bychenkov, Valery Yu.; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalinchenko, Galina; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Rousseau, Pascal; Reed, Stephen; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Litzenberg, Dale William; Maksimchuk, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    Proton acceleration by high-intensity laser pulses from ultra-thin foils for hadron therapy is discussed. With the improvement of the laser intensity contrast ratio to 10-11 achieved on Hercules laser at the University of Michigan, it became possible to attain laser-solid interactions at intensities up to 1022 W/cm2 that allows an efficient regime of laser-driven ion acceleration from submicron foils. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) computer simulations of proton acceleration in the Directed Coulomb e...

  2. Accelerating Protons to Therapeutic Energies with Ultra-Intense Ultra-Clean and Ultra-Short Laser Pulses

    Bulanov, Stepan S; Bychenkov, Valery Yu; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalinchenko, Galina; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Rousseau, Pascal; Reed, Stephen; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Litzenberg, Dale William; Maksimchuk, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    Proton acceleration by high-intensity laser pulses from ultra-thin foils for hadron therapy is discussed. With the improvement of the laser intensity contrast ratio to 10-11 achieved on Hercules laser at the University of Michigan, it became possible to attain laser-solid interactions at intensities up to 1022 W/cm2 that allows an efficient regime of laser-driven ion acceleration from submicron foils. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) computer simulations of proton acceleration in the Directed Coulomb explosion regime from ultra-thin double-layer (heavy ions / light ions) foils of different thicknesses were performed under the anticipated experimental conditions for Hercules laser with pulse energies from 3 to 15 J, pulse duration of 30 fs at full width half maximum (FWHM), focused to a spot size of 0.8 microns (FWHM). In this regime heavy ions expand predominantly in the direction of laser pulse propagation enhancing the longitudinal charge separation electric field that accelerates light ions. The dependence of the ma...

  3. Monte Carlo simulation for the production of neutrons inside the labyrinth function rooms radiotherapy in head rotation of medical linear accelerator use and energy operation

    This work consists of an analysis, through computer simulation using the Monte Carlo method, the production of neutrons generated by the interaction of the beam with useful materials that are heavy in head-accelerated linear medical use. We developed a computer model of the head of the linear accelerator Varian, where there was the ambient dose equivalent due to the neutrons H*(10)n the plane of the patient and the region of the labyrinth bunker for several angles of operating at energies of 10, 15, 18 MV. It was found that production of neutrons in the plane of the patient has direct dependency with increasing beam energy useful, since the labyrinth it appears that besides energy the operating angle also has a direct influence on the production of neutrons in the region of the labyrinth, consequently the door. Therefore, a survey of H*(10)n at various angles with different operating ranges of energy contributes to better planning studies concerning shielding doors in rooms radiotherapy. (author)

  4. Accelerating total body irradiation with large field modulated arc therapy in standard treatment rooms without additional equipment

    Polednik, Martin; Lohr, Frank; Ehmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a generic and ultra-efficient modulated arc technique for treatment with total body irradiation (TBI) without additional equipment in standard treatment rooms. A continuous gantry arc between 300 and 70 composed of 26 subarcs (5 per subarc) using a field size of 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} was used to perform the initial beam data measurements. The profile was measured parallel to the direction of gantry rotation at a constant depth of 9 cm (phantom thickness 18 cm). Beam data were measured for single 5 subarcs, dissecting the individual contribution of each subarc to a certain measurement point. The phantom was moved to 20 measurement positions along the profile. Then profile optimization was performed manually by varying the weighting factors of all segments until calculated doses at all points were within ± 1 %. Finally, the dose distribution of the modulated arc was verified in phantom thicknesses of 18 and 28 cm. The measured profile showed a relative mean dose of 99.7 % [standard deviation (SD) 0.7 %] over the length of 200 cm at a depth of 9 cm. The measured mean effective surface dose (at a depth of 2 cm) was 102.7 % (SD 2.1 %). The measurements in the 28 cm slab phantom revealed a mean dose of 95.9 % (SD 2.9 %) at a depth of 14 cm. The mean dose at a depth of 2 cm was 111.9 % (SD 4.1 %). Net beam-on-time for a 2 Gy fraction is approximately 8 min. This highly efficient modulated arc technique for TBI can replace conventional treatment techniques, providing a homogeneous dose distribution, dosimetric robustness, extremely fast delivery, and applicability in small treatment rooms, with no need for additional equipment. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieses Projekts war die Entwicklung einer generischen, hocheffizienten und modulierten Rotationsbestrahlungstechnik fuer Ganzkoerperbestrahlung (TBI, ''total body irradiation''), die ohne zusaetzliches Equipment in Standartbehandlungsraeumen angewendet werden kann. Ein

  5. Accelerated Clean-up of the United States Department of Energy, Mound Nuclear Weapons Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio

    CH2M HILL is executing a performance-based contract with the United States Department of Energy to accelerate the safe closure of the nuclear facilities at the former Mound plant in Miamisburg, Ohio. The contract started in January 2003 with a target completion date of March 31, 2006. Our accelerated baseline targets completion of the project 2 years ahead of the previous baseline schedule, by spring 2006, and for $200 million less than previous estimates. This unique decommissioning and remediation project is located within the City of Miamisburg proper and is designed for transfer of the property to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse. The project is being performed with the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation and their tenants co-located on the site creating significant logistical, safety and stakeholder challenges. The project is also being performed in conjunction with the United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency under the Mound 2000 regulatory cleanup process. The project is currently over 95% complete. To achieve cleanup and closure of the Mound site, CH2M HILL's scope includes: - Demolition of 64 nuclear, radiological and commercial facilities - Preparation for Transfer of 9 facilities (including a Category 2 nuclear facility) to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse - Removal of all above ground utility structures and components, and preparation for transfer of 9 utility systems to Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation - Investigation, remediation, closure, and documentation of all known Potential Release Sites contaminated with radiological and chemical contamination (73 identified in original contract) - Storage, characterization, processing, packaging and shipment of all waste and excess nuclear materials - Preparation for Transfer of the 306 acre site to the

  6. The effect analysis of concentrated cleaning and disinfection in the supply room to the anesthesia laryngoscope in the operating room%手术室麻醉喉镜供应室集中清洗及消毒效果分析

    卢春红

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨手术室的麻醉喉镜在经过供应室集中清洗、消毒之后的效果,分析其方法的应用性。方法 A组回顾性抽取分析我院于2011年1月至12月经手术室手工清洗、浸泡并消毒的麻醉喉镜200片。B组抽取2012年1月至2013年4月经供应室集中用全自动喷淋式清洗消毒机按标准流程清洗、高压蒸汽灭菌的麻醉喉镜200片。所有的麻醉镜片均采用目测法、带光源的放大镜检测法及细菌培养计数法鉴定消毒效果,并记录镜片的损耗率。结果 A组和B组麻醉喉镜片,目测法、带光源的放大镜检测法及细菌培养计数法合格率分别是95.50%和100.00%、91.00%和98.50%,87.50%和96.50%,均具有显著性差异。麻醉喉镜片损耗率为98.00%和99.31%,不具有显著性差异。结论麻醉喉镜片由供应室集中清洗、消毒灭菌效果优于手工清洗方法。不但保证了麻醉喉镜彻底清洗的效果和灭菌质量,而且人力和物质资源得到了共享,为医院节约了医疗成本,降低医疗风险,保证患者安全。%Objective: To explore effect of concentrated cleaning and disinfection in the supply room to the anesthesia laryngoscope in the operating room, and to analyze the applications of the methods. Methods: 200 pieces of anesthesia laryngoscope which were cleaned manual y, soaked and disinfected were selected in the group A. While 200 pieces of anesthesia laryngoscope which were cleaned and disinfected concentratedly with automatic spray cleaning machine according to standard procedures, high-pressure steam sterilization were selected in the group B. Al anesthesia laryngoscope were identified by the visual method, magnifying glass with light detection and the bacterial culture counting method, and their loss rate were recorded. Results: The pass percent of group A and group B in the verification of the visual method, magnifying glass with light detection and the bacterial culture counting

  7. Dust explosion accident in IC cleanroom and its prevention by automation; IC seizo clean room deno haiki duct funjin bakuhatsu jiko to jidoka ni yoru saihatsu boshi

    Harada, H. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-30

    This paper describes dust explosion accident in IC cleanroom and its prevention measures. A dust explosion occurred during periodical cleaning works of dust deposits in an exhaust duct of plasma CVD system in an IC factory in Toyama Prefecture in August, 1996, which killed one worker. Dust was removed by flowing a large amount of air in the duct from the end of duct. This dust is combustible, and it was well known that a dust explosion occurs when mixed with air. Nitrogen gas is used for the transport of powders with high risk of explosion, such as wheat flour and toner, and the full automatic operation is adopted. The prevention of this accident is to adopt automation based on the principle of powder transportation. A safety detection-type safety system has been proposed so as to remove the dust deposits in the duct automatically as well as to detect the deposition conditions in the duct. Based on the comparison between monitoring data of operation in an exhaust duct and past data, operation conditions of duct can be confirmed to ensure the safety by stopping the CVD system urgently when safety can not be confirmed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Control system and environmental parameters monitoring of the Tandetron Accelerator clean room; Sistema de control y monitoreo de parametros ambientales del cuarto limpio del acelerador Tandetron

    Mejia V, M.E.; Garcia H, J.M.; Flores M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mmejia@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    A control system and monitoring of humidity and temperature implemented by means of a system based on a microcontroller, an intelligent sensor and a stage of power for the actuators handling is described. The change of the levels of reference of the control system and the monitoring of the physical controlled variables can be carried out from any connected computer to a local net or Internet. (Author)

  9. 供应室对器械的清洗消毒灭菌的质量监测管理探究%Cleaning Supply Room Disinfection and Sterilization of Instruments of Quality Monitoring and Management Inquiry

    刁蓓蓓

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨研究供应室对器械清洗消毒灭菌的质量检测管理.方法 利用调查问卷表的形式进行调查分析,把2014年3月~2015年2月予以全面且系统的质量监测管理作为研究阶段,抽取调查表共80份;将2012年3月~2013年2月未实施质量监测管理时期作为对照阶段,抽取调查表共80份,对比分析两个阶段器械性能完好满意情况和器械清洗消毒灭菌合格情况.结果 研究阶段器械性能完好满意度为96.27%,器械清洗消毒灭菌合格率为100.0%;对照阶段器械性能完好满意度为83.75%,器械清洗消毒灭菌合格率为87.5%,数据比较差异明显(P<0.05).结论从研究结果来看,供应室在器械清洗消毒灭菌中,加强质量监测管理,可提高器械清洗消毒灭菌合格率,减轻环境污染,保证患者安全.%Objective To evaluate research on equipment cleaning supply room disinfection and sterilization quality control management.Methods The survey questionnaire form of investigation and analysis, the March 2014~ February 2015 to be comprehensive quality monitoring and management system as the research stage, taking a total of 80 questionnaires; the March 2012~2013 February We may not implemented quality monitoring and management time as a control stage, taking a total of 80 questionnaires, comparative analysis of the two stages of instrument performance and satisfaction with good cleaning and disinfection equipment sterilization qualified situation.Results The study period instrument performance intact satisfaction 96.27%, cleaning and disinfection equipment sterilization pass rate of 100%; the control stage equipment performance intact satisfaction 83.75%, cleaning and disinfection equipment sterilization pass rate of 87.5%, the difference was obvious data (P<0.05).Conclusion From the research Results , the supply chamber cleaning and disinfection equipment sterilization, strengthen quality monitoring and management, cleaning and disinfection

  10. Intraoperative radiotherapy in the theatre room with electron beams: technical and dosimetric description of Sordina LIAC accelerator; Radioterapia intraoperatoria en quirofano con haces de electrones: descripcion tecnica y dosimetrica del acelerador dedicado Sordina LIAC

    Sendon del Rio, J. R.; Ayala Lazaro, R.; Gomez Cores, S.; Garcia Hernandez, M. J.; Polo Cezon, R.; Jimenez Rojas, R.; Lopez Bote, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    n this work we show our experience during the commissioning of a mobile electron-beam accelerator dedicated to intraoperative radiation therapy in the theatre room. The linac is a Sordina LIAC 12 MeV model with a hard-docking applicator system. We describe the linac, the measurement methods and the specific dosimetry. The dosimetric behavior is also discussed. Differences with other applicator systems can be explained from the particular head design of the linac. (Author)

  11. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  12. Plasma Cleaning

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  13. AVESTAR Center for clean energy plant operators of the future

    Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Clean energy plants in the modern grid era will increasingly exploit carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), fuel/product flexibility, and load following. Integrated power/process plants will require next generation of well-trained engineering and operations professionals. High-fidelity dynamic simulators are well suited for training, education, and R&D on clean energy plant operations. Combining Operator Training System (OTS) with 3D virtual Immersive Training System (ITS) enables simultaneous training of control room and plant field operators of the future. Strong collaboration between industry, academia, and government is required to address advanced R&D challenges. AVESTAR Center brings together simulation technology and world-class expertise focused on accelerating development of clean energy plants and operators of the future.

  14. Hypoxia Room

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypoxia Room is a 8x8x8 ft. clear vinyl plastic and aluminum frame construction enclosure located within USAREIM laboratory 028. The Hypoxia Room (manufactured...

  15. Economic and energy benefits in clean rooms, case of study: natural illumination and insulating capacity of the lagging; Beneficios economicos y energeticos en cuartos limpios, caso de estudio: iluminacion natural y capacidad aislante de la envolvente

    Torres Rodriguez, Agustin; Morillon Galvez, David [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    The objective of the present article is to show the electrical energy saving in clean rooms used to make pharmaceutical products using natural illumination instead of using fluorescent lamps. A study is performed in steady state of the heat load of buildings during three hours in order to observe the thermal its thermal behavior. And it is observed that at 1:00 o'clock p.m. the greatest heat load appears. With the global heat transference coefficients proposed in the official Mexican Norm NOM-008-ENER-2001 the heat load by conduction and convection of the building is estimated. Finally a bimonthly economic study of the energy saving of energy of the air conditioning system was realized with the system of artificial lighting and the system of natural illumination. All this study was realized in a site with temperate climate (Fraccionamiento Industrial Xalostoc, Ecatepec de Morelos, Estado de Mexico). [Spanish] El objetivo del presente articulo es mostrar el ahorro de energia electrica en cuartos limpios utilizados para elaborar productos farmaceuticos utilizando iluminacion natural en ves de utilizar lamparas fluorescentes. Se realiza un estudio en estado estable de la carga de calor de edificios para tres horas con la finalidad de observar el comportamiento termico de este. Y se observa que a las 13:00 horas se presenta la mayor carga de calor. Con los coeficientes globales de transferencia de calor propuestos en la norma oficial mexicana NOM-008-ENER-2001 se estima la carga de calor por conduccion y conveccion del edificio. Finalmente se realizo un estudio economico bimestral del ahorro de energia del sistema de aire acondicionado con el sistema de iluminacion artificial y con el sistema de iluminacion natural. Todo este estudio se realizo en un sitio con clima templado (fraccionamiento industrial Xalostoc, Ecatepec de Morelos Estado de Mexico).

  16. Clean data

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  17. Geometrically focused neutral beam accelerators

    A more reliable 40 kV, 65 A power supply drain at 0.4 A/cm2, neutral-beam accelerator was developed for the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX). Multiple slotted aperture grids of 60% transparency are fabricated from refractory metal wires mounted to form a spherical surface. This geometrically focuses the beam by aiming individual beamlets at the center of curvature of the spherical grid (r = 3.2 m). We attain greater reliability and faster conditioning with geometrical focusing than with the previous technique of electrostatically steering beamlets to a common point. Electrostatic steering, accomplished by offsetting grid wires, is satisfactory if the offset of a beamlet is much less than the distance from the beamlet to the grids. It was found that Pierce Angle entrance grids performed better if sharper edged. A redesigned accelerator grid support structure reduced the number of ceramic-to-metal vacuum joints, and eliminated O rings between precisely aligned parts. The suppressor grid feedthrough is required to withstand a maximum voltage of 15 kV occurring during breakdown, greatly exceeding the operating voltage of 1.5 kV. Convenient fabrication and assembly techniques have been developed. Assembly of accelerators and plasma sources in a clean room appears to reduce the conditioning time. Following the successful testing of the prototype, eight 40 kV accelerators were built for TMX. Furthermore, ten 20 kV versions were built that are modifiable to 40 kV by exchanging the entrance grid

  18. RLA room 20 cleanout and stabilization

    This engineering report documents the decontamination and stabilization of the Rupture Loop Annex located in room 20 of the 309 building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor. Low level, mixed, and recyclable waste was removed from the room. Smearable contamination was removed and/or fixed in place with paint. The RLA was cleaned out and stabilized to meet the Environmental Restoration Contractor's turnover criteria

  19. Calculation of the structural shielding of the radiotherapy treatment room equipped with a linear accelerator type Tomo therapy Hi-Art in the Oncology Center of Chihuahua, Mexico

    The helicoid tomo therapy is an external radiotherapy system of modulated intensity, guided by image, in which the radiation is imparted to the patient using a narrow radiation beam in helicoid form, in a similar way to the scanning process with a computerized tomography. The tomo therapy equipment (Tomo Therapy Hi-Art) consists in an electrons linear accelerator with acceleration voltages of 6 MV for treatment and 3.5 MV for image, coupled to a ring that turn around the patient as this is transferred through this ring in perpendicular sense to the radiation beam. The radiation beam is narrow because has the maximum size of 5 x 40 cm2 in the isocenter. The intensity modulation of the beam is carried out with a binary dynamic collimator of 64 crisscross sheets, and the guide by image though a system of megavoltage computerized tomography. Opposed to the radiation beam, also coupled to the rotational ring, a group of lead plates exists with a total thickness of 13 cm that acts as barrier of the primary radiation beam. The special configuration of the tomography equipment makes to have the following characteristics: 1) the presence of the lead barrier of the equipment reduces the intensity of the primary beam that reaches the bunker walls in considerable way, 2) the disperse and leakage radiations are increased with regard to a conventional accelerator due to the increase in the necessary irradiation time to produce modulated intensity fields by means of the narrow radiation beam. These special characteristics of the tomo therapy equipment make that particularities exist in the application of the formulations for structural shielding calculations that appears in the NCRP reports 49, NCRP 151 and IAEA-SRS-47. For this reason, several researches have development analytic models based on geometric considerations of continuous rotation of the equipment ring to determine the shielding requirements for the primary beam, the dispersed and leakage radiation in tomo therapy

  20. Adjoint acceleration of Monte Carlo simulations using SCALE: A radiation shielding evaluation of the neutron generator room at Missouri S&T

    Sharma, Manish K.; Alajo, Ayodeji B.; Liu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    A deuterium-deuterium accelerator-type neutron generator was installed in the Nuclear Engineering Department at Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T). This generator is shielded by different hydrogenated and non-hydrogenated materials to reduce the dose rates in the vicinity of the facility. In the work presented in this paper, both SCALE6 and MCNP5 radiation transport codes were used to conduct two independent simulations. The new shielding analysis tool of SCALE6-MAVRIC, with the automatic variance reduction technique of SCALE6, was utilized to estimate and compare the dose rates from the unbiased MCNP simulation. The ultimate goal of this study was to compare the computational effectiveness offered by employing the MAVRIC sequence in the modeling of the neutron generator facility at Missouri S&T.

  1. Air Cleaning Technologies

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  2. Contact cleaning of polymer film solar reflectors

    Sansom, Christopher; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Sutter, Florian; Almond, Heather; King, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the accelerated ageing of polymer film reflecting surfaces under the conditions to be found during contact cleaning of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors in the presence of dust and sand particles. In these situations, contact cleaning using brushes and water is required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of existing cleaning processes on the optical and visual properties of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection shows that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  3. Memory's Room.

    Carruthers, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Liberal Arts Studiolo from the Ducal Palace at Guibbio, Italy. Discusses how the room's design and decoration mirrors its educational uses. Notes that the object of education was to provide the young person with a kind of mental library of materials that could be drawn upon quickly. (RS)

  4. Control room lay-out

    TRIUMF (Tri-University Meson Facility) is Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics. There are 6 accelerators and 3 Control Rooms at TRIUMF. The main control room serves the big cyclotron, the 500 MeV, and the adjacent experiment. The 42 MeV and two 32 MeV ones are production dedicated. These cyclotrons belong to a private company but are operated by TRIUMF staff from ATG (Applied Technology Group) Control Room. The last is ISAC (Isotope Acceleration and Separation) Control Room, from which the LINAC is controlled. Research areas cover theoretical (2 subjects), pure (5 subjects) and applied (8 subjects) physics. In the early '70s, as the 500 MeV was being completed, the first Control Room was built in the main accelerator building. The recent topics covered by this paper are proton and pion therapy, what are the operator's duties?, the CP42, TR30 and TR13 cyclotron control rooms, the ISAC control systems including control room modification. Due to the nature of an operator's job, the Control Room layout is pretty important. This is true for any work environment, but when working shifts it becomes essential. Lots of time and effort, not to mention money, were spent to figure out the optimum configuration. It seems to me that the key factor in the control room layout is versatility, and this is because it has to keep happy a group of people with different inclinations, which have a tendency to become quite moody after the second night shift. No matter what, there will still be unhappy people, but we are trying our best. (Y. Tanaka)

  5. Waiting rooms /

    Taylor, Rachel Lee

    2014-01-01

    Waiting Rooms is a collection of poetry broken into five sections, each containing a separate intention of form and content. These fives sections remain in conversation with the overarching themes of the collection as a whole. This collection maps the multiple types of violence perpetuated against women in domestic and institutional settings, as well as its historical presence in literary fiction/poetry and pop culture entertainment. Taking cues from Modernist poetry, Shakespearean plays, and...

  6. Discussion on air supply velocity of the class Ⅰ clean operating room: Part 5 of the series of research practice of the revision task group of the Architectural technical code for hospital clean operating department%Ⅰ级洁净手术室送风速度的探讨——《医院洁净手术部建筑技术规范》修订组研讨系列课题之五

    牛维乐; 高龙; 王燕芹; 李屹; 党宇

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The revised code adjusts the average air velocity and the measure section height for the velocity in working area in the class Ⅰ clean operating rooms.Carries a theory research in order to obtain air supply velocity and air supply rate corresponding to average air velocity in working area.The results show that the air supply velocity should be up to 0.30 to 0.37 m/s and the air supply rate should be up to 6 800 to 8 400 m3/h for the class Ⅰ clean operating rooms,whose storey height is three meters,in order to obtain the average air velocity of 0.20 to 0.25 m/s in the projection area of air supply face at 1.2 meters from the floor.%修编的《医院洁净手术部建筑技术规范》(报批稿)对Ⅰ级洁净手术室工作区平均风速的检测断面高度和工作区平均风速均有调整.为了获得相应的工作区平均风速对应的送风速度和送风量,进行了理论研究,得出如下结论:对于层高为3.0m的Ⅰ级洁净手术室,为了在距地面1.2m高的送风面投影区域获得0.20~0.25 m/s的工作区平均风速,送风速度需要达到0.30~0.37m/s,送风量需要达到6 800~8 400m3/h.

  7. 17 April 2013 - UK Queen Mary University London Principal S. Gaskell in the ATLAS control room at LHC Point 1, LHC tunnel and ATLAS experimental cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and signing the guest book with CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    17 April 2013 - UK Queen Mary University London Principal S. Gaskell in the ATLAS control room at LHC Point 1, LHC tunnel and ATLAS experimental cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and signing the guest book with CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

  8. Clean catch urine sample

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  9. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    Spata, Michael; Fanning, Harry; Oren, Tom C

    2005-01-01

    The Machine Control Center at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort.

  10. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    The Machine Control Center at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort

  11. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    The Machine Control Center (MCC) at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facility's 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week maintenance period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort

  12. accelerating cavity

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  13. Dry Cleaning

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  14. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  15. Clean Evidence on Peer Pressure

    Falk, Armin; Ichino, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    While confounding factors typically jeopardize the possibility of using observational data to measure peer effects, field experiments over the potential for obtaining clean evidence. In this paper we measure the output of subjects who were asked to stuff letters into envelopes, with a remuneration completely independent of output. We study two treatments. In the 'pair' treatment two subjects work at the same time in the same room. Peer effects are possible in this situation and imply that out...

  16. CLEAN CITY

    2006-01-01

    Beijing is making every effort to handle its garbage in an environmentally sound manner Xu Yannian has gotten up at six in the morning each day for many years, so he can be ready when the garbage truck comes at 6:30 to collect the trash from the community in Beijing where he handles rubbish disposal. Xu manages the garbage room, an airtight, 50-square-meter space with more than

  17. On clean ideals

    Miaosen Chen; Huanyin Chen

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the notion of clean ideal, which is a natural generalization of clean rings. It is shown that every matrix ideal over a clean ideal of a ring is clean. Also we prove that every ideal having stable range one of a regular ring is clean. These generalize the corresponding results for clean rings.

  18. Evaluation of air cleaning technologies existing in the Danish market

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Five portable air cleaning technologies including one new technology were evaluated to find their effectiveness in removing ultrafine particles. Measurements were carried out both in a duct and in a test room. The results showed that the technologies that use/create ozone to clean air can increase...... the ozone level significantly in the room. Moreover, they can cause generation of ultrafine particles and consequently increase ultrafine particle concentration in the room. The study suggests using a mechanical filter with low pressure drop as a recommended air cleaning technology in order to remove...

  19. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    The Machine Control Center (MCC) at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on work-flow processes and ergonomic attributes. The renovation was performed in two phases during the summer of 2004, with one phase occurring during machine operations and the latter, more extensive phase, occurring during our semi-annual shutdown period. The new facility takes advantage of advances in display technology, analog and video signal management, server technology, ergonomic workspace design, lighting engineering, acoustic ceilings and raised flooring solutions to provide a marked improvement in the overall environment of machine operations

  20. Glow discharge cleaning of vacuum switch tubes

    Hayashi, T.; Toya, H. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Central Research Lab.)

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that glow discharge cleaning has ben advancing as a means of degassing vacuum chambers constructed for a large accelerator or for nuclear fusion research. To clean the whole surface of parts inside a vacuum switch tube (VST), a new technique is tried which generates glow discharge between the inner electrodes and copper grid surrounding it. Photographic observation reveals that the glow discharge spreads out and cleans the whole surface inside the VST. A breakdown test between the inner electrodes shows the effect of the cleaning with this technique. Higher breakdown voltage between the inner electrodes is attained by performing this glow discharge cleaning in argon rather than hydrogen gas. The difference of the cleaning effect seems to be attributed to that of the energy transfer from ion species to the absorbed molecules and microprotrusions on the surfaces.

  1. Accelerator development in BARC

    Charged particle accelerators have played crucial role in the field of both basic and applied sciences. This has been possible because the accelerators have been extensively utilized from unraveling the secrets of nature to diverse applications such as implantation, material modification, medical diagnostics and therapy, nuclear energy and clean air and water. The development of accelerators in BARC can be categorized in two broad categories namely proton and heavy ion based accelerators and electron based accelerators. The heavy ion accelerators with sufficiently high energies are currently being used for conducting frontline nuclear and allied research whereas the electron accelerators are being routinely used for various industrial applications. Recently, there is a strong interest for developing the high energy and high intensity accelerators due to their possibility of effective utilization towards concept of energy amplification (Accelerator Driven System), incineration nuclear waste and transmutation. This talk will discuss details of the accelerator development program in BARC with particular emphasis on the recent development at Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) Facility in Ion Accelerator Development Division, BARC. (author)

  2. Ionization Impact on the Air Cleaning Efficiency in the Interior

    Černecký Jozef; Valentová Karina; Pivarčiová Elena; Božek Pavol

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with ionization impact on efficient cleaning of air in a measuring chamber which has been cleaned and closed against any outer impacts (e.g. impurities, dust from another room, human odours). Smoking has an impact on the number of positive and negative ions including the concentration of particulate matter PM10. We investigated the ion concentration according to the presence of cigarette smoke in the room and according to the change of lit cigarette distance from the supply of...

  3. P-clean rings

    Weixing Chen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we unify the structures of various clean rings by introducing the notion of P-clean rings. Some properties of P-clean rings are investigated, which generalize the known results on clean rings, semiclean rings, n-clean rings, and so forth. By the way, we answer a question of Xiao and Tong on n-clean rings in the negative.

  4. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  5. r-clean rings

    Ashrafi, Nahid; Nasibi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    An element of a ring R is called clean if it is the sum of an idempotent and a unit. A ring R is called clean if each of its element is clean. An element r \\in R called regular if r = ryr for some y \\in R. The ring R is regular if each of its element is regular. In this paper we define a ring is r-clean if each of its elements is the sum of a regular and an idempotent element. We give some relations between r-clean and clean rings. Finally we investigate some properties of r-clean rings.

  6. Transition to Clean Technology

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr,William Robert

    2014-01-01

    We develop a microeconomic model of endogenous growth where clean and dirty technologies compete in production and innovation-in the sense that research can be directed to either clean or dirty technologies. If dirty technologies are more advanced to start with, the potential transition to clean technology can be difficult both because clean research must climb several steps to catch up with dirty technology and because this gap discourages research effort directed towards clean technologies....

  7. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  8. Air Cleaning at the USAEC Y-12 Plant

    This paper describes some of the air-cleaning requirements of production, research, development and biological facilities in the Y-12 area. Problems and their solutions in hazardous-material containment, air cleaning, contamination control, and air pollution control are enumerated. Bioclean and laminar-flow clean rooms, germ-free supply air systems, exhaust systems for handling toxic and radioactive materials, virus containment and exhaust facilities are described. The Plant's practices regarding air cleaning are discussed including standardization of specifications for high-efficiency particulate air filters and mounting frames, DOP testing of air filter systems, and the replacement of sub-standard filter installations. (author)

  9. On Perfectly Clean Rings

    Chen, H.; Halicioglu, S.; Kose, H.

    2013-01-01

    An element $a$ of a ring $R$ is called perfectly clean if there exists an idempotent $e\\in comm^2(a)$ such that $a-e\\in U(R)$. A ring $R$ is perfectly clean in case every element in $R$ is perfectly clean. In this paper, we investigate conditions on a local ring $R$ that imply that $2\\times 2$ matrix rings and triangular matrix rings are perfectly clean. We shall show that for these rings perfect cleanness and strong cleanness coincide with each other, and enhance many known results. We also ...

  10. Weak Nil Clean Rings

    Basnet, Dhiren Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a weak nil clean ring, a generalization of nil clean ring, which is nothing but a ring with unity in which every element can be expressed as sum or difference of a nilpotent and an idempotent. Further if the idempotent and nilpotent commute the ring is called weak* nil clean. We characterize all $n\\in \\mathbb{N}$, for which $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ is weak nil clean but not nil clean. We show that if $R$ is a weak* nil clean and $e$ is an idempotent in $R$, then the corner r...

  11. Object oriented programming interfaces for accelerator control

    Several years ago, the AGS controls group was given the task of developing software for the RHIC accelerator. Like the AGS, the RHIC control system needs to control and monitor equipment distributed around a relatively large geographic area. A local area network connects this equipment to a collection of UNIX workstations in a central control room. Similar software had been developed for the AGS about a decade earlier, but isn't well suited for RHIC use for a number of reasons. Rather than adapt the AGS software for RHIC use, the controls group opted to start with a clean slate. To develop software that would address the shortcomings of the AGS software, while preserving the useful features that evolved through years of use. A current trend in control system design is to provide an object oriented programming interface for application developers. This talk will discuss important aspects and features of object oriented application programming interfaces (APIs) for accelerator control systems, and explore why such interfaces are becoming the norm

  12. Dosimetry at a 400 keV accelerator

    Miller, A.

    1992-01-01

    Absolute calorimetric dosimetry and relative dose mapping methods are described for a 400 keV electron accelerator used for polymer curing and crosslinking experiments. These methods of dosimetry are also useful at accelerators used in gas cleaning processes.......Absolute calorimetric dosimetry and relative dose mapping methods are described for a 400 keV electron accelerator used for polymer curing and crosslinking experiments. These methods of dosimetry are also useful at accelerators used in gas cleaning processes....

  13. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  14. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  15. Accelerator-based BNCT

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the 9Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. - Highlights: • The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. • Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. • The present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. • Topics cover intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams and beam diagnostics, among others

  16. Determination of the neutron spectra in the treatment room of a linear accelerator for radiotherapy; Determinacion de los espectros de neutrones en la sala de tratamiento de un acelerador lineal para radioterapia

    Vega C, H.R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cuerpo Academico de Radiobiologia, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Barquero, R. [Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega, Valladolid (Spain); Mendez, R.; Iniguez, M.P. [Depto. de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    By means of a series of measures and Monte Carlo calculations the dosimetric characteristics of the photoneutrons have been determined that take place in volume to a linear accelerator of radiotherapy of 18 MV, LINAC, mark Siemens Mevatron model. The measures were carried out with thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD 600 and TLD 700 that were naked exposed and confined with cover of Cd and Sn, inside a sphere of paraffin and inside spheres Bonner. (Author)

  17. Room Temperature Superconductivity

    Luiz, Adir Moyses

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book on the subject of room-temperature superconductivity. The main purpose of the book is twofold. First, to show that, under suitable conditions, superconductivity can occur above room temperature. Secondly, to present general guidelines on how to synthesize a room temperature superconductor. The book begins with an introduction into the physics of the superconducting state and superconducting materials. The mechanisms of conventional, half-conventional and unconventional ...

  18. Improving operating room safety

    Garrett Jill; Hurlbert Scott N

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite the introduction of the Universal Protocol, patient safety in surgery remains a daily challenge in the operating room. This present study describes one community health system's efforts to improve operating room safety through human factors training and ultimately the development of a surgical checklist. Using a combination of formal training, local studies documenting operating room safety issues and peer to peer mentoring we were able to substantially change the culture of ...

  19. Health Physics counting room

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  20. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was...... equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C. The pollution load in the room was simulated by PVC floor covering. The subjects assessed...... acceptability of air quality, odour intensity and air freshness at both desks in random order. Lower odour intensity and higher air freshness was reported at the desk with DPV with the activated carbon filter. The results suggest that using local air cleaning devices integrated with DPV may improve perceived...

  1. Plasma accelerators

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  2. The Upstairs Room - Room for Controversy?

    Poole, Mary F.

    1973-01-01

    Doubtless everyone is tired of the subject of censorship; but I do have to give vent to my feelings when they are as intense as they are over the selection of a book as full of profanity as a Newbery honor book ( The Upstairs Room''). (Author/SM)

  3. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics.

  4. Gas bubbling cleaning method

    The present invention concerns a gas bubbling cleaning method for objects to be cleaned having complicate shapes such as reactor equipments. For instance, air is used as the gas, while water is used as the cleaning fluid. A jetting air is jetted out to an object to be cleaned from an air bubbling nozzle disposed below the object. This constitutes air/water two phase flow near the object to be cleaned, to generate a three dimensional circulating flow. The distance between the inner wall surface of a cleaning vessel and the object to be cleaned is set to greater than 5 mm, and the ratio between the air flow rate and the horizontal cross section of the cleaning vessel is set to 0.1 to 0.4m/sec. This enables to enter an appropriate amount of bubbles to the air at the inside of the object to be cleaned having a complicate shape. Accordingly, deposits adhered to the inside of the object to be cleaned can be eliminated and cleaned effectively. (I.N.)

  5. Personnel hazards from medical electron accelerator photoneutrons

    For medical accelerators, neutron penetration through the room entry door is the major personnel hazard. Most therapy accelerator rooms are designed with at least a rudimentary maze to avoid the use of massive doors. Often, however, the maze may be similar to those shown in scale outline drawings of some medical electron accelerator rooms where the authors have made neutron measurements outside the doors which were of different thicknesses and compositions. The results are tabulated. It should be noted that there can be significant dose equivalents (H) at the door when a maze is inadequate, and that all three components - fast neutron, thermal neutron, and neutron capture γ rays - can be equally important

  6. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Aurimas Ralys; Valdemar Prokopovič; Vytautas Striška

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitati...

  7. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Computer vision based room interior design

    Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.

  9. Virtual Seminar Room

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Fosgerau, Anders; Hansen, Peter Søren Kirk;

    1999-01-01

    The initial design considerations and research goals for an ATM network based virtual seminar room with 5 sites are presented.......The initial design considerations and research goals for an ATM network based virtual seminar room with 5 sites are presented....

  10. ALICE’s new meeting room

    2009-01-01

    There’s no reason to be late for a meeting in Wonderland (Point 2) anymore as ALICE gets a brand new conference room and a ‘clean up’. The new ALICE conference room.You won’t find Building 3294 on the CERN map yet, but it is already being used. If you follow the white rabbit just inside the entrance at point 2, you will find a new conference room and office space for 12 people. "Previously at Point 2 we’ve had very little office space at all. Our old conference room was inside the main building, SX2, but it was cramped and extremely noisy," explained Frank Cliff from ALICE. "As soon as they turned on the overhead cranes you could barely hear yourself think!" The plans for the new building were drawn up by the Civil Engineering Group, and construction started in August last year. The building was completed and already in use before Christmas. The 109 square metre conference room can fit up to 60 people and is fully equipped...

  11. Prizes awarded in fiscal 1999 by the Minister for International Trade and Industry on factories having applied excellent energy management. Energy conservation by installing fuel cell power generation facilities utilizing methane gas generated from waste water treatment plants / Improvements toward a clean room and energy saving air conditioning system; 1999 nendo energy kanri yuryo kojo tsusho sangyo daijin hyosho jusho. 1999 nendo shigen energy sho chokan hyosho jusho

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    In order to achieve energy conservation in a waste water treatment plant in a brewery factories, an anaerobic treatment facility was introduced, and a fuel cell power generation facility effectively utilizing methane gas generated from the anaerobic waste water treatment plant was installed. This has resulted in large reduction in the operating number of blowers in the waste water treatment facility of activated sludge system. In addition, electric power, steam, and hot water generated from the fuel cells are effectively utilized as the factory utility. In energy conservation in an optical communication device manufacturing factory, the fan filter unit system was adopted, having been changed from the circulation air conditioner, a conventional type air conditioning system. The present system is a circulation system integrating the fan with the filter, making it possible to circulate air in the room to perform control of temperature, humidity, and dust in a clean room. Thus, the system has eliminated the circulating air conditioner, and reduced the air conditioner capacity by 42% and power consumption by 58.6% compared with those in the conventional circulation system. (NEDO)

  12. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    For a number of years, the waterside pressure drops across the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) pod boilers have been increasing. The pressure drop increases have accelerated with time, which is the converse behaviour to that expected for rippled magnetite formation (rapid initial increase slowing down with time). Nonetheless, magnetite deposition remains the most likely cause for the increasing boiler resistances. A number of potential countermeasures have been considered in response to the boiler pressure drop increases. However, there was no detectable reduction in the rate of pressure drop increase. Chemical cleaning was therefore considered and a project to substantiate and then implement chemical cleaning was initiated. (authors)

  13. Workshop on Accelerator Operation (WAO 2001)

    The 3rd Workshop on Accelerator Operation (WAO 2001) followed earlier workshops in 1996 and 1998. Most topics relevant for the efficient and effective operation of accelerators were covered. These included the tools and utilities necessary in the control rooms; the organization of accelerator operation (process monitoring, shift work, stress); the monitoring of beam quality; safety issues and standards; and questions particularly relevant for superconducting accelerators, in particular cryogenics. (author)

  14. Convection From a Slender Cylender in a Ventilated Room

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Sandberg, M.

    1990-01-01

    with a negative buoyancy was supplied. The vertical distribution of both temperature and contamination in the room was measured as a function of the heat load and the air flow rate. The contaminant distribution showed a clear stratification between clean and contaminated air, while the temperature was...... measurements in the boundary layer flow around a heated vertical slender cylinder in a full-scale test room with displacement ventilation. Both velocity and temperature profiles in the boundary layer flow were recorded. The room was ventilated by a low velocity diffuser, standing on the floor, from which air...

  15. Particle accelerators and the environment

    This paper deals with particle accelerators as radiation sources utilizing radiation processing technology in application shaving environmental impact. A survey of electron beam (EB) accelerators used mainly in radiation processing technology is presented. Emphasis is given to processes like waste stream treatment as in off-gas cleaning in fossil-fuelled power plants, waste incinerators and industrial ventilation system. Also, application to waste management refers to disinfection of waste and sludge, besides other treatments. Another environment-related application of EB treatment is in waste prevention, known as clean technology as in desulph-erization of coal and of natural gas. The second category of clean technology is the production of polymers; like curing and cross linking

  16. Clean Energy Progress Report

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  17. Infrared steam laser cleaning

    Frank, Pascal; Lang, Florian; Mosbacher, Mario; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Steam Laser Cleaning with a pulsed infrared laser source is investigated. The infrared light is tuned to the absorption maximum of water (λ = 2.94 µm, 10 ns), whereas the substrates used are transparent (glass, silicon). Thus a thin liquid water layer condensed on top of the contaminated substrate is rapidly heated. The pressure generated during the subsequent phase explosion generates a cleaning force which exceeds the adhesion of the particles. We examine the cleaning threshold in single sh...

  18. Cleaning and surface properties

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  19. Films and dark room

    After we know where the radiographic come from, then we must know about the film and also dark room. So, this chapter 5 discusses the two main components for radiography work that is film and dark room, places to process the film. Film are structured with three structured that are basic structured, emulsion and protection structured. So, this film can be classified either with their speed, screen and standard that used. The process to wash the film must be done in dark room otherwise the radiographer cannot get what are they inspected. The processing of film will be discussed briefly in next chapter.

  20. The Virtual Dressing Room

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Gao, Yi; Petersson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a usability and user experience test of a virtual dressing room. First, we motivate and introduce our recent developed prototype of a virtual dressing room. Next, we present the research and test design grounded in related usability and user...... experience studies. We give a description of the experimental setup and the execution of the designed usability and user experience test. To this end, we report interesting results and discuss the results with respect to user-centered design and development of a virtual dressing room....

  1. RILIS laser room HD

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  2. RILIS laser room

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  3. Linear accelerator for tritium production

    For many years now, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a conceptual design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The APT accelerator will produce high energy protons which will bombard a heavy metal target, resulting in the production of large numbers of spallation neutrons. These neutrons will be captured by a low-Z target to produce tritium. This paper describes the latest design of a room-temperature, 1.0 GeV, 100 mA, cw proton accelerator for tritium production. The potential advantages of using superconducting cavities in the high-energy section of the linac are also discussed and a comparison is made with the baseline room-temperature accelerator. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. Linear accelerator for tritium production

    For many years now, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a conceptual design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (API). The APT accelerator will produce high energy protons which will bombard a heavy metal target, resulting in the production of large numbers of spallation neutrons. These neutrons will be captured by a low-Z target to produce tritium. This paper describes the latest design of a room-temperature, 1.0 GeV, 100 mA, cw proton accelerator for tritium production. The potential advantages of using superconducting cavities in the high-energy section of the linac are also discussed and a comparison is made with the baseline room-temperature accelerator

  5. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  6. Development of a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole accelerator facility for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    There is a generalized perception that the availability of suitable particle accelerators installed in hospitals, as neutron sources, may be crucial for the advancement of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). An ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT is described here. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4-2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. A folded tandem, with 1.20-1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ESQ chain is being designed and constructed. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is one of the technologically simplest and cheapest solutions for optimized AB-BNCT. At present there is no BNCT facility in the world with the characteristics presented in this work. For the accelerator, results on its design, construction and beam transport calculations are discussed. Taking into account the peculiarities of the expected irradiation field, the project also considers a specific study of the treatment room. This study aims at the design of the treatment room emphasizing aspects related to patient, personnel and public radiation protection; dose monitoring; patient positioning and room construction. The design considers both thermal (for the treatment of shallow tumors) and epithermal (for deep-seated tumors) neutron beams entering the room through a port connected to the accelerator via a moderation and neutron beam shaping assembly. Preliminary results of dose calculations for the treatment room design, using the MCNP program, are presented

  7. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might be...

  8. APT accelerator technology

    The proposed accelerator production of tritium (APT) project requires an accelerator that provides a cw proton beam of 100 m A at 1300 MeV. Since the majority of the technical risk of a high-current cw (continuous-wave, 100% DF) accelerator resides in the low-energy section, Los Alamos is building a 20 MeV duplicate of the accelerator front end to confirm design codes, beam performance, and demonstrate operational reliability. We report on design details of this low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) and discuss the integrated design of the full accelerator for the APT plant. LEDA's proton injector is under test and has produced more than 130 mA at 75 keV. Fabrication is proceeding on a 6.7- MeV, 8-meter-long RFQ, and detailed design is underway on coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) structures. In addition, detailed design and technology experiments are underway on medium-beta superconducting cavities to assess the feasibility of replacing the conventional (room-temperature copper) high-energy linac with a linac made of niobium superconducting RF cavities. (author)

  9. Classes of almost clean rings

    Akalan, Evrim; Vas, Lia

    2013-01-01

    A ring is clean (almost clean) if each of its elements is the sum of a unit (regular element) and an idempotent. A module is clean (almost clean) if its endomorphism ring is clean (almost clean). We show that every quasi-continuous and nonsingular module is almost clean and that every right CS and right nonsingular ring is almost clean. As a corollary, all right strongly semihereditary rings, including finite $AW^*$-algebras and noetherian Leavitt path algebras in particular, are almost clean...

  10. Laser surface cleaning

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  11. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  12. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    None

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  13. Nil-clean matrix rings

    S. Breaz; Călugăreanu, G.; Danchev, P.; Micu, T.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the nil clean matrix rings over fields. As a by product, it is proved that the full matrix rings with coefficients in commutative nil-clean rings are nil-clean, and we obtain a complete characterization of the finite rank Abelian groups with nil clean endomorphism ring and the Abelian groups with strongly nil clean endomorphism ring, respectively.

  14. Bedding disposal cabinet for containment of aerosols generated by animal cage cleaning procedures.

    Baldwin, C L; Sabel, F L; Henke, C B

    1976-02-01

    Laboratory tests with aerosolized spores and animal room tests with uranine dye indicate the effectiveness of a prototype bedding disposal cabinet in reducing airborne contamination generated by cage cleaning procedures. PMID:826219

  15. Cleaning techniques for intense ion beam sources

    Generation of high power lithium ion beams on the SABRE (1TW) and PBFA-X (20 TW) accelerators have been limited by the parallel acceleration of contaminant ions. during the beam pulse lithium is replaced by protons and carbon ions. This replacement is accompanied by rapid impedance decay of the diode. The contaminant hydrogen and carbon is believed to originate from impurity molecules on the surface and in the bulk of the lithium ion source and its substrate material. Cleaning techniques designed to remove hydrocarbons from the ion source have been employed with some success in test stand experiments and on SABRE. The test stand experiments have shown that a lithium fluoride (LiF) ion source film can accrue dozens of hydrocarbon monolayers on its surface while sitting in vacuum. Application of 13.5 MHz RF discharge cleaning with 90% Ar/10% O2 can significantly reduce the surface hydrocarbon layers on the LiF film. On SABRE, combinations of RF discharge cleaning, anode heating, layering gold between the source film (LiF) and its substrate, and cryogenic cathode cooling produced an increase by a factor of 1.5--2 in the quantity of high energy lithium in the ion beam. A corresponding decrease in protons and carbon ions was also observed. Cleaning experiments on PBFA-X are underway. New designs of contamination resistant films and Li ion sources are currently being investigated

  16. Future accelerators (?)

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made

  17. Future accelerators (?)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  18. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...

  19. Software Support during a Control Room Upgrade

    Michele Joyce; Michael Spata; Thomas Oren; Anthony Cuffe; Theo McGuckin; Isadoro Carlino; C. Higgins; Harry Fanning; Matthew Bickley; Brian Bevins

    2005-09-21

    In 2004, after 14 years of accelerator operations and commissioning, Jefferson Lab renovated its main control room. Changes in technology and lessons learned during those 14 years drove the control room redesign in a new direction, one that optimizes workflow and makes critical information and controls available to everyone in the control room. Fundamental changes in a variety of software applications were required to facilitate the new operating paradigm. A critical component of the new control room design is a large-format video wall that is used to make a variety of operating information available to everyone in the room. Analog devices such as oscilloscopes and function generators are now displayed on the video wall through two crosspoint switchers: one for analog signals and another for video signals. A new software GUI replaces manual configuration of the oscilloscopes and function generators and helps automate setup. Monitoring screens, customized for the video wall, now make important operating information visible to everyone, not just a single operator. New alarm handler software gives any operator, on any workstation, access to all alarm handler functionality, and multiple users can now contribute to a single electronic logbook entry. To further support the shift to distributed access and control, many applications have been redesigned to run on servers instead of on individual workstations.

  20. Clean coal technologies

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  1. Room for caring

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study explores how seriously ill hospitalized patients' experience and assign meaning to their patient room. Background Modern hospitals and the rational underlying care and treatment of today have their emphasis on diagnosis, cure and treatment. Consequently, aesthetics in the patient...... rooms such as a view of nature or natural light entering the room are often neglected in caring for these patients. Method A phenomenological-hermeneutic study design was applied and data was collected through multiple qualitative interviews combined with observations at a teaching hospital in Denmark......-being, relief and hope for the patients during serious illness. Therefore, these sensory impressions should be thought of as holding palliative potential and should be included as a part of caring for the seriously ill patients....

  2. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  3. Distributed UHV system for the folded tandem ion accelerator facility at BARC

    The 6 MV Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA) Facility at the Nuclear Physics Division, BARC is operational and accelerated beams of both light and heavy ions are being used extensively for basic and applied research. An average vacuum of the order of 10-8-10-9 Torr is maintained for maximum beam transmission and minimum beam energy spreads. The FOTIA vacuum system comprises of about 55 meter long, 100 mm diameter beam lines including various diagnostic devices, two accelerating tubes and four narrow vacuum chambers. The cross sections of the vacuum chambers are 14mm x 24mm for 180 deg., 38mm x 60mm and 19 x 44 mm for the and 70 deg. and 90 deg. bending magnets and Switching chambers respectively. All the beam line components are UHV compatible, fabricated from stainless steel 304L grade material fitted with metal gaskets. The total volume ∼5.8 x 105 cm3 and surface area of 4.6 x 104 cm2, interspersed with total 18 pumping stations. The accelerating tubes are subjected to very high voltage gradient, 20.4 kV/cm, which requires a hydrocarbon free and clean vacuum for smooth operation of the accelerator. Vacuum interlocks are provided to various devices for safe operation of the accelerator. Specially designed sputter ion pumps for higher environmental pressure of 8 atmospheres are used to pump the accelerating tubes and the vacuum chamber for the 180 deg. bending magnet. Fast acting valves are provided for isolating main accelerator against accidental air rush from rest of the beam lines. All the vacuum readings are displayed locally and are also available remotely through computer interface to the Control Room. Vacuum system details are described in this paper

  4. accelerating cavity from LEP

    This is an accelerating cavity from LEP, with a layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  5. Generalization of Strongly Clean Rings

    Singh, Abhay K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, strongly clean ring defined by W. K. Nicholson in 1999 has been generalized to n-strongly clean, {\\Sigma}-strongly clean and with the help of example it has been shown that there exists a ring, which is n-strongly clean and {\\Sigma}-strongly clean but not strongly clean. It has been shown that for a commutative ring R formal power series R[(x)] of R is n-strongly clean if and only if R is n- strongly clean. We also discussed the structure of homomorphic image of n- strongly cle...

  6. Clean Water Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  7. Nuclear air cleaning

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  8. A new main control room for the AGS complex

    A new Main Control Room (MCR) has been built to control the accelerators of the AGS Complex. A new physical environment was produced to better control light, sound, temperature, and traffic. New control consoles were built around the work-stations that make up the distributed control system. Equipment placement within consoles and console placement within the room reflect attention to the ''human factors'' needs of the operator. 1 ref., 2 figs

  9. PS Control Room

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  10. Local control room

    1972-01-01

    Local control room in the ejection building : all electronics pertaining to proton distribution and concomitants such as beam gymnastics and diagnostics at high energies will eventually be gathered here. Shown is the first of two rows of fast ejection electronic racks. It includes only what is necessary for operation.

  11. Room to manoeuvre

    Woof, M.

    2000-10-01

    Room and pillar mining is the best mining method for some situations and the use of the latest continuous miners can pay dividends. Mines in South Africa and the USA have shown high productivity. The advantages of this method are outlined. Major manufacturers such as Joy, Long Airdox and Voest Alpine are all investing in continuous monitoring to maximise productivity. 4 photos.

  12. Operating Room Status Monitoring System

    Kane, Francis R.

    1982-01-01

    A system has been devised at The Medical College of Virginia to schedule, monitor, and display the status of twenty-four operating rooms. A switch in each room indicates room status. Room status is matched with scheduling information to provide an airport-like display on 16 video monitors placed about the operating room area. Management and medical information is captured by the system.

  13. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  14. Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the radiopharmaceutical production

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Batista, Vanessa; Gomes, Antonio; Matsuda, Margareth; Fukumori, Neuza; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: tsbaptista@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A great challenge in the radiopharmaceuticals production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), involving the validation of process and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms and normative resolutions has led to a constant concern with programs and cleaning validation in pharmaceutical production. The main goal of GMP is to reduce risks inherent to pharmaceutical production, that is to reduce product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. The basic requirements to prevent contamination is the development and implementation of efficient cleaning programs. In the case of clean rooms for the production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals, the requirement for cleaning programs is evidently higher due to the characteristics of these areas with hot cells for radioactive materials, where sterile radiopharmaceuticals are manipulated and distributed before administration to patients just after minutes or hours of its preparation. In the Radiopharmacy Department at IPEN it was established a cleaning program for clean rooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (20% proxitane alfa). The objective of this work was to assess effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load in the clean rooms and equipment to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. The analysis was conducted using results of the environmental monitoring program with and settling contact plates in clean rooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population on the surface of equipment and clean rooms. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetric factor in each production process, as the main concern of pharmaceutical companies is the microbiological contamination, in

  15. Laser accelerator

    Vigil, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1979,W. B. Colson and S. K. Ride proposed a new kind of electron accelerator using a uniform magnetic field in combination with a circularly-polarized laser field. A key concept is to couple the oscillating electric field to the electron’s motion so that acceleration is sustained. This dissertation investigates the performance of the proposed laser accelerator using modern high powered lasers and mag-netic fields that are significan...

  16. Fabrication method for a room temperature hydrogen sensor

    Seal, Sudipta (Inventor); Shukla, Satyajit V. (Inventor); Ludwig, Lawrence (Inventor); Cho, Hyoung (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A sensor for selectively determining the presence and measuring the amount of hydrogen in the vicinity of the sensor. The sensor comprises a MEMS device coated with a nanostructured thin film of indium oxide doped tin oxide with an over layer of nanostructured barium cerate with platinum catalyst nanoparticles. Initial exposure to a UV light source, at room temperature, causes burning of organic residues present on the sensor surface and provides a clean surface for sensing hydrogen at room temperature. A giant room temperature hydrogen sensitivity is observed after making the UV source off. The hydrogen sensor of the invention can be usefully employed for the detection of hydrogen in an environment susceptible to the incursion or generation of hydrogen and may be conveniently used at room temperature.

  17. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C....

  18. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  19. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  20. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  1. Room for improvement

    Storvang, Pia; Dalby, Mette Strømgaard

    2015-01-01

    from a project with four Danish medium-sized manufacturing companies aiming to become more competitive in the European export market. In the project, one challenge was how to convey results from customer interviews and user studies from the researcher team (which in all instances included a company...... manager) to the development team in each company. We chose to collaboratively build a ‘war room’ in each of the companies to make sense of research materials and establish design principles for products that would better align with customer needs.......This paper develops the notion of a project war room as an innovation practice in companies. We argue that the consistent use of a project war room, in which customer and user research serves as a background for design work, improve the quality of product innovation. We describe our experiences...

  2. Chemical cleaning processes - present and future

    Corrosion products and impurities can accumulate in the secondary side of steam generators causing accelerated corrosion, steam flow disruption and heat transfer loss. Traditionally, chemical cleaning processes have been performed using multi-step processes that employ relatively concentrated reagents (e.g. EPRI-SGOG, 10-20 wt.%), that are applied at elevated temperatures. The use of such reagents dictates the use of large and relatively complex reagent handling systems for both reagent preparation and disposal. The significant duration and cost of each chemical clean has dictated that these cleaning processes are only applied on a remedial basis. An assessment of existing technology was carried out and improvements to the EPRI-SGOG processes are being developed. Results of these assessments are reported. Advanced processes are being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited that use lower concentrations of reagents, require shorter application times and generate lower amounts of waste. This technology can be used on a preventive basis to keep steam generators clean. Included are: A dilute regenerative process that is applied during shutdown. The dilute reagent is continuously recirculated and regenerated during the cleaning process, resulting in shorter application times using modular and portable equipment. The low reagent concentration results in a significantly reduced waste volume. For deposits containing both magnetite and copper a pseudo one-step process (using the same base electrolyte and pH) is used with alternate addition of oxidizing or reducing agents; A dilute on-line process that can be used while the reactor is operating. Such a process would be used on a periodic basis and dislodged oxides removed by blowdown or by mechanical means; Additives that can be used to keep steam generators clean. A demonstration of this technology is currently being planned. Details of these technologies will be described. (author)

  3. LIBO accelerates

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  4. Air Distribution in Rooms

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l......EA sponsored research "Air Flow Pattern within Buildings" is used for comparisons in some parts of the paper because various types of experiments and many countries are involved....

  5. Accelerator Applications Support Nuclear Science and Technology

    Accelerators are machines that use high voltages to produce artificial radiation in the form of beams of energetic particles. They are more versatile and safer than radioactive sources because the energy can be varied, and when the accelerator is turned off, so is the radiation. Accelerators are used for diverse applications such as to treat cancer, analyse artwork and old artefacts, clean up waste effluent gases, produce computer chips and map the structure of proteins. Accelerator technology makes a valuable contribution to the technological progress of a country, which in turn can also contribute to a country’s economic development

  6. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount of literature has been devoted to the effect of laser cleaning on marble and limestone, research into the effects on sandstone is limited. In the present paper, the effect of two cleaning methods, v...

  7. LensClean revisited

    Wucknitz, O

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the LensClean algorithm which for a given gravitational lens model fits a source brightness distribution to interferometric radio data in a similar way as standard Clean does in the unlensed case. The lens model parameters can then be varied in order to minimize the residuals and determine the best model for the lens mass distribution. Our variant of this method is improved in order to be useful and stable even for high dynamic range systems with nearly degenerated lens model parameters. Our test case B0218+357 is dominated by two bright images but the information needed to constrain the unknown parameters is provided only by the relatively smooth and weak Einstein ring. The new variant of LensClean is able to fit lens models even in this difficult case. In order to allow the use of general mass models with LensClean, we develop the new method LenTil which inverts the lens equation much more reliably than any other method. This high reliability is essential for the use as part of LensClean. Finally...

  8. Clean Assembly Practices to Prevent Contamination and Damage to Optics

    A key lesson learned from the earliest optics installed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was that the traditional approach for maintaining cleanliness, such as the use of cleanrooms and associated garments and protocols, is inadequate. Assembly activities often negate the benefits provided by cleanrooms, and in fact generate contamination with high damage potential. As a result, NIF introduced ''clean assembly protocols'' and related practices to supplement the traditional clean room protocols. These new protocols included ''clean-as-you-go'' activities and regular bright light inspections. Introduction of these new protocols has greatly reduced the particle contamination found on more recently installed optics. In this paper we will describe the contamination mechanisms we have observed and the details of the clean assembly protocols we have successfully introduced to mitigate them

  9. Induction accelerators

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  10. Effectiveness of ultraviolet devices and hydrogen peroxide systems for terminal room decontamination: Focus on clinical trials.

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A; Anderson, Deverick J; Chen, Luke F; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; Boyce, John M

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decade, substantial scientific evidence has accumulated that indicates contamination of environmental surfaces in hospital rooms plays an important role in the transmission of key health care-associated pathogens (eg, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Clostridium difficile, Acinetobacter spp). For example, a patient admitted to a room previously occupied by a patient colonized or infected with one of these pathogens has a higher risk for acquiring one of these pathogens than a patient admitted to a room whose previous occupant was not colonized or infected. This risk is not surprising because multiple studies have demonstrated that surfaces in hospital rooms are poorly cleaned during terminal cleaning. To reduce surface contamination after terminal cleaning, no touch methods of room disinfection have been developed. This article will review the no touch methods, ultraviolet light devices, and hydrogen peroxide systems, with a focus on clinical trials which have used patient colonization or infection as an outcome. Multiple studies have demonstrated that ultraviolet light devices and hydrogen peroxide systems have been shown to inactivate microbes experimentally plated on carrier materials and placed in hospital rooms and to decontaminate surfaces in hospital rooms naturally contaminated with multidrug-resistant pathogens. A growing number of clinical studies have demonstrated that ultraviolet devices and hydrogen peroxide systems when used for terminal disinfection can reduce colonization or health care-associated infections in patients admitted to these hospital rooms. PMID:27131140

  11. The Clean Air Act

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  12. Self-cleaning geopolymer concrete - A review

    Norsaffirah Zailan, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used construction materials for building technology. However, cement production releases high amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere that leads to increasing the global warming. Thus, an alternative, environmental friendly construction material such as geopolymer concrete has been developed. Geopolymer concrete applies greener alternative binder, which is an innovative construction material that replaces the Portland cement. This technology introduced nano-particles such as nanoclay into the cement paste in order to improve their mechanical properties. The concrete materials also have been developed to be functioned as self-cleaning construction materials. The self-cleaning properties of the concrete are induced by introducing the photocatalytic materials such as titania (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO). Self-cleaning concrete that contains those photocatalysts will be energized by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and accelerates the decomposition of organic particulates. Thus, the cleanliness of the building surfaces can be maintained and the air surrounding air pollution can be reduced. This paper briefly reviews about self-cleaning concrete.

  13. On f-clean rings and f-clean elements

    Ali H. Handam

    2011-01-01

    An associative ring R with identity is called f -clean ring if every element in R is the sum of an idempotent and a full element. In this paper, various basic properties of f -clean rings and f -clean elements are proved. Also, we give some new charaterizations of f -clean rings. In addition, we prove that the ring of skew Hurwitz series T = (HR, σ) where σ is an automorphism of R is f -clean if and only if R is f -clean.

  14. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  15. Computerized Operating Room Information System

    Helsel, Philip; Smith, R. Brian; Albin, Maurice

    1983-01-01

    In order to pursue greater efficiency of overall anesthesia resources and provide a database for operating room (O.R.) utilization, we have developed and implemented a computerized operating room information system (C.O.R.I.S.).

  16. Clean energy deployment: addressing financing cost

    New methods are needed to accelerate clean energy policy adoption. To that end, this study proposes an innovative financing scheme for renewable and energy efficiency deployment. Financing barriers represent a notable obstacle for energy improvements and this is particularly the case for low income households. Implementing a policy such as PACE—property assessed clean energy—allows for the provision of upfront funds for residential property owners to install electric and thermal solar systems and make energy efficiency improvements to their buildings. This paper will inform the design of better policies tailored to the creation of the appropriate conditions for such investments to occur, especially in those countries where most of the population belongs to the low–middle income range facing financial constraints. (letter)

  17. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  18. Radiation Protection Elephants in the Room

    As our system of radiological protection evolves, several significant issues loom within radiation protection discussions and publications. These issues influence the nature of epidemiological and radiobiological research and the establishment of radiation protection recommendations, standards, and regulations. These issues are like the proverbial elephants in the room. They are large, and it is unwise to ignore them. This paper discusses the impact of three young elephants as they make their presence increasingly obvious: increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation, terrorism and fear of radiation, and patient safety. Increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation is emerging as a discussion topic related to the safety of computed tomography (CT) and other medical modalities. Shortly after publication of CT dose data, manufacturers were helping to reduce doses to children by increasing flexibility for adjustment of technique factors. Also, radiation epidemiological data are being used in the development of guidance on exposure to chemical carcinogens during early life. Re-emergence of public fear of radiation has been fueled by threats of radiological dispersion devises and confusing messages about personal decontamination, emergency room acceptance or rejection of contaminated victims, and environmental clean-up. Finally, several professional publications have characterized risk of medical radiation exposure in terms of patient deaths even though epidemiological data do not support such conclusions. All three of these elephants require excellent science and sophisticated data analysis to coax them from the room. Anecdotal communications that confuse the public should be avoided. These are not the only elephants in the room, but these three are making their presence increasingly obvious. This paper discusses the need for radiation protection professionals to rely on good science in the evolution of the system of

  19. Oxidised cosmic acceleration

    We give detailed proofs of several new no-go theorems for constructing flat four-dimensional accelerating universes from warped dimensional reduction. These new theorems improve upon previous ones by weakening the energy conditions, by including time-dependent compactifications, and by treating accelerated expansion that is not precisely de Sitter. We show that de Sitter expansion violates the higher-dimensional null energy condition (NEC) if the compactification manifold M is one-dimensional, if its intrinsic Ricci scalar R-ring vanishes everywhere, or if R-ring and the warp function satisfy a simple limit condition. If expansion is not de Sitter, we establish threshold equation-of-state parameters w below which accelerated expansion must be transient. Below the threshold w there are bounds on the number of e-foldings of expansion. If M is one-dimensional or R-ring everywhere vanishing, exceeding the bound implies the NEC is violated. If R-ring does not vanish everywhere on M, exceeding the bound implies the strong energy condition (SEC) is violated. Observationally, the w thresholds indicate that experiments with finite resolution in w can cleanly discriminate between different models which satisfy or violate the relevant energy conditions

  20. On The Living Room

    Thomas Richards

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the work The Living Room, directed by the author, and reflects on its meanings and functions. The article confronts problems performance raises in relation to contemporary social life, bringing forward the isolation of life today and the possibilities performance offers to fight it. We problematise the crisis experienced by the author and the consequent creation of the work as a mobile performative device in relation to the staging space. Finally, the work questions the forms of interaction and type of participation possible in performance.

  1. Making room for volunteers

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    If campaigns do not accommodate this view, all but a hard core of regulars and fired-up partisans will drift away, leaving it for staffers and hired hands to do all the hard work of identifying voters, canvassing people by foot and by phone, and turning out the vote. [...] ironically, a campaign...... that is singleminded in its instrumental pursuit of victory can thus be less effective than one that is more accommodating- a campaign that makes room for volunteers by accepting that, unlike staffers, they come to politics with a different perspective and conception of what is and ought to be going on....

  2. Room in the wall

    Woof, M.

    2003-10-01

    Room and pillar techniques have a place in longwall mines. Speaking at Voest Alpine's recent mining symposium in Australia, Jim Bryja, senior vice president of RAG's US Eastern Operations said that gateroad development is becoming the major cost driver in longwall mines. The article gives highlights from some papers presented at the symposium, including those by Professor Horst Wagner of Leoben University. Andrew Myors of Newstan Colliery, NSW, Australia, discussed benefits of the latest continuous miners - his paper is reported in some detail. 2 photos.

  3. Introducing the Clean-Tech Adoption Model: A California Case Study

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The Clean-Tech Adoption Model (C-TAM) explains the adoption process of clean technology. Based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) combined with qualitative research and empirical data gathering, the model predicts adoption based on the perceived quality, effort, transition, experience and knowledge. Social media introduces a moderating effect, thus legitimizing its effectiveness as a marketing instrument on accelerating the adoption of clean technolo...

  4. Design to neutron shielding for medical LINAC therapy room

    Objective: To study the source of neutron in the therapy room and the essence of neutron scattering, to analyze the change patten of neutron dose in the therapy room as well as in the maze so as to design the shielding. Methods: Based on the measurement of the neutron flux for concerning points at the patient plane caused by a running 15 MeV accelerator and referred to NCRP report 79, this paper carried out the radiation protection design and calculation. Results: When X-ray produced by medical accelerator reached certain energy, photonuclear reaction is the main source of neutron contamination in medical accelerator room. The main target of protection is the scattered neutron that comes to inside entrance of the maze and the γ-ray caused by them. As a result neutron contamination has nothing to do with the therapeutic effect, but only to increase the dose commitment for relevant person. Conclusions: Neutron contamination has nothing to do with therapeutic effect, but only to increase the dose commitment for relevant person. Under certain conditions, it may also cause radiation insult to them. Therefore, certain attention should be paid the hazard caused by neutron external exposure, at the same time shielding design and evaluation should be implemented against the neutron contamination in medical accelerator room. (authors)

  5. Clean coal technologies

    The recent developments and implementations in clean coal technologies foe power generation and industry are reviewed in the present work. The requirements of the Clean Air Act in the United States, and the Directives of the European communities, on the limitations of emissions of pollutants from coal uses are firstly briefly reviewed, and later technological means that are available to coal producers and utilizers to comply with them. Coal cleaning, before combustion may be achieved by physical, chemical and biotechnological methods, these technologies are then examined as well as coal refining. The developments in clean coal combustion are extremely rapid, particularly in regard to poor coals, they are reviewed and in particular fluidized bed combustion, in its varieties, as well as coal gasification and combined cycle and the utilization of the gas in fuel cells. A further chapter is devoted to the control of emissions of gases from coal combustion, to reduce SO2 and NOx emitted in the atmosphere. The economic implications of the technologies are evaluated according to the most recent information available from published literature and from industry publications, and the results compared. The implications of meand to reduced the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere are also evaluated. (authors)

  6. Road-Cleaning Device

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  7. Mechanism of clean development

    The mechanism of clean development represents an opportunity to attract significant foreign investment for the realization of projects in a country like Colombia, characterized by its forest vocation and with enormous potential to reduce emissions in sectors of energy generation, industry, transport and agro-industry

  8. Burning clean and green

    A new style of oil burner has been developed for use on exploration platforms offshore. The design improves oil combustion through enhanced air induction, producing stable flames in the clean burn region which do not generate smoke and oil fallout. Successful tests have led to it now being ready for commercial exploitation. (UK)

  9. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  10. Clean Cities Tools

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  11. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  12. WINDOW-CLEANING

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  13. [Interstate Clean Transportation]. Final Report for FG02-99EE50591

    Wendt, Lee

    2002-07-19

    The Interstate Clean Transportation (ICTC) purpose is to develop a public-private partnership dedicated to accelerating the market penetration of clean, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in interstate goods movement. In order to foster project development, the ICTC activity sought to increase awareness of heavy-duty AFVs among truck fleet operators.

  14. CLEAN_LNAME: Stata module to clean lastname variables

    Adrien Bouguen

    2015-01-01

    This program removes blanks, accents, full stops, hyphens and apostrophes within a string variable. It also returns the uppercased version of the variable. clean_lname (together with clean_fname) is particularly useful for name matching procedure.

  15. CLEAN_FNAME: Stata module to clean firstname variables

    Adrien Bouguen

    2015-01-01

    This program removes blanks, accents, full stops, hyphens and apostrophes from a string variable. It returns the proper version of the variable. clean_fname (together with clean_lname) is particularly useful for name matching procedure.

  16. State of accelerator for therapy

    Maruhashi, A

    2002-01-01

    21 facilities carry out particle radiotherapy in the world and 6 facilities will start in the next year. They are shown in the table. 6 facilities of them exist in Japan. Small accelerator for proton therapy is developed. The area of them becomes smaller than 100 m sup 2. 5 makers, form, kinds of accelerator, length of track, beam energy of them are shown. States of particle radiotherapy in 4 facilities in Japan are explained by the kinds of particle, energy, beam intensity, time structure and radiation room. The important problems are reconsideration of building and compact rotating gantry. The problems of radiotherapy are explained. (S.Y.)

  17. Acoustic Echoes Reveal Room Shape

    Dokmanic, Ivan; Parhizkar, Reza; Walther, Andreas; Lu, Yue M.; Vetterli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Imagine that you are blindfolded inside an unknown room. You snap your fingers and listen to the room’s response. Can you hear the shape of the room? Some people can do it naturally, but can we design computer algorithms that hear rooms? We show how to compute the shape of a convex polyhedral room from its response to a known sound, recorded by a few microphones. Geometric relationships between the arrival times of echoes enable us to “blindfoldedly” estimate the room geometry. This is achiev...

  18. Status report on cleaning and maintaining laser disk amplifiers

    This report describes the activities and advances in engineering and technology made by the Solid State Mechanical Maintenance Group within the laser program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. It includes design and operation of clean rooms, contamination control on optical surfaces, cleaning techniques, and glass damage mechanisms. This report, a much expanded version of a section in the laser program's 1976 annual report, covers work accomplished from July 1976 to April 1977. It has been used as the source for five papers presented at various national conferences

  19. Performance and Effectiveness of Portable Air Cleaners in an Office Room

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, many people work in an office environment. Air pollutants, including particles and gases, are generated by humans and by different devices that are used in offices. Pollutants can also enter an office room with the air supplied from outdoors. It has been established that air pollutants...... have adverse health effects on human body. Air cleaning devices are commonly marketed as being beneficial for the health by removing air pollutants and consequently improving indoor air quality. The performance of five air cleaning technologies was tested in order to determine the generation of ozone...... and particles in an office room. The particle removal effectiveness of the technologies was also determined in order to clarify their ability to remove UFPs (ultrafine particles) in the office room. The tested five air cleaning technologies are non-thermal plasma, corona discharge ionizer, portable...

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  1. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are ...

  2. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  3. A microwave plasma cleaning apparatus

    Tsai, C. C.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.; Thompson, L. M.; Glover, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixtures of argon have been used for evaluating plasma cleaning technologies. Small aluminum samples (0.95 x 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films (less than or equal to 20 micrometers in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned with reactive plasmas. The discharge parameters, such as gas pressure, magnetic field, substrate biasing, and microwave power, were varied to change cleaning conditions. A mass spectroscopy (or residual gas analyzer) was used to monitor the status of plasma cleaning. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured cleaning rates of low-pressure (0.5-m torr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 micrometers/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces. In this paper, significant results of the plasma cleaning are reported and discussed.

  4. Niobium LEP 2 accelerating cavities

    An accelerating cavity from LEP. This could be cut open to show the layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities were used in an upgrade of the LEP accelerator to double the energy of the particle beams.

  5. Sustainable development with clean coal

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  6. Tandem accelerators

    After the installation of Ti-acceleration tubes and substantial modifications and additions to the EN tandem accelerator the performance of the machine has stabilized. The voltage behaviour of the tubes obviously improves as conditioning times necessary to run up to 6 MV decrease. A gridded lens has been added at the entrance of the first acceleration tube, and a second foil stripper is now installed in the short dead section between the high-energy tubes. The MP tandem also has been running stably during most of the year. However, beam instabilities originating from the last tube section and wear problems at the low-energy set of pelletron-chains caused some loss of beam time. During the fall, one set of pelletron charging chains has to be replaced after 49,000 hours of operation. In the course of the year, the MP and the EN tandem accelerators finished their 100,000th and 150,000th hours of operations, respectively. Preparations for the installation of the 3 MV negative heavy ion injector for the MP are progressing steadily. External beam transport, terminal ion optics, and data acquisition and control systems are to a major extent completed; the integration of the terminal power supplies has started. After the final assembly of the accelerator column structure, first voltage runs can be performed. (orig.)

  7. ISR main control room

    1970-01-01

    The ISR main control room (SRC) on the night of 20 October when beam was first successfully injected into Ring I. The panels along the left contain controls and observational information about the beam-transfer system and injection. Along the right are recorders showing beam intensity (in the centre) and controls for currents in the main magnets, the pole face windings, and auxiliary magnets, and the magnetic field display panel (further for the rear). At the far back are controls and observations for the r.f. system and the betatron-frequency meter. Also at the far back (in the centre) are oscilloscopes for looking at signals from the pick-up electrodes.

  8. Laser cleaning of Rakowicze sandstone

    Nijland, T.G.; Wijffels, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Decisions about the cleaning of natural stone should always be made within the awareness of direct and indirect damage that may be the result of cleaning. During the last decade, laser cleaning of objects and monuments of natural stone has become increasingly popular. Whereas a considerable amount o

  9. Mental health. Clean sweep.

    Godfrey, Kathryn

    2003-10-30

    A private finance initiative-built psychiatric unit has replaced a crumbling hospital block in Essex. Chapters House includes single rooms for patients, with two-way doors for safety. It was designed by a specialist architect to create a more comfortable and pleasant environment. PMID:14619168

  10. Large high-vacuum systems for CERN accelerators

    Strubin, P.

    2008-05-01

    CERN operated over the more than 50 years of its existence particle accelerators and storage rings ranging from a few tens of metre to 27 km, the size of its latest project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is under construction and will be started in 2008. The challenges began with the Intersection Storage Rings (ISR) in the seventies. With a beam pipe length of 2 × 1 km, this accelerator required innovative solutions like bake-out and glow discharge to achieve the required static vacuum level, fight against beam-induced pressure increases and cancel beam neutralisation by trapped electrons. The vacuum system of the Large Electron Positron (LEP) storage ring (in operation between 1989 and 2001) of a total length of 27 km had to cope with very high levels of synchrotron power. The beam vacuum system of LHC (2 × 27 km) integrates some parts at 1.9 K and others at room temperature and will also have to cope with dynamic effects. In addition to the beam vacuum system, LHC requires insulation vacuum for the superconducting magnets and the helium distribution line. Whereas the required pressure is not very low, the leak detection and localisation is significantly more demanding for the insulation vacuum than for the beam vacuum because of the large volumes and the thermal insulation. When the size of an accelerator grows, the difficulties are not only to get a clean and leak tight vacuum system, but also to be able to measure reliably pressure or gas composition over long distances. Furthermore, in the case of LHC the integration of the beam vacuum system was particularly difficult because of the complexity induced by a superconducting magnet scheme and the reduced space available for the beam pipes. Planning and logistics aspects during installation, including the usage of mobile pumping and diagnostic means, were much more difficult to manage in LHC than in previous projects.

  11. Method of cleaning solvent

    In a solvent cleanup step for regenerating solvents released from the solvent extraction process in a reprocessing plan, fuel production plant, etc., extracted solvents are separated by means of freeze vacuum drying method into liquid concentrate comprising water, nitric acid, sublimaitng nuclides, n-dodecane, etc. and TPB residues, etcc. comprising tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl phosphate (MBP) and not-sublimating nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products. Then, the liquid concentrates are separated into an aqueous phase comprising water, nitric acid, etc. and an organic phase comprising n-dodecane, etc. The TBP residues, etc. are cleaned with a nitric acid solution to separate entraining nuclear fuel materials and nuclear fission products to re-utilize TBP. This can avoid the use of cleaning liquid and decrease the amount of liquid wastes generated to moderate burdens in the liquid wastes processing. Further, apparatus safety for corrosion, fire or explosion can be improved. (T.M.)

  12. Fuel assemblies chemical cleaning

    NPP Paks found a thermal-hydraulic anomaly in the reactor core during cycle 14 that was caused by corrosion product deposits on fuel assemblies (FAs) that increased the hydraulic resistance of the FAs. Consequently, the coolant flow through the FAs was insufficient resulting in a temperature asymmetry inside the reactor core. Based on this fact NPP Paks performed differential pressure measurements of all fuel assemblies in order to determine the hydraulic resistance and subsequently the limit values for the hydraulic acceptance of FAs to be used. Based on the hydraulic investigations a total number of 170 FAs was selected for cleaning. The necessity for cleaning the FAs was explained by the fact that the FAs were subjected to a short term usage in the reactor core only maximum of 1,5 years and had still a capacity for additional 2 fuel cycles. (authors)

  13. A Clean Market

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  14. Clean Power on Tap

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  15. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie;

    exacerbated by a poor personal trash management culture. In this paper we present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production and management, which may serve as an educational plat-form in the urban environment. We report on data collected from an online survey......, which not only motivates our research but also provides useful information on reasons and possible solutions for trash problems....

  16. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  17. Accelerated clean-up at the Hanford Site

    The Hanford Site began operations in 1943 as one of the sites for plutonium production associated with the Manhattan Project. It has been used, in part, for nuclear reactor operation, reprocessing of spent fuel, and management of radioactive waste. The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,434 km2 (560 mi22) in southeastern Washington State. The subject of this paper, the 618-9 Burial Ground, is located on the Hanford Site approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) west of the Columbia River, and a few miles north of Richland, Washington. Throughout Hanford Site history, prior to legislation regarding disposal of chemical waste products, some chemical waste byproducts were disposed ,ia burial in trenches. One such trench was the 618-9 Burial Ground. This burial ground was suspected to contain approximately 19,000 L (5,000 gal) of uranium-contaminated organic solvent, disposed in standard 55-gal (208-L) metal drums. The waste was produced from research and development activities related to fuel reprocessing

  18. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  19. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  20. Leadership in the control room

    This paper discusses the importance of leadership within the control rooms at nuclear power facilities. the leadership capability of control room staff has a significant influence over the improvement of human performance and the development of an 'event free' culture within the business. The development of leadership competency in the control room must be an important part of any nuclear power utility business improvement plan. (author)

  1. Particle acceleration

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  2. Accelerator design

    The feasibility of constructing a TeV region electron-positron linear collider in Japan is discussed. The design target of the collider is given as follows: Energy, 1 TeV + 1 TeV; luminosity, 1032-1033/cm2/s; total length, 25km; electric power, 250MW; energy dispersion, 1%-10%; the start of the first experiment, early 1990s. For realizing the above target, the following research and developmental works are necessary. (a) Development of an acceleration tube with short filling time and high shunt resistance. (b) Short pulse microwave source with high peak power. (c) High current, single bunch linac. (d) Beam dynamics. As for the acceleration tube, some possibility is considered: For example, the use of DAW (Disk and Washer) which is being developed for TRISTAN as a traveling-wave tube; and the Jungle Gym-type acceleration tube. As a promising candidate for the microwave source, the Lasertron has been studied. The total cost of the collider construction is estimated to be about 310 billion yen, of which 120 billion yen is for the tunnel and buildings, and 190 billion yen for the accelerator facilities. The operation cost is estimated to be about 3 billion yen per month. (Aoki, K.)

  3. Accelerator operations

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  4. Nuclear air cleaning programs in progress in France

    A short presentation is given of the nuclear air cleaning programs in progress in France with respect to pressurized water reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, radioactive waste management facilities, and the dismantling of nuclear facilities. The effects of fires in rooms and ventilation ducts in all nuclear facilities is being studied and computer simulation codes are being developed. A brief review of filter development and filter testing is also presented

  5. Acoustic echoes reveal room shape.

    Dokmanic, Ivan; Parhizkar, Reza; Walther, Andreas; Lu, Yue M; Vetterli, Martin

    2013-07-23

    Imagine that you are blindfolded inside an unknown room. You snap your fingers and listen to the room's response. Can you hear the shape of the room? Some people can do it naturally, but can we design computer algorithms that hear rooms? We show how to compute the shape of a convex polyhedral room from its response to a known sound, recorded by a few microphones. Geometric relationships between the arrival times of echoes enable us to "blindfoldedly" estimate the room geometry. This is achieved by exploiting the properties of Euclidean distance matrices. Furthermore, we show that under mild conditions, first-order echoes provide a unique description of convex polyhedral rooms. Our algorithm starts from the recorded impulse responses and proceeds by learning the correct assignment of echoes to walls. In contrast to earlier methods, the proposed algorithm reconstructs the full 3D geometry of the room from a single sound emission, and with an arbitrary geometry of the microphone array. As long as the microphones can hear the echoes, we can position them as we want. Besides answering a basic question about the inverse problem of room acoustics, our results find applications in areas such as architectural acoustics, indoor localization, virtual reality, and audio forensics. PMID:23776236

  6. Assessment of New Components to be integrated in the LHC Room Temperature Vacuum System

    Bregliozzi, G; Chiggiato, P

    2014-01-01

    Integration of new equipment in the long straight sections (LSS) of the LHC must be compatible with the TiZrV non-evaporable getter thin film that coats most of the 6-km-long room-temperature beam pipes. This paper focus on two innovative accelerator devices to be installed in the LSS during the long shutdown 1 (LS1): the beam gas vertex (BGV) and a beam bending experiment using a crystal collimator (LUA9). The BGV necessitates a dedicated pressure bump, generated by local gas injection, in order to create the required rate of inelastic beam-gas interactions. The LAU9 experiments aims at improving beam cleaning efficiency with the use of a crystal collimator. New materials like fibre optics, piezoelectric components, and glues are proposed in the original design of the two devices. The integration feasibility of these set-ups in the LSS is presented. In particular outgassing tests of special components, X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of NEG coating behaviour in presence of glues during bake-out, a...

  7. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  8. Advanced accelerators

    This report discusses the suitability of four novel particle acceleration technologies for multi-TeV particle physics machines: laser driven linear accelerators (linac), plasma beat-wave devices, plasma wakefield devices, and switched power and cavity wakefield linacs. The report begins with the derivation of beam parameters practical for multi-TeV devices. Electromagnetic field breakdown of materials is reviewed. The two-beam accelerator scheme for using a free electron laser as the driver is discussed. The options recommended and the conclusions reached reflect the importance of cost. We recommend that more effort be invested in achieving a self-consistent range of TeV accelerator design parameters. Beat-wave devices have promise for 1-100 GeV applications and, while not directly scalable to TeV designs, the current generation of ideas are encouraging for the TeV regime. In particular, surfatrons, finite-angle optical mixing devices, plasma grating accelerator, and the Raman forward cascade schemes all deserve more complete analysis. The exploitation of standard linac geometry operated in an unconventional mode is in a phase of rapid evolution. While conceptual projects abound, there are no complete designs. We recommend that a fraction of sponsored research be devoted to this approach. Wakefield devices offer a great deal of potential; trades among their benefits and constraints are derived and discussed herein. The study of field limitation processes has received inadequate attention; this limits experiment designers. The costs of future experiments are such that investment in understanding these processes is prudent. 34 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Improving operating room schedules.

    Li, Fei; Gupta, Diwakar; Potthoff, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    Operating rooms (ORs) in US hospitals are costly to staff, generate about 70 % of a hospital's revenues, and operate at a staffed-capacity utilization of 60-70 %. Many hospitals allocate blocks of OR time to individual or groups of surgeons as guaranteed allocation, who book surgeries one at a time in their blocks. The booking procedure frequently results in unused time between surgeries. Realizing that this presents an opportunity to improve OR utilization, hospitals manually reschedule surgery start times one or two days before each day of surgical operations. The purpose of rescheduling is to decrease OR staffing costs, which are determined by the number of concurrently staffed ORs. We formulate the rescheduling problem as a variant of the bin-packing problem with interrelated items, which are the surgeries performed by the same surgeon. We develop a lower bound (LB) construction algorithm and prove that the LB is at least (2/3) of the optimal staffing cost. A key feature of our approach is that we allow hospitals to have two shift lengths. Our analytical results form the basis of a branch-and-bound algorithm, which we test on data obtained from three hospitals. Experiments show that rescheduling saves significant staffing costs. PMID:25687390

  10. More room for ISOLDE

    2005-01-01

    To meet the needs of the new ISOLDE experiments, a new extension has been added to the facility's Building 170. The new extension to Building 170. Moving around the ISOLDE hall was almost like an obstacle course until now. The facility's Building 170 simply didn't have an inch to spare and the ISOLDE team's need to set up new experiments, whose installation could have created difficulties from the safety point of view, only exacerbated the problem. "We had ambitious plans to develop new experiments but no room for them", says Mats Lindroos, ISOLDE's technical coordinator. The only solution was to extend the existing building". This was how a new building saw the light of day. Measuring 24 metres long, 20 metres wide and 12 metres high, it is an extension to the existing Building 170 and should be ready for use this year. The new structure makes use of the existing infrastructure, with part of the end wall of Building 170 being kept as a support for steel platforms. The top of this wall had to be cut away ...

  11. Public-Private roundtables at the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial, 17-18 April 2013, New Delhi, India

    Crowe, Tracey [Energetics, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-06-30

    The Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) is a high-level global forum to share best practices and promote policies and programs that advance clean energy technologies and accelerate the transition to a global clean energy economy. The CEM works to increase energy efficiency, expand clean energy supply, and enhance clean energy access worldwide. To achieve these goals, the CEM pursues a three-part strategy that includes high-level policy dialogue, technical cooperation, and engagement with the private sector and other stakeholders. Each year, energy ministers and other high-level delegates from the 23 participating CEM governments come together to discuss clean energy, review clean energy progress, and identify tangible next steps to accelerate the clean energy transition. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a crucial role in launching the CEM, hosted the first annual meeting of energy ministers in Washington, DC, in June 2010. The United Arab Emirates hosted the second Clean Energy Ministerial in 2011, and the United Kingdom hosted the third Clean Energy Ministerial in 2012. In April 2013, India hosted the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM4) in New Delhi. Key insights from CEM4 are summarized in the report. It captures the ideas and recommendations of the government and private sector leaders who participated in the discussions on six discussion topics: reducing soft costs of solar PV; energy management systems; renewables policy and finance; clean vehicle adoption; mini-grid development; and power systems in emerging economies.

  12. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  13. Clean fuels from biomass

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  14. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    Archer, Mary D

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells provide clean, reversible electrical power from the sun. Made from semiconductors, they are durable, silent in operation and free of polluting emissions. In this book, experts from all sectors of the PV community - materials scientists, physicists, production engineers, economists and environmentalists - give their critical appraisals of where the technology is now and what its prospects are. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 2.1: Introduction (306 KB). Chapter 2.2: Semiconductor device equations (121 KB). Chapter 2.3: The p-n junction model of Shockley (1,017 KB). Chapter 2.4: Rea

  15. Flue Gas Cleaning

    Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere causing precipitation of acid rain resulting in death of forests and destruction of buildings and monuments in addition to human health problems. The most common state-of-the-art methods applied today industrially for cleaning of flue gases will be addressed, including wet......-time. But the problems may also be attacked by new materials like supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) gas absorbers where the pollutants may be selectively absorbed, desorbed and finally converted to useful mineral acids of commercial grade – really a green waste-to-value approach that we persue instead...

  16. Clean coal technology

    Coal is the major source of energy in India at present as well as in foreseeable future. With gradual deterioration in coal quality as well as increased awareness on environmental aspects, clean coal technologies have to be adopted by major coal consuming sectors. The probable routes of restricting environmental degradation in power generation include beneficiation of power coal for maintaining consistency in coal supply and reducing pollutant emission, adoption of fluidized bed combustion on a larger scale, adoption of technologies for controlling SOx and NOx emission during and after combustion, adoption of larger capacity and improved and non-recovery type coke ovens

  17. Development of Megasonic cleaning for silicon wafers. Final report

    Mayer, A.

    1980-09-01

    The major goals to develop a cleaning and drying system for processing at least 2500 three-in.-diameter wafers per hour and to reduce the process cost were achieved. The new system consists of an ammonia-hydrogen peroxide bath in which both surfaces of 3/32-in.-spaced, ion-implanted wafers are cleaned in quartz carriers moved on a belt past two pairs of Megasonic transducers. The wafers are dried in the novel room-temperature, high-velocity air dryer in the same carriers used for annealing. A new laser scanner was used effectively to monitor the cleaning ability on a sampling basis. The following factors contribute to the improved effectiveness of the process: (1) recirculation and filtration of the cleaning solution permit it to be used for at least 100,000 wafers with only a relatively small amount of chemical make-up before discarding; (2) uniform cleanliness is achieved because both sides of the wafer are Megasonically scrubbed to remove particulate impurities; (3) the novel dryer permits wafers to be dried in a high-velocity room-temperature air stream on a moving belt in their quartz carriers; and (4) the personnel safety of such a system is excellent and waste disposal has no adverse ecological impact. With the addition of mechanical transfer arms, two systems like the one developed will produce enough cleaned wafers for a 30-MW/year production facility. A projected scale-up well within the existing technology would permit a system to be assembled that produces about 12,745 wafers per hour; about 11 such systems, each occupying about 110 square feet, would be needed for each cleaning stage of a 500-MW/year production facility.

  18. Clean air suits vs scrub suits: what are the benefits of using them for infection control in hospitals?

    Abreu, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Experts in infection control are often asked about issues related to the use of scrubs and clean air suits in the operating room (OR). So far there is no clear explanation or mandatory obligation why the surgical team has to wear clean air suits or scrub suits in the operating rooms (OR´s) and more importantly, what are the main differences between these two type of clothing. There is a general perception that the two are equal or very similar. So, what are clean air suits and scrub suits? Wh...

  19. MUON ACCELERATION

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  20. KEKB accelerator

    KEKB, the B-Factory at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) recently achieved the luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1. This luminosity is two orders higher than the world's level at 1990 when the design of KEKB started. This unprecedented result was made possible by KEKB's innovative design and technology in three aspects - beam focusing optics, high current storage, and beam - beam interaction. Now KEKB is leading the luminosity frontier of the colliders in the world. (author)

  1. Accelerating networks

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  2. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  3. Ionization Impact on the Air Cleaning Efficiency in the Interior

    Černecký Jozef

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with ionization impact on efficient cleaning of air in a measuring chamber which has been cleaned and closed against any outer impacts (e.g. impurities, dust from another room, human odours. Smoking has an impact on the number of positive and negative ions including the concentration of particulate matter PM10. We investigated the ion concentration according to the presence of cigarette smoke in the room and according to the change of lit cigarette distance from the supply of ionized air. Due to the experiment there was simulated smoking at the relative air humidity φ = 37 % and φ = 39 % and temperature of 20 °C in the room. Increased PM10 concentrations were caused only by cigarette smoke pollution or more precisely by artificially created higher humidity in the measuring room excluding ambient environment impacts. The aim of the experiments was to prove influence of ionization on the elimination of cigarette smoke. The measurements showed that the highest efficiency of PM10 particulate removal was achieved when the distance of smoking cigarettes from ionization source was 3 m and the air humidity was 39 %. The consequent increase of the distance of smoking cigarettes from the ionization source significantly decreased the efficiency of particle removal. The difference between ionized and natural air is minimal at the bigger distance.

  4. Online soot cleaning using infrasound

    Torra i Fernandez, Eric; Ellebro, Martin [Infrafone AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-10-01

    The company Infrafone has been using infrasound as a soot cleaning method for more than 30 years. Infrasonic soot cleaning increases the efficiency, the availability and the lifetime of marine and industrial boilers. The properties and the description of infrasound and Infrafone's soot cleaning method are presented. Moreover, a brief comparison with audible sonic horns is carried out. The results and the savings of installing Infrafone's infrasonic cleaners are presented here with several case studies. (orig.)

  5. Medical Proton Accelerator Project

    A project for a medical proton accelerator for cancer treatment is outlined. The project is motivated by the need for a precise modality for cancer curing especially in children. Proton therapy is known by its superior radiation and biological effectiveness as compared to photon or electron therapy. With 26 proton and 3 heavy-ion therapy complexes operating worldwide only one (p) exists in South Africa, and none in south Asia and the Middle East. The accelerator of choice should provide protons with energy 75 MeV for eye treatment and 250 MeV for body treatment. Four treatment rooms are suggested: two with isocentric gantries, one with fixed beams and one for development. Passive scanning is recommended. The project can serve Middle East and North Africa with ∼ 400 million populations. The annual capacity of the project is estimated as 1,100 to be compared with expected radiation cases eligible for proton cancer treatment of not less than 200,000

  6. Neutron radiation from medical electron accelerators

    A method is described using simple gold foils and relatively inexpensive moderators to measure neutron fluences, both fast nd thermal, which then can be converted to dose equivalent using a few simple formulas. The method is sensitive, easy to calibrate, and should work at most accelerators regardless of energy or room geometry

  7. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  8. Cleaning of boreholes

    In terms of long-term safety it is a risk that the boreholes can eventually function as short-circuits between the repository and ground surface. Therefore sealing of investigation boreholes is an important issue for the long- term safety of high-level nuclear waste repositories. In order to seal a borehole properly, the conditions of the borehole have to meet certain predetermined requirements. One of the requirements is that no instruments or materials endangering the plugging operation or the long-term function of the sealing materials, are allowed to be left in the borehole. Sometimes drilling equipment will be left in the hole or it cannot be recovered from the hole with the given constraints of time, cost and resources in spite of attempts. Additionally various measurements may be carried out in the holes after the drilling has been completed and measuring devices may get stuck in holes. Consequently cleaning of the borehole is carried out as an essential activity before sealing can be implemented. There are two common reasons identified for the drill strings to get stuck in holes. First the drill string may get stuck due to acute drilling problems. The second case is where rods are left as casing in a hole either based on the structure of the upper part of the hole or in order to support the hole. To remove the drilling or measuring equipment lost in a borehole, special techniques and professional skill must be applied. Removing measuring equipment from a hole is often demanding and time consuming work. A vital part of the cleaning operation is planning the work in advance. In order to make the plan and to select the suitable methods it is important to know the condition of the stuck material. It is also important to know the exact depth where the equipment are stuck and to have an estimate of the reasons why they have got stuck. It is also very important to know the correct dimensions of the equipment or drill string before commencing the cleaning work

  9. Neutron distribution and induced activity inside a Linac treatment room.

    Juste, B; Miró, R; Verdú, G; Díez, S; Campayo, J M

    2015-08-01

    Induced radioactivity and photoneutron contamination inside a radiation therapy bunker of a medical linear accelerator (Linac) is investigated in this work. The Linac studied is an Elekta Precise electron accelerator which maximum treatment photon energy is 15 MeV. This energy exceeds the photonuclear reaction threshold (around 7 MeV for high atomic number metals). The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 has been used for quantifying the neutron contamination inside the treatment room for different gantry rotation configuration. Walls activation processes have also been simulated. The approach described in this paper is useful to prevent the overexposure of patients and medical staff. PMID:26737878

  10. Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

    We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

  11. In the LEAR control room

    1983-01-01

    View into the control room of the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Edgar Asseo (sitting) and Dieter Möhl and Georges Carron reflecting upon some beam dynamics (or hardware?) problem. Vassilis Agoritsas, in the background, leaning over a plan or a keyboard. LEAR in its early years (1982 to about 1990) was run from this local control room in building 363 close to the end of the PS South Hall, where the ring was installed. Later-on the operation was surveyed from the PS main control room.

  12. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... design suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while...... others filters were damaged. The results of the laboratory experiments formed background for the final design of an ultrasound transducer module for use by foodstuff filtration plants. [This work was financed by the EU Project WAMBIO PL96-3257 (FAIR Programme).]...

  13. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  14. Clean Salt integrated flowsheet

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford's high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported

  15. Clean air Hamilton

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  16. Suitable control choices: exploring the roles of clean air suits and scrub suits in infection control

    Abreu, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Experts in infection control are often asked about issues related to the use of scrubs and clean air suits in the operating room (OR). So far there is no clear explanation or mandatory obligation why the surgical team has to wear clean air suits or scrub suits in ORs and, more importantly, what the main differences are between these two types of clothing. There is a general perception that the two are equal or very similar. So, what are clean air suits and scrub ...

  17. Critical resources in clean energy technologies and waste flows

    Habib, Komal

    A broader implementation of clean energy technologies in future is a widely motivated scenario for meeting the climate change goals as well as to reduce our dependency on the non‐renewable fossil fuels. However, the transition from the current fossil‐based society to a future low‐carbon society is...... constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies in future, along with an insight into the resource criticality assessment methodologies, detailed material flow analysis (MFA) of critical resources, and recovery of critical resources from the waste streams. The key findings of this PhD study were:  The...... demand of neodymium and dysprosium, driven by the clean energy technologies is estimated to be 10 times higher by 2050 compared to the present primary supply (mining). This implies that either a highly accelerated rate of mining is required to meet the future demand or a radical change in current...

  18. The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989.

    1989-01-01

    The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world.

  19. ADS-EA proposal for clean nuclear energy

    Accelerator Driving System (ADS) is a new device for cleaning energy. A high intensity, high power proton beam provided by accelerators is used to drive a sub-critical nuclear reactor. It is safe, reliable and can produce less nuclear waste, and also ca be used to treat the nuclear waste from the classical reactor. An Energy Amplifier (EA), which is composed of three cyclotrons, is one type of ADS. It will be used to produce 14.4 MW proton beam (12 mA, 1.2 GeV) and to operate a 1500 MW nuclear reactor

  20. 32 CFR 518.9 - Reading room.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reading room. 518.9 Section 518.9 National... RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM FOIA Reading Rooms § 518.9 Reading room. (a) Reading room... the records described, DA may elect to place other records in their reading room, and also make...

  1. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages

  2. CDRH FOIA Electronic Reading Room

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH FOIA electronic reading room contains frequently requested information via the Freedom of Information Act from the Center for Devices and Radiological...

  3. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  4. Reactor vessel stud cleaning machine

    A device is described for cleaning and decontaminating an elongate member having a three dimensional surface topography comprising: an enclosure; means for rotatingly supporting the elongate member proximate the ends thereof within the enclosure; means for driving the elongate member supporting means, to rotate the elongate member; a supply tank for holding water; a spray nozzle connected to the supply tank and disposed within the enclosure operable to move transversely with respect to the elongate member for spraying a cleaning agent comprising high pressure water and abrasive grit against the rotating elongate member; a self-contained means for supplying the cleaning agent to the spray nozzle and removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, the self-contained means including the supply tank and means for disposing of any contaminated solids in the spent cleaning agent. The means for disposing further comprises means for removing spent cleaning agent from the enclosure, means for removing solid particles from the spent cleaning agent and means for recycling water from the spent cleaning agent back to the spray nozzle; and a control system for selectively controlling at least one of the rate of rotation of the elongate member and rate of trasversal of the elongate member and by the spray nozzle in accordance with the topography of the elongate member

  5. Electron Accelerator Facilities

    Lecture presents main aspects of progress in development of industrial accelerators: adaptation of accelerators primary built for scientific experiments, electron energy and beam power increase in certain accelerator constructions, computer control system managing accelerator start-up, routine operation and technological process, maintenance (diagnostics), accelerator technology perfection (electrical efficiency, operation cost), compact and more efficient accelerator constructions, reliability improvement according to industrial standards, accelerators for MW power levels and accelerators tailored for specific use

  6. Ni/YSZ electrode degradation studied by impedance spectroscopy: Effects of gas cleaning and current density

    Hauch, Anne; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    anode degradation, tests were set-up both with and without gas cleaning. Gas cleaning was done by passing the H2 over porous nickel at room temperature. It was found that cleaning of the inlet H2 gas more than halved the anode degradation under current load. For tests at OCV the increase in the Ni......–YSZ charge transfer reaction resistance changed from 0.10 Ωcm2 to become negligible (below 0.002 Ωcm2) upon applying H2 gas cleaning over the couple of hundred of hours of testing. Both for tests with and without H2 gas cleaning applied, it was surprisingly found that operating the solid oxide fuel cells at...

  7. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures

  8. Room acoustic auralization with Ambisonics

    Polack, Jean-Dominique; Leão Figueiredo, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    International audience During the year of 2009, the room acoustics group of the LAM (Équipe Lutheries, Acoustique, Musique de l’Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert - Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris) performed a series of acoustical measurements in music halls in Paris. The halls were chosen in regarding their importance to the historic, architectural or acoustic domains. The measured ensemble of fourteen rooms includes quite different architectural designs. The measurements were carri...

  9. Chemical titration of clean silicon surfaces with N2O and O2: Atomic nature of "5x1" reconstructed Si(110)

    Keim, Enrico G.; Wormeester, Herbert; Silfhout, van, A.

    1990-01-01

    Using spectroscopic differential reflectometry (SDR), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) we have studied the room temperature adsorption behavior of N2O and O2 at the clean low-Miller index Si surfaces

  10. Status report of pelletron accelerator and ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator is completing twenty seven years of round-the-clock operation, serving diverse users from institutions within and outside DAE. Over the years, various developmental activities and application oriented programs have been initiated at Pelletron Accelerator Facility, resulting into enhanced utilization of the accelerator. We have also been pursuing an ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme under XIIth Plan, consisting of an 18 GHz superconducting ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source and a room temperature RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) followed by low and high beta superconducting niobium resonator cavities. This talk will provide the current status of Pelletron Accelerator and the progress made towards the ECR based heavy ion accelerator program at BARC. (author)

  11. Surface passivation of nickel-chromium alloys at room temperature

    The surface composition and room temperature oxidation of atomically clean single crystal Ni-15%Cr(110) and polycrystalline Ni-23%Cr alloy have been studied using Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS) and Electron Stimulated Ion Desorption (ESID). It was found that Ni segregated preferentially to the surface of Ni-15%Cr(110) in vacuum at temperatures between 500 to 650 degree C, and the heat segregation was 2550 cal/mole. The surface region of the Ni-Cr alloy was depleted in Ni during Ar ion bombardment at temperatures above 200 degree C, which is an agreement with the model of preferential sputtering of Ni caused by radiation-enhanced surface segregation of Ni. But the subsurface region of room temperature sputtered Ni-Cr alloy was depleted in Cr. Possible causes for this observation were discussed

  12. The acid cleaning method of labware for trace element analysis in snow and ice samples

    2009-01-01

    Acid cleaning processes were performed on a class 100 laminar flow clean bench assembled inside a class 1000 clean room.The ultrapure water was produced by Millipore RO (Reverse Osmosis) and Milli-Q water purification systems.The three purity grades of nitric acid used for cleaning include Merck reagent grade HNO3,Fisher "TraceMetal" grade HNO3,and the purest Fisher "Optima" grade HNO3.The various bottles,containers and other labware,which are in contact with the samples,are made of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and FEP or PFA Teflon materials.The acid cleaning procedures of the bottles and other containers follow a successive four times cleaning through immersion in increasing purity of nitric acid baths at different concentrations during four weeks.The first acid bath is performed at room temperature,but the following three acid baths are heated on ceramic hotplates with a surface temperature of 45℃.In order to verify the efficiency of the acid cleaning method,cleaned bottles underwent a blank determination procedure using ELAN 6100 inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS).Results show that most measured trace elements are not detected and the elements detected are at very low concentrations.The blank values are comparable with that of bottles cleaned at Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI).Although the acid cleaning method is developed mainly for reliable measurements of trace elements in snow and ice samples,it can also be used for investigations of trace elements in other environmental samples.

  13. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  14. Canada's Clean Air Act

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  15. Clean Metal Casting

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  16. Air-cleaning apparatus

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  17. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  18. Neutrons from medical electron accelerators

    The significant sources of photoneutrons within a linear-accelerator treatment head are identified and absolute estimates of neutron production per treatment dose are given for typical components. Measured data obtained at a variety of accelerator installations are presented and compared with these calculations. It is found that the high-Z materials within the treatment head do not significantly alter the neutron fluence, but do substantially reduce the average energy of the transmitted spectrum. Reflected neutrons from the concrete treatment room contribute to the neutron fluence, but not substantially to the patient integral dose, because of a further reduction in average energy. Absolute depth-dose distributions for realistic neutron spectra are calculated, and a rapid falloff with depth is found

  19. Pickering Unit 1 chemical cleaning

    The secondary sides of all 12 boilers at Pickering Unit 1 were chemically cleaned in 1994 by the team of Ontario Hydro, B and W International (Cambridge, Ontario) and B and W Nuclear Technologies (Lynchburg, Virginia). A multi-step EPRI/SGOG process was employed in a similar manner to previous clearings at Units 5 and 6 in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A major innovation with the Unit 1 cleaning was the incorporation of a crevice cleaning step, the first time this had been done on Ontario Hydro plants. In addition, six boilers were cleaned in parallel compared to three at a time in previous Pickering cleanings. This significantly reduced cleaning time. A total of 6,770 kg of sludge was removed through direct chemical dissolution. It consisted of 66% iron/nickel oxides and 28% copper metal. A total of 1,600,000 L (420,000 US gallons) of liquid waste was produced. It was processed through the spent solvent treatment facility located at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Visual inspection performed after the cleaning indicated that the crevices between the boiler tubes and the tube support structure were completely clear of deposit and the general condition of the tubing and lattice bars appeared to be in 'as new' condition. (author)

  20. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  1. A note on clean abelian groups

    Goldsmith, Brendan; Vamos, P.

    2007-01-01

    Nicholson defined a ring to be clean if every element is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. A module is clean if its endomorphism algebra is clean. We show that torsion-complete Abelian p-groups are clean and characterize the clean groups among the class of totally projective p-groups. An example is given of a clean p-group which is neither totally projective nor torsion- complete

  2. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  3. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    Ultrasonic fuel cleaning has been demonstrated to be effective for avoiding or postponing the axial offset anomaly (AOA) in high-duty PWRs. In addition, the reduction in corrosion product inventory achieved by this method of fuel cleaning has been shown to reduce ex-core dose rates, and hence reduce personnel exposure. Through laboratory mock-up tests as well as tests on discharged fuel in the Callaway spent fuel pool, the EPRI ultrasonic fuel cleaning system was demonstrated to clean crud from fuel rods throughout the assembly without deleterious effects on fuel integrity. This paper presents details of the evaluation tests at AmerenUE's Callaway PWR, as well as the full-reload ultrasonic cleaning for Cycle 12. Ninety-six once-burned fuel assemblies were cleaned via the EPRI ultrasonic process during refueling outage 11 in April 2001. Fuel cleaning activities presented no special problems in or around the fuel pool, neither in terms of activity nor in terms of turbidity of the pool water, nor were special radiological situations encountered by personnel working in the area. The corrosion products were captured on cartridge filters designed to avoid loss of material into the fuel pool water during interim storage. Activity levels on the cartridges were maintained sufficiently low for ease of handling, processing, and shipment in Radwaste. The fuel cleaning operation was completed within a time window of approximately 48 hours. The cleaned fuel was returned to service in May 2001 for Cycle 12. To date, this fuel cycle remains free of AOA (Axial Offset Anomaly). This result is in contrast to earlier cycles of similar design and power duty, but without reload fuel cleaning. These cycles were operated at a reduced TAVE in order to mitigate AOA. Nevertheless, Cycle 11 experienced AOA starting as early as 6 GWD/MTU. Based on the favorable Cycle 12 data, the utility intends to institute fuel cleaning as a routine outage activity, thus expecting to recover the TAVE

  4. On strongly clean matrices over commutative clean rings

    Burgess, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The literature about strongly clean matrices over commutative rings is quite extensive. The sharpest results are about matrices over commutative local rings, for example those by Borooah, Diesl and Dorsey. The purpose of this note is to show that, using Pierce sheaf techniques, many of the known results about matrices over commutative local rings can be extended to those over commutative clean rings in general.

  5. [Cleanliness in the operating room].

    Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2010-05-01

    With regard to recent findings in the cleanliness of the operating room, concerning handwashing and performing operations, the traditional method of excessive scrubbing using a brush is not effective, and handwashing using only an alcohol-containing antiseptic hand rub (rubbing method) has become common practice. Use of a brush has already been abolished in some medical institutions. In addition, sterilized water used for handwashing when performing operations has no scientific basis and use of tap water is considered sufficient. Furthermore, the concept of operating room zoning has also undergone a dramatic change. It was discovered that a layout focusing on work efficiency is more desirable than the one that follows an excessively rigid zoning pattern. One-footwear System not requiring change of shoes also has various advantages in improving the efficiency of the operation room, and this is thought to become commonplace in the future. PMID:20486565

  6. Control room and ergonomic design

    The important basis for the configuration of the control room of a nuclear power station is the concept for controlling a fault and that for controlling normal operation. The tasks resulting from this for the control room personnel are decided by the control room concept. In this configuration process (from the division of process control tasks between the system components operators and control technology to the configuration of individual means of operation) the characteristics and capabilities of the personnel, which are subject to special requirements as regards their qualifications, are observed. New concepts which are only now technically feasible are therefore being developed for information processing and display, in order to give the personnel a better oversight of the state and trends of the plant. (orig./DG)

  7. KNFC Fuel cleaning technology development

    The filtration system to collect crud particles detached from the fuel assemblies was also developed. The fuel cleaning system connected with the filtration system was successfully demonstrated at Ulchin plant 2. Within several minutes detachable crud deposits were effectively removed from the clad surfaces of the fuel assembly. Also to characterize the crud particles for each fuel assembly, a small crud sampling device was connected with the filtration system during the cleaning operation. Crud samples were acquired from crud sampling device of fuel cleaning and fuel rod using sticky tape and steel knife analysis at two plants, respectively. Crud analysis in pie facility showed that 95wt% crud particles can be collected by a 0.5μm filtering system and major compositions were Ni, Fe, and Cr. KNFC constructed and qualified the complete fuel cleaning system

  8. First cleaning with LHC collimators

    Wollmann, D; Arnau-Izquiedo, G; Assmann, R; Bacher, J P; Baglin, V; Bellodi, G; Bertarelli, A; Bouzoud, A; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Brugger, M; Calatroni, S; Cerruti, F; Chamizo, R; Cherif, A; Chiaveri, E; Chiggiato, P; Dallochio, A; Dehning, B; Donze, M; Ferrari, A; Folch, R; Francon, P; Gander, P; Geisser, J M; Grudiev, A; Holzer, EB; Jacquet, D; Jeanneret, J B; Jimenez, J M; Jonker, M; Jowett, J; Kershaw, K; Lari, L; Lendaro, J; Loprete, F; Losito, R; Magistris, M; Malabaila, M; Mayer, M; Marsili, A; Masi, A; Mathot, S; Métral, E; Mitifiot, C; Mounet, N; de Morais Amaral, R; Nordt, A; Perret, R; Perrollaz, S; Rathjen, C; Redaelli, S; Robert-Demolaize, G; Roesler, S; Rossi, A; Salvant, B; Santana, M; Sexton, I; Sievers, P; Tardy, T; Timmins, M; Tsoulou, K; Veyrunes, E; Vincke, H; Vlachoudis, V; Vuillemin, V; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; Baishev, I; Kurochkin, I; Kaltchev, D; Caspers, F; Kadi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The LHC has two dedicated cleaning insertions: IR3 for momentum cleaning and IR7 for betatron cleaning. The collimation system has been specified and built with tight mechanical tolerances (e.g. jaw flatness ~ 40 μm ) and is designed to achieve a high accuracy and reproducibility of the jaw positions (~ 20 μm). The practically achievable cleaning efficiency of the present Phase-I system depends on the precision of the jaw centering around the beam, the accuracy of the gap size and the jaw parallelism against the beam. The reproducibility and stability of the collimation system is important to avoid the frequent repetition of beam based alignment which is currently a lengthy procedure. Within this paper we describe the method used for the beam based alignment of the LHC collimation system, its achieved accuracy and stability and its performance at 450GeV.

  9. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  10. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  11. Possible mechanism for the room-temperature stabilization of the Ge(111) T > 300 deg.C phase by Ga

    Böhringer, M.; Molinás-Mata, P.; Zegenhagen, J.;

    1995-01-01

    ) appearing at temperatures above 300 degrees C (T > 300 degrees C phase). We report scanning tunneling microscopy, LEED, as well. as surface x-ray diffraction measurements on the Ga-induced room-temperature (RT) phase and compare it with a model for the T > 300 OC phase of clean Ge(111). RT deposition of Ga......At low coverages, Ga on Ge(111) induces a hexagonal, domain wall modulated (2 x 2) adatom phase, stable at room temperature, that is characterized in low energy electron diffraction (LEED) by split 1/2-order reflections. This pattern closely resembles the one observed for a phase of clean Ge(111...

  12. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  13. 2012 Clean Energy: Project Summaries

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2012, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and non-lending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.

  14. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  16. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    Tricco, Terrence S.; Price, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields...

  17. Europe's clean technology investment challenge

    Veugelers, Reinhilde

    2011-01-01

    Development and deployment of clean-energy technologies is crucial if climate targets are to be met cost-effectively. The European Union already has a plan that deals with these issues: the Strategic Energy Technology Plan, which has become central to the achievement of the EU's ambitions. In a period of constrained public finances, if governments want to leverage the necessary private innovation for clean-energy technologies, they will have to provide well-designed time-consistent policies, ...

  18. Cleaning services in local authorities

    Klungseth, Nora Johanne

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discusses cleaning services in local authorities and is a response to calls for new knowledge on public facility management (FM). The research was financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development (KRD). The aim is to describe and explore cleaning in order to provide new knowledge which may contribute to developing and improving FM in local authorities. The research undertaken was based on a descriptive and exploratory mixed-method approach consisting...

  19. Deuteron and neutron induced activation in the Eveda accelerator materials: implications for the accelerator maintenance

    Full text of publication follows: The IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) is an accelerator-based DLi neutron source designed to test fusion reactor candidate materials for high fluence neutrons. Before deciding IFMIF construction, an engineering design and associated experimental data acquisition, defined as EVEDA, has been proposed. Along the EVEDA accelerator, deuteron beam losses collide with the accelerator materials, producing activation and consequent radiations responsible of dose. Calculation of the dose rates in the EVEDA accelerator room is necessary in order to analyze the feasibility for manual maintenance. Dose rates due to the activation produced by the deuteron beam losses interaction with the accelerator materials, will be calculated with the ACAB activation code, using EAF2007 library for deuteron activation cross-sections. Also, dose rates from the activation induced by the neutron source produced by the interaction of deuteron beam losses with the accelerator materials and the deuterium implanted in the structural lattice, will be calculated with the SRIM2006, TMAP7, DROSG2000/NEUYIE, MCNPX and ACAB codes. All calculations will be done for the EVEDA accelerator with the room temperature DTL structure, which is based on copper cavities for the DTL. Some calculations will be done for the superconducting DTL structure, based on niobium cavities for the DTL working at cryogenic temperature. Final analysis will show the dominant mechanisms and major radionuclides contributing to the surface dose rates. (authors)

  20. Deuteron and neutron induced activation in the Eveda accelerator materials: implications for the accelerator maintenance

    Garcia, M.; Sanz, J.; Garcia, N.; Cabellos, O. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, lnstituto de Fusion Nuclear (Spain); Sauvan, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C.; Sedano, L.A. [CIEMAT-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Association Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) is an accelerator-based DLi neutron source designed to test fusion reactor candidate materials for high fluence neutrons. Before deciding IFMIF construction, an engineering design and associated experimental data acquisition, defined as EVEDA, has been proposed. Along the EVEDA accelerator, deuteron beam losses collide with the accelerator materials, producing activation and consequent radiations responsible of dose. Calculation of the dose rates in the EVEDA accelerator room is necessary in order to analyze the feasibility for manual maintenance. Dose rates due to the activation produced by the deuteron beam losses interaction with the accelerator materials, will be calculated with the ACAB activation code, using EAF2007 library for deuteron activation cross-sections. Also, dose rates from the activation induced by the neutron source produced by the interaction of deuteron beam losses with the accelerator materials and the deuterium implanted in the structural lattice, will be calculated with the SRIM2006, TMAP7, DROSG2000/NEUYIE, MCNPX and ACAB codes. All calculations will be done for the EVEDA accelerator with the room temperature DTL structure, which is based on copper cavities for the DTL. Some calculations will be done for the superconducting DTL structure, based on niobium cavities for the DTL working at cryogenic temperature. Final analysis will show the dominant mechanisms and major radionuclides contributing to the surface dose rates. (authors)

  1. 39 CFR 3004.12 - Reading room.

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 3004.12 Section 3004.12 Postal... Reading room. (a) The Commission maintains a public reading room at its offices (901 New York Avenue, NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20268-0001) and an electronic reading room at http://www.prc.gov. The...

  2. 32 CFR 296.6 - Reading room.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading room. 296.6 Section 296.6 National... Reading room. (a) The NRO shall provide a reading room equipped with hard copy and electronic records as required in the “Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996”. The NRO Reading Room is...

  3. Clean Energy Application Center

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  4. Thermal Plumes in Ventilated Rooms

    Kofoed, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Axisymmeric circular buoyant jets are treated both theoretically and experimentally. From a literature study the author concludes that the state of experimental knowledge is less satisfactory. Further three different measuring methods have been established to investigate the thermal plumes from pure sources of heat in ventilated rooms.

  5. New Radiation Protection training room

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    From now on, the theory and practical components of the Radiation Protection training, developed by the RP Group and offered by the HSE Unit’s Safety Training team to people working in a Controlled Radiation Area, will take place in a dedicated teaching room, designed specifically for this kind of training.   The new room is in the Safety Training Centre on the Prévessin site and has been open since 16 October. It has an adjoining workshop that, like the room itself, can accommodate up to 12 people. It is also equipped with an interactive board as well as instruments and detectors to test for ionising radiation. This room is located near the recently inaugurated LHC tunnel mock-up where practical training exercises can be carried out in conditions almost identical to those in the real tunnel. To consult the safety training catalogue and/or sign up for Radiation Protection training, please go to: https://cta.cern.ch For further information, please contact the Safety Trainin...

  6. ISOLDE target zone control room

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  7. An open room for interpretation

    Tofte-Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Based on a concept that I have developed, which is called: "An open room for interpretation", the following article states that creative work and aesthetic expression in a pedagogical context with 2-6 years old children must give space for the children's own expressions. To teach music should not...

  8. Instituting a filtration/pressurization system to reduce dust concentrations in a control room at a mineral processing plant

    Noll, J; Cecala, A.; Hummer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has observed that many control rooms and operator compartments in the U.S. mining industry do not have filtration systems capable of maintaining low dust concentrations in these areas. In this study at a mineral processing plant, to reduce respirable dust concentrations in a control room that had no cleaning system for intake air, a filtration and pressurization system originally designed for enclosed cabs was modified and installed. T...

  9. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8flows touch down onto the substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γflows at the substrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by the jet flow and the flow induced by the bubble wall oscillation. Furthermore, the observations reveal that the extent of direct bubble gas phase contact to the solid is partially

  10. Pulsed DC accelerator for laser wakefield accelerator

    For the acceleration of ultra-short, high-brightness electron bunches, a pulsed DC accelerator was constructed. The pulser produced megavolt pulses of 1 ns duration in a vacuum diode. Results are presented from field emission of electrons in the diode. The results indicate that the accelerating gradient in the diode is approximately 1.5 GV/m

  11. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Linear Accelerator A linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays to ... ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used ...

  12. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Clean Energy Plants

    Zitney, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR{trademark}). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real time,high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This presentation will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission energy plants.

  13. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Clean Energy Plants

    Zitney, Stephen

    2012-05-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the U.S.Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR™). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real time,high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This presentation will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission energy plants.

  14. A method and device for cleaning air

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments.......The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments....

  15. Commentary on nuclear power plant control room habitability - including a review of related LERs (1981-1983)

    A review of Licensee Event Reports filed by the operator of commercial nuclear power plants from 1981 through 1983 has revealed that approximately 3% pertain to systems that maintain or monitor control room habitability. Dominant contributors were deficiencies in normal and emergency trains of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and air cleaning systems (45%), deficiencies in atmospheric monitors for toxic and radioactive substances (27%) and deficiencies in fire protection systems (13%). To correct the situation revealed by these analyses and by information provided from other sources, it is recommended that the NRC incorporate into its program plan the development of information that anticipates the conditions within a control room during emergencies, and that criteria for habitability within the control room be better defined. In addition, it is suggested than an improved protocol for testing control room air-related systems be developed, that the required thickness and number of layers of charcoal adsorption beds for control room air cleaning systems be re-evaluated, and that steps be taken to improve the quality of heating, ventilating, air conditioning and air cleaning components. It is also recommended that greater emphasis be placed on maintaining nuclear power plant control rooms in a habitable condition during emergencies so that the operators can remain there and safely shut down the plant, in contrast to placing reliance on the use of remote shutdown panels or auxiliary control facilities

  16. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  17. The vascular hybrid room--operating room of the future.

    Hudorović, Narcis; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Lovricević, Ivo; Zovak, Mario; Schmidt, Sasa

    2010-09-01

    The last two decades have seen a paradigm shift in the treatment of vascular related diseases from once traditional open surgical repairs to the entire vascular tree being amenable to percutaneous interventions. Neither the classic operating room nor the conventional angiography suite is optimal for both open surgery and endovascular procedures. Important issues for the vascular hybrid operating room include quality of the imaging equipment, radiation burden, ease of use of the equipment, need for specially trained personnel, ergonomics, ability to perform both open and percutaneous procedures, sterile environments, as well as quality and efficiency of patient care. The most important feature of working in a dedicated hybrid vascular suite should be the ability to attain best treatment of vascular patients. Whether the interventional radiologist or the vascular surgeon uses the facilities is of less importance. Establishment of an endovascular operating room suite has the benefit of a sterile environment, and the possibility of performing hybrid procedures and conversions when necessary. Moreover, angiography immediately before treatment gives contemporary anatomical information, and after treatment provides quality control. Consequently, better quality and service can be provided to the individual patient. These changes in the treatment of vascular disease require that a new type of vascular specialist, named 'vascular hybrid surgeon', trained to perform both endovascular and open surgical procedures in this highly complex patient group. PMID:21462818

  18. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:25946180

  19. Characteristic evaluation of photoneutron in radiotherapy room using MCNPX

    Linear accelerators are now playing a pivotal role in radiotherapy and high energy photon beams of a strength exceeding 8 MV have recently been mainly used. However, when using high energy photons, neutron contamination due to photonuclear reaction develops. This study focused on the dose distribution of photoneutrons emitted from a linear accelerator using Monte Carlo MCNPX code. MCNPX was used to simulate transportation of photoneutrons in the linear accelerator and the entire space of the radiotherapy room and is useful for calculating the flux, spectrum and absorbed dose. As result of the simulation, we could know that the neutron absorbed dose was as less as negligible when comparing to the photon absorbed dose in radiotherapy room. And it was found that the photoneutron flux increased substantially starting from 10 MV while the absorbed dose rose sharply between 10 MV and 12 MV. It was observed that although the ratio of thermal neutrons to fast neutrons was not altered as the energy increased, it was found that as the distance from the source increased the ratio of thermal neutrons rose markedly

  20. Construction status of the 6 MV tandem accelerator system at the University of Tsukuba

    The 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator with a history of over 35 years at the University of Tsukuba was destroyed by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. At present, we are planning to install a new middle-sized tandem accelerator instead of the broken 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator. The new accelerator system consists of the 6 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, new 4 ion sources, an existing Lam-shift polarized ion source and 12 beam lines. High energy beam transport line will be connected from the accelerator room to the present experimental facilities at the experimental room. The 6 MV tandem accelerator system will mainly be applied for AMS, IBA, heavy ion irradiation and nuclear physics. The construction of the 6 MV tandem accelerator system is scheduled in the spring of 2014. Beam delivery will start in September 2014. (author)

  1. 2 MeV, 60 kW dual-beam type electron accelerator irradiation facility

    The specification of new irradiation facility which has been constructed from 1978 through 1981 as the replacement of 1st Accelerator of JAERI, TRCRE are described. The accelerator is the Cockcroft-Walton type and both vertical and horizontal accelerating tubes are arranged on a single high voltage generator. Transferring of the high voltage to the horizontal accelerating tube is performed with the high voltage changing system in the pressure vessel. The output ratings of the accelerator are 2 MV of acceleration voltage and 30 mA of beam current. By providing the dual beam system, two irradiation rooms, one for vertical and the other for horizontal beam, are independently operationable. Persons can enter the horizontal irradiation room for experimental setting even when the vertical irradiation room is in operation. The specification of the buildings, the exhaust air treatment system, the irradiation conveyor and the safety observation system are also described. (author)

  2. An electronic logbook for the HEP control room

    The Control Room Logbook (CRL) is designed to improve and replace the paper logbooks traditionally used in the HEP accelerator control room. Its features benefit the on-line coordinator, the shift operators, and the remote observers. The author explains some of the most attractive features for each of these roles. The features include the ability to configure the logbook for the specific needs of a collaboration, a large variety of entry types an operator can add by simply clicking and dragging, and a flexible web interface for the remote observer to keep up with control room activities. The entries and saved as UTF-8 based XML files, which allowed us to give the data structure and meaning such that it can easily be parsed in the present and far into the future. The XML tag data is also indexed in a relational database, making queries on dates, keywords, entry type and other criteria feasible and fast. The CRL is used in the D0 control room. This presentation also discusses our experience with deployment, platform independence and other interesting issues that arose with the installation and use of logbook

  3. An Electronic Logbook for the HEP Control Room

    The Control Room Logbook (CRL) is designed to improve and replace the paper logbooks traditionally used in the HEP accelerator control room. Its features benefit the on-line coordinator, the shift operators, and the remote observers. This paper explains some of the most attractive features for each of these roles. The features include the ability to configure the logbook for the specific needs of a collaboration, a large variety of entry types an operator can add by simply clicking and dragging, and a flexible web interface for the remote observer to keep up with control room activities. The entries are saved as UTF-8 based XML files, which allowed us to give the data structure and meaning such that it can easily be parsed in the present and far into the future. The XML tag data is also indexed in a relational database, making queries on dates, keywords, entry type and other criteria feasible and fast. The CRL is used in the D0 control room. This presentation also discusses our experience with deployment, platform independence and other interesting issues that arose with the installation and use of the logbook

  4. An Electronic Logbook for the HEP Control Room

    Gary Roediger et al.

    2001-11-26

    The Control Room Logbook (CRL) is designed to improve and replace the paper logbooks traditionally used in the HEP accelerator control room. Its features benefit the on-line coordinator, the shift operators, and the remote observers. This paper explains some of the most attractive features for each of these roles. The features include the ability to configure the logbook for the specific needs of a collaboration, a large variety of entry types an operator can add by simply clicking and dragging, and a flexible web interface for the remote observer to keep up with control room activities. The entries are saved as UTF-8 based XML files, which allowed us to give the data structure and meaning such that it can easily be parsed in the present and far into the future. The XML tag data is also indexed in a relational database, making queries on dates, keywords, entry type and other criteria feasible and fast. The CRL is used in the D0 control room. This presentation also discusses our experience with deployment, platform independence and other interesting issues that arose with the installation and use of the logbook.

  5. Operational aspects of experimental accelerator physics

    During the normal course of high energy storage ring operations, it is customary for blocks of time to be allotted to something called ''machine studies,'' or more simply, just ''studies.'' It is during these periods of time that observations and measurement of accelerator behavior are actually performed. Almost invariably these studies are performed in support of normal machine operations. The machine physicist is either attempting to improve machine performance, or more often trying to recover previously attained ''good'' operation, for example after an extended machine down period. For the latter activity, a good portion of machine studies time is usually devoted to ''beam tuning'' activities: those standard measurements and adjustments required to recover good operations. Before continuing, please note that this paper is not intended to be comprehensive. It is intended solely to reflect one accelerator physicist's impressions as to what goes on in an accelerator control room. Many topics are discussed, some in more detail than others, and it is not the intention that the techniques described herein be applied verbatim to any existing accelerator. It is hoped,, however, that by reading through the various sections, scientists, including accelerator physicists, engineers, and accelerator beam users, will come to appreciate the types of operations that are required to make an accelerator work

  6. Multimodal texts in kindergarten rooms

    Granly, Astrid; Maagerø, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the results of our project “The Kindergarten Room: A Multimodal Pedagogical Text”. Our major initiative was to investigate what the multimodal texts in kindergarten represent and the extent to which they reflect and provide attributions to the children’s activities. In addition, we wanted to investigate whether kindergarten walls and floors can be called ‘pedagogical texts’, and the extent to which texts on walls and floors establish a particular text cult...

  7. Senate passes clean air bill

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  8. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  9. The Mini-CLEAN experiment

    Because liquid neon is easily purified, has no intrinsic radioactivity, and scintillates brightly in response to ionizing radiation, it is a promising material for the detection of rare low-energy events. The Mini-CLEAN experiment will contain an active mass of approximately 100 kg of liquid neon viewed by 32 photomultiplier tubes and will serve as a prototype for the 10-100 ton CLEAN detector. Mini-CLEAN will be used to test the practicality of liquid neon as a scintillation material for neutrino detection. Additionally, the liquid neon can be replaced with liquid argon to provide improved sensitivity to dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles. The ability to exchange the two cryogens, with different sensitivities to dark matter and fast neutrons, will allow the two event types to be accurately characterized. Radioactive backgrounds from gamma rays and 39Ar beta-decay will be rejected through pulse-shape discrimination

  10. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    Kumar, Aniruddha, E-mail: nontee65@rediffmail.com [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Sonar, V.R.; Das, D.K.; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401504 (India); Nilaya, J.P.; Biswas, D.J. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  11. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    Tricco, Terrence S

    2012-01-01

    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields, the average divergence error in the system is reduced by an order of magnitude with our cleaning algorithm. Divergence errors in SPMHD are maintained to < 1%, even for realistic 3D applications with a corresponding gain in numerical stability. Density errors for an oscillating elliptic water drop using weakly compressible SPH are reduced by a factor of two.

  12. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  13. Reduction of Clostridium Difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus contamination of environmental surfaces after an intervention to improve cleaning methods

    Yadavalli Gopala K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contaminated environmental surfaces may play an important role in transmission of some healthcare-associated pathogens. In this study, we assessed the adequacy of cleaning practices in rooms of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE colonization or infection and examined whether an intervention would result in improved decontamination of surfaces. Methods During a 6-week period, we cultured commonly touched surfaces (i.e. bedrails, telephones, call buttons, door knobs, toilet seats, and bedside tables in rooms of patients with CDAD and VRE colonization or infection before and after housekeeping cleaning, and again after disinfection with 10% bleach performed by the research staff. After the housekeeping staff received education and feedback, additional cultures were collected before and after housekeeping cleaning during a 10-week follow-up period. Results Of the 17 rooms of patients with VRE colonization or infection, 16 (94% had one or more positive environmental cultures before cleaning versus 12 (71% after housekeeping cleaning (p = 0.125, whereas none had positive cultures after bleach disinfection by the research staff (p Conclusion Our findings provide additional evidence that simple educational interventions directed at housekeeping staff can result in improved decontamination of environmental surfaces. Such interventions should include efforts to monitor cleaning and disinfection practices and provide feedback to the housekeeping staff.

  14. GPU-Accelerated Text Mining

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Mueller, Frank [North Carolina State University; Zhang, Yongpeng [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Accelerating hardware devices represent a novel promise for improving the performance for many problem domains but it is not clear for which domains what accelerators are suitable. While there is no room in general-purpose processor design to significantly increase the processor frequency, developers are instead resorting to multi-core chips duplicating conventional computing capabilities on a single die. Yet, accelerators offer more radical designs with a much higher level of parallelism and novel programming environments. This present work assesses the viability of text mining on CUDA. Text mining is one of the key concepts that has become prominent as an effective means to index the Internet, but its applications range beyond this scope and extend to providing document similarity metrics, the subject of this work. We have developed and optimized text search algorithms for GPUs to exploit their potential for massive data processing. We discuss the algorithmic challenges of parallelization for text search problems on GPUs and demonstrate the potential of these devices in experiments by reporting significant speedups. Our study may be one of the first to assess more complex text search problems for suitability for GPU devices, and it may also be one of the first to exploit and report on atomic instruction usage that have recently become available in NVIDIA devices.

  15. GPU-Accelerated Text Mining

    Accelerating hardware devices represent a novel promise for improving the performance for many problem domains but it is not clear for which domains what accelerators are suitable. While there is no room in general-purpose processor design to significantly increase the processor frequency, developers are instead resorting to multi-core chips duplicating conventional computing capabilities on a single die. Yet, accelerators offer more radical designs with a much higher level of parallelism and novel programming environments. This present work assesses the viability of text mining on CUDA. Text mining is one of the key concepts that has become prominent as an effective means to index the Internet, but its applications range beyond this scope and extend to providing document similarity metrics, the subject of this work. We have developed and optimized text search algorithms for GPUs to exploit their potential for massive data processing. We discuss the algorithmic challenges of parallelization for text search problems on GPUs and demonstrate the potential of these devices in experiments by reporting significant speedups. Our study may be one of the first to assess more complex text search problems for suitability for GPU devices, and it may also be one of the first to exploit and report on atomic instruction usage that have recently become available in NVIDIA devices

  16. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved

  17. Status of JAERI tandem accelerator

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Kanda, Susumu; Takeuchi, Suehiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2001-02-01

    JAERI Tandem Accelerator had been operated approximately 230 days in fiscal year of 1999. Meanwhile, we had three times of maintenance period with vent. Total operation-times were 5273 hours. We could not carry out the experiment using rare gas, due to malfunction of the RF power supply for the ECR ion source. The type of the RF power supply is peculiar and it is impossible to get spare parts for repair. We are now investigating the backup RF power supply. The power supply for the magnet became unstable due to degradation of insulation in the shunt resistance, which is used for feedback stabilization. Stability was recovered after cleaning. The acrylic resin shaft was cracked. This cracks have a potential for severe accidents. So far bearing of the shaft has no problem. The reason of cracks may be self-destruction by charge accumulation in the shaft. JAERI Tandem Accelerator is approximately 20 years old. There appear requirements on the higher ion currents for additional ion species. Therefore, authors are investigating cost effective improvement plans of RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadra-pole) and IH type accelerator based on KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) R and D. As a whole, maintenance services for the control system are increasing due to some changes of computer programs. There are some difficulties to keep skilled personnel for facilities operation. Authors are gradually increasing hired personnel with contract from 1993. However, loads for JAERI permanent staffs are still heavy. It takes much longer time to educate skilled persons especially for safety. (Y. Tanaka)

  18. The neutron dose equivalent around high energy medical electron linear accelerators

    Poje Marina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron dose equivalent was made in four dual energy linear accelerator rooms. Two of the rooms were reconstructed after decommissioning of 60Co units, so the main limitation was the space. The measurements were performed by a nuclear track etched detectors LR-115 associated with the converter (radiator that consist of 10B and with the active neutron detector Thermo BIOREM FHT 742. The detectors were set at several locations to evaluate the neutron ambient dose equivalent and/or neutron dose rate to which medical personnel could be exposed. Also, the neutron dose dependence on collimator aperture was analyzed. The obtained neutron dose rates outside the accelerator rooms were several times smaller than the neutron dose rates inside the accelerator rooms. Nevertheless, the measured neutron dose equivalent was not negligible from the aspect of the personal dosimetry with almost 2 mSv a year per person in the areas occupied by staff (conservative estimation. In rooms with 15 MV accelerators, the neutron exposure to the personnel was significantly lower than in the rooms having 18 MV accelerators installed. It was even more pronounced in the room reconstructed after the 60Co decommissioning. This study confirms that shielding from the neutron radiation should be considered when building vaults for high energy linear accelerators, especially when the space constraints exist.

  19. Chemical cleaning re-invented: clean, lean and green.

    Hanson, Margaret; Vangeel, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A project undertaken in the Central Cleaning Department of Janssen, a Johnson and Johnson pharmaceutical company, demonstrates how ergonomics, environmental and industrial hygiene risks and quality concerns can be tackled simultaneously. The way equipment was cleaned was re-designed by an in-house cross-functional team to ensure a 'clean, lean and green' process. Initiatives included a new layout of the area, and new work processes and equipment to facilitate cleaning and handling items. This resulted in significant improvements: all ergonomics high risk tasks were reduced to moderate or low risk; hearing protection was no longer required; respirator requirement reduced by 67%; solvent use reduced by 73%; productivity improved, with 55% fewer operator hours required; and quality improved 40-fold. The return on investment was estimated at 3.125 years based on an investment of over €1.5 million (2008 prices). This win-win intervention allowed ergonomics, environmental, industrial hygiene, productivity and quality concerns all to be addressed. PMID:24858515

  20. Nuclear power industry needs to know: How clean is clean?

    The Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) provides a unified nuclear power industry approach on generic nuclear regulatory and technical issues and interacts with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or other government agencies, as appropriate, on those issues. NUMARC's membership includes every U.S. utility that has a license to build or operate a commercial nuclear plant. The reactor vendors and major architect/engineering firms are also of NUMARC. The NRC has made determined efforts over the past several years to establish a coherent risk-based policy to govern decisions on applications of radioactivity of such low levels that they do not warrant the same regulatory controls as do higher levels of radioactivity. All agencies responsible for environmental quality have struggled with the question 'How clean is clean?' The NRC is preparing to conduct a participative rule-making process on one aspect of this question, residual contamination criteria. This is an area for which the nuclear power industry needs to know 'how clean is clean.' NUMARC fully supports the NRC's efforts to establish technically correct residual contamination criteria that have public acceptance and plans to actively participate on behalf of the nuclear power industry

  1. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Gupta, Amita

    2004-11-01

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous

  2. Acceleration without Horizons

    Doria, Alaric; Munoz, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} < c$. The motion of the accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  3. On some constructions of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings

    Stancu, Alin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss several constructions that lead to new examples of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings. A characterization of the idempotents in the algebra defined by a 2-cocycle is given and used to prove some of the algebra's properties (the infinitesimal deformation case). From infinitesimal deformations we go to full deformations and prove that any formal deformation of a clean (exchange) ring is itself clean (exchange). Examples of nil-clean, clean, and exchange rings arising ...

  4. Evaluation of different cleaning agents used for cleaning ultra tiltration membranes fouled by surface water

    Zondervan, Edwin; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the published literature on potential membrane fouling components, available cleaning agents and possible interactions between cleaning agents and fouling components. It also lists the cleaning models available in the literature, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of these models. Based on this outcome, a new cleaning model is proposed to capture cleaning dynamics for 10 different cleaning agents, varying from acidic, alkali and oxidizing to sequestering agents ...

  5. Accelerated Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Alloy

    Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low DK, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = Kmin/Kmax). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of Kmax (Kmax less than 0.4 KIC). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and Kmax influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  6. Using the inside of SWCNT's as a nano clean room reactor

    Recently, several research groups throughout the world started to use the inside of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT's) as a reaction chamber on the nano-scale. It began with the filling of SWCNTs with fullerenes, thus producing so-called peapods. By annealing these peapods to high temperatures (∼ 1200 oC) it is possible to transform the enclosed fullerenes into inner tubes. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the radial breathing modes of the inner tubes can be very narrow with intrinsic linewidths down to 0.4 cm-1. This small widths indicate long phonon lifetimes and hence very defect free inner tubes. Due to the interaction with the outer tubes the inner tube RBMs show a characteristic splitting. Considering the mean outer tube diameter of about 1.4 nm and the van der Waals spacing between inner and outer tubes, the inner tubes have rather small diameters around 0.7 nm. Thus, due to the inverse relation between RBM frequency and diameter, the spectral distance between the RBMs of different inner tube types is (with few exceptions) much larger than between different outer tube RBMs. This opens the possibility to study the properties of individual SWCNTs in a bulk sample. Additionally, by using fullerenes with different 13C enrichment levels it is possible to produce inner tubes with different 13C levels. This allows the isotope engineering of SWCNTs. (author)

  7. Teaming up for Clean Energy

    2009-01-01

    On October 22, the China Institute of Strategy and Management and the U.S. Brookings Institution jointly held the China-U.S. Strategic Forum on Clean Energy Cooperation. At the opening session of the forum, Zheng Bijian, Chairman of the China Institute of Strategy and Management, gave a keynote speech. Edited excerpts follow:

  8. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  9. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  10. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the moderate processing conditions of 323 K, 13.8 MPa, 30 min and 750 rpm.

  11. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  12. Partnership for a Clean Future

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Having lived in China for almost three decades,Sabina Brady is a de facto China hand.Currently,she is the cxecutive director of the U.S.-China Energy Cooperation Program (ECP),a nonprofit organization that engages in market development and promotion of clean energy within the framework of China-U.S.bilateral government commitments on the environrnent and energy.

  13. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  14. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  15. Clean Technology Fund Investment Plan Approved for Concentrated Solar Power in the MENA Region

    Coma-Cunill, Roger; Govindarajalu, Chandra; Pariente-David, Silvia; Walters, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) clean technology fund investment plan proposes co-financing of $750 million and mobilizes an additional $4.85 billion from other sources to accelerate deployment of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) by investing in the CSP expansion programs of Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. Specifically, the Investment Plan will support MENA countries to ...

  16. Off-momentum collimation and cleaning in the energy ramp in the LHC

    Quaranta, Elena; Giulini Castiglioni Agosteo, Stefano Luigi Maria

    This Master thesis work has been carried out at CERN in the framework of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) Collimation project. The LHC is a two-beam proton collider, built to handle a stored energy of 360MJ for each beam. Since the energy deposition from particle losses could quench the superconducting magnets, a system of collimators has been installed in two cleaning insertions in the ring and in the experimental areas. The achievable LHC beam intensity is directly coupled to the beam loss rate and, consequently, to the cleaning eciency of the collimation system. This study analyses the collimation cleaning performance in dierent scenarios inside the accelerator. First, simulations are performed of the transverse losses in the LHC collimation system during the acceleration process. The results are compared with data taken during a dedicated session at the LHC machine. Simulations are also performed to predict the collimation eciency during future operation at higher energy. Furthermore, an investigation of t...

  17. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  18. 32 CFR 701.6 - Reading rooms.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reading rooms. 701.6 Section 701.6 National... Reading rooms. The FOIA requires that (a)(2) records created on or after 1 November 1996, be made available electronically (starting 1 November 1997) as well as in hard copy, in the FOIA reading room...

  19. VIDEO CONFERENCE ROOM CERN-PUB

    2002-01-01

    We would like to inform our users that the video conference room CERN-PUB has been transfered to the following address: 4-S-013. From now on, you can book the room from the Conference Rooms Booking System (CRBS) here. Thank you

  20. An Optimisation Approach for Room Acoustics Design

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    This paper discuss on a conceptual level the value of optimisation techniques in architectural acoustics room design from a practical point of view. It is chosen to optimise one objective room acoustics design criterium estimated from the sound field inside the room. The sound field is modeled...

  1. Neutron spectrometry and determination of neutron ambient dose equivalents in different LINAC radiotherapy rooms

    Domingo, C., E-mail: carles.domingo@uab.ca [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica. Edifici C, Campus UAB, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Fuste, M.J.; Morales, E.; Amgarou, K. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica. Edifici C, Campus UAB, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Terron, J.A. [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena. E- 41009 Sevilla. Spain (Spain); Rosello, J.; Brualla, L. [ERESA, Avda. Tres Cruces s/n. E-46014 Valencia (Spain); Nunez, L. [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital. Puerta de Hierro. E-28222 Majadahonda (Spain); Colmenares, R. [Serv. de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hosp. Ramon y Cajal, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, F. [Dpto. de Particulas. Univ. de Santiago. E-15782 Santiago de Compostela. Spain (Spain); Hartmann, G.H. [DKFZ E0400 Im Neuenheimer Feld 280. D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany) (Germany); Sanchez-Doblado, F. [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena. E- 41009 Sevilla. Spain (Spain); Dpto. de Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica. Universidad de Sevilla. E-41009 Sevilla. Spain (Spain); Fernandez, F. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica. Edifici C, Campus UAB, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Justo Dorado 11 E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    A project has been set up to study the effect on a radiotherapy patient of the neutrons produced around the LINAC accelerator head by photonuclear reactions induced by photons above {approx}8 MeV. These neutrons may reach directly the patient, or they may interact with the surrounding materials until they become thermalised, scattering all over the treatment room and affecting the patient as well, contributing to peripheral dose. Spectrometry was performed with a calibrated and validated set of Bonner spheres at a point located at 50 cm from the isocenter, as well as at the place where a digital device for measuring neutrons, based on the upset of SRAM memories induced by thermal neutrons, is located inside the treatment room. Exposures have taken place in six LINAC accelerators with different energies (from 15 to 23 MV) with the aim of relating the spectrometer measurements with the readings of the digital device under various exposure and room geometry conditions. The final purpose of the project is to be able to relate, under any given treatment condition and room geometry, the readings of this digital device to patient neutron effective dose and peripheral dose in organs of interest. This would allow inferring the probability of developing second malignancies as a consequence of the treatment. Results indicate that unit neutron fluence spectra at 50 cm from the isocenter do not depend on accelerator characteristics, while spectra at the place of the digital device are strongly influenced by the treatment room geometry.

  2. Topological Insulators at Room Temperature

    Zhang, Haijun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter with surface states protected by the time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we perform first-principle electronic structure calculations for $Sb_2Te_3$, $Sb_2Se_3$, $Bi_2Te_3$ and $Bi_2Se_3$ crystals. Our calculations predict that $Sb_2Te_3$, $Bi_2Te_3$ and $Bi_2Se_3$ are topological insulators, while $Sb_2Se_3$ is not. In particular, $Bi_2Se_3$ has a topologically non-trivial energy gap of $0.3 eV$, suitable for room temperature applicat...

  3. Ergonomics and control room design

    The application of ergonomic principles to the design process and some aspects of the Sizewell B control room is discussed. Also outlined is the management process which ensures that these principles are applied systematically throughout the design development activity and highlights the functional requirements which must also be met in the creation of a total man-machine system package which meets all the technical design criteria. The ergonomics requirements are part of this process and extend into all aspects of design ranging from such matters as workplace organization to environmental factors, social engineering, communications and aesthetics. (author)

  4. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1974-01-01

    Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...... of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat...

  5. Accelerators for Medical Applications Accelerators for Medical Application: What is so Special?

    Schippers, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Specific requirements of accelerators for radiation therapy with protons or ions will be discussed. The focus will be on accelerator design, operational and formal aspects. We will discuss the special requirements to reach a high reliability for patient treatments as well as an accurate delivery of the dose at the correct position in the patient using modern techniques like pencil beam scanning. It will be shown that the requirements of the accelerated beam differ from those in a nuclear physics laboratory. The way of operating such a medical device requires not only operators, but also the possibility to have a safe machine operation by non accelerator specialists at different operating sites (treatment rooms). It will be shown that the organisation and role of the control/interlock system can be considered as being the most dedicated in a particle-therapy providing facility.

  6. Guidelines for control room design reviews

    The control room design review is part of a broad program being undertaken by the nuclear industry and the government to ensure consideration of human factors in nuclear power plant design and operation. The purpose of the control room design review described by these guidelines is to (1) review and evaluate the control room workspace, instrumentation, controls, and other equipment from a human factors engineering point of view that takes into account both system demands and operator capabilities; and (2) to identify, assess, and implement control room design modifications that correct inadequate or unsuitable items. The scope of the control room design review described by these guidelines covers the human engineering review of completed control rooms; i.e., operational control rooms or those at that stage of the licensing process where control room design and equipment selection are committed. These guidelines should also be of use during the design process for new control rooms. However, additional analyses to optimize the allocation of functions to man and machine, and further examination of advanced control system technology, are recommended for new control rooms. Guidelines and references for comprehensive system analyses designed to incorporate human factors considerations into the design and development of new control rooms are presented in Appendix B. Where possible, a generic approach to the control room design review process is encouraged; for example, when control room designs are replicated wholly or in part in two or more units. Even when designs are not replicated exactly, generic reviews which can be modified to account for specific differences in particular control rooms should be considered. Industry organizations and owners groups are encouraged to coordinate joint efforts and share data to develop generic approaches to the design review process. The control room design review should accomplish the following specific objectives. To determine

  7. Leading the Nation in Clean Energy Deployment (Fact Sheet)

    2012-07-01

    This document summarizes key efforts and projects that are part of the DOE/NREL Integrated Deployment effort to integrated energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies in cities, states, island locations, and communities around the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an aggressive, scalable, and replicable strategy to accelerate market adoption of clean energy solutions to power homes, businesses, and vehicles. Using the comprehensive Integrated Deployment approach developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), DOE partners with communities, cities, states, federal agencies, and territories to identify and implement a variety of efficiency and renewable energy technology solutions.

  8. Post-accelerator LINAC design for the VECC RIB project

    Arup Bandyopadhyay

    2002-12-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) is presently developing an ISOL post-acclerator type of RIB facility. The scheme utilises the existing = 130 room temperature variable energy cyclotron machine as the primary accelerator for the production of RIBs and radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and LINAC modules for the post-acceleration. The design aspects of these postaccelerator LINAC modules will be discussed in this paper.

  9. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  10. Web based emergency room PACS

    We wished to develop the web based Picture Archiving and Communication System in the emergency room for early decision making in emergency treatment planning at a full PACS Hospital. The program tools were Microsoft Visual Studio 6.0 - Visual C++ 6.0, and the Microsoft SQL 7.0 under the Microsoft Windows 2000 server operation system. The achievement of images was performed by an auto transport program installed in the ER and the radiology department. The average compression rates were 5:1 for CT and MR, and 20:1 for CR with JPEG 2000 lossy compression. All the images were stored on hard disk for 3 months. The patients' information was displayed for 2 weeks for reducing the security risk. For interdepartmental consultation, patient query by patient hospital number was available. Our Web based ER PACS could be useful system for early decision making for treatment planning in the emergency room because it reduces the risk factors for the security of the Web Paces by using a system independent from PACS in the hospital and minimizing the information patients

  11. Large HTGR control room design

    The standard HTGR control room arrangement is based on an extensive program that started with a study of human engineering principles and evolved with the use of a full-scale mock-up employed to arrive at an optimized control board layout and select proper components for the man-machine interface. The integrated control system makes extensive use of a dual computer as a tool for data collection, alarming, and formating information for the operator, using cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as the prime display. Window type annunciators, recorders, and large pistol-grip switches have been replaced by multicolor CRTs, line printers, and miniature pushbutton switches designed into a compact monitoring and control console. The console is designed for stand-up and sit-down operation and is shaped for maximum operator convenience. Indicators and controls are functionally arranged so the operator can easily scan, compare like parameters, and respond to abnormal conditions. A summary is presented of the features General Atomic has included in the HTGR control room design and of approaches used to develop a modern design that meets General Atomic's objectives as well as current regulatory and code requirements. (U.S.)

  12. Room design in dental radiology

    Radiography and radiographic examination of the patient form most valuable diagnostic tool in providing comprehensive dental care. The safe and effective use of the X-ray equipment is important for the protection of the patient, other members of the public and all members of the dental team. For patients, the risk that is associated with exposure to X-rays must always be weighed against the clinical benefit of an accurate diagnosis. The risks associated with the exposure to the X-rays during the radiographic examination of the patient must be minimised by meticulously adhering to good practice and thus carefully managing the use of dental radiological procedures. The dentist or the personnel who is the license holder for the X-ray equipment is ultimately responsible for the radiation safety at the workplace. One important method in limiting the possible risk of radiation exposure at workplace is the correct design of an X-ray room. This paper is aimed at discussing the guidelines and recommendations on X-ray room designs in dental radiology in order to facilitate radiation control and safe working conditions for radiation workers as well as the public. (author)

  13. Healthcare quality in Emergency Room

    P Sarafis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study wants to clarify the issue of quality in health but also to determine the qualitative and quantitative quality indicators in Emergency department that their measurement is a discipline to countries developed in the area of health in order to promote quality in emergency care. Measurement of specific indicators through the evaluation of data and results, quality in Emergency Room is verified.Method: Review of relative bibliography was made in electronic bases of Blackwell-Synergy (1990-2008, and Medline (1990-2008 using as key words Emergency Room, safety, quality, responsiveness, satisfaction, effectiveness, efficiency, appropriateness, accessibility, competence. Complementary bibliography was found through other electronic search engines and by reviewing references of already found articles.Results: determinants for quality in the provision of health services were found to be the credibility that consists of the stability of care, the consistency and the duration of performance, the personnel responsiveness and the vigilance to serve the health user, its efficiency, the accessibility of health services, the politeness, understanding and communication of health professionals in relation to their professionalism, the security and the working environment.

  14. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    None

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  15. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  16. Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations

    ... Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations DISASTER RECOVERY FACT ... water can be difficult. However, keeping your hands clean helps you avoid getting sick. It is best ...

  17. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  18. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    None

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  19. High intensity hadron accelerators

    In this paper we give an introductory discussion of high intensity hadron accelerators with special emphasis on the high intensity feature. The topics selected for this discussion are: Types of acclerator - The principal actions of an accelerator are to confine and to accelerate a particle beam. Focusing - This is a discussion of the confinement of single particles. Intensity limitations - These are related to confinement of intense beams of particles. Power economics - Considerations related to acceleration of intense beams of particles. Heavy ion kinematics - The adaptation of accelerators to accelerate all types of heavy ions

  20. The direction of acceleration

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  1. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  2. Ultrasonic aqueous cleaning as a replacement for chlorinated solvent cleaning

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in the replacement of chlorinated solvents since 1982. One of the most successful replacement efforts has been the substitution of vapor degreasers or soak tanks using chlorinated solvents with ultrasonic cleaning using aqueous detergents. Recently, funding was obtained from the Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Technology Development to demonstrate this technology. A unit has been procured and installed in the vacuum pump shop area to replace the use of a solvent soak tank. Initially, the solvents used in the shop were CFC-113 and a commercial brand cleaner which contained both perchloroethylene and methylene chloride. While the ultrasonic unit was being procured, a terpene-based solvent was used. Generally, parts were soaked overnight in order to soften baked-on vanish. Many times, wire brushing was used to help remove remaining contamination. Initial testing with the ultrasonic cleaner indicated cleaning times of 20 min were as effective as the overnight solvent soaks in removing contamination. Wire brushing was also not required following the ultrasonic cleaning as was sometimes required with the solvent soak

  3. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Certain special treatments of superficial melanoma, however, require that beam energies as low as 70 MeV/nucleon also be available. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. For most heavy ion treatments, this corresponds to 107-109 ions/second at the patient. Because this research is best conducted in a dedicated, hospital-based facility, and because of the clinical need for ultra-high reliability, the construction of new and dedicated facilities has been proposed. Heavy ion accelerators can provide a variety of ions and energies, permitting treatment plans that exploit the properties of the ion best suited to each individual treatment, and that employ radioactive beams (such as 11C and 19Ne) to precisely confirm the dose localization. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety. 3 refs., 8 figs

  4. Review On Automatic-Cleaning Basket Strainer

    Deepak Gothwal; Abhijit Dhumal; Anand Gang; Siddharth Gavali; Sandip Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration amp waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it which takes time amp filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer when strainer ...

  5. A Simple Survey Concerning the Approach of the Cleaning Companies to Mercury Spills

    Derya Camur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge of the cleaning companies in case of mercury spills at home. METHOD: Thirty-two cleaning companies were interviewed by a telephone survey. Two standard questions were asked to an authorized people of the company. “A manometer is broken on the carpet. The mercury in the manometer is all spilled on the wall to wall carpet in the living room. We want our carpet to be cleaned. Could you do it? How can be the carpet cleaned? Have you ever cleaned a carpet on which mercury was spilled?” It is stated that mercury spillage has happened just a very short time ago and nothing have been done after that. RESULTS: Fifty percent of the 32 companies work in Istanbul, 37.5% in Ankara and 22.5% in Izmir. Three companies from Ankara, five from Istanbul, one from Izmir stated that they have encountered with mercury spillage before. Three of the companies who have stated that the have not encountered with mercury spillage before, asked “What is mercury?” and one of them asked whether “Mercury is a communicable disease, isn’t it?”. Twenty-two of the interviewed cleaning companies stated that they could clean the carpet with stain remover and three of them offered vacuuming, one washing the carpet with carpet shampoo, one person cleaning the stain by wiping with alcohol/ethyl alcohol. Five of the companies stated that they could not clean the stain and one of them he has advised throwing the carpet away. CONCLUSION: In many developing countries there is no responsible association or institution for mercury spills. Such simple surveys may be very important in determining training and gaps concerning public health problems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 557-562

  6. Clean Assembly of Genesis Collector Canister for Flight: Lessons for Planetary Sample Return

    Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; Allen, C. C.; Warren, J. L.; Schwartz, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of solar composition in the Genesis collectors requires not only high sensitivity but very low blanks; thus, very strict collector contamination minimization was required beginning with mission planning and continuing through hardware design, fabrication, assembly and testing. Genesis started with clean collectors and kept them clean inside of a canister. The mounting hardware and container for the clean collectors were designed to be cleanable, with access to all surfaces for cleaning. Major structural components were made of aluminum and cleaned with megasonically energized ultrapure water (UPW). The UPW purity was >18 M resistivity. Although aluminum is relatively difficult to clean, the Genesis protocol achieved level 25 and level 50 cleanliness on large structural parts; however, the experience suggests that surface treatments may be helpful on future missions. All cleaning was performed in an ISO Class 4 (Class 10) cleanroom immediately adjacent to an ISO Class 4 assembly room; thus, no plastic packaging was required for transport. Persons assembling the canister were totally enclosed in cleanroom suits with face shield and HEPA filter exhaust from suit. Interior canister materials, including fasteners, were installed, untouched by gloves, using tweezers and other stainless steel tools. Sealants/lubricants were not exposed inside the canister, but vented to the exterior and applied in extremely small amounts using special tools. The canister was closed in ISO Class 4, not to be opened until on station at Earth-Sun L1. Throughout the cleaning and assembly, coupons of reference materials that were cleaned at the same time as the flight hardware were archived for future reference and blanks. Likewise reference collectors were archived. Post-mission analysis of collectors has made use of these archived reference materials.

  7. Improving room acoustics at low frequencies with multiple loudspeakers and time based room correction

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Small and medium size rectangular rooms are often used for sound reproduction. These rooms have substantial acoustical problems at low frequencies primarily caused by the reflections from the room boundaries. The spatial variation in sound pressure level (SPL) can be up to 30 dB in a room at low...... wall. With the back wall reflection removed a homogeneous sound field will be created in the whole room at low frequencies. Simulations and measurements of normal size listening rooms show that 4 loudspeakers are enough to even the sound field in a room. The CABS system is controlled by a developed DSP...

  8. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  10. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  13. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean. Clean means that the avocado is practically...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  16. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...

  1. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust,...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  6. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  9. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  10. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  11. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  12. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  13. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  14. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  15. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    None

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  16. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  17. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  18. Human Response to Ductless Personalised Ventilation: Impact of Air Movement, Temperature and Cleanness on Eye Symptoms

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Fillon, Maelys; Bivolarova, Maria;

    2013-01-01

    environment facially applied individually controlled air movement of room air, with or without local filtering, did not have significant impact on eye blink frequency and tear film quality. The local air movement and air cleaning resulted in increased eye blinking frequency and improvement of tear film......The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV) was studied in relation to peoples’ health, comfort and performance. This paper presents results on the impact of room air temperature, using of DPV and local air filtration on eye blink...

  19. Air cleaning in accident situations

    The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) through its subsidiaries the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) established in 1979 a Group of Experts or Air Cleaning in Accident Situations. This group met seven times to establish a draft report based on its Terms of Reference which were to: 1) review the performance of off-gas cleaning systems in accident conditions; 2) collect information about operating experience with these systems; 3) seek to establish common principles for the design of off-gas systems; 4) review methods used in the different countries for testing filters from the standpoint of accident conditions; and 5) suggest specific mechanisms for improving cooperation, with regard, for example, to filter testing. The conclusions and recommendations of the Group are summarized

  20. Gaseous cleaning in enrichment installations

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), either pure or mixed to other gases, is widely used as a process gas in the great majority of the known uranium isotopic enrichment processes. Due to a long term operation of the enrichment facilities there is a decomposition of the UF6, which solid products like UO2F2 and UF5, deposit on the walls of the reservoirs. This work describe a cleaning process used to remove the solid products of the UF6 decomposition from one of the reservoirs (V = 620 l) of the Jet Nozzle enrichment project facilities of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/Belo Horizonte. It was used a gaseous mixture which presented the advantage of cleaning up the reservoir without dismounting the equipment. The yielded products are all gaseous and can be easily pumped out. (author)

  1. Magnetic pulse cleaning of products

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Safonov, S. V.; Smolentsev, E. V.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the application of a magnetic impact for inventing new equipment and methods of cleaning cast precision blanks from fragile or granular thickened surface coatings, which are difficult to remove and highly resistant to further mechanical processing. The issues relating to a rational use of the new method for typical products and auxiliary operations have been studied. The calculation and design methods have been elaborated for load-carrying elements of the equipment created. It has been shown, that the application of the magnetic pulse method, combined with a low-frequency vibration process is perspective at enterprises of general and special machine construction, for cleaning lightweight blanks and containers, used for transporting bulk goods.

  2. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...... relatively simple and thus practically efficient, partly due to the development of a new simple algorithm for computing the connected components of a graph embedded in the plane. A version of our cleaning algorithm has already been incorporated in a commercial product....

  3. CAS CERN Accelerator School vacuum technology. Proceedings

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twelfth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Vacuum Technology'. Despite the importance of vacuum technology in the design and operation of particle accelerators at CERN and at the many other accelerators already installed around the world, this was the first time that CAS has organized a course devoted entirely to this topic. Perhaps this reflects the facts that vacuum has become one of the more critical aspects of future accelerators, and that many of the pioneers in the accelerator field are being replaced by new, younger personnel. The lectures start with the basic concepts of the physics and technology of vacuum followed by detailed descriptions of the many different types of gas-pumping devices and methods to measure the pressures achieved. The outgassing characteristics of the different materials used in the construction of vacuum systems and the optimisation of cleaning methods to reduce this outgassing are then explained together with the effects of the residual gases on the particle beams. Then follow chapters on leak detection, materials and vacuum system engineering. Finally, seminars are presented on designing vacuum systems, the history of vacuum devices, the LHC (large hadron collider) vacuum system, vacuum systems for electron storage rings, and quality assurance for vacuum. (orig.)

  4. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  5. Dielectric Laser Acceleration

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Wu, Ziran; Qi, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    We describe recent advances in the study of particle acceleration using dielectric near-field structures driven by infrared lasers, which we refer to as Dielectric Laser Accelerators. Implications for high energy physics and other applications are discussed.

  6. Standing wave linear accelerator

    Consideration is being given to standing wave linear accelerator containing generator, phase shifter, two accelerating resonator sections, charged particle injector and waveguide bridge. Its first arm is oined up with generator via the phase shifter, the second and the third ones-with accelerating sections and the fourth one - with HF-power absorber. HF-power absorber represents a section of circular diaphragmatic wavequide with transformer with input wave and intrawaveguide output load located between injector and the first accelerating section. The section possesses holes in side walls lying on accelerator axis. The distances between centers of the last cell of the fast accelerating section and the first cell of the second accelerating sectiOn equal (2n+3)lambda/4, where n=1, 2, 3..., lambda - wave length of generator. The suggested system enables to improve by one order spectral characteristics of accelerators as compared to the prototype in which magnetrons are used as generator

  7. Improved plasma accelerator

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  8. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  9. Demountable damped cavity for HOM-damping in ILC superconducting accelerating cavities

    Konomi, T.; Yasuda, F.; Furuta, F.; Saito, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed a new higher-order-mode (HOM) damper called a demountable damped cavity (DDC) as part of the R&D efforts for the superconducting cavity of the International Linear Collider (ILC). The DDC has two design concepts. The first is an axially symmetrical layout to obtain high damping efficiency. The DDC has a coaxial structure along the beam axis to realize strong coupling with HOMs. HOMs are damped by an RF absorber at the end of the coaxial waveguide and the accelerating mode is reflected by a choke filter mounted at the entrance of the coaxial waveguide. The second design concept is a demountable structure to facilitate cleaning, in order to suppress the Q-slope problem in a high field. A single-cell cavity with the DDC was fabricated to test four performance parameters. The first was frequency matching between the accelerating cavity and the choke filter. Since the bandwidth of the resonance frequency in a superconducting cavity is very narrow, there is a possibility that the accelerating field will leak to the RF absorber because of thermal shrinkage. The design bandwidth of the choke filter is 25 kHz. It was demonstrated that frequency matching adjusted at room temperature could be successfully maintained at 2 K. The second parameter was the performance of the demountable structure. At the joint, the magnetic field is 1/6 of the maximum field in the accelerating cavity. Ultimately, the accelerating field reached 19 MV/m and Q0 was 1.5×1010 with a knife-edge shape. The third parameter was field emission and multipacting. Although the choke structure has numerous parallel surfaces that are susceptible to the multipacting problem, it was found that neither field emission nor multipacting presented problems in both an experiment and simulation. The final parameter was the Q values of the HOM. The RF absorber adopted in the system is a Ni-Zn ferrite type. The RF absorber shape was designed based on the measurement data of permittivity and permeability

  10. Demountable damped cavity for HOM-damping in ILC superconducting accelerating cavities

    Konomi, T., E-mail: konomi@ims.ac.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yasuda, F. [University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Furuta, F. [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Saito, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-01-11

    We have designed a new higher-order-mode (HOM) damper called a demountable damped cavity (DDC) as part of the R and D efforts for the superconducting cavity of the International Linear Collider (ILC). The DDC has two design concepts. The first is an axially symmetrical layout to obtain high damping efficiency. The DDC has a coaxial structure along the beam axis to realize strong coupling with HOMs. HOMs are damped by an RF absorber at the end of the coaxial waveguide and the accelerating mode is reflected by a choke filter mounted at the entrance of the coaxial waveguide. The second design concept is a demountable structure to facilitate cleaning, in order to suppress the Q-slope problem in a high field. A single-cell cavity with the DDC was fabricated to test four performance parameters. The first was frequency matching between the accelerating cavity and the choke filter. Since the bandwidth of the resonance frequency in a superconducting cavity is very narrow, there is a possibility that the accelerating field will leak to the RF absorber because of thermal shrinkage. The design bandwidth of the choke filter is 25 kHz. It was demonstrated that frequency matching adjusted at room temperature could be successfully maintained at 2 K. The second parameter was the performance of the demountable structure. At the joint, the magnetic field is 1/6 of the maximum field in the accelerating cavity. Ultimately, the accelerating field reached 19 MV/m and Q{sub 0} was 1.5×10{sup 10} with a knife-edge shape. The third parameter was field emission and multipacting. Although the choke structure has numerous parallel surfaces that are susceptible to the multipacting problem, it was found that neither field emission nor multipacting presented problems in both an experiment and simulation. The final parameter was the Q values of the HOM. The RF absorber adopted in the system is a Ni–Zn ferrite type. The RF absorber shape was designed based on the measurement data of permittivity

  11. Demountable damped cavity for HOM-damping in ILC superconducting accelerating cavities

    We have designed a new higher-order-mode (HOM) damper called a demountable damped cavity (DDC) as part of the R and D efforts for the superconducting cavity of the International Linear Collider (ILC). The DDC has two design concepts. The first is an axially symmetrical layout to obtain high damping efficiency. The DDC has a coaxial structure along the beam axis to realize strong coupling with HOMs. HOMs are damped by an RF absorber at the end of the coaxial waveguide and the accelerating mode is reflected by a choke filter mounted at the entrance of the coaxial waveguide. The second design concept is a demountable structure to facilitate cleaning, in order to suppress the Q-slope problem in a high field. A single-cell cavity with the DDC was fabricated to test four performance parameters. The first was frequency matching between the accelerating cavity and the choke filter. Since the bandwidth of the resonance frequency in a superconducting cavity is very narrow, there is a possibility that the accelerating field will leak to the RF absorber because of thermal shrinkage. The design bandwidth of the choke filter is 25 kHz. It was demonstrated that frequency matching adjusted at room temperature could be successfully maintained at 2 K. The second parameter was the performance of the demountable structure. At the joint, the magnetic field is 1/6 of the maximum field in the accelerating cavity. Ultimately, the accelerating field reached 19 MV/m and Q0 was 1.5 1010 with a knife-edge shape. The third parameter was field emission and multipacting. Although the choke structure has numerous parallel surfaces that are susceptible to the multipacting problem, it was found that neither field emission nor multipacting presented problems in both an experiment and simulation. The final parameter was the Q values of the HOM. The RF absorber adopted in the system is a Ni–Zn ferrite type. The RF absorber shape was designed based on the measurement data of permittivity and

  12. Re-envisioning the operator consoles for Dhruva control room

    Control Room design is undergoing rapid changes with the progressive adoption of computerization and Automation. Advances in man-machine interfaces have further accelerated this trend. This paper presents the design and main features of Operator consoles (OC) for Dhruva control room developed using new technologies. The OCs have been designed so as not to burden the operator with information overload but to help him quickly assess the situation and timely take appropriate steps. The consoles provide minimalistic yet intuitive interfaces, context sensitive navigation, display of important information and progressive disclosure of situation based information. The use of animations, 3D graphics, and real time trends with the benefit of hardware acceleration to provide a resolution independent rich user experience. The use of XAML, an XML based Mark-up Language for User Interface definition and C for application logic resulted in complete separation of visual design, content, and logic. This also resulted in a workflow where separate teams could work on the UI and the logic of an application. The introduction of Model View View-Model has led to more testable and maintainable software. (author)

  13. Does the electric power grid need a room temperature superconductor?

    Highlights: •High temperature superconductor (HTS) wires reach 500 A/cm-width (77 K) over >100 m. •Equipment using HTS wires has been developed for critical needs in the power grid. •Room temperature superconductors (RTS), if discovered, avoid refrigeration in use. •Short coherence length, accelerated flux creep make RTS power applications unlikely. •Given progress in HTS power equipment, power grid does not need RTS. -- Abstract: Superconductivity can revolutionize electric power grids, for example with high power underground cables to open urban power bottlenecks and fault current limiters to solve growing fault currents problems. Technology based on high temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is beginning to meet these critical needs. Wire performance is continually improving. For example, American Superconductor has recently demonstrated long wires with up to 500 A/cm-width at 77 K, almost doubling its previous production performance. But refrigeration, even at 77 K, is a complication, driving interest in discovering room temperature superconductors (RTS). Unfortunately, short coherence lengths and accelerated flux creep will make RTS applications unlikely. Existing HTS technology, in fact, offers a good compromise of relatively high operating temperature but not so high as to incur coherence-length and flux-creep limitations. So – no, power grids do not need RTS; existing HTS wire is proving to be what grids really need

  14. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  15. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  16. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    Page, Don N.

    1997-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruenc...

  17. Accelerators at school

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required

  18. A Solid state accelerator

    We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 105 TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed

  19. Superconducting accelerator technology

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  20. Applications of particle accelerators

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  1. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  2. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  3. Room acoustics for the aged.

    Plomp, R; Duquesnoy, A J

    1980-12-01

    This article deals with the combined effects of noise and reverberation on the speech-reception threshold for sentences. It is based on a series of current investigations on: (1) the modulation-transfer function as a measure of speech intelligibility in rooms, (2) the applicability of this concept to hearing-impaired persons, and (3) hearing loss for speech in quiet and in noise as a function of age. It is shown that, generally, in auditoria, classrooms, etc. the reverberation time T, acceptable for normal-hearing listeners, has to be reduced to (0.75)DT in order to be acceptable for elderly subjects with a hearing loss of D dB for speech in noise; for listening conditions as in lounges, restaurants, etc. the corresponding value is (0.82)DT. PMID:7462459

  4. Operating room of the future.

    Bharathan, Rasiah; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara

    2013-06-01

    Development of surgical care in the 21st century is increasingly dependent on demonstrating safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness. Over the past 2 decades, the potential role of simulation in surgery has been explored with encouraging results; this can now be linked to direct improvement in the quality of care provision. Computer-assisted surgical platforms, such as robotic surgery, offer us the versatility to embrace a host of technical and technological developments. Rapid development in nanomedicine will expand the limits of operative performance through improved navigation and surgical precision. Integration of the multiple functions of the future operating room will be essential in optimising resource management. The key to bringing about the necessary paradigm shift in the design and delivery of modern surgical care is to appreciate that we now function in an information age, where the integrity of processes is driven by apt data management. PMID:23266083

  5. Accelerator technical design report for high-intensity proton accelerator facility project, J-PARC

    This report presents the detail of the technical design of the accelerators for the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility Project, J-PARC. The accelerator complex comprises a 400-MeV room-temperature linac (600-MeV superconducting linac), 3-GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS), and a 50-GeV synchrotron (MR). The 400-MeV beam is injected to the RCS, being accelerated to 3 GEV. The 1-MW beam thus produced is guided to the Materials Life Science Experimental Facility, with both the pulsed spallation neutron source and muon source. A part of the beam is transported to the MR, which provides the 0.75-MW beam to either the Nuclear and Fundamental Particle Experimental Facility or the Neutrino Production Target. On the other hand, the beam accelerated to 600 MeV by the superconducting linac is used for the Nuclear Waster Transmutation Experiment. In this way, this facility is unique, being multipurpose one, including many new inventions and Research and Development Results. This report is based upon the accomplishments made by the Accelerator Group and others of the Project Team, which is organized on the basis of the Agreement between JAERI and KEK on the Construction and Research and Development of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility. (author)

  6. Accelerator technical design report for high-intensity proton accelerator facility project, J-PARC

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    This report presents the detail of the technical design of the accelerators for the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility Project, J-PARC. The accelerator complex comprises a 400-MeV room-temperature linac (600-MeV superconducting linac), 3-GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS), and a 50-GeV synchrotron (MR). The 400-MeV beam is injected to the RCS, being accelerated to 3 GEV. The 1-MW beam thus produced is guided to the Materials Life Science Experimental Facility, with both the pulsed spallation neutron source and muon source. A part of the beam is transported to the MR, which provides the 0.75-MW beam to either the Nuclear and Fundamental Particle Experimental Facility or the Neutrino Production Target. On the other hand, the beam accelerated to 600 MeV by the superconducting linac is used for the Nuclear Waster Transmutation Experiment. In this way, this facility is unique, being multipurpose one, including many new inventions and Research and Development Results. This report is based upon the accomplishments made by the Accelerator Group and others of the Project Team, which is organized on the basis of the Agreement between JAERI and KEK on the Construction and Research and Development of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility. (author)

  7. Experimental investigation of performance of a novel ventilation method for hospital patient rooms

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Brand, Marek

    2010-01-01

    A novel hospital bed integrated ventilation and cleaning unit (HBIVCU) was developed to reduce the exposure of medical staff, visitors, etc. to coughed air from a sick patient. The performance efficiency of the unit was studied in a full-scale mock-up of a hospital room with two beds with patients...... and a doctor. Four HBIVCUs were placed along the two sides of the two beds. The room was ventilated by mixing air distribution (ceiling installed supply air terminals) at room air temperature of 22 °C. The coughing patient and the second exposed patient were simulated by two heated dummies with...... simplified geometry. Thermal manikin with realistic body shape and surface temperature distribution was used to mimic the doctor standing beside the bed of the coughing patient. The doctor and the coughing patient were facing each other. The coughing dummy was equipped with a cough generator. The cough...

  8. Far field acceleration

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail

  9. The CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  10. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  11. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  12. Calculation of the structural shielding of the radiotherapy treatment room equipped with a linear accelerator type Tomo therapy Hi-Art in the Oncology Center of Chihuahua, Mexico; Calculo del blindaje estructural de la sala de tratamiento de radioterapia equipada con un acelerador lineal del tipo Tomotherapy Hi-Art en el Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua, Mexico

    Caballero G, C. A. [Southwest Oncology Centers, North Civic Center Plaza No. 2926, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Plascencia, J. C. [Centro Oncologico Louis and Lucille Grado, Republica del Peru No. 102-5, Col. Americas, Aguascalientes (Mexico); Vargas V, M. X.; Toledo J, P., E-mail: cabshm@msn.co [Centro Oncologico de Chihuahua, Hacienda de la Esperanza No. 6304, Fracc. Cima Comercial, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The helicoid tomo therapy is an external radiotherapy system of modulated intensity, guided by image, in which the radiation is imparted to the patient using a narrow radiation beam in helicoid form, in a similar way to the scanning process with a computerized tomography. The tomo therapy equipment (Tomo Therapy Hi-Art) consists in an electrons linear accelerator with acceleration voltages of 6 MV for treatment and 3.5 MV for image, coupled to a ring that turn around the patient as this is transferred through this ring in perpendicular sense to the radiation beam. The radiation beam is narrow because has the maximum size of 5 x 40 cm{sup 2} in the isocenter. The intensity modulation of the beam is carried out with a binary dynamic collimator of 64 crisscross sheets, and the guide by image though a system of megavoltage computerized tomography. Opposed to the radiation beam, also coupled to the rotational ring, a group of lead plates exists with a total thickness of 13 cm that acts as barrier of the primary radiation beam. The special configuration of the tomography equipment makes to have the following characteristics: 1) the presence of the lead barrier of the equipment reduces the intensity of the primary beam that reaches the bunker walls in considerable way, 2) the disperse and leakage radiations are increased with regard to a conventional accelerator due to the increase in the necessary irradiation time to produce modulated intensity fields by means of the narrow radiation beam. These special characteristics of the tomo therapy equipment make that particularities exist in the application of the formulations for structural shielding calculations that appears in the NCRP reports 49, NCRP 151 and IAEA-SRS-47. For this reason, several researches have development analytic models based on geometric considerations of continuous rotation of the equipment ring to determine the shielding requirements for the primary beam, the dispersed and leakage radiation in tomo

  13. CERN opens up its control rooms to youngsters

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    CERN is inviting 13 to 18 year-olds to come and spend a couple of hours in the control rooms of the LHC and its experiments. Registration is now open.   Is your neighbour's kid eager to come and see what's going on in the CERN control rooms for himself? Is your niece from Germany fascinated by the famous accelerator near Geneva that she's heard about and asking to know more? Then Researchers Night is for them! From 6.00 p.m. on Friday 23 September until 1.00 a.m. the following morning, the LHC and its experiments will open their doors to 13 to 18 year-olds. They are invited to come and spend a couple of hours in the control rooms watching the physicists and taking part in various activities. ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, TOTEM, and the CERN Control Centre (CCC) will all be welcoming visitors. For this second year of CERN's involvement in European Researchers Night, the CERN exhibitions will be open late and special activities will be organised in Microcosm....

  14. Accelerators for Driving Intense spallation Neutron Sources

    A worldwide trend to replace aging research reactors with accelerator driven neutron sources is currently underway. The ''SARAF'' program at Soreq NRC is a notable example. Setting the background to this trend, a review of the history of accelerator based spallation neutron sources is presented. We follow the evolution of ideas and projects for intense spallation neutron sources. The survey is mainly focused on the properties of the accelerators chosen as drivers throughout the evolution of spallation neutron sources. Since the late 1940s, high-energy proton and deuteron accelerators were developed in view of producing intense neutron sources for various applications related to the nuclear industry, i.e. breeding fissile isotopes, driving nuclear reactors using alternative fuels (like the 'Energy Amplifier') and nuclear waste incineration. However, these projects never progressed beyond the R and D stage. In recent years there is a trend to replace aging reactor-based strong cw neutron sources by pulsed intense spallation sources. Their main applications are in the fields of physics research, material sciences, biology and medicine. Prominent examples of successful projects are ISIS at RAL in Great Britain and SINQ at PSI in Switzerland. Other successful projects are noted in Japan and the US. The clear success of these spallation sources prompted the development of a new generation of more intense spallation neutron sources, notably in Europe (ESS), US (SNS) and Japan (JAERI). Generally, the pulsed spallation neutron sources are based on high-energy proton accelerators. Initially, the proton accelerators were room temperature linacs. In view of the progress relating to properties of RF superconducting resonators and the excellent accumulated experience with cryogenic accelerators, future accelerators for spallation sources will be mostly cryogenic linacs

  15. Nuclear air cleaning programs in USA

    The paper describes air cleaning research activities in the United States nuclear program other than those described in the various papers presented at the conference. First described are those related to aerosol and particulate cleaning generic programs. Discussed next are air cleaning regulations and standards. Specific activities underway in developing air cleaning information and processes for specific areas are discussed beginning with the support of nuclear reactors, e.g., the Electric Power Research Institute programs on reactor accident phenomena and the Savannah River Site program related to aerosol and adsorber research. Finally, the limited research activities in support of air cleaning systems for nuclear fuel reprocessing are described

  16. On strongly $g(x)$-clean rings

    Fan, Lingling; Yang, Xiande

    2008-01-01

    Let $R$ be an associative ring with identity, $C(R)$ denote the center of $R$, and $g(x)$ be a polynomial in the polynomial ring $C(R)[x]$. $R$ is called strongly $g(x)$-clean if every element $r \\in R$ can be written as $r=s+u$ with $g(s)=0$, $u$ a unit of $R$, and $su=us$. The relation between strongly $g(x)$-clean rings and strongly clean rings is determined, some general properties of strongly $g(x)$-clean rings are given, and strongly $g(x)$-clean rings generated by units are discussed.

  17. Very clean matrices over local rings

    Chen, H.; Ungor, B.; Halicioglu, S.

    2014-01-01

    An element $a\\in R$ is very clean provided that there exists an idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $ae=ea$ and either $a-e$ or $a+e$ is invertible. A ring $R$ is very clean in case every element in $R$ is very clean. We explore the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a triangular $2\\times 2$ matrix ring over local rings is very clean. The very clean $2\\times 2$ matrices over commutative local rings are completely determined. Applications to matrices over power series are also obtained.

  18. NON-SPECIFIC METHODS FOR DETECTING RESIDUES OF CLEANING AGENTS DURING CLEANING VALIDATION

    DRAGAN M. MILENOVIĆ; DRAGAN S. PEŠIĆ; SNEŽANA S. MITIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Cleaning validation procedures are carried out in order to assure that residues of cleaning agents are within acceptable limits after the cleaning process. Cleaning agents often consist of a mixture of various surfactants which are in a highly diluted state after the water rinsing procedure has been completed. This makes it difficult to find appropriate analytical methods that are sensitive enough to detect the cleaning agents. In addition, it is advantageous for the analytical methods to be ...

  19. Clean

    何伟文

    2005-01-01

    Core competitiveness is a notion familiar to most managers with an MBA degree, These days, this is what is taught at renowned business schools and colleges. And in the real world,large and small enterprises are increasingly following this course of action, To concentrate on one or two single lines of business in most cases makes sense and boosts profit, There are, however,

  20. A study on room design and radiation safety around room for Co-60 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit converted from room for Ir-192 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit

    Om Prakash Gurjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Use of Co-60 source in place of Ir-192 in high dose rate brachytherapy unit (HDR unit has come for discussion in recent publications. Co-60 based system has been advocated for centers which have fewer brachytherapy procedures as it has comparative economically and administrative advantage. This study has direct practical application for such institutions, which are at the cusp of moving from Ir-192 to Co-60 based brachytherapy. Aims: Conversion of Ir-192 HDR room to Co-60 HDR room and to analyze radiation safety around the room. Materials and Methods: Uniform thickness of 15 cm concrete was added to all walls (except one wall adjoining to linear accelerator bunker to convert existing room forIr-192 HDR unit to suitable room for Co-60 HDR unit. Radiation survey around room was done. Actual and calculated wall thicknesses were compared. Results: Radiation survey data indicates that modified room is suitable for Co-60 HDR unit and all values are in full conformity to annual dose limits mentioned in Safety Code for Radiation Therapy Sources (SCRTS, Atomic Energy Regulatory Body (AERB; the regulatory body in India. Also, modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits mentioned in Safety Report Series No. 47 of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. However, console wall thickness (0.45 m is less than the calculated thickness (0.53 m for instantaneous dose rate (IDR design dose limit (7.5 ΅Sv/h as perabove safety report of IAEA. Conclusions: The modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits. However, console wall thickness is less than the required thickness for IDR design dose limit. It has been suggested to add 2.64 cm steel on console wall. It has been found that design dose limits should be considered while making room layout plan and regulatory body should add these constraints inSCRTS.