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Sample records for acceleration space thruster

  1. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program, Busek Co. Inc. tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high flow iodine feed system,...

  2. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high power (high thrust) electric propulsion system featuring an iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET). The system to be...

  3. Plasma acceleration processes in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster

    Plasma acceleration processes in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster (APPT) were investigated. APPTs are space propulsion options suitable for microspacecraft, and have recently attracted much attention because of their low electric power requirements and simple, compact propellant system. The plasma acceleration mechanism, however, has not been well understood. In the present work, emission spectroscopy, high speed photography, and magnetic field measurements are conducted inside the electrode channel of an APPT with rectangular geometry. The successive images of neutral particles and ions give us a comprehensive understanding of their behavior under electromagnetic acceleration. The magnetic field profile clarifies the location where the electromagnetic force takes effect. As a result, it is shown that high density, ablated neutral gas stays near the propellant surface, and only a fraction of the neutrals is converted into plasma and electromagnetically accelerated, leaving the residual neutrals behind

  4. Acceleration Mechanism Of Pulsed Laser-Electromagnetic Hybrid Thruster

    A fundamental study of a newly developed rectangular pulsed laser-electromagnetic hybrid thruster was conducted. Laser-ablation plasma in the thruster was induced through laser beam irradiation onto a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration only by using a laser beam. The performance of the thrusters was evaluated by measuring the ablated mass per pulse and impulse bit. As results, significantly high specific impulses up to 7,200 s were obtained at charge energies of 8.6 J. Moreover, from the Faraday cup measurement, it was confirmed that the speed of ions was accelerated with addition of electric energy.

  5. Use of an ions thruster to dispose of type II long-lived fission products into outer space

    To dispose of long-lived fission products (LLFPs) into outer space, an ions thruster can be used instead of a static accelerator. The specifications of the ions thrusters which are presently studied for space propulsion are presented, and their usability discussed. Using of a rocket with an ions thruster for disposing of the LLFPs directly into the sun requires a larger amount of energy than does the use of an accelerator. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Optimisation of a quantum pair space thruster

    Valeriu DRAGAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of propulsion for long term space missions. Traditionally a space propulsion unit has a propellant mass which is ejected trough a nozzle to generate thrust; this is also the case with inert gases energized by an on-board power unit. Unconventional methods for propulsion include high energy LASERs that rely on the momentum of photons to generate thrust. Anti-matter has also been proposed for energy storage. Although the momentum of ejected gas is significantly higher, the LASER propulsion offers the perspective of unlimited operational time – provided there is a power source. The paper will propose the use of the quantum pair formation for generating a working mass, this is different than conventional anti-matter thrusters since the material particles generated are used as propellant not as energy storage.Two methods will be compared: LASER and positron-electron, quantum pair formation. The latter will be shown to offer better momentum above certain energy levels.For the demonstrations an analytical solution is obtained and provided in the form of various coefficients. The implications are, for now, theoretical however the practicality of an optimized thruster using such particles is not to be neglected for long term space missions.

  7. Electromagnetic Acceleration Characteristics of Laser-Electric Hybrid Thrusters

    A fundamental study on a laser-electric hybrid thruster was conducted, in which laser-induced plasmas were generated through laser beam irradiation on to a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration using only a laser beam. As two typical cases of the hybrid propulsion systems, a feasibility study on electrostatic acceleration mode and electromagnetic acceleration mode of the laser ablation plasma were conducted including thrust performance tests with a torsion-balance, ion current measurements, and ICCD camera observations. It was confirmed that the thrust performances could be improved with electric energy inputs

  8. Liquid-Metal-Fed Pulsed Electromagnetic Thrusters For In-Space Propulsion

    Markusic, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    We describe three pulsed electromagnetic thruster concepts, which span four orders of magnitude in power processing capability (100 W to >100 kW), for in-space propulsion applications. The primary motivation for using a pulsed system is to is to enable high (instantaneous) power operation, which provides high acceleration efficiency, while using considerably less (continuous) power from the spacecraft power system. Unfortunately, conventional pulsed thrusters require failure-prone electrical switches and gas-puff valves. The series of thrusters described here directly address this problem, through the use of liquid metal propellant, by either eliminating both components or providing less taxing operational requirements, thus yielding a path toward both efficient and reliable pulsed electromagnetic thrusters. The emphasis of this paper is to conceptually describe each of the thruster concepts; however, initial test results with gallium propellant in one thruster geometry are presented. These tests reveal that a greater understanding of gallium material compatibility, contamination, and wetting behavior will be necessary before a completely functional thruster can be developed. Initial experimental results aimed at providing insight into these issues are presented.

  9. Electric thruster in the space field

    The interest of electric thruster over other techniques of propulsion by reaction is exposed. After a brief mention of the different planetary explorations missions using primary electric propulsion, the use of auxiliary propulsion for the station keeping of geosynchronous satellites is discussed. The principal technologies for the development of ion thrusters (ionization by bombardment and cesium surface ionization) are described and compared

  10. Production of a High-Mach-Number Plasma Flow for an Advanced Plasma Space Thruster

    M.Inutake; K. Yoshino; S. Fujimura; H. Tobari; T. Yagai; Y. Hosokawa; R. Sato; K. Hattori; A. Ando

    2004-01-01

    A higher specific impulse and a larger thrust are required for a manned interplanetary space thruster. Prior to a realization of a fusion-plasma thruster, a magneto-plasma-dynamic arcjet (MPDA) powered by a fission reactor is one of the promising candidates for a manned Mars space thruster. The MPDA plasma is accelerated axially by a self-induced j × B force. Thrust performance of the MPDA is expected to increase by applying a magnetic nozzle instead of a solid nozzle. In order to get a much higher thruster performance, two methods have been investigated in the HITOP device, Tohoku University. One is to use a magnetic Laval nozzle in the vicinity of the MPDA muzzle for converting the high ion thermal energy to the axial flow energy. The other is to heat ions by use of an ICRF antenna in the divergent magnetic nozzle. It is found that by use of a small-sized Laval-type magnetic nozzle, the subsonic flow near the muzzle is converted to be supersonic through the magnetic Laval nozzle. A fast-flowing plasma is successfully heated by use of an ICRF antenna in the magnetic beach configuration.

  11. Electron Transport and Ion Acceleration in a Low-power Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2004-06-24

    Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are therefore more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. Electron cross-field transport in a 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level) has been studied through the analysis of experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics in the thruster channel. The numerical model takes into account elastic and inelastic electron collisions with atoms, electron-wall collisions, including secondary electron emission, and Bohm diffusion. We show that in order to explain the observed discharge current, the electron anomalous collision frequency {nu}{sub B} has to be on the order of the Bohm value, {nu}{sub B} {approx} {omega}{sub c}/16. The contribution of electron-wall collisions to cross-field transport is found to be insignificant. The plasma density peak observed at the axis of the 2.6 cm cylindrical Hall thruster is likely to be due to the convergent flux of ions, which are born in the annular part of the channel and accelerated towards the thruster axis.

  12. The MOA thruster. A high performance plasma accelerator for nuclear power and propulsion applications

    More than 60 years after the late Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept, utilising Alfven waves to accelerate ionised matter for propulsive purposes, is MOA - Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Alfven waves are generated by making use of two coils, one being permanently powered and serving also as magnetic nozzle, the other one being switched on and off in a cyclic way, deforming the field lines of the overall system. It is this deformation that generates Alfven waves, which are in the next step used to transport and compress the propulsive medium, in theory leading to a propulsion system with a much higher performance than any other electric propulsion system. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other, terrestrial applications, like coating, semiconductor implantation and manufacturing as well as steel cutting can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA Thruster R and D activities at QASAR, the company in Vienna, Austria, which has been set up to further develop and test the Alfven wave technology and its applications. (author)

  13. Engineering Risk Assessment of Space Thruster Challenge Problem

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Mattenberger, Christopher J.; Go, Susie

    2014-01-01

    The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center utilizes dynamic models with linked physics-of-failure analyses to produce quantitative risk assessments of space exploration missions. This paper applies the ERA approach to the baseline and extended versions of the PSAM Space Thruster Challenge Problem, which investigates mission risk for a deep space ion propulsion system with time-varying thruster requirements and operations schedules. The dynamic mission is modeled using a combination of discrete and continuous-time reliability elements within the commercially available GoldSim software. Loss-of-mission (LOM) probability results are generated via Monte Carlo sampling performed by the integrated model. Model convergence studies are presented to illustrate the sensitivity of integrated LOM results to the number of Monte Carlo trials. A deterministic risk model was also built for the three baseline and extended missions using the Ames Reliability Tool (ART), and results are compared to the simulation results to evaluate the relative importance of mission dynamics. The ART model did a reasonable job of matching the simulation models for the baseline case, while a hybrid approach using offline dynamic models was required for the extended missions. This study highlighted that state-of-the-art techniques can adequately adapt to a range of dynamic problems.

  14. Fast Camera Imaging of Hall Thruster Ignition

    Hall thrusters provide efficient space propulsion by electrostatic acceleration of ions. Rotating electron clouds in the thruster overcome the space charge limitations of other methods. Images of the thruster startup, taken with a fast camera, reveal a bright ionization period which settles into steady state operation over 50 (micro)s. The cathode introduces azimuthal asymmetry, which persists for about 30 (micro)s into the ignition. Plasma thrusters are used on satellites for repositioning, orbit correction and drag compensation. The advantage of plasma thrusters over conventional chemical thrusters is that the exhaust energies are not limited by chemical energy to about an electron volt. For xenon Hall thrusters, the ion exhaust velocity can be 15-20 km/s, compared to 5 km/s for a typical chemical thruster.

  15. Direction for the Future - Successive Acceleration of Positive and Negative Ions Applied to Space Propulsion

    Aanesland, A; Popelier, L; Chabert, P

    2013-01-01

    Electrical space thrusters show important advantages for applications in outer space compared to chemical thrusters, as they allow a longer mission lifetime with lower weight and propellant consumption. Mature technologies on the market today accelerate positive ions to generate thrust. The ion beam is neutralized by electrons downstream, and this need for an additional neutralization system has some drawbacks related to stability, lifetime and total weight and power consumption. Many new concepts, to get rid of the neutralizer, have been proposed, and the PEGASES ion-ion thruster is one of them. This new thruster concept aims at accelerating both positive and negative ions to generate thrust, such that additional neutralization is redundant. This chapter gives an overview of the concept of electric propulsion and the state of the development of this new ion-ion thruster.

  16. Development of a multiplexed electrospray micro-thruster with post-acceleration and beam containment

    Lenguito, G.; Gomez, A.

    2013-10-01

    We report the development of a compact thruster based on Multiplexed ElectroSprays (MES). It relied on a microfabricated Si array of emitters coupled with an extractor electrode and an accelerator electrode. The accelerator stage was introduced for two purposes: containing beam opening and avoiding electrode erosion due to droplet impingement, as well as boosting specific impulse and thrust. Multiplexing is generally necessary as a thrust multiplier to reach eventually the level required (O(102) μN) by small satellites. To facilitate system optimization and debugging, we focused on a 7-nozzle MES device and compared its performance to that of a single emitter. To ensure uniformity of operation of all nozzles their hydraulic impedance was augmented by packing them with micrometer-size beads. Two propellants were tested: a solution of 21.5% methyl ammonium formate in formamide and the better performing pure ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). The 7-MES device spraying EAN at ΔV = 5.93 kV covered a specific impulse range from 620 s to 1900 s and a thrust range from 0.6 μN to 5.4 μN, at 62% efficiency. Remarkably, less than 1% of the beam was demonstrated to impact on the accelerator electrode, which bodes well for long-term applications in space.

  17. Using the DC self-bias effect for simultaneous ion-electron beam generation in space thruster applications

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane

    2014-10-01

    In this work we discuss ways to use the self-bias effect for broad ion-electron beam generation and present recent experimental results. In asymmetrical systems the self-bias effect leads to rectification of the applied RF voltage to a DC voltage dropped across the space charge sheath near to the electrode having smaller area. Thus, continuous ion acceleration is possible towards the smaller electrode with periodical electron extraction due to the RF plasma potential oscillations. We propose a new concept of neutralizer-free gridded space thruster called NEPTUNE. In this concept, the RF electrodes in contact with the plasma are replaced by a two-grid system such that ``the smaller electrode'' is now the external grid. The grids are biased with RF power across a capacitor. This allows to locate RF space charge sheath between the acceleration grids while still keeping the possibility of a DC self-bias generation. Here we present first proof-of-concept of the NEPTUNE thruster prototype and give basic parameters spacing for such thruster. Comparison of the main parameters of the beam generated using RF and a classical ``DC with neutralizer'' acceleration method shows several advantages of the NEPTUNE concept. This work was supported by a Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowships within the 7th European Community Framework (NEPTUNE PIIF-GA-2012-326054).

  18. Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages

    Diamant, Kevin David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel Joseph

    2014-05-13

    Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.

  19. Space Charge Saturated Sheath Regime and Electron Temperature Saturation in Hall Thrusters

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; A. Smirnov; N.J. Fisch

    2005-03-16

    Secondary electron emission in Hall thrusters is predicted to lead to space charge saturated wall sheaths resulting in enhanced power losses in the thruster channel. Analysis of experimentally obtained electron-wall collision frequency suggests that the electron temperature saturation, which occurs at high discharge voltages, appears to be caused by a decrease of the Joule heating rather than by the enhancement of the electron energy loss at the walls due to a strong secondary electron emission.

  20. The Development of Plasma Thrusters and Its Importance for Space Technology and Science Education at University of Brasilia

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Calvoso, Lui; Gessini, Paolo; Ferreira, Ivan

    Since 2004 The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia (Brazil) is developing Hall Plasma Thurusters for Satellite station keeping and orbit control. The project is supported by CNPq, CAPES, FAP DF and from The Brazillian Space Agency-AEB. The project is part of The UNIESPAÇO Program for Space Activities Development in Brazillian Universities. In this work we are going to present the highlights of this project together with its vital contribution to include University of Brasilia in the Brazillian Space Program. Electric propulsion has already shown, over the years, its great advantages in being used as main and secondary thruster system of several space mission types. Between the many thruster concepts, one that has more tradition in flying real spacecraft is the Hall Effect Thruster (HET). These thrusters, first developed by the USSR in the 1960s, uses, in the traditional design, the radial magnetic field and axial electric field to trap electrons, ionize the gas and accelerate the plasma to therefore generate thrust. In contrast to the usual solution of using electromagnets to generate the magnetic field, the research group of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasília has been working to develop new models of HETs that uses combined permanent magnets to generate the necessary magnetic field, with the main objective of saving electric power in the final system design. Since the beginning of this research line it was developed and implemented two prototypes of the Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PMHT). The first prototype, called P-HALL1, was successfully tested with the using of many diagnostics instruments, including, RF probe, Langmuir probe, Ion collector and Ion energy analyzer. The second prototype, P-HALL2, is currently under testing, and it’s planned the increasing of the plasma diagnostics and technology analysis, with the inclusion of a thrust balance, mass spectroscopy and Doppler broadening. We are also developing an

  1. Magnetic Shielding of the Acceleration Channel Walls in a Long-Life Hall Thruster

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.; de Grys, Kristi; Mathers, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In a Qualification Life Test (QLT) of the BPT-4000 Hall thruster that recently accumulated greater than 10,000 h it was found that the erosion of the acceleration channel practically stopped after approximately 5,600 h. Numerical simulations of this thruster using a 2-D axisymmetric, magnetic field-aligned-mesh (MFAM) plasma solver reveal that the process that led to this significant reduction of the erosion was multifaceted. It is found that when the channel receded from its early-in-life geometry to its steady-state configuration several changes in the near-wall plasma and sheath were induced by the magnetic field that, collectively, constituted an effective shielding of the walls from any significant ion bombardment. Because all such changes in the behavior of the ionized gas near the eroding surfaces were caused by the topology of the magnetic field there, we term this process "magnetic shielding."

  2. Numerical modeling of electrodeless electric thruster by ion cyclotron resonance/ponderomotive acceleration

    We developed an electrodeless electric thruster that utilizes ion cyclotron resonance/ponderomotive acceleration (ICR/PA) for ion acceleration. We conducted test particle simulations to assess the thruster's performance. We compared the thrusts obtained using argon (Ar) and helium (He) gas as propellants at the same mass flow rate. On the basis of a model that includes ion wall loss and ion-neutral collisions, we estimated the exhaust velocity and thrust. We found that He ions are less influenced by both ion wall loss and ion-neutral collisions than are Ar ions because the gyroradii of He ions are generally smaller than those of Ar ions and the ratio of the gyrofrequency to the collision frequency for He ions is larger than that for Ar ions. In addition, the exhaust velocities of He ions are larger than those of Ar ions, as predicted by the quasilinear theory and ponderomotive potential. Consequently, the thrust and specific impulse for He are larger than those for Ar. (author)

  3. Space charge wave accelerators

    We present an account of experimental observations showing control of the wave phase velocity for a slow wave, measurements of the wave electric field, and indicate how these results might apply to an ion accelerator. An interesting and new possibility is also indicated, namely the use of fast waves for electron accelerators. In this case preliminary estimates indicate that comparable field gradients to those already obtained in the slow wave scheme should be obtainable in fast waves and that these field gradients can be maintained at phase velocities close to the speed of light. (orig./HSI)

  4. Debris Engine: A Potential Thruster for Space Debris Removal

    Lan, Lei; Baoyin, Hexi

    2015-01-01

    We present a design concept for a space engine that can continuously remove the orbit debris by using the debris as a propellant. Space robotic cleaner is adopted to capture the targeting debris and to transfer them into the engine. Debris with larger size is first disintegrated into small pieces by using a mechanical method. The planetary ball mill is then adopted to grind the pieces into micrometer or smaller powder. The energy needed in this process is get from the nuclear and solar power. By the effect of gamma-ray photoelectric or the behavior of tangently rub of tungsten needles, the debris powered is charged. This behavior can be used to speed up the movement of powder in a tandem electrostatic particle accelerator. By ejecting the high-temperture and high-pressure charged powered from the nozzle of the engine,the continuously thrust is obtained. This thrust can be used to perform orbital maneuver and debris rendezvous for the spacecraft and robotic cleaner. The ejected charged particle will be blown a...

  5. Expanding the Capabilities of the Pulsed Plasma Thruster for In-Space and Atmospheric Operation

    Johnson, Ian Kronheim

    Of all in-space propulsion systems to date, the Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) is unique in its simplicity and wide range of operational parameters. This study examined multiple uses of the thruster for in-space and atmospheric propulsion, as well as the creation of a CubeSat satellite and atmospheric airship as test beds for the thruster. The PPT was tested as a solid-propellant feed source for the High Power Helicon Thruster, a compact plasma source capable of generating order of magnitude higher plasma densities than comparable power level systems. Replacing the gaseous feed system reduced the thruster size and complexity, as well as allowing for extremely discrete discharges, minimizing the influence of wall effects. Teflon (C2F4) has been the traditional propellant for PPTs due to a high exhaust velocity and ability to ablate without surface modification over long durations. A number of alternative propellants, including minerals and metallics commonly found on asteroids, were tested for use with the PPT. Compounds with significant fractions of sulfur showed the highest performance increase, with specific thrusts double that of Teflon. A PPT with sulfur propellant designed for CubeSat operation, as well as the subsystems necessary for autonomous operation, was built and tested in the laboratory. The PPT was modified for use at atmospheric pressures where the impulse was well defined as a function of the discharge chamber volume, capacitor energy, and background pressure. To demonstrate that the air-breathing PPT was a viable concept the device was launched on two atmospheric balloon flights.

  6. Recent developments of the MOA thruster, a high performance plasma accelerator for nuclear power and propulsion applications

    More than 60 years after the late Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept, utilising Alfven waves to accelerate ionised matter for propulsive purposes, is MOA -Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Alfven waves are generated by making use of two coils, one being permanently powered and serving also as magnetic nozzle, the other one being switched on and off in a cyclic way, deforming the field lines of the overall system. It is this deformation that generates Alfven waves, which are in the next step used to transport and compress the propulsive medium, in theory leading to a propulsion system with a much higher performance than any other electric propulsion system. Based on computer simulations, which were conducted to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilization strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA Thruster R and D activities at QASAR, the company in

  7. Experimental validation of the dual positive and negative ion beam acceleration in the plasma propulsion with electronegative gases thruster

    The PEGASES (Plasma Propulsion with Electronegative Gases) thruster is a gridded ion thruster, where both positive and negative ions are accelerated to generate thrust. In this way, additional downstream neutralization by electrons is redundant. To achieve this, the thruster accelerates alternately positive and negative ions from an ion-ion plasma where the electron density is three orders of magnitude lower than the ion densities. This paper presents a first experimental study of the alternate acceleration in PEGASES, where SF6 is used as the working gas. Various electrostatic probes are used to investigate the source plasma potential and the energy, composition, and current of the extracted beams. We show here that the plasma potential control in such system is key parameter defining success of ion extraction and is sensitive to both parasitic electron current paths in the source region and deposition of sulphur containing dielectric films on the grids. In addition, large oscillations in the ion-ion plasma potential are found in the negative ion extraction phase. The oscillation occurs when the primary plasma approaches the grounded parts of the main core via sub-millimetres technological inputs. By controlling and suppressing the various undesired effects, we achieve perfect ion-ion plasma potential control with stable oscillation-free operation in the range of the available acceleration voltages (±350 V). The measured positive and negative ion currents in the beam are about 10 mA for each component at RF power of 100 W and non-optimized extraction system. Two different energy analyzers with and without magnetic electron suppression system are used to measure and compare the negative and positive ion and electron fluxes formed by the thruster. It is found that at alternate ion-ion extraction the positive and negative ion energy peaks are similar in areas and symmetrical in position with +/− ion energy corresponding to the amplitude of the applied

  8. Green Liquid Monopropellant Thruster for In-space Propulsion Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. and AMPAC In-space Propulsion propose to develop a unique chemical propulsion system for the next generation NASA science spacecraft and...

  9. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP): Iodine Hall Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Iodine propellant offers many enabling capabilities for both SmallSat application and for high power system level implementation.  Some of the highest risk...

  10. Green Liquid Monopropellant Thruster for In-space Propulsion Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and Orbitec Inc. propose to develop a unique chemical propulsion system for the next generation NASA science spacecraft and missions...

  11. Debris Engine: A Potential Thruster for Space Debris Removal

    Lan, Lei; Li, Jingyang; Baoyin, Hexi

    2015-01-01

    We present a design concept for a space engine that can continuously remove the orbit debris by using the debris as a propellant. Space robotic cleaner is adopted to capture the targeting debris and to transfer them into the engine. Debris with larger size is first disintegrated into small pieces by using a mechanical method. The planetary ball mill is then adopted to grind the pieces into micrometer or smaller powder. The energy needed in this process is get from the nuclear and solar power....

  12. Plasmas for space propulsion

    Ahedo, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Plasma thrusters are challenging the monopoly of chemical thrusters in space propulsion. The specific energy that can be deposited into a plasma beam is orders of magnitude larger than the specific chemical energy of known fuels. Plasma thrusters constitute a vast family of devices ranging from already commercial thrusters to incipient laboratory prototypes. Figures of merit in plasma propulsion are discussed. Plasma processes and conditions differ widely from one thruster to another, with the pre-eminence of magnetized, weakly collisional plasmas. Energy is imparted to the plasma via either energetic electron injection, biased electrodes or electromagnetic irradiation. Plasma acceleration can be electrothermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic. Plasma-wall interaction affects energy deposition and erosion of thruster elements, and thus is central for thruster efficiency and lifetime. Magnetic confinement and magnetic nozzles are present in several devices. Oscillations and turbulent transport are intrinsic to the performances of some thrusters. Several thrusters are selected in order to discuss these relevant plasma phenomena.

  13. Plasmas for space propulsion

    Plasma thrusters are challenging the monopoly of chemical thrusters in space propulsion. The specific energy that can be deposited into a plasma beam is orders of magnitude larger than the specific chemical energy of known fuels. Plasma thrusters constitute a vast family of devices ranging from already commercial thrusters to incipient laboratory prototypes. Figures of merit in plasma propulsion are discussed. Plasma processes and conditions differ widely from one thruster to another, with the pre-eminence of magnetized, weakly collisional plasmas. Energy is imparted to the plasma via either energetic electron injection, biased electrodes or electromagnetic irradiation. Plasma acceleration can be electrothermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic. Plasma–wall interaction affects energy deposition and erosion of thruster elements, and thus is central for thruster efficiency and lifetime. Magnetic confinement and magnetic nozzles are present in several devices. Oscillations and turbulent transport are intrinsic to the performances of some thrusters. Several thrusters are selected in order to discuss these relevant plasma phenomena.

  14. Study and Developement of Compact Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters for Future Brazillian Space Missions

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre; Cerda, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory of UnB has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the UNIESPAÇO program, part of the Space Activities Program conducted by AEB- The Brazillian Space Agency since 2004. Electric propulsion is now a very successful method for primary and secondary propulsion systems. It is essential for several existing geostationary satellite station keeping systems and for deep space long duration solar system missions, where the thrusting system can be designed to be used on orbit transfer maneuvering and/or for satellite attitude control in long term space missions. Applications of compact versions of Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters on future brazillian space missions are needed and foreseen for the coming years beginning with the use of small divergent cusp field (DCFH) Hall Thrusters type on CUBESATS ( 5-10 kg , 1W-5 W power consumption) and on Micro satellites ( 50- 100 kg, 10W-100W). Brazillian (AEB) and German (DLR) space agencies and research institutions are developing a new rocket dedicated to small satellite launching. The VLM- Microsatellite Launch Vehicle. The development of PHALL compact versions can also be important for the recently proposed SBG system, a future brazillian geostationary satellite system that is already been developed by an international consortium of brazillian and foreign space industries. The exploration of small bodies in the Solar System with spacecraft has been done by several countries with increasing frequency in these past twenty five years. Since their historical beginning on the sixties, most of the Solar System missions were based on gravity assisted trajectories very much depended on planet orbit positioning relative to the Sun and the Earth. The consequence was always the narrowing of the mission launch window. Today, the need for Solar System icy bodies in situ exploration requires less dependence on gravity assisted maneuvering and new high precision low thrust navigation methods

  15. Permanent magnet Hall Thrusters development and applications on future brazilian space missions

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre A.; Miranda, Rodrigo; Schelling, Adriane; de Souza Alves, Lais; Gonçalves Costa, Ernesto; de Oliveira Coelho Junior, Helbert; Castelo Branco, Artur; de Oliveira Lopes, Felipe Nathan

    2015-10-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPLUnB) has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the Space Research Program for Universities (UNIESPAÇO), part of the Brazilian Space Activities Program (PNAE) since 2004. The PHALL project consists on a plasma source design, construction and characterization of the Hall type that will function as a plasma propulsion engine and characterized by several plasma diagnostics sensors. PHALL is based on a plasma source in which a Hall current is generated inside a cylindrical annular channel with an axial electric field produced by a ring anode and a radial magnetic field produced by permanent magnets. In this work it is shown a brief description of the plasma propulsion engine, its diagnostics instrumentation and possible applications of PHALL on orbit transfer maneuvering for future Brazilian geostationary satellite space missions.

  16. A mechanism to accelerate the late ablation in pulsed plasma thrusters

    Intini Marques, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPTs) are long standing electric propulsion thrusters that are reliable, relatively simple and low cost. One of the main issues with the PPT is its poor utilization of the propellant and low efficiency. Typically only 40-60% of the propellant contributes to the production significant impulse and the efficiency is around 8%. The cause of the PPT’s poor propellant utilization is the late time ablation (LTA), which has a major impact on the efficiency. LTA is the sublima...

  17. Particle acceleration in space and laboratory plasmas

    The general principle of charged particle acceleration in space and laboratory plasmas is illustrated by a discussion of particular types of acceleration mechanisms which can be classified as either deterministic processes or stochastic processes. Acceleration by parallel electric fields, produced in double layers is an example of a deterministic process. Fermi acceleration and acceleration by turbulent wave fields are examples of stochastic processes. The physical acceleration mechanism involved in each type of process is discussed and examples given for space and laboratory plasmas. (author)

  18. Oxygen-Methane Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orion Propulsion, Inc. proposes to develop an Oxygen and Methane RCS Thruster to advance the technology of alternate fuels. A successful Oxygen/CH4 RCS Thruster...

  19. Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation.

  20. Solid propellant micro thrusters for space application; Micropropulseur a propergol solide pour des applications spatiales

    Larangot, B.; Rossi, C.; Esteve, D. [Laboratoire d' analyse et d' architecture des systemes (LAAS-CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Orieux, S. [Laboratoire d' analyse et d' architecture des systemes (LAAS-CNRS/CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2003-07-01

    The paper presents the development of solid propellant micro thruster matrix on silicon. The concept is based on the pyrotechnic material combustion of propellant type stored in a micro machined silicon or Foturan tank. Each Thruster contains three parts: a thermal igniter, a tank and a nozzle. Due to the one shot characteristic, thrusters are fabricated in array configuration. The main field of application is the realization of micro propulsion modules for nano satellite. The micro thrusters array presented in this paper contains 16 individual thrusters on 64 mm{sup 2} surface. Each thruster has a combustion surface of 2.25 mm{sup 2} and throat diameters of 105 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m. The manufacturing process is described and preliminary ignition results and combustion rate are given. (authors)

  1. Magnetoplasmadynamic thruster applications

    Advance study activities within NASA indicate that electric propulsion will be required to make certain types of potential missions feasible. The large power levels under consideration make magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters a good candidate for these applications since this type of electric thruster is best suited to operation at high power levels. The status of the magnetoplasmadynamic thruster is examined and compared to the ion thruster which also is a candidate. The use of these two types of electric propulsion devices for orbit raising of a self-powered large satellite is examined from a cost standpoint. In addition the use of nuclear electric propulsion is described for use as both a near-earth space tug and for an interplanetary exploration vehicle. These preliminary examinations indicate that the magnetoplasmadynamic thruster is the lowest cost thruster and therefore merits serious consideration for these applications

  2. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  3. Space experiments with particle accelerators

    Obayashi, T.; Kawashima, N.; Kuriki, K.; Nagatomo, M.; Ninomiya, K.; Sasaki, S.; Roberts, W. T.; Chappell, C. R.; Reasoner, D. L.; Garriott, O. K.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1984-01-01

    Electron and plasma beams and neutral gas plumes were injected into the space environment by instruuments on Spacelab 1, and various diagnostic measurements including television camera observations were performed. The results yield information on vehicle charging and neutralization, beam-plasma interactions, and ionization enhancement by neutral beam injection.

  4. Low Mass Electromagnetic Plasmoid Thruster with Integrated PPU Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Electromagnetic Plasmoid Thruster (EMPT) is a revolutionary electric propulsion thruster and power processing (PPU) system that will allow a dramatic decrease...

  5. Pulsed Electrogasdynamic Thruster for Attitude Control and Orbit Maneuver Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new pulsed electric thruster, named "pulsed electrogasdynamic thruster," for attitude control and orbit maneuver is proposed. In this thruster, propellant gas is...

  6. Thermal Modeling for Pulsed Inductive FRC Plasmoid Thrusters

    Pfaff, Michael

    Due to the rising importance of space based infrastructure, long-range robotic space missions, and the need for active attitude control for spacecraft, research into Electric Propulsion is becoming increasingly important. Electric Propulsion (EP) systems utilize electric power to accelerate ions in order to produce thrust. Unlike traditional chemical propulsion, this means that thrust levels are relatively low. The trade-off is that EP thrusters have very high specific impulses (Isp), and can therefore make do with far less onboard propellant than cold gas, monopropellant, or bipropellant engines. As a consequence of the high power levels used to accelerate the ionized propellant, there is a mass and cost penalty in terms of solar panels and a power processing unit. Due to the large power consumption (and waste heat) from electric propulsion thrusters, accurate measurements and predictions of thermal losses are needed. Excessive heating in sensitive locations within a thruster may lead to premature failure of vital components. Between the fixed cost required to purchase these components, as well as the man-hours needed to assemble (or replace) them, attempting to build a high-power thruster without reliable thermal modeling can be expensive. This paper will explain the usage of FEM modeling and experimental tests in characterizing the ElectroMagnetic Plasmoid Thruster (EMPT) and the Electrodeless Lorentz Force (ELF) thruster at the MSNW LLC facility in Redmond, Washington. The EMPT thruster model is validated using an experimental setup, and steady state temperatures are predicted for vacuum conditions. Preliminary analysis of the ELF thruster indicates possible material failure in absence of an active cooling system for driving electronics and for certain power levels.

  7. High-Isp Mode Of Pulsed Laser-Electromagnetic Hybrid Accelerator For Space Propulsion Applications

    A fundamental study of a newly developed rectangular pulsed laser-electromagnetic hybrid thruster was conducted. Laser-ablation plasma in the thruster was induced through laser beam irradiation onto a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration only by using a laser beam. The performance of the thrusters was evaluated by measuring the mass shot and impulse bit. As results, significantly high specific impulses up to 7,200 sec were obtained at the charge energies of 8.6 J. In addition, typical thrust efficiency varied between 11.8% and 21.3% depending on the charge energy.

  8. Electron-wall interaction in Hall thrusters

    Electron-wall interaction effects in Hall thrusters are studied through measurements of the plasma response to variations of the thruster channel width and the discharge voltage. The discharge voltage threshold is shown to separate two thruster regimes. Below this threshold, the electron energy gain is constant in the acceleration region and therefore, secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel walls is insufficient to enhance electron energy losses at the channel walls. Above this voltage threshold, the maximum electron temperature saturates. This result seemingly agrees with predictions of the temperature saturation, which recent Hall thruster models explain as a transition to space-charge saturated regime of the near-wall sheath. However, in the experiment, the maximum saturation temperature exceeds by almost three times the critical value estimated under the assumption of a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function. The channel narrowing, which should also enhance electron-wall collisions, causes unexpectedly larger changes of the plasma potential distribution than does the increase of the electron temperature with the discharge voltage. An enhanced anomalous crossed-field mobility (near wall or Bohm-type) is suggested by a hydrodynamic model as an explanation to the reduced electric field measured inside a narrow channel. We found, however, no experimental evidence of a coupling between the maximum electron temperature and the location of the accelerating voltage drop, which might have been expected due to the SEE-induced near-wall conductivity

  9. High-Power Electromagnetic Thruster Being Developed

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Mikellides, Pavlos G.

    2001-01-01

    High-power electromagnetic thrusters have been proposed as primary in-space propulsion options for several bold new interplanetary and deep-space missions. As the lead center for electric propulsion, the NASA Glenn Research Center designs, develops, and tests high-power electromagnetic technologies to meet these demanding mission requirements. Two high-power thruster concepts currently under investigation by Glenn are the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster and the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT).

  10. Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators: SEPAC

    Burch, J. L.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Kawashima, N.; Marshall, J. A.; Moses, S. L.; Neubert, T.; Mende, S. B.; Choueiri, E. Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC), which flew on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 1 mission, used new techniques to study natural phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere by introducing energetic perturbations into the system from a high power electron beam with known characteristics. Properties of auroras were studied by directing the electron beam into the upper atmosphere while making measurements of optical emissions. Studies were also performed of the critical ionization velocity phenomenon.

  11. Ray-tracing WKB analysis of Whistler waves in non-uniform magnetic fields applied to space thrusters

    Radiofrequency magnetized cylindrical plasma sources are proposed for the development of space thrusters, whose thrust efficiency and specific impulse depend on the power coupled into the plasma. At this stage of research, emphasis has been on the absorption of Whistler wave energy by non-uniform plasmas but not much on the role played by the magneto-static confinement field, considered uniform, constant and aligned with the axis of the source. We present RAYWh (RAY-tracing Whistler), a three-dimensional (3D) ray-tracing solver for electromagnetic propagation and power deposition in cylindrical plasma sources for space plasma thrusters, where actual magnetic confinement configurations along with plasma density profiles are included. The propagation and absorption of Whistler waves are investigated by solving the 3D Maxwell–Vlasov model equations by a Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) asymptotic expansion. The reduced set of equations for the wave phase and for the square amplitude of the electric field is solved numerically by means of a modified Runge–Kutta algorithm. Unexpected cut-offs, resonances, radial reflections, mode conversions and power deposition profile of the excited waves are found, when realistic confinement magnetic fields are considered. An analysis of the influence of axial wavenumbers and the axial length of the system on the power deposition is presented. (paper)

  12. Artificial Neural Network Test Support Development for the Space Shuttle PRCS Thrusters

    Lehr, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    A significant anomaly, Fuel Valve Pilot Seal Extrusion, is affecting the Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) Thrusters, and has caused 79 to fail. To help address this problem, a Shuttle PRCS Thruster Process Evaluation Team (TPET) was formed. The White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and Boeing members of the TPET have identified many discrete valve current trace characteristics that are predictive of the problem. However, these are difficult and time consuming to identify and trend by manual analysis. Based on this exhaustive analysis over months, 22 thrusters previously delivered by the Depot were identified as high risk for flight failures. Although these had only recently been installed, they had to be removed from Shuttles OV103 and OV104 for reprocessing, by directive of the Shuttle Project Office. The resulting impact of the thruster removal, replacement, and valve replacement was significant (months of work and hundreds of thousands of dollars). Much of this could have been saved had the proposed Neural Network (NN) tool described in this paper been in place. In addition to the significant benefits to the Shuttle indicated above, the development and implementation of this type of testing will be the genesis for potential Quality improvements across many areas of WSTF test data analysis and will be shared with other NASA centers. Future tests can be designed to incorporate engineering experience via Artificial Neural Nets (ANN) into depot level acceptance of hardware. Additionally, results were shared with a NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Super Problem Response Team (SPRT). There was extensive interest voiced among many different personnel from several centers. There are potential spin-offs of this effort that can be directly applied to other data acquisition systems as well as vehicle health management for current and future flight vehicles.

  13. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a running Hall Effect Thruster for space propulsion

    Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) are promising electric propulsion devices for the station-keeping of geostationary satellites and for interplanetary missions. The main limiting factor of the HET lifetime is the erosion of the annular channel ceramic walls. Erosion monitoring has been performed in the laboratory using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements and data treatment based on the coronal model and the actinometric hypothesis. This study uses laser ablation of the ceramic wall in a running HET in order to introduce controlled amounts of sputtered material in the thruster plasma. The transient laser-induced breakdown plasma expands orthogonally in a steady-state plasma jet created by the HET discharge. The proposed spectroscopic method involves species from both plasmas (B, Xe, Xe+). The optical emission signal is correlated to the ablated volume (measured by profilometry) leading to the first direct validation of the actinometric hypothesis in this frame and opening the road for calibration of in-flight erosion monitoring based on the OES method. - Highlights: ► First laser ablation study in a running Hall Effect Thruster. ► Optical emission spectroscopy used to validate the actinometric hypothesis. ► Opens the way for absolute calibration of in-flight erosion monitoring.

  14. Development of Eddy Current Techniques for the Detection of Cracking in Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Thrusters

    Wincheski, Buzz A.; Simpson, John W.; Koshti, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    A recent identification of cracking in the Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) thrusters triggered an extensive nondestructive evaluation effort to develop techniques capable of identifying such damage on installed shuttle hardware. As a part of this effort, specially designed eddy current probes inserted into the acoustic cavity were explored for the detection of such flaws and for evaluation of the remaining material between the crack tip and acoustic cavity. The technique utilizes two orthogonal eddy current probes which are scanned under stepper motor control in the acoustic cavity to identify cracks hidden with as much as 0.060 remaining wall thickness to the cavity. As crack growth rates in this area have been determined to be very slow, such an inspection provides a large safety margin for continued operation of the critical shuttle hardware. Testing has been performed on thruster components with both actual and fabricated defects. This paper will review the design and performance of the developed eddy current inspection system. Detection of flaws as a function of remaining wall thickness will be presented along with the proposed system configuration for depot level or on-vehicle inspection capabilities.

  15. Development of Eddy Current Technique for the Detection of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Thrusters

    Wincheski, Buzz; Simpson, John; Koshti, Ajay

    2006-01-01

    A recent identification of stress corrosion cracking in the Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) thrusters triggered an extensive nondestructive evaluation effort to develop techniques capable of identifying such damage on installed shuttle hardware. As a part of this effort, specially designed eddy current probes inserted into the acoustic cavity were explored for the detection of such flaws and for evaluation of the remaining material between the crack tip and acoustic cavity. The technique utilizes two orthogonal eddy current probes which are scanned under stepper motor control in the acoustic cavity to identify cracks hidden with as much as 0.060 remaining wall thickness to the cavity. As crack growth rates in this area have been determined to be very slow, such an inspection provides a large safety margin for continued operation of the critical shuttle hardware. Testing has been performed on thruster components with both actual and fabricated defects. This paper will review the design and performance of the developed eddy current inspection system. Detection of flaws as a function of remaining wall thickness will be presented along with the proposed system configuration for depot level or on-vehicle inspection capabilities.

  16. Enhanced Performance of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    The cylindrical thruster differs significantly in its underlying physical mechanisms from the conventional annular Hall thruster. It features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel, and performance comparable with the state-of-the-art conventional Hall thrusters. Very significant plume narrowing, accompanied by the increase of the energetic ion fraction and improvement of ion focusing, led to 50-60% increase of the thruster anode efficiency. These improvements were achieved by overrunning the discharge current in the magnetized thruster plasma

  17. Helical plasma thruster

    Beklemishev, A. D.

    2015-10-01

    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR® rocket engine.

  18. Helical plasma thruster

    Beklemishev, A. D., E-mail: bekl@bk.ru [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR{sup ®} rocket engine.

  19. NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic Thruster Program

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Pensil, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    High-power electromagnetic thrusters have been proposed as primary in-space propulsion options for several bold new interplanetary and deep-space missions. As the lead center for electric propulsion, the NASA Glenn Research Center designs, develops, and tests high-power electromagnetic technologies to meet these demanding mission requirements. Two high-power thruster concepts currently under investigation by Glenn are the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster and the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT). This paper describes the MPD thruster and the test facility.

  20. Space experiments with particle accelerators. [Spacelab

    Obayashi, T.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of space experiments with particle accelerators (SEPAC) is to carry out active and interactive experiments on and in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. It is also intended to make an initial performance test for an overall program of Spacelab/SEPAC experiments. The instruments to be used are an electron beam accelerator, magnetoplasma dynamic arcjet, and associated diagnostic equipment. The accelerators are installed on the pallet, with monitoring and diagnostic observations being made by the gas plume release, beam-monitor TV, and particle-wave measuring instruments also mounted on the pallet. Command and display systems are installed in the module. Three major classes of investigations to be performed are vehicle charge neutralization, beam plasma physics, and beam atmosphere interactions. The first two are mainly onboard plasma physics experiments to measure the effect of phenomena in the vicinity of Spacelab. The last one is concerned with atmospheric modification and is supported by other Spacelab 1 investigations as well as by ground-based, remote sensing observations.

  1. Characteristics of the XHT-100 Low Power Hall Thruster Prototype

    Andrenucci, M.; Berti, M.; Biagioni, L.; Cesari, U.; Saverdi, M.

    2004-10-01

    Several space applications indicate the possibility to adopt Mini Hall Thrusters, with discharge power in the range 50 to 200 W, among existing electric thruster propulsion technologies, to match mission propulsion requirements. A nominally 100W Hall Effect Thruster prototype (with an alumina acceleration chamber diameter slightly larger than 29 mm) has been recently designed and manufactured by Alta and Centrospazio, with the purpose of performing a wide range parametric exploration of the main engineering and physical aspects relevant to these devices at low power. During 2004 a preliminary experimental characterization has been performed in Alta's IV-4 test facility (in Pisa, Italy), a 2 m dia. 4 m length AISI 316 L vacuum chamber, equipped with a set of 6 tailored cryopumping surfaces with a total pumping speed on Xe in the order of 70000 l/s. Additional tests will be performed at ESA- ESTEC Electric Propulsion Laboratory (in the Netherlands).

  2. Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC)

    Taylor, William W. L.

    1994-01-01

    The scientific emphasis of this contract has been on the physics of beam ionosphere interactions, in particular, what are the plasma wave levels stimulated by the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) electron beam as it is ejected from the Electron Beam Accelerator (EBA) and passes into and through the ionosphere. There were two different phenomena expected. The first was generation of plasma waves by the interaction of the DC component of the beam with the plasma of the ionosphere, by wave particle interactions. The second was the generation of waves at the pulsing frequency of the beam (AC component). This is referred to as using the beam as a virtual antenna, because the beam of electrons is a coherent electrical current confined to move along the earth's magnetic field. As in a physical antenna, a conductor at a radio or TV station, the beam virtual antenna radiates electromagnetic waves at the frequency of the current variations. These two phenomena were investigated during the period of this contract.

  3. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  4. Carbon Nanotube Based Electric Propulsion Thruster with Low Power Consumption Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project is to develop field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thruster using carbon nanotubes (CNT) integrated anode. FEEP thrusters have gained...

  5. The development of reactive fuel grains for pyrophoric relight of in-space hybrid rocket thrusters

    Steiner, Matthew Wellington

    This study presents and investigates a novel hybrid fuel grain that reacts pyrophorically with gaseous oxidizer to achieve restart of a hybrid rocket motor propulsion system while reducing cost and handling concerns. This reactive fuel grain (RFG) relies on the pyrophoric nature of finely divided metal particles dispersed in a solid dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) binder, which has been shown to encapsulate air-sensitive additives until they are exposed to combustion gases. An RFG is thus effectively inert in open air in the absence of an ignition source, though the particles encapsulated within remain pyrophoric. In practice, this means that an RFG that is ignited in the vacuum of space and then extinguished will expose unoxidized pyrophoric particles, which can be used to generate sufficient heat to relight the propellant when oxidizer is flowed. The experiments outlined in this work aim to develop a suitable pyrophoric material for use in an RFG, demonstrate pyrophoric relight, and characterize performance under conditions relevant to a hybrid rocket thruster. Magnesium, lithium, calcium, and an alloy of titanium, chromium, and manganese (TiCrMn) were investigated to determine suitability of pure metals as RFG additives. Additionally, aluminum hydride (AlH3), lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), lithium borohydride (LiBH4), and magnesium hydride (MgH2) were investigated to determine suitability of metals hydrides as RFG additives or as precursors for pure-metal RFG additives. Pyrophoric metals have been previously investigated as additives for increasing the regression rate of hybrid fuels, but to the author's knowledge, these materials have not been specifically investigated for their ability to ignite a propellant pyrophorically. Commercial research-grade metals were obtained as coarse powders, then ball-milled to attempt to reduce particle size below a critical diameter needed for pyrophoricity. Magnesium hydride was ball-milled and then cycled in a hydride cycling

  6. NEXT Propellant Management System Integration With Multiple Ion Thrusters

    Sovey, James S.; Soulas, George C.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    As a critical part of the NEXT test validation process, a multiple-string integration test was performed on the NEXT propellant management system and ion thrusters. The objectives of this test were to verify that the PMS is capable of providing stable flow control to multiple thrusters operating over the NEXT system throttling range and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT PMS is ready for transition to flight. A test plan was developed for the sub-system integration test for verification of PMS and thruster system performance and functionality requirements. Propellant management system calibrations were checked during the single and multi-thruster testing. The low pressure assembly total flow rates to the thruster(s) were within 1.4 percent of the calibrated support equipment flow rates. The inlet pressures to the main, cathode, and neutralizer ports of Thruster PM1R were measured as the PMS operated in 1-thruster, 2-thruster, and 3-thruster configurations. It was found that the inlet pressures to Thruster PM1R for 2-thruster and 3-thruster operation as well as single thruster operation with the PMS compare very favorably indicating that flow rates to Thruster PM1R were similar in all cases. Characterizations of discharge losses, accelerator grid current, and neutralizer performance were performed as more operating thrusters were added to the PMS. There were no variations in these parameters as thrusters were throttled and single and multiple thruster operations were conducted. The propellant management system power consumption was at a fixed voltage to the DCIU and a fixed thermal throttle temperature of 75 C. The total power consumed by the PMS was 10.0, 17.9, and 25.2 W, respectively, for single, 2-thruster, and 3-thruster operation with the PMS. These sub-system integration tests of the PMS, the DCIU Simulator, and multiple thrusters addressed, in part, the NEXT PMS and propulsion system performance and functionality requirements.

  7. Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster (AMET) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) and the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) propose to develop the Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster...

  8. Optimized Magnetic Nozzles for MPD Thrusters Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can provide the high-specific impulse, high-power propulsion required to enable ambitious human and robotic exploration...

  9. Oxygen-Methane Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two main innovations will be developed in the Phase II effort that are fundamentally associated with our gaseous oxygen/gaseous methane RCS thruster. The first...

  10. Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase II program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power...

  11. Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase I program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power...

  12. A Pulsed Laser-Electromagnetic Hybrid Accelerator For Space Propulsion Application

    A fundamental study of a newly developed rectangular pulsed laser-electromagnetic hybrid thruster was conducted, in which laser-ablation plasma was induced through laser beam irradiation onto a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration only by using a laser beam. The performance of the thruster was evaluated by measuring the mass per shot and impulse bit. As results, significantly high specific impulse ranging from 5,000 ∼6,000 sec were obtained at energies of 0.1 and 8.6 J, respectively. In addition, the typical thrust efficiency varied from 17% to 19% depending on the charge energy.

  13. Electron dynamics in Hall thruster

    Marini, Samuel; Pakter, Renato

    2015-11-01

    Hall thrusters are plasma engines those use an electromagnetic fields combination to confine electrons, generate and accelerate ions. Widely used by aerospace industries those thrusters stand out for its simple geometry, high specific impulse and low demand for electric power. Propulsion generated by those systems is due to acceleration of ions produced in an acceleration channel. The ions are generated by collision of electrons with propellant gas atoms. In this context, we can realize how important is characterizing the electronic dynamics. Using Hamiltonian formalism, we derive the electron motion equation in a simplified electromagnetic fields configuration observed in hall thrusters. We found conditions those must be satisfied by electromagnetic fields to have electronic confinement in acceleration channel. We present configurations of electromagnetic fields those maximize propellant gas ionization and thus make propulsion more efficient. This work was supported by CNPq.

  14. Electron-wall Interaction in Hall Thrusters

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; M. Keidar; N.J. Fisch

    2005-02-11

    Electron-wall interaction effects in Hall thrusters are studied through measurements of the plasma response to variations of the thruster channel width and the discharge voltage. The discharge voltage threshold is shown to separate two thruster regimes. Below this threshold, the electron energy gain is constant in the acceleration region and therefore, secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel walls is insufficient to enhance electron energy losses at the channel walls. Above this voltage threshold, the maximum electron temperature saturates.

  15. Parametric studies of the Hall Thruster at Soreq

    An electric propulsion program was initiated at Soreq a few years ago, aiming at the research and development of advanced Hall thrusters for various space applications. The Hall thruster accelerates a plasma jet by an axial electric field and an applied radial magnetic field in an annular ceramic channel. A relatively large current density (> 0.1 A/cm2) can be obtained, since the acceleration mechanism is not limited by space charge effects. Such a device can be used as a small rocket engine onboard spacecraft with the advantage of a large jet velocity compared with conventional rocket engines (10,000-30,000 m/s vs. 2,000-4,800 m/s). An experimental Hall thruster was constructed at Soreq and operated under a broad range of operating conditions and under various configurational variations. Electrical, magnetic and plasma diagnostics, as well as accurate thrust and gas flow rate measurements, have been used to investigate the dependence of thruster behavior on the applied voltage, gas flow rate, magnetic field, channel geometry and wall material. Representative results highlighting the major findings of the studies conducted so far are presented

  16. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, A

    2014-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied...

  17. Acceleration and Focusing of Plasma Flows

    Griswold, Martin E.

    The acceleration of flowing plasmas is a fundamental problem that is useful in a wide variety of technological applications. We consider the problem from the perspective of plasma propulsion. Gridded ion thrusters and Hall thrusters are the most commonly used devices to create flowing plasma for space propulsion, but both suffer from fundamental limitations. Gridded ion sources create good quality beams in terms of energy spread and spatial divergence, but the Child-Langmuir law in the non-neutral acceleration region limits the maximum achievable current density. Hall thrusters avoid this limitation by accelerating ions in quasi-neutral plasma but, as a result, produce plumes with high spatial divergence and large energy spread. In addition the more complicated magnetized plasma in the Hall Thruster produces oscillations that can reduce the efficiency of the thruster by increasing electron transport to the anode. We present investigations of three techniques to address the fundamental limitations on the performance of each thruster. First, we propose a method to increase the time-averaged current density (and thus thrust density) produced by a gridded ion source above the Child-Langmuir limit by introducing time-varying boundary conditions. Next, we use an electrostatic plasma lens to focus the Hall thruster plume, and finally we develop a technique to suppress a prominent oscillation that degrades the performance of Hall thrusters. The technique to loosen the constraints on current density from gridded ion thrusters actually applies much more broadly to any space charge limited flow. We investigate the technique with a numerical simulation and by proving a theoretical upper bound. While we ultimately conclude that the approach is not suitable for space propulsion, our results proved useful in another area, providing a benchmark for research into the spontaneously time-dependent current that arises in microdiodes. Next, we experimentally demonstrate a novel

  18. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  19. A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion

    Chiravalle, Vincent P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-23

    This presentation describes how a microwave thruster can be used for spacecraft propulsion. A microwave thruster is part of a larger class of electric propulsion devices that have higher specific impulse and lower thrust than conventional chemical rocket engines. Examples of electric propulsion devices are given in this presentation and it is shown how these devices have been used to accomplish two recent space missions. The microwave thruster is then described and it is explained how the thrust and specific impulse of the thruster can be measured. Calculations of the gas temperature and plasma properties in the microwave thruster are discussed. In addition a potential mission for the microwave thruster involving the orbit raising of a space station is explored.

  20. Next-Generation Ion Thruster Design Tool to Support Future Space Missions Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computational tools that accurately predict the performance of electric propulsion devices are highly desirable by NASA and the broader electric propulsion...

  1. Next-Generation Ion Thruster Design Tool to Support Future Space Missions Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computational tools that accurately predict the performance of electric propulsion devices are highly desirable and beneficial to NASA and the broader electric...

  2. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    Rafalskyi, D.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-11-01

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied RF voltage. As a result, ions are continuously accelerated within the grid system while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF period when the RF space charge sheath collapses. This paper presents the first experimental results and a proof-of-principle. Experiments are carried out using the Neptune thruster prototype which is a gridded Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) source operated at 4 MHz, attached to a larger beam propagation chamber. The RF power supply is used both for the ICP discharge (plasma generation) and powering the acceleration grids via a capacitor for ion acceleration and electron extraction without any dc power supplies. The ion and electron energies, particle flux and densities are measured using retarding field energy analyzers (RFEA), Langmuir probes and a large beam target. The system operates in Argon and N2. The dc self-bias is found to be generated within the gridded extraction system in all the range of operating conditions. Broad quasi-neutral ion-electron beams are measured in the downstream chamber with energies up to 400 eV. The beams from the RF acceleration method are compared with classical dc acceleration with an additional external electron neutralizer. It is found that the two acceleration techniques provide similar performance, but the ion energy distribution function from RF acceleration is broader, while the floating potential of the beam is lower than for the dc accelerated beam.

  3. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied RF voltage. As a result, ions are continuously accelerated within the grid system while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF period when the RF space charge sheath collapses. This paper presents the first experimental results and a proof-of-principle. Experiments are carried out using the Neptune thruster prototype which is a gridded Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) source operated at 4 MHz, attached to a larger beam propagation chamber. The RF power supply is used both for the ICP discharge (plasma generation) and powering the acceleration grids via a capacitor for ion acceleration and electron extraction without any dc power supplies. The ion and electron energies, particle flux and densities are measured using retarding field energy analyzers (RFEA), Langmuir probes and a large beam target. The system operates in Argon and N2. The dc self-bias is found to be generated within the gridded extraction system in all the range of operating conditions. Broad quasi-neutral ion-electron beams are measured in the downstream chamber with energies up to 400 eV. The beams from the RF acceleration method are compared with classical dc acceleration with an additional external electron neutralizer. It is found that the two acceleration techniques provide similar performance, but the ion energy distribution function from RF acceleration is broader, while the floating potential of the beam is lower than for the dc accelerated beam. (paper)

  4. The baffle aperture region of an ion thruster

    During the period of this research project, electron bombardment ion thrusters have passed from an advanced state of development to highly successful flight demonstrations (e.g. Deep Space 1). Such advances made by NASA have been quickly followed in the commercial sector (e.g. NSSK of communications satellites). In the next few years, these early successes will be followed by many new electric propulsion missions, planned by the world's space agencies and commercial space organisations. These early successes will spawn more ambitious and demanding missions, necessitating thrusters of different power demands, thrusts and sizes. Scaling of the UK series of electron bombardment ion thrusters has previously been carried out by semi- empirical scaling laws. These scaling laws have worked well within a certain range of thruster sizes with some iterative redesign necessary to produce acceptable efficiencies. However, when scaling beyond the ranges of the T5, T6 and UK25, the current scaling laws cannot be used due to the conflicting requirements of magnetic field strength in the discharge chamber and baffle aperture region. The baffle aperture region contains a plasma double layer that accelerates primary electrons into the discharge chamber and thus controls ionisation in the ion thruster. Previously, the baffle aperture region was poorly understood. An extensive and unique experimental investigation of the plasma properties around this critical baffle aperture region has been carried out using Langmuir probes. The externally applied magnetic field has been mapped and the Langmuir probe results have been validated using emissive probes. Results are presented on both argon and xenon propellant and high- resolution maps of an extensive range of plasma properties are plotted over a continuous area from the coupling plasma, through the baffle aperture and into the discharge plasma. Maps were taken over a unique and wide range of thruster operating conditions in which all

  5. Measurements of neutral and ion velocity distribution functions in a Hall thruster

    Svarnas, Panagiotis; Romadanov, Iavn; Diallo, Ahmed; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2015-11-01

    Hall thruster is a plasma device for space propulsion. It utilizes a cross-field discharge to generate a partially ionized weakly collisional plasma with magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions. The ions are accelerated by the electric field to produce the thrust. There is a relatively large number of studies devoted to characterization of accelerated ions, including measurements of ion velocity distribution function using laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. Interactions of these accelerated ions with neutral atoms in the thruster and the thruster plume is a subject of on-going studies, which require combined monitoring of ion and neutral velocity distributions. Herein, laser-induced fluorescence technique has been employed to study neutral and single-charged ion velocity distribution functions in a 200 W cylindrical Hall thruster operating with xenon propellant. An optical system is installed in the vacuum chamber enabling spatially resolved axial velocity measurements. The fluorescence signals are well separated from the plasma background emission by modulating the laser beam and using lock-in detectors. Measured velocity distribution functions of neutral atoms and ions at different operating parameters of the thruster are reported and analyzed. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  6. CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster for LEO and Deep Space Missions Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aether Industries proposes the development of a novel, primary plasma propulsion system that is well suited for small spacecraft. This technology, called the...

  7. A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster

    Lee, Ty Davis

    Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

  8. Thermal Management of Superconducting Electromagnets in VASIMR Thrusters Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future manned space exploration missions will require high power electric propulsion. VASIMR thrusters are the most attractive option because they offer short...

  9. Space charge dominated, low V/C accelerators

    This paper reports that acceleration of space charge dominated ion beams in the energy range form 1 keV/amu to 1 MeV/amu can be done with dc columns followed by Induction linacs or rf-linacs. Choice and design of the accelerator structure depend on the beam energy, the radial and longitudinal emittance, the brilliance and the time structure required. Features and technical and physical limitations of the different accelerator schemes and specific applications are discussed

  10. Space charge in linear accelerators workshop. [Eighteen papers

    Jameson, R.A. (ed.)

    1978-05-01

    Nineteen papers and three summary sessions (theoretical, simulation codes, and experimental approach) are presented on the effects of space charge in linear accelerators. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). (PMA)

  11. Control capability analysis for complex spacecraft thruster configurations

    2010-01-01

    The set of forces and moments that can be generated by thrusters of a spacecraft is called the"control capability"with respect to the thruster configuration.If the control capability of a thruster configuration is adequate to fulfill a given space mission,we say this configuration is a feasible one with respect to the task.This study proposed a new way to analyze the control capability of the complex thruster configuration.Precise mathematical definitions of feasibility were proposed,based on which a criterion to judge the feasibility of the thruster configuration was presented through calculating the shortest distance to the boundary of the controllable region as a function of the thruster configuration.Finally,control capability analysis for the complex thruster configuration based on its feasibility with respect to the space mission was given followed by a 2-D thruster configuration example to demonstrate its validity.

  12. Kink instability and onset of critical regimes in a magneto-plasma-dynamic thruster

    Serianni, Gianluigi; Scarin, Paolo; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio; Agostini, Matteo; Antoni, Vanni; Bagatin, Mario; Andrenucci, Mariano; Paganucci, Fabrizio; Rossetti, Paola; Signori, Massimiliano

    2004-01-01

    Magneto-Plasma-Dynamic (MPD) thrusters are currently under investigation as they constitute a possible, high power electric propulsion option for primary space mission, ranging from orbit raising to interplanetary mission of large spacecraft. They are essentially electromagnetic plasma accelerators, in which a high current discharge ionizes a gas, that is accelerated by the Lorentz force produced by the interaction between the current and a self induced (or applied) magnetic field. Presently,...

  13. Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate the innovative Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) to provide rapid and reliable in-space impulse...

  14. Q-thruster Breadboard Campaign Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Q-thruster technology is a mission enabling form of electric propulsion and is already being traded by NASA's Concept Architecture Team (CAT) & Human Space...

  15. Protons Surfatron acceleration by electromagnetic wave in space plasma

    In this work fundamental interactions of type wave-particles are discussed. Main object of the investigation is Surfatron accelerations of the protons by single electromagnetic wave. The Surfatron effect of protons acceleration is investigated through numerical simulations, on the basis of nonlinear, nonstationary, second order differential equation for the wave phase at the charged particle’s trajectory. The temporal dynamics of protons Surfatron acceleration for different variants of the initial parameters are studied. The optimal conditions for maximum ultrarelativistic particles Surfatron acceleration by the electromagnetic wave in space plasma are considered. An analytical approximation for protons energy strong growth was done. Key words: Surfatron acceleration, space plasmas, electromagnetic wave, proton, charge trapping

  16. Space experiments with particle accelerators (SEPAC)

    This chapter reports on experiments performed in the Spacelab 1 whose objectives are to study the vehicle charging in space and charging neutralization by using plasma and neutral gas plume, to study the beam-plasma interaction in space (e.g. wave excitation in the very low frequency to high frequency range in the interaction of the electron beam with space plasma and plasma heating resulting from the nonlinear beam-plasma interaction), to study the beam atmospheric interaction exciting artificial aurora and airglow, and to trace the magnetic field configuration of the magnetosphere and detect the field aligned electric field. Topics considered include SEPAC hardware, SEPAC operation, and the SEPAC follow-on mission. Includes a table and 3 drawings

  17. Space charge effects in proton linear accelerators

    Space charge difficulties are relatively well known because of the inconveniences they cause, but the physical mechanisms by which they operate are obscure; an attempt was made to explain some of these mechanisms. The method chosen involves a numerical simulation of the beam; computer programs describing beam dynamics with space charge are presented; they are used to check results obtained elsewhere. A series of experiments was performed demonstrating that coupling phenomena produce an equalization of r. m. s. velocities in the 3 directions; new quantity (sort of hyper-emittance) is introduced: its growth between the input and output of a given linac is proportional to the beam intensity. (author)

  18. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study

  19. Plasma Diagnostic and Performance of a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster

    Ferreira, J L; Rego, I D S; Ferreira, I S; Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Souza, Joao Henrique Campos De; Rego, Israel Da Silveira; Ferreira, Ivan Soares

    2004-01-01

    Electric propulsion is now a sucessfull method for primary propulsion of deep space long duration missions and for geosyncronous satellite attitude control. Closed Drift Plasma Thruster, so called Hall Thruster or SPT (stationary plasma thruster) were primarily conceived in USSR (the ancient Soviet Union) and now it is been developed by space agencies, space research institutes and industries in several countries such as France, USA, Israel, Russian Federation and Brazil. In this work, we show plasma characteristics and performance of a Hall Thruster designed with an innovative concept which uses an array of permanent magnets, instead of an eletromagnet, to produce a radial magnetic field inside its cylindrical plasma drift channel. Within this new concept, we expect to develop a Hall Thruster within power consuption that will scale up to small and medium size satellites. A plasma density and temperature space profiles inside and outside the thruster channel will be shown. Space plasma potential, ion temperat...

  20. Control Valve for Miniature Xenon Ion Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is continuing its development of electric propulsion engines for various applications. Efforts have been directed toward both large and small thrusters,...

  1. High Efficiency Hall Thruster Discharge Power Converter Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek leveraged previous, internally sponsored, high power, Hall thruster discharge converter development which allowed it to design, build, and test new printed...

  2. Space electric propulsion plasmas

    This paper reports on electric thrusters which offer the promise of a substantial improvement in performance over that of conventional chemical rockets currently used in space propulsion applications. Thrust is produced in three separate classes of thrusters by: expanding an electrically heated plasma in a nozzle, accelerating a plasma through the application of an electromagnetic body force, or accelerating ions in an electric field. Each of these means of producing thrust involves plasmas that are at once different, phenomenologically rich, and worthy of separate consideration

  3. Multiscale Modeling of Hall Thrusters Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New multiscale modeling capability for analyzing advanced Hall thrusters is proposed. This technology offers NASA the ability to reduce development effort of new...

  4. T6 Ion Thruster Technology Development Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Provide discharge chamber and grid modeling for the new T6 based on JPL expertise on ion thruster performance and life; Enable/guide the T6 upgrade development to...

  5. Dual Mode Low Power Hall Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample and return missions desire and missions like Saturn Observer require a low power Hall thruster that can operate at high thrust to power as well as high...

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Ion Thruster Optics Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma Controls will manufacture and test a set of ion optics for electric propulsion ion thrusters using additive manufacturing technology, also known as 3D...

  7. High Thrust Efficiency MPD Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can provide the high-specific impulse, high-power propulsion required to support human and robotic exploration missions to the...

  8. Precision Electrospray Thruster Assembly (PETA) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New low cost, low volume, low power, rugged electrospray thrusters will be ideal as actuators for precision thrusting, if provided with precision high voltage power...

  9. Light Metal Propellant Hall Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop light metal Hall Effect thrusters that will help reduce the travel time, mass, and cost of SMD spacecraft. Busek has identified three...

  10. Advanced High Efficiency Durable DACS Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systima is developing a high performance 25 lbf DACS thruster that operates with a novel non-toxic monopropellant. The monopropellant has a 30% higher...

  11. High-Power Electron Accelerators for Space (and other) Applications

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This is a presentation on high-power electron accelerators for space and other applications. The main points covered are: electron beams for space applications, new designs of RF accelerators, high-power HEMT testing, and battery design. In summary, we have considered a concept of 1-MeV electron accelerator that can operate up to several seconds. This concept can be extended to higher energy to produce higher beam power. Going to higher beam energy requires adding more cavities and solid-state HEMT RF power devices. The commercial HEMT have been tested for frequency response and RF output power (up to 420 W). And finally, we are testing these HEMT into a resonant load and planning for an electron beam test in FY17.

  12. Space experiments with particle accelerators (SEPAC): Description of instrumentation

    Taylor, W. W. L.; Roberts, W. T.; Reasoner, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Baker, B. B.; Burch, J. L.; Gibson, W. C.; Black, R. K.; Tomlinson, W. M.; Bounds, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    SEPAC (Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators) flew on Spacelab 1 (SL 1) in November and December 1983. SEPAC is a joint U.S.-Japan investigation of the interaction of electron, plasma, and neutral beams with the ionosphere, atmosphere and magnetosphere. It is scheduled to fly again on Atlas 1 in August 1990. On SL 1, SEPAC used an electron accelerator, a plasma accelerator, and neutral gas source as active elements and an array of diagnostics to investigate the interactions. For Atlas 1, the plasma accelerator will be replaced by a plasma contactor and charge collection devices to improve vehicle charging meutralization. This paper describes the SEPAC instrumentation in detail for the SL 1 and Atlas 1 flights and includes a bibliography of SEPAC papers.

  13. Space charge tracking code for a synchrotron accelerator

    Ottinger, M.B.; Tajima, T. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Hiramoto, K. [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.

    1997-06-01

    An algorithm has been developed to compute particle tracking, including self-consistent space charge effects for synchrotron accelerators. In low-energy synchrotrons space charge plays a central role in enhancing emittance of the beam. The space charge effects are modeled by mutually interacting (through the Coulombic force) N cylindrical particles (2-{1/2}-dimensional dynamics) whose axis is in the direction of the equilibrium particle flow. On the other hand, their interaction with synchrotron lattice magnets is treated with the thin-lens approximation and in a fully 3-dimensional way. Since the existing method to treat space charge fully self-consistently involved 3-D space charge effect computation, the present method allows far more realistic physical parameters and runs in far shorter time (about 1/20). Some examples on space charge induced instabilities are presented.

  14. Direct longitudinal laser acceleration of electrons in free space

    Carbajo, Sergio; Nanni, Emilio A.; Wong, Liang Jie; Moriena, Gustavo; Keathley, Phillip D.; Laurent, Guillaume; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    Compact laser-driven accelerators are pursued heavily worldwide because they make novel methods and tools invented at national laboratories widely accessible in science, health, security, and technology [V. Malka et al., Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators, Nat. Phys. 4, 447 (2008)]. Current leading laser-based accelerator technologies [S. P. D. Mangles et al., Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions, Nature (London) 431, 535 (2004); T. Toncian et al., Ultrafast laser-driven microlens to focus and energy-select mega-electron volt protons, Science 312, 410 (2006); S. Tokita et al. Single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction with a laser-accelerated sub-MeV electron pulse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111911 (2009)] rely on a medium to assist the light to particle energy transfer. The medium imposes material limitations or may introduce inhomogeneous fields [J. R. Dwyer et al., Femtosecond electron diffraction: "Making the molecular movie,", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 741 (2006)]. The advent of few cycle ultraintense radially polarized lasers [S. Carbajo et al., Efficient generation of ultraintense few-cycle radially polarized laser pulses, Opt. Lett. 39, 2487 (2014)] has ushered in a novel accelerator concept [L. J. Wong and F. X. Kärtner, Direct acceleration of an electron in infinite vacuum by a pulsed radially polarized laser beam, Opt. Express 18, 25035 (2010); F. Pierre-Louis et al. Direct-field electron acceleration with ultrafast radially polarized laser beams: Scaling laws and optimization, J. Phys. B 43, 025401 (2010); Y. I. Salamin, Electron acceleration from rest in vacuum by an axicon Gaussian laser beam, Phys. Rev. A 73, 043402 (2006); C. Varin and M. Piché, Relativistic attosecond electron pulses from a free-space laser-acceleration scheme, Phys. Rev. E 74, 045602 (2006); A. Sell and F. X. Kärtner, Attosecond electron bunches accelerated and compressed by radially polarized laser

  15. Electromagnetic thrusters for spacecraft prime propulsion

    Rudolph, L. K.; King, D. Q.

    1984-01-01

    The benefits of electromagnetic propulsion systems for the next generation of US spacecraft are discussed. Attention is given to magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) and arc jet thrusters, which form a subset of a larger group of electromagnetic propulsion systems including pulsed plasma thrusters, Hall accelerators, and electromagnetic launchers. Mission/system study results acquired over the last twenty years suggest that for future prime propulsion applications high-power self-field MPD thrusters and low-power arc jets have the greatest potential of all electromagnetic thruster systems. Some of the benefits they are expected to provide include major reductions in required launch mass compared to chemical propulsion systems (particularly in geostationary orbit transfer) and lower life-cycle costs (almost 50 percent less). Detailed schematic drawings are provided which describe some possible configurations for the various systems.

  16. Beyond the Desert 2002, Accelerator, Non--Accelerator and Space Approaches in the New Millenium

    Kleingrothaus, H. V. Klapdor

    2004-01-01

    The third conference on particle physics beyond the Standard Model (BEYOND THE DESERT'02 - Accelerator, Non-accelerator and Space Approaches) was held during 2--7 June, 2002 at the Finish town of Oulu, almost at the northern Arctic Circle. It was the first of the BEYOND conference series held outside Germany (CERN Courier March 2003, pp. 29-30). Traditionally the Scientific Programme of BEYOND conferences, brought into life in 1997 (see CERN Courier, November 1997, pp.16-18), covers almost al...

  17. Pinched Material Einstein Space-Time Produces Accelerated Cosmic Expansion

    M. S. El Naschie

    2014-01-01

    An instructive analogy between the deformation of a pinched elastic cylindrical shell and the anti-gravity behind accelerated cosmic expansion is established. Subsequently the entire model is interpreted in terms of a hyperbolic fractal Rindler space-time leading to the same robust results regarding real energy and dark energy being 4.5% and 95.5% respectively in full agreement with all recent cosmological measurements.

  18. Late time solution for interacting scalar in accelerating spaces

    Prokopec, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    We consider stochastic inflation in an interacting scalar field in spatially homogeneous accelerating space-times with a constant principal slow roll parameter $\\epsilon$. We show that, if the scalar potential is scale invariant (which is the case when scalar contains quartic self-interaction and couples non-minimally to gravity), the late-time solution on accelerating FLRW spaces can be described by a probability distribution function (PDF) $\\rho$ which is a function of $\\varphi/H$ only, where $\\varphi=\\varphi(\\vec x)$ is the scalar field and $H=H(t)$ denotes the Hubble parameter. We give explicit late-time solutions for $\\rho\\rightarrow \\rho_\\infty(\\varphi/H)$, and thereby find the order $\\epsilon$ corrections to the Starobinsky-Yokoyama result. This PDF can then be used to calculate e.g. various $n-$point functions of the (self-interacting) scalar field, which are valid at late times in arbitrary accelerating space-times with $\\epsilon=$ constant.

  19. High Performance Plasma Channel Insulators for High Power Hall Thrusters Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA missions for planetary exploration require high power, long-life Hall thrusters. However, thruster power and lifetime are limited by the erosion of plasma...

  20. Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a flight version of a high power Hall Effect thruster. While numerous high power Hall Effect thrusters have been demonstrated in the...

  1. Lifetime Improvement of Large Scale Green Monopropellant Thrusters via Novel, Long-Life Catalysts Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop and life-test a flight-weight, 5N class green monopropellant thruster in Phase II. The most important feature that sets this thruster...

  2. Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (uPIT_SF) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (5PIT_SF) is a high-precision impulse bit electromagnetic plasma micro-thruster. The 5PIT prototype is a...

  3. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Project Qualification Propellant Throughput Milestone: Performance, Erosion, and Thruster Service Life Prediction After 450 kg

    Herman, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is tasked with significantly improving and extending the capabilities of current state-of-the-art NSTAR thruster. The service life capability of the NEXT ion thruster is being assessed by thruster wear test and life-modeling of critical thruster components, such as the ion optics and cathodes. The NEXT Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated to validate and qualify the NEXT thruster propellant throughput capability. The NEXT thruster completed the primary goal of the LDT; namely to demonstrate the project qualification throughput of 450 kg by the end of calendar year 2009. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated 28,500 hr of operation and processed 466 kg of xenon throughput--more than double the throughput demonstrated by the NSTAR flight-spare. Thruster performance changes have been consistent with a priori predictions. Thruster erosion has been minimal and consistent with the thruster service life assessment, which predicts the first failure mode at greater than 750 kg throughput. The life-limiting failure mode for NEXT is predicted to be loss of structural integrity of the accelerator grid due to erosion by charge-exchange ions.

  4. Advanced laboratory for testing plasma thrusters and Hall thruster measurement campaign

    Szelecka Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma engines are used for space propulsion as an alternative to chemical thrusters. Due to the high exhaust velocity of the propellant, they are more efficient for long-distance interplanetary space missions than their conventional counterparts. An advanced laboratory of plasma space propulsion (PlaNS at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM specializes in designing and testing various electric propulsion devices. Inside of a special vacuum chamber with three performance pumps, an environment similar to the one that prevails in space is created. An innovative Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster (LμPPT with liquid propellant was built at the laboratory. Now it is used to test the second prototype of Hall effect thruster (HET operating on krypton propellant. Meantime, an improved prototype of krypton Hall thruster is constructed.

  5. Requirements for Simulating Space Radiation With Particle Accelerators

    Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F.; Kim, M-H Y.

    2004-01-01

    Interplanetary space radiation consists of fully ionized nuclei of atomic elements with high energy for which only the few lowest energy ions can be stopped in shielding materials. The health risk from exposure to these ions and their secondary radiations generated in the materials of spacecraft and planetary surface enclosures is a major limiting factor in the management of space radiation risk. Accurate risk prediction depends on a knowledge of basic radiobiological mechanisms and how they are modified in the living tissues of a whole organism. To a large extent, this knowledge is not currently available. It is best developed at ground-based laboratories, using particle accelerator beams to simulate the components of space radiation. Different particles, in different energy regions, are required to study different biological effects, including beams of argon and iron nuclei in the energy range 600 to several thousand MeV/nucleon and carbon beams in the energy range of approximately 100 MeV/nucleon to approximately 1000 MeV/nucleon. Three facilities, one each in the United States, in Germany and in Japan, currently have the partial capability to satisfy these constraints. A facility has been proposed using the Brookhaven National Laboratory Booster Synchrotron in the United States; in conjunction with other on-site accelerators, it will be able to provide the full range of heavy ion beams and energies required. International cooperation in the use of these facilities is essential to the development of a safe international space program.

  6. Phase Space Dynamics of Ionization Injection in Plasma Based Accelerators

    Xu, X L; Li, F; Zhang, C J; Yan, L X; Du, Y C; Huang, W H; Chen, H B; Tang, C X; Lu, W; Yu, P; An, W; Mori, W B; Joshi, C

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of beam phase space in ionization-induced injection into plasma wakefields is studied using theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The injection process causes special longitudinal and transverse phase mixing leading initially to a rapid emittance growth followed by oscillation, decay, and eventual slow growth to saturation. An analytic theory for this evolution is presented that includes the effects of injection distance (time), acceleration distance, wakefield structure, and nonlinear space charge forces. Formulas for the emittance in the low and high space charge regimes are presented. The theory is verified through PIC simulations and a good agreement is obtained. This work shows how ultra-low emittance beams can be produced using ionization-induced injection.

  7. Controlled Electron Injection into Plasma Accelerators and Space Charge Estimates

    Plasma based accelerators are capable of producing electron sources which are ultra-compact (a few microns) and high energies (up to hundreds of MeVs) in much shorter distances than conventional accelerators. This is due to the large longitudinal electric field that can be excited without the limitation of breakdown as in RF structures.The characteristic scale length of the accelerating field is the plasma wavelength and for typical densities ranging from 1018 - 1019 cm-3, the accelerating fields and scale length can hence be on the order of 10-100GV/m and 10-40 mu m, respectively. The production of quasimonoenergetic beams was recently obtained in a regime relying on self-trapping of background plasma electrons, using a single laser pulse for wakefield generation. In this dissertation, we study the controlled injection via the beating of two lasers (the pump laser pulse creating the plasma wave and a second beam being propagated in opposite direction) which induce a localized injection of background plasma electrons. The aim of this dissertation is to describe in detail the physics of optical injection using two lasers, the characteristics of the electron beams produced (the micrometer scale plasma wavelength can result in femtosecond and even attosecond bunches) as well as a concise estimate of the effects of space charge on the dynamics of an ultra-dense electron bunch with a large energy spread

  8. String partition functions in Rindler space and maximal acceleration

    Mertens, Thomas G; Zakharov, Valentin I

    2015-01-01

    We revisit non-interacting string partition functions in Rindler space by summing over fields in the spectrum. Using recent results of JHEP 1505 (2015) 106, this construction, first done by Emparan, can be put on much firmer ground. For open strings, we demonstrate that surface contributions to the higher spin fields correspond to open strings piercing the Rindler origin, unifying the higher spin surface contributions in string language. We generalize the construction of these partition functions to type II and heterotic superstrings and demonstrate modular invariance for the resulting partition functions. Also, explicit signs of spacetime supersymmetry are visible. All of these exhibit an IR divergence that can be interpreted as a maximal acceleration with $T_{\\text{crit}} = T_{H}/\\pi$ close to the black hole horizon. Ultimately, these partition functions are not physical, and divergences here should not be viewed as a failure of string theory: maximal acceleration is a feature of a faulty treatment of the h...

  9. Investigation of the Effects of Facility Background Pressure on the Performance and Voltage-Current Characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Spektor, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In-Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the facility background pressure on the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster performance and voltage-current characteristics. This present study evaluated the HiVHAc thruster performance in the lowest attainable background pressure condition at NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 to best simulate space-like conditions. Additional tests were performed at selected thruster operating conditions to investigate and elucidate the underlying physics that change during thruster operation at elevated facility background pressure. Tests were performed at background pressure conditions that are three and ten times higher than the lowest realized background pressure. Results indicated that the thruster discharge specific impulse and efficiency increased with elevated facility background pressure. The voltage-current profiles indicated a narrower stable operating region with increased background pressure. Experimental observations of the thruster operation indicated that increasing the facility background pressure shifted the ionization and acceleration zones upstream towards the thruster's anode. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned at background pressure conditions that are expected to be two to three times lower than what was achieved during this test campaign. These tests will not only assess the impact of reduced facility background pressure on thruster performance, voltage-current characteristics, and plume properties; but will also attempt to quantify the magnitude of the ionization and acceleration zones upstream shifting as a function of increased background pressure.

  10. The space time DoF surface density as a phase-space of accelerating reference frames

    Hadad, Merav

    2016-01-01

    Padmanabhan found a definition for the surface density of space time degrees of freedom. We prove that this density can be constructed from a phase space which is derived with respect to a special space like direction: the direction of the acceleration of an accelerating reference frame. We show that in the Euclidean limit the projection of this phase space along (an accelerating) velocity vector generates Padmanabhan's density. This suggests that Padmanabhan's density may be regarded as the space time degrees of freedom of accelerating reference frames.

  11. Los Alamos NEP research in advanced plasma thrusters

    Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Research was initiated in advanced plasma thrusters that capitalizes on lab capabilities in plasma science and technology. The goal of the program was to examine the scaling issues of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster performance in support of NASA's MPD thruster development program. The objective was to address multi-megawatt, large scale, quasi-steady state MPD thruster performance. Results to date include a new quasi-steady state operating regime which was obtained at space exploration initiative relevant power levels, that enables direct coaxial gun-MPD comparisons of thruster physics and performance. The radiative losses are neglible. Operation with an applied axial magnetic field shows the same operational stability and exhaust plume uniformity benefits seen in MPD thrusters. Observed gun impedance is in close agreement with the magnetic Bernoulli model predictions. Spatial and temporal measurements of magnetic field, electric field, plasma density, electron temperature, and ion/neutral energy distribution are underway. Model applications to advanced mission logistics are also underway.

  12. Average accelerator simulation Truebeam using phase space in IAEA format

    In this paper is used a computational code of radiation transport simulation based on Monte Carlo technique, in order to model a linear accelerator of treatment by Radiotherapy. This work is the initial step of future proposals which aim to study several treatment of patient by Radiotherapy, employing computational modeling in cooperation with the institutions UESC, IPEN, UFRJ e COI. The Chosen simulation code is GATE/Geant4. The average accelerator is TrueBeam of Varian Company. The geometric modeling was based in technical manuals, and radiation sources on the phase space for photons, provided by manufacturer in the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) format. The simulations were carried out in equal conditions to experimental measurements. Were studied photons beams of 6MV, with 10 per 10 cm of field, focusing on a water phantom. For validation were compared dose curves in depth, lateral profiles in different depths of the simulated results and experimental data. The final modeling of this accelerator will be used in future works involving treatments and real patients. (author)

  13. Exploring phase space using smartphone acceleration and rotation sensors simultaneously

    A paradigmatic physical system as the physical pendulum is experimentally studied using the acceleration and rotation (gyroscope) sensors available on smartphones and other devices such as iPads and tablets. A smartphone is fixed to the outside of a bicycle wheel whose axis is kept horizontal and fixed. The compound system, wheel plus smartphone, defines a physical pendulum which can rotate, giving full turns in one direction, or oscillate about the equilibrium position (performing either small or large oscillations). Measurements of the radial and tangential acceleration and the angular velocity obtained with smartphone sensors allow a deep insight into the dynamics of the system to be gained. In addition, thanks to the simultaneous use of the acceleration and rotation sensors, trajectories in the phase space are directly obtained. The coherence of the measures obtained with the different sensors and by traditional methods is remarkable. Indeed, due to their low cost and increasing availability, smartphone sensors are valuable tools that can be used in most undergraduate laboratories. (paper)

  14. Numerical analysis of real gas MHD flow on two-dimensional self-field MPD thrusters

    Xisto, Carlos M.; Páscoa, José C.; Oliveira, Paulo J.

    2015-07-01

    A self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster is a low-thrust electric propulsion space-system that enables the usage of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles for accelerating a plasma flow towards high speed exhaust velocities. It can produce an high specific impulse, making it suitable for long duration interplanetary space missions. In this paper numerical results obtained with a new code, which is being developed at C-MAST (Centre for Mechanical and Aerospace Technologies), for a two-dimensional self-field MPD thruster are presented. The numerical model is based on the macroscopic MHD equations for compressible and electrically resistive flow and is able to predict the two most important thrust mechanisms that are associated with this kind of propulsion system, namely the thermal thrust and the electromagnetic thrust. Moreover, due to the range of very high temperatures that could occur during the operation of the MPD, it also includes a real gas model for argon.

  15. Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters

    Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.

  16. Status of the NEXT Ion Thruster Long-Duration Test After 10,100 hr and 207 kg Demonstrated

    Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is developing the next-generation ion propulsion system with significant enhancements beyond the state-of-the-art in ion propulsion to provide future NASA science missions with enhanced mission capabilities at a low total development cost. As part of a comprehensive thruster service life assessment utilizing both testing and analyses, a Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated to validate and qualify the NEXT propellant throughput capability to a qualification-level of 450 kg, 1.5 times the mission-derived throughput requirement of 300 kg. This wear test is being conducted with a modified, flight-representative NEXT engineering model ion thruster, designated EM3. As of June 21, 2007, the thruster has accumulated 10,100 hr of operation at the thruster full-input-power of 6.9 kW with 3.52 A beam current and 1800 V beam power supply voltage. The thruster has processed 207 kg of xenon and demonstrated a total impulse of 8.5 106 N-s; the highest total impulse ever demonstrated by an ion thruster in the history of space propulsion. Thruster performance tests are conducted periodically over the entire NEXT throttle table with input power ranging 0.5 to 6.9 kW. Overall ion thruster performance parameters including thrust, input power, specific impulse, and thruster efficiency have been nominal with little variation to date. Lifetime-limiting component erosion rates have been consistent with the NEXT service life assessment, which predicts the earliest failure sometime after 750 kg of xenon propellant throughput; well beyond the mission-derived lifetime requirement. The NEXT wear test data confirm that the erosion of the discharge keeper orifice, enlarging of nominal-current-density accelerator grid aperture cusps, and the decrease in cold grid-gap observed during the NSTAR Extended Life Test have been mitigated. This paper presents the status of the NEXT LDT to date.

  17. Injector design and test for a high power electrodeless plasma thruster

    Delanoë, Romain

    2011-01-01

    The HPEP (High Performance Electric Propulsion) thruster is expected to be the outcomecof an innovative project initiated by the Swedish Space Corporation. It combines the concept of a 10 kW electrodeless plasma thruster designed by the Elwing Company and the ADN based monopropellant LMP-103S developed by ECAPS and used in the HPGP thrusters of the Prisma Satellites. Using a chemically energetic propellant in an EP thruster will allow mass and cost reduction by providing two propulsion system...

  18. Performance and Environmental Test Results of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator Engineering Development Unit

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Mathers, Alex

    2012-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.5 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the high voltage Hall accelerator engineering development unit have been performed. Performance test results indicated that at 3.9 kW the thruster achieved a total thrust efficiency and specific impulse of 58%, and 2,700 sec, respectively. Thermal characterization tests indicated that the thruster component temperatures were within the prescribed material maximum operating temperature limits during full power thruster operation. Finally, thruster vibration tests indicated that the thruster survived the 3-axes qualification full-level random vibration test series. Pre and post-vibration test performance mappings indicated almost identical thruster performance. Finally, an update on the development progress of a power processing unit and a xenon feed system is provided.

  19. Comparison of Computed and Measured Performance of a Pulsed Inductive Thruster Operating on Argon Propellant

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Sankaran, Kameshwaran; Ritchie, Andrew G.; Peneau, Jarred P.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma accelerators are electrodeless space propulsion devices where a capacitor is charged to an initial voltage and then discharged through a coil as a high-current pulse that inductively couples energy into the propellant. The field produced by this pulse ionizes the propellant, producing a plasma near the face of the coil. Once a plasma is formed if can be accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity by the Lorentz force arising from the interaction of an induced plasma current and the magnetic field. A recent review of the developmental history of planar-geometry pulsed inductive thrusters, where the coil take the shape of a flat spiral, can be found in Ref. [1]. Two concepts that have employed this geometry are the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT)[2, 3] and the Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD)[4]. There exists a 1-D pulsed inductive acceleration model that employs a set of circuit equations coupled to a one-dimensional momentum equation. The model was originally developed and used by Lovberg and Dailey[2, 3] and has since been nondimensionalized and used by Polzin et al.[5, 6] to define a set of scaling parameters and gain general insight into their effect on thruster performance. The circuit presented in Fig. 1 provides a description of the electrical coupling between the current flowing in the thruster I1 and the plasma current I2. Recently, the model was upgraded to include an equation governing the deposition of energy into various modes present in a pulsed inductive thruster system (acceleration, magnetic flux generation, resistive heating, etc.)[7]. An MHD description of the plasma energy density evolution was tailored to the thruster geometry by assuming only one-dimensional motion and averaging the plasma properties over the spatial dimensions of the current sheet to obtain an equation for the time-evolution of the total energy. The equation set governing the dynamics of the coupled

  20. Some Considerations on the Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasma

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Markusic, T. E.; Cassibry, J. T.; Sommers, J. C.; Turchi, P. J.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In applying pulsed electromagnetic acceleration of plasma to space propulsion (known as pulsed plasma thrusters in the community), the mode of acceleration used has been mostly in the collisionless or near-collisionless regime. The preparation of the initial plasma is given scant attention. Collisional regime of accelerating the plasma, however, have been encountered in a variety of plasma accelerating devices. Both of these modes of acceleration are reviewed in a companion paper. In this paper, we discuss the considerations governing the controlled introduction and preparation of the initial plasma, so that the collisional mode of accelerating the plasma may be suitably enhanced.

  1. Permanent magnets in accelerators can save energy, space and cost

    Bødker, F.; Baandrup, L.O.; Hauge, N.;

    2013-01-01

    Green Magnet® technology with close to zero electrical power consumption without the need for cooling water saves costs, space and natural resources. A compact dipole based on permanent magnets has been developed at Danfysik in collaboration with Sintex and Aarhus University. Our first Green Magnet...... coils permit fine tuning of the magnetic field. Magnetic field measurements and thermal stability tests show that the Green Magnet fully meets the magnetic requirements of the previously used electromagnet. A permanent 30° bending dipole is currently being development to demonstrate the use of Green...... has been delivered to ETH Zurich for testing in a compact accelerator mass spectrometer facility. Permanent NdFeB magnets generate a fixed magnetic field without using electrical power in the 90° bending magnet. Thermal drift of the permanent magnets is passively compensated. Small air cooled trim...

  2. Multi-Thruster Propulsion Apparatus

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electric propulsion machine includes an ion thruster having a discharge chamber housing a large surface area anode. The ion thruster includes flat annular ion optics with a small span to gap ratio. Optionally, at least a second thruster may be disposed radially offset from the ion thruster.

  3. Optimization of a coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma thruster with an analytical model

    Cannat, F., E-mail: felix.cannat@onera.fr, E-mail: felix.cannat@gmail.com; Lafleur, T. [Physics and Instrumentation Department, Onera -The French Aerospace Lab, Palaiseau, Cedex 91123 (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Jarrige, J.; Elias, P.-Q.; Packan, D. [Physics and Instrumentation Department, Onera -The French Aerospace Lab, Palaiseau, Cedex 91123 (France); Chabert, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2015-05-15

    A new cathodeless plasma thruster currently under development at Onera is presented and characterized experimentally and analytically. The coaxial thruster consists of a microwave antenna immersed in a magnetic field, which allows electron heating via cyclotron resonance. The magnetic field diverges at the thruster exit and forms a nozzle that accelerates the quasi-neutral plasma to generate a thrust. Different thruster configurations are tested, and in particular, the influence of the source diameter on the thruster performance is investigated. At microwave powers of about 30 W and a xenon flow rate of 0.1 mg/s (1 SCCM), a mass utilization of 60% and a thrust of 1 mN are estimated based on angular electrostatic probe measurements performed downstream of the thruster in the exhaust plume. Results are found to be in fair agreement with a recent analytical helicon thruster model that has been adapted for the coaxial geometry used here.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Based Electric Propulsion Thruster with Low Power Consumption Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thrusters have gained considerable attention for spacecrafts disturbance compensation because of excellent...

  5. Low-Cost High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular power processing unit (PPU) for Hall Thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper...

  6. Colloid Thruster for Attitude Control Systems (ACS) and Tip-off Control Applications Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop and deliver a complete engineering model colloid thruster system, capable of thrust levels and lifetimes required for spacecraft...

  7. Radio Frequency Micro Ion Thruster for Precision Propulsion Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop radio frequency discharge, gridded micro-ion thruster that produces sub-mN thrust precisely adjustable over a wide dynamic thrust range....

  8. Radio Frequency Micro Ion Thruster for Precision Propulsion Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to continue development of an engineering model radio frequency discharge, gridded micro ion thruster that produces sub-mN to mN thrust precisely...

  9. High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high throughput, nominal 100 W Hall Effect Thruster (HET). This HET will be sized for small spacecraft (< 180 kg), including...

  10. Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation being developed in this program is a Mg Hall Effect Thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization based solar system...

  11. 20mN, Variable Specific Impulse Colloid Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Colloid thrusters have long been known for their exceptional thrust efficiency and ability to operate over a range of specific impulse due to easily variable...

  12. A High Performance Cathode Heater for Hall Thrusters Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High current hollow cathodes are the baseline electron source for next generation high power Hall thrusters. Currently for electron sources providing current levels...

  13. High Input Voltage Hall Thruster Discharge Converter Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall scope of this Phase I/II effort is the development of a high efficiency 15kW (nominal) Hall thruster discharge converter. In Phase I, Busek Co. Inc....

  14. Long Life Cold Cathodes for Hall effect Thrusters Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electron source incorporating long life, high current density cold cathodes inside a microchannel plate for use with ion thrusters is proposed. Cathode lifetime...

  15. 20mN, Variable Specific Impulse Colloid Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During Phase I, Busek designed and manufactured an electrospray emitter capable of generating 20 mN in a 7" x 7" x 1.7" package. The thruster consists of nine...

  16. Pulsed Electrogasdynamic Thruster for Attitude Control and Orbit Maneuver Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program we successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the Pulsed ElectroGasdynamic (PEG) thruster for attitude control and orbital maneuvering. In...

  17. Three Phase Resonant DC Power Converter for Ion Thrusters Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The new generation of, high performance electric propulsion missions will require high mass throughput and most likely the use of grided ion thruster equipped with...

  18. Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to prove the feasibility of a Mg Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) based solar system...

  19. Four Thruster Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) Cubesat Board Demonstration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cubesat Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) system module prototype will be designed, built and tested to demonstrate that a four MEP thruster system can...

  20. High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek is developing a high throughput nominal 100-W Hall Effect Thruster. This device is well sized for spacecraft ranging in size from several tens of kilograms to...

  1. High vacuum facility for hydrazine thruster testing

    Neary, Patrick F.

    1990-01-01

    An ongoing modification is described of a large vacuum chamber to accommodate the ignition of an arcjet hydrazine thruster while maintaining a vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less. The vacuum facility consists of a 20 ft stainless steel vacuum tank with an internal LN2 shroud, four 35 in. cryopumps and an 8 in. turbopump. To maintain a vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less, 900 sq ft of liquid helium (LHe) shroud surface was installed to maintain the vacuum level and pumping requirements. A vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less will allow the hydrazine thrust to exit the thruster nozzle and radiate into a space type environment so that the plume flow field can be analyzed and compared to the analytical model density distribution profile. Some other arcjet thruster characteristics measured are the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and exhaust contamination. This data is used to evaluate if the arcjet thruster with its high specific impulse in comparison to current chemical propulsion thruster can be used for the next generation of communication satellites.

  2. Direct laser acceleration of electrons in free-space

    Carbajo, Sergio; Wong, Liang Jie; Miller, R J Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X

    2015-01-01

    Compact laser-driven accelerators are versatile and powerful tools of unarguable relevance on societal grounds for the diverse purposes of science, health, security, and technology because they bring enormous practicality to state-of-the-art achievements of conventional radio-frequency accelerators. Current benchmarking laser-based technologies rely on a medium to assist the light-matter interaction, which impose material limitations or strongly inhomogeneous fields. The advent of few cycle ultra-intense radially polarized lasers has materialized an extensively studied novel accelerator that adopts the simplest form of laser acceleration and is unique in requiring no medium to achieve strong longitudinal energy transfer directly from laser to particle. Here we present the first observation of direct longitudinal laser acceleration of non-relativistic electrons that undergo highly-directional multi-GeV/m accelerating gradients. This demonstration opens a new frontier for direct laser-driven particle accelerati...

  3. Mode Transitions in Hall Effect Thrusters

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Mode transitions have been commonly observed in Hall Effect Thruster (HET) operation where a small change in a thruster operating parameter such as discharge voltage, magnetic field or mass flow rate causes the thruster discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude to increase significantly. Mode transitions in a 6-kW-class HET called the H6 are induced by varying the magnetic field intensity while holding all other operating parameters constant and measurements are acquired with ion saturation probes and ultra-fast imaging. Global and local oscillation modes are identified. In the global mode, the entire discharge channel oscillates in unison and azimuthal perturbations (spokes) are either absent or negligible. Downstream azimuthally spaced probes show no signal delay between each other and are very well correlated to the discharge current signal. In the local mode, signals from the azimuthally spaced probes exhibit a clear delay indicating the passage of "spokes" and are not well correlated to the discharge current. These spokes are localized oscillations propagating in the ExB direction that are typically 10-20% of the mean value. In contrast, the oscillations in the global mode can be 100% of the mean value. The transition between global and local modes occurs at higher relative magnetic field strengths for higher mass flow rates or higher discharge voltages. The thrust is constant through mode transition but the thrust-to-power decreased by 25% due to increasing discharge current. The plume shows significant differences between modes with the global mode significantly brighter in the channel and the near-field plasma plume as well as exhibiting a luminous spike on thruster centerline. Mode transitions provide valuable insight to thruster operation and suggest improved methods for thruster performance characterization.

  4. Direct longitudinal laser acceleration of electrons in free space

    Carbajo, Sergio; Nanni, Emilio A.; Wong, Liang Jie; Moriena, Gustavo; Keathley, Phillip D.; Laurent, Guillaume; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    Compact laser-driven accelerators are pursued heavily worldwide because they make novel methods and tools invented at national laboratories widely accessible in science, health, security, and technology [V. Malka et al., Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators, Nat. Phys. 4, 447 (2008)]. Current leading laser-based accelerator technologies [S. P. D. Mangles et al., Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions, Nature (London) 43...

  5. Direct laser acceleration of electrons in free-space

    Carbajo, Sergio; Nanni, Emilio A.; Wong, Liang Jie; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Compact laser-driven accelerators are versatile and powerful tools of unarguable relevance on societal grounds for the diverse purposes of science, health, security, and technology because they bring enormous practicality to state-of-the-art achievements of conventional radio-frequency accelerators. Current benchmarking laser-based technologies rely on a medium to assist the light-matter interaction, which impose material limitations or strongly inhomogeneous fields. The advent of few cycle u...

  6. Initial Thrust Measurements of Marshall's Ion-ioN Thruster

    Caruso, Natalie R. S.; Scogin, Tyler; Liu, Thomas M.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Dankanich, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Electronegative ion thrusters are a variation of traditional gridded ion thruster technology differentiated by the production and acceleration of both positive and negative ions. Benefits of electronegative ion thrusters include the elimination of lifetime-limiting cathodes from the thruster architecture and the ability to generate appreciable thrust from both charge species. While much progress has been made in the development of electronegative ion thruster technology, direct thrust measurements are required to unambiguously demonstrate the efficacy of the concept and support continued development. In the present work, direct thrust measurements of the thrust produced by the MINT (Marshall's Ion-ioN Thruster) are performed using an inverted-pendulum thrust stand in the High-Power Electric Propulsion Laboratory's Vacuum Test Facility-1 at the Georgia Institute of Technology with operating pressures ranging from 4.8 x 10(exp -5) and 5.7 x 10(exp -5) torr. Thrust is recorded while operating with a propellant volumetric mixture ratio of 5:1 argon to nitrogen with total volumetric flow rates of 6, 12, and 24 sccm (0.17, 0.34, and 0.68 mg/s). Plasma is generated using a helical antenna at 13.56 MHz and radio frequency (RF) power levels of 150 and 350 W. The acceleration grid assembly is operated using both sinusoidal and square waveform biases of +/-350 V at frequencies of 4, 10, 25, 125, and 225 kHz. Thrust is recorded for two separate thruster configurations: with and without the magnetic filter. No thrust is discernable during thruster operation without the magnetic filter for any volumetric flow rate, RF forward Power level, or acceleration grid biasing scheme. For the full thruster configuration, with the magnetic filter installed, a brief burst of thrust of approximately 3.75 mN +/- 3 mN of error is observed at the start of grid operation for a volumetric flow rate of 24 sccm at 350 W RF power using a sinusoidal waveform grid bias at 125 kHz and +/- 350 V

  7. Global model of an iodine gridded plasma thruster

    Grondein, P.; Lafleur, T.; Chabert, P.; Aanesland, A.

    2016-03-01

    Most state-of-the-art electric space propulsion systems such as gridded and Hall effect thrusters use xenon as the propellant gas. However, xenon is very rare, expensive to produce, and used in a number of competing industrial applications. Alternatives to xenon are currently being investigated, and iodine has emerged as a potential candidate. Its lower cost and larger availability, its solid state at standard temperature and pressure, its low vapour pressure and its low ionization potential make it an attractive option. In this work, we compare the performances of a gridded ion thruster operating separately with iodine and xenon, under otherwise identical conditions using a global model. The thruster discharge properties such as neutral, ion, and electron densities and electron temperature are calculated, as well as the thruster performance parameters such as thrust, specific impulse, and system efficiencies. For similar operating conditions, representative of realistic thrusters, the model predicts similar thrust levels and performances for both iodine and xenon. The thruster efficiency is however slightly higher for iodine compared with xenon, due to its lower ionization potential. This demonstrates that iodine could be a viable alternative propellant for gridded plasma thrusters.

  8. Accelerating airy beams generated by ultrafast laser induced space-variant nanostructures in glass

    Gecevičius, M.; M. Beresna; Kazansky, P. G.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate new technique to generate accelerating Airy beam with femtosecond laser imprinted space variant birefringence produced by self-assembled nanostructures in fused silica. The technique enables dual Airy beam generation.

  9. Accelerating Non-volatile/Hybrid Processor Cache Design Space Exploration for Application Specific Embedded Systems

    Haque, Mohammad Shihabul; Li, Ang; Kumar, Akash; Wei, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we propose a technique to accelerate nonvolatile or hybrid of volatile and nonvolatile processor cache design space exploration for application specific embedded systems. Utilizing a novel cache behavior modeling equation and a new accurate cache miss prediction mechanism, our proposed technique can accelerate NVM or hybrid FIFO processor cache design space exploration for SPEC CPU 2000 applications up to 249 times compared to the conventional approach.

  10. Plasma diagnostic systems for Hall-effect plasma thrusters

    A joint programme, involving research laboratories from CNRS (Centre National de le Recherche Scientifique) and ONERA (Office National de Recherches Aerospatiales), was developed in France in connection with the French Space Agency (CNES) and industry (SNECMA) for the understanding of Hall-effect plasma thrusters. Different activities are pursued in parallel: an experimental test of different laboratories' thrusters; the development of diagnostic techniques to characterize the plasma inside and outside the thrusters; and the development of simulation and modelling able to describe characteristics and evaluate the thrusters' performances. This paper will be focused on diagnostics systems implemented in the PIVOINE facility. Time- and space-resolved measurements of the ion beam energy, distribution electron density and concentration in the plume are performed with a retarding potential analyser (RPA) and Langmuir probes mounted on a 2.5 m movable drive. The thruster can be moved axially to allow a 40x90 cm2 exploration of the plume. The investigation of the plasma inside the thruster is made by optical diagnostics. A CCD camera used in fast imaging mode is set outside the tank. The 45 deg. sight axis allows an internal view of the thruster's channel. Furthermore, a spectroscopic analysis is made by focusing the channel's light to a set of optical fibres connected to an imaging spectrometer equipped with a CCD camera. A specific laboratory thruster of 100 mm external diameter called SPT100-ML was studied in more detail, this model being designed to allow the implementation of optical fibres and wall probes diagnostics inside the channel's thruster. The stationary plasma thruster discharge is almost always characterized by low-frequency instabilities of the order of 10 kHz where the discharge current can reach a very high instantaneous level. The variation of the discharge and ion beam flux currents has been related to the spatiotemporal dynamic of the plasma inside

  11. Unsupervised classification of Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) data using ART2-A

    Smith, A. D.; Sinha, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) has been developed by NASA to monitor the microgravity acceleration environment aboard the space shuttle. The amount of data collected by a SAMS unit during a shuttle mission is in the several gigabytes range. Adaptive Resonance Theory 2-A (ART2-A), an unsupervised neural network, has been used to cluster these data and to develop cause and effect relationships among disturbances and the acceleration environment. Using input patterns formed on the basis of power spectral densities (psd), data collected from two missions, STS-050 and STS-057, have been clustered.

  12. Performance Evaluation of the Prototype Model NEXT Ion Thruster

    Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The performance testing results of the first prototype model NEXT ion engine, PM1, are presented. The NEXT program has developed the next generation ion propulsion system to enhance and enable Discovery, New Frontiers, and Flagship-type NASA missions. The PM1 thruster exhibits operational behavior consistent with its predecessors, the engineering model thrusters, with substantial mass savings, enhanced thermal margins, and design improvements for environmental testing compliance. The dry mass of PM1 is 12.7 kg. Modifications made in the thruster design have resulted in improved performance and operating margins, as anticipated. PM1 beginning-of-life performance satisfies all of the electric propulsion thruster mission-derived technical requirements. It demonstrates a wide range of throttleability by processing input power levels from 0.5 to 6.9 kW. At 6.9 kW, the PM1 thruster demonstrates specific impulse of 4190 s, 237 mN of thrust, and a thrust efficiency of 0.71. The flat beam profile, flatness parameters vary from 0.66 at low-power to 0.88 at full-power, and advanced ion optics reduce localized accelerator grid erosion and increases margins for electron backstreaming, impingement-limited voltage, and screen grid ion transparency. The thruster throughput capability is predicted to exceed 750 kg of xenon, an equivalent of 36,500 hr of continuous operation at the full-power operating condition.

  13. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors -- the test mass to test mass interferometric link -- behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as non-gravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterised by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-...

  14. Comparisons in Performance of Electromagnet and Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thrusters

    Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Gayoso, J. C.; Fisch, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Three different low-power cylindrical Hall thrusters, which more readily lend themselves to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, are compared to evaluate the propulsive performance of each. One thruster uses electromagnet coils to produce the magnetic field within the discharge channel while the others use permanent magnets, promising power reduction relative to the electromagnet thruster. A magnetic screen is added to the permanent magnet thruster to improve performance by keeping the magnetic field from expanding into space beyond the exit of the thruster. The combined dataset spans a power range from 50-350 W. The thrust levels over this range were 1.3-7.3 mN, with thruster efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 3.5-28.7% and 400-1940 s, respectively. The efficiency is generally higher for the permanent magnet thruster with the magnetic screen, while That thruster s specific impulse as a function of discharge voltage is comparable to the electromagnet thruster.

  15. Laser-plasma-accelerators-A novel, versatile tool for space radiation studies

    The potential of laser-plasma-based accelerator technology for future advanced space radiation studies is investigated. Laser-plasma accelerators have been shown to be capable of robust generation of particle beams such as electrons, protons, neutrons and ions, as well as photons, having a wide range of accessible parameters. Further, instead of maximum accelerating fields of the order of MV/m as in state-of-the-art accelerators, laser-plasma acceleration operates with fields up to TV/m and can thus be used to reach as yet inaccessible parameter regimes, but which are very relevant to space radiation studies. Due to their versatility and compactness, the same laser-plasma-accelerator can be used in university-scale labs to generate different kinds of particle and photon beams, each yielding up to kGy doses per shot, and allowing combinations of different kinds of radiation production simultaneously. Laser-plasma-accelerators provide the advantage of cost-effective radiation generation, thus ameliorating the current shortage of beam time for testing of radiation resistivity of electronic components. Beyond this, laser-plasma-accelerators can be used to reproduce certain aspects of space radiation, e.g. broad, decreasing multi-MeV-scale spectra, with substantially improved level of fidelity, as compared to state-of-the-art technology. This can increase the significance of electronic components testing, and in turn yield increased reliability and safety of future manned or unmanned space missions, high-altitude flights, as well as the electronic components used in harsh radiation environments in general. Laser-plasma-accelerators may therefore become indispensable tools for next-generation space radiation studies.

  16. Deformed phase space Kaluza-Klein cosmology and late time acceleration

    Sabido, M.; Yee-Romero, C.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of phase space deformations on Kaluza-Klein cosmology are studied. The deformation is introduced by modifying the symplectic structure of the minisuperspace variables. In the deformed model, we find an accelerating scale factor and therefore infer the existence of an effective cosmological constant from the phase space deformation parameter β.

  17. Dielectric coated ion thruster

    This paper describes an ion accelerator apparatus. It comprises: a source of free electrons; a chamber connected to the source of free electrons; means for accelerating the free electrons within the chamber; means for introducing a flow of a gas comprising atoms having a neutral charge into the chamber, the accelerated free electrons colliding with the atoms of the gas causing valence shell electrons to be lost by the atoms, producing therefrom a plasma of positively charged ions; and a metallic grid plate comprising one wall of the chamber and provided with spaced apart perforations extending therethrough, the grid plate being coated on both its inner and outer sides with a layer of an insulating material having a much higher dielectric constant that the metallic grid plate, the grid plate being connected to an electric potential substantially more negative than the positively charged ions so that ions drifting into the vicinity of the metallic grid plate are accelerated toward it, passing out of the chamber through the perforations. The surface of the layer of insulating material on the inner side of the metallic grid plate has an electric potential approximately equal to that of the plasma and thus acting as a screen grid, both layers of insulating material protecting the metallic grid plate from erosion by charged ions and insulating the chamber against thermal and electrical losses

  18. Thrust Stand Measurements of a Conical Pulsed Inductive Plasma Thruster

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Emsellem, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. The thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters can su er from both high pulse energy requirements imposed by the voltage demands of inductive propellant ionization, and low propellant utilization efficiencies. The Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA)[4], shown in Fig. 1 is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that is able to operate at lower pulse energies by partially ionizing propellant with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge inside a conical inductive coil whose geometry serves to potentially increase propellant and plasma plume containment relative to at coil geometries. The ECR plasma is created with the use of permanent mag- nets arranged to produce a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation and, in turn, current sheet formation to areas of high magnetic coupling to the driving coil.

  19. Kinetic Molecular Dynamic Model of Hall Thruster Channel Wall Erosion Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters are being considered for many space missions because their high specific impulse delivers a larger payload mass fraction than chemical rockets. With...

  20. Lifetime Improvement of Large Scale Green Monopropellant Thrusters via Novel, Long-Life Catalysts Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a high performance, non-toxic storable, "green" monopropellant thruster suitable for in-space reaction control propulsion. The engine will...

  1. Accelerating molecular property calculations with nonorthonormal Krylov space methods

    Furche, Filipp; Krull, Brandon T.; Nguyen, Brian D.; Kwon, Jake

    2016-05-01

    We formulate Krylov space methods for large eigenvalue problems and linear equation systems that take advantage of decreasing residual norms to reduce the cost of matrix-vector multiplication. The residuals are used as subspace basis without prior orthonormalization, which leads to generalized eigenvalue problems or linear equation systems on the Krylov space. These nonorthonormal Krylov space (nKs) algorithms are favorable for large matrices with irregular sparsity patterns whose elements are computed on the fly, because fewer operations are necessary as the residual norm decreases as compared to the conventional method, while errors in the desired eigenpairs and solution vectors remain small. We consider real symmetric and symplectic eigenvalue problems as well as linear equation systems and Sylvester equations as they appear in configuration interaction and response theory. The nKs method can be implemented in existing electronic structure codes with minor modifications and yields speed-ups of 1.2-1.8 in typical time-dependent Hartree-Fock and density functional applications without accuracy loss. The algorithm can compute entire linear subspaces simultaneously which benefits electronic spectra and force constant calculations requiring many eigenpairs or solution vectors. The nKs approach is related to difference density methods in electronic ground state calculations and particularly efficient for integral direct computations of exchange-type contractions. By combination with resolution-of-the-identity methods for Coulomb contractions, three- to fivefold speed-ups of hybrid time-dependent density functional excited state and response calculations are achieved.

  2. Emissive Ion Thruster -EMIT Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A propulsion system is proposed that is based on acceleration of ions emitted from a thin, solid-state electrochemical ceramic membrane. This technology would...

  3. The Simpsons program 6-D phase space tracking with acceleration

    Machida, S.

    1993-12-01

    A particle tracking code, Simpsons, in 6-D phase space including energy ramping has been developed to model proton synchrotrons and storage rings. We take time as the independent variable to change machine parameters and diagnose beam quality in a quite similar way as real machines, unlike existing tracking codes for synchrotrons which advance a particle element by element. Arbitrary energy ramping and rf voltage curves as a function of time are read as an input file for defining a machine cycle. The code is used to study beam dynamics with time dependent parameters. Some of the examples from simulations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) boosters are shown.

  4. The Simpsons program 6-D phase space tracking with acceleration

    Machida, S. (Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, Dallas, Texas 75237 (United States))

    1993-12-25

    A particle tracking code, Simpsons, in 6-D phase space including energy ramping has been developed to model proton synchrotrons and storage rings. We take time as the independent variable to change machine parameters and diagnose beam quality in a quite similar way as real machines, unlike existing tracking codes for synchrotrons which advance a particle element by element. Arbitrary energy ramping and rf voltage curves as a function of time are read as an input file for defining a machine cycle. The code is used to study beam dynamics with time dependent parameters. Some of the examples from simulations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) boosters are shown.

  5. The Simpsons program 6-D phase space tracking with acceleration

    Machida, S.

    1993-02-01

    A particle tracking code, Simpsons, in 6-D phase space including energy ramping has been developed to model proton synchrotrons and storage rings. We take time as the independent variable to change machine parameters and diagnose beam quality in a quite similar way as real machines, unlike existing tracking codes for synchrotrons which advance a particle element by element. Arbitrary energy ramping and rf voltage curves as a function of time are read as an input file for defining a machine cycle. The code is used to study beam dynamics with time dependent parameters. Some of the examples from simulations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) boosters are shown.

  6. ECR-GDM Thruster for Fusion Propulsion

    The concept of the Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) device for fusion propulsion was proposed by and Lee (1995) over a decade ago and several theoretical papers has supported the feasibility of the concept. A new ECR plasma source has been built to supply power to the GDM experimental thruster previously tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The new plasma generator, powered by microwaves at 2.45 or 10 GHz. is currently being tested. This ECR plasma source operates in a number of distinct plasma modes, depending upon the strength and shape of the local magnetic field. Of particular interest is the compact plasma jet issuing form the plasma generator when operated in a mirror configuration. The measured velocity profile in the jet plume is bimodal, possibly as a result of the GDM effect in the ECR chamber of the thruster.

  7. ECR-GDM Thruster for Fusion Propulsion

    Brainerd, Jerome J.; Reisz, Al

    2009-03-01

    The concept of the Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) device for fusion propulsion was proposed by and Lee (1995) over a decade ago and several theoretical papers has supported the feasibility of the concept. A new ECR plasma source has been built to supply power to the GDM experimental thruster previously tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The new plasma generator, powered by microwaves at 2.45 or 10 GHz. is currently being tested. This ECR plasma source operates in a number of distinct plasma modes, depending upon the strength and shape of the local magnetic field. Of particular interest is the compact plasma jet issuing form the plasma generator when operated in a mirror configuration. The measured velocity profile in the jet plume is bimodal, possibly as a result of the GDM effect in the ECR chamber of the thruster.

  8. Effects of rectilinear acceleration, optokinetic and caloric stimuli in space

    Vonbaumgarten, R.

    1981-01-01

    The set of experiments comprising the Spacelab 1ES201 package designed to investigate the human vestibular system and equilibratory function in weightlessness are described. The specific objectives of the experiments include: (1) the determination of the threshold of perception of linear oscillatory motion; (2) measurement of physiological and subjective responses to supra threshold, linear and angular motion stimuli; (3) study of the postural adjustments, eye movements, and illusions of attitude and motion evoked by optokinetic stimuli, (i.e., moving visual patterns) in order to assess visual/vestibular interactions; (4) examination of the effect of thermal stimulations of the vestibular apparatus to determine if the eye movements elicited by the 'caloric test' are used by a density gradient in the semicircular canal; and (5) investigation of the pathogenesis of space motion sickness by recording signs and symptoms during the course of vestibular stimulation and, specifically, when the test subject is exposed to sustained, linear oscillatory motion.

  9. 4.5-kW Hall Effect Thruster Evaluated

    Mason, Lee S.

    2000-01-01

    As part of an Interagency Agreement with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), a space simulation test of a Russian SPT 140 Hall Effect Thruster was completed in September 1999 at Vacuum Facility 6 at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The thruster was subjected to a three-part test sequence that included thrust and performance characterization, electromagnetic interference, and plume contamination. SPT 140 is a 4.5-kW thruster developed under a joint agreement between AFRL, Atlantic Research Corp, and Space Systems/Loral, and was manufactured by the Fakal Experimental Design Bureau of Russia. All objectives were satisfied, and the thruster performed exceptionally well during the 120-hr test program, which comprised 33 engine firings. The Glenn testing provided a critical contribution to the thruster development effort, and the large volume and high pumping speed of this vacuum facility was key to the test s success. The low background pressure (1 10 6 torr) provided a more accurate representation of space vacuum than is possible in most vacuum chambers. The facility had been upgraded recently with new cryogenic pumps and sputter shielding to support the active electric propulsion program at Glenn. The Glenn test team was responsible for all test support equipment, including the thrust stand, power supplies, data acquisition, electromagnetic interference measurement equipment, and the contamination measurement system.

  10. Particle-in-cell simulations of Hall plasma thrusters

    Miranda, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Hall plasma thrusters can be modelled using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In these simulations, the plasma is described by a set of equations which represent a coupled system of charged particles and electromagnetic fields. The fields are computed using a spatial grid (i.e., a discretization in space), whereas the particles can move continuously in space. Briefly, the particle and fields dynamics are computed as follows. First, forces due to electric and magnetic fields are employed to calculate the velocities and positions of particles. Next, the velocities and positions of particles are used to compute the charge and current densities at discrete positions in space. Finally, these densities are used to solve the electromagnetic field equations in the grid, which are interpolated at the position of the particles to obtain the acting forces, and restart this cycle. We will present numerical simulations using software for PIC simulations to study turbulence, wave and instabilities that arise in Hall plasma thrusters. We have sucessfully reproduced a numerical simulation of a SPT-100 Hall thruster using a two-dimensional (2D) model. In addition, we are developing a 2D model of a cylindrical Hall thruster. The results of these simulations will contribute to improve the performance of plasma thrusters to be used in Cubesats satellites currenty in development at the Plasma Laboratory at University of Brasília.

  11. Electrodynamics of hyperbolically accelerated charges V. The field of a charge in the Rindler space and the Milne space

    Eriksen, E.; Grøn, Ø.

    2004-09-01

    We describe the electromagnetic field of a uniformly accelerated charge in its co-moving Rindler frame. It is shown that the electrical field lines coincide with the trajectories of photons. The self force of a charged particle at rest in Rindler space, and the increase of its weight due to its charge, is calculated. The general case of an accelerated charge in Rindler space is also considered. It is shown that the electrical field inside a uniformly charged spherical shell can be used as a measure of it 4-acceleration. A result that has earlier been deduced in a different way by Fugmann and Kretzschmar is confirmed, namely that the intensity of radiation from a point charge instantaneously at rest in an accelerated frame is proportional to the square of the relative acceleration of the charge and the observer. In particular it is shown that a freely falling charge in Rindler space radiates in accordance with Larmor's formula. In this case the radiation energy is taken from the Schott energy. The energy of the electromagnetic field is analysed from the point of view of the Hirayama-separation, which generalizes the Teitelboim-separation to non-inertial frames, of the field in a bound part and an unbound part. A detailed account, with reference to the Rindler frame, of the field energy and particle energy is given for the case of a charge entering and leaving a region with hyperbolic motion. We also consider the electromagnetic field of a uniformly accelerated charge with reference to the Milne frame, which covers a different part of spacetime than the Rindler frame. The radiating part of the electromagnetic field is found in the Milne sector of spacetime.

  12. Electrodynamics of hyperbolically accelerated charges V. The field of a charge in the Rindler space and the Milne space

    We describe the electromagnetic field of a uniformly accelerated charge in its co-moving Rindler frame. It is shown that the electrical field lines coincide with the trajectories of photons. The self force of a charged particle at rest in Rindler space, and the increase of its weight due to its charge, is calculated. The general case of an accelerated charge in Rindler space is also considered. It is shown that the electrical field inside a uniformly charged spherical shell can be used as a measure of it 4-acceleration. A result that has earlier been deduced in a different way by Fugmann and Kretzschmar is confirmed, namely that the intensity of radiation from a point charge instantaneously at rest in an accelerated frame is proportional to the square of the relative acceleration of the charge and the observer. In particular it is shown that a freely falling charge in Rindler space radiates in accordance with Larmor's formula. In this case the radiation energy is taken from the Schott energy. The energy of the electromagnetic field is analysed from the point of view of the Hirayama-separation, which generalizes the Teitelboim-separation to non-inertial frames, of the field in a bound part and an unbound part. A detailed account, with reference to the Rindler frame, of the field energy and particle energy is given for the case of a charge entering and leaving a region with hyperbolic motion. We also consider the electromagnetic field of a uniformly accelerated charge with reference to the Milne frame, which covers a different part of spacetime than the Rindler frame. The radiating part of the electromagnetic field is found in the Milne sector of spacetime

  13. Effect of Background Pressure on the Plasma Oscillation Characteristics of the HiVHAc Hall Thruster

    Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Lobbia, Robert B.; Brown, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    During a component compatibility test of the NASA HiVHAc Hall thruster, a number of plasma diagnostics were implemented to study the effect of varying facility background pressure on thruster operation. These diagnostics characterized the thruster performance, the plume, and the plasma oscillations in the thruster. Thruster performance and plume characteristics as functions of background pressure were previously published. This paper focuses on changes in the plasma oscillation characteristics with changing background pressure. The diagnostics used to study plasma oscillations include a high-speed camera and a set of high-speed Langmuir probes. The results show a rise in the oscillation frequency of the "breathing" mode with rising background pressure, which is hypothesized to be due to a shortening acceleration/ionization zone. An attempt is made to apply a simplified ingestion model to the data. The combined results are used to estimate the maximum acceptable background pressure for performance and wear testing.

  14. Electron Transport in Hall Thrusters

    McDonald, Michael Sean

    Despite high technological maturity and a long flight heritage, computer models of Hall thrusters remain dependent on empirical inputs and a large part of thruster development to date has been heavily experimental in nature. This empirical approach will become increasingly unsustainable as new high-power thrusters tax existing ground test facilities and more exotic thruster designs stretch and strain the boundaries of existing design experience. The fundamental obstacle preventing predictive modeling of Hall thruster plasma properties and channel erosion is the lack of a first-principles description of electron transport across the strong magnetic fields between the cathode and anode. In spite of an abundance of proposed transport mechanisms, accurate assessments of the magnitude of electron current due to any one mechanism are scarce, and comparative studies of their relative influence on a single thruster platform simply do not exist. Lacking a clear idea of what mechanism(s) are primarily responsible for transport, it is understandably difficult for the electric propulsion scientist to focus his or her theoretical and computational tools on the right targets. This work presents a primarily experimental investigation of collisional and turbulent Hall thruster electron transport mechanisms. High-speed imaging of the thruster discharge channel at tens of thousands of frames per second reveals omnipresent rotating regions of elevated light emission, identified with a rotating spoke instability. This turbulent instability has been shown through construction of an azimuthally segmented anode to drive significant cross-field electron current in the discharge channel, and suggestive evidence points to its spatial extent into the thruster near-field plume as well. Electron trajectory simulations in experimentally measured thruster electromagnetic fields indicate that binary collisional transport mechanisms are not significant in the thruster plume, and experiments

  15. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  16. New Performance and Reliability Results of the Thales HEMP Thruster

    Kornfeld, G.; Koch, N.; Harmann, H.

    2004-10-01

    Electric Propulsion (EP), attracts in the last years an increasing interest for all types of space applications as for instance the north/south station-keeping and orbit transfer of commercial GEO-stationary satellites, the drag compensation for LEO- and MEO- satellites and constellations and navigation for scientific interplanetary missions. Reasons for that, as summarised in [1], are: - The propellant mass savings compared with chemical thrusters in the order of more than 90%. - The increasing availability of sufficient electric power on board of satellites (today >10 kW). - The demonstrated in orbit performance and life over more than 10 years of various thruster types (Hall effect thrusters, ion thrusters, arc jets). A new concept of a High Efficiency Multi-stage Plasma (HEMP) thruster to be used for satellite and space probe orbit control and navigation has recently been developed by THALES Electron Devices GmbH in Ulm. In the framework of a 3 year feasibility study sponsored by the German Space Agency DLR the HEMP thruster concept has been successfully realised. Not only its feasibility but very promising unique features have been verified by direct thrust measurements performed at ONERA, Palaiseau, in March 2003 and at University of Gießen in July 2003. Aside the clear advantage of a plasma confinement, which eliminates discharge chamber wall erosion, the HEMP thruster has shown performance characteristics already comparable to those of state-of-the-art grid and Hall-effect thrusters which are being developed for more than 40 years. At the test in the large vacuum chamber at the University of Gießen, the HEMP thruster model DM6 demonstrated for instance a maximum thrust of 139 mN, corresponding to an electric propulsion world record thrust density of 36mN/cm2 at a specific impulse of 3230 s and a total efficiency of 40% at the same operating point. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency (conversion from electric power into kinetic beam power) reached a unique

  17. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  18. Course Notes: United States Particle Accelerator School Beam Physics with Intense Space-Charge

    The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of beams with intense space charge. This course is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in accelerator systems that require sufficient high intensity where mutual particle interactions in the beam can no longer be neglected. This course is intended to give the student a broad overview of the dynamics of beams with strong space charge. The emphasis is on theoretical and analytical methods of describing the acceleration and transport of beams. Some aspects of numerical and experimental methods will also be covered. Students will become familiar with standard methods employed to understand the transverse and longitudinal evolution of beams with strong space charge. The material covered will provide a foundation to design practical architectures. In this course, we will introduce you to the physics of intense charged particle beams, focusing on the role of space charge. The topics include: particle equations of motion, the paraxial ray equation, and the Vlasov equation; 4-D and 2-D equilibrium distribution functions (such as the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij, thermal equilibrium, and Neuffer distributions), reduced moment and envelope equation formulations of beam evolution; transport limits and focusing methods; the concept of emittance and the calculation of its growth from mismatches in beam envelope and from space-charge non-uniformities using system conservation constraints; the role of space-charge in producing beam halos; longitudinal space-charge effects including small amplitude and rarefaction waves; stable and unstable oscillation modes of beams (including envelope and kinetic modes); the role of space charge in the injector; and algorithms to calculate space-charge effects in particle codes. Examples of intense beams will be given primarily from the ion and proton accelerator communities with applications from, for example, heavy-ion fusion, spallation

  19. Accelerating modernity: time-space compression in the wake of the aeroplane

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2005-01-01

    The acceleration of transport in the modern era has been linked to a continuous process of time-space compression. This article suggests a more diverse view of the social construction of speed, time and space by comparing two significant modernist perceptions of the flying machine. The speed...... of the aeroplane led the Italian avant-garde movement Futurism to proclaim the annihilation of time and space and the “plasticity” of reality in the 1910s. Two decades later, the Swiss/French architect Le Corbusier reached quite different conclusions. The shifting significations and the temporal...

  20. Transverse space charge effect calculation in the Synergia accelerator modeling toolkit

    Okonechnikov, Konstantin; Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes a transverse space charge effect calculation algorithm, developed in the context of accelerator modeling toolkit Synergia. The introduction to the space charge problem and the Synergia modeling toolkit short description are given. The developed algorithm is explained and the implementation is described in detail. As a result of this work a new space charge solver was developed and integrated into the Synergia toolkit. The solver showed correct results in comparison to existing Synergia solvers and delivered better performance in the regime where it is applicable.

  1. Plasma Sheet Velocity Measurement Techniques for the Pulsed Plasma Thruster SIMP-LEX

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Lau, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of the first plasma sheet was determined between the electrodes of a pulsed plasma thruster using three measurement techniques: time of flight probe, high speed camera and magnetic field probe. Further, for time of flight probe and magnetic field probe, it was possible to determine the velocity distribution along the electrodes, as the plasma sheet is accelerated. The results from all three techniques are shown, and are compared for one thruster geometry.

  2. Propellantless Spacecraft Formation-Flying and Maneuvering with Photonic Laser Thrusters Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Until the former NIAC was closed, we had investigated a nano-meter accuracy formation flight method based on photon thrusters and tethers, Photon Tether Formation...

  3. Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I Busek matured the design of an existing 15-kW laboratory thruster. Magnetic modeling was performed to generate a circuit incorporating magnetic...

  4. Effect of Ambipolar Potential on the Propulsive Performance of the GDM Plasma Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) plasma thruster has the ability to confine high-density plasma for the length of time required to heat it to the temperatures...

  5. Effect of Ambipolar Potential on the Propulsive Performance of the GDM Plasma Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) thruster is an electric propulsion device, without electrodes, that will magnetically confine a plasma with such density and temperature...

  6. Feasibility of a 5mN Laser-Driven Mini-Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a next-generation thruster under a Phase II SBIR which we believe can meet NASA requirements after some modifications and improvements. It is the...

  7. Wide Throttling, High Throughput Hall Thruster for Science and Exploration Missions Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to Topic S3.04 "Propulsion Systems," Busek Co. Inc. will develop a high throughput Hall effect thruster with a nominal peak power of 1-kW and wide...

  8. Low Cost Refractory Matrix Composite Thruster for Mars Ascent Vehicles Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The long-term goal for this effort is to develop a low-cost, high-temperature thruster. Within the attitude control propulsion community, many efforts have focused...

  9. HIGH ENERGY REPLACEMENT FOR TEFLON PROPELLANT IN PULSED PLASMA THRUSTERS Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program will utilize a well-characterized Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) to test experimental high-energy extinguishable solid propellants (HE), instead of...

  10. Wide Throttling, High Throughput Hall Thruster for Science and Exploration Missions Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to Topic S3-04 "Propulsion Systems," Busek proposes to develop a high throughput Hall effect thruster with a nominal peak power of 1-kW and wide...

  11. Colloid Thruster for Attitude Control Systems (ACS) and Tip-off Control Applications Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test key technologies needed for an integrated, high thrust colloid thruster system with no moving parts, for spacecraft attitude control...

  12. Accelerated multiscale space-time finite element simulation and application to high cycle fatigue life prediction

    Zhang, Rui; Wen, Lihua; Naboulsi, Sam; Eason, Thomas; Vasudevan, Vijay K.; Qian, Dong

    2016-08-01

    A multiscale space-time finite element method based on time-discontinuous Galerkin and enrichment approach is presented in this work with a focus on improving the computational efficiencies for high cycle fatigue simulations. While the robustness of the TDG-based space-time method has been extensively demonstrated, a critical barrier for the extensive application is the large computational cost due to the additional temporal dimension and enrichment that are introduced. The present implementation focuses on two aspects: firstly, a preconditioned iterative solver is developed along with techniques for optimizing the matrix storage and operations. Secondly, parallel algorithms based on multi-core graphics processing unit are established to accelerate the progressive damage model implementation. It is shown that the computing time and memory from the accelerated space-time implementation scale with the number of degree of freedom N through ˜ O(N^{1.6}) and ˜ O(N), respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the accelerated space-time FEM simulation through benchmark problems.

  13. High Voltage Hall Accelerator Propulsion System Development for NASA Science Missions

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Mathers, Alex

    2013-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorates In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.8 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn Research Center and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster have been performed. In addition, the HiVHAc project is also pursuing the development of a power processing unit (PPU) and xenon feed system (XFS) for integration with the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster. Colorado Power Electronics and NASA Glenn Research Center have tested a brassboard PPU for more than 1,500 hours in a vacuum environment, and a new brassboard and engineering model PPU units are under development. VACCO Industries developed a xenon flow control module which has undergone qualification testing and will be integrated with the HiVHAc thruster extended duration tests. Finally, recent mission studies have shown that the HiVHAc propulsion system has sufficient performance for four Discovery- and two New Frontiers-class NASA design reference missions.

  14. Thermal Environmental Testing of NSTAR Engineering Model Ion Thrusters

    Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.; Becker, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium program will fly a xenon ion propulsion system on the Deep Space 1 Mission. Tests were conducted under NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) Program with 3 different engineering model ion thrusters to determine thruster thermal characteristics over the NSTAR operating range in a variety of thermal environments. A liquid nitrogen-cooled shroud was used to cold-soak the thruster to -120 C. Initial tests were performed prior to a mature spacecraft design. Those results and the final, severe, requirements mandated by the spacecraft led to several changes to the basic thermal design. These changes were incorporated into a final design and tested over a wide range of environmental conditions.

  15. Nonequilibrium diagnostics of plasma thrusters

    Eddy, T.L.; Grandy, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes possible techniques by which the state of plasma thruster operation for space propulsion can be determined from a minimum set of experimental data in the laboratory. The kinetic properties of the nonequilibrium plasma plume usually can not be directly related to the observed radiation; hence, appropriate nonequilibrium diagnostic techniques must be employed. A newly developed multithermal, multichemical equilibrium method is discussed that uses measured line emission intensities and N equations to solve for N unknowns. The effect of arbitrarily changing the number of selected N unknowns and how one determines the optimum (minimum) number to be used for a given composition is also presented. The chemical nonequilibrium aspects and the application to molecular species have not yet been published. The important conclusions are that (1) complete thermodynamic systems in nonequilibrium can be described by relatively few variables if appropriate choices and filtering methods are used, (2) a few radiation measurements can yield valid kinetic properties, and (3) the major question in the relations to be used is in the form of the law of mass action. The results are substantiated in the laboratory by additional alternative methods of measurement of some of the kinetic properties. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors—the test-mass-to-test-mass interferometric link—behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as nongravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterized by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system's free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-frequency detectors. Working with acceleration also provides an effective way to subtract measured signals acting as systematics, including the actuation forces. Because of the strong similarity with the equations of motion, the optimal subtraction of systematic signals, known within some amplitude and time shift, with the focus on measuring the noise provides an effective way to solve the problem and marginalize over nuisance parameters. The F statistic, in widespread use throughout the gravitation waves community, is included in the method and suitably generalized to marginalize over linear parameters and noise at the same time. The method is applied to LPF simulator data and, thanks to its generality, can also be applied to the data reduction and analysis of future gravitational wave detectors.

  17. Magnetically-conformed, Variable Area Discharge Chamber for Hall Thruster, and Method

    Hofer, Richard R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The invention is a Hall thruster that incorporates a discharge chamber having a variable area channel including an ionization zone, a transition region, and an acceleration zone. The variable area channel is wider through the acceleration zone than through the ionization zone. An anode is located in a vicinity of the ionization zone and a cathode is located in a vicinity of the acceleration zone. The Hall thruster includes a magnetic circuit which is capable of forming a local magnetic field having a curvature within the transition region of the variable area channel whereby the transition region conforms to the curvature of the local magnetic field. The Hall thruster optimizes the ionization and acceleration efficiencies by the combined effects of the variable area channel and magnetic conformity.

  18. Scaling and Systems Considerations in Pulsed Inductive Thrusters

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Performance scaling in pulsed inductive thrusters is discussed in the context of previous experimental studies and modeling results. Two processes, propellant ionization and acceleration, are interconnected where overall thruster performance and operation are concerned, but they are separated here to gain physical insight into each process and arrive at quantitative criteria that should be met to address or mitigate inherent inductive thruster difficulties. The effects of preionization in lowering the discharge energy requirements relative to a case where no preionization is employed, and in influencing the location of the initial current sheet, are described. The relevant performance scaling parameters for the acceleration stage are reviewed, emphasizing their physical importance and the numerical values required for efficient acceleration. The scaling parameters are then related to the design of the pulsed power train providing current to the acceleration stage. The impact of various choices in pulsed power train and circuit topology selection are reviewed, paying special attention to how these choices mitigate or exacerbate switching, lifetime, and power consumption issues.

  19. Acceleration-enlarged symmetries in nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant

    Lukierski, J. [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); University of Valencia, Department of Theoretical Physics, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Zakrzewski, W.J. [University of Durham, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham (United Kingdom); Stichel, P.C.

    2008-05-15

    By considering the nonrelativistic limit of de Sitter geometry one obtains the nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant and Newton-Hooke (NH) symmetries. We show that the NH symmetry algebra can be enlarged by the addition of the constant acceleration generators and endowed with central extensions (one in any dimension (D) and three in D=(2+1)). We present a classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian framework for constructing models quasi-invariant under enlarged NH symmetries that depend on three parameters described by three nonvanishing central charges. The Hamiltonian dynamics then splits into external and internal sectors with new noncommutative structures of external and internal phase spaces. We show that in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant the system reduces to the one, which possesses acceleration-enlarged Galilean symmetries. (orig.)

  20. Acceleration-Enlarged Symmetries in Nonrelativistic Space-Time with a Cosmological Constant

    Lukierski, J.; Stichel, P. C.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    By considering the nonrelativistic limit of de-Sitter geometry one obtains the nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant and Newton-Hooke (NH) symmetries. We show that the NH symmetry algebra can be enlarged by the addition of the constant acceleration generators and endowed with central extensions (one in any dimension (D) and three in D=(2+1)). We present a classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian framework for constructing models quasi-invariant under enlarged NH symmetries which...

  1. Simulation of Cascaded Longitudinal-Space-Charge Amplifier at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (Fast) Facility

    Halavanau, A. [Northern Illinois U.; Piot, P. [Northern Illinois U.

    2015-12-01

    Cascaded Longitudinal Space Charge Amplifiers (LSCA) have been proposed as a mechanism to generate density modulation over a board spectral range. The scheme has been recently demonstrated in the optical regime and has confirmed the production of broadband optical radiation. In this paper we investigate, via numerical simulations, the performance of a cascaded LSCA beamline at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility to produce broadband ultraviolet radiation. Our studies are carried out using elegant with included tree-based grid-less space charge algorithm.

  2. Predicting Hall Thruster Operational Lifetime Using a Kinetic Plasma Model and a Molecular Dynamics Simulation Method Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters are being considered for many space missions because their high specific impulse delivers a larger payload mass fraction than chemical rockets. With...

  3. Effect of Inductive Coil Geometry on the Operating Characteristics of an Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Kimberlin, Adam C.; Perdue, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Operational characteristics of two separate inductive thrusters with conical theta pinch coils of different cone angles are explored through thrust stand measurements and time- integrated, unfiltered photography. Trends in impulse bit measurements indicate that, in the present experimental configuration, the thruster with the inductive coil possessing a smaller cone angle produced larger values of thrust, in apparent contradiction to results of a previous thruster acceleration model. Areas of greater light intensity in photographs of thruster operation are assumed to qualitatively represent locations of increased current density. Light intensity is generally greater in images of the thruster with the smaller cone angle when compared to those of the thruster with the larger half cone angle for the same operating conditions. The intensity generally decreases in both thrusters for decreasing mass flow rate and capacitor voltage. The location of brightest light intensity shifts upstream for decreasing mass flow rate of propellant and downstream for decreasing applied voltage. Recognizing that there typically exists an optimum ratio of applied electric field to gas pressure with respect to breakdown efficiency, this result may indicate that the optimum ratio was not achieved uniformly over the coil face, leading to non-uniform and incomplete current sheet formation in violation of the model assumption of immediate formation where all the injected propellant is contained in a magnetically-impermeable current sheet.

  4. Transport calculations and accelerator experiments needed for radiation risk assessment in space

    The major uncertainties on space radiation risk estimates in humans are associated to the poor knowledge of the biological effects of low and high LET radiation, with a smaller contribution coming from the characterization of space radiation field and its primary interactions with the shielding and the human body. However, to decrease the uncertainties on the biological effects and increase the accuracy of the risk coefficients for charged particles radiation, the initial charged-particle spectra from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and the Solar Particle Events (SPEs), and the radiation transport through the shielding material of the space vehicle and the human body, must be belter estimated. Since it is practically impossible to measure all primary and secondary particles from all possible position-projectile-target-energy combinations needed for a correct risk assessment in space, accurate particle and heavy ion transport codes must be used. These codes are also needed when estimating the risk for radiation induced failures in advanced microelectronics, such as single-event effects, etc., and the efficiency of different shielding materials. It is therefore important that the models and transport codes will be carefully benchmarked and validated to make sure they fulfill preset accuracy criteria, e.g. to be able to predict particle fluence, dose and energy distributions within a certain accuracy. When validating the accuracy of the transport codes, both space and ground based accelerator experiments are needed. The efficiency of passive shielding and protection of electronic devices should also be tested in accelerator experiments and compared to simulations using different transport codes. In this paper different multipurpose particle and heavy ion transport codes will be presented, different concepts of shielding and protection discussed, as well as future accelerator experiments needed for testing and validating codes and shielding materials. (orig.)

  5. Effects of Segmented Electrode in Hall Current Plasma Thrusters

    Segmented electrodes with a low secondary electron emission are shown to alter significantly plasma flow in the ceramic channel of the Hall thruster. The location of the axial acceleration region relative to the magnetic field can be moved. The radial potential distribution can also be altered near the channel walls. A hydrodynamic model shows that these effects are consistent with a lower secondary electron emission of the segmented electrode as compared to ceramic channel walls

  6. Power Electronics Development for the SPT-100 Thruster

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Sankovic, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Russian electric propulsion technologies have recently become available on the world market. Of significant interest is the Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) which has a significant flight heritage in the former Soviet space program. The SPT has performance levels of up to 1600 seconds of specific impulse at a thrust efficiency of 0.50. Studies have shown that this level of performance is well suited for stationkeeping applications, and the SPT-100, with a 1.35 kW input power level, is presently being evaluated for use on Western commercial satellites. Under a program sponsored by the Innovative Science and Technology Division of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, a team of U.S. electric propulsion specialists observed the operation of the SPT-100 in Russia. Under this same program, power electronics were developed to operate the SPT-100 to characterize thruster performance and operation in the U.S. The power electronics consisted of a discharge, cathode heater, and pulse igniter power supplies to operate the thruster with manual flow control. A Russian designed matching network was incorporated in the discharge supply to ensure proper operation with the thruster. The cathode heater power supply and igniter were derived from ongoing development projects. No attempts were made to augment thruster electromagnet current in this effort. The power electronics successfully started and operated the SPT-100 thruster in performance tests at NASA Lewis, with minimal oscillations in the discharge current. The efficiency of the main discharge supply was measured at 0.92, and straightforward modifications were identified which could increase the efficiency to 0.94.

  7. Hybrid-PIC Modeling of a High-Voltage, High-Specific-Impulse Hall Thruster

    Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iain D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng

    2013-01-01

    The primary life-limiting mechanism of Hall thrusters is the sputter erosion of the discharge channel walls by high-energy propellant ions. Because of the difficulty involved in characterizing this erosion experimentally, many past efforts have focused on numerical modeling to predict erosion rates and thruster lifespan, but those analyses were limited to Hall thrusters operating in the 200-400V discharge voltage range. Thrusters operating at higher discharge voltages (V(sub d) >= 500 V) present an erosion environment that may differ greatly from that of the lower-voltage thrusters modeled in the past. In this work, HPHall, a well-established hybrid-PIC code, is used to simulate NASA's High-Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) at discharge voltages of 300, 400, and 500V as a first step towards modeling the discharge channel erosion. It is found that the model accurately predicts the thruster performance at all operating conditions to within 6%. The model predicts a normalized plasma potential profile that is consistent between all three operating points, with the acceleration zone appearing in the same approximate location. The expected trend of increasing electron temperature with increasing discharge voltage is observed. An analysis of the discharge current oscillations shows that the model predicts oscillations that are much greater in amplitude than those measured experimentally at all operating points, suggesting that the differences in oscillation amplitude are not strongly associated with discharge voltage.

  8. Correlated histogram representation of Monte Carlo derived medical accelerator photon-output phase space

    We present a method for condensing the photon energy and angular distributions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of medical accelerators. This method represents the output as a series of correlated histograms and as such is well-suited for inclusion as the photon-source package for Monte Carlo codes used to determine the dose distributions in photon teletherapy. The method accounts for the isocenter-plane variations of the photon energy spectral distributions with increasing distance from the beam central axis for radiation produced in the bremsstrahlung target as well as for radiation scattered by the various treatment machine components within the accelerator head. Comparison of the isocenter energy fluence computed by this algorithm with that of the underlying full-physics Monte Carlo photon phase space indicates that energy fluence errors are less than 1% of the maximum energy fluence for a range of open-field sizes. Comparison of jaw-edge penumbrae shows that the angular distributions of the photons are accurately reproduced. The Monte Carlo sampling efficiency (the fraction of generated photons which clear the collimator jaws) of the algorithm is approximately 83% for an open 10x10 field, rising to approximately 96% for an open 40x40 field. Data file sizes for a typical medical accelerator, at a given energy, are approximately 150 kB, compared to the 1 GB size of the underlying full-physics phase space file. copyright 1999 American Association of Physicists in Medicine

  9. Controlled Electron Injection into Plasma Accelerators and SpaceCharge Estimates

    Fubiani, Gwenael J.

    2005-09-01

    Plasma based accelerators are capable of producing electron sources which are ultra-compact (a few microns) and high energies (up to hundreds of MeVs) in much shorter distances than conventional accelerators. This is due to the large longitudinal electric field that can be excited without the limitation of breakdown as in RF structures.The characteristic scale length of the accelerating field is the plasma wavelength and for typical densities ranging from 1018 - 1019 cm-3, the accelerating fields and scale length can hence be on the order of 10-100GV/m and 10-40 mu m, respectively. The production of quasimonoenergetic beams was recently obtained in a regime relying on self-trapping of background plasma electrons, using a single laser pulse for wakefield generation. In this dissertation, we study the controlled injection via the beating of two lasers (the pump laser pulse creating the plasma wave and a second beam being propagated in opposite direction) which induce a localized injection of background plasma electrons. The aim of this dissertation is to describe in detail the physics of optical injection using two lasers, the characteristics of the electron beams produced (the micrometer scale plasma wavelength can result in femtosecond and even attosecond bunches) as well as a concise estimate of the effects of space charge on the dynamics of an ultra-dense electron bunch with a large energy spread.

  10. Pulsed inductive thruster performance data base for megawatt-class engine applications

    The pulsed inductive thruster (PIT) is an electrodeless plasma accelerator employing a large (1m diameter) spiral coil energized by a capacitor bank discharge. The bank can be repetitively recharged by a nuclear electric generator for continuous MW level operation. The coil can be designed as a transformer that permits thruster operation at the generator voltage, which results in a low thruster specific mass. Specific impulse (Isp) can be readily altered by changing the propellant valve plenum pressure. Performance curves generated from mesausred impulse, injected mass and capacitor bank energy are presented for argon, ammonia, hydrazine, carbon dioxide and helium. The highest performance measured to date is 48% efficiency at 4000 seconds Isp with ammonia. The development of a theoretical model of the thruster, which assumes a fully ionized plasma, is presented in an appendix

  11. Pulsed inductive thruster performance data base for megawatt-class engine applications

    Dailey, Charles L.; Lovberg, Ralph H.

    1993-01-01

    The pulsed inductive thruster (PIT) is an electrodeless plasma accelerator employing a large (1m diameter) spiral coil energized by a capacitor bank discharge. The bank can be repetitively recharged by a nuclear electric generator for continuous MW level operation. The coil can be designed as a transformer that permits thruster operation at the generator voltage, which results in a low thruster specific mass. Specific impulse (Isp) can be readily altered by changing the propellant valve plenum pressure. Performance curves generated from mesausred impulse, injected mass and capacitor bank energy are presented for argon, ammonia, hydrazine, carbon dioxide and helium. The highest performance measured to date is 48% efficiency at 4000 seconds Isp with ammonia. The development of a theoretical model of the thruster, which assumes a fully ionized plasma, is presented in an appendix.

  12. iSat Surface Charging and Thruster Plume Interactions Analysis

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Willis, E. M.; Minow, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the electromagnetic interaction of a satellite in low Earth, high inclination orbit with the space plasma environment and identifying viable charging mitigation strategies is a critical mission design task. High inclination orbits expose the vehicle to auroral charging environments that can potentially charge surfaces to kilovolt potentials and electric thruster propulsion systems will interact with the ambient plasma environment throughout the orbit. NASA is designing the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) cubesat mission to demonstrate operations of an iodine electric thruster system. The spacecraft will be deployed as a secondary payload from a launch vehicle which has not yet been identified so the program must plan for the worst case environments over a range of orbital inclinations. We will first present results from a NASA and Air Force Charging Analyzer Program (Nascap) -2k surface charging calculation used to evaluate the effects of auroral charging on the spacecraft and to provide the charging levels at other locations in orbit for a thruster plume interaction analysis for the iSAT mission. We will then discuss results from the thruster interactions analysis using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC) with inputs from Nascap-2k. The results of these analyses are being used by the iSAT program to better understand how their spacecraft will interact with the space plasma environment in the range of environments that could be encountered when the final mission orbit is selected.

  13. Azimuthal Spoke Propagation in Hall Effect Thrusters

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Spokes are azimuthally propagating perturbations in the plasma discharge of Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) that travel in the E x B direction and have been observed in many different systems. The propagation of azimuthal spokes are investigated in a 6 kW HET known as the H6 using ultra-fast imaging and azimuthally spaced probes. A spoke surface is a 2-D plot of azimuthal light intensity evolution over time calculated from 87,500 frames/s videos. The spoke velocity has been determined using three methods with similar results: manual fitting of diagonal lines on the spoke surface, linear cross-correlation between azimuthal locations and an approximated dispersion relation. The spoke velocity for three discharge voltages (300, 400 and 450 V) and three anode mass flow rates (14.7, 19.5 and 25.2 mg/s) yielded spoke velocities between 1500 and 2200 m/s across a range of normalized magnetic field settings. The spoke velocity was inversely dependent on magnetic field strength for low B-field settings and asymptoted at B-field higher values. The velocities and frequencies are compared to standard drifts and plasma waves such as E x B drift, electrostatic ion cyclotron, magnetosonic and various drift waves. The empirically approximated dispersion relation yielded a characteristic velocity that matched the ion acoustic speed for 5 eV electrons that exist in the near-anode and near-field plume regions of the discharge channel based on internal measurements. Thruster performance has been linked to operating mode where thrust-to-power is maximized when azimuthal spokes are present so investigating the underlying mechanism of spokes will benefit thruster operation.

  14. Holographic Solar Photon Thrusters

    Johnson, Les; Matloff, Greg

    2006-01-01

    A document discusses a proposal to incorporate holographic optical elements into solar photon thrusters (SPTs). First suggested in 1990, SPTs would be systems of multiple reflective, emissive, and absorptive surfaces (solar sails) that would be attached to spacecraft orbiting the Earth to derive small propulsive forces from radiation pressures. An SPT according to the proposal would include, among other things, a main sail. One side of the sail would be highly emissive and would normally face away from the Earth. The other side would be reflective and would be covered by white-light holographic images that would alternately become reflective, transmissive, and absorptive with small changes in the viewing angle. When the spacecraft was at a favorable orbital position, the main sail would be oriented to reflect sunlight in a direction to maximize the solar thrust; when not in a favorable position, the main sail would be oriented to present a substantially absorptive/emissive aspect to minimize the solar drag. By turning the main sail slightly to alternate between the reflective and absorptive/ emissive extremes, one could achieve nearly a doubling or halving of the radiational momentum transfer and, hence, of the solar thrust.

  15. An Experimental Study of a Pulsed Electromagnetic Plasma Accelerator

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Mike; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Markusic, Tom E.; Cassibry, Jason T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) pulsed electromagnetic plasma accelerator (PEPA-0). Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.

  16. Perception of tilt (somatogravic illusion) in response to sustained linear acceleration during space flight

    Clement, G.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural and head vertical (dorsoventral) linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g during constant velocity rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out (Gy centrifugation), or lay supine along the centrifuge arm with their head off-axis (Gz centrifugation). Pre-flight centrifugation, producing linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g along the Gy (interaural) axis, induced illusions of roll-tilt of 20 degrees and 34 degrees for gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) vector tilts of 27 degrees and 45 degrees , respectively. Pre-flight 0.5 g and 1 g Gz (head dorsoventral) centrifugation generated perceptions of backward pitch of 5 degrees and 15 degrees , respectively. In the absence of gravity during space flight, the same centrifugation generated a GIA that was equivalent to the centripetal acceleration and aligned with the Gy or Gz axes. Perception of tilt was underestimated relative to this new GIA orientation during early in-flight Gy centrifugation, but was close to the GIA after 16 days in orbit, when subjects reported that they felt as if they were 'lying on side'. During the course of the mission, inflight roll-tilt perception during Gy centrifugation increased from 45 degrees to 83 degrees at 1 g and from 42 degrees to 48 degrees at 0.5 g. Subjects felt 'upside-down' during in-flight Gz centrifugation from the first in-flight test session, which reflected the new GIA orientation along the head dorsoventral axis. The different levels of in-flight tilt perception during 0.5 g and 1 g Gy centrifugation suggests that other non-vestibular inputs, including an internal estimate of the body vertical and somatic sensation, were utilized in generating tilt perception. Interpretation of data by a weighted sum of body vertical and somatic vectors, with an estimate of the GIA from the otoliths, suggests that

  17. Evaluation of High Energy Nuclear Data of Importance for Use in Accelerator and Space Technology

    Lee, Young Ouk

    2005-10-15

    New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements.

  18. Evaluation of High Energy Nuclear Data of Importance for Use in Accelerator and Space Technology

    New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements

  19. Hollow Cathode and Low-Thrust Extraction Grid Analysis for a Miniature Ion Thruster

    Wirz, Richard; Sullivan, Regina; Przybylowski, JoHanna; Silva, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Miniature ion thrusters are well suited for future space missions that require high efficiency, precision thrust, and low contamination in the mN to sub-mN range. JPL’s miniature xenon Ion (MiXI) thruster has demonstrated an efficient discharge and ion extraction grid assembly using filament cathodes and the internal conduction (IC) cathode. JPL is currently preparing to incorporate a miniature hollow cathode for the MiXI discharge. Computational analyses anticipate that an axially upstream h...

  20. Design of a cusped field thruster for drag-free flight

    Liu, H.; Chen, P. B.; Sun, Q. Q.; Hu, P.; Meng, Y. C.; Mao, W.; Yu, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    Drag-free flight has played a more and more important role in many space missions. The thrust control system is the key unit to achieve drag-free flight by providing a precise compensation for the disturbing force except gravity. The cusped field thruster has shown a significant potential to be capable of the function due to its long life, high efficiency, and simplicity. This paper demonstrates a cusped field thruster's feasibility in drag-free flight based on its instinctive characteristics and describes a detailed design of a cusped field thruster made by Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT). Furthermore, the performance test is conducted, which shows that the cusped field thruster can achieve a continuously variable thrust from 1 to 20 mN with a low noise and high resolution below 650 W, and the specific impulse can achieve 1800 s under a thrust of 18 mN and discharge voltage of 1000 V. The thruster's overall performance indicates that the cusped field thruster is quite capable of achieving drag-free flight. With the further optimization, the cusped field thruster will exhibit a more extensive application value.

  1. Theory of non-local point transformations - Part 3: Theory of NLPT-acceleration and the physical origin of acceleration effects in curved space-times

    Tessarotto, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the introduction of a new functional setting of General Relativity (GR) based on the adoption of suitable group non-local point transformations (NLPT). Unlike the customary local point transformatyion usually utilized in GR, these transformations map in each other intrinsically different curved space-times. In this paper the problem is posed of determining the tensor transformation laws holding for the $4-$% acceleration with respect to the group of general NLPT. Basic physical implications are considered. These concern in particular the identification of NLPT-acceleration effects, namely the relationship established via general NLPT between the $4-$accelerations existing in different curved-space times. As a further application the tensor character of the EM Faraday tensor.with respect to the NLPT-group is established.

  2. Acceleration-Enlarged Symmetries in Nonrelativistic Space-Time with a Cosmological Constant

    Lukierski, J; Zakrzewski, W J

    2007-01-01

    By considering the nonrelativistic limit of de-Sitter geometry one obtains the nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant and Newton-Hooke (NH) symmetries. We show that the NH symmetry algebra can be enlarged by the addition of the constant acceleration generators and endowed with central extensions (one in any dimension (D) and three in D=(2+1)). We present a classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian framework for constructing models quasi-invariant under enlarged NH symmetries which depend on three parameters described by three nonvanishing central charges. The Hamiltonian dynamics then splits into external and internal sectors with new non-commutative structures of external and internal phase spaces. We show that in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant the system reduces to the one presented in [1] which possesses accelaration-enlarged Galilean symmetries.

  3. Improvement of the low frequency oscillation model for Hall thrusters

    Wang, Chunsheng; Wang, Huashan

    2016-08-01

    The low frequency oscillation of the discharge current in Hall thrusters is a major aspect of these devices that requires further study. While the existing model captures the ionization mechanism of the low frequency oscillation, it unfortunately fails to express the dynamic characteristics of the ion acceleration. The analysis in this paper shows this is because of the simplification of the electron equation, which affects both the electric field distribution and the ion acceleration process. Additionally, the electron density equation is revised and a new model that is based on the physical properties of ion movement is proposed.

  4. Multipole gas thruster design. Ph.D. Thesis

    Isaacson, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a low field strength multipole thruster operating on both argon and xenon is described. Experimental results were obtained with a 15-cm diameter multipole thruster and are presented for a wide range of discharge-chamber configurations. Minimum discharge losses were 300-350 eV/ion for argon and 200-250 eV/ion for xenon. Ion beam flatness parameters in the plane of the accelerator grid ranged from 0.85 to 0.93 for both propellants. Thruster performance is correlated for a range of ion chamber sizes and operating conditions as well as propellant type and accelerator system open area. A 30-cm diameter ion source designed and built using the procedure and theory presented here-in is shown capable of low discharge losses and flat ion-beam profiles without optimization. This indicates that by using the low field strength multipole design, as well as general performance correlation information provided herein, it should be possible to rapidly translate initial performance specifications into easily fabricated, high performance prototypes.

  5. High-Energy Two-Stage Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    Markusic, Tom

    2003-01-01

    A high-energy (28 kJ per pulse) two-stage pulsed plasma thruster (MSFC PPT-1) has been constructed and tested. The motivation of this project is to develop a high power (approximately 500 kW), high specific impulse (approximately 10000 s), highly efficient (greater than 50%) thruster for use as primary propulsion in a high power nuclear electric propulsion system. PPT-1 was designed to overcome four negative characteristics which have detracted from the utility of pulsed plasma thrusters: poor electrical efficiency, poor propellant utilization efficiency, electrode erosion, and reliability issues associated with the use of high speed gas valves and high current switches. Traditional PPTs have been plagued with poor efficiency because they have not been operated in a plasma regime that fully exploits the potential benefits of pulsed plasma acceleration by electromagnetic forces. PPTs have generally been used to accelerate low-density plasmas with long current pulses. Operation of thrusters in this plasma regime allows for the development of certain undesirable particle-kinetic effects, such as Hall effect-induced current sheet canting. PPT-1 was designed to propel a highly collisional, dense plasma that has more fluid-like properties and, hence, is more effectively pushed by a magnetic field. The high-density plasma loading into the second stage of the accelerator is achieved through the use of a dense plasma injector (first stage). The injector produces a thermal plasma, derived from a molten lithium propellant feed system, which is subsequently accelerated by the second stage using mega-amp level currents, which eject the plasma at a speed on the order of 100 kilometers per second. Traditional PPTs also suffer from dynamic efficiency losses associated with snowplow loading of distributed neutral propellant. The twostage scheme used in PPT-I allows the propellant to be loaded in a manner which more closely approximates the optimal slug loading. Lithium propellant

  6. Current status of MCNP6 as a simulation tool useful for space and accelerator applications

    Mashnik, Stepan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bull, Jeffrey S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hughes, H. Grady [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prael, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sierk, Arnold J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-20

    For the past several years, a major effort has been undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop the transport code MCNP6, the latest LANL Monte-Carlo transport code representing a merger and improvement of MCNP5 and MCNPX. We emphasize a description of the latest developments of MCNP6 at higher energies to improve its reliability in calculating rare-isotope production, high-energy cumulative particle production, and a gamut of reactions important for space-radiation shielding, cosmic-ray propagation, and accelerator applications. We present several examples of validation and verification of MCNP6 compared to a wide variety of intermediate- and high-energy experimental data on reactions induced by photons, mesons, nucleons, and nuclei at energies from tens of MeV to about 1 TeV/nucleon, and compare to results from other modern simulation tools.

  7. Self-organizing map (SOM) of space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) data

    Sinha, A.; Smith, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) data have been classified using self-organizing map (SOM) networks without any supervision; i.e., no a priori knowledge is assumed regarding input patterns belonging to a certain class. Input patterns are created on the basis of power spectral densities of SAMS data. Results for SAMS data from STS-50 and STS-57 missions are presented. Following issues are discussed in details: impact of number of neurons, global ordering of SOM weight vectors, effectiveness of a SOM in data classification, and effects of shifting time windows in the generation of input patterns. The concept of 'cascade of SOM networks' is also developed and tested. It has been found that a SOM network can successfully classify SAMS data obtained during STS-50 and STS-57 missions.

  8. Design of a Low-Energy FARAD Thruster

    Polzin, K. A.; Rose, M. F.; Miller, R.; Best, S.; Owens, T.; Dankanich, J.

    2007-01-01

    The design of an electrodeless thruster that relies on a pulsed, rf-assisted discharge and electromagnetic acceleration using an inductive coil is presented. The thruster design is optimized using known performance,scaling parameters, and experimentally-determined design rules, with design targets for discharge energy, plasma exhaust velocity; and thrust efficiency of 100 J/pulse, 25 km/s, and 50%, respectively. Propellant is injected using a high-speed gas valve and preionized by a pulsed-RF signal supplied by a vector inversion generator, allowing for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages and energies relative to pulsed inductive accelerators that do not employ preionization. The acceleration coil is designed to possess an inductance of at least 700 nH while the target stray (non-coil) inductance in the circuit is 70 nH. A Bernardes and Merryman pulsed power train or a pulse compression power train provide current to the acceleration coil and solid-state components are used to switch both powertrains.

  9. Cylindrical Hall Thrusters with Permanent Magnets

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction of both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50W-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT.

  10. Acceleration of a Particle-in-Cell Code for Space Plasma Simulations with OpenACC

    Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano; Vaivads, Andris; Vencels, Juris; Deca, Jan; Lapenta, Giovanni; Hart, Alistair; Laure, Erwin

    2015-04-01

    We simulate space plasmas with the Particle-in-cell (PIC) method that uses computational particles to mimic electrons and protons in solar wind and in Earth magnetosphere. The magnetic and electric fields are computed by solving the Maxwell's equations on a computational grid. In each PIC simulation step, there are four major phases: interpolation of fields to particles, updating the location and velocity of each particle, interpolation of particles to grids and solving the Maxwell's equations on the grid. We use the iPIC3D code, which was implemented in C++, using both MPI and OpenMP, for our case study. By November 2014, heterogeneous systems using hardware accelerators such as Graphics Processing Unit (GPUs) and the Many Integrated Core (MIC) coprocessors for high performance computing continue growth in the top 500 most powerful supercomputers world wide. Scientific applications for numerical simulations need to adapt to using accelerators to achieve portability and scalability in the coming exascale systems. In our work, we conduct a case study of using OpenACC to offload the computation intensive parts: particle mover and interpolation of particles to grids, in a massively parallel Particle-in-Cell simulation code, iPIC3D, to multi-GPU systems. We use MPI for inter-node communication for halo exchange and communicating particles. We identify the most promising parts suitable for GPUs accelerator by profiling using CrayPAT. We implemented manual deep copy to address the challenges of porting C++ classes to GPU. We document the necessary changes in the exiting algorithms to adapt for GPU computation. We present the challenges and findings as well as our methodology for porting a Particle-in-Cell code to multi-GPU systems using OpenACC. In this work, we will present the challenges, findings and our methodology of porting a Particle-in-Cell code for space applications as follows: We profile the iPIC3D code by Cray Performance Analysis Tool (CrayPAT) and identify

  11. Whistler wave driven plasma thruster

    High density plasma can be generated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) using whistler waves at densities for which the plasma frequency is much higher than the cyclotron frequency. This will result in a thruster operating at specific impulses of 103--104 s and much higher power and thrust densities than usual for ECRH devices. As the plasma generation is by electromagnetic waves, there are no electrodes, and wall material problems are greatly eased, permitting reliable, long lifetime operation. We report on the modeling of such a thruster, including plasma flow as well as losses to an end wall and ionization. A helical antenna to couple the waves into the plasma column is analyzed, including effects of the anisotropic plasma dielectric constant. An initial experiment to test the concept is planned

  12. Experimental Null test of a Mach Effect Thruster

    Fearn, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    The Mach Effect Thruster (MET) is a device which utilizes fluctuations in the rest masses of accelerating objects (capacitor stacks, in which internal energy changes take place) to produce a steady linear thrust. The theory has been given in detail elsewhere [1, 2] and references therein, so here we discuss only an experiment. We show how to obtain thrust using a heavy reaction mass at one end of our capacitor stack and a lighter end cap on the other. Then we show how this thrust can be eliminated by having two heavy masses at either end of the stack with a central mounting bracket. We show the same capacitor stack being used as a thruster and then eliminate the thrust by arranging equal brass masses on either end, so that essentially the capacitor stack is trying to push in both directions at once. This arrangement in theory would only allow for a small oscillation but no net thrust. We find the thrust does indeed disappear in the experiment, as predicted. The device (in thruster mode) could in principle be ...

  13. Development of Long-Lifetime Pulsed Gas Valves for Pulsed Electric Thrusters

    Burkhardt, Wendel M.; Crapuchettes, John M.; Addona, Brad M.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    It is advantageous for gas-fed pulsed electric thrusters to employ pulsed valves so propellant is only flowing to the device during operation. The propellant utilization of the thruster will be maximized when all the gas injected into the thruster is acted upon by the fields produced by the electrical pulse. Gas that is injected too early will diffuse away from the thruster before the electrical pulse can act to accelerate the propellant. Gas that is injected too late will miss being accelerated by the already-completed electrical pulse. As a consequence, the valve must open quickly and close equally quickly, only remaining open for a short duration. In addition, the valve must have only a small amount of volume between the sealing body and the thruster so the front and back ends of the pulse are as coincident as possible with the valve cycling, with very little latent propellant remaining in the feed lines after the valve is closed. For a real mission of interest, a pulsed thruster can be expected to pulse at least 10(exp 10) - 10(exp 11) times, setting the range for the number of times a valve must open and close. The valves described in this paper have been fabricated and tested for operation in an inductive pulsed plasma thruster (IPPT) for in-space propulsion. In general, an IPPT is an electrodeless space propulsion device where a capacitor is charged to an initial voltage and then discharged, producing a high-current pulse through a coil. The field produced by this pulse ionizes propellant, inductively driving current in a plasma located near the face of the coil. Once the plasma is formed, it can be accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity by the electromagnetic Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the induced plasma current and the magnetic field produced by the current in the coil. The valve characteristics needed for the IPPT application require a fast-acting valve capable of a minimum of 10(exp 10) valve actuation cycles. Since

  14. Single bunch transverse instability in a circular accelerator with chromaticity and space charge

    The transverse instability of a bunch in a circular accelerator is elaborated in this paper. A new tree-modes model is proposed and developed to describe the most unstable modes of the bunch. This simple and flexible model includes chromaticity and space charge, and can be used with any bunch and wake forms. The dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in form of a third-order algebraic equation. The known head-tail and TMCI modes appear as the limiting cases which are distinctly bounded at zero chromaticity only. It is shown that the instability parameters depend only slightly on the bunch model but they are rather sensitive to the wake shape. In particular, space charge effects are investigated in the paper and it is shown that their influence depends on sign of wake field enhancing the bunch stability if the wake is negative. The resistive wall wake is considered in detail including a comparison of single and collective effects. A comparison of the results with earlier publications is carried out

  15. Phase space measurements at non-accessible point on the beam path of an accelerator facility

    The optimization of beam lines for particles extracted from accelerator facilities requires the knowledge of beam parameters. A method for the measurement of phase space and beam intensity distribution is represented. This method depends on the setting of quadrupole lenses that allows the imaging of beam profiles at arbitrary positions along the beam path on the same multi-wire proportional chamber, where the intensity distribution can be evaluated. The necessary focusing powers for a certain imaging task are calculated in a thin lens approximation. The corresponding focusing power for thick quadrupole lenses are calculated using the PC transport program. A comparison of the calculated focusing powers for thin and thick lenses reveals deviations at the highest field strengths, due to saturation effect. The position of the beam waist in normal and angular space is directly calculated and visualized. The horizontal and vertical waist positions are found to be rather independent of the beam energy. Extensive calculation was done to study the effect of a reduced aperture on the maximum beam emittances aax and aay of the extracted particles. The main result shows that the maximum emittance passing through depends on the waist distant and the diameter of the reduced aperture. (orig.)

  16. Performance and Thermal Characterization of the NASA-300MS 20 kW Hall Effect Thruster

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Shastry, Rohit; Soulas, George; Smith, Timothy; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate is sponsoring the development of a high fidelity 15 kW-class long-life high performance Hall thruster for candidate NASA technology demonstration missions. An essential element of the development process is demonstration that incorporation of magnetic shielding on a 20 kW-class Hall thruster will yield significant improvements in the throughput capability of the thruster without any significant reduction in thruster performance. As such, NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory collaborated on modifying the NASA-300M 20 kW Hall thruster to improve its propellant throughput capability. JPL and NASA Glenn researchers performed plasma numerical simulations with JPL's Hall2De and a commercially available magnetic modeling code that indicated significant enhancement in the throughput capability of the NASA-300M can be attained by modifying the thruster's magnetic circuit. This led to modifying the NASA-300M magnetic topology to a magnetically shielded topology. This paper presents performance evaluation results of the two NASA-300M magnetically shielded thruster configurations, designated 300MS and 300MS-2. The 300MS and 300MS-2 were operated at power levels between 2.5 and 20 kW at discharge voltages between 200 and 700 V. Discharge channel deposition from back-sputtered facility wall flux, and plasma potential and electron temperature measurements made on the inner and outer discharge channel surfaces confirmed that magnetic shielding was achieved. Peak total thrust efficiency of 64% and total specific impulse of 3,050 sec were demonstrated with the 300MS-2 at 20 kW. Thermal characterization results indicate that the boron nitride discharge chamber walls temperatures are approximately 100 C lower for the 300MS when compared to the NASA- 300M at the same thruster operating discharge power.

  17. NASA Brief: Q-Thruster Physics

    White, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Q-thrusters are a low-TRL form of electric propulsion that operates on the principle of pushing off of the quantum vacuum. A terrestrial analog to this is to consider how a submarine uses its propeller to push a column of water in one direction, while the sub recoils in the other to conserve momentum -the submarine does not carry a "tank" of sea water to be used as propellant. In our case, we use the tools of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to show how the thruster pushes off of the quantum vacuum which can be thought of as a sea of virtual particles -principally electrons and positrons that pop into and out of existence, and where fields are stronger, there are more virtual particles. The idea of pushing off the quantum vacuum has been in the technical literature for a few decades, but to date, the obstacle has been the magnitude of the predicted thrust which has been derived analytically to be very small, and therefore not likely to be useful for human spaceflight. Our recent theoretical model development and test data suggests that we can greatly increase the magnitude of the negative pressure of the quantum vacuum and generate a specific force such that technology based on this approach can be competitive for in-space propulsion approx. 0.1N/kW), and possibly for terrestrial applications (approx. 10N/kW). As an additional validation of the approach, the theory allows calculation of physics constants from first principles: Gravitational constant, Planck constant, Bohr radius, dark energy fraction, electron mass.

  18. Grid Gap Measurement for an NSTAR Ion Thruster

    Diaz, Esther M.; Soulas, George C.

    2006-01-01

    The change in gap between the screen and accelerator grids of an engineering model NSTAR ion optics assembly was measured during thruster operation with beam extraction. The molybdenum ion optics assembly was mounted onto an engineering model NSTAR ion thruster. The measurement technique consisted of measuring the difference in height of an alumina pin relative to the downstream accelerator grid surface. The alumina pin was mechanically attached to the center aperture of the screen grid and protruded through the center aperture of the accelerator grid. The change in pin height was monitored using a long distance microscope coupled to a digital imaging system. Transient and steady-state hot grid gaps were measured at three power levels: 0.5, 1.5 and 2.3 kW. Also, the change in grid gap was measured during the transition between power levels, and during the startup with high voltage applied just prior to discharge ignition. Performance measurements, such as perveance, electron backstreaming limit and screen grid ion transparency, were also made to confirm that this ion optics assembly performed similarly to past testing. Results are compared to a prior test of 30 cm titanium ion optics.

  19. Performance and Facility Background Pressure Characterization Tests of NASAs 12.5-kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding Thruster

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Myers, James; Hofer, Richard; Mikellides, Ioannis; Sekerak, Michael; Polk, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (SEP/TDM) project is funding the development of a 12.5-kW Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. The thruster designated Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) is a 12.5-kW Hall thruster with magnetic shielding incorporating a centrally mounted cathode. HERMeS was designed and modeled by a NASA GRC and JPL team and was fabricated and tested in vacuum facility 5 (VF5) at NASA GRC. Tests at NASA GRC were performed with the Technology Development Unit 1 (TDU1) thruster. TDU1's magnetic shielding topology was confirmed by measurement of anode potential and low electron temperature along the discharge chamber walls. Thermal characterization tests indicated that during full power thruster operation at peak magnetic field strength, the various thruster component temperatures were below prescribed maximum allowable limits. Performance characterization tests demonstrated the thruster's wide throttling range and found that the thruster can achieve a peak thruster efficiency of 63% at 12.5 kW 500 V and can attain a specific impulse of 3,000 s at 12.5 kW and a discharge voltage of 800 V. Facility background pressure variation tests revealed that the performance, operational characteristics, and magnetic shielding effectiveness of the TDU1 design were mostly insensitive to increases in background pressure.

  20. Phase-space holes due to electron and ion beams accelerated by a current-driven potential ramp

    M. V. Goldman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional open-boundary simulations have been carried out in a current-carrying plasma seeded with a neutral density depression and with no initial electric field. These simulations show the development of a variety of nonlinear localized electric field structures: double layers (unipolar localized fields, fast electron phase-space holes (bipolar fields moving in the direction of electrons accelerated by the double layer and trains of slow alternating electron and ion phase-space holes (wave-like fields moving in the direction of ions accelerated by the double layer. The principal new result in this paper is to show by means of a linear stability analysis that the slow-moving trains of electron and ion holes are likely to be the result of saturation via trapping of a kinetic-Buneman instability driven by the interaction of accelerated ions with unaccelerated electrons.

  1. Effect of Background Pressure on the Performance and Plume of the HiVHAc Hall Thruster

    Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    During the Single String Integration Test of the NASA HiVHAc Hall thruster, a number of plasma diagnostics were implemented to study the effect of varying facility background pressure on thruster operation. These diagnostics include thrust stand, Faraday probe, ExB probe, and retarding potential analyzer. The test results indicated a rise in thrust and discharge current with background pressure. There was also a decrease in ion energy per charge, an increase in multiply-charged species production, a decrease in plume divergence, and a decrease in ion beam current with increasing background pressure. A simplified ingestion model was applied to determine the maximum acceptable background pressure for thrust measurement. The maximum acceptable ingestion percentage was found to be around 1%. Examination of the diagnostics results suggest the ionization and acceleration zones of the thruster were shifting upstream with increasing background pressure.

  2. Theory of the plasma thruster based on the rotating electromagnetic field

    Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; Rudenko, T. S.

    2015-04-01

    A theory of electrodeless electric propulsion systems (EEPS) based on the use of the solenoid magnetic field and the rotating electromagnetic field produced by antennas is developed, which includes a study of the plasma acceleration by the Radio Frequency (RF) field and the concomitant thrust. It was assumed that the frequency of the RF field exceeds the lower hybrid frequency but is much less than the electron gyrofrequency. Relations for the thrust are obtained and analyzed. It is shown that thrust gain is significant only when the RF-induced drift velocity well exceeds the fluid velocity of the injected plasma. It is revealed that the curvature of the magnetic field lines and the plasma acceleration in the region outside the solenoid are the factors which can considerably increase the thrust. On the other hand, it is found that the axial inhomogeneity of the plasma and some other factors are unfavorable for the thrust. The obtained results can be used for the optimization of particular experiments aimed to create a new thruster for long-time space missions.

  3. USE ROTATION AL SENSORS AND ACCELERATION IN SMARTPHONE FOR PHASE SPACE S

    Minakshi Raundal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In T odays World The compound system, wheel plus smartphone, defines a physical pendulum which can rotate, giving full turns in one direction, or oscillate about the equilibrium position (performing either small or large oscillations. Paradigm shifts tend to appear in response to critical anomalies or an accumulation of them as well as the proposal of a new theory with the power to encompass both older relevant data and explain r elevant anomalies. New paradigms tend to be most dramatic in sciences that appear to be stable and mature, as in physics at the end of the 19th century. A paradigmatic physical system as the physical pendulum is experimentally studied using the acceleratio n and rotation (gyroscope sensors available on smartphones and other devices such as iPads and tablets. A smartphone is fixed to the outside of a bicycle wheel whose axis is kept horizontal and fixed. Measurements of the radial and tangential acceleratio n and the angular velocity obtained with smartphone sensors allow a deep insight into the dynamics of the system to be gained. In addition, thanks to the simultaneous use of the acceleration and rotation sensors, trajectories in the phase space are directly obtained. The coherence of the measures obtained with the different sensors and by traditional methods is remarkable. Indeed, due to their low cost and increasing availability, smartphone sensors are valuable tools that can be used in most un dergraduate laboratories.

  4. Mode transition of a Hall thruster discharge plasma

    A Hall thruster is a cross-field plasma device used for spacecraft propulsion. An important unresolved issue in the development of Hall thrusters concerns the effect of discharge oscillations in the range of 10–30 kHz on their performance. The use of a high speed Langmuir probe system and ultra-fast imaging of the discharge plasma of a Hall thruster suggests that the discharge oscillation mode, often called the breathing mode, is strongly correlated to an axial global ionization mode. Stabilization of the global oscillation mode is achieved as the magnetic field is increased and azimuthally rotating spokes are observed. A hybrid-direct kinetic simulation that takes into account the transport of electronically excited atoms is used to model the discharge plasma of a Hall thruster. The predicted mode transition agrees with experiments in terms of the mean discharge current, the amplitude of discharge current oscillation, and the breathing mode frequency. It is observed that the stabilization of the global oscillation mode is associated with reduced electron transport that suppresses the ionization process inside the channel. As the Joule heating balances the other loss terms including the effects of wall loss and inelastic collisions, the ionization oscillation is damped, and the discharge oscillation stabilizes. A wide range of the stable operation is supported by the formation of a space charge saturated sheath that stabilizes the electron axial drift and balances the Joule heating as the magnetic field increases. Finally, it is indicated from the numerical results that there is a strong correlation between the emitted light intensity and the discharge current.

  5. Space-charge effects in ultra-high current electron bunches generated by laser-plasma accelerators

    Grinner, F. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Maier, A. R.; Becker, S.; Mikhailova, J. M.

    2009-02-11

    Recent advances in laser-plasma accelerators, including the generation of GeV-scale electron bunches, enable applications such as driving a compact free-electron-laser (FEL). Significant reduction in size of the FEL is facilitated by the expected ultra-high peak beam currents (10-100 kA) generated in laser-plasma accelerators. At low electron energies such peak currents are expected to cause space-charge effects such as bunch expansion and induced energy variations along the bunch, potentially hindering the FEL process. In this paper we discuss a self-consistent approach to modeling space-charge effects for the regime of laser-plasma-accelerated ultra-compact electron bunches at low or moderate energies. Analytical treatments are considered as well as point-to-point particle simulations, including the beam transport from the laser-plasma accelerator through focusing devices and the undulator. In contradiction to non-self-consistent analyses (i.e., neglecting bunch evolution), which predict a linearly growing energy chirp, we have found the energy chirp reaches a maximum and decreases thereafter. The impact of the space-charge induced chirp on FEL performance is discussed and possible solutions are presented.

  6. Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster Using Permanent Magnets

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    While annular Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope from 1 kW down to 100 W while maintaining an efficiency of 45-55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. In addition, the central magnetic pole piece defining the interior wall of the annular channel can experience excessive heat loads in a miniaturized Hall thruster, with the temperature eventually exceeding the Curie temperature of the material and in extreme circumstances leading to accelerated erosion of the channel wall. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from 50 W up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics that are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHTs insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio is lower. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion, making the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. This potential for high performance in the low-power regime has served as the impetus for research and development efforts aimed at understanding and improving CHT performance. Recently, a 2.6 cm channel diameter permanent magnet CHT (shown in Fig. 1) was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed

  7. Mechanical design of SERT 2 thruster system

    Zavesky, R. J.; Hurst, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical design of the mercury bombardment thruster that was tested on SERT is described. The report shows how the structural, thermal, electrical, material compatibility, and neutral mercury coating considerations affected the design and integration of the subsystems and components. The SERT 2 spacecraft with two thrusters was launched on February 3, 1970. One thruster operated for 3782 hours and the other for 2011 hours. A high voltage short resulting from buildup of loose eroded material was believed to be the cause of failure.

  8. Biological effects of several extreme space flight factors (acceleration, magnetically activated water) on mouse natural or modified radiosensitivity

    Irradiated and Adeturon-protected mice were used to assess biological effects of several static (magnetically-activated water - MW) and dynamic (acceleration) factors of space flight. The study shows that increased gravitation, 20 G, 5 min, generated by a small radius centrifuge, increases static ability to work, while the number of peripheral blood cells decreases. Continuous exposure of mice to MW induces a decrease in dynamic ability to work, in comparison with the physiological controls, without substantial changes in other indices. Extreme factors in space flight (acceleration MW, radiation, radiation protector), alone or in combination, decrease the animal's growth rate. After administration of 200 mg/kg Adeturone, mouse dynamic ability to work increases, while its capabilities for adaptation and training are lowered, and pronounced leucocytosis is observed. MW, acceleration, or Adeturone pre-treatment of mice increases their survival and dynamic ability to work, following exposure to 600 R, when compared to irradiated animals, but decreases their capabilities for adaptation and training. Acceleration and Adeturone protect peripheral blood from radiation injury, while MW alone intensifies radiation cytopenia. Irradiation does not significantly modify the static ability to work, upon preceding exposure to MW or acceleration. In this case, Adeturone exerts protective effect. ME and Adeturone combined action results in increased survival rate and mean duration of life of irradiated animals, as compared to their single administration. Acceleration reduces MW, Adeturone and MW + Adeturone effect on survival. Peripheral blood parameters do not correlate with survival rates. Combined pre-treatment with two or three of the factors studied increases dynamic ability to work following irradiation, and in many cases the static ability as well. The combination of Adeturone and MW was the only one with negative effect on the static ability to work. (A.B.)

  9. Development Efforts Expanded in Ion Propulsion: Ion Thrusters Developed With Higher Power Levels

    Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sovey, James S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center was the major contributor of 2-kW-class ion thruster technology to the Deep Space 1 mission, which was successfully completed in early 2002. Recently, NASA s Office of Space Science awarded approximately $21 million to Glenn to develop higher power xenon ion propulsion systems for large flagship missions such as outer planet explorers and sample return missions. The project, referred to as NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), is a logical follow-on to the ion propulsion system demonstrated on Deep Space 1. The propulsion system power level for NEXT is expected to be as high as 25 kW, incorporating multiple ion thrusters, each capable of being throttled over a 1- to 6-kW power range. To date, engineering model thrusters have been developed, and performance and plume diagnostics are now being documented. The project team-Glenn, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, General Dynamics, Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the University of Michigan, and Colorado State University-is in the process of developing hardware for a ground demonstration of the NEXT propulsion system, which comprises a xenon feed system, controllers, multiple thrusters, and power processors. The development program also will include life assessments by tests and analyses, single-string tests of ion thrusters and power systems, and finally, multistring thruster system tests in calendar year 2005. In addition, NASA's Office of Space Science selected Glenn to lead the development of a 25-kW xenon thruster to enable NASA to conduct future missions to the outer planets of Jupiter and beyond, under the High Power Electric Propulsion (HiPEP) program. The development of a 100-kW-class ion propulsion system and power conversion systems are critical components to enable future nuclear-electric propulsion systems. In fiscal year 2003, a team composed of Glenn, the Boeing Company, General Dynamics, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Naval Research

  10. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles

    Xu, X. L.; Hua, J. F.; Wu, Y. P.; Zhang, C. J.; Li, F.; Wan, Y.; Pai, C.-H.; Lu, W.; An, W.; Yu, P.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.

    2016-03-01

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles.

  11. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles.

    Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Wu, Y P; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Pai, C-H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2016-03-25

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles. PMID:27058082

  12. Real-Tme Boron Nitride Erosion Measurements of the HiVHAc Thruster via Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    Lee, Brian C.; Yalin, Azer P.; Gallimore, Alec; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used to make real-time erosion measurements from the NASA High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster. The optical sensor uses 250 nm light to measure absorption of atomic boron in the plume of an operating Hall thruster. Theerosion rate of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster was measured for discharge voltages ranging from 330 to 600 V and discharge powers ranging from 1 to 3 kW. Boron densities as high as 6.5 x 10(exp 15) per cubic meter were found within the channel. Using a very simple boronvelocity model, approximate volumetric erosion rates between 5.0 x 10(exp -12) and 8.2 x 10(exp -12) cubic meter per second were found.

  13. Study on advanced plasma propulsion for interplanetary manned space missions

    The prerequisite for manned space missions in the twenty first century is the advanced high performance transportation. Plasma thrusters are known to provide higher specific impulse than conventional chemical thrusters, and because of this advantage, plasma thrusters have been used on satellites for several decades. For successful deep space missions, an even higher performance propulsion system is required, and the Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) plasma thruster is one of the candidates. An ICRH thruster can provide not only high specific impulse but also operational flexibility, which is the most important aspect of the thruster. For the feasibility study of the ICRH thruster, a small sized, proof-of-principle-type experiment is currently ongoing under the KAIST-KBSI collaboration research. If it turns out to be successful, a larger scale experiment will be planned at HANBIT magnetic mirror device

  14. Mission Benefits of Gridded Ion and Hall Thruster Hybrid Propulsion Systems

    Dankanich, John W.; Polsgrove, Tara

    2006-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project Office has been developing the NEXT gridded ion thruster system and is planning to procure a low power Hall system. The new ion propulsion systems will join NSTAR as NASA's primary electric propulsion system options. Studies have been performed to show mission benefits of each of the stand alone systems. A hybrid ion propulsion system (IPS) can have the advantage of reduced cost, decreased flight time and greater science payload delivery over comparable homogeneous systems. This paper explores possible advantages of combining various thruster options for a single mission.

  15. STG-CT: High-vacuum plume test facility for chemical thrusters

    Grabe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The STG-CT, operated by the DLR Institute for Aerodynamics and Flow Technology in Göttingen, is a vacuum facility specically designed to provide and maintain a space-like vacuum environment for researching plume flow and plume impingement from satellite reaction control thrusters. Its unique liquid-helium driven cryopump of 30m2 allows maintaining a background pressure

  16. Generation of the cosmic rays flux variations due to surfatron acceleration of charges by electromagnetic waves in space plasma

    Erokhin, Nikolay; Loznikov, Vladimir; Shkevov, Rumen; Zolnikova, Nadezhda; Mikhailovskaya, Ludmila

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of experimental data on the spectra of cosmic rays (CR) has shown their variability on time scales of a few years, in particular, CR variations observed in E / Z range from TeV to 10000 TeV, where E is the energy of the particle, Z is its charge number. Consequently, the source of these variations must be located at a distance of no more than 1 parsec from the sun in the closest local interstellar clouds. As a mechanism of such variations appearance it is considered the surfatron acceleration of CR particles by electromagnetic wave in a relatively quiet space plasma. On the basis of developed model the numerical calculations were performed for particle capture dynamics (electrons, protons, helium and iron nuclei) in the wave effective potential well with a following growth their energy by 3-6 orders of magnitude. Optimal conditions for the implementation of charged particles surfatron acceleration in space plasma, the rate of trapped particles energy growth, the dynamics of wave phase on the captured particle trajectory, a temporal dynamics of components for charge impulse momentum and speed were studied. It is indicated that the capture of a small fraction of particles by wave for energies about TeV and less followed by their surfatron acceleration to an energy of about 10000 TeV will lead to a significant increase in the CR flux at such high energies. Thus CL flow variations are conditioned by changes in the space weather parameters

  17. Magneto-plasma-dynamic arc thruster

    Burkhart, J. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The performance of a magnetoplasmadynamic arc thruster, in the 600 to 2,100 seconds specific impulse range, was improved by locating its cathode in the exhaust beam downstream of the anode and main propellant injection point.

  18. Investigation of radiofrequency plasma sources for space travel

    Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.; Takahashi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Optimization of radiofrequency (RF) plasma sources for the development of space thrusters differs from other applications such as plasma processing of materials since power efficiency, propellant usage, particle acceleration or heating become driving parameters. The development of two RF (13.56 MHz) plasma sources, the high-pressure (˜1 Torr) capacitively coupled ‘pocket rocket’ plasma micro-thruster and the low-pressure (˜1 mTorr) inductively coupled helicon double layer thruster (HDLT), is discussed within the context of mature and emerging electric propulsion devices. The density gradient in low-pressure expanding RF plasmas creates an electric field that accelerates positive ions out of the plasma. Generally, the total potential drop is similar to that of a wall sheath allowing the plasma electrons to neutralize the ion beam. A high-pressure expansion with no applied magnetic field can result in large dissociation rates and/or a collimated beam of ions of small area and a flowing heated neutral beam (‘pocket rocket’). A low-pressure expansion dominated by a magnetic field can result in the formation of electric double layers which produce a very directed neutralized beam of ions of large area (HDLT).

  19. Measurements of Secondary Electron Emission Effects in the Hall Thruster Discharge

    Raitses, Y.; Smirnov, A.; Staack, D.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-12-01

    The dependence of the maximum electron temperature on the discharge voltage is studied for two Hall thruster configurations, in which a collisionless plasma is bounded by channel walls made of materials with different secondary electron emission (SEE) properties. The linear growth of the temperature with the discharge voltage, observed in the channel with a low SEE yield, suggests that SEE is responsible for the electron temperature saturation in the thruster configuration with the channel walls having a higher SEE yield. The fact that the values of the electron temperature at saturation are rather high may indirectly support the recently predicted kinetic regime of the space charge saturation of the near-wall sheath in the thruster discharge. A correlation between the effects of the channel wall material on the electron temperature and the electron cross-field current was also observed.

  20. Measurements of Secondary Electron Emission Effects in the Hall Thruster Discharge

    The dependence of the maximum electron temperature on the discharge voltage is studied for two Hall thruster configurations, in which a collisionless plasma is bounded by channel walls made of materials with different secondary electron emission (SEE) properties. The linear growth of the temperature with the discharge voltage, observed in the channel with a low SEE yield, suggests that SEE is responsible for the electron temperature saturation in the thruster configuration with the channel walls having a higher SEE yield. The fact that the values of the electron temperature at saturation are rather high may indirectly support the recently predicted kinetic regime of the space charge saturation of the near-wall sheath in the thruster discharge. A correlation between the effects of the channel wall material on the electron temperature and the electron cross-field current was also observed

  1. Electrostatic acceleration of helicon plasma using a cusped magnetic field

    The electrostatic acceleration of helicon plasma is investigated using an electrostatic potential exerted between the ring anode at the helicon source exit and an off-axis hollow cathode in the downstream region. In the downstream region, the magnetic field for the helicon source, which is generated by a solenoid coil, is modified using permanent magnets and a yoke, forming an almost magnetic field-free region surrounded by an annular cusp field. Using a retarding potential analyzer, two primary ion energy peaks, where the lower peak corresponds to the space potential and the higher one to the ion beam, are detected in the field-free region. Using argon as the working gas with a helicon power of 1.5 kW and a mass flow rate of 0.21 mg/s, the ion beam energy is on the order of the applied acceleration voltage. In particular, with an acceleration voltage lower than 150 V, the ion beam energy even exceeds the applied acceleration voltage by an amount on the order of the electron thermal energy at the exit of the helicon plasma source. The ion beam energy profile strongly depends on the helicon power and the applied acceleration voltage. Since by this method the whole working gas from the helicon plasma source can, in principle, be accelerated, this device can be applied as a noble electrostatic thruster for space propulsion

  2. Time and Space Dependent Stochastic Acceleration Model for the Fermi Bubbles

    Sasaki, K; Terasawa, T

    2015-01-01

    Fermi-LAT reveals two huge gamma-ray bubbles existing in the Galactic Center, called 'Fermi Bubbles'. The existence of two microwave bubbles at the same region are also reported by the observation by WMAP, dubbed 'WMAP haze'. In order to explain these components, It has been argued that the gamma-rays arise from Inverse-Compton scattering of relativistic electrons accelerated by plasma turbulence, and the microwaves are radiated by synchrotron radiation. But no previous research reproduces both the Fermi Bubbles and WMAP haze under typical magnetic fields in the galaxy. We assume that shocks present in the bubbles and the efficiency of the acceleration by plasma turbulence, 'stochastic acceleration', changes with the distance from the shock front. The distance from the shock front increases with time, accordingly the efficiency of the acceleration changes with time. We also consider the time development of the electrons escape from the turbulence by diffusive loss. Our model succeed to reproduce both the obse...

  3. Beam manipulation techniques, nonlinear beam dynamics, and space charge effect in high energy high power accelerators

    Lee, S. Y.

    2014-04-07

    We had carried out a design of an ultimate storage ring with beam emittance less than 10 picometer for the feasibility of coherent light source at X-ray wavelength. The accelerator has an inherent small dynamic aperture. We study method to improve the dynamic aperture and collective instability for an ultimate storage ring. Beam measurement and accelerator modeling are an integral part of accelerator physics. We develop the independent component analysis (ICA) and the orbit response matrix method for improving accelerator reliability and performance. In collaboration with scientists in National Laboratories, we also carry out experimental and theoretical studies on beam dynamics. Our proposed research topics are relevant to nuclear and particle physics using high brightness particle and photon beams.

  4. Low power arcjet thruster pulse ignition

    Sarmiento, Charles J.; Gruber, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of the pulse ignition characteristics of a 1 kW class arcjet using an inductive energy storage pulse generator with a pulse width modulated power converter identified several thruster and pulse generator parameters that influence breakdown voltage including pulse generator rate of voltage rise. This work was conducted with an arcjet tested on hydrogen-nitrogen gas mixtures to simulate fully decomposed hydrazine. Over all ranges of thruster and pulser parameters investigated, the mean breakdown voltages varied from 1.4 to 2.7 kV. Ignition tests at elevated thruster temperatures under certain conditions revealed occasional breakdowns to thruster voltages higher than the power converter output voltage. These post breakdown discharges sometimes failed to transition to the lower voltage arc discharge mode and the thruster would not ignite. Under the same conditions, a transition to the arc mode would occur for a subsequent pulse and the thruster would ignite. An automated 11 600 cycle starting and transition to steady state test demonstrated ignition on the first pulse and required application of a second pulse only two times to initiate breakdown.

  5. Flyer Acceleration by Pulsed Ion Beam Ablation and Application for Space Propulsion

    Flyer acceleration by ablation plasma pressure produced by irradiation of intense pulsed ion beam has been studied. Acceleration process including expansion of ablation plasma was simulated based on fluid model. And interaction between incident pulsed ion beam and a flyer target was considered as accounting stopping power of it. In experiments, we used ETIGO-II intense pulsed ion beam generator with two kinds of diodes; 1) Magnetically Insulated Diode (MID, power densities of <100 J/cm2) and 2) Spherical-focused Plasma Focus Diode (SPFD, power densities of up to 4.3 kJ/cm2). Numerical results of accelerated flyer velocity agreed well with measured one over wide range of incident ion beam energy density. Flyer velocity of 5.6 km/s and ablation plasma pressure of 15 GPa was demonstrated by the present experiments. Acceleration of double-layer target consists of gold/aluminum was studied. For adequate layer thickness, such a flyer target could be much more accelerated than a single layer. Effect of waveform of ion beam was also examined. Parabolic waveform could accelerate more efficiently than rectangular waveform. Applicability of ablation propulsion was discussed. Specific impulse of 7000∼8000 seconds and time averaged thrust of up to 5000∼6000N can be expected. Their values can be controllable by changing power density of incident ion beam and pulse duration

  6. Simplified Ion Thruster Xenon Feed System for NASA Science Missions

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    The successful implementation of ion thruster technology on the Deep Space 1 technology demonstration mission paved the way for its first use on the Dawn science mission, which launched in September 2007. Both Deep Space 1 and Dawn used a "bang-bang" xenon feed system which has proven to be highly successful. This type of feed system, however, is complex with many parts and requires a significant amount of engineering work for architecture changes. A simplified feed system, with fewer parts and less engineering work for architecture changes, is desirable to reduce the feed system cost to future missions. An attractive new path for ion thruster feed systems is based on new components developed by industry in support of commercial applications of electric propulsion systems. For example, since the launch of Deep Space 1 tens of mechanical xenon pressure regulators have successfully flown on commercial spacecraft using electric propulsion. In addition, active proportional flow controllers have flown on the Hall-thruster-equipped Tacsat-2, are flying on the ion thruster GOCE mission, and will fly next year on the Advanced EHF spacecraft. This present paper briefly reviews the Dawn xenon feed system and those implemented on other xenon electric propulsion flight missions. A simplified feed system architecture is presented that is based on assembling flight-qualified components in a manner that will reduce non-recurring engineering associated with propulsion system architecture changes, and is compared to the NASA Dawn standard. The simplified feed system includes, compared to Dawn, passive high-pressure regulation, a reduced part count, reduced complexity due to cross-strapping, and reduced non-recurring engineering work required for feed system changes. A demonstration feed system was assembled using flight-like components and used to operate a laboratory NSTAR-class ion engine. Feed system components integrated into a single-string architecture successfully operated

  7. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Ion Engine Accelerator Grid Erosion

    Polk, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Structural failure of the accelerator grid in two-grid ion optics due to charge exchange ion erosion is considered one of the dominant failure modes for ion engines. A detailed examination of three accelerator grids used in long duration tests of inert gas ion thrusters was undertaken to characterize the radial mass loss distribution, the local distribution of mass loss in the erosion pattern and how it varies as the pattern evolves. The results show significant broadening of the radial profile compared to what is expected in space with significant variations from grid to grid. The local distribution of mass loss and how it varies with increasing total mass loss in the erosion pattern was also found to differ considerably among the three grids. The results indicate that the details of the erosion geometry cannot be ignored when generalizing test results or modeling grid failure to calculate useful engine service life.

  8. Spurious acceleration noise in spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers

    An important source of noise in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is residual acceleration on the proof masses at the heart of the interferometer system. Two proof masses are carried by each sciencecraft in the LISA constellation, oriented along each of two laser links that are maintained between the distant partners in the constellation. Any change in the local mass distribution will create spurious forces on the individual proof masses which will have to be understood as part of the data analysis reduction. This paper considers the general case of accelerations on the individual proof masses in three dimensions for perturbing masses passing by a LISA sciencecraft with arbitrary velocity vectors and impact parameters. Encounters of this kind are impulsive, occurring over short time scales and appearing in the data record as bursts. The formalism is then applied in a few sample cases, including a meteor fly-by and a thruster maneuver

  9. MOA: Magnetic Field Oscillating Amplified Thruster and its Application for Nuclear Electric and Thermal Propulsion

    More than 60 years after the later Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept, utilising Alfven waves to accelerate ionised matter for propulsive purposes, is MOA - Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Alfven waves are generated by making use of two coils, one being permanently powered and serving also as magnetic nozzle, the other one being switched on and off in a cyclic way, deforming the field lines of the overall system. It is this deformation that generates Alfven waves, which are in the next step used to transport and compress the propulsive medium, in theory leading to a propulsion system with a much higher performance than any other electric propulsion system. Based on computer simulations, which were conducted to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. (authors)

  10. Numerical Investigation of a Cascaded Longitudinal Space-Charge Amplifier at the Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Halavanau, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb

    2015-06-01

    In a cascaded longitudinal space-charge amplifier (LSCA), initial density noise in a relativistic e-beam is amplified via the interplay of longitudinal space charge forces and properly located dispersive sections. This type of amplification process was shown to potentially result in large final density modulations [1] compatible with the production of broadband electromagnetic radiation. The technique was recently demonstrated in the optical domain [2]. In this paper we investigate, via numerical simulations, the performances of a cascaded LSCA beamline at the Fermilab’s Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA). We especially explore the properties of the produced broadband radiation. Our studies have been conducted with a grid-less three-dimensional space-charge algorithm.

  11. Evaluation of High-Power Solar Electric Propulsion using Advanced Ion, Hall, MPD, and PIT Thrusters for Lunar and Mars Cargo Missions

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of mission analyses that expose the advantages and disadvantages of high-power (MWe-class) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) for Lunar and Mars Cargo missions that would support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In these analyses, we consider SEP systems using advanced Ion thrusters (the Xenon [Xe] propellant Herakles), Hall thrusters (the Bismuth [Bi] propellant Very High Isp Thruster with Anode Layer [VHITAL], magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters (the Lithium [Li] propellant Advanced Lithium-Fed, Applied-field Lorentz Force Accelerator (ALFA2), and pulsed inductive thruster (PIT) (the Ammonia [NH3] propellant Nuclear-PIT [NuPIT]). The analyses include comparison of the advanced-technology propulsion systems (VHITAL, ALFA2, and NuPIT) relative to state-of-theart Ion (Herakles) propulsion systems and quantify the unique benefits of the various technology options such as high power-per-thruster (and/or high power-per-thruster packaging volume), high specific impulse (Isp), high-efficiency, and tankage mass (e.g., low tankage mass due to the high density of bismuth propellant). This work is based on similar analyses for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) systems.

  12. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    Wu, Fengjun; Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen; Cui, Yuan; Yan, Hongbin; Zhang, Huajian; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply.

  13. Plasma Propulsion Research at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Sheehy, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    The Propulsion Research Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is pursuing a range of research efforts aimed at identifying and developing new technologies for primary spacecraft propulsion. Efficient high-power electric propulsion (Ep) thrusters are a particular area of emphasis; these would enable the relatively rapid transit of large payloads about the solar system for unmanned or manned science and exploration. Such a mission would make heavy demands on the propulsion system, which may be required to run reliably for several years at a specific impulse approaching 10,OOO s with an efficiency of turning electrical power into jet power of at least 70%. The transit time to a destination scales approximately inversely with the cube root of the specific power, which is the ratio of jet power to power-plant mass. Consequently, reducing a trip time by half requires roughly an eight-fold increase in specific power. Given a renewed NASA commitment to space nuclear power, developing efficient EP thrusters with high jet power (> 100 kW) would seem to provide the most direct means of significantly increasing the specific power and hence reducing trip times. In particular, electromagnetic devices, with their high inherent thrust densities, should be better suited to high power applications than thrusters which depend exclusively on electrostatic forces for propellant acceleration.

  14. Coaxial plasma thrusters for high specific impulse propulsion

    Schoenberg, Kurt F.; Gerwin, Richard A.; Barnes, Cris W.; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Moses, Ronald, Jr.; Scarberry, Richard; Wurden, Glen

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental basis for coaxial plasma thruster performance is presented and the steady-state, ideal MHD properties of a coaxial thruster using an annular magnetic nozzle are discussed. Formulas for power usage, thrust, mass flow rate, and specific impulse are acquired and employed to assess thruster performance. The performance estimates are compared with the observed properties of an unoptimized coaxial plasma gun. These comparisons support the hypothesis that ideal MHD has an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics.

  15. Investigation of the Effects of Cathode Flow Fraction and Position on the Performance and Operation of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In- Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. Tests were performed within NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 at background pressure levels that were six times lower than what has previously been attained in other vacuum facilities. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the cathode-to-anode flow fraction and cathode position on the performance and operational characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster. In addition, the impact of injecting additional xenon propellant in the vicinity of the cathode was also assessed. Cathode-to-anode flow fraction sensitivity tests were performed for power levels between 1.0 and 3.9 kW. It was found that varying the cathode flow fraction from 5 to approximately 10% of the anode flow resulted in the cathode-to-ground voltage becoming more positive. For an operating condition of 3.8 kW and 500 V, varying the cathode position from a distance of closest approach to 600 mm away did not result in any substantial variation in thrust but resulted in the cathode-to-ground changing from -17 to -4 V. The change in the cathode-to-ground voltage along with visual observations indicated a change in how the cathode plume was coupling to the thruster discharge. Finally, the injection of secondary xenon flow in the vicinity of the cathode had an impact similar to increasing the cathode-to-anode flow fraction, where the cathode-to-ground voltage became more positive and discharge current and thrust increased slightly. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned with a centrally mounted cathode in order to further assess the impact of cathode position on thruster performance.

  16. Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC), status review, 23 September 1980

    1980-01-01

    The development responsibilities of SEPAC include: accelerator systems, diagnostic systems, power systems, dedicated experiment processor, interface unit, control panel, and all flight software. The operations of SEPAC, including automated experiments under DEP command control and SEPAC manual operations, are outlined. A diagram of the system configuration is presented.

  17. Optical Characterization of Component Wear and Near-Field Plasma of the Hermes Thruster

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Optical emission spectral (OES) data are presented which correlate trends in sputtered species and the near-field plasma with the Hall-Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) thruster operating condition. The relative density of singly-ionized xenon (Xe II) is estimated using a collisional-radiative model. OES data were collected at three radial and several axial locations downstream of the thruster's exit plane. These data were deconvolved to show the structure for the near-field plasma as a function of thruster operating condition. The magnetic field is shown to have a much greater affect on plasma structure than the discharge voltage with the primary ionization/acceleration zone boundary being similar for all nominal operating voltages at constant power. OES measurement of sputtered boron shows that the HERMeS thruster is magnetically shielded across its operating envelope. Preliminary assessment of carbon sputtered from the keeper face suggest it increases significantly with operating voltage, but the uncertainty associated with these measurements is very high.

  18. A study of the lifetime of miniaturized ablative pulsed plasma thrusters

    Ciaralli, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized satellites are one of the fastest growing sectors in the space industry, allowing cheap access to space. These satellites are currently limited by their lack of orbit control and their lifetime is therefore determined by the natural, drag-induced, de-orbiting. These issues can be solved using a dedicated propulsion system. Cold-gas micro-thrusters, successfully flown on miniaturized satellites, are characterised by a very low specific impulse (typically less than 100 s), which co...

  19. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin; Oflaz, Neslihan

    2013-01-01

    arXiv:1210.8106v2 [gr-qc] 11 Feb 2013 Late Time Acceleration of the 3-Space in a Higher Dimensional Steady State Universe in Dilaton Gravity Özgür Akarsua , b, Tekin Derelia a Department of Physics, Koç University, 34450 Sarıyer, İstanbul, Turkey b Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste, Italy Abstract We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an ar...

  20. Case Studies in Space Charge and Plasma Acceleration of Charged Beams

    Bazzani, A; Londrillo, P; Sinigardi, S; Turchetti, G

    2014-01-01

    Plasma acceleration with electron or proton driver beams is a challenging opportunity for high energy physics. An energy doubling experiment with electron drivers was successfully performed at SLAC and a key experiment AWAKE with proton drivers is on schedule at CERN. Simulations play an important role in choosing the best experimental conditions and in interpreting the results. The Vlasov equation is the theoretical tool to describe the interaction of a driver particle beam or a driver laser pulse with a plasma. Collective effects, such as tune shift and mismatch instabilities, appear in high intensity standard accelerators and are described by the Poisson-Vlasov equation. In the paper we review the Vlasov equation in electrostatic and fully electromagnetic case. The general framework of variational principles is used to derive the equation, the local form of the balance equations and related conservation laws. In the electrostatic case we remind the analytic Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) model and we propo...

  1. Case studies in space charge and plasma acceleration of charged beams

    Plasma acceleration with electron or proton driver beams is a challenging opportunity for high-energy physics. An energy doubling experiment with electron drivers was successfully performed at SLAC and a key experiment AWAKE with proton drivers is on schedule at CERN. Simulations play an important role in choosing the best experimental conditions and in interpreting the results. The Vlasov equation is the theoretical tool to describe the interaction of a driver particle beam or a driver laser pulse with a plasma. Collective effects, such as tune shift and mismatch instabilities, appear in high intensity standard accelerators and are described by the Poisson-Vlasov equation. In the paper, we review the Vlasov equation in the electrostatic and fully electromagnetic cases. The general framework of variational principles is used to derive the equation, the local form of the balance equations and related conservation laws. In the electrostatic case, we remind the analytic Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) model and we propose an extension of the adiabatic theory for Hamiltonian systems, which ensures stability for perturbation of size on times of order 1/ε. The variational framework is used to derive the Maxwell-Vlasov equations and related conservation laws and to briefly sketch the particle-in-cell (PIC) approximation schemes. Finally, the proton-driven acceleration is examined in the linear and quasilinear regime. A PIC simulation with the code ALaDyn developed at Bologna University is presented to illustrate the longitudinal and transverse fields evolution which allow a witness electron bunch to be accelerated with a gradient of a few GeV/m. We also present some remarks on future perspectives. (authors)

  2. Thrust Stand Measurements Using Alternative Propellants in the Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2011-01-01

    Storable propellants (for example water, ammonia, and hydrazine) are attractive for deep space propulsion due to their naturally high density at ambient interplanetary conditions, which obviates the need for a cryogenic/venting system. Water in particular is attractive due to its ease of handling and availability both terrestrially and extra-terrestrially. While many storable propellants are reactive and corrosive, a propulsion scheme where the propellant is insulated from vulnerable (e.g. metallic) sections of the assembly would be well-suited to process these otherwise incompatible propellants. Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters meet this criterion because they can be operated without direct propellant-electrode interaction. During operation of these devices, electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil creating a time-varying current in the coil that interacts with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, many pulsed inductive plasma thrusters require high pulse energies to inductively ionize propellant. The Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA) is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that addressees this issue by partially ionizing propellant inside a conical inductive coil before the main current pulse via an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge. The ECR plasma is produced using microwaves and a static magnetic field from a set of permanent magnets arranged to create a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation, and in turn current sheet formation, to a region where the magnetic coupling between the plasma and the theta

  3. On applicability of the “thermalized potential” solver in simulations of the plasma flow in Hall thrusters

    In Hall thrusters, the potential distribution plays an important role in discharge processes and ion acceleration. This paper presents a 2D potential solver in the Hall thruster instead of the “thermalized potential”, and compares equipotential contours solved by these two methods for different magnetic field conditions. The comparison results reveal that the expected “thermalized potential” works very well when the magnetic field is nearly uniform and electron temperature is constant along the magnetic field lines. However for the case with a highly non-uniform magnetic field or variable electron temperature along the magnetic field lines, the “thermalized potential” is not accurate. In some case with magnetic separatrix inside the thruster channel, the “thermalized potential” model cannot be applied at all. In those cases, a full 2D potential solver must be applied. Overall, this paper shows the limit of applicability of the “thermalized potential” model

  4. $P-V$ Criticality In the Extended Phase Space of Charged Accelerating AdS Black Holes

    Liu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the $P-V$ criticality and phase transition of charged accelerating AdS black holes in the extended thermodynamic phase space in analogy between black hole system and Van der Waals liquid-gas system, where the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ is treated as a thermodynamical variable interpreted as dynamic pressure and its conjugate quantity is the thermodynamic volume of the black holes. When the electric charge vanishes, we find that no $P-V$ criticality will appear but the Hawking-Page like phase transition will be present, just as what Schwarzschild-AdS black holes behave like. For the charged case, the $P-V$ criticality appears and the accelerating black holes will undergo a small black hole/large phase transition under the condition that the acceleration parameter $A$ and the horizon radius $r_h$ meet a certain simple relation $A r_h=a$, where $a$ is a constant in our discussion. To make $P-V$ criticality appear, there exists an upper bounds for constant $a$. When $P-V$ critic...

  5. Electric propulsion and its applications to space missions

    Finke, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given the NASA, Air Force and European electric propulsion programs, the characteristics of primary electric propulsion systems, nuclear electric orbit transfer vehicles, and such topics in the fundamental processes of electrostatic thrusters as sputtering in mercury ion thrusters, the screen hole plasma sheath of an ion accelerator system, and the modelling of ion beam neutralization and nitrogen chemisorption. Also considered are electrostatic thruster components and systems, electromagnetic thrusters such as MPD and RIT systems, electric rail guns and mass drivers, power sources which include solar and nuclear alternatives, power conversion systems and their cooling apparatus, and the environmental interactions between spacecraft and their electric propulsion systems.

  6. Plasma Potential and Langmuir Probe Measurements in the Near-field Plume of the NASA-457Mv2 Hall Thruster

    Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    In order to further the design of future high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for ongoing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed on the 50-kW NASA-457Mv2. An electrostatic probe array comprised of a near-field Faraday probe, single Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the near-field plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 mean thruster diameters downstream of the thruster exit plane at the following operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V and 500 V at 30 kW and 500 V at 50 kW. Results have shown that the acceleration zone is limited to within 0.4 mean thruster diameters of the exit plane while the high-temperature region is limited to 0.25 mean thruster diameters from the exit plane at all four operating conditions. Maximum plasma potentials in the near-field at 300 and 400 V were approximately 50 V with respect to cathode potential, while maximum electron temperatures varied from 24 - 32 eV, depending on operating condition. Isothermal lines at all operating conditions were found to strongly resemble the magnetic field topology in the high-temperature regions. This distribution was found to create regions of high temperature and low density near the magnetic poles, indicating strong, thick sheath formation along these surfaces. The data taken from this study are considered valuable for future design as well as modeling validation.

  7. Plasma Potential and Langmuir Probe Measurements in the Near-field Plume of the NASA-300M Hall Thruster

    Herman, Daniel A.; Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    In order to aid in the design of high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for existing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed in the near-field plume of the NASA-300M Hall thruster. A probe array consisting of a Faraday probe, Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 mean thruster diameters downstream of the thruster exit plane at four operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V, and 500 V at 20 kW as well as 300 V at 10 kW. Results show that the acceleration zone and high-temperature region were contained within 0.3 mean thruster diameters from the exit plane at all operating conditions. Isothermal lines were shown to strongly follow magnetic field lines in the near-field, with maximum temperatures ranging from 19 - 27 eV. The electron temperature spatial distribution created large drops in measured floating potentials in front of the magnetic pole surfaces where the plasma density was low, which suggests strong sheaths at these surfaces. The data taken have provided valuable information for future design and modeling validation, and complements ongoing internal measurement efforts on the NASA-300M.

  8. Measurement of longitudinal phase space in an accelerated H- beam using a laser-induced neutralization method

    Laser-induced neutralization of H- ions is a process that can be used to measure the longitudinal phase space of accelerated H- beams. The laser-induced neutralization diagnostic approach (LINDA) measures the longitudinal emittance of an H- beam by photoneutralizing different phase slices of beam microbunches and analyzing the energy distribution of the neutral slices. A LINDA system utilizing a pulsed laser and time-of-flight analysis has successfully measured longitudinal emittance of the 5 MeV H- beam exiting the drift-tube linac of the Los Alamos Accelerator Test Stand. Design considerations associated with the LINDA laser-based emittance measuring system are given. The present LINDA system is described and its limitations are discussed. Experimental results are given from an application of the LINDA system to the measurement of longitudinal emittance growth in a drift space and following insertion into the beamline of beam transport elements comprising a single-arm funnel. A new system is proposed which uses a mode-locked laser and spectrometer to improve resolution and shorten measurement time. (orig.)

  9. Stochastic acceleration of electrons by fast magnetosonic waves in solar flares: the effects of anisotropy in velocity and wavenumber space

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chandran, Benjamin D. G., E-mail: peera@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We develop a model for stochastic acceleration of electrons in solar flares. As in several previous models, the electrons are accelerated by turbulent fast magnetosonic waves ({sup f}ast waves{sup )} via transit-time-damping (TTD) interactions. (In TTD interactions, fast waves act like moving magnetic mirrors that push the electrons parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field). We also include the effects of Coulomb collisions and the waves' parallel electric fields. Unlike previous models, our model is two-dimensional in both momentum space and wavenumber space and takes into account the anisotropy of the wave power spectrum F{sub k} and electron distribution function f {sub e}. We use weak turbulence theory and quasilinear theory to obtain a set of equations that describes the coupled evolution of F{sub k} and f {sub e}. We solve these equations numerically and find that the electron distribution function develops a power-law-like non-thermal tail within a restricted range of energies E in (E {sub nt}, E {sub max}). We obtain approximate analytic expressions for E {sub nt} and E {sub max}, which describe how these minimum and maximum energies depend upon parameters such as the electron number density and the rate at which fast-wave energy is injected into the acceleration region at large scales. We contrast our results with previous studies that assume that F{sub k} and f {sub e} are isotropic, and we compare one of our numerical calculations with the time-dependent hard-X-ray spectrum observed during the 1980 June 27 flare. In our numerical calculations, the electron energy spectra are softer (steeper) than in models with isotropic F{sub k} and f {sub e} and closer to the values inferred from observations of solar flares.

  10. The use of ionization electron columns for space-charge compensation in high intensity proton accelerators

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kapin, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a recent proposal to use strongly magnetized electron columns created by beam ionization of the residual gas for compensation of space charge forces of high intensity proton beams in synchrotrons and linacs. The electron columns formed by trapped ionization electrons in a longitudinal magnetic field that assures transverse distribution of electron space charge in the column is the same as in the proton beam. Electrostatic electrodes are used to control the accumulation and release of the electrons. Ions are not magnetized and drift away without affecting the compensation. Possible technical solution for the electron columns is presented. We also discuss the first numerical simulation results for space-charge compensation in the FNAL Booster and results of relevant beam studies in the Tevatron.

  11. Optical control of electron phase space in plasma accelerators with incoherently stacked laser pulses

    It is demonstrated that synthesizing an ultrahigh-bandwidth, negatively chirped laser pulse by incoherently stacking pulses of different wavelengths makes it possible to optimize the process of electron self-injection in a dense, highly dispersive plasma (n0∼1019 cm−3). Avoiding transformation of the driving pulse into a relativistic optical shock maintains a quasi-monoenergetic electron spectrum through electron dephasing and boosts electron energy far beyond the limits suggested by existing scaling laws. In addition, evolution of the accelerating bucket in a plasma channel is shown to produce a background-free, tunable train of femtosecond-duration, 35–100 kA, time-synchronized quasi-monoenergetic electron bunches. The combination of the negative chirp and the channel permits acceleration of electrons beyond 1 GeV in a 3 mm plasma with 1.4 J of laser pulse energy, thus offering the opportunity of high-repetition-rate operation at manageable average laser power

  12. Optical control of electron phase space in plasma accelerators with incoherently stacked laser pulses

    Kalmykov, S. Y., E-mail: skalmykov2@unl.edu; Shadwick, B. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0299 (United States); Davoine, X. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon F-91297 (France); Lehe, R.; Lifschitz, A. F. [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-CNRS-École Polytechnique UMR 7639, Palaiseau F-91761 (France)

    2015-05-15

    It is demonstrated that synthesizing an ultrahigh-bandwidth, negatively chirped laser pulse by incoherently stacking pulses of different wavelengths makes it possible to optimize the process of electron self-injection in a dense, highly dispersive plasma (n{sub 0}∼10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}). Avoiding transformation of the driving pulse into a relativistic optical shock maintains a quasi-monoenergetic electron spectrum through electron dephasing and boosts electron energy far beyond the limits suggested by existing scaling laws. In addition, evolution of the accelerating bucket in a plasma channel is shown to produce a background-free, tunable train of femtosecond-duration, 35–100 kA, time-synchronized quasi-monoenergetic electron bunches. The combination of the negative chirp and the channel permits acceleration of electrons beyond 1 GeV in a 3 mm plasma with 1.4 J of laser pulse energy, thus offering the opportunity of high-repetition-rate operation at manageable average laser power.

  13. Weak Lensing from Space I: Prospects for The Supernova/Acceleration Probe

    Rhodes, J; Aldering, G; Amanullah, R; Astier, Pierre; Barrelet, E; Bebek, C; Bergstr, L; Bercovitz, J; Bester, M; Bonissent, A; Bower, C; Carithers, W C; Commins, Eugene D; Day, C; Deustua, S; Di Gennaro, R S; Ealet, A; Eriksson, M; Fruchter, A S; Genat, J F; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Groom, D; Harris, S; Harvey, P; Heetderks, H; Holland, S; Huterer, D; Karcher, A; Kolbe, W F; Krieger, B; Lafever, R; Lamoureux, J; Levi, M; Levin, D; Linder, E V; Loken, S; Malina, R; McKee, S; Miquel, R; Mostek, N; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nugent, P; Oluseyi, H; Pain, R; Palaio, N; Pankow, D; Perlmutter, S; Pratt, R; Prieto, E; Robinson, K; Roe, N; Sholl, M; Schubnell, M S; Smadja, G; Smoot, G F; Spadafora, A; Tarl, G; Tomasch, A; Von der Lippe, H; Vincent, D; Walder, J P; Wang, G; Rhodes, Jason; Refregier, Alexandre; Massey, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The proposed Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) satellite has been recognized as an ideal instrument to measure the accelerating expansion of the universe through the distance moduli to type Ia supernovae. We show that SNAP will also be excellent for surveys of weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure. Many of the requirements for precise photometry are compatible with those to accurately measure the shapes of background galaxies. We describe two surveys to be performed by SNAP. A 15 square degree ``deep'' survey will find clusters/groups and allow two-and three-dimensional dark matter maps to be made. A 300 square degree ``wide'' survey will be used to provide global constraints on cosmological parameters including Omega_M and w, the dark energy equation of state parameter. Both surveys will be conducted in 9 wide-band optical and near-IR filters, enabling photometric redshifts to be calculated. This first paper in a three part series outlines the survey strategies and introduces the SNAP instrum...

  14. Phase-space diffusion in turbulent plasmas: The random acceleration problem revisited

    Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Phase-space diffusion of test particles in turbulent plasmas is studied by an approach based on a conditional statistical analysis of fluctuating electrostatic fields. Analytical relations between relevant conditional averages and higher-order correlations, , and triple...

  15. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters

    Reese, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Arkansas Power Electronics International (APEI), Inc., is developing a high-efficiency, radiation-hardened 3.8-kW SiC power supply for the PPU of Hall effect thrusters. This project specifically targets the design of a PPU for the high-voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster, with target specifications of 80- to 160-V input, 200- to 700-V/5A output, efficiency greater than 96 percent, and peak power density in excess of 2.5 kW/kg. The PPU under development uses SiC junction field-effect transistor power switches, components that APEI, Inc., has irradiated under total ionizing dose conditions to greater than 3 MRad with little to no change in device performance.

  16. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors -- the test mass to test mass interferometric link -- behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as non-gravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterised by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective...

  17. Numerically Accelerated Importance Sampling for Nonlinear Non-Gaussian State Space Models

    Koopman, S.J.; Lucas, A.; Scharth Figueiredo Pinto, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper led to a publication in the 'Journal of Business & Economic Statistics' , 2015, 33 (1), 114-127. We introduce a new efficient importance sampler for nonlinear non-Gaussian state space models. We propose a general and efficient likelihood evaluation method for this class of models via the combination of numerical and Monte Carlo integration methods. Our methodology explores the idea that only a small part of the likelihood evaluation problem requires simulation. We refer to our new ...

  18. Space-time trigonometry and formalization of the "Twin Paradox" for uniform and accelerated motions

    Boccaletti, Dino; Catoni, Francesco; Catoni, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The formal structure of the early Einstein's Special Relativity follows the axiomatic deductive method of Euclidean geometry. In this paper we show the deep-rooted relation between Euclidean and space-time geometries that are both linked to a two-dimensional number system: the complex and hyperbolic numbers, respectively. By studying the properties of these numbers together, pseudo-Euclidean trigonometry has been formalized with an axiomatic deductive method and this allows us to give a compl...

  19. Reentry trajectories of a space glider, taking acceleration and heating constraints into account

    Strauss, Adi

    1988-03-01

    Three-dimensional trajectories for aerodynamically controlled reentry of an unpowered Space Shuttle-type vehicle from equatorial orbit are investigated analytically, summarizing the results obtained in the author's thesis (Strauss, 1987). Computer programs constructed on the basis of the governing equations of Chern and Yang (1982) and Chern and Vinh (1980) in modified dimensionless Chapman variables are used to optimize the roll angle and lift coefficient of the trajectories. Typical results are presented in graphs and maps and shown to be in good agreement with AVION SPATIAL predictions for the ESA Hermes spacecraft.

  20. Plasma plume characterization of a vacuum arc thruster

    Sekerak, Michael James

    A Vacuum Arc Thruster (VAT) is a thruster that uses the plasma created in a vacuum arc, an electrical discharge in a vacuum that creates high velocity and highly ionized plasmas, as the propellant without additional acceleration. A VAT would be a small and inexpensive low thrust ion thruster, ideal for small satellites and formation flying spacecraft. The purpose of this thesis was to quantitatively and qualitatively examine the VAT plasma plume to determine operating characteristics and limitations. A VAT with a titanium cathode was operated in two regimes: (A) single ˜100mus pulse, discharge current JD=510A, and (B) multiple ˜1500mus pulses at f=40.8Hz, JD=14A. The cathode was 3.18mm diameter Ti rod, surrounded by a 0.80mm thick alumina insulator, set in a molybdenum anode. Three Configurations were tested: Cfg1 (Regime A, cathode recessed 3.00mm from anode), Cfg2 (Regime A, cathode and anode flush), Cfg3 (Regime B, cathode recessed 3.00mm). A semi-empirical model was derived for VAT performance based on the MHD equation of motion using data for ion velocity, ion charge state distribution, ion current fraction (F), and ion current density distribution (ICDD). Additional performance parameters were a2, the peak ion current density angular offset from the cathode normal, and a3, the width of the ion current distribution. Measurements were taken at 162 points on a plane in the plasma plume using a custom faraday probe, and the ICDD empirical form was determined to be a Gaussian. The discharge voltage (VD) and F were Cfg1: VD=25.5V, F=0.025-0.035; Cfg2: VD=40.7V, F=0.08-0.10; Cfg3: VD=14.9V, F=0.006-0.021. For Cfg1, a2 started 15° off-axis while a2˜0 for Cfg2 and 3. In Cfg1, a 3=0.7-0.6, and in Cfg2 a3=1.0-1.1, so the recessed cathode focused the plasma more. However, F is more important for VAT performance because upper and lower bounds for thrust, specific impulse, thrust-to-power, and efficiency were calculated and Cfg2 had the highest performance. High

  1. Ghost-free massive f(R) theories modeled as effective Einstein spaces and cosmic acceleration

    Vacaru, Sergiu I. [CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Rector' s Office, Iasi (Romania)

    2014-11-15

    We study how massive ghost-free gravity f(R)-modified theories, MGFTs, can be encoded into generic off-diagonal Einstein spaces. Using ''auxiliary'' connections completely defined by the metric fields and adapted to nonholonomic frames with associated nonlinear connection structure, we decouple and integrate in certain general forms the field equations in MGFT. Imposing additional nonholonomic constraints, we can generate Levi-Civita, LC, configurations and mimic MGFT effects via off-diagonal interactions of effective Einstein and/or Einstein-Cartan gravity with nonholonomically induced torsion. We show that imposing nonholonomic constraints it is possible reproduce very specific models of massive f(R) gravity studied in Cai et al. (arXiv:1307.7150, 2013), Klusonet al. (Phys Lett B 726:918, 2013), Nojiri and Odintov (Phys Lett B 716:377, 2012) and Nojiri et al. (JCAP 1305:020, 2013). The cosmological evolution of ghost-free off-diagonal Einstein spaces is investigated. Certain compatibility of MGFT cosmology to small off-diagonal deformations of ΛCDM models is established. (orig.)

  2. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  3. Overview of NASA Iodine Hall Thruster Propulsion System Development

    Smith, Timothy D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Haag, Thomas; Dankanich, John; Polzin, Kurt; Byrne, Lawrence; Szabo, James

    2016-01-01

    NASA is continuing to invest in advancing Hall thruster technologies for implementation in commercial and government missions. The most recent focus has been on increasing the power level for large-scale exploration applications. However, there has also been a similar push to examine applications of electric propulsion for small spacecraft in the range of 300 kg or less. There have been several recent iodine Hall propulsion system development activities performed by the team of the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Busek Co. Inc. In particular, the work focused on qualification of the Busek 200-W BHT-200-I and development of the 600-W BHT-600-I systems. This paper discusses the current status of iodine Hall propulsion system developments along with supporting technology development efforts.

  4. Power electronics for a 1-kilowatt arcjet thruster

    Gruber, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    After more than two decades, new space mission requirements have revived interest in arcjet systems. The preliminary development and demonstration of new, high efficiency, power electronic concepts for start up and steady state control of dc arcjets is reported. The design comprises a pulse width modulated power converter which is closed loop configured to give fast current control. An inductor, in series with the arcjet, serves the dual role of providing instantaneous current control, as well as a high voltage arc ignition pulse. Benchmark efficiency, transient response, regulation, and ripple data are presented. Tests with arcjets demonstrate that the power electronics breadboard can start thrusters consistently with no apparent damage and transfer reliably to the nondestructive high voltage arc mode in less than a second.

  5. Use of electronic space charge to accelerate, focus and bunch plasma ions for pellet fusion

    Prior experiments have shown that deep, nearly parabolic, potential wells can be created by the injection of electrons into a spherical diode. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that a large fraction of the input power can be transferred from the electronic space charge to ion motion provided the electron collection probability is small. However, the instantaneous power required for pellet fusion is still beyond the capabilities of existing machines. By utilizing the spherically symmetric potential wells found previously, the instantaneous power delivered to a small target at the center can be magnified (or bunched) by factors of 10 to 100. The measurement of these potentials, the comparison with a realistic theory, and an extrapolation to higher voltages/energies will be presented. Recent experiments are described which imply that bunching is present in a planar diode. Although the experiments were performed at low voltages (kV), the extrapolation with constant perveance is straightforward

  6. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin

    2013-02-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.

  7. Late Time Acceleration of the 3-Space in a Higher Dimensional Steady State Universe in Dilaton Gravity

    Akarsu, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w=1 and w=1/2 that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scale...

  8. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    interface realizes pseudo-plastic behavior with significant increase in the tensile strength. The investigation of high-temperature strength of C/Cs under high-rate heating (critical for thrust chambers) shows that tensile and compression strength increases from 70 MPa at room temperature to 110 MPa at 1,773 K, and up to 125 MPa at 2,473 K. Despite these unique properties, the use of C/Cs is limited by its high oxidation rate at elevated temperatures. Lining carbon/carbon chambers with a thin layer of iridium or iridium and rhenium is an innovative way to use proven refractory metals and provide the oxidation barrier necessary to enable the use of carbon/ carbon composites. Due to the lower density of C/Cs as compared to SiC/SiC composites, an iridium liner can be added to the C/C structure and still be below the overall thruster weight. Weight calculations show that C/C, C/C with 50 microns of Ir, and C/C with 100 microns of Ir are of less weight than alternative materials for the same construction.

  9. Thermo-mechanical design aspects of mercury bombardment ion thrusters.

    Schnelker, D. E.; Kami, S.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical design criteria are presented as background considerations for solving problems associated with the thermomechanical design of mercury ion bombardment thrusters. Various analytical procedures are used to aid in the development of thruster subassemblies and components in the fields of heat transfer, vibration, and stress analysis. Examples of these techniques which provide computer solutions to predict and control stress levels encountered during launch and operation of thruster systems are discussed. Computer models of specific examples are presented.

  10. Chromatic, geometric and space charge effects on laser accelerated protons focused by a solenoid

    Al-Omari, Husam; Hofmann, Ingo; Ratzinger, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We stud­ied nu­mer­i­cal­ly emit­tance and trans­mis­sion ef­fects by chro­mat­ic and ge­o­met­ric aber­ra­tions, with and with­out space charge, for a pro­ton beam be­hind a solenoid in the laser pro­ton ex­per­i­ment LIGHT at GSI. The TraceWin code was em­ployed using a field map for the solenoid and an ini­tial dis­tri­bu­tion with ex­po­nen­tial en­er­gy de­pen­dence close to the ex­per­i­ment. The re­sults show a strong ef­fect of chro­mat­ic, and a rel­a­tive­ly weak one of ge­o­met­ric...

  11. Resonating Nitrous Oxide Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AeroAstro proposes decomposing nitrous oxide (N2O) as an alternative propellant to existing spacecraft propellants. Decomposing N2O can be used as either a high...

  12. Pressure History Measurement in a Microwave Beaming Thruster

    In a microwave beaming thruster with a 1-dimensional nozzle, plasma and shock wave propagates in the nozzle absorbing microwave power. In this study, pressure histories in the thruster are measured using pressure gauges. Measured pressure history at the thruster wall shows constant pressure during plasma propagation in the nozzle. The result of measurement of the propagating velocities of shock wave and plasma shows that both propagate in the same velocity. These result shows that thrust producing model of analogy of pulse detonation engine is successful for the 1D thruster

  13. Ion velocities in a micro-cathode arc thruster

    Ion velocities in the plasma jet generated by the micro-cathode arc thruster are studied by means of time-of-flight method using enhanced ion detection system (EIDS). The EIDS triggers perturbations (spikes) on arc current waveform, and the larger current in the spike generates denser plasma bunches propagating along with the mainstream plasma. The EIDS utilizes double electrostatic probes rather than single probes. The average Ti ion velocity is measured to be around 2×104 m/s without a magnetic field. It was found that the application of a magnetic field does not change ion velocities in the interelectrode region while leads to ion acceleration in the free expanding plasma plume by a factor of about 2. Ion velocities of about 3.5×104 m/s were detected for the magnetic field of about 300 mT at distance of about 100–200 mm from the cathode. It is proposed that plasma is accelerated due to Lorentz force. The average thrust is calculated using the ion velocity measurements and the cathode mass consumption rate, and its increase with the magnetic field is demonstrated.

  14. Experimental and analytical ion thruster research

    Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Friedly, V. J.; Peng, Xiaohang; Keefer, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    The results of further spectroscopic studies on the plume from a 3 cm ion source operated on an argon propellant is reported on. In particular, it is shown that it should be possible to use the spectroscopic technique to measure the plasma density of the ion plume close to the grids, where it is difficult to use electrical probe measurements. How the technique, along with electrical probe measurements in the far downstream region of the plume, can be used to characterize the operation of a three-grid, 15 cm diameter thruster from NASA JPL is outlined. Pumping speed measurements on the Vacuum Research Facility have shown that this facility should be adequate for testing the JPL thruster at pressures in the low 10(exp -5) Torr range. Finally, we describe a simple analytical model which can be used to calculate the grid impingement current which results from charge-exchange collisions in the ion plume.

  15. Determination of the Hall Thruster Operating Regimes

    L. Dorf; V. Semenov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2002-04-09

    A quasi one-dimensional (1-D) steady-state model of the Hall thruster is presented. For the same discharge voltage two operating regimes are possible -- with and without the anode sheath. For given mass flow rate, magnetic field profile and discharge voltage a unique solution can be constructed, assuming that the thruster operates in one of the regimes. However, we show that for a given temperature profile the applied discharge voltage uniquely determines the operating regime: for discharge voltages greater than a certain value, the sheath disappears. That result is obtained over a wide range of incoming neutral velocities, channel lengths and widths, and cathode plane locations. It is also shown that a good correlation between the quasi 1-D model and experimental results can be achieved by selecting an appropriate electron mobility and temperature profile.

  16. Modelling tunnel thrusters for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Palmer, A.; Hearn, G.E.; Stevenson, P

    2008-01-01

    With 900 Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) required over the next decade (Newman et al., 2007) existing survey-style AUVs need improved utilization factors. Additional control devices to extend operational capability need consideration together with the interchange between AUV control approaches. This paper considers supplementary through-body tunnel thruster control during the transition from survey operation to low-speed manoeuvring. Modified manoeuvring equations permit investigation o...

  17. An Experimental Study of a Low-Jitter Pulsed Electromagnetic Plasma Accelerator

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Lee, Michael; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An experimental plasma accelerator for a variety of applications under development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. The accelerator is a pulsed plasma thruster and has been tested experimentally and plasma jet velocities of approximately 50 kilometers per second have been obtained. The plasma jet structure has been photographed with 10 ns exposure times to reveal a stable and repeatable plasma structure. Data for velocity profile information has been obtained using light pipes embedded in the gun walls to record the plasma transit at various barrel locations. Preliminary spatially resolved spectral data and magnetic field probe data are also presented. A high speed triggering system has been developed and tested as a means of reducing the gun "jitter". This jitter has been characterized and future work for second generation "ultra-low jitter" gun development is identified.

  18. Progress In Plasma Accelerator Development for Dynamic Formation of Plasma Liners

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Lee, Michael; Cassibry, Jason T.; Griffin, Steven; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental plasma accelerator for magnetic target fusion (MTF) applications under development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. The accelerator is a coaxial pulsed plasma thruster (Figure 1). It has been tested experimentally and plasma jet velocities of approx.50 km/sec have been obtained. The plasma jet has been photographed with 10-ns exposure times to reveal a stable and repeatable plasma structure (Figure 2). Data for velocity profile information has been obtained using light pipes and magnetic probes embedded in the gun walls to record the plasma and current transit respectively at various barrel locations. Preliminary spatially resolved spectral data and magnetic field probe data are also presented. A high speed triggering system has been developed and tested as a means of reducing the gun "jitter". This jitter is being characterized and future work for second generation "ultra-low jitter" gun development is being identified.

  19. The manifestation of Alfven's hypothesis of critical ionization velocity in the performance of MPD thrusters

    Choueiri, E. Y.; Kelly, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The role of Alfven's critical ionization velocity in the performance of the self-field MPD thruster has been investigated. The existence of a well defined characteristic velocity can be attributed to an ionization process involving the production of a population of suprathermal electrons by an electrostatic instability. It is shown that for the MPD thruster plasma, suprathermalization of electrons via this electrostatic instability can only happen if ions are initially accelerated to velocities larger than the Alfven critical ionization velocity. When this occurs the mechanism will be initiated and the ions decelerated to velocities near the critical velocity. This mechanism ceases to be limiting when all neutrals are ionized. A model of MPD thruster terminal behavior, incorporating Alfven's hypothesis, is presented. Experiments with three different propellants reveal that operation at values of the current squared to total mass flow ratio corresponding to the Alfven critical velocity is marked by a transition wherein low frequency voltage oscillations and a notable change in the voltage-current dependence occurs. One major result of this study is the demonstration that the Alfven critical velocity is not a fundamental limitation on MPD exhaust velocity.

  20. Ion properties in a Hall current thruster operating at high voltage

    Garrigues, L.

    2016-04-01

    Operation of a 5 kW-class Hall current Thruster for various voltages from 400 V to 800 V and a xenon mass flow rate of 6 mg s-1 have been studied with a quasi-neutral hybrid model. In this model, anomalous electron transport is fitted from ion mean velocity measurements, and energy losses due to electron-wall interactions are used as a tuned parameter to match expected electron temperature strength for same class of thruster. Doubly charged ions production has been taken into account and detailed collisions between heavy species included. As the electron temperature increases, the main channel of Xe2+ ion production becomes stepwise ionization of Xe+ ions. For an applied voltage of 800 V, the mass utilization efficiency is in the range of 0.8-1.1, and the current fraction of doubly charged ions varies between 0.1 and 0.2. Results show that the region of ion production of each species is located at the same place inside the thruster channel. Because collision processes mean free path is larger than the acceleration region, each type of ions experiences same potential drop, and ion energy distributions of singly and doubly charged are very similar.

  1. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....

  2. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  3. Reduction of ionization instability in micro hall accelerator

    With a view to realizing a micro hall accelerator for micro/nano satellite, a reduction technology of plasma magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) wave turbulence was estimated using numerical analysis. At high-voltage mode of DC regime, plasma MHD wave turbulence of various frequencies is observed. Large-amplitude discharge current oscillation in the tens of kHz 'low-frequency oscillation' among them has been a serious problem that should be solved to improve the operational stability and the propulsion system durability. So the dependencies of the propulsion performances including amplitude/frequency of low-frequency oscillation on various operational parameters are clarified in this research. Besides, a new physical parameter 'average length of ionization-zone' which we propose, can be varied by neutral particles velocity and is correlated conversely with amplitude. To increase neutral species velocity-inlet in acceleration channel by preheating propellant through circulate propellant inside thruster can bring about the lower amplitude of low-frequency oscillation. At the same time it causes cooling propulsion, and the higher thrust and specific impulse with hardly changing thrust efficiency. Also, spatiotemporal variations of plasma properties and electromagnetic field were obtained in acceleration channel at the peculiar times in low frequency oscillation. This knowledge would be useful for proposing ideal design and parametric conditions of micro micro hall accelerator as a promising high-performance propulsion device in space missions requiring for high-reliance. (author)

  4. Investigation on plume interference effect of solid propellant micro-thruster

    ZHANG Bin; MAO Gen-wang; HU Song-qi; CHEN Mao-lin

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional numerical simulation of two-phase plume flow of solid propellant micro-thrusters was developed.Then it was used to investigate the plume interference effect by combining the direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC) method for multi-component gas flow with the two-way coupling model for two-phase rarefied flow.At different space between the two micro-thrusters and different wall temperature,the plume interference effect was analyzed specifically.The results show that under the plume interference effect the gas is compressed and the flow direction is changed,which resulted in the increasing of gas pressure and temperature;solid phase made no significant effect on the flow parameters of gas phase;with the rising of the space between the two micro-thrusters,the maximum pressure decreased and the maximum temperature increased in the domain under the plume interference effect;the wall temperature could influence the temperature of the gas which is extremely close to the wall,but not the gas pressure.

  5. Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The components required for an in-space iodine vapor-fed Hall effect thruster propellant management system are described. A laboratory apparatus was assembled and used to produce iodine vapor and control the flow through the application of heating to the propellant reservoir and through the adjustment of the opening in a proportional flow control valve. Changing of the reservoir temperature altered the flowrate on the timescale of minutes while adjustment of the proportional flow control valve changed the flowrate immediately without an overshoot or undershoot in flowrate with the requisite recovery time associated with thermal control systems. The flowrates tested spanned a range from 0-1.5 mg/s of iodine, which is sufficient to feed a 200-W Hall effect thruster.

  6. Effect of the Hollow Cathode Heat Power on the Performance of an Hall-Effect Thruster

    NING Zhongxi; YU Daren; LI Hong; YAN Guojun

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the hollow cathode heat power on the performance of a Hall-effect thruster is investigated. The variations in the Hall-effect thruster's performance (thrust, specific impulse and anode efficiency) with the hollow cathode heat power was obtained from the analysis of the experimental data. Through an analysis on the coupling relationship between the electrons emitted from the hollow cathode and the environmental plasma, it was found that the heat power would affect the electron emission of the emitter and the space potential of the coupling zone, which would lead to a change in the effective discharge voltage. The experimental data agree well with the results of calculation which can be used to explain the experimental phenomena.

  7. Demonstration of space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering capability for warm dense matter experiments on the Z accelerator

    Ao, T.; Harding, E. C.; Bailey, J. E.; Lemke, R. W.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Hansen, S. B.; Smith, I. C.; Geissel, M.; Maurer, A.; Reneker, J.; Romero, D.; Sinars, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Benage, J. F.

    2016-03-01

    Experiments on the Sandia Z pulsed-power accelerator have demonstrated the ability to produce warm dense matter (WDM) states with unprecedented uniformity, duration, and size, which are ideal for investigations of fundamental WDM properties. For the first time, space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) spectra from shocked carbon foams were recorded on Z. The large (>20 MA) electrical current produced by Z was used to launch Al flyer plates up to 25 km/s. The impact of the flyer plate on a CH2 foam target produced a shocked state with an estimated pressure of 0.75 Mbar, density of 0.52 g/cm3, and temperature of 4.3 eV. Both unshocked and shocked portions of the foam target were probed with 6.2 keV x-rays produced by focusing the Z-Beamlet laser onto a nearby Mn foil. The data are composed of three spatially distinct spectra that were simultaneously captured with a single spectrometer with high spectral (4.8 eV) and spatial (190 μm) resolutions. Detailed spectral information from three target locations is provided simultaneously: the incident x-ray source, the scattered signal from unshocked foam, and the scattered signal from shocked foam.

  8. Hall-Effect Thruster Utilizing Bismuth as Propellant

    Szabo, James; Gasdaska, Charles; Hruby, Vlad; Robin, Mike

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-model Hall-effect spacecraft thruster was developed that utilizes bismuth as the propellant. Xenon was used in most prior Hall-effect thrusters. Bismuth is an attractive alternative because it has a larger atomic mass, a larger electron-impact-ionization cross-section, and is cheaper and more plentiful.

  9. Monopropellant Thruster Firing Test using KC12GA Catalyst

    Goto, D.; Kagawa, H.; Hattori, A.; Kajiwara, K.

    2004-10-01

    Many monopropellant thrusters use a catalyst for decomposing the propellant, hydrazine. The catalyst directly affects the thruster performance and lifetime. Therefore, it is important to confirm that the catalyst is suitable for our thrusters. Until 2002, we used Shell405 catalyst for satellite and H-IIA launch vehicle upperstage RCS thrusters. In 2002, however, Shell Chemical Inc. ceased manufacturing Shell405 catalyst and transferred the product to AEROJET, where it was renamed S405. We found KC12GA (Hydrazine decomposition catalyst, manufactured by Solvay, Belgium) as well as S405 and checked physical properties of KC12GA and S405. We then conducted a series of spontaneous tests, including life firing tests on various monopropellant thrusters (20N, 4N and 1N) loaded with KC12GA. The result showed that KC12GA was compatible with Shell 405, and that thrusters with KC12GA might have longer life than thrusters with Shell 405. This paper reports our comparison of Shell 405 and KC12GA applied to JAXA/lA monopropellant thrusters.

  10. Effects of Enhanced Eathode Electron Emission on Hall Thruster Operation

    Y. Raitses, A. Smirnov and N. J. Fisch

    2009-04-24

    Interesting discharge phenomena are observed that have to do with the interaction between the magnetized Hall thruster plasma and the neutralizing cathode. The steadystate parameters of a highly ionized thruster discharge are strongly influenced by the electron supply from the cathode. The enhancement of the cathode electron emission above its self-sustained level affects the discharge current and leads to a dramatic reduction of the plasma divergence and a suppression of large amplitude, low frequency discharge current oscillations usually related to an ionization instability. These effects correlate strongly with the reduction of the voltage drop in the region with the fringing magnetic field between the thruster channel and the cathode. The measured changes of the plasma properties suggest that the electron emission affects the electron cross-field transport in the thruster discharge. These trends are generalized for Hall thrusters of various configurations.

  11. Performance Characterization of the Air Force Transformational Satellite 12 kW Hall Thruster

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas W.; Smith, Timothy; Herman, Daniel; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Peterson, Peter; Mathers, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The STMD GCD ISP project is tasked with developing, maturing, and testing enabling human exploration propulsion requirements and potential designs for advanced high-energy, in-space propulsion systems to support deep-space human exploration and reduce travel time between Earth's orbit and future destinations for human activity. High-power Hall propulsion systems have been identified as enabling technologies and have been the focus of the activities at NASA Glenn-In-house effort to evaluate performance and interrogate operation of NASA designed and manufactured Hall thrusters. Evaluate existing high TRL EP devices that may be suitable for implementation in SEP TDM.

  12. A comparison of mutations induced by accelerated iron particles versus those induced by low earth orbit space radiation in the FEM-3 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Hartman, P. S.; Hlavacek, A.; Wilde, H.; Lewicki, D.; Schubert, W.; Kern, R. G.; Kazarians, G. A.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Nelson, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The fem-3 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to determine the mutation frequency as well as the nature of mutations induced by low earth orbit space radiation ambient to Space Shuttle flight STS-76. Recovered mutations were compared to those induced by accelerated iron ions generated by the AGS synchrotron accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. For logistical reasons, dauer larvae were prepared at TCU, transported to either Kennedy Space Center or Brookhaven National Laboratory, flown in space or irradiated, returned to TCU and screened for mutants. A total of 25 fem-3 mutants were recovered after the shuttle flight and yielded a mutation frequency of 2.1x10(-5), roughly 3.3-fold higher than the spontaneous rate of 6.3x10(-6). Four of the mutations were homozygous inviable, suggesting that they were large deletions encompassing fem-3 as well as neighboring, essential genes. Southern blot analyses revealed that one of the 25 contained a polymorphism in fem-3, further evidence that space radiation can induce deletions. While no polymorphisms were detected among the iron ion-induced mutations, three of the 15 mutants were homozygous inviable, which is in keeping with previous observations that high LET iron particles generate deficiencies. These data provide evidence, albeit indirect, that an important mutagenic component of ambient space radiation is high LET charged particles such as iron ions.

  13. Recent Development Activities and Future Mission Applications of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing next generation ion propulsion technologies to enhance the performance and lower the costs of future NASA space science missions. This is being accomplished by producing Engineering Model (EM) and Prototype Model (PM) components, validating these via qualification-level and integrated system testing, and preparing the transition of NEXT technologies to flight system development. This presentation is a follow-up to the NEXT project overviews presented in 2009-2010. It reviews the status of the NEXT project, presents the current system performance characteristics, and describes planned activities in continuing the transition of NEXT technology to a first flight. In 2013 a voluntary decision was made to terminate the long duration test of the NEXT thruster, given the thruster design has exceeded all expectations by accumulating over 50,000 hours of operation to demonstrate around 900 kg of xenon throughput. Besides its promise for upcoming NASA science missions, NEXT has excellent potential for future commercial and international spacecraft applications.

  14. Structural control interaction for an LSS attitude control system using thrusters and reaction wheels

    da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Bainum, Peter M.; da Silva, Adenilson R.

    2007-05-01

    This work provides some important information about control structure interaction (CSI) for a large space structure (LSS) attitude control subsystem (ACS) comprised of thrusters and reaction wheels. The LSS physical model is assumed as a rigid long tubular beam as the main bus with two attached long flexible solar panels. Two thrusters (one at each tip of the LSS) are used for large amplitude maneuvers and the reaction wheels for fine control. Lagrange's formulations for generalized and quasi-coordinates were used to derive the equations of motion. The gravity gradient, the solar pressure and the drag were included in the mathematical model as external perturbations. The assumed modes discretization method has been used to model the solar array elastic displacements so as to obtain a set of ordinary differential equations to describe the LSS motion. Different control strategies were implemented to analyze the CSI for two configurations, fine and coarse control. The MatLab/Simulink platform has been used for the computational simulations. The results are in agreement with the CSI theory in that thruster firings excite the solar panel vibrations and that the elastic vibration is an important issue to be taken into account for LSS ACS performance evaluation for both fine and coarse control. In spite of the CSI the maneuver objectives have been accomplished with results that meet the mission criteria.

  15. Simplified power supplies for ion thrusters

    Gruber, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    A program addressing less complex and potentially lower cost ion thruster systems has been started at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This paper discusses the initial development and demonstration of power supplies with an order of magnitude reduction in parts count, leading to increased reliability at lower weight, while still maintaining thrust system performance. Two new self-regulating keeper power supply circuits were developed and tested. One supply comprises 14 parts and uses an input voltage range of 18 to 36 volts, the other operates from 200 to 400 volts and requires 22 components. A new technique for controlling heater power is also demonstrated.

  16. Small satellites are beautiful. [Ion thruster propulsion

    Furniss, Tim

    AEA Technology, the commercial arm of the UK Atomic Energy Authority, is conducting an internally funded, detailed definition study of a spacecraft 'bus' and propulsion system for small, economical, off-the-shelf satellites, launched quickly by low cost boosters. These 'lightsats', as they are called, could use an ion thruster to increase payload capability or launcher enhancement. This article discusses the concept and its novel propulsion system, which may fly a demonstration mission later this decade. (Author).

  17. Overview of the Development of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission 12.5-kW Hall Thruster

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Chang, Li; Clayman, Lauren; Herman, Daniel; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Verhey, Timothy; Griffith, Christopher; Myers, James; Williams, George; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard; Polk, James; Goebel, Dan

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing mission concepts for a solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. A number of mission concepts are being evaluated including ambitious missions to near Earth objects. The demonstration of a high-power solar electric propulsion capability is one of the objectives of the candidate missions under consideration. In support of NASA's exploration goals, a number of projects are developing extensible technologies to support NASA's near and long term mission needs. Specifically, the Space Technology Mission Directorate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission project is funding the development of a 12.5-kilowatt magnetically shielded Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. This paper presents the design attributes of the thruster that was collaboratively developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The paper provides an overview of the magnetic, plasma, thermal, and structural modeling activities that were carried out in support of the thruster design. The paper also summarizes the results of the functional tests that have been carried out to date. The planned thruster performance, plasma diagnostics (internal and in the plume), thermal, wear, and mechanical tests are outlined.

  18. Cassini Thruster Calibration Algorithm Using Reaction Wheel Biasing Data

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2012-01-01

    Thrust force estimates for the reaction control thrusters on-board Cassini spacecraft are presented in this paper. Cassini consists of two thruster branches (A and B) each with eight thrusters. The four Z-thrusters control the X and Y-axes, while the four Y-thrusters control the Z-axis. It is important to track the thrust force estimates in order to detect any thruster degradation and for supporting various activities in spacecraft operations (Titan flyby, spacecraft maneuvers). The Euler equation, which describes the rotational motion of the spacecraft during a reaction wheel bias event, is used to develop the algorithm. The thrust estimates are obtained from the pseudo inverse solution using flight telemetry during the bias. Results show that the A-branch Z3A and Z4A thrusters exhibited degraded thrust in November 2008. Due to the degraded thrust performance of Z3A and Z4A, A-branch usage was discontinued and prime branch was swapped to B-branch in March 2009. The thrust estimates from the B-branch do not show any degradation to date. The algorithm is used to trend the B-branch thrust force estimates as the mission continues.

  19. Field calculations, single-particle tracking, and beam dynamics with space charge in the electron lens for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Noll, Daniel; Stancari, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    An electron lens is planned for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator as a nonlinear element for integrable dynamics, as an electron cooler, and as an electron trap to study space-charge compensation in rings. We present the main design principles and constraints for nonlinear integrable optics. A magnetic configuration of the solenoids and of the toroidal section is laid out. Single-particle tracking is used to optimize the electron path. Electron beam dynamics at high intensity is...

  20. Sputtering erosion in ion and plasma thrusters

    Ray, Pradosh K.

    1995-08-01

    An experimental set-up to measure low-energy (below 1 keV) sputtering of materials is described. The materials to be bombarded represent ion thruster components as well as insulators used in the stationary plasma thruster. The sputtering takes place in a 9 inch diameter spherical vacuum chamber. Ions of argon, krypton and xenon are used to bombard the target materials. The sputtered neutral atoms are detected by a secondary neutral mass spectrometer (SNMS). Samples of copper, nickel, aluminum, silver and molybdenum are being sputtered initially to calibrate the spectrometer. The base pressure of the chamber is approximately 2 x 10(exp -9) Torr. the primary ion beam is generated by an ion gun which is capable of delivering ion currents in the range of 20 to 500 nA. The ion beam can be focused to a size approximately 1 mm in diameter. The mass spectrometer is positioned 10 mm from the target and at 90 deg angle to the primary ion beam direction. The ion beam impinges on the target at 45 deg. For sputtering of insulators, charge neutralization is performed by flooding the sample with electrons generated from an electron gun. Preliminary sputtering results, methods of calculating the instrument response function of the spectrometer and the relative sensitivity factors of the sputtered elements will be discussed.

  1. High temperature thruster technology for spacecraft propulsion

    Schneider, Steven J.

    A technology program has been underway since 1985 to develop high temperature oxidation-resistant thrusters for spacecraft applications. The successful development of this technology will provide the basis for the design of higher performance satellite engines with reduced plume contamination. Alternatively, this technology program will provide a material with high thermal margin to operate at conventional temperatures and provide increased life for refuelable or reusable spacecraft. The new chamber material consists of a rhenium substrate coated with iridium for oxidation protection. This material increases the operating temperature of thrusters to 2200°C, a significant increase over the 1400°C of the silicide-coated niobium chambers currently used. Stationkeeping class 22 N engines fabricated from iridium-coated rhenium have demonstrated steady state specific impulses 20 to 25 seconds higher than niobium chambers. Ir-Re apogee class 440 N engines are expected to deliver an additional 10 to 15 seconds. These improved performances are obtained by reducing or eliminating the fuel film cooling requirements in the combustion chamber while operating at the same overall mixture ratio as conventional engines. The program is attempting to envelope flight qualification requirements to reduce the potential risks and costs of flight qualification programs.

  2. A Simulation Approach for ICRF Plasma Thruster Antennas

    In the past twenty years plasma-based propulsion systems have found increasing aerospace interest; although they were initially conceived as rockets for interplanetary missions, more recent advances in plasma-based concepts have led to the identification of radio-frequency (RF) generation and acceleration systems as capable of providing not only continuous thrust, but also controllable exhaust velocities, as required in maneuvering applications. The most interesting such studies for plasma propulsion are those focused on the possibility of coupling radio frequency power to plasma, exploiting the possibility of having very efficient devices to generate and heat the plasma, magnetically confining it in a trap in the heating region, so that ion can escape the magnetic trap only when they are energetic enough to be converted into direct out-going flow which provides the thrust. The structure of this system is therefore based on of three stages where plasma is respectively generated, heated and expanded in a magnetic nozzle. The heating stage acts as an amplifier; here plasma is heated by the radio frequency waves by the process of ion cyclotron resonance. It has been developed and tested a numerical tool for the electromagnetic modeling of the ICRF antenna, of the RF booster unit of plasma thrusters, and of the RF-plasma interactions. The latter is studied in the critical ICRF acceleration region by setting up a convenient Electromagnetic (EM) analytical and numerical model based on the Moment-Method solution of a suitable set of integral equations. Solution of the relevant integral equation directly provides the electric surface current density induced on antenna conductors, but the ultimate quantity to be computed is the circuit characterization (e.g. admittance matrix) at the input ports

  3. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  4. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    Cassady, R. Joseph [Aerojet Corp., Redmond, CA (United States); Frisbee, Robert H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Gilland, James H. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Houts, Michael G. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); LaPointe, Michael R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)], E-mail: michael.r.lapointe@nasa.gov; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Oleson, Steven R. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Polk, James E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Russell, Derrek [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Sengupta, Anita [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems.

  5. Active control of the attitude motion and structural vibration of a flexible satellite by jet thrusters

    Lee, Mokin

    A Lagrangian formulation is used to obtain the equations of motion of a flexible satellite in a tree-type geometry. The flexible satellite model is the geosynchronous INSAT-II type satellite with a flexible balance beam and a flexible solar panel attached to the rigid main body. In deriving the equations of motion, the orbital motion, the librational motion, and the structural motion of flexible bodies are involved. The assumed-modes method is used to express the deflections of the flexible structures in the form of a finite series of space-dependent admissible functions multiplied by time-dependent amplitudes. The kinetic energy, potential energy, strain energy, and virtual work of the flexible satellite are evaluated as functions of time in terms of the generalized coordinates. Then, by substituting them into Lagrange's equations for discrete systems, the governing equations of motion of the flexible satellite are obtained as a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The attitude motion and the structural motion of the flexible satellite are coupled motions with one another. Uncontrolled dynamics show that the librational and structural motions are oscillatory and undamped motions. The stability and performance of the flexible satellite needs to be improved by designing control systems. A control objective is proposed to improve the stability and performance for pointing accuracy maneuver by controlling the librational motions and flexible modes simultaneously. For the control objective, a control system is synthesized, using feedback linearization control, thrust determination, thrust management, and pulse-width pulse-frequency modulation. Feedback linearization for second-order nonlinear systems is used to obtain a stable feedback control system for the pointing-accuracy control. A stable feedback control system is obtained by adjusting the diagonal matrices of the linear second-order system. Jet thrusters are used as the primary

  6. Simulation of Main Plasma Parameters of a Cylindrical Asymmetric Capacitively Coupled Plasma Micro-Thruster using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Amelia eGreig

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of a radio-frequency (13.56 MHz electro-thermal capacitively coupled plasma (CCP micro-thruster have been performed using the commercial CFD-ACE+ package. Standard operating conditions of a 10 W, 1.5 Torr argon discharge were used to compare with previously obtained experimental results for validation. Results show that the driving force behind plasma production within the thruster is ion-induced secondary electrons ejected from the surface of the discharge tube, accelerated through the sheath to electron temperatures up to 33.5 eV. The secondary electron coefficient was varied to determine the effect on the discharge, with results showing that full breakdown of the discharge did not occur for coefficients coefficients less than or equal to 0.01.

  7. Performance characteristics according to the radial position of gas distributor holes in a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster

    Gao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Hui; Hu, Peng; Huang, Hongyan; Yu, Daren

    2016-08-01

    The effect of radial position of gas holes in the distributor on the performance of cylindrical Hall thruster was investigated. A series of gas distributors with different radial positions (Rg) of holes were designed in the experiment. The results show that the larger Rg leads to the higher ion current and electron current; meanwhile, the beam angle in plume is narrowed. Nevertheless, the peak energy in ion energy distribution function increases, together with the narrowing of ion energy distribution function. As a result, the overall performance is enhanced. It is suggested that the growing of Rg could lead to the movement of the main ionization region towards anode, which could promote ion velocity and the clearer separation of acceleration region from ionization region. This work can provide some optimal design ideas to improve the performance of the thruster.

  8. Variationality with second derivatives, relativistic uniform acceleration, and the 'spin'-curvature interaction in two-dimensional space-time

    Matsyuk, Roman

    2015-01-01

    A variational formulation for the geodesic circles in two-dimensional Riemannian manifold is discovered. Some relations with the uniform relativistic acceleration and the one-dimensional 'spin'-curvature interaction is investigated.

  9. Results of the qualification test campaign of a Pulsed Plasma Thruster for Cubesat Propulsion (PPTCUP)

    Ciaralli, S.; Coletti, M.; Gabriel, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    Pulsed Plasma Thruster for Cubesat Propulsion (PPTCUP) is an ablative pulsed plasma thruster designed with the aim of providing translational and orbital control to Cubesat platforms. The qualification model presented in this paper has been developed by Mars Space Ltd, Clyde Space Ltd and the University of Southampton to produce a versatile "stand-alone" module that can be bolted on the Cubesat structure, allowing the orbital control along the X or Y-axis of the satellite. An extensive and complete test campaign to qualify the unit for space flight, which includes electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) characterization, thermal cycling and mechanical tests, has been performed according to the NASA GEVS procedures. PPTCUP is characterized by an averaged specific impulse of 655±58 s and a deliverable total impulse of 48.2±4.2 Ns. Finally, it has been found that the unit is compliant with the EMC requirements and can successfully withstand the thermal and mechanical loads typical of a Cubesat space mission.

  10. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  11. Flight Experiments On Energy Scaling For In-Space Laser Propulsion

    As a preparatory study on space-borne laser propulsion, flight experiments with a parabolic thruster were carried out on an air cushion table. The thruster was mounted like a sail on a puck, allowing for laser-driven motion in three degrees of freedom (3 DOF) in artificial weightlessness. Momentum coupling is derived from point explosion theory for various parabolic thruster geometries with respect to energy scaling issues. The experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions and with results from vertical free flights. Experimental results for the air-breakdown threshold and POM ablation inside the thruster are compared with fluence data from beam propagation modeling.

  12. High-Efficiency Nested Hall Thrusters for Robotic Solar System Exploration

    Hofer, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the scaling and design attributes of Nested Hall Thrusters (NHT) with extremely large operational envelopes, including a wide range of throttleability in power and specific impulse at high efficiency (>50%). NHTs have the potential to provide the game changing performance, powerprocessing capabilities, and cost effectiveness required to enable missions that cannot otherwise be accomplished. NHTs were first identified in the electric propulsion community as a path to 100- kW class thrusters for human missions. This study aimed to identify the performance capabilities NHTs can provide for NASA robotic and human missions, with an emphasis on 10-kW class thrusters well-suited for robotic exploration. A key outcome of this work has been the identification of NHTs as nearly constant-efficiency devices over large power throttling ratios, especially in direct-drive power systems. NHT systems sized for robotic solar system exploration are predicted to be capable of high-efficiency operation over nearly their entire power throttling range. A traditional Annular Hall Thruster (AHT) consists of a single annular discharge chamber where the propellant is ionized and accelerated. In an NHT, multiple annular channels are concentrically stacked. The channels can be operated in unison or individually depending on the available power or required performance. When throttling an AHT, performance must be sacrificed since a single channel cannot satisfy the diverse design attributes needed to maintain high thrust efficiency. NHTs can satisfy these requirements by varying which channels are operated and thereby offer significant benefits in terms of thruster performance, especially under deep power throttling conditions where the efficiency of an AHT suffers since a single channel can only operate efficiently (>50%) over a narrow power throttling ratio (3:1). Designs for 10-kW class NHTs were developed and compared with AHT systems. Power processing systems were

  13. Analysis of the dependence of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave in space plasma on the particle momentum along the wave front

    Erokhin, A. N., E-mail: nerokhin@mx.iki.rssi.ru [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Zol’nikova, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation); Erokhin, N. S. [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear nonstationary second-order equation for the wave phase on the particle trajectory, the dynamics of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave propagating across the external magnetic field in space plasma is analyzed as a function of the electron momentum along the wave front. Numerical calculations show that, for strongly relativistic initial values of the electron momentum component along the wave front g{sub y}(0) (the other parameters of the problem being the same), electrons are trapped into the regime of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration within a certain interval of the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory. It is assumed in the calculations that vertical bar Ψ(0) vertical bar ≤ π. For strongly relativistic values of g{sub y}(0), electrons are immediately trapped by the wave for 19% of the initial values of the phase Ψ(0) (favorable phases). For the rest of the values of Ψ(0), trapping does not occur even at long times. This circumstance substantially simplifies estimations of the wave damping due to particle acceleration in subsequent calculations. The dynamics of the relativistic factor and the components of the electron velocity and momentum under surfatron acceleration is also analyzed. The obtained results are of interest for the development of modern concepts of possible mechanisms of generation of ultrarelativistic particle fluxes in relatively calm space plasma, as well as for correct interpretation of observational data on the fluxes of such particles and explanation of possible reasons for the deviation of ultrarelativistic particle spectra detected in the heliosphere from the standard power-law scalings and the relation of these variations to space weather and large-scale atmospheric processes similar to tropical cyclones.

  14. Analysis of the dependence of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave in space plasma on the particle momentum along the wave front

    Based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear nonstationary second-order equation for the wave phase on the particle trajectory, the dynamics of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave propagating across the external magnetic field in space plasma is analyzed as a function of the electron momentum along the wave front. Numerical calculations show that, for strongly relativistic initial values of the electron momentum component along the wave front gy(0) (the other parameters of the problem being the same), electrons are trapped into the regime of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration within a certain interval of the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory. It is assumed in the calculations that vertical bar Ψ(0) vertical bar ≤ π. For strongly relativistic values of gy(0), electrons are immediately trapped by the wave for 19% of the initial values of the phase Ψ(0) (favorable phases). For the rest of the values of Ψ(0), trapping does not occur even at long times. This circumstance substantially simplifies estimations of the wave damping due to particle acceleration in subsequent calculations. The dynamics of the relativistic factor and the components of the electron velocity and momentum under surfatron acceleration is also analyzed. The obtained results are of interest for the development of modern concepts of possible mechanisms of generation of ultrarelativistic particle fluxes in relatively calm space plasma, as well as for correct interpretation of observational data on the fluxes of such particles and explanation of possible reasons for the deviation of ultrarelativistic particle spectra detected in the heliosphere from the standard power-law scalings and the relation of these variations to space weather and large-scale atmospheric processes similar to tropical cyclones

  15. Accelerated Wound Healing Device Using Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Biostimulation to Support Long Term Human Exploration of Space Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several cases of minor cuts in microgravity have been reported not being able to heal until return to Earth. While the exact cause for the slow healing in space...

  16. Collective Thomson scattering investigations of the Hall thruster plasma

    Tsikata, Sedina; Honore, Cyrille; Gresillon, Dominique; Lemoine, Nicolas; Cavalier, Jordan

    2012-10-01

    Anomalous electron transport outside the Hall thruster channel is believed to be due to plasma turbulence. Recent experiments using a specially-designed collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on a 5kW thruster have permitted the identification of a wave believed to be involved in transport. The observed properties of the mode, which is naturally driven by the fast azimuthal electron drift, are in line with predictions from PIC simulations and linear kinetic theory analysis. Detailed characterizations of mode properties, including dispersion relation, directivity, spatial extent and fluctuation amplitude have been obtained. These studies are now extended to consider the universality of mode features in a 200W permanent magnet Hall thruster and links between thruster performance, operating r'egimes and the presence of such a mode.

  17. Thruster Modelling for Underwater Vehicle Using System Identification Method

    Mohd Shahrieel Mohd Aras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study of thruster modelling for a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV by system identification using Microbox 2000/2000C. Microbox 2000/2000C is an XPC target machine device to interface between an ROV thruster with the MATLAB 2009 software. In this project, a model of the thruster will be developed first so that the system identification toolbox in MATLAB can be used. This project also presents a comparison of mathematical and empirical modelling. The experiments were carried out by using a mini compressor as a dummy depth pressure applied to a pressure sensor. The thruster model will thrust and submerge until it reaches a set point and maintain the set point depth. The depth was based on pressure sensor measurement. A conventional proportional controller was used in this project and the results gathered justified its selection.

  18. High Performance Power Module for Hall Effect Thrusters

    Pinero, Luis R.; Peterson, Peter Y.; Bowers, Glen E.

    2002-01-01

    Previous efforts to develop power electronics for Hall thruster systems have targeted the 1 to 5 kW power range and an output voltage of approximately 300 V. New Hall thrusters are being developed for higher power, higher specific impulse, and multi-mode operation. These thrusters require up to 50 kW of power and a discharge voltage in excess of 600 V. Modular power supplies can process more power with higher efficiency at the expense of complexity. A 1 kW discharge power module was designed, built and integrated with a Hall thruster. The breadboard module has a power conversion efficiency in excess of 96 percent and weighs only 0.765 kg. This module will be used to develop a kW, multi-kW, and high voltage power processors.

  19. Modelling and design optimisation of a hollow cathode thruster

    Frollani, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The present trend in spacecraft is to have two separate thrusters systems performing different tasks, a main electric propulsion system operating on xenon and a chemical system, usually bipropellants or cold gas. The development of a low power electric propulsion system operating on xenon to replace the chemical thrusters on board spacecrafts would be beneficial. It would be bring significant advantages in terms of mass saving from the sharing of the tanks, pipes and flow control unit, al...

  20. Thrust loss on azimuthing thrusters due to Coanda effect

    Fjørtoft, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives in this master's thesis is to investigate how the Coanda effect influences a thruster jet which further causes a thrust loss.The tendency of a thruster slipstream to be deflected towards a nearby surface, for most practical situations the hull of a vessel, is called the Coanda effect and is likely to produce a significant thrust loss under certain geometric conditions.The approach in this master's thesis is to perform an experiment measuring the direct thrust loss related ...

  1. Low-Cost, High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System

    Hesterman, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular PPU for Hall thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper supplies, and an interface module. This high-performance PPU offers resonant circuit topologies, magnetics design, modularity, and a stable and sustained operation during severe Hall effect thruster current oscillations. Laboratory testing has demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96 percent, which is considerably higher than current state of the art.

  2. Compatibility experiments of facilities, materials, and propellants for electrothermal thrusters

    Whalen, M. V.; Grisnik, S. P.; Sovey, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the compatibility of materials and propellants for electro-thermal thrusters. Candidate propellants for resistojet propulsion include carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and hydrazine. The materials being examined are grain stabilized platinum for resistojets for space station and rhenium for high performance resistojets for satellites. Heater mass loss and deterioration of materials were evaluated. A coiled tube of platinum, with yttria dispersed throughout the base material to inhibit grain growth, was tested in carbon dioxide at 1300 C for 2000 hr. Post-test examination indicated the platinum-yttria heater would last over 100,000 hr with less than 10 percent mass loss. Short-term compatibility tests were conducted to test the integrity of the platinum-yttria in hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide/methane mixtures and ammonia environments. In each of these 100 hr tests, the platinum-yttria mass change indicated a minimum coil life of 100,000 hr. Facility related effects were investigated in materials tests using rhenium heated to high temperatures. Vacuum facility water reduction was monitored using a mass spectrometer. In vacuum environments obtained using only diffusion pumping and those obtained with the assistance of cryogenic equipment there were mass gains in the rhenium heaters. These mass gains were the result of the high amount of oxygen and water contained in the gas. Propellant purity and preferred test facility environments are discussed.

  3. Laser-Driven Mini-Thrusters

    Laser-driven mini-thrusters were studied using Delrin registered and PVC (Delrin registered is a registered trademark of DuPont) as propellants. TEA CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 μm) was used as a driving laser. Coupling coefficients were deduced from two independent techniques: force-time curves measured with a piezoelectric sensor and ballistic pendulum. Time-resolved ICCD images of the expanding plasma and combustion products were analyzed in order to determine the main process that generates the thrust. The measurements were also performed in a nitrogen atmosphere in order to test the combustion effects on thrust. A pinhole transmission experiment was performed for the study of the cut-off time when the ablation/air breakdown plasma becomes opaque to the incoming laser pulse

  4. Rectangular Pulsed Laser-Electromagnetic Hybrid Accelerator

    Experimental investigation of impulse-bit and propellant consumption rate, or mass shot, per single pulse discharge was conducted to characterize the thrust performance of the rectangular laser-electromagnetic hybrid acceleration thruster with various propellant materials. From the result, alumina propellant showed significantly superior performance. The largest values of the measured impulse-bit, specific impulse and thrust efficiency were 49 μNsec, 6,200 sec and 22%, respectively.

  5. Effect of Inductive Coil Geometry on the Operating Characteristics of a Pulsed Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Kimberlin, Adam C.

    2012-01-01

    Operational characteristics of two separate inductive thrusters with coils of different cone angles are explored through thrust stand measurements and time-integrated, un- filtered photography. Trends in impulse bit measurements indicate that, in the present experimental configuration, the thruster with the inductive coil possessing a smaller cone angle produced larger values of thrust, in apparent contradiction to results of a previous thruster acceleration model. Areas of greater light intensity in photographs of thruster operation are assumed to qualitatively represent locations of increased current density. Light intensity is generally greater in images of the thruster with the smaller cone angle when compared to those of the thruster with the larger half cone angle for the same operating conditions. The intensity generally decreases in both thrusters for decreasing mass ow rate and capacitor voltage. The location of brightest light intensity shifts upstream for decreasing mass ow rate of propellant and downstream for decreasing applied voltage. Recognizing that there typically exists an optimum ratio of applied electric field to gas pressure with respect to breakdown efficiency, this result may indicate that the optimum ratio was not achieved uniformly over the coil face, leading to non-uniform and incomplete current sheet formation in violation of the model assumption of immediate formation where all the injected propellant is contained in a magnetically-impermeable current sheet.

  6. Design and model experiments on thruster assisted mooring system; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no thruster ni yoru choshuki doyo seigyo

    Nakamura, M.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Kajiwara, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering; Hyakudome, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Described herein are dynamics and model experiments of the system in which positioning of a floating marine structure by mooring is combined with thruster-controlled positioning. Coefficients of dynamic forces acting on a floating structure model are determined experimentally and by the three-dimensional singularity distribution method, and the controller is designed by the PID, LQI and H{infinity} control theories. A model having a scale ratio of 1/100 was used for the experiments, where 2 thrusters were arranged in a diagonal line, one on the X-axis. It is found that the LQI and H{infinity} controllers of the thruster can control long-cycle rolling of the floating structure. They allow thruster control which is insensitive to wave cycle motion, and efficiently reduce positioning energy. The H{infinity} control regulates frequency characteristics of a closed loop more finely than the LQI control, and exhibits better controllability. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  7. Electrostatic AB-Ramjet Space Propulsion

    Bolonkin, A

    2007-01-01

    A new electrostatic ramjet space engine is proposed and analyzed. The upper atmosphere (85 -1000 km) is extremely dense in ions (millions per cubic cm). The interplanetary medium contains positive protons from the solar wind. A charged ball collects the ions (protons) from the surrounding area and a special electric engine accelerates the ions to achieve thrust or decelerates the ions to achieve drag. The thrust may have a magnitude of several Newtons. If the ions are decelerated, the engine produces a drag and generates electrical energy. The theory of the new engine is developed. It is shown that the proposed engine driven by a solar battery (or other energy source) can not only support satellites in their orbit for a very long time but can also work as a launcher of space apparatus. The latter capability includes launch to high orbit, to the Moon, to far space, or to the Earth atmosphere (as a return thruster for space apparatus or as a killer of space debris). The proposed ramjet is very useful in interpl...

  8. Exp erimental optimization in ion source configuration of a miniature electron cyclotron resonance ion thruster%微型电子回旋共振离子推力器离子源结构优化实验研究

    汤明杰; 杨涓; 金逸舟; 罗立涛; 冯冰冰

    2015-01-01

    A miniature ion thruster has been proposed in recent years for a small propulsion system applied in space missions such as deep space exploration, precise high-stability attitude and position control. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion thruster is free from contamination and degradation of electron emission capacity and will offer a potentially longer thruster lifetime than that in the electron bombardment type. The microwave ECR ion source with a 20-mm diameter designed here consists of two annular permanent magnets (SmCo), ring coupling antenna and a grid system including screen and acceleration. For the ion source performance optimization, with a fixed magnetic structure, the antenna position and cavity length in the discharge chamber can be adjusted to strengthen electron ECR heating and increase ion beam extraction. According to the distribution of static magnetic field and the ECR layer measured by Gauss meter, three possible sizes of antenna position (L1) are set;depending on the cut-off characteristics of the discharge chamber and the distribution of microwave electric field calculated by finite element method, six candidate sizes of cavity length (L2) are set. By comparing the difference in plasma discharge and ion beam extraction, the optimal structure of ion source can be obtained. Experimental results show that for a given antenna position, there is a cavity length not too long or too short to extract the maximum ion beam. And the launch of microwave from strong magnetic field near ECR layer is conductive to lossless wave propagation in plasma and highly efficient electron ECR heating. To maintain a plasma in very low power and flow, the size combination of 0.6-mm in L1 and 5-mm in L2 is selected as the preferred structure. The performances of miniature ECR ion source, that is, ion beam current, discharge loss, propellant utilization efficiency, thrust and specific impulse are 5.4 mA, 389 W/A, 15%, 163 µN and 1051 s, respectively, at an incident

  9. Design and Test of a Liquid Oxygen / Liquid Methane Thruster with Cold Helium Pressurization Heat Exchanger

    Melcher, John C.; Morehead, Robert L.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    A liquid oxygen / liquid methane 2,000 lbf thruster was designed and tested in conjuction with a nozzle heat exchanger for cold helium pressurization. Cold helium pressurization systems offer significant spacecraft vehicle dry mass savings since the pressurant tank size can be reduced as the pressurant density is increased. A heat exchanger can be incorporated into the main engine design to provide expansion of the pressurant supply to the propellant tanks. In order to study the systems integration of a cold-helium pressurization system, a 2,000 lbf thruster with a nozzle heat exchanger was designed for integration into the Project Morpheus vehicle at NASA Johnson Space Center. The testing goals were to demonstrate helium loading and initial conditioning to low temperatures, high-pressure/low temperature storage, expansion through the main engine heat exchanger, and propellant tank injection/pressurization. The helium pressurant tank was an existing 19 inch diameter composite-overwrap tank, and the targert conditions were 4500 psi and -250 F, providing a 2:1 density advantage compared to room tempatrue storage. The thruster design uses like-on-like doublets in the injector pattern largely based on Project Morpheus main engine hertiage data, and the combustion chamber was designed for an ablative chamber. The heat exchanger was installed at the ablative nozzle exit plane. Stand-alone engine testing was conducted at NASA Stennis Space Center, including copper heat-sink chambers and highly-instrumented spoolpieces in order to study engine performance, stability, and wall heat flux. A one-dimensional thermal model of the integrated system was completed. System integration into the Project Morpheus vehicle is complete, and systems demonstrations will follow.

  10. Design of a Laboratory Hall Thruster with Magnetically Shielded Channel Walls, Phase III: Comparison of Theory with Experiment

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    A proof-of-principle effort to demonstrate a technique by which erosion of the acceleration channel in Hall thrusters of the magnetic-layer type can be eliminated has been completed. The first principles of the technique, now known as "magnetic shielding," were derived based on the findings of numerical simulations in 2-D axisymmetric geometry. The simulations, in turn, guided the modification of an existing 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster. This magnetically shielded (MS) thruster was then built and tested. Because neither theory nor experiment alone can validate fully the first principles of the technique, the objective of the 2-yr effort was twofold: (1) to demonstrate in the laboratory that the erosion rates can be reduced by >order of magnitude, and (2) to demonstrate that the near-wall plasma properties can be altered according to the theoretical predictions. This paper concludes the demonstration of magnetic shielding by reporting on a wide range of comparisons between results from numerical simulations and laboratory diagnostics. Collectively, we find that the comparisons validate the theory. Near the walls of the MS thruster, theory and experiment agree: (1) the plasma potential has been sustained at values near the discharge voltage, and (2) the electron temperature has been lowered by at least 2.5-3 times compared to the unshielded (US) thruster. Also, based on carbon deposition measurements, the erosion rates at the inner and outer walls of the MS thruster are found to be lower by at least 2300 and 1875 times, respectively. Erosion was so low along these walls that the rates were below the resolution of the profilometer. Using a sputtering yield model with an energy threshold of 25 V, the simulations predict a reduction of 600 at the MS inner wall. At the outer wall ion energies are computed to be below 25 V, for which case we set the erosion to zero in the simulations. When a 50-V threshold is used the computed ion energies are below the threshold at both

  11. Hardware in the Loop Testing of an Iodine-Fed Hall Thruster

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven R.; Cecil, Jim; Lewis, Brandon L.; Molina Fraticelli, Jose C.; Clark, James P.

    2015-01-01

    CUBESATS are relatively new spacecraft platforms that are typically deployed from a launch vehicle as a secondary payload,1 providing low-cost access to space for a wide range of end-users. These satellites are comprised of building blocks having dimensions of 10x10x10 cm cu and a mass of 1.33 kg (a 1-U size). While providing low-cost access to space, a major operational limitation is the lack of a propulsion system that can fit within a CubeSat and is capable of executing high delta v maneuvers. This makes it difficult to use CubeSats on missions requiring certain types of maneuvers (i.e. formation flying, spacecraft rendezvous). Recently, work has been performed investigating the use of iodine as a propellant for Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) 2 that could subsequently be used to provide a high specific impulse path to CubeSat propulsion. Iodine stores as a dense solid at very low pressures, making it acceptable as a propellant on a secondary payload. It has exceptionally high ?Isp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing the potential for systems-level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine flow can also be thermally regulated, subliming at relatively low temperature ( less than100 C) to yield I2 vapor at or below 50 torr. At low power, the measured performance of an iodine-fed HET is very similar to that of a state-of-the-art xenon-fed thruster. Just as importantly, the current-voltage discharge characteristics of low power iodine-fed and xenon-fed thrusters are remarkably similar, potentially reducing development and qualifications costs by making it possible to use an already-qualified xenon-HET PPU in an iodine-fed system. Finally, a cold surface can be installed in a vacuum test chamber on which expended iodine propellant can deposit. In addition, the temperature doesn't have to be extremely cold to maintain a low vapor pressure in the vacuum

  12. The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project, Products, and Mission Applicability

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Liou, Larry; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michelle M.; Kremic, Tibor

    2009-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project, funded by NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD), is continuing to invest in propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. This overview provides development status, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of aerocapture, electric propulsion, advanced chemical thrusters, and systems analysis tools. Aerocapture investments improved: guidance, navigation, and control models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars, and Venus; and models for aerothermal effects. Investments in electric propulsion technologies focused on completing NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6 to 7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system. The project is also concluding its High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC) mid-term product specifically designed for a low-cost electric propulsion option. The primary chemical propulsion investment is on the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. The project is also delivering products to assist technology infusion and quantify mission applicability and benefits through mission analysis and tools. In-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for flagship destinations currently under evaluation, as well as having broad applicability to future Discovery and New Frontiers mission solicitations.

  13. An experimental study of the effect of magnet length on the performance of a multi-cusped field thruster

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Hui; Gao, Yuanyuan; Mao, Wei; Yu, Daren

    2016-07-01

    The multi-cusped field thruster is a novel concept in electric propulsion, which employs alternating permanent polarity magnets to create a periodic magnetic field. As an important factor for the optimal design, the magnet length of a low-power thruster is designed to be changeable. The effects of the ultimate stage length (L u) and the middle stage length (L m) on the performance characteristics are studied in a series of experiments. The results show that increasing L u could prolong the axial motion range of the electrons and promote the ionization process. In addition, it can enlarge the relative distance between the ionization and the acceleration regions. Both of these aspects can help improve the thrust and the anode efficiency. With regard to he reverse trend, wefound that the longer L m leads to a reduction of the thruster’s performance for the enhanced ion loss to the wall. Overall this study can provide some optimal design ideas on the magnet length to improve the total performance of the multi-cusped field thruster.

  14. Plasma Potential and Langmuir Probe Measurements in the Near-field Plume of the NASA 300M Hall Thruster

    Herman, Daniel A; Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Soulas, George C.; KamHawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    In order to aid in the design of high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for existing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed in the near-field plume of the NASA 300M Hall thruster. A probe array consisting of a Faraday probe, Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 DT,m downstream of the thruster exit plane at four operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V, and 500 V at 20 kW as well as 300 V at 10 kW. Results show that the acceleration zone and high-temperature region were contained within 0.3 DT,m from the exit plane at all operating conditions. Isothermal lines were shown to strongly follow magnetic field lines in the nearfield, with maximum temperatures ranging from 19 - 27 eV. The electron temperature spatial distribution created large drops in measured floating potentials in front of the magnetic pole surfaces where the plasma density was small, which suggests strong sheaths at these surfaces. The data taken have provided valuable information for future design and modeling validation, and complements ongoing internal measurement efforts on the NASA 300 M.

  15. Field calculations, single-particle tracking, and beam dynamics with space charge in the electron lens for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Noll, Daniel [Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-11-17

    An electron lens is planned for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator as a nonlinear element for integrable dynamics, as an electron cooler, and as an electron trap to study space-charge compensation in rings. We present the main design principles and constraints for nonlinear integrable optics. A magnetic configuration of the solenoids and of the toroidal section is laid out. Singleparticle tracking is used to optimize the electron path. Electron beam dynamics at high intensity is calculated with a particle-in-cell code to estimate current limits, profile distortions, and the effects on the circulating beam. In the conclusions, we summarize the main findings and list directions for further work.

  16. Octahedron configuration for a displacement noise-cancelling gravitational wave detector in space

    Wang, Yan; Petiteau, Antoine; Keitel, David; Otto, Markus; Barke, Simon; Kawazoe, Fumiko; Khalaidovski, Alexander; Müller, Vitali; Schütze, Daniel; Wittel, Holger; Danzmann, Karsten; Schutz, Bernard F

    2013-01-01

    We study for the first time a 3-dimensional octahedron constellation for a space-based gravitational wave detector, which we call OGO: the Octahedral Gravitational Observatory. With six spacecraft the constellation is able to remove laser frequency noise and acceleration disturbances from the gravitational wave signal without needing LISA-like drag-free control, thereby simplifying the payloads and placing less stringent demands on the thrusters. We generalize LISA's time-delay interferometry (TDI) to displacement-noise free interferometry (DFI) by deriving a set of generators for those combinations of the data streams which cancel laser and acceleration noise. Orbit dynamical considerations suggest a halo orbit near the Lagrangian point L1, allowing only relatively short arms. For these orbits, we derive the sensitivity curve of this detector concept, which has a peak sensitivity near 100 Hz. We compare this version of OGO to the present generation of ground-based detectors and to some future detectors. Sinc...

  17. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Power Processing Unit (PPU) Capacitor Failure Root Cause Analysis

    Soeder, James F.; Pinero, Luis; Schneidegger, Robert; Dunning, John; Birchenough, Art

    2012-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing an advanced ion propulsion system for future NASA missions for solar system exploration. A critical element of the propulsion system is the Power Processing Unit (PPU) which supplies regulated power to the key components of the thruster. The PPU contains six different power supplies including the beam, discharge, discharge heater, neutralizer, neutralizer heater, and accelerator supplies. The beam supply is the largest and processes up to 93+% of the power. The NEXT PPU had been operated for approximately 200+ hours and has experienced a series of three capacitor failures in the beam supply. The capacitors are in the same, nominally non-critical location the input filter capacitor to a full wave switching inverter. The three failures occurred after about 20, 30, and 135 hours of operation. This paper provides background on the NEXT PPU and the capacitor failures. It discusses the failure investigation approach, the beam supply power switching topology and its operating modes, capacitor characteristics and circuit testing. Finally, it identifies root cause of the failures to be the unusual confluence of circuit switching frequency, the physical layout of the power circuits, and the characteristics of the capacitor.

  18. VASIMR VX-200 thruster throttling optimization from 30 to 200 kW

    Squire, Jared; Olsen, Chris; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Longmier, Benjamin; Ballenger, Maxwell; Carter, Mark; Glover, Tim; McCaskill, Greg

    2012-10-01

    The VASIMR^ VX-200 experimental plasma thruster incorporates a 40 kW helicon plasma source with a 180 kW Ion Cyclotron Heating (ICH) acceleration stage integrated in a superconducting magnet. Argon propellant mass flow is injected up to 140 mg/s. Rapid plasma start up ( 10^5 liters/s) in a 150 m^3 vacuum chamber achieve performance measurements with the charge exchange mean-free-path greater than 1 m in the background neutral gas (pressure efficiency at 200 kW total power is 72 ± 9%, the ratio of effective jet power to input RF power, with an Isp = 4900 ± 300 seconds (flow velocity of 49 km/s), and an ion flux of 1.7 ± 0.1 x 10^21/s. The thrust increases steadily with power to 5.8 ± 0.4 N until the power is maximized and there is no indication of saturation. The plasma density near the device exit exceeds 10^18 m-3 with a power density over 5 MW/m^2. An extensive study of thruster performance, efficiency and thrust-to-power ratio, as a function of Ar propellant flow rate and ICH-to-helicon RF power ratio has been carried out over a total power range of 30 to 200 kW. Optimized throttling set points are determined. The experimental configuration and results of this study are presented.

  19. The effect of magnetic mirror on near wall conductivity in Hall thrusters

    The effect of magnetic mirror on near wall conductivity is studied in the acceleration region of Hall thrusters. The electron dynamics process in the plasma is described by test particle method, in which electrons are randomly emitted from the centerline towards the inner wall of the channel. It is found that the effective collision coefficient, i.e. the rate of electrons colliding with the wall, changes dramatically with the magnetic mirror effect being considered; and that it decreases further with the increase of magnetic mirror ratio to enhance the electron mobility accordingly. In particular, under anistropic electron velocity distribution conditions, the magnetic mirror effect becomes even more prominent. Furthermore, due to decrease in magnetic mirror ratio from the exhaust plane to the anode in Hall thrusters, the axial gradient of electron mobility with magnetic mirror effect is greater than without it. The magnetic mirror effects on electron mobility are derived analytically and the results are found in agreement with the simulation. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Coronal and interplanetary propagation, interplanetary acceleration, cosmic-ray observations by deep space network and anomalous component

    The purpose is to provide an overview of the contributions presented in sessions SH3, SH1.5, SH4.6 and SH4.7 of the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference. These contributed papers indicate that steady progress continues to be made in both the observational and the theoretical aspects of the transport and acceleration of energetic charged particles in the heliosphere. Studies of solar and interplanetary particles have placed emphasis on particle directional distributions in relation to pitch-angle scattering and magnetic focusing, on the rigidity and spatial dependence of the mean free path, and on new propagation regimes in the inner and outer heliosphere. Coronal propagation appears in need of correlative multi-spacecraft studies in association with detailed observation of the flare process and coronal magnetic structures. Interplanetary acceleration has now gone into a consolidation phase, with theories being worked out in detail and checked against observation

  1. Recent progress in the development of a circular ion induction accelerator for space charge dominated beams at LLNL

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has for several years been developing the worlds first circular ion induction accelerator. This machine has recently been extended to 90 degrees, or 10 half-lattice periods (HLP) with full beam transport. In addition, induction cores have been installed on five of the HLPs, each with an independent arbitrary waveform pulser. An arbitrary waveform pulser for the bending electrostatic dipoles has also been enabled. Together, they have allowed the first attempts at coordinated bending and acceleration of the beam. The results of these first attempts will be reported on in the paper by examining the output of various diagnostic devices, such as the capacitive Beam Probes (C-probes), slit scanners, and the Gated Beam Imager(GBI)

  2. Coronal and interplanetary propagation, interplanetary acceleration, cosmic-ray observations by deep space network and anomalous component

    Ng, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose is to provide an overview of the contributions presented in sessions SH3, SH1.5, SH4.6 and SH4.7 of the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference. These contributed papers indicate that steady progress continues to be made in both the observational and the theoretical aspects of the transport and acceleration of energetic charged particles in the heliosphere. Studies of solar and interplanetary particles have placed emphasis on particle directional distributions in relation to pitch-angle scattering and magnetic focusing, on the rigidity and spatial dependence of the mean free path, and on new propagation regimes in the inner and outer heliosphere. Coronal propagation appears in need of correlative multi-spacecraft studies in association with detailed observation of the flare process and coronal magnetic structures. Interplanetary acceleration has now gone into a consolidation phase, with theories being worked out in detail and checked against observation.

  3. A Concept for Directly Coupled Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas

    Thio, Y.C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason T.; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Plasma jets with high momentum flux density are required for a variety of applications in propulsion research. Methods of producing these plasma jets are being investigated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental goal in the immediate future is to develop plasma accelerators which are capable of producing plasma jets with momentum flux density represented by velocities up to 200 km/s and ion density up to 10(exp 24) per cu m, with sufficient precision and reproducibility in their properties, and with sufficiently high efficiency. The jets must be sufficiently focused to allow them to be transported over several meters. A plasma accelerator concept is presented that might be able to meet these requirements. It is a self-switching, shaped coaxial pulsed plasma thruster, with focusing of the plasma flow by shaping muzzle current distribution as in plasma focus devices, and by mechanical tapering of the gun walls. Some 2-D MHD modeling in support of the conceptual design will be presented.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Thruster Cathode Physics

    Crofton, Mark

    2004-11-01

    Advanced ion propulsion technologies are being developed under the Nuclear Electric Xenon Ion System (NEXIS) program for use in outer planet exploration. A revolutionary approach to thruster cathode design is dictated by the very high lifetime and propellant throughput requirements for nuclear electric applications. In conventional dispenser hollow cathodes used in thrusters, processes leading to depletion, inadequate transport, or insufficient production of barium are among those limiting the lifetime. A reservoir hollow cathode is being developed to address each of these failure mechanisms, exploiting four design variables - matrix material, source material, geometry, and thermal design - to essentially eliminate established failure modes. The very long anticipated lifetime necessitates new life validation methods to augment or replace the conventional lifetest approach. One important tool for quickly evaluating design changes is the ability to measure barium density inside a hollow cathode and/or in the plume. The dependence of barium density on temperature and other factors is an extremely important indicator of cathode health, particularly if the ratio Ba:BaO is also obtained. Comparison of barium production for reservoir and conventional cathodes will enable an assessment of the efficacy of reservoir designs and the goal of reducing barium consumption at a given emission current level. This study describes benchmark measurements made on a conventional cathode previously operated in a 20-kW NEXIS laboratory engine. Data on cathode operation and life-limiting processes were obtained through direct, real-time monitoring of atoms and molecules. A high-resolution, tunable laser system was employed to detect absorption of the low-density barium atoms inside the cathode. The plume was monitored also, using a quadrupole mass spectrometer to monitor multiple species and measure ion charge ratios. Data obtained with retarding potential analyzers or other means are

  5. Average accelerator simulation Truebeam using phase space in IAEA format; Simulacao do acelerador medico Truebeam utilizando espacos de fases em formato IAEA

    Santana, Emico Ferreira; Milian, Felix Mas; Paixao, Paulo Oliveira; Costa, Raranna Alves da; Velasco, Fermin Garcia, E-mail: efsantana@uesc.br, E-mail: f.mas.milian@gmail.com, E-mail: popaixao@uesc.br, E-mail: racosta@uesc.br, E-mail: fermingv@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper is used a computational code of radiation transport simulation based on Monte Carlo technique, in order to model a linear accelerator of treatment by Radiotherapy. This work is the initial step of future proposals which aim to study several treatment of patient by Radiotherapy, employing computational modeling in cooperation with the institutions UESC, IPEN, UFRJ e COI. The Chosen simulation code is GATE/Geant4. The average accelerator is TrueBeam of Varian Company. The geometric modeling was based in technical manuals, and radiation sources on the phase space for photons, provided by manufacturer in the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) format. The simulations were carried out in equal conditions to experimental measurements. Were studied photons beams of 6MV, with 10 per 10 cm of field, focusing on a water phantom. For validation were compared dose curves in depth, lateral profiles in different depths of the simulated results and experimental data. The final modeling of this accelerator will be used in future works involving treatments and real patients. (author)

  6. Modeling Neutral Densities Downstream of a Gridded Ion Thruster

    Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    The details of a model for determining the neutral density downstream of a gridded ion thruster are presented. An investigation of the possible sources of neutrals emanating from and surrounding a NEXT ion thruster determined that the most significant contributors to the downstream neutral density include discharge chamber neutrals escaping through the perforated grids, neutrals escaping from the neutralizer, and vacuum facility background neutrals. For the neutral flux through the grids, near- and far-field equations are presented for rigorously determining the neutral density downstream of a cylindrical aperture. These equations are integrated into a spherically-domed convex grid geometry with a hexagonal array of apertures for determining neutral densities downstream of the ion thruster grids. The neutrals escaping from an off-center neutralizer are also modeled assuming diffuse neutral emission from the neutralizer keeper orifice. Finally, the effect of the surrounding vacuum facility neutrals is included and assumed to be constant. The model is used to predict the neutral density downstream of a NEXT ion thruster with and without neutralizer flow and a vacuum facility background pressure. The impacts of past simplifying assumptions for predicting downstream neutral densities are also examined for a NEXT ion thruster.

  7. Nonlinear Alfvén waves, discontinuities, proton perpendicular acceleration, and magnetic holes/decreases in interplanetary space and the magnetosphere: intermediate shocks?

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfvén waves, discontinuities, proton perpendicular acceleration and magnetic decreases (MDs in interplanetary space are shown to be interrelated. Discontinuities are the phase-steepened edges of Alfvén waves. Magnetic decreases are caused by a diamagnetic effect from perpendicularly accelerated (to the magnetic field protons. The ion acceleration is associated with the dissipation of phase-steepened Alfvén waves, presumably through the Ponderomotive Force. Proton perpendicular heating, through instabilities, lead to the generation of both proton cyclotron waves and mirror mode structures. Electromagnetic and electrostatic electron waves are detected as well. The Alfvén waves are thus found to be both dispersive and dissipative, conditions indicting that they may be intermediate shocks. The resultant 'turbulence' created by the Alfvén wave dissipation is quite complex. There are both propagating (waves and nonpropagating (mirror mode structures and MDs byproducts. Arguments are presented to indicate that similar processes associated with Alfvén waves are occurring in the magnetosphere. In the magnetosphere, the 'turbulence' is even further complicated by the damping of obliquely propagating proton cyclotron waves and the formation of electron holes, a form of solitary waves. Interplanetary Alfvén waves are shown to rapidly phase-steepen at a distance of 1AU from the Sun. A steepening rate of ~35 times per wavelength is indicated by Cluster-ACE measurements. Interplanetary (reverse shock compression of Alfvén waves is noted to cause the rapid formation of MDs on the sunward side of corotating interaction regions (CIRs. Although much has been learned about the Alfvén wave phase-steepening processfrom space plasma observations, many facets are still not understood. Several of these topics are discussed for the interested researcher. Computer simulations and theoretical developments will be particularly useful in making further progress in

  8. Solid-fueled Micro Colloid Thruster Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nanosatellites are receiving increased interest since they are proving reliable for surveillance, communication and other space missions. Also, the possibility of...

  9. A zero-equation turbulence model for two-dimensional hybrid Hall thruster simulations

    We present a model for electron transport across the magnetic field of a Hall thruster and integrate this model into 2-D hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. The model is based on a simple scaling of the turbulent electron energy dissipation rate and the assumption that this dissipation results in Ohmic heating. Implementing the model into 2-D hybrid simulations is straightforward and leverages the existing framework for solving the electron fluid equations. The model recovers the axial variation in the mobility seen in experiments, predicting the generation of a transport barrier which anchors the region of plasma acceleration. The predicted xenon neutral and ion velocities are found to be in good agreement with laser-induced fluorescence measurements

  10. Production of High Energy Ions Near an Ion Thruster Discharge Hollow Cathode

    Katz, Ira; Mikellides, I. G.; Goebel, D. M.; Jameson, K. K.; Wirz, R.; Polk, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Several researchers have measured ions leaving ion thruster discharge chambers with energies far greater than measured discharge chamber potentials. Presented in this paper is a new mechanism for the generation of high energy ions and a comparison with measured ion spectra. The source of high energy ions has been a puzzle because they not only have energies in excess of measured steady state potentials, but as reported by Goebel et. al. [1], their flux is independent of the amplitude of time dependent plasma fluctuations. The mechanism relies on the charge exchange neutralization of xenon ions accelerated radially into the potential trough in front of the discharge cathode. Previous researchers [2] have identified the importance of charge exchange in this region as a mechanism for protecting discharge cathode surfaces from ion bombardment. This paper is the first to identify how charge exchange in this region can lead to ion energy enhancement.

  11. Superconducting windings and screening techniques for MHD thrusters

    Naval propulsion using MHD needs very high magnetic fields in large volumes to reach attractive efficiencies. On the other hand, the electromagnetic stealth leads to use multi modular thrusters to minimize the leak fields, and to use internal and external shields, made with magnetic or superconducting materials in case of damaged operation. Up to now, the low temperature superconductors are the only materials able to fulfill these requirements. The encountered problems are of the same order than in fusion reactor systems, such as the ITER program now under study, but a MHD thruster has to be set aboard a ship (submarine for example). The sum of the electromagnetic, cryogenic, hydrodynamical and electrochemical problems will require long studies before the possibility to replace the classical line shafts by MHD thrusters can be foreseen. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  12. The electrodeless Lorentz force (ELF) thruster experimental facility

    Weber, T. E.; Slough, J. T.; Kirtley, D.

    2012-11-01

    An innovative facility for testing high-power, pulsed plasmoid thrusters has been constructed to develop the electrodeless Lorentz force (ELF) thruster concept. It is equipped with a suite of diagnostics optimized to study the physical processes taking place within ELF and evaluate its propulsive utility including magnetic field, neutral gas, and plasma flux diagnostics, a method to determine energy flow into the plasma from the pulsed power systems, and a new type of ballistic pendulum, which enables thrust to be measured without the need for installing the entire propulsion system on a thrust stand. Variable magnetic fields allow controlled studies of plume expansion in a small-scale experiment and dielectric chamber walls reduce electromagnetic influences on plasma behavior and thruster operation. The unique capabilities of this facility enable novel concept development to take place at greatly reduced cost and increased accessibility compared to testing at large user-facilities.

  13. The effects of aniline impurities on monopropellant hydrazine thruster performance

    Holcomb, L.; Mattson, L.; Oshiro, R.

    1976-01-01

    Both a 0.45-N and a 0.9-N thruster representative of the designs being flown on 3-axis stabilized spacecraft were used in testing various grades of hydrazine for the phenomenon of monopropellant hydrazine thruster catalyst bed poisoning. Both designs employed Shell 405 ABSG spontaneous catalyst. It is found that pulse shape distortion can be minimized, if not eliminated, by using aniline-free hydrazine. The mechanisms for both steady-state and pulse-mode performance loss are associated with the formation of a catalyst coke similar to the polycyclic aromatic poisons encountered in the petroleum industry. These poisoning mechanisms are reversible, with high-temperature operation being required to drive off the aniline coke deposits. It is recommended that a purified-grade hydrazine be considered for any mission that imposes operational conditions on a thruster which can result in aniline-induced poisoning of the catalyst bed.

  14. Thrust Stand Measurements of the Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Emsellem, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. This type of pulsed thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters require high pulse energies to inductively ionize propellant. The Microwave Assisted Dis- charge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA), shown in Fig. 1, is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that addressees this issue by partially ionizing propellant inside a conical inductive coil before the main current pulse via an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge. The ECR plasma is produced using microwaves and a static magnetic field from a set of permanent magnets arranged to create a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation, and in turn current sheet formation, to a region where the magnetic coupling between the plasma and the theta-pinch coil is high. The use of a conical theta-pinch coil also serves to provide neutral propellant containment and plasma plume focusing that is improved relative to the more common planar geometry of the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT) [1, 2]. In this paper, we describe thrust stand measurements performed to characterize the performance (specific impulse, thrust efficiency) of the MAD-IPA thruster. Impulse data are obtained at various pulse energies, mass flow rates and inductive coil geometries. Dependencies on these experimental parameters are discussed in the context of the current sheet formation and electromagnetic plasma

  15. Magnetic circuit for hall effect plasma accelerator

    Manzella, David H. (Inventor); Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Jankovsky, Robert S. (Inventor); Hofer, Richard (Inventor); Peterson, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A Hall effect plasma accelerator includes inner and outer electromagnets, circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a thruster centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer magnetic conductors, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner magnetic conductor having a mostly circular shape and the outer magnetic conductor having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber, located between the inner and outer magnetic conductors, a magnetically conducting back plate, in magnetic contact with the inner and outer magnetic conductors, and a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at a bottom portion of the discharge chamber. The inner and outer electromagnets, the inner and outer magnetic conductors and the magnetically conducting back plate form a magnetic circuit that produces a magnetic field that is largely axial and radially symmetric with respect to the thruster centerline.

  16. Analysis of state-of-the-art single-thruster attitude control techniques for spinning penetrator

    Raus, Robin; Gao, Yang; Wu, Yunhua; Watt, Mark

    2012-07-01

    The attitude dynamics and manoeuvre survey in this paper is performed for a mission scenario involving a penetrator-type spacecraft: an axisymmetric prolate spacecraft spinning around its minor axis of inertia performing a 90° spin axis reorientation manoeuvre. In contrast to most existing spacecraft only one attitude control thruster is available, providing a control torque perpendicular to the spin axis. Having only one attitude thruster on a spinning spacecraft could be preferred for spacecraft simplicity (lower mass, lower power consumption etc.), or it could be imposed in the context of redundancy/contingency operations. This constraint does yield restrictions on the thruster timings, depending on the ratio of minor to major moments of inertia among other parameters. The Japanese Lunar-A penetrator spacecraft proposal is a good example of such a single-thruster spin-stabilised prolate spacecraft. The attitude dynamics of a spinning rigid body are first investigated analytically, then expanded for the specific case of a prolate and axisymmetric rigid body and finally a cursory exploration of non-rigid body dynamics is made. Next two well-known techniques for manoeuvring a spin-stabilised spacecraft, the Half-cone/Multiple Half-cone and the Rhumb line slew, are compared with two new techniques, the Sector-Arc Slew developed by Astrium Satellites and the Dual-cone developed at Surrey Space Centre. Each technique is introduced and characterised by means of simulation results and illustrations based on the penetrator mission scenario and a brief robustness analysis is performed against errors in moments of inertia and spin rate. Also, the relative benefits of each slew algorithm are discussed in terms of slew accuracy, energy (propellant) efficiency and time efficiency. For example, a sequence of half-cone manoeuvres (a Multi-half-cone manoeuvre) tends to be more energy-efficient than one half-cone for the same final slew angle, but more time-consuming. As another

  17. Particle acceleration

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  18. A simple Chain-of-States method in acceleration space for the efficient location of Minimum Energy Paths

    Hernandez, E R; Soler, J M

    2015-01-01

    We describe a robust and efficient chain-of-states method for computing Minimum Energy Paths~(MEPs) associated to barrier-crossing events in poly-atomic systems. The path is parametrized in terms of a continuous variable $t \\in [0,1]$ that plays the role of time. In contrast to previous chain-of-states algorithms such as the Nudged Elastic Band or String methods, where the positions of the states in the chain are taken as variational parameters in the search for the MEP, our strategy is to formulate the problem in terms of the second derivatives of the coordinates with respect to $t$, {\\em i.e.\\/} the state {\\em accelerations\\/}. We show this to result in a very transparent and efficient method for determining the MEP. We describe the application of the method in a series of test cases, including two low-dimensional problems and the Stone-Wales transformation in $\\mbox{C}_{60}$.

  19. A model for nitrogen chemisorption in ion thrusters

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model describing the formation of nitrogen species subject to chemisorption on ion thruster discharge chamber surfaces is presented. Molecules, atoms, atomic ions and molecular ions are identified as the important species in the analysis. Current densities of the atomic and molecular ions predicted by the model are compared to current densities measured in the beam of a SERT II thruster. The predicted and measured values of these two current densities are shown to agree within about + or - 100%. The mechanisms involved in the erosion of a surface subjected to simultaneous nitrogen chemisorption and sputter erosion by high energy ions are also discussed.

  20. Recycle Requirements for NASA's 30 cm Xenon Ion Thruster

    Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical breakdowns have been observed during ion thruster operation. These breakdowns, or arcs, can be caused by several conditions. In flight systems, the power processing unit must be designed to handle these faults autonomously. This has a strong impact on power processor requirements and must be understood fully for the power processing unit being designed for the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program. In this study, fault conditions were investigated using a NASA 30 cm ion thruster and a power console. Power processing unit output specifications were defined based on the breakdown phenomena identified and characterized.

  1. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of a rim driven thruster

    Dubas, Aleksander J.; Bressloff, N. W.; Fangohr, H.; Sharkh, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    An electric rim driven thruster is a relatively new marine propulsion device that uses a motor in its casing to drive a propeller by its rim and the fluid dynamics associated with their operation have not been fully investigated. There are many interacting flow features that make up the flow field of a rim driven thruster that pose a number of challenges when it comes to simulating the device using computational fluid dynamics. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational fluid dyna...

  2. Effect of nozzle geometry on the performance of laser ablative propulsion thruster

    Li, Long; Jiao, Long; Tang, Zhiping; Hu, Xiaojun; Peng, Jie

    2016-05-01

    The performance of "ablation mode" laser propulsion thrusters can be improved obviously by nozzle constraint. The nozzle geometry of "ablation mode" laser propulsion thrusters has been studied experimentally with CO2 lasers. Experimental results indicate that the propulsion performance of cylindrical nozzle thrusters is better than expansionary nozzle thrusters at the same lengths. The cylindrical nozzle thrusters were optimized by different laser energies. The results show that two important factors, the length-to-diameter ratio α and the thruster diameter to laser-spot diameter ratio β, affect the propulsion performance of the thruster obviously. The momentum coupling coefficient C m increases with the increase of α, while C m increases at first and then decreases with the increase of β.

  3. Trade Study of Multiple Thruster Options for the Mars Airplane Concept

    Kuhl, Christopher A.; Gayle, Steven W.; Hunter, Craig A.; Kenney, Patrick S.; Scola, Salvatore; Paddock, David A.; Wright, Henry S.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    A trade study was performed at NASA Langley Research Center under the Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction (PARR) project (2004-2005) to examine the option of using multiple, smaller thrusters in place of a single large thruster on the Mars airplane concept with the goal to reduce overall cost, schedule, and technical risk. The 5-lbf (22N) thruster is a common reaction control thruster on many satellites. Thousands of these types of thrusters have been built and flown on numerous programs, including MILSTAR and Intelsat VI. This study has examined the use of three 22N thrusters for the Mars airplane propulsion system and compared the results to those of the baseline single thruster system.

  4. Creation of geodetic basis for alignment of the ring accelerator by means of the space navigation system

    The aim of the paper is to describe the creation of the geodetic basis for alignment of the UNC quadrupolar magnets with using the space navigation system GPS and old geodetic underground network. For measurements 12 points of the new ground network were laid too. The field measurements were fulfilled by means of the satellite receivers with using four satellites. The obtained results testify to satisfactory quality of measurements and good stability of centers of initial points laid more 10 years ago

  5. Development, Demonstration, and Analysis of an Integrated Iodine Hall Thruster Feed System

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven R.; Burt, Adam O.; Martin, Adam K.; Martinez, Armando; Seixal, Joao F.; Mauro, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The design of an in-space iodine-vapor-fed Hall effect thruster propellant management system is described. The solid-iodine propellant tank has unique issues associated with the microgravity environment, requiring a solution where the iodine is maintained in intimate thermal contact with the heated tank walls. The flow control valves required alterations from earlier iterations to survive for extended periods of time in the corrosive iodine-vapor environment. Materials have been selected for the entire feed system that can chemically resist the iodine vapor, with the design now featuring Hastelloy or Inconel for almost all the wetted components. An integrated iodine feed system/Hall thruster demonstration unit was fabricated and tested, with all control being handled by an onboard electronics card specifically designed to operate the feed system. Structural analysis shows that the feed system can survive launch loads after the implementation of some minor reinforcement. Flow modeling, while still requiring significant additional validation, is presented to show its potential in capturing the behavior of components in this low-flow, low-pressure system.

  6. Development and Testing of High Current Hollow Cathodes for High Power Hall Thrusters

    Kamhawi, Hani; Van Noord, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist In-Space Propulsion project is sponsoring the testing and development of high power Hall thrusters for implementation in NASA missions. As part of the project, NASA Glenn Research Center is developing and testing new high current hollow cathode assemblies that can meet and exceed the required discharge current and life-time requirements of high power Hall thrusters. This paper presents test results of three high current hollow cathode configurations. Test results indicated that two novel emitter configurations were able to attain lower peak emitter temperatures compared to state-of-the-art emitter configurations. One hollow cathode configuration attained a cathode orifice plate tip temperature of 1132 degC at a discharge current of 100 A. More specifically, test and analysis results indicated that a novel emitter configuration had minimal temperature gradient along its length. Future work will include cathode wear tests, and internal emitter temperature and plasma properties measurements along with detailed physics based modeling.

  7. Laser-pump/X-ray-probe experiments with electrons ejected from a Cu(111) target: space-charge acceleration.

    Schiwietz, G; Kühn, D; Föhlisch, A; Holldack, K; Kachel, T; Pontius, N

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the emission characteristics for electrons induced by X-rays of a few hundred eV at grazing-incidence angles on an atomically clean Cu(111) sample during laser excitation is presented. Electron energy spectra due to intense infrared laser irradiation are investigated at the BESSY II slicing facility. Furthermore, the influence of the corresponding high degree of target excitation (high peak current of photoemission) on the properties of Auger and photoelectrons liberated by a probe X-ray beam is investigated in time-resolved pump and probe measurements. Strong electron energy shifts have been found and assigned to space-charge acceleration. The variation of the shift with laser power and electron energy is investigated and discussed on the basis of experimental as well as new theoretical results. PMID:27577771

  8. Hubble parameter measurement constraints on the redshift of the deceleration-acceleration transition, dynamical dark energy, and space curvature

    Farooq, Omer; Crandall, Sara; Ratra, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    We compile an updated list of 28 independent measurements of the Hubble parameter $H(z)$ between redshifts $0.1 \\leq z \\leq 2.36$ and use them to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-varying dark energy cosmological models, both spatially flat and curved. We use five models to measure the redshift of the cosmological deceleration-acceleration transition, $z_{\\rm da}$, from these $H(z)$ data. Within the error bars, the measured $z_{\\rm da}$ are insensitive to the model used, depending only on the value assumed for the Hubble constant $H_0$. The weighted mean of our measurements is $z_{\\rm da} = 0.74 \\pm 0.06\\ (0.86 \\pm 0.04)$ for $H_0 = 68 \\pm 2.8\\ (73.8 \\pm 2.4)$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$ and should provide a reasonably model-independent estimate of this cosmological parameter. The $H(z)$ data are consistent with the standard spatially-flat $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model but do not rule out non-flat models or dynamical dark energy models.

  9. High power rf amplifiers for accelerator applications: The large orbit gyrotron and the high current, space charge enhanced relativistic klystron

    Stringfield, R.M.; Fazio, M.V.; Rickel, D.G.; Kwan, T.J.T.; Peratt, A.L.; Kinross-Wright, J.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Faehl, R.; Carlsten, B.; Destler, W.W.; Warner, L.B.

    1990-01-01

    Los Alamos is investigating a number of high power microwave sources for their potential to power advanced accelerators. Included in this investigation are the large orbit gyrotron amplifier and oscillator (LOG) and the relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA). LOG amplifier development is newly underway. Electron beam power levels of 3 GW, 70 ns duration, are planned, with anticipated conversion efficiencies into RF on the order of 20 percent. Ongoing investigations on this device include experimental improvement of the electron beam optics, and computational studies of resonator design and RF extraction. Recent RKA studies have operated at electron beam powers into the device of 1.35 GW in microsecond duration pulses. The device has yielded modulated electron beam power approaching 300 MW using 3--5 kW of RF input drive. RF powers extracted into waveguide have been up to 70 MW, suggesting that more power is available from the device that we have converted to-date in the extractor. We have examined several aspects of operation, including beam bunching phenomena and RF power extraction techniques. In addition, investigations of the amplifier gain as a function of input drive, electron beam parameters and axial magnetic field strength also have been explored. The effect of ions formed during device operation also has been considered.

  10. Study of applied magnetic field magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters with particle-in-cell code with Monte Carlo collision. I. Computation methods and physical processes

    A two-dimensional axisymmetric electromagnetic particle-in-cell code with Monte Carlo collision conditions has been developed for an applied-field magnetoplasmadynamic thruster simulation. This theoretical approach establishes a particle acceleration model to investigate the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of particles. This new simulation code was used to study the physical processes associated with applied magnetic fields. In this paper (I), detail of the computation procedure and results of predictions of local plasma and field properties are presented. The numerical model was applied to the configuration of a NASA Lewis Research Center 100-kW magnetoplasmadynamic thruster which has well documented experimental results. The applied magnetic field strength was varied from 0 to 0.12 T, and the effects on thrust were calculated as a basis for verification of the theoretical approach. With this confirmation, the changes in the distributions of ion density, velocity, and temperature throughout the acceleration region related to the applied magnetic fields were investigated. Using these results, the effects of applied field on physical processes in the thruster discharge region could be represented in detail, and those results are reported.

  11. A FMM-FFT accelerated hybrid volume surface integral equation solver for electromagnetic analysis of re-entry space vehicles

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2014-07-01

    Space vehicles that re-enter the atmosphere often experience communication blackout. The blackout occurs when the vehicle becomes engulfed in plasma produced by interactions between the vehicle surface and the atmosphere. The plasma often is concentrated in a relatively thin shell around the vehicle, with higher densities near its nose than rear. A less structured, sometimes turbulent plasma wake often trails the vehicle. The plasma shell severely affects the performance of side-mounted antennas as it alters their characteristics (frequency response, gain patterns, axial ratio, and impedance) away from nominal, free-space values, sometimes entirely shielding the antenna from the outside world. The plasma plume/turbulent wake similarly affect the performance of antennas mounted at the back of the vehicle. The electromagnetic characteristics of the thin plasma shell and plume/turbulent wake heavily depend on the type of re-entry trajectory, the vehicle\\'s speed, angles of attack, and chemical composition, as well as environmental conditions. To analyze the antennas\\' performance during blackout and to design robust communication antennas, efficient and accurate simulation tools for charactering the antennas\\' performance along the trajectory are called for.

  12. Maximizing Ion Current by Space Charge Neutralization using Negative Ions and Dust Particles

    Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space charge neutralization are introduced. Space charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster

  13. Robust Control Allocation among Overactuated Spacecraft Thrusters under Ellipsoidal Uncertainty

    Chenyang Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spacecrafts with overactuated and redundant thrusters can work normally once some of them are out of work, which improves the reliability of spacecraft in orbit. In this way, the desired command of controller needs to be dynamically allocated among thrusters. Considering that uncertain factors may appear in forms of dynamics, installation errors, thrust deviations, or failures, this paper proposes a robust control allocation under ellipsoidal uncertainty. This method uses the uncertainty ellipsoid set to describe the uncertainty of the thrusters firstly and establish the thrust allocation robust reference model and then transforms it into a cone optimization model which can be solved as an optimized problem. Finally, this paper adopts the interior-point method for solving the optimization problem. In this way, difficulties of solving the problem caused by parameter uncertainties are avoided effectively. Finally, we take satellite rendezvous and docking as simulation scenarios; it is verified that the cumulative distribution error and maximum error can be reduced by more than 15% when the random error of control efficiency matrix is 5%–20%; also, precision of thruster allocation is improved.

  14. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion System Information Summary

    Pencil, Eirc S.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This document is a guide to New Frontiers mission proposal teams. The document describes the development and status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system (IPS) technology, its application to planetary missions, and the process anticipated to transition NEXT to the first flight mission.

  15. Experimental results of an iodine plasma in PEGASES gridded thruster

    Grondein, Pascaline; Aanesland, Ane

    2015-09-01

    In the electric gridded thruster PEGASES, both positive and negative ions are expelled after extraction from an ion-ion plasma. This ion-ion plasma is formed downstream a localized magnetic field placed a few centimeters from the ionization region, trapping and cooling down the electron to allow a better attachment to an electronegative gas. For this thruster concept, iodine has emerged as the most attractive option. Heavy, under diatomic form and therefore good for high thrust, its low ionization threshold and high electronegativity lead to high ion-ion densities and low RF power. After the proof-of-concept of PEGASES using SF6 as propellant, we present here experimental results of an iodine plasma studied inside PEGASES thruster. At solid state at standard temperature and pressure, iodine is heated to sublimate, then injected inside the chamber where the neutral gas is heated and ionized. The whole injection system is heated to avoid deposition on surfaces and a mass flow controller allows a fine control on the neutral gas mass flow. A 3D translation stage inside the vacuum chamber allows volumetric plasma studies using electrostatic probes. The results are also compared with the global model dedicated to iodine as propellant for electric gridded thrusters. This work has been done within the LABEX Plas@par project, and received financial state aid managed by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche, as part of the programme ``Investissements d'avenir.''

  16. Mode Transitions in Magnetically Shielded Hall Effect Thrusters

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Hofer, Richard R.; Jorns, Benjamin A.; Polk, James E.

    2014-01-01

    A mode transition study is conducted in magnetically shielded thrusters where the magnetic field magnitude is varied to induce mode transitions. Three different oscillatory modes are identified with the 20-kW NASA-300MS-2 and the 6-kW H6MS: Mode 1) global mode similar to unshielded thrusters at low magnetic fields, Mode 2) cathode oscillations at nominal magnetic fields, and Mode 3) combined spoke, cathode and breathing mode oscillations at high magnetic fields. Mode 1 exhibits large amplitude, low frequency (1-10 kHz), breathing mode type oscillations where discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude peak. The mean discharge current is minimized while thrust-to-power and anode efficiency are maximized in Mode 2, where higher frequency (50-90 kHz), low amplitude, cathode oscillations dominate. Thrust is maximized in Mode 3 and decreases by 5-6% with decreasing magnetic field strength. The presence or absence of spokes and strong cathode oscillations do not affect each other or discharge current. Similar to unshielded thrusters, mode transitions and plasma oscillations affect magnetically shielded thruster performance and should be characterized during system development.

  17. Low power pulsed MPD thruster system analysis and applications

    Myers, Roger M.; Domonkos, Matthew; Gilland, James H.

    1993-01-01

    Pulsed magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster systems were analyzed for application to solar-electric orbit transfer vehicles at power levels ranging from 10 to 40 kW. Potential system level benefits of pulsed propulsion technology include ease of power scaling without thruster performance changes, improved transportability from low power flight experiments to operational systems, and reduced ground qualification costs. Required pulsed propulsion system components include a pulsed applied-field MPD thruster, a pulse-forming network, a charge control unit, a cathode heater supply, and high speed valves. Mass estimates were obtained for each propulsion subsystem and spacecraft component using off-the-shelf technology whenever possible. Results indicate that for payloads of 1000 and 2000 kg pulsed MPD thrusters can reduce launch mass by between 1000 and 2500 kg over those achievable with hydrogen arcjets, which can be used to reduce launch vehicle class and the associated launch cost. While the achievable mass savings depends on the trip time allowed for the mission, cases are shown in which the launch vehicle required for a mission is decreased from an Atlas IIAS to an Atlas I or Delta 7920.

  18. Langmuir Probe Measurements Within the Discharge Channel of the 20-kW NASA-300M and NASA-300MS Hall Thrusters

    Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas W.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    NASA is presently developing a high-power, high-efficiency, long-lifetime Hall thruster for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission. In support of this task, studies have been performed on the 20-kW NASA-300M Hall thruster to aid in the overall design process. The ability to incorporate magnetic shielding into a high-power Hall thruster was also investigated with the NASA- 300MS, a modified version of the NASA-300M. The inclusion of magnetic shielding would allow the thruster to push existing state-of-the-art technology in regards to service lifetime, one of the goals of the Technology Demonstration Mission. Langmuir probe measurements were taken within the discharge channels of both thrusters in order to characterize differences at higher power levels, as well as validate ongoing modeling efforts using the axisymmetric code Hall2De. Flush-mounted Langmuir probes were also used within the channel of the NASA-300MS to verify that magnetic shielding was successfully applied. Measurements taken from 300 V, 10 kW to 600 V, 20 kW have shown plasma potentials near anode potential and electron temperatures of 4 to 12 eV at the walls near the thruster exit plane of the NASA-300MS, verifying magnetic shielding and validating the design process at this power level. Channel centerline measurements on the NASA-300M from 300 V, 10 kW to 500 V, 20 kW show the electron temperature peak at approximately 0.1 to 0.2 channel lengths upstream of the exit plane, with magnitudes increasing with discharge voltage. The acceleration profiles appear to be centered about the exit plane with a width of approximately 0.3 to 0.4 channel lengths. Channel centerline measurements on the NASA-300MS were found to be more challenging due to additional probe heating. Ionization and acceleration zones appeared to move downstream on the NASA-300MS compared to the NASA-300M, as expected based on the shift in peak radial magnetic field. Additional measurements or alternative

  19. Dynamic Mission Modeling and Simulation: Application of Micro-Vacuum Arc Thrusters and Frozen Orbits

    Suaris, Therese

    The dynamic mission modeling and simulation of scenarios around the Earth, Moon, and libration points are used to explore the application of the Vacuum Arc Thruster and frozen orbits for future space exploration missions. The Micro-Vacuum Arc Thruster (microVAT) is a propulsion system that uses an arc to evaporate solid cathode material. The propulsion system is compatible for nano-satellite applications due to its low operating voltage, low mass, and its simplicity to be integrated into the spacecraft operating system. The microVAT experimental performance values were used to baseline the numerical thruster model for the space mission operational scenarios. The simulation results were used analyze and make recommendations on the performance parameters that are required for maneuvers and interplanetary trajectories for space exploration missions. In addition, the analytical derivation and numerical analysis of Earth-based frozen orbits are used to baseline the low-altitude, frozen orbits. A high resolution in order and degree lunar gravity model and third-body perturbations due to the Earth and Sun are included in the detailed simulation. The time evolution of the classical frozen orbital conditions is calculated by numerically propagating the orbits in an environment where all the perturbations are included. The behaviour and evolution pattern of the orbital elements are used to baseline a set of numerical quasi-frozen conditions for a series of low-altitude, polar orbits. The numerically integrated results for a family of polar frozen orbits provide insight into the predictive behaviour pattern and evolution of the orbital elements that can be extended to any given set of initial conditions and requirements. It is shown that these results are not a fixed point solution that is calculated for a selective set of perturbations, but rather the numerical model can be used to determine a set of conditions and orbital elements to satisfy a given set of mission

  20. Electronegative Gas Thruster - Direct Thrust Measurement Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the PEGASES concept is the simplification of gridded ion technology and elimination of the neutralization requirement through negative gas...

  1. High Chamber Pressure, Light Weight Thrusters Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure and reducing engine weight. State of...

  2. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of a miniature plasma source for a microwave discharge ion thruster

    Takao, Yoshinori; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional particle model for a miniature microwave discharge ion thruster to elucidate the mechanism of ECR discharges confined in a small space. The model consists of a particle-in-cell simulation with a Monte Carlo collision algorithm (PIC-MCC) for the kinetics of charged particles, a finite-difference time-domain method for the electromagnetic fields of 4.2 GHz microwaves, and a finite element analysis for the magnetostatic fields of permanent magnets. The PIC-M...

  3. The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Hall Thruster Demonstration Mission Concept and Development

    Dankanich, John W.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Calvert, Derek; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The use of iodine propellant for Hall thrusters has been studied and proposed by multiple organizations due to the potential mission benefits over xenon. In 2013, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center competitively selected a project for the maturation of an iodine flight operational feed system through the Technology Investment Program. Multiple partnerships and collaborations have allowed the team to expand the scope to include additional mission concept development and risk reduction to support a flight system demonstration, the iodine Satellite (iSAT). The iSAT project was initiated and is progressing towards a technology demonstration mission preliminary design review. The current status of the mission concept development and risk reduction efforts in support of this project is presented.

  4. Ion and neutral dynamics in Hall plasma accelerator ionization instabilities

    Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Christopher; Cappelli, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Hall thrusters, the extensively studied E × B devices used for space propulsion applications, are rife with instabilities and fluctuations. Many are thought to be fundamentally linked to microscopic processes like electron transport across magnetic field lines and propellant ionization that in turn affect macroscopic properties like device performance and lifetime. One of the strongest oscillatory regimes is the ``breathing mode,'' characterized by a propagating ionization front, time-varying ion acceleration profiles, and quasi-periodic 10-50 kHz current oscillations. Determining the temporal and spatial evolution of plasma properties is critical to achieving a fundamental physical understanding of these processes. We present non-intrusive laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the local ion and neutral velocity distribution functions synchronized with the breathing mode oscillations. Measurements reveal strong ion velocity fluctuations, multiple ion populations arising in narrow time windows throughout the near-field plume, and the periodic population and depopulation of neutral excited states. Analyzing these detailed experimental results in the context of the existing literature clarifies the fundamental physical processes underlying the breathing mode. This work is sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research with Dr. M. Birkan as program manager. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NSSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  5. Thermal-environmental testing of a 30-cm engineering model thruster

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental test program was carried out to document all 30-cm electron bombardment Hg ion bombardment thruster functions and characteristics over the thermal environment of several proposed missions. An engineering model thruster was placed in a thermal test facility equipped with -196 C walls and solar simulation. The thruster was cold soaked and exposed to simulated eclipses lasting in duration from 17 to 72 minutes. The thruster was operated at quarter, to full beam power in various thermal configurations which simulated multiple thruster operation, and was also exposed to 1 and 2 suns solar simulation. Thruster control characteristics and constraints; performance, including thrust magnitude and direction; and structural integrity were evaluated over the range of thermal environments tested.

  6. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  7. Modelling and verification of monopropellant thruster performance degradation due to silica contamination

    Hinds, J. W.; Demaire, A.; Brandt, R.; Schmitz, H. D.

    1992-07-01

    Monopropellant hydrazine thrusters have been found to be degraded by such nonvolatile residues as silica, when the hydrazine has been exposed to propellant tank diaphragm materials. Attention is given to the experimental investigation of 5-20 N output thruster systems' silica-contamination problem, with a view to modeling the mechanism of such degradation. The mechanism is found to be complex and dependent on overall fuel consumption, burn history, and tank/thruster combination. Prospective solutions are discussed.

  8. Space Technology Research Grants Program

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Technology Research Grants Program will accelerate the development of "push" technologies to support the future space science and exploration...

  9. Near-field angular distributions of high velocity ions for low-power hall thrusters

    Sullivan, Regina M.; Yost, Allison; Johnson, Lee K.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental angular distributions of high-energy primary ions in the near-field region of a small Hall thruster between 50-200 mm downstream of the thruster exit plane at a range of centerline angles have been determined using a highly-collimated, energy-selective diagnostic probe. The measurements reveal a wide angular distribution of ions exiting the thruster channel and the formation of a strong, axially-directed jet of ions along the thruster centerline. Comparisons are made to other exp...

  10. Design of a Laboratory Hall Thruster with Magnetically Shielded Channel Walls, Phase I: Numerical Simulations

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    In a proof-of-principle effort to demonstrate the feasibility of magnetically shielded (MS) Hall thrusters, an existing laboratory thruster has been modified with the guidance of physics-based numerical simulation. When operated at a discharge power of 6-kilowatts the modified thruster has been designed to reduce the total energy and flux of ions to the channel insulators by greater than 1 and greater than 3 orders of magnitude, respectively. The erosion rates in this MS thruster configuration are predicted to be at least 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than those in the baseline (BL) configuration. At such rates no detectable erosion is expected to occur.

  11. Low Frequency Plasma Oscillations in a 6-kW Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Hofery, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    The oscillations from 0-100 kHz in a 6-kW magnetically shielded thruster are experimen- tally characterized. Changes in plasma parameters that result from the magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters have the potential to significantly alter thruster transients. A detailed investigation of the resulting oscillations is necessary both for the purpose of determin- ing the underlying physical processes governing time-dependent behavior in magnetically shielded thrusters as well as for improving thruster models. In this investigation, a high speed camera and a translating ion saturation probe are employed to examine the spatial extent and nature of oscillations from 0-100 kHz in the H6MS thruster. Two modes are identified at 8 kHz and 75-90 kHz. The low frequency mode is azimuthally uniform across the thruster face while the high frequency oscillation is concentrated close to the thruster centerline with an m = 1 azimuthal dependence. These experimental results are discussed in the context of wave theory as well as published observations from an unshielded variant of the H6MS thruster.

  12. Simulation of discharge channel wall erosion in Hall thruster

    To calculation the lifetime of a Hall thruster, a two-dimensional model of magnetic and electric fields was established for the discharge channel of the thruster, and the assumed propellant is the xenon. The movement of particles in the magnetic and electric fields was tracked using PIC method. The Laplace equation was used to calculate the magnetic field, and the Poisson equation to calculation the electric field. Electrons were injected from the cathode and then ions were generated from the atom-electron ionization collision. In the process of tracking, we recorded the number, angle and energy of ions hitting against the inner and outer walls. Then we calculated the erosion rate at the threshold energy of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 eV, respectively. The maximal erosion rate at the outlet is 1.7 × 10-9 m/s. (authors)

  13. Study of breakdown in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster

    Huang, Tiankun; Wu, Zhiwen; Liu, Xiangyang; Xie, Kan; Wang, Ningfei; Cheng, Yue [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Breakdown in ablative pulsed plasma thrusters (APPTs) must be studied in order to design new types of APPTs and measure particular parameters. In this paper, we studied a parallel-plate ablative pulsed plasma thruster that used a coaxial semiconductor spark plug. By operating the APPT about 500 times with various capacitor voltages and electrode gaps, we measured and analyzed the voltage of the spark plug, the voltage between the electrodes, and the discharge current. These experiments revealed a time delay (∼1–10 μs) between spark plug ignition and capacitor discharge, which may affect the performance of high-pulsing-rate (>10 kHz) and double-discharge APPTs, and the measurements of some of the APPT parameters. The delay time decreased as the capacitor voltage increased, and it increased with an increasing electrode gap and increasing number of ignitions. We explain our results through a simple theoretical analysis.

  14. Preliminary scoping studies for nozzle-based coaxial plasma thrusters

    The ideal steady-state properties of nozzle-based coaxial plasma guns are modelled by means of a magnetic Bernoulli equation. Formulas for thrust, power usage, mass flow rate, and specific impulse using hydrogen are thereby obtained, and are used to approximately assess the mission performance capabilities of such thrusters. Parameters in the range of experience of the Los Alamos spheromak group are addressed within the context of orbit raising, slow (cargo) missions to mars, and fast missions to mars. The various internal atomic and plasma effects on hydrogen plasma thruster performance are approximately estimated or bounded. It is concluded that such devices may be relevant to mission performance at reasonable power levels

  15. Controllability of an underactuated spacecraft with one thruster under disturbance

    Dong-Xia Wang; Ying-Hong Jia; Lei Jin; Hai-Chao Gui; Shi-Jie Xu

    2012-01-01

    For an underactuated spacecraft using only one thruster,the attitude controllability with respect to the orbit frame is studied in the presence of periodical oscillation disturbance,which provides a preconditional guide on designing control law for underactuated attitude control system.Firstly,attitude dynamic model was established for an underactuated spacecraft,and attitude motion was described using the special orthogonal group (SO (3)).Secondly,Liouville theorem was used to confirm that the flow generated by the drift vector of the underactuated attitude control system is volume-preserving.Furthermore,according to Poincaré's recurrence theorem,we draw conclusions that this drift field is weakly positively poisson stable (WPPS).Thirdly,the sufficient and necessary condition of controllability was obtained on the basis of lie algebra rank condition (LARC).Finally,the controllable conditions were analyzed and simulated in different cases of inertia matrix with the installed position of thruster.

  16. Numerical Study of Hall Thruster Plume and Sputtering Erosion

    Li Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential sputtering erosion caused by the interactions between spacecraft and plasma plume of Hall thrusters is a concern for electric propulsion. In this study, calculation model of Hall thruster’s plume and sputtering erosion is presented. The model is based on three dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell and direct simulation Monte Carlo method (PIC/DSMC method which is integrated with plume-wall sputtering yield model. For low-energy heavy-ion sputtering in Hall thruster plume, the Matsunami formula for the normal incidence sputtering yield and the Yamamura angular dependence of sputtering yield are used. The validation of the simulation model is realized through comparing plume results with the measured data. Then, SPT-70’s sputtering erosion on satellite surfaces is assessed and effect of mass flow rate on sputtering erosion is analyzed.

  17. Hall Thruster Modeling with a Given Temperature Profile

    A quasi one-dimensional steady-state model of the Hall thruster is presented. For given mass flow rate, magnetic field profile, and discharge voltage the unique solution can be constructed, assuming that the thruster operates in one of the two regimes: with or without the anode sheath. It is shown that for a given temperature profile, the applied discharge voltage uniquely determines the operating regime; for discharge voltages greater than a certain value, the sheath disappears. That result is obtained over a wide range of incoming neutral velocities, channel lengths and widths, and cathode plane locations. A good correlation between the quasi one-dimensional model and experimental results can be achieved by selecting an appropriate temperature profile. We also show how the presented model can be used to obtain a two-dimensional potential distribution

  18. Hall Thruster Modeling with a Given Temperature Profile

    L. Dorf; V. Semenov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2002-06-12

    A quasi one-dimensional steady-state model of the Hall thruster is presented. For given mass flow rate, magnetic field profile, and discharge voltage the unique solution can be constructed, assuming that the thruster operates in one of the two regimes: with or without the anode sheath. It is shown that for a given temperature profile, the applied discharge voltage uniquely determines the operating regime; for discharge voltages greater than a certain value, the sheath disappears. That result is obtained over a wide range of incoming neutral velocities, channel lengths and widths, and cathode plane locations. A good correlation between the quasi one-dimensional model and experimental results can be achieved by selecting an appropriate temperature profile. We also show how the presented model can be used to obtain a two-dimensional potential distribution.

  19. Plasma accelerators

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  20. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics.

  1. Vacuum arc plasma thrusters with inductive energy storage driver

    Krishnan, Mahadevan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A plasma thruster with a cylindrical inner and cylindrical outer electrode generates plasma particles from the application of energy stored in an inductor to a surface suitable for the formation of a plasma and expansion of plasma particles. The plasma production results in the generation of charged particles suitable for generating a reaction force, and the charged particles are guided by a magnetic field produced by the same inductor used to store the energy used to form the plasma.

  2. Hall Effect Thruster Plume Contamination and Erosion Study

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the Hall effect thruster plume contamination and erosion study was to evaluate the impact of a xenon ion plume on various samples placed in the vicinity of a Hall effect thruster for a continuous 100 hour exposure. NASA Glenn Research Center was responsible for the pre- and post-test evaluation of three sample types placed around the thruster: solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone, and Kapton(R). Mass and profilometer), were used to identify the degree of deposition and/or erosion on the solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone, and Kapton@ samples. Transmittance, reflectance, solar absorptance, and room temperature emittance were used to identify the degree of performance degradation of the solar cell cover glass samples alone. Auger spectroscopy was used to identify the chemical constituents found on the surface of the exposed solar cell cover glass samples. Chemical analysis indicated some boron nitride contamination on the samples, from boron nitride insulators used in the body of the thruster. However, erosion outweighted contamination. All samples exhibited some degree of erosion. with the most erosion occurring near the centerline of the plume and the least occurring at the +/- 90 deg positions. For the solar cell cover glass samples, erosion progressed through the antireflective coating and into the microsheet glass itself. Erosion occurred in the solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone and Kapton(R) at different rates. All optical properties changed with the degree of erosion, with solar absorptance and room temperature emittance increasing with erosion. The transmittance of some samples decreased while the reflectance of some samples increased and others decreased. All results are consistent with an energetic plume of xenon ions serving as a source for erosion.

  3. Expanding the ADN-Based Monopropellant Thruster Family

    Anflo, K.; S. Moore; Moog Inc., P.King

    2009-01-01

    The development of High Performance Green Propulsion (HPGP) was initiated with the goal of meeting the requirements for future satellite missions. The HPGP technology includes a storable monopropellant blend based on Ammonium DiNitramide (ADN) and a thruster with a high-temperature resistant thrust chamber and catalyst. After more than 10 years of R&D, the HPGP technology is emerging as an enabling technology for improved performance, enhanced volumetric efficiency, reduction of propellant ha...

  4. Thermal Storage Advanced Thruster System (TSATS) Experimental Program

    Rose, M. Frank; Lisano, Michael E., II

    1991-01-01

    The Thermal Storage Advanced Thruster System (TSATS) rocket test stand is completely assembled and operational. The first trial experimental runs of a low-energy TSATS prototype rocket was made using the test stand. The features of the rocket test stand and the calibration of the associated diagnostics are described and discussed. Design and construction of the TSATS prototype are discussed, and experimental objectives, procedures, and results are detailed.

  5. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  6. A novel single thruster control strategy for spacecraft attitude stabilization

    Godard; Kumar, Krishna Dev; Zou, An-Min

    2013-05-01

    Feasibility of achieving three axis attitude stabilization using a single thruster is explored in this paper. Torques are generated using a thruster orientation mechanism with which the thrust vector can be tilted on a two axis gimbal. A robust nonlinear control scheme is developed based on the nonlinear kinematic and dynamic equations of motion of a rigid body spacecraft in the presence of gravity gradient torque and external disturbances. The spacecraft, controlled using the proposed concept, constitutes an underactuated system (a system with fewer independent control inputs than degrees of freedom) with nonlinear dynamics. Moreover, using thruster gimbal angles as control inputs make the system non-affine (control terms appear nonlinearly in the state equation). This necessitates the control algorithms to be developed based on nonlinear control theory since linear control methods are not directly applicable. The stability conditions for the spacecraft attitude motion for robustness against uncertainties and disturbances are derived to establish the regions of asymptotic 3-axis attitude stabilization. Several numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed controller and validate the theoretical results. The control algorithm is shown to compensate for time-varying external disturbances including solar radiation pressure, aerodynamic forces, and magnetic disturbances; and uncertainties in the spacecraft inertia parameters. The numerical results also establish the robustness of the proposed control scheme to negate disturbances caused by orbit eccentricity.

  7. Chemical kinetic performance losses for a hydrogen laser thermal thruster

    Mccay, T. D.; Dexter, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Projected requirements for efficient, economical, orbit-raising propulsion systems have generated investigations into several potentially high specific impulse, moderate thrust, advanced systems. One of these systems, laser thermal propulsion, utilizes a high temperature plasma as the enthalpy source. The plasma is sustained by a focused laser beam which maintains the plasma temperature at levels near 20,000 K. Since such temperature levels lead to total dissociation and high ionization, the plasma thruster system potentially has a high specific impulse decrement due to recombination losses. The nozzle flow is expected to be sufficiently nonequilibrium to warrant concern over the achievable specific impluse. This investigation was an attempt at evaluation of those losses. The One-Dimensional Kinetics (ODK) option of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) Computer Program was used with a chemical kinetics rate set obtained from available literature to determine the chemical kinetic energy losses for typical plasma thruster conditions. The rates were varied about the nominal accepted values to band the possible losses. Kinetic losses were shown to be highly significant for a laser thermal thruster using hydrogen. A 30 percent reduction in specific impulse is possible simply due to the inability to completely extract the molecular recombination energy.

  8. Estimating Thruster Impulses From IMU and Doppler Data

    Lisano, Michael E.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program implements a thrust impulse measurement (TIM) filter, which processes data on changes in velocity and attitude of a spacecraft to estimate the small impulsive forces and torques exerted by the thrusters of the spacecraft reaction control system (RCS). The velocity-change data are obtained from line-of-sight-velocity data from Doppler measurements made from the Earth. The attitude-change data are the telemetered from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) aboard the spacecraft. The TIM filter estimates the threeaxis thrust vector for each RCS thruster, thereby enabling reduction of cumulative navigation error attributable to inaccurate prediction of thrust vectors. The filter has been augmented with a simple mathematical model to compensate for large temperature fluctuations in the spacecraft thruster catalyst bed in order to estimate thrust more accurately at deadbanding cold-firing levels. Also, rigorous consider-covariance estimation is applied in the TIM to account for the expected uncertainty in the moment of inertia and the location of the center of gravity of the spacecraft. The TIM filter was built with, and depends upon, a sigma-point consider-filter algorithm implemented in a Python-language computer program.

  9. Numerical study on the electron-wall interaction in a Hall thruster with segmented electrodes placed at the channel exit

    Qing Shao-Wei; E Peng; Duan Ping; Xu Dian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Electron-wall interaction is always recognized as an important physical problem because of its remarkable influences on thruster discharge and performance.Based on existing theories,an electrode is predicted to weaken electron-wall interaction due to its low secondary electron emission characteristic.In this paper,the electron-wall interaction in an Aton-type Hall thruster with low-emissive electrodes placed near the exit of discharge channel is studied by a fully kinetic particle-incell method.The results show that the electron-wall interaction in the region of segmented electrode is indeed weakened,but it is significantly enhanced in the remaining region of discharge channel.It is mainly caused by electrode conductive property which makes equipotential lines convex toward channel exit and even parallel to wall surface in near-wall region; this convex equipotential configuration results in significant physical effects such as repelling electrons,which causes the electrons to move toward the channel center,and the electrons emitted from electrodes to be remarkably accelerated,thereby increasing electron temperature in the discharge channel,etc.Furthermore,the results also indicate that the discharge current in the segmented electrode case is larger than in the non-segmented electrode case,which is qualitatively in accordance with previous experimental results.

  10. A comprehensive study on the atom flow in the cross-field discharge of a Hall thruster

    The flow properties of Xe atoms were investigated in the 1 kW class PPS100-ML Hall effect thruster by means of Doppler-shifted laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the near infrared. Fluorescence spectra of the 6s [1/2]2o resonant level and the 6s [3/2]2o metastable level have been acquired inside and outside the thruster channel under several operating conditions. Analytical treatment and modelling of the measured lineshapes indicate the atom axial velocity increases inside the channel to a value well above the sound speed before decreasing quickly in the near-field plume. Numerical simulations performed with a fluid/kinetic hybrid approach allow us to explain the shape of the velocity profile. Atomic flow acceleration originates in the combination of three processes, namely the selective ionization of slow atoms, the flow expansion and the creation of fast neutrals on BN-SiO2 walls owing to recombination of ions. Deceleration results from the invasion of the atomic jet by slow and relatively cold atoms from the residual background gas and from the cathode. In addition, it is shown that charge-exchange collisions have a non-negligible impact on the atom velocity in spite of the low background pressure in test chambers.

  11. Flight demonstration of new thruster and green propellant technology on the PRISMA satellite

    Anflo, K.; Möllerberg, R.

    2009-11-01

    The concept of a storable liquid monopropellant blend for space applications based on ammonium dinitramide (ADN) was invented in 1997, within a co-operation between the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). The objective was to develop a propellant which has higher performance and is safer than hydrazine. The work has been performed under contract from the Swedish National Space Board and ESA. The progress of the development has been presented in several papers since 2000. ECAPS, a subsidiary of the Swedish Space Corporation was established in 2000 with the aim to develop and market the novel "high performance green propellant" (HPGP) technology for space applications. The new technology is based on several innovations and patents w.r.t. propellant formulation and thruster design, including a high temperature resistant catalyst and thrust chamber. The first flight demonstration of the HPGP propulsion system will be performed on PRISMA. PRISMA is an international technology demonstration program with Swedish Space Corporation as the Prime Contractor. This paper describes the performance, characteristics, design and verification of the HPGP propulsion system for PRISMA. Compatibility issues related to using a new propellant with COTS components is also discussed. The PRISMA mission includes two satellites in LEO orbit were the focus is on rendezvous and formation flying. One of the satellites will act as a "target" and the main spacecraft performs rendezvous and formation flying maneuvers, where the ECAPS HPGP propulsion system will provide delta-V capability. The PRISMA CDR was held in January 2007. Integration of the flight propulsion system is about to be finalized. The flight opportunity on PRISMA represents a unique opportunity to demonstrate the HPGP propulsion system in space, and thus take a significant step towards its use in future space applications. The launch of PRISMA scheduled to 2009.

  12. Multidisciplinary approach to materials selection for bipropellant thrusters using ablative and radiative cooling

    A Adami; M Mortazavi; M Nosratollahi

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of costs is a main consideration in every space mission, and propulsion system is an important subsystem of those missions where orbital maneuvers are considered. Lighter propulsions with higher performance are necessary to reduce the mission costs. Bipropellant propulsions have been widely used in launch vehicles and upper-stages as well as deorbit modules because of better performances in comparison with other propulsion systems. Unfortunately heat transfer and thermal control limit bipropellant propulsion performance and maximum performance cannot be achieved. Well-known cooling methods such as regenerative and film cooling increase the cost using extra equipment and high temperature materials. In this paper, a new approach for cooling is presented based on combined ablative and radiative cooling. Governing equations are derived for two or three layers of thermal protection system (TPS) to optimize the TPS mass. The first layer is used as an ablative layer to control the temperature where the second and third layers are used as an insulator to control the heat fluxes. Proposed cooling method has been applied for two real bipropellant thrusters. According to the results, the presented algorithm can suitably predict the heat fluxes and satisfy the wall temperature constraint. Then, the algorithm has been used to minimize the wall temperatures as low as possible and replace high temperature materials (platinum alloy) with common materials (composite or steel). It is shown that selection of TPS materials affects the TPS mass and Isp simultaneously, but conversely. Best solution should be derived by trading off between structure temperature (cost), Isp (performance), and TPS thicknesses (geometry). Multidisciplinary approach to TPS and structure material selection of a bipropellant thruster is presented for a case study. It has been shown that mass and performance penalties of using TPS are acceptable, considering the advantages of using steel alloy instead

  13. Assessment of High-Voltage Photovoltaic Technologies for the Design of a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster Solar Array

    Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Schneider, T.; Carruth, M. R.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    A three-year program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster system (D2HET) begun in 2001 as part of the NASA Advanced Cross-Enterprise Technology Development initiative. The system, which is expected to reduce significantly the power processing, complexity, weight, and cost over conventional low-voltage systems, will employ solar arrays that operate at voltages higher than (or equal to) 300 V. The lessons learned from the development of the technology also promise to become a stepping-stone for the production of the next generation of power systems employing high voltage solar arrays. This paper summarizes the results from experiments conducted mainly at the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center with two main solar array technologies. The experiments focused on electron collection and arcing studies, when the solar cells operated at high voltages. The tests utilized small coupons representative of each solar array technology. A hollow cathode was used to emulate parts of the induced environment on the solar arrays, mostly the low-energy charge-exchange plasma (1012-1013 m-3 and 0.5-1 eV). Results and conclusions from modeling of electron collection are also summarized. The observations from the total effort are used to propose a preliminary, new solar array design for 2 kW and 30-40 kW class, deep space missions that may employ a single or a cluster of Hall- Effect thrusters.

  14. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  15. Performance of a Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster

    Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Kimberlin, A. C.; Raites, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic topologies. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying higher thrust efficiency. Thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 70-350 W and with the cathode orifice located at three different axial positions relative to the thruster exit plane. The thrust levels over this power range were 1.25-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 4-21% and 400-1950 s, respectively. The anode efficiency of the permanent-magnet thruster compares favorable with the efficiency of the electromagnet thruster when the power consumed by the electromagnets is taken into account.

  16. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AUTO DEPTH CONTROL OF REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE USING THRUSTER SYSTEM

    F.A. Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Remotely Operated Vehicles are underwater robots designed specifically for surveillance, monitoring and collecting data for underwater activities. In the underwater vehicle industries, the thruster is an important part in controlling the direction, depth and speed of the ROV. However, there are some ROVs that cannot be maintained at the specified depth for a long time because of disturbance. This paper proposes an auto depth control using a thruster system. A prototype of a thruster with an auto depth control is developed and attached to the previously fabricated UTeM ROV. This paper presents the operation of auto depth control as well as thrusters for submerging and emerging purposes and maintaining the specified depth. The thruster system utilizes a microcontroller as its brain, a piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensor and a DC brushless motor to run the propeller. Performance analysis of the auto depth control system is conducted to identify the sensitivity of the pressure sensor, and the accuracy and stability of the system. The results show that the thruster system performs well in maintaining a specified depth as well as stabilizing itself when a disturbanceoccurs even with a simple proportional controller used to control the thruster, where the thruster is an important component of the ROV.

  17. Electron Cross-field Transport in a Low Power Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2004-06-24

    Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are therefore more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. Electron cross-field transport in a 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level) has been studied through the analysis of experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics in the thruster channel. The numerical model takes into account elastic and inelastic electron collisions with atoms, electron-wall collisions, including secondary electron emission, and Bohm diffusion. We show that in order to explain the observed discharge current, the electron anomalous collision frequency {nu}{sub B} has to be on the order of the Bohm value, {nu}{sub B} {approx} {omega}{sub c}/16. The contribution of electron-wall collisions to cross-field transport is found to be insignificant.

  18. Electron Cross-field Transport in a Miniaturized Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. The present paper gives a review of the experimental and numerical investigations of electron crossfield transport in the 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level). We show that, in order to explain the discharge current observed for the typical operating conditions, the electron anomalous collision frequency νb has to be on the order of the Bohm value, νB ∼ ωc/16. The contribution of electron-wall collisions to cross-field transport is found to be insignificant. The optimal regimes of thruster operation at low background pressure (below 10-5 Torr) in the vacuum tank appear to be different from those at higher pressure (∼ 10-4 Torr)

  19. Study of monopropellants for electrothermal thrusters: Design and fabrication task summary report

    Kuenzly, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of operating small thrust level electrothermal thrusters with monopropellants other than MIL-grade hydrazine was studied. Analytical study, design, and fabrication of demonstration thrusters was performed, and an evaluation test program was initiated to evaluate monopropellants with freezing points lower than MIL-grade hydrazine, and to determine their applicability to electrothermal thrusters for spacecraft attitude control. Five demonstration thrusters were fabricated to determine the feasibility of operation with monomethylhydrazine, Aerozine-50, 77 percent hydrazine-23 percent hydrazine azide, and a mixture of hydrazine monopropellants consisting of 35 percent hydrazine-50 percent monomethylhydrazine-15 percent ammonia. The present thruster is designed to produce a steady-state thrust level of 0.344 N at 1.724 x 1 million N/M sq feed pressure. Vacuum specific impulse goals were set at 1961 N-s/kg steady-state and 1716 N-s/kg pulsed-mode.

  20. Laboratory Reproduction and Failure Analysis of Cracked Orbiter Reaction Control System Niobium Thruster Injectors

    Jacobs, Jeremy B.; Castner, Willard L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing cracks and failure analysis of an orbiter reaction control system is shown. The topics include: 1) Endeavour STS-113 Landing; 2) RCS Thruster; 3) Thruster Cross-Section; 4) RCS Injector; 5) RCS Thruster, S/N 120l 6) Counterbore Cracks; 7) Relief Radius Cracks; 8) RCS Thruster Cracking History; 9) Thruster Manufacturing Timelines; 10) Laboratory Reproduction of Injector Cracking; 11) The Brownfield Specimen; 12) HF EtchantTests/Specimen Loading; 13) Specimen #3 HF + 600F; 14) Specimen #3 IG Fracture; 15) Specimen #5 HF + 600F; 16) Specimen #5 Popcorn ; 17) Specimen #5 Cleaned and Bent; 18) HF Exposure Test Matrix; 19) Krytox143AC Tests; 20) KrytoxTests/Specimen Loading; 21) Specimen #13 Krytox + 600F; and 22) KrytoxExposure Test Matrix.

  1. Fresnel diffraction patterns as accelerating beams

    Zhang, Yiqi; Belić, Milivoj R.; Zheng, Huaibin; Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Keqing; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that beams originating from Fresnel diffraction patterns are self-accelerating in free space. In addition to accelerating and self-healing, they also exhibit parabolic deceleration property, which is in stark contrast to other accelerating beams. We find that the trajectory of Fresnel paraxial accelerating beams is similar to that of nonparaxial Weber beams. Decelerating and accelerating regions are separated by a critical propagation distance, at which no acceleration is prese...

  2. The auroral electron accelerator

    A model of the auroral electron acceleration process is presented in which the electrons are accelerated resonantly by lower-hybrid waves. The essentially stochastic acceleration process is approximated for the purposes of computation by a deterministic model involving an empirically derived energy transfer function. The empirical function, which is consistent with all that is known of electron energization by lower-hybrid waves, allows many, possibly all, observed features of the electron distribution to be reproduced. It is suggested that the process occurs widely in both space and laboratory plasmas. (author)

  3. Velocimetry of cathode particles in a magnetoplasmadynamic thruster discharge plasma

    Walker, J.; Langendorf, S.; Walker, M.; Polzin, K.; Kimberlin, A.

    2015-07-01

    With high-speed imaging, it is possible to directly observe the time-evolution of the macroscopic behavior of the discharge plasma in a magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT). By utilizing direct high-speed imaging capable of capturing many images over the course of a single discharge, the velocity of the cathode erosion particles can be measured, opening the possibility of a novel, noninvasive technique for discharge plasma flow field velocimetry. In this work, an 8 kA argon MPDT discharge is imaged at 26 173 fps utilizing a 0.9 neutral density filter. The camera is aligned with thruster centerline 4 m downstream of the thruster exit plane. By tracking visible particles appearing in the multiple images, the particle motion in the radial and azimuthal directions is directly imaged. Through the use of traditional techniques in digital particle image velocimetry, the cathode particles emanating from the discharge are measured to have a mean radial velocity of 44.6 ± 6.0 m/s with a 95% confidence interval and a statistically insignificant azimuthal velocity. The setup and analysis employed permits measurement of the particle velocity in orthogonal direction to the image sensor plane using a single camera. By combining a background removal subtraction technique and knowledge of the optical focal plane, the estimated mean axial velocity of the particles is 1.59 km/s. This investigation ends with a discussion of important factors to consider for future MPDT high-speed imaging particle velocimetry, such as frame-rate, image size, spatial resolution, optics, and data handling selections.

  4. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Advanced accelerator physics. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    This advanced course on general accelerator physics is the second of the biennial series given by the CERN Accelerator School and follows on from the first basic course given at Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris, in 1984. Stress is placed on the mathematical tools of Hamiltonian mechanics and the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, which are widely used in accelerator theory. The main topics treated in this present work include: nonlinear resonances, chromaticity, motion in longitudinal phase space, growth and control of longitudinal and transverse beam emittance, space-charge effects and polarization. The seminar programme treats some specific accelerator techniques, devices, projects and future possibilities. (orig.)

  5. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Advanced accelerator physics. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    This advanced course on general accelerator physics is the second of the biennial series given by the CERN Accelerator School and follows on from the first basic course given at Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris, in 1984. Stress is placed on the mathematical tools of Hamiltonian mechanics and the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, which are widely used in accelerator theory. The main topics treated in this present work include: nonlinear resonances, chromaticity, motion in longitudinal phase space, growth and control of longitudinal and transverse beam emittance, space-charge effects and polarization. The seminar programme treats some specific accelerator techniques, devices, projects and future possibilities. (orig.)

  6. Future accelerators (?)

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made

  7. Future accelerators (?)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  8. Design of automatic thruster assisted mooring systems for ships

    Jan P. Strand

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mathematical modelling and controller design of an automatic thruster assisted position mooring system. Such control systems are applied to anchored floating production offloading and storage vessels and semi-subs. The controller is designed using model based control with a LQG feedback controller in conjunction with a Kalman filter. The controller design is in addition to the environmental loads accounting for the mooring forces acting on the vessel. This is reflected in the model structure and in the inclusion of new functionality.

  9. Anode current density distribution in a cusped field thruster

    Wu, Huan, E-mail: wuhuan58@qq.com; Liu, Hui, E-mail: hlying@gmail.com; Meng, Yingchao; Zhang, Junyou; Yang, Siyu; Hu, Peng; Chen, Pengbo; Yu, Daren [Mail Box 458, Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The cusped field thruster is a new electric propulsion device that is expected to have a non-uniform radial current density at the anode. To further study the anode current density distribution, a multi-annulus anode is designed to directly measure the anode current density for the first time. The anode current density decreases sharply at larger radii; the magnitude of collected current density at the center is far higher compared with the outer annuli. The anode current density non-uniformity does not demonstrate a significant change with varying working conditions.

  10. A thrust balance for low power hollow cathode thrusters

    A hanging thrust balance has been designed, manufactured and tested at the University of Southampton. The current design allows for direct steady thrust measurements ranging from 0.1 to 3 mN but this can be easily extended to measure thrust in a different range. Moreover the chosen balance design and the thrust measurement procedure allow for the cancellation of thermal drifts. The thrust balance was tested with a T6 hollow cathode thruster providing measurements with an uncertainty of about 9.7%. The thrust data were compared to those obtained with another direct thrust balance and they are in quantitative agreement—the maximum difference being only 6%. (paper)

  11. Investigating Premature Ignition of Thruster Pressure Cartridges by Mechanical Impact of Internal Components

    Woods, Stephen S.; Saulsberry, Regor

    2010-01-01

    Pyrotechnic thruster pressure cartridges (TPCs) are used for aeroshell separation on a new NASA crew launch vehicle. The premature ignition concern was hypothesized based on the potential range of motion of the subassemblies, projected worst case accelerations, and the internal geometry that could subject propellant grains to mechanical impact sufficiently high for ignition. This possibility was investigated by fabricating a high-fidelity model of the suspected contact geometry, placing a representative amount of propellant in it, and impacting the propellant with a range of forces equivalent to and greater than the maximum possible during launch. Testing demonstrated that the likelihood of ignition is less than 1 in 1,000,000. The test apparatus, methodology, and results are described in this paper. Nondestructive evaluation ( NDE) during TPC acceptance testing indicated that internal assemblies moved during shock and vibration testing due to an internal bond anomaly. This caused concerns that the launch environment might produce the same movement and release propellant grains that might be prematurely ignited through impact or through electrostatic discharge (ESD) as grains vibrated against internal surfaces. Since a new lot could not be fabricated in time, a determination had to be made as to whether the lot was acceptable to fly. This paper discusses the analysis and impact testing used to address the potential impact issue and a separate paper addresses the ESD issue.

  12. Effect of the Discharge Voltage on the Performance of the Hall Thruster

    Duan, Ping; Liu, Guangrui; Bian, Xingyu; Chen, Long; Yin, Yan; Cao, Anning

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional physical model is established according to the discharging process in the Hall thruster discharge channel using the particle-in-cell method. The influences of discharge voltage on the distributions of potential, ion radial flow, and discharge current are investigated in a fixed magnetic field configuration. It is found that, with the increase of discharge voltage, especially during 250-650 V, the ion radial flow and the collision frequency between ions and the wall are decreased, but the discharge current is increased. The electron temperature saturation is observed between 400-450 V and the maximal value decreases during this region. When the discharge voltage reaches 700 V, the potential distribution in the axis direction expands to the anode significantly, the ionization region becomes close to the anode, and the acceleration region grows longer. Besides, ion radial flow and the collision frequency between ions and the wall are also increased when the discharge voltage exceeds 650 V. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11375039 and 11275034) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Nos. 3132014328 and 3132015142)

  13. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...

  14. T-Rex: A Japanese Space Tether Experiment

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Electrodynamic tether (EDT) thrusters work by virtue of the force a magnetic field exerts on a wire carrying an electrical current. The force, which acts on any charged particle moving through a magnetic field (including the electrons moving in a current-carrying wire), were concisely expressed by Lorentz in 1895 in an equation that now bears his name. The force acts in a direction perpendicular to both the direction of current flow and the magnetic field vector. Electric motors make use of this force: a wire loop in a magnetic field is made to rotate by the torque the Lorentz Force exerts on it due to an alternating current in the loop times so as to keep the torque acting in the same sense. The motion of the loop is transmitted to a shaft, thus providing work. Although the working principle of EDT thrusters is not new, its application to space transportation may be significant. In essence, an EDT thruster is just a clever way of getting an electrical current to flow in a long orbiting wire (the tether) so that the Earth s magnetic field will accelerate the wire and, consequently the payload attached to the wire. The direction of current flow in the tether, either toward or away from the Earth along the local vertical, determines whether the magnetic force will raise or lower the orbit. The bias voltage of a vertically deployed metal tether, which results just from its orbital motion (assumed eastward) through Earth s magnetic field, is positive with respect to the ambient plasma at the top and negative at the bottom. This polarization is due to the action of the Lorentz force on the electrons in the tether. Thus, the natural current flow is the result of negative electrons being attracted to the upper end and then returned to the plasma at the lower end. The magnetic force in this case has a component opposite to the direction of motion, and thus leads to a lowering of the orbit and eventually to re-entry. In this generator mode of operation the Lorentz Force

  15. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  16. Using the Flow-3D General Moving Object Model to Simulate Coupled Liquid Slosh - Container Dynamics on the SPHERES Slosh Experiment: Aboard the International Space Station

    Schulman, Richard; Kirk, Daniel; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Schallhorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The SPHERES Slosh Experiment (SSE) is a free floating experimental platform developed for the acquisition of long duration liquid slosh data aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The data sets collected will be used to benchmark numerical models to aid in the design of rocket and spacecraft propulsion systems. Utilizing two SPHERES Satellites, the experiment will be moved through different maneuvers designed to induce liquid slosh in the experiment's internal tank. The SSE has a total of twenty-four thrusters to move the experiment. In order to design slosh generating maneuvers, a parametric study with three maneuvers types was conducted using the General Moving Object (GMO) model in Flow-30. The three types of maneuvers are a translation maneuver, a rotation maneuver and a combined rotation translation maneuver. The effectiveness of each maneuver to generate slosh is determined by the deviation of the experiment's trajectory as compared to a dry mass trajectory. To fully capture the effect of liquid re-distribution on experiment trajectory, each thruster is modeled as an independent force point in the Flow-3D simulation. This is accomplished by modifying the total number of independent forces in the GMO model from the standard five to twenty-four. Results demonstrate that the most effective slosh generating maneuvers for all motions occurs when SSE thrusters are producing the highest changes in SSE acceleration. The results also demonstrate that several centimeters of trajectory deviation between the dry and slosh cases occur during the maneuvers; while these deviations seem small, they are measureable by SSE instrumentation.

  17. Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  18. Experimental Investigations of a Krypton Stationary Plasma Thruster

    A. I. Bugrova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stationary plasma thrusters are attractive electric propulsion systems for spacecrafts. The usual propellant is xenon. Among the other suggested propellants, krypton could be one of the best candidates. Most studies have been carried out with a Hall effect thruster previously designed for xenon. The ATON A-3 developed by MSTU MIREA (Moscow initially defined for xenon has been optimized for krypton. The stable high-performance ATON A-3 operation in Kr has been achieved after optimization of its magnetic field configuration and its optimization in different parameters: length and width of the channel, buffer volume dimensions, mode of the cathode operation, and input parameters. For a voltage of 400 V and the anode mass flow rate of 2.5 mg/s the anode efficiency reaches 60% and the specific impulse reaches 2900 s under A-3 operating with Kr. The achieved performances under operation A-3 with Kr are presented and compared with performances obtained with Xe.

  19. Effects of wall electrodes on Hall effect thruster plasma

    This paper investigates the physical mechanisms that cause beneficial and detrimental performance effect observed to date in Hall effect thrusters with wall electrodes. It is determined that the wall electrode sheath can reduce ion losses to the wall if positioned near the anode (outside the dense region of the plasma) such that an ion-repelling sheath is able to form. The ability of the wall electrode to form an ion-repelling sheath is inversely proportional to the current drawn—if the wall electrode becomes the dominant sink for the thruster discharge current, increases in wall electrode bias result in increased local plasma potential rather than an ion-repelling sheath. A single-fluid electron flow model gives results that mimic the observed potential structures and the current-sharing fractions between the anode and wall electrodes, showing that potential gradients in the presheath and bulk plasma come at the expense of current draw to the wall electrodes. Secondary electron emission from the wall electrodes (or lack thereof) is inferred to have a larger effect if the electrodes are positioned near the exit plane than if positioned near the anode, due to the difference in energy deposition from the plasma

  20. Effect of Inductive Coil Geometry on the Thrust Efficiency of a Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    Hallock, Ashley; Polzin, Kurt; Emsellem, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. The thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters require high pulse energies to inductively ionize propellant. The Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA) [4, 5] is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that addressees this issue by partially ionizing propellant inside a conical inductive coil via an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge. The ECR plasma is produced using microwaves and permanent magnets that are arranged to create a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation, and in turn current sheet formation, to a region where the magnetic coupling between the plasma and the inductive coil is high. The use of a conical theta-pinch coil is under investigation. The conical geometry serves to provide neutral propellant containment and plasma plume focusing that is improved relative to the more common planar geometry of the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT) [2, 3], however a conical coil imparts a direct radial acceleration of the current sheet that serves to rapidly decouple the propellant from the coil, limiting the direct axial electromagnetic acceleration in favor of an indirect acceleration mechanism that requires significant heating of the propellant within the volume bounded by the current sheet. In this paper, we describe thrust stand measurements performed to characterize the performance