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  1. Mechanisms of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency and Reactivation

    Fengchun Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV consists of latent and lytic replication phases. During latent infection, only a limited number of KSHV genes are expressed. However, this phase of replication is essential for persistent infection, evasion of host immune response, and induction of KSHV-related malignancies. KSHV reactivation from latency produces a wide range of viral products and infectious virions. The resulting de novo infection and viral lytic products modulate diverse cellular pathways and stromal microenvironment, which promote the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS. The mechanisms controlling KSHV latency and reactivation are complex, involving both viral and host factors, and are modulated by diverse environmental factors. Here, we review the cellular and molecular basis of KSHV latency and reactivation with a focus on the most recent advancements in the field.

  2. Non-Human Primate Model of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection

    Heesoon Chang; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Pearson, Christine B.; Jong-Soo Lee; Hye-Ra Lee; Steven H Lee; Jeffrey Vieira; Keith G Mansfield; Jung, Jae U.

    2009-01-01

    Since Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8) was first identified in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions of HIV-infected individuals with AIDS, the basic biological understanding of KSHV has progressed remarkably. However, the absence of a proper animal model for KSHV continues to impede direct in vivo studies of viral replication, persistence, and pathogenesis. In response to this need for an animal model of KSHV infection, we have explored whether common marmosets c...

  3. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil

    S. Ramos-da-Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS became a critical health issue with the emergence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in the 1980s. Four clinical-epidemiological forms of KS have been described: classical KS, endemic KS, iatrogenic KS, and AIDS-associated KS. In 1994, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus type 8 was identified by Chang and colleagues, and has been detected worldwide at frequencies ranging from 80 to 100%. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of KSHV infection in KS lesions from HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Brazil, as well as to review the current knowledge about KS transmission and detection. For these purposes, DNA from 51 cases of KS was assessed by PCR: 20 (39.2% cases of classical KS, 29 (56.9% of AIDS-associated KS and 2 (3.9% of iatrogenic KS. Most patients were males (7.5:1, M/F, and mean age was 47.9 years (SD = ± 18.7 years. As expected, HIV-positive KS patients were younger than patients with classical KS. On the other hand, patients with AIDS-associated KS have early lesions (patch and plaque compared to classical KS patients (predominantly nodular lesions. This is assumed to be the result of the early diagnose of KS in the HIV-positive setting. KSHV infection was detected by PCR in almost all cases (48/51; 94.1%, irrespectively of the clinical-epidemiological form of KS. These results show that KSHV is associated with all forms of KS in Brazilian patients, a fact that supports the role of this virus in KS pathogenesis.

  4. A novel mechanism inducing genome instability in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells.

    Jackson, Brian R.; Marko Noerenberg; Adrian Whitehouse

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with multiple AIDS-related malignancies. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV has a biphasic life cycle and both the lytic and latent phases are required for tumorigenesis. Evidence suggests that KSHV lytic replication can cause genome instability in KSHV-infected cells, although no mechanism has thus far been described. A surprising link has recently been suggested between mRNA export, genome instability and canc...

  5. The Biology of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and the Infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Di QIN; Chun LU

    2008-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV),also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8),is discovered in 1994 from Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesion of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)patient.In addition to its association with KS,KSHV has also been implicated as the causative agent of two other AIDS-associated malignancies:primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD).KSHV is a complex DNA virus that not only has the ability to promote cellular growth and survival for tumor development,but also can provoke deregulated angiogenesis,inflammation,and modulate the patient's immune system in favor of tumor growth.As KSHV is a necessary but not sufficient etiological factor for KS,human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a very important cofactor.Here we review the basic information about the biology of KSHV,development of pathogenesis and interaction between KSHV and HIV.

  6. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection Promotes Invasion of Primary Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells by Inducing Matrix Metalloproteinases▿

    Qian, Li-Wu; Xie, Jianping; Ye, Fengchun; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in cancer invasion, angiogenesis, and inflammatory infiltration. Kaposi's sarcoma is a highly disseminated angiogenic tumor of proliferative endothelial cells linked to infection by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). In this study, we showed that KSHV infection increased the invasiveness of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a Matrigel-based cell invasion assay. KSHV-induced cell invasion was abolished b...

  7. Molecular piracy: manipulation of the ubiquitin system by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Fujimuro, Masahiro; Hayward, S Diane; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Ubiquitination, one of several post-translational protein modifications, plays a key role in the regulation of cellular events, including protein degradation, signal transduction, endocytosis, protein trafficking, apoptosis and immune responses. Ubiquitin attachment at the lysine residue of cellular factors acts as a signal for endocytosis and rapid degradation by the 26S proteasome. It has recently been observed that viruses, especially oncogenic herpesviruses, utilise molecular piracy by encoding their own proteins to interfere with regulation of cell signalling. Kaposi's sarcoma- associated herpesvirus (KSHV) manipulates the ubiquitin system to facilitate cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis and evasion from immunity. In this review, we will describe the strategies used by KSHV at distinct stages of the viral life-cycle to control the ubiquitin system and promote oncogenesis and viral persistence. PMID:17688306

  8. Protein complexes associated with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the major biological cofactor contributing to development of Kaposi's sarcoma. KSHV establishes a latent infection in human B cells expressing the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), a critical factor in the regulation of viral latency. LANA is known to modulate viral and cellular gene expression. We report here on some initial proteomic studies to identify cellular proteins associated with the amino and carboxy-terminal domains of LANA. The results of these studies show an association of known cellular proteins which support LANA functions and have identified additional LANA-associated proteins. These results provide new evidence for complexes involving LANA with a number of previously unreported functional classes of proteins including DNA polymerase, RNA helicase and cell cycle control proteins. The results also indicate that the amino terminus of LANA can interact with its carboxy-terminal domain. This interaction is potentially important for facilitating associations with other cell cycle regulatory proteins which include CENP-F identified in association with both the amino and carboxy-termini. These novel associations add to the diversity of LANA functions in relation to the maintenance of latency and subsequent transformation of KSHV infected cells

  9. Characterization of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Related Lymphomas by DNA Microarray Analysis

    Keiji Ueda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among herpesviruses, γ-herpesviruses are supposed to have typical oncogenic activities. Two human γ-herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, are putative etiologic agents for Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and some cases of gastric cancers, and Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL especially in AIDS setting for the latter case, respectively. Since such two viruses mentioned above are highly species specific, it has been quite difficult to prove their oncogenic activities in animal models. Nevertheless, the viral oncogenesis is epidemiologically and/or in vitro experimentally evident. This time, we investigated gene expression profiles of KSHV-oriented lymphoma cell lines, EBV-oriented lymphoma cell lines, and T-cell leukemia cell lines. Both KSHV and EBV cause a B-cell-originated lymphoma, but the gene expression profiles were typically classified. Furthermore, KSHV could govern gene expression profiles, although PELs are usually coinfected with KSHV and EBV.

  10. Regional prevalence and transmission route of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus in Zhejiang, China

    JU Hong-zhen; ZHU Biao; WANG Ying-jie; SHENG Zi-ke; SHENG Ji-fang

    2012-01-01

    Background The infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is most likely the cause of clinical Kaposi's sarcoma,primary effusion lymphoma,and multi-center Castleman's disease.KSHV infection has very limited epidemiological survey data in China,and its definite mode of transmission remains controversial.This study aimed to determine the infection status and the main transmission route of KSHV in Chinese population.Methods An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing KSHV ORF65 recombinant protein was employed to analyze the antibody response to KSHV ORF65 in sera from 122 healthy physical examination people,107intravenous drug users,135 non-intravenous drug users,211 hepatitis B (HBV) patients infected via blood transmission,107 kidney transplant recipients,and 72 female sex workers in Zhejiang Province in Southeast China.Results KSHV infection occurred relatively common (13.1%) in healthy population in Zhejiang,China.Infection rate was 16.7% in female sex workers,but significantly elevated in intravenous drug addicts (58.9%),blood-transmitted HBV patients (28.0%) and kidney transplant patients (41.1%).Conclusion Blood borne transmission of KSHV is probably the main route of infection in Zhejiang Province.

  11. Non-human primate model of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection.

    Heesoon Chang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8 was first identified in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS lesions of HIV-infected individuals with AIDS, the basic biological understanding of KSHV has progressed remarkably. However, the absence of a proper animal model for KSHV continues to impede direct in vivo studies of viral replication, persistence, and pathogenesis. In response to this need for an animal model of KSHV infection, we have explored whether common marmosets can be experimentally infected with human KSHV. Here, we report the successful zoonotic transmission of KSHV into common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, Cj, a New World primate. Marmosets infected with recombinant KSHV rapidly seroconverted and maintained a vigorous anti-KSHV antibody response. KSHV DNA and latent nuclear antigen (LANA were readily detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and various tissues of infected marmosets. Remarkably, one orally infected marmoset developed a KS-like skin lesion with the characteristic infiltration of leukocytes by spindle cells positive for KSHV DNA and proteins. These results demonstrate that human KSHV infects common marmosets, establishes an efficient persistent infection, and occasionally leads to a KS-like skin lesion. This is the first animal model to significantly elaborate the important aspects of KSHV infection in humans and will aid in the future design of vaccines against KSHV and anti-viral therapies targeting KSHV coinfected tumor cells.

  12. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus OX2 Glycoprotein Activates Myeloid-Lineage Cells To Induce Inflammatory Cytokine Production

    Chung, Young-Hwa; Means, Robert E.; Choi, Joong-Kook; Lee, Bok-Soo; Jae U. Jung

    2002-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is an inflammatory cytokine-mediated angioproliferative disease which is triggered by infection by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV contains an open reading frame, K14, that has significant homology with cellular OX2, designated viral OX2 (vOX2). In this report, we demonstrate that vOX2 encodes a glycosylated cell surface protein with an apparent molecular mass of 55 kDa. Purified glycosylated vOX2 protein dramatically stimulated primary monocytes, macroph...

  13. Immunogenicity Analysis of Prokaryotic Expression Products of Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus orf65

    Bi-shi FU; Bao-lin LI; Lin-ding WANG

    2008-01-01

    To purify the protein encoding the small capsid protein (SCP) of KSHV and analyze its immunogenicity, the carboxyl terminus of orf65 of Kaposi's sarcoma associated-herpesvirus (KSHV) was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system. The expression of recombinant E. coli containing pQE-80L-orf65 was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and the fusion protein was purified by chromatography. The expressed protein and its purified product were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and showed that 9 kDa was the expected size of the purified orf65 protein. The antiserum was produced in rabbit which was immunized by purified orf65 protein. An ELISA assay was established to analyze the immunogenicity of the purified orf65 protein. The ELISA analysis demonstrated that orf65 protein has strong immune activity, and the immune activity of polyclonal antibody against orf65 was more than 4 fold higher than that in the serum of the non-immunized rabbit. These results demonstrate that purified orf65 protein has very strong immunogenicity and can be used in screening KSHV infection in the general population using ELISA.

  14. Next-Generation Sequencing in the Understanding of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) Biology.

    Strahan, Roxanne; Uppal, Timsy; Verma, Subhash C

    2016-01-01

    Non-Sanger-based novel nucleic acid sequencing techniques, referred to as Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), provide a rapid, reliable, high-throughput, and massively parallel sequencing methodology that has improved our understanding of human cancers and cancer-related viruses. NGS has become a quintessential research tool for more effective characterization of complex viral and host genomes through its ever-expanding repertoire, which consists of whole-genome sequencing, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and whole-epigenome sequencing. These new NGS platforms provide a comprehensive and systematic genome-wide analysis of genomic sequences and a full transcriptional profile at a single nucleotide resolution. When combined, these techniques help unlock the function of novel genes and the related pathways that contribute to the overall viral pathogenesis. Ongoing research in the field of virology endeavors to identify the role of various underlying mechanisms that control the regulation of the herpesvirus biphasic lifecycle in order to discover potential therapeutic targets and treatment strategies. In this review, we have complied the most recent findings about the application of NGS in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) biology, including identification of novel genomic features and whole-genome KSHV diversities, global gene regulatory network profiling for intricate transcriptome analyses, and surveying of epigenetic marks (DNA methylation, modified histones, and chromatin remodelers) during de novo, latent, and productive KSHV infections. PMID:27043613

  15. Systematic identification of cellular signals reactivating Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Fuqu Yu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The herpesvirus life cycle has two distinct phases: latency and lytic replication. The balance between these two phases is critical for viral pathogenesis. It is believed that cellular signals regulate the switch from latency to lytic replication. To systematically evaluate the cellular signals regulating this reactivation process in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, the effects of 26,000 full-length cDNA expression constructs on viral reactivation were individually assessed in primary effusion lymphoma-derived cells that harbor the latent virus. A group of diverse cellular signaling proteins were identified and validated in their effect of inducing viral lytic gene expression from the latent viral genome. The results suggest that multiple cellular signaling pathways can reactivate the virus in a genetically homogeneous cell population. Further analysis revealed that the Raf/MEK/ERK/Ets-1 pathway mediates Ras-induced reactivation. The same pathway also mediates spontaneous reactivation, which sets the first example to our knowledge of a specific cellular pathway being studied in the spontaneous reactivation process. Our study provides a functional genomic approach to systematically identify the cellular signals regulating the herpesvirus life cycle, thus facilitating better understanding of a fundamental issue in virology and identifying novel therapeutic targets.

  16. A novel mechanism inducing genome instability in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells.

    Brian R Jackson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with multiple AIDS-related malignancies. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV has a biphasic life cycle and both the lytic and latent phases are required for tumorigenesis. Evidence suggests that KSHV lytic replication can cause genome instability in KSHV-infected cells, although no mechanism has thus far been described. A surprising link has recently been suggested between mRNA export, genome instability and cancer development. Notably, aberrations in the cellular transcription and export complex (hTREX proteins have been identified in high-grade tumours and these defects contribute to genome instability. We have previously shown that the lytically expressed KSHV ORF57 protein interacts with the complete hTREX complex; therefore, we investigated the possible intriguing link between ORF57, hTREX and KSHV-induced genome instability. Herein, we show that lytically active KSHV infected cells induce a DNA damage response and, importantly, we demonstrate directly that this is due to DNA strand breaks. Furthermore, we show that sequestration of the hTREX complex by the KSHV ORF57 protein leads to this double strand break response and significant DNA damage. Moreover, we describe a novel mechanism showing that the genetic instability observed is a consequence of R-loop formation. Importantly, the link between hTREX sequestration and DNA damage may be a common feature in herpesvirus infection, as a similar phenotype was observed with the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 ICP27 protein. Our data provide a model of R-loop induced DNA damage in KSHV infected cells and describes a novel system for studying genome instability caused by aberrant hTREX.

  17. Quantitation of Cell-Free and Cell-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus DNA by Real-Time PCR

    White, Irene E.; Campbell, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay for quantitation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8) DNA was evaluated. The linear dynamic range was 10 to 105 copies of KSHV DNA (r2 > 0.99). The accuracy of DNA purification and quantitation was less than ±0.4 log10 copies for samples that contained from 10 to 105 copies of KSHV DNA. Cell-associated KSHV DNA was quantitated over a range of infected cell frequencies from 0.1 to 10−5, and cell-free KSHV DNA in plasma was quantitated ...

  18. Ubiquitination of lysine-331 by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus protein K5 targets HFE for lysosomal degradation

    Rhodes, David A.; Boyle, Louise H; Boname, Jessica M.; Lehner, Paul J.; Trowsdale, John

    2010-01-01

    The nonclassical MHC class I-related (MHC-I) molecule HFE controls cellular iron homeostasis by a mechanism that has not been fully elucidated. We examined the regulation of HFE by K5, the E3 ubiquitin ligase encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), that is known to down-regulate classical MHC-I. K5 down-regulated HFE efficiently, using polyubiquitination of the membrane proximal lysine in the HFE cytoplasmic tail (K331), to target the molecule for degradation via ESCRT...

  19. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vCyclin open reading frame contains an internal ribosome entry site

    Bieleski, L; Talbot, Simon

    2001-01-01

    We have previously examined the transcription and splicing of open reading frames (ORFS) 71 (K13), 72, and 73 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in the primary effusion lymphoma cell line BCP-1 (latently infected with KSHV) (45). The three genes encoded by these ORFs (for vFLIP, vCyclin, and latency-associated nuclear antigen [LANA]) are transcribed from a common transcription start site in BCP-1 cells during both latency and the lytic cycles. The resulting transcript is splice...

  20. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) vIL-6 Promotes Cell Proliferation and Migration by Upregulating DNMT1 via STAT3 Activation

    Jing Wu; Yuqiao Xu; Dongping Mo; Peijun Huang; Ruihong Sun; Lei Huang; Shiyang Pan; Jian Xu

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most common AIDS-related malignancy. KSHV vIL-6 promotes KS development, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we reported that KSHV vIL-6 enhanced the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in endothelial cells,increased the global genomic DNA methylation, and promoted cell proliferation and migration. And this effect could be blocked by the DNA methyltransferase inhibit...

  1. The cyclin encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus stimulates cdk6 to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein and histone H1.

    Godden-Kent, D; Talbot, Simon; Boshoff, C; Chang, Y.; Moore, P.; Weiss, R A; Mittnacht, S

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8) is a novel gammaherpesvirus implicated in the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma and certain malignancies of lymphatic origin. One of the candidate genes possibly involved in promoting tumor development is an open reading frame (ORF) with sequence similarity to human type D cyclin genes. This cyclin-like gene, when expressed in tissue culture cells, promotes phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pro...

  2. CTCF and Rad21 Act as Host Cell Restriction Factors for Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) Lytic Replication by Modulating Viral Gene Transcription

    Da-Jiang Li; Dinesh Verma; Tim Mosbruger; Sankar Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human herpesvirus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma and is associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases. KSHV reactivation from latency and virion production is dependent on efficient transcription of over eighty lytic cycle genes and viral DNA replication. CTCF and cohesin, cellular proteins that cooperatively regulate gene expression and mediate long-range DNA interactions, have been shown to bind at specific sites in herpesv...

  3. Broad target cell selectivity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion and virion entry

    The molecular mechanism of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8) entry is poorly understood. We tested a broad variety of cell types of diverse species and tissue origin for their ability to function as targets in a quantitative reporter gene assay for KSHV-glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion. Several human, non-human primate, and rabbit cell lines were efficient targets, whereas rodent and all human lymphoblastoid cell lines were weak targets. Parallel findings were obtained with a virion entry assay using a recombinant KSHV encoding a reporter gene. No correlation was observed between target cell activity and surface expression of α3β1 integrin, a proposed KSHV receptor. We hypothesize that target cell permissiveness in both the cell fusion and virion entry assays reflects the presence of a putative KSHV fusion-entry receptor

  4. A negative element involved in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded ORF11 gene expression

    Chen, Lei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The ORF11 of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a lytic viral gene with delayed-early expression kinetics. How the ORF11 gene expression is regulated in the KSHV lytic cascade is largely unknown. Here we report that the deletion of the KSHV viral IL-6 gene from the viral genome leads to deregulated ORF11 gene expression. The KSHV-encoded viral IL-6 protein was found not to be essentially involved in the regulation of ORF11, suggesting a potential transcriptional cis-regulation. A negative element was identified downstream of the ORF11 gene, which suppresses the ORF11 basal promoter activity in a position-independent manner.

  5. The Crystal Structure of PF-8, the DNA Polymerase Accessory Subunit from Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    Baltz, Jennifer L.; Filman, David J.; Ciustea, Mihai; Silverman, Janice Elaine Y.; Lautenschlager, Catherine L.; Coen, Donald M.; Ricciardi, Robert P.; Hogle, James M.; (UPENN)

    2009-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is an emerging pathogen whose mechanism of replication is poorly understood. PF-8, the presumed processivity factor of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA polymerase, acts in combination with the catalytic subunit, Pol-8, to synthesize viral DNA. We have solved the crystal structure of residues 1 to 304 of PF-8 at a resolution of 2.8 {angstrom}. This structure reveals that each monomer of PF-8 shares a fold common to processivity factors. Like human cytomegalovirus UL44, PF-8 forms a head-to-head dimer in the form of a C clamp, with its concave face containing a number of basic residues that are predicted to be important for DNA binding. However, there are several differences with related proteins, especially in loops that extend from each monomer into the center of the C clamp and in the loops that connect the two subdomains of each protein, which may be important for determining PF-8's mode of binding to DNA and to Pol-8. Using the crystal structures of PF-8, the herpes simplex virus catalytic subunit, and RB69 bacteriophage DNA polymerase in complex with DNA and initial experiments testing the effects of inhibition of PF-8-stimulated DNA synthesis by peptides derived from Pol-8, we suggest a model for how PF-8 might form a ternary complex with Pol-8 and DNA. The structure and the model suggest interesting similarities and differences in how PF-8 functions relative to structurally similar proteins.

  6. Immunological and inflammatory features of Kaposi's sarcoma and other Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8-associated neoplasias.

    Riva, Giovanni; Barozzi, Patrizia; Torelli, Giuseppe; Luppi, Mario

    2010-01-01

    During the last 15 years, virologic and immunologic studies have provided a series of valuable clues on the modalities of gamma-herpesvirus-induced oncogenesis, which do not only consist of the direct subversion of intracellular signaling pathways, leading to a frank neoplastic molecular network in the infected cell, but also rely on viral manipulations of the cellular and cytokine microenvironment, especially in conditions of immunodeficiency in the host. At the virus-host interface, something iniquitous, strikingly favoring the aggressive expansion of human herpesvirus 8-infected lympho-endothelial clones, known as Kaposi's sarcoma, often occurs in different types of immunocompromised patients, able to establish a deleterious "pro-Kaposi's sarcoma" neo-angiogenic inflammatory network. However, these patients may control - or even resolve - the neoplastic burden as soon as an immunologic reassessment restores functional anti-Kaposi's sarcoma immune responses and reconstitutes a proper inflammatory environment. Indeed, the occurrence of iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma remissions, after the reduction or switch of immunosuppressive regimens, strongly suggests that the reset of immunologic constraints characterizing the Kaposi's sarcoma onco-pathogenic system may be sufficient to inhibit human herpesvirus 8-positive lympho-endothelial proliferations. Accordingly, immunologic reports all underline the pivotal protective role of anti-human herpesvirus 8 memory T-cells (harmonically, both CD8+ and CD4+ subsets), thus definitely implying a general requirement for an effective, antiviral immuno-inflammatory environment, based on correct and productive interactions between different compartments of dendritic, myeloid, and specific T-cells, in order to achieve and maintain optimal control on human herpesvirus 8-associated antigenic stimulations and Kaposi's sarcoma disease. In this review, we recapitulate some remarkable features about the outstanding immunologic issue raised by

  7. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor and enhances its transcriptional activities

    Togi, Sumihito; Nakasuji, Misa; Muromoto, Ryuta; Ikeda, Osamu; Okabe, Kanako; Kitai, Yuichi; Kon, Shigeyuki [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Oritani, Kenji [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Tadashi, E-mail: tmatsuda@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which interacts with cellular proteins, plays a central role in modification of viral and/or cellular gene expression. Here, we show that LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and that LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a physical interaction between LANA and GR in transiently transfected 293T and HeLa cells. In human B-lymphoma cells, LANA overexpression enhanced GR activity and cell growth suppression following glucocorticoid stimulation. Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed that activated GR was bound to LANA and accumulated in the nucleus, leading to an increase in binding of activated GR to the glucocorticoid response element of target genes. Taken together, KSHV-derived LANA acts as a transcriptional co-activator of GR. Our results might suggest a careful use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of patients with KSHV-related malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. - Highlights: • KSHV-LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR in 293T and HeLa cells. • KSHV-LANA physically associates with GR. • KSHV-LANA enhances GR activation and cell growth suppression in human B-lymphocytes. • KSHV-LANA influences the nuclear retention and DNA binding activity of GR.

  8. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor and enhances its transcriptional activities

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which interacts with cellular proteins, plays a central role in modification of viral and/or cellular gene expression. Here, we show that LANA associates with glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and that LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a physical interaction between LANA and GR in transiently transfected 293T and HeLa cells. In human B-lymphoma cells, LANA overexpression enhanced GR activity and cell growth suppression following glucocorticoid stimulation. Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed that activated GR was bound to LANA and accumulated in the nucleus, leading to an increase in binding of activated GR to the glucocorticoid response element of target genes. Taken together, KSHV-derived LANA acts as a transcriptional co-activator of GR. Our results might suggest a careful use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of patients with KSHV-related malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. - Highlights: • KSHV-LANA enhances the transcriptional activity of GR in 293T and HeLa cells. • KSHV-LANA physically associates with GR. • KSHV-LANA enhances GR activation and cell growth suppression in human B-lymphocytes. • KSHV-LANA influences the nuclear retention and DNA binding activity of GR

  9. Conservation of the glycoprotein B homologs of the Kaposi׳s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) and old world primate rhadinoviruses of chimpanzees and macaques.

    Bruce, A Gregory; Horst, Jeremy A; Rose, Timothy M

    2016-07-01

    The envelope-associated glycoprotein B (gB) is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae and plays a critical role in viral entry. We analyzed the evolutionary conservation of sequence and structural motifs within the Kaposi׳s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) gB and homologs of Old World primate rhadinoviruses belonging to the distinct RV1 and RV2 rhadinovirus lineages. In addition to gB homologs of rhadinoviruses infecting the pig-tailed and rhesus macaques, we cloned and sequenced gB homologs of RV1 and RV2 rhadinoviruses infecting chimpanzees. A structural model of the KSHV gB was determined, and functional motifs and sequence variants were mapped to the model structure. Conserved domains and motifs were identified, including an "RGD" motif that plays a critical role in KSHV binding and entry through the cellular integrin αVβ3. The RGD motif was only detected in RV1 rhadinoviruses suggesting an important difference in cell tropism between the two rhadinovirus lineages. PMID:27070755

  10. Systematic identification of cellular signals reactivating Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Fuqu Yu; Harada, Josephine N.; Brown, Helen J.; Hongyu Deng; Moon Jung Song; Ting-Ting Wu; Juran Kato-Stankiewicz; Nelson, Christian G; Jeffrey Vieira; Fuyuhiko Tamanoi; Chanda, Sumit K.; Ren Sun

    2007-01-01

    The herpesvirus life cycle has two distinct phases: latency and lytic replication. The balance between these two phases is critical for viral pathogenesis. It is believed that cellular signals regulate the switch from latency to lytic replication. To systematically evaluate the cellular signals regulating this reactivation process in Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus, the effects of 26,000 full-length cDNA expression constructs on viral reactivation were individually assessed in primary e...

  11. Surface Downregulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I, PE-CAM, and ICAM-1 following De Novo Infection of Endothelial Cells with Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    Tomescu, Costin; Law, Wai K.; Dean H Kedes

    2003-01-01

    Under selective pressure from host cytotoxic T lymphocytes, many viruses have evolved to downregulate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and/or T-cell costimulatory molecules from the surface of infected cells. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes two proteins, MIR-1 and MIR-2, that serve this function during lytic replication. In vivo, however, KSHV exists in a predominantly latent state, with less than 5% of infected cells expressing discernible lytic gene prod...

  12. Construction of an Infectious Rhesus Rhadinovirus Bacterial Artificial Chromosome for the Analysis of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Related Disease Development▿

    Estep, Ryan D.; Powers, Michael F.; Yen, Bonnie K.; Li, He; Wong, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) is closely related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and causes KSHV-like diseases in immunocompromised rhesus macaques (RM) that resemble KSHV-associated diseases including multicentric Castleman's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. RRV retains a majority of open reading frames (ORFs) postulated to be involved in the pathogenesis of KSHV and is the closest available animal model to KSHV infection in humans. Here we descri...

  13. Expression in a Recombinant Murid Herpesvirus 4 Reveals the In Vivo Transforming Potential of the K1 Open Reading Frame of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    Douglas, J; Dutia, B; Rhind, S.; Stewart, James P; Talbot, S J

    2004-01-01

    Murid herpesvirus 4 (commonly called MHV-68) is closely related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and provides an excellent model system for investigating gammaherpesvirus-associated pathogenesis. MHV-76 is a naturally occurring deletion mutant of MHV-68 that lacks 9,538 bp of the left end of the unique portion of the genome encoding nonessential pathogenesis-related genes. The KSHV K1 protein has been shown to transform rodent fibroblasts in vitro and common marmoset T lympho...

  14. KSHV 2.0: A Comprehensive Annotation of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Genome Using Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Novel Genomic and Functional Features

    Carolina Arias; Ben Weisburd; Noam Stern-Ginossar; Alexandre Mercier; Alexis S Madrid; Priya Bellare; Meghan Holdorf; Jonathan S Weissman; Don Ganem

    2014-01-01

    Productive herpesvirus infection requires a profound, time-controlled remodeling of the viral transcriptome and proteome. To gain insights into the genomic architecture and gene expression control in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), we performed a systematic genome-wide survey of viral transcriptional and translational activity throughout the lytic cycle. Using mRNA-sequencing and ribosome profiling, we found that transcripts encoding lytic genes are promptly bound by ribosomes...

  15. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Open Reading Frame 50/Rta Protein Activates the Entire Viral Lytic Cycle in the HH-B2 Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cell Line†

    Gradoville, Lyndle; Gerlach, Jennifer; Grogan, Elizabeth; Shedd, Duane; Nikiforow, Sarah; Metroka, Craig; Miller, George

    2000-01-01

    Rta, the gene product of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encoded mainly in open reading frame 50 (ORF50), is capable of activating expression of viral lytic cycle genes. What was not demonstrated in previous studies was whether KSHV Rta was competent to initiate the entire viral lytic life cycle including lytic viral DNA replication, late-gene expression with appropriate kinetics, and virus release. In HH-B2, a newly established primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell line, KSHV O...

  16. Exploitation of the complement system by oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus for cell survival and persistent infection.

    Myung-Shin Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During evolution, herpesviruses have developed numerous, and often very ingenious, strategies to counteract efficient host immunity. Specifically, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV eludes host immunity by undergoing a dormant stage, called latency wherein it expresses a minimal number of viral proteins to evade host immune activation. Here, we show that during latency, KSHV hijacks the complement pathway to promote cell survival. We detected strong deposition of complement membrane attack complex C5b-9 and the complement component C3 activated product C3b on Kaposi's sarcoma spindle tumor cells, and on human endothelial cells latently infected by KSHV, TIME-KSHV and TIVE-LTC, but not on their respective uninfected control cells, TIME and TIVE. We further showed that complement activation in latently KSHV-infected cells was mediated by the alternative complement pathway through down-regulation of cell surface complement regulatory proteins CD55 and CD59. Interestingly, complement activation caused minimal cell death but promoted the survival of latently KSHV-infected cells grown in medium depleted of growth factors. We found that complement activation increased STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation (Y705 of KSHV-infected cells, which was required for the enhanced cell survival. Furthermore, overexpression of either CD55 or CD59 in latently KSHV-infected cells was sufficient to inhibit complement activation, prevent STAT3 Y705 phosphorylation and abolish the enhanced survival of cells cultured in growth factor-depleted condition. Together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which an oncogenic virus subverts and exploits the host innate immune system to promote viral persistent infection.

  17. Identification and characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus open reading frame 11 promotor activation

    Chen, Lei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Open reading frame 11 (ORF11) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus belongs to a herpesviral homologous protein family shared by some members of the gamma- herpesvirus subfamily. Little is known about this ORF11 homologous protein family. We have characterized an unknown open reading frame, ORF11, located adjacent and in the opposite orientation to a well-characterized viral IL-6 gene. Northern blot analysis reveals that ORF11 is expressed during the KSHV lytic cycle with delayed-early transcription kinetics. We have determined the 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated region of the unspliced ORF11 transcript and identified both the transcription start site and the transcription termination site. Core promoter region, representing ORF11 promoter activity, was mapped to a 159nt fragment 5{prime} most proximal to the transcription start site. A functional TATA box was identified in the core promoter region. Interestingly, we found that ORF11 transcriptional activation is not responsive to Rta, the KSHV lytic switch protein. We also discovered that part of the ORF11 promoter region, the 209nt fragment upstream of the transcription start site, was repressed by phorbol esters. Our data help to understand transcription regulation of ORF11 and to elucidate roles of ORF11 in KSHV pathogenesis and life cycle.

  18. A hydrophobic domain within the small capsid protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is required for assembly.

    Capuano, Christopher M; Grzesik, Peter; Kreitler, Dale; Pryce, Erin N; Desai, Keshal V; Coombs, Gavin; McCaffery, J Michael; Desai, Prashant J

    2014-08-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) capsids can be produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses for protein expression. All six capsid proteins are required for this process to occur and, unlike for alphaherpesviruses, the small capsid protein (SCP) ORF65 is essential for this process. This protein decorates the capsid shell by virtue of its interaction with the capsomeres. In this study, we have explored the SCP interaction with the major capsid protein (MCP) using GFP fusions. The assembly site within the nucleus of infected cells was visualized by light microscopy using fluorescence produced by the SCP-GFP polypeptide, and the relocalization of the SCP to these sites was evident only when the MCP and the scaffold protein were also present - indicative of an interaction between these proteins that ensures delivery of the SCP to assembly sites. Biochemical assays demonstrated a physical interaction between the SCP and MCP, and also between this complex and the scaffold protein. Self-assembly of capsids with the SCP-GFP polypeptide was evident. Potentially, this result can be used to engineer fluorescent KSHV particles. A similar SCP-His6 polypeptide was used to purify capsids from infected cell lysates using immobilized affinity chromatography and to directly label this protein in capsids using chemically derivatized gold particles. Additional studies with SCP-GFP polypeptide truncation mutants identified a domain residing between aa 50 and 60 of ORF65 that was required for the relocalization of SCP-GFP to nuclear assembly sites. Substitution of residues in this region and specifically at residue 54 with a polar amino acid (lysine) disrupted or abolished this localization as well as capsid assembly, whereas substitution with non-polar residues did not affect the interaction. Thus, this study identified a small conserved hydrophobic domain that is important for the SCP-MCP interaction. PMID:24824860

  19. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein binds and protects a nuclear noncoding RNA from cellular RNA decay pathways.

    Brooke B Sahin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The control of RNA stability is a key determinant in cellular gene expression. The stability of any transcript is modulated through the activity of cis- or trans-acting regulatory factors as well as cellular quality control systems that ensure the integrity of a transcript. As a result, invading viral pathogens must be able to subvert cellular RNA decay pathways capable of destroying viral transcripts. Here we report that the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV ORF57 protein binds to a unique KSHV polyadenylated nuclear RNA, called PAN RNA, and protects it from degradation by cellular factors. ORF57 increases PAN RNA levels and its effects are greatest on unstable alleles of PAN RNA. Kinetic analysis of transcription pulse assays shows that ORF57 protects PAN RNA from a rapid cellular RNA decay process, but ORF57 has little effect on transcription or PAN RNA localization based on chromatin immunoprecipitation and in situ hybridization experiments, respectively. Using a UV cross-linking technique, we further demonstrate that ORF57 binds PAN RNA directly in living cells and we show that binding correlates with function. In addition, we define an ORF57-responsive element (ORE that is necessary for ORF57 binding to PAN RNA and sufficient to confer ORF57-response to a heterologous intronless beta-globin mRNA, but not its spliced counterparts. We conclude that ORF57 binds to viral transcripts in the nucleus and protects them from a cellular RNA decay pathway. We propose that KSHV ORF57 protein functions to enhance the nuclear stability of intronless viral transcripts by protecting them from a cellular RNA quality control pathway.

  20. Hsp70 Isoforms Are Essential for the Formation of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Replication and Transcription Compartments.

    Belinda Baquero-Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with various AIDS-related malignancies. Like other herpesviruses, multiple processes required for KSHV lytic replication, including viral transcription, viral DNA synthesis and capsid assembly occur in virus-induced intranuclear structures, termed replication and transcription compartments (RTCs. Here we utilised a novel methodology, combining subcellular fractionation and quantitative proteomics, to identify cellular proteins which are recruited to KSHV-induced RTCs and thus play a key role in KSHV lytic replication. We show that several isoforms of the HSP70 chaperone family, Hsc70 and iHsp70, are redistributed from the cytoplasm into the nucleus coinciding with the initial formation of KSHV-induced RTCs. We demonstrate that nuclear chaperone foci are dynamic, initially forming adjacent to newly formed KSHV RTCs, however during later time points the chaperones move within KSHV RTCs and completely co-localise with actively replicating viral DNA. The functional significance of Hsp70 isoforms recruitment into KSHV RTCs was also examined using the specific Hsp70 isoform small molecule inhibitor, VER-155008. Intriguingly, results highlight an essential role of Hsp70 isoforms in the KSHV replication cycle independent of protein stability and maturation. Notably, inhibition of Hsp70 isoforms precluded KSHV RTC formation and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII relocalisation to the viral genome leading to the abolishment of global KSHV transcription and subsequent viral protein synthesis and DNA replication. These new findings have revealed novel mechanisms that regulate KSHV lytic replication and highlight the potential of HSP70 inhibitors as novel antiviral agents.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV Rta-mediated EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic reactivations in 293 cells.

    Yen-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV Rta belongs to a lytic switch gene family that is evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. Emerging evidence indicates that cell cycle arrest is a common means by which herpesviral immediate-early protein hijacks the host cell to advance the virus's lytic cycle progression. To examine the role of Rta in cell cycle regulation, we recently established a doxycycline (Dox-inducible Rta system in 293 cells. In this cell background, inducible Rta modulated the levels of signature G1 arrest proteins, followed by induction of the cellular senescence marker, SA-β-Gal. To delineate the relationship between Rta-induced cell growth arrest and EBV reactivation, recombinant viral genomes were transferred into Rta-inducible 293 cells. Somewhat unexpectedly, we found that Dox-inducible Rta reactivated both EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, to similar efficacy. As a consequence, the Rta-mediated EBV and KSHV lytic replication systems, designated as EREV8 and ERKV, respectively, were homogenous, robust, and concurrent with cell death likely due to permissive lytic replication. In addition, the expression kinetics of EBV lytic genes in Dox-treated EREV8 cells was similar to that of their KSHV counterparts in Dox-induced ERKV cells, suggesting that a common pathway is used to disrupt viral latency in both cell systems. When the time course was compared, cell cycle arrest was achieved between 6 and 48 h, EBV or KSHV reactivation was initiated abruptly at 48 h, and the cellular senescence marker was not detected until 120 h after Dox treatment. These results lead us to hypothesize that in 293 cells, Rta-induced G1 cell cycle arrest could provide (1 an ideal environment for virus reactivation if EBV or KSHV coexists and (2 a preparatory milieu for cell senescence if no viral genome is available. The latter is hypothetical in a transient-lytic situation.

  2. A microRNA encoded by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus promotes B-cell expansion in vivo.

    Christine Dahlke

    Full Text Available The human gammaherpesvirus Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is strongly linked to neoplasms of endothelial and B-cell origin. The majority of tumor cells in these malignancies are latently infected, and latency genes are consequently thought to play a critical role in virus-induced tumorigenesis. One such factor is kshv-miR-K12-11, a viral microRNA that is constitutively expressed in cell lines derived from KSHV-associated tumors, and that shares perfect homology of its seed sequence with the cellular miR-155. Since miR-155 is overexpressed in a number of human tumors, it is conceivable that mimicry of miR-155 by miR-K12-11 may contribute to cellular transformation in KSHV-associated disease. Here, we have performed a side-by-side study of phenotypic alterations associated with constitutive expression of either human miR-155 or viral miR-K12-11 in bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells. We demonstrate that retroviral-mediated gene transfer and hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation into C57BL/6 mice leads to increased B-cell fractions in lymphoid organs, as well as to enhanced germinal center formation in both microRNA-expressing mouse cohorts. We furthermore identify Jarid2, a component of Polycomb repressive complex 2, as a novel validated target of miR-K12-11, and confirm its downregulation in miR-K12-11 as well as miR-155 expressing bone marrow cells. Our findings confirm and extend previous observations made in other mouse models, and underscore the notion that miR-K12-11 may have arisen to mimic miR-155 functions in KSHV-infected B-cells. The expression of miR-K12-11 may represent one mechanism by which KSHV presumably aims to reprogram naïve B-cells towards supporting long-term latency, which at the same time is likely to pre-dispose infected lymphocytes to malignant transformation.

  3. What Is Kaposi Sarcoma?

    ... with a certain virus (the Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus or KSHV ) are more likely to develop KS. ... who already have a KSHV (Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus) infection are more likely to develop KS. Endemic ( ...

  4. Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Interacts with a Cell Death Regulator, GRIM19, and Inhibits Interferon/Retinoic Acid-Induced Cell Death

    Seo, Taegun; Lee, Daeyoup; Shim, Young Sam; Angell, Jon E.; Chidambaram, Natesa V.; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V.; Choe, Joonho

    2002-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays a significant role in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease. The KSHV open reading frame K9 encodes the viral interferon (IFN) factor 1 (vIRF1), which downregulates IFN- and IRF-mediated transcriptional activation, and leads to cellular transformation in rodent fibroblasts and induction of tumors in nude mice. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we identified genes a...

  5. Kaposi sarcoma

    ... HIV, a weakened immune system, and the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Kaposi sarcoma has been linked ... on foot References Kaye KM. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus type 8). In: Mandell GL, Bennett ...

  6. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection among the general Uygur population from south and north region of Xinjiang, China

    Wang Hui

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi sarcoma (KS is a complex multifocal neoplasm and is the major cause of death for about 50% of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is an oncogenic virus with a causal role in the development of all types of KS. KS is prevalent among the Uygur people in Xinjiang, especially in south area. Here we carried out a cross-sectional study among 1534 general Uygur individuals from south and north region of Xinjiang to assess the seroprevalence of KSHV and to identify the potential correlation between KSHV seroprevalence and KS incidence. Results Seroprevalence of KSHV in South and North Xinjiang was 23.1% and 25.9%, respectively. Older age was independently associated with higher KSHV seroprevalence. In subjects from South Xinjiang, lower educational level and reported drinking were each independently associated with higher KSHV seroprevalence. Furthermore, the antibody titer was significantly lower in both south and north KSHV seropositive individuals compared with KS patients, as analyzed by gradient dilution (P Conclusion KSHV is highly prevalent in the general Uygur population in both South and North Xinjiang. Interestingly, the infection rate of KSHV in these two geographical areas did not correlate well with KS incidence. Perhaps unknown factors exist that promote the progression of KSHV infection to KS development in the local minority groups.

  7. Radiation therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital experience

    Ebara, Takeshi [Municipal Kanbara General Hospital, Fujikawa, Shizuoka (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Toshihide; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Akagi, Kumiko; Masuda, Gota

    2000-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently found in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on radiotherapy for patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Between April 1991 and May 1997, radiotherapy was given to 11 lesions in eight men with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma to relieve their symptoms. The lesions involved the head and neck region, the legs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Radiotherapy was carried out with 4-MV photon through parallel opposed field or high energy electrons. Total doses ranged from 20 to 38 Gy, with a median of 30 Gy, delivered in 2- to 3-Gy fractions. Four patients were given other treatments prior to the radiotherapy. Acute reaction was evaluated according to the modified acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiotherapy had relieved the symptoms in all patients at completion of this therapy. Lesions that involved the hard palate and vocal cords had completely disappeared. The lesions that received radiotherapy were controlled without symptoms until the patients died. Patients who had the head and neck region treated exhibited severe acute mucosal reaction (at a dose of 30 Gy, there was grade 2 morbidity by modified RTOG criteria, in two patients, and grade 3 in three patients) although the radiation therapy was completed for these patients. Radiotherapy promises a favorable outcome for symptom relief in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  8. Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus K3 and K5 Proteins Block Distinct Steps in Transendothelial Migration of Effector Memory CD4+ T cells by Targeting Different Endothelial Proteins

    Manes, Thomas D.; Hoer, Simon; Muller, William A.; Lehner, Paul J.; Pober, Jordan S.

    2010-01-01

    K3 and K5 are Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligases that differentially reduce surface expression of various proteins in infected cells. Here we describe their effects on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC), a natural target of KSHV infection. TNF-treated HDMEC transduced to express K5 show reduced capacity to capture effector memory (EM) CD4+ T cells under conditions of venular shear stress. K5 but not K3 transduction significantly reduc...

  9. De Novo Protein Synthesis Is Required for Lytic Cycle Reactivation of Epstein-Barr Virus, but Not Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus, in Response to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Protein Kinase C Agonists▿

    Ye, Jianjiang; Gradoville, Lyndle; Daigle, Derek; Miller, George

    2007-01-01

    The oncogenic human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), are latent in cultured lymphoma cells. We asked whether reactivation from latency of either virus requires de novo protein synthesis. Using Northern blotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, we measured the kinetics of expression of the lytic cycle activator genes and determined whether abundance of mRNAs encoding these genes from either virus was reduced by treatmen...

  10. The size and conformation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) DNA in infected cells and virions.

    Renne, R; Lagunoff, M; Zhong, W.; Ganem, D

    1996-01-01

    The genome of a novel human herpesvirus has been detected in specimens of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and in several AIDS-related lymphoproliferative disorders. Here we examine the size and genomic conformation of the DNA of this virus (known as KS-associated herpesvirus or human herpesvirus 8) in latently and lytically infected cells and in virions. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of viral DNA shows that the viral genome is similar in size to those of other gammaherpesviruses (160 to 170 kb). As ...

  11. Human herpesvirus-8/Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is a new transmissible virus that infects B cells

    1996-01-01

    Herpesviral DNA fragments isolated from AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tissue (KSHV-DNA) share homology with two lymphotropic oncogenic gamma-herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Herpesvirus saimiri, and are present in the lesions of more than 95% of HIV and non- HIV-associated forms of KS, AIDS-related body cavity-based lymphomas, and AIDS-related multicentric Castleman's disease. Here we show that BC- 1, a KSHV-DNA-positive, body cavity-based lymphoma cell line, produces infective h...

  12. A rhesus macaque rhadinovirus related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 encodes a functional homologue of interleukin-6.

    Kaleeba, J A; Bergquam, E P; Wong, S W

    1999-07-01

    The rhesus rhadinovirus strain 17577 (RRV strain 17577) genome is essentially colinear with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)/Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and encodes several analogous open reading frames (ORFs), including the homologue of cellular interleukin-6 (IL-6). To determine if the RRV IL-6-like ORF (RvIL-6) is biologically functional, it was expressed either transiently in COS-1 cells or purified from bacteria as a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-RvIL-6 fusion and analyzed by IL-6 bioassays. Utilizing the IL-6-dependent B9 cell line, we found that both forms of RvIL-6 supported cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, antibodies specific to the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) or the gp130 subunit were capable of blocking the stimulatory effects of RvIL-6. Reciprocal titrations of GST-RvIL-6 against human recombinant IL-6 produced a more-than-additive stimulatory effect, suggesting that RvIL-6 does not inhibit but may instead potentiate normal cellular IL-6 signaling to B cells. These results demonstrate that RRV encodes an accessory protein with IL-6-like activity. PMID:10364379

  13. Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-activated dendritic cells promote HIV-1 trans-infection and suppress CD4+ T cell proliferation

    Infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is commonly occurred in AIDS patients. KSHV and HIV-1 act cooperatively in regulating infection with each other and in human carcinogenesis. Dendritic cells (DCs), as the pivotal cells in host immunity, may be modulated by both viruses, for immunoevasion and dissemination, therefore, the interaction between DCs and each virus has been a prior focus for pathogenesis elucidation. Here, we assessed the potential effect of KSHV on DC–HIV-1 interaction. We found that KSHV stimulation could promote maturation of monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and impaired the ability of MDDCs to drive proliferation of resting CD4+ T cells, demonstrating the immunosuppression induced by KSHV. More importantly, KSHV-stimulated MDDCs could capture more HIV-1 and efficiently transferred these infectious viruses to Hut/CCR5 T cell line. Our results reveal the novel modulation of DC-mediated HIV-1 dissemination by KSHV, and highlight the importance of studying DC–HIV-1 interaction to elucidate HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. - Highlights: ► KSHV impaired the ability of MDDCs to drive proliferation of resting CD4+ T cells. ► KSHV stimulation matured MDDCs and enhanced HIV-1 endocytosis. ► KSHV stimulated MDDCs increased ICAM-1 expression and tighten contact with T cells. ► KSHV-stimulated MDDCs promoted HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ T cells

  14. Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-activated dendritic cells promote HIV-1 trans-infection and suppress CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation

    Liu, Wan; Qin, Yan; Bai, Lei [Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Lan, Ke [Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jian-Hua, E-mail: Jh_wang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2013-06-05

    Infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is commonly occurred in AIDS patients. KSHV and HIV-1 act cooperatively in regulating infection with each other and in human carcinogenesis. Dendritic cells (DCs), as the pivotal cells in host immunity, may be modulated by both viruses, for immunoevasion and dissemination, therefore, the interaction between DCs and each virus has been a prior focus for pathogenesis elucidation. Here, we assessed the potential effect of KSHV on DC–HIV-1 interaction. We found that KSHV stimulation could promote maturation of monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and impaired the ability of MDDCs to drive proliferation of resting CD4{sup +} T cells, demonstrating the immunosuppression induced by KSHV. More importantly, KSHV-stimulated MDDCs could capture more HIV-1 and efficiently transferred these infectious viruses to Hut/CCR5 T cell line. Our results reveal the novel modulation of DC-mediated HIV-1 dissemination by KSHV, and highlight the importance of studying DC–HIV-1 interaction to elucidate HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. - Highlights: ► KSHV impaired the ability of MDDCs to drive proliferation of resting CD4{sup +} T cells. ► KSHV stimulation matured MDDCs and enhanced HIV-1 endocytosis. ► KSHV stimulated MDDCs increased ICAM-1 expression and tighten contact with T cells. ► KSHV-stimulated MDDCs promoted HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4{sup +} T cells.

  15. Distinct profiles of antibodies to Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus antigens in patients with Kaposi sarcoma, multicentric Castleman’s disease, and primary effusion lymphoma

    Kovacs Joseph A; Iadarola Michael J; Little Richard F; Wyvill Kathleen M; Ching Kathryn H; Issa Alexandra T; Burbelo Peter D; Yarchoan Robert

    2010-01-01

    Antibody responses against lytic and latent KSHV antigens were investigated in patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS), multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma. Antibodies against the lytic antigen K8.1 were 5-fold higher in MCD than KS patients, while antibodies to the sum of latent antigens v-cyclin and LANA were 27-fold higher in KS compared to MCD patients (P< 0.0001). The sum of anti-v-cyclin and anti-LANA antibody titers discriminated patients with KS from those ...

  16. Seroprevalence and determinants of Kaposi sarcoma-associated human herpesvirus 8 in Indian HIV-infected males.

    Munawwar, Arshi; Sharma, Surendra K; Gupta, Somesh; Singh, Sarman

    2014-12-01

    In India Kaposi's sarcoma is rarely seen in AIDS patients. Hence the current belief is that the incidence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is very low in this subcontinent, most probably due to the heterosexual route of HIV transmission. However, there is a scarcity of data on the prevalence of HHV-8 in India. In India the primary mode of HIV transmission is the heterosexual route. Therefore we aimed to determine the prevalence of antibodies against HHV-8 in North Indian HIV-infected men naive of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In a prospective study, 165 Indian adult males were recruited from an ART clinic. Blood samples were collected before administering any antiretroviral drug. The sera were tested for antibodies against HHV-8 using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, which detects IgG antibodies to lytic antigens of HHV-8. All positive samples were confirmed for the presence of anti-HHV-8 antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The IFA kit is intended to detect primary, latent, persistent, or reactivated infection of HHV-8. Of the 165 males, 43 (26.06%) were positive by ELISA while 26 (15.8%) were also positive by IFA. Seroprevalence decreased with increasing age (p<0.05). Factors independently associated with HHV-8 infection were younger age group and alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that even in a heterosexual population, HHV-8 can be transmitted frequently. PMID:25375960

  17. HITS-CLIP analysis uncovers a link between the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein and host pre-mRNA metabolism.

    Emi Sei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV is an oncogenic virus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL, and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease. The KSHV ORF57 protein is a conserved posttranscriptional regulator of gene expression that is essential for virus replication. ORF57 is multifunctional, but most of its activities are directly linked to its ability to bind RNA. We globally identified virus and host RNAs bound by ORF57 during lytic reactivation in PEL cells using high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP. As expected, ORF57-bound RNA fragments mapped throughout the KSHV genome, including the known ORF57 ligand PAN RNA. In agreement with previously published ChIP results, we observed that ORF57 bound RNAs near the oriLyt regions of the genome. Examination of the host RNA fragments revealed that a subset of the ORF57-bound RNAs was derived from transcript 5' ends. The position of these 5'-bound fragments correlated closely with the 5'-most exon-intron junction of the pre-mRNA. We selected four candidates (BTG1, EGR1, ZFP36, and TNFSF9 and analyzed their pre-mRNA and mRNA levels during lytic phase. Analysis of both steady-state and newly made RNAs revealed that these candidate ORF57-bound pre-mRNAs persisted for longer periods of time throughout infection than control RNAs, consistent with a role for ORF57 in pre-mRNA metabolism. In addition, exogenous expression of ORF57 was sufficient to increase the pre-mRNA levels and, in one case, the mRNA levels of the putative ORF57 targets. These results demonstrate that ORF57 interacts with specific host pre-mRNAs during lytic reactivation and alters their processing, likely by stabilizing pre-mRNAs. These data suggest that ORF57 is involved in modulating host gene expression in addition to KSHV gene expression during lytic reactivation.

  18. In vivo evaluation of 111In-DTPA-N-TIMP-2 in Kaposi sarcoma associated with HIV infection

    Matrix metalloproteinases are the major agents responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix and are produced at high levels by transformed and tumour cells, where they participate in the metastatic process by allowing local invasion. They are also more active at sites of new normal growth and angiogenesis. In the early stages of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), in vitro studies have demonstrated that vascular invasion can be inhibited by inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases. Imaging of visceral and cutaneous KS presents a problem and therefore the potential use of a labelled inhibitor of metalloproteinases, N-TIMP-2, with indium-111 was thought to present a possible imaging tool. The biokinetics, dosimetry and potential for imaging with 111In-DTPA-N-TIMP-2 were assessed in five patients with HIV infection and KS. Between 103.1 and 108.0 MBq of this agent was injected into each patient, and the dynamic uptake over the kidneys was assessed, whole body scans were performed and blood samples were obtained. The clearance from the blood was rapid, with a first component half-time of 16.6±3.4 min and a second component half-time of 9.68±2.68 h. Two out of five patients experienced minor shivering but one of these patients was generally unwell before the study. The last three patients had no such problems. The tracer distributed predominantly to the kidneys and did not localise in other tissues. No KS lesions were clearly identified. 111In-DTPA-N-TIMP-2 can be successfully prepared and administered to patients safely, with a biodistribution and dosimetry which would allow its use as an imaging tracer. It is unlikely to be of use for imaging KS, but may have a role in other tumours that produce matrix metalloproteinases. (orig.)

  19. Piracy of prostaglandin E2/EP receptor-mediated signaling by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (HHV-8) for latency gene expression: strategy of a successful pathogen.

    George Paul, Arun; Sharma-Walia, Neelam; Kerur, Nagaraj; White, Carl; Chandran, Bala

    2010-05-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of KS, a chronic inflammation-associated malignancy. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), two pivotal proinflammatory/oncogeneic molecules, are proposed to play roles in the expression of major KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen-1 (LANA-1). Microsomal PGE2 synthase, PGE2, and its receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) were detected in KS lesions with the distinct staining of EP2/EP4 in KS lesions. In latently infected endothelial TIVE-LTC cells, EP receptor antagonists downregulated LANA-1 expression as well as Ca(2+), p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCzeta/lambda, and p-NF-kappaB, which are also some of the signal molecules proposed to be important in KS pathogenesis. Exogenous PGE2 and EP receptor agonists induced the LANA-1 promoter in 293 cells, and YY1, Sp1, Oct-1, Oct-6, C/EBP, and c-Jun transcription factors seem to be involved in this induction. PGE2/EP receptor-induced LANA-1 promoter activity was downregulated significantly by the inhibition of Ca(2+), p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCzeta/lambda, and p-NF-kappaB. These findings implicate the inflammatory PGE2/EP receptors and the associated signal molecules in herpes virus latency and uncover a novel paradigm that shows the evolution of KSHV genome plasticity to use inflammatory response for its survival advantage of maintaining latent gene expression. These data also suggest that potential use of anti-COX-2 and anti-EP receptor therapy may not only ameliorate the chronic inflammation associated with KS but could also lead to elimination of the KSHV latent infection and the associated KS lesions. PMID:20388794

  20. miR-K12-7-5p encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus stabilizes the latent state by targeting viral ORF50/RTA.

    Xianzhi Lin

    Full Text Available Seventeen miRNAs encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV have been identified and their functions have begun to be characterized. Among these miRNAs, we report here that miR-K12-7 directly targets the replication and transcription activator (RTA encoded by open reading frame 50. We found that miR-K12-7 targeted the RTA 3' untranslated region (RTA3'UTR in a seed sequence-dependent manner. miR-K12-7-5p derived from miR-K12-7 mediates the inhibition of RTA expression, and the mutation of the seed match site totally abrogated the inhibitory effect of miR-K12-7 on RTA3'UTR. The inhibition of RTA expression by miR-K12-7 was further confirmed in the latently KSHV-infected 293/Bac36 cell line through transient transfection of miR-K12-7 expression plasmid or specific inhibitor of miR-K12-7-5p, respectively. The transient transfection of miR-K12-7 into 293/Bac36 cells reduced RTA expression and the expression of the downstream early genes regulated by RTA, and also the production of progeny virus was significantly reduced after treatment with chemical inducers. Our study revealed that another miRNA, miR-K12-7-5p, targets the viral immediate early gene RTA and that this miRNA contributes to the maintenance of viral latency.

  1. Interaction of c-Cbl with myosin IIA regulates Bleb associated macropinocytosis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Mohanan Valiya Veettil

    Full Text Available KSHV is etiologically associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, an angioproliferative endothelial cell malignancy. Macropinocytosis is the predominant mode of in vitro entry of KSHV into its natural target cells, human dermal microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-d cells. Although macropinocytosis is known to be a major route of entry for many viruses, the molecule(s involved in the recruitment and integration of signaling early during macropinosome formation is less well studied. Here we demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of the adaptor protein c-Cbl is required for KSHV induced membrane blebbing and macropinocytosis. KSHV induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl as early as 1 min post-infection and was recruited to the sites of bleb formation. Infection also led to an increase in the interaction of c-Cbl with PI3-K p85 in a time dependent manner. c-Cbl shRNA decreased the formation of KSHV induced membrane blebs and macropinocytosis as well as virus entry. Immunoprecipitation of c-Cbl followed by mass spectrometry identified the interaction of c-Cbl with a novel molecular partner, non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (myosin IIA, in bleb associated macropinocytosis. Phosphorylated c-Cbl colocalized with phospho-myosin light chain II in the interior of blebs of infected cells and this interaction was abolished by c-Cbl shRNA. Studies with the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin demonstrated that myosin IIA is a biologically significant component of the c-Cbl signaling pathway and c-Cbl plays a new role in the recruitment of myosin IIA to the blebs during KSHV infection. Myosin II associates with actin in KSHV induced blebs and the absence of actin and myosin ubiquitination in c-Cbl ShRNA cells suggested that c-Cbl is also responsible for the ubiquitination of these proteins in the infected cells. This is the first study demonstrating the role of c-Cbl in viral entry as well as macropinocytosis, and provides the evidence that a signaling complex

  2. Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus tegument protein ORF75 is essential for viral lytic replication and plays a critical role in the antagonization of ND10-instituted intrinsic immunity.

    Florian Full

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear domain 10 (ND10 components are restriction factors that inhibit herpesviral replication. Effector proteins of different herpesviruses can antagonize this restriction by a variety of strategies, including degradation or relocalization of ND10 proteins. We investigated the interplay of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV infection and cellular defense by nuclear domain 10 (ND10 components. Knock-down experiments in primary human cells show that KSHV-infection is restricted by the ND10 components PML and Sp100, but not by ATRX. After KSHV infection, ATRX is efficiently depleted and Daxx is dispersed from ND10, indicating that these two ND10 components can be antagonized by KSHV. We then identified the ORF75 tegument protein of KSHV as the viral factor that induces the disappearance of ATRX and relocalization of Daxx. ORF75 belongs to a viral protein family (viral FGARATs that has homologous proteins in all gamma-herpesviruses. Isolated expression of ORF75 in primary cells induces a relocalization of PML and dispersal of Sp100, indicating that this viral effector protein is able to influence multiple ND10 components. Moreover, by constructing a KSHV mutant harboring a stop codon at the beginning of ORF75, we could demonstrate that ORF75 is absolutely essential for viral replication and the initiation of viral immediate-early gene expression. Using recombinant viruses either carrying Flag- or YFP-tagged variants of ORF75, we could further corroborate the role of ORF75 in the antagonization of ND10-mediated intrinsic immunity, and show that it is independent of the PML antagonist vIRF3. Members of the viral FGARAT family target different ND10 components, suggesting that the ND10 targets of viral FGARAT proteins have diversified during evolution. We assume that overcoming ND10 intrinsic defense constitutes a critical event in the replication of all herpesviruses; on the other hand, restriction of herpesviral replication by ND10

  3. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K-Rta exhibits SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) like activity and is essential for viral reactivation.

    Izumiya, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Kim, Kevin Y; Pochampalli, Mamata; Izumiya, Chie; Shevchenko, Bogdan; Wang, Don-Hong; Huerta, Steve B; Martinez, Anthony; Campbell, Mel; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2013-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a protein that regulates a wide variety of cellular processes by covalent attachment of SUMO moieties to a diverse array of target proteins. Sumoylation also plays an important role in the replication of many viruses. Previously, we showed that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a SUMO-ligase, K-bZIP, which catalyzes sumoylation of host and viral proteins. We report here that this virus also encodes a gene that functions as a SUMO-targeting ubiquitin-ligase (STUbL) which preferentially targets sumoylated proteins for degradation. K-Rta, the major transcriptional factor which turns on the entire lytic cycle, was recently found to have ubiquitin ligase activity toward a selected set of substrates. We show in this study that K-Rta contains multiple SIMs (SUMO interacting motif) and binds SUMOs with higher affinity toward SUMO-multimers. Like RNF4, the prototypic cellular STUbL, K-Rta degrades SUMO-2/3 and SUMO-2/3 modified proteins, including promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and K-bZIP. PML-NBs (nuclear bodies) or ND-10 are storage warehouses for sumoylated proteins, which negatively regulate herpesvirus infection, as part of the intrinsic immune response. Herpesviruses have evolved different ways to degrade or disperse PML bodies, and KSHV utilizes K-Rta to inhibit PML-NBs formation. This process depends on K-Rta's ability to bind SUMO, as a K-Rta SIM mutant does not effectively degrade PML. Mutations in the K-Rta Ring finger-like domain or SIM significantly inhibited K-Rta transactivation activity in reporter assays and in the course of viral reactivation. Finally, KSHV with a mutation in the Ring finger-like domain or SIM of K-Rta replicates poorly in culture, indicating that reducing SUMO-conjugates in host cells is important for viral replication. To our knowledge, this is the first virus which encodes both a SUMO ligase and a SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase that together may generate unique gene

  4. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K-Rta exhibits SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase (STUbL like activity and is essential for viral reactivation.

    Yoshihiro Izumiya

    Full Text Available The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO is a protein that regulates a wide variety of cellular processes by covalent attachment of SUMO moieties to a diverse array of target proteins. Sumoylation also plays an important role in the replication of many viruses. Previously, we showed that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV encodes a SUMO-ligase, K-bZIP, which catalyzes sumoylation of host and viral proteins. We report here that this virus also encodes a gene that functions as a SUMO-targeting ubiquitin-ligase (STUbL which preferentially targets sumoylated proteins for degradation. K-Rta, the major transcriptional factor which turns on the entire lytic cycle, was recently found to have ubiquitin ligase activity toward a selected set of substrates. We show in this study that K-Rta contains multiple SIMs (SUMO interacting motif and binds SUMOs with higher affinity toward SUMO-multimers. Like RNF4, the prototypic cellular STUbL, K-Rta degrades SUMO-2/3 and SUMO-2/3 modified proteins, including promyelocytic leukemia (PML and K-bZIP. PML-NBs (nuclear bodies or ND-10 are storage warehouses for sumoylated proteins, which negatively regulate herpesvirus infection, as part of the intrinsic immune response. Herpesviruses have evolved different ways to degrade or disperse PML bodies, and KSHV utilizes K-Rta to inhibit PML-NBs formation. This process depends on K-Rta's ability to bind SUMO, as a K-Rta SIM mutant does not effectively degrade PML. Mutations in the K-Rta Ring finger-like domain or SIM significantly inhibited K-Rta transactivation activity in reporter assays and in the course of viral reactivation. Finally, KSHV with a mutation in the Ring finger-like domain or SIM of K-Rta replicates poorly in culture, indicating that reducing SUMO-conjugates in host cells is important for viral replication. To our knowledge, this is the first virus which encodes both a SUMO ligase and a SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase that together may generate

  5. Activation of PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signal pathways is required for the induction of lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by herpes simplex virus type 1

    Lv Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is causally linked to several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL and a subset of multicentric Castleman's disease. Regulation of viral lytic replication is critical to the initiation and progression of KS. Recently, we reported that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 was an important cofactor that activated lytic cycle replication of KSHV. Here, we further investigated the possible signal pathways involved in HSV-1-induced reactivation of KSHV. Results By transfecting a series of dominant negative mutants and protein expressing constructs and using pharmacologic inhibitors, we found that either Janus kinase 1 (JAK1/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 or JAK1/STAT6 signaling failed to regulate HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. However, HSV-1 infection of BCBL-1 cells activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (PKB, also called AKT pathway and inactivated phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β. PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway was found to be involved in HSV-1-induced KSHV reactivation. Additionally, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway also partially contributed to HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. Conclusions HSV-1 infection stimulated PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signaling pathways that in turn contributed to KSHV reactivation, which provided further insights into the molecular mechanism controlling KSHV lytic replication, particularly in the context of HSV-1 and KSHV co-infection.

  6. Concurrent targeting of eicosanoid receptor 1/eicosanoid receptor 4 receptors and COX-2 induces synergistic apoptosis in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines.

    Paul, Arun George; Chandran, Bala; Sharma-Walia, Neelam

    2013-06-01

    The effective antitumorigenic potential of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and eicosonoid (EP; EP1-4) receptor antagonists prompted us to test their efficacy in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related lymphomas. Our study demonstrated that (1) EP1-4 receptor protein levels vary among the various non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cell lines tested (BCBL-1:KSHV+/EBV-;BC-3: KSHV+/EBV-; Akata/EBV+: KSHV-/EBV+; and JSC-1 cells: KSHV+/EBV + cells); (2) 5.0 μM of EP1 antagonist (SC-51322) had a significant antiproliferative effect on BCBL-1, BC-3, Akata/EBV+, and JSC-1 cells; (3) 50.0 μM of EP2 antagonist (AH6809) was required to induce a significant antiproliferative effect on BCBL-1, Akata/EBV+, and JSC-1 cells; (4) 5.0 μM of EP4 antagonist (GW 627368X) had a significant antiproliferative effect on BC-3, Akata/EBV+, and JSC-1 cells; (5) COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib (5.0 μM) had significant antiproliferative effects on BCBL-1, BC-3, Akata/EBV+, and JSC-1 cells; and (6) a combination of 1.0 μM each of celecoxib, SC-51322 and GW 627368X could potentiate the proapoptotic properties of celecoxib or vice-versa. Overall, our studies identified the synergistic antiproliferative effect of NSAIDs and EP receptor blockers on KSHV and EBV related B cell malignancies. PMID:23523954

  7. Can Kaposi Sarcoma Be Prevented?

    ... KS) is caused by the Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). There are no vaccines at this time ... HIV-infected people who take drugs to treat herpesvirus infections (such as ganciclovir or foscarnet) are less ...

  8. HIV-1 Tat promotes Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis by regulating PI3K/PTEN/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

    Feng Zhou

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is etiologically associated with KS, the most common AIDS-related malignancy. KS is characterized by vast angiogenesis and hyperproliferative spindle cells. We have previously reported that HIV-1 Tat can trigger KSHV reactivation and accelerate Kaposin A-induced tumorigenesis. Here, we explored Tat promotion of KSHV vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Tat promotes vIL-6-induced cell proliferation, cellular transformation, vascular tube formation and VEGF production in culture. Tat enhances vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of fibroblasts and human endothelial cells in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM model. In an allograft model, Tat promotes vIL-6-induced tumorigenesis and expression of CD31, CD34, SMA, VEGF, b-FGF, and cyclin D1. Mechanistic studies indicated Tat activates PI3K and AKT, and inactivates PTEN and GSK-3β in vIL-6 expressing cells. LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, effectively impaired Tat's promotion of vIL-6-induced tumorigenesis. Together, these results provide the first evidence that Tat might contribute to KS pathogenesis by synergizing with vIL-6, and identify PI3K/AKT pathway as a potential therapeutic target in AIDS-related KS patients.

  9. Refractory ulcerative colitis and iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Girelli, C M; Serio, G; Rocca, E; Rocca, F

    2009-02-01

    Colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpes virus-8 associated mesenchymal tumour, is exceedingly rare in human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects and almost always reported in association with severe, refractory, inflammatory bowel disease. In this paper we report a case--the second from Italy--of a colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative, heterosexual man with severe refractory ulcerative colitis. Kaposi's sarcoma developed after starting glucocorticosteroid therapy, supporting the theory that colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma associated with ulcerative colitis is iatrogenic. PMID:18054849

  10. Gender Difference of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Infection in Population with Schistosomiasis in Rural China

    Fu, Bishi; Xia, Fan; Li, Baolin; Ouyang, Xinxing; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Yang, Rongge; Wang, Linding

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causal agent of (KS), a common cancer in AIDS patients. The risk factors for KSHV infection have been extensively studied in Western countries but remain largely undefined in other parts of the World. Schistosomiasis caused by infection of Schistosoma japonicum is recently identified as a cofactor for KSHV infection in rural Egypt. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of KSHV in a population with high incidence of Schistomasis along...

  11. Steroids are a risk factor for Kaposi's sarcoma-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and mortality in HIV infection

    Fernández-Sánchez, Mónica; Iglesias, María C.; Ablanedo-Terrazas, Yuria; Ormsby, Christopher E; Alvarado-de la Barrera, Claudia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between Kaposi's sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (KS-IRIS) and mortality, with the use of glucocorticoids in HIV-infected individuals. Design: Case–control study. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 145 individuals with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma receiving antiretroviral therapy. The association of different variables with KS-IRIS and Kaposi's sarcoma-related mortality was explored by univariate and multiva...

  12. NEDDylation Is Essential for Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency and Lytic Reactivation and Represents a Novel Anti-KSHV Target

    Hughes, David J.; Wood, Jennifer J; Jackson, Brian R.; Belinda Baquero-Pérez; Adrian Whitehouse

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which are aggressive malignancies associated with immunocompromised patients. For many non-viral malignancies, therapeutically targeting the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) has been successful. Likewise, laboratory studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the UPS might provide a promising avenue for the treatment of KSHV-associated diseases. The largest cla...

  13. Sarcoma-associated sarcoid reaction: Report of cutaneous sarcoid reaction in a patient with liposarcoma.

    Beutler, Bryce D; Cohen, Philip R

    2015-12-16

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory condition in which noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas appear within one or several body sites. Sarcoid reaction (also referred to as sarcoidal or sarcoid-like reaction) occurs in patients who do not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for systemic sarcoidosis but present with similar clinical and histological features. As sarcoma-associated sarcoid reactions are rare, we describe the features of sarcoid reaction that developed in a man with liposarcoma and summarize reports of other oncology patients with sarcoma-associated sarcoid reactions. A 68-year-old man with retroperitoneal liposarcoma presented for evaluation of erythematous dermal plaques on his left leg. Microscopic examination of a tissue specimen revealed multiple epithelioid granulomas in the superficial and mid-reticular dermis. Correlation of the clinical presentation and histopathologic findings established a diagnosis of liposarcoma-associated cutaneous sarcoid reaction. Sarcoid reactions have been described in only seven individuals with sarcoma, including two patients with leiomyosarcoma and one patient with either carcinosarcoma, Kaposi sarcoma, liposarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, rhabdosarcoma, or synovial sarcoma. Sarcoidal granulomas most commonly develop within the locoregional draining lymph nodes. Sarcoid reactions may also affect other organs, such as the lungs, skin, and spleen. PMID:26677448

  14. Epidemiology and Transmission of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    Veenu Minhas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the current knowledge pertaining to Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV epidemiology and transmission. Since the identification of KSHV twenty years ago, it is now known to be associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman’s disease. Many studies have been conducted to understand its epidemiology and pathogenesis and their results clearly show that the worldwide distribution of KSHV is uneven. Some geographical areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, the Mediterranean region and the Xinjiang region of China, are endemic areas, but Western Europe and United States have a low prevalence in the general population. This makes it imperative to understand the risk factors associated with acquisition of infection. KSHV can be transmitted via sexual contact and non-sexual routes, such as transfusion of contaminated blood and tissues transplants, or via saliva contact. There is now a general consensus that salivary transmission is the main route of transmission, especially in children residing in endemic areas. Therefore, there is a need to better understand the sources of transmission to young children. Additionally, lack of animal models to study transmission, gold standard serological assay and the lack of emphasis on endemic KS research has hampered the efforts to further delineate KSHV transmission in order to design effective prevention strategies.

  15. Classic Kaposi Sarcoma

    ... in the United States have been diagnosed in homosexual or bisexual men infected with HIV. Signs of ... type of nonepidemic Kaposi sarcoma that develops in homosexual men who have no signs or symptoms of ...

  16. Epidemic Kaposi Sarcoma

    ... in the United States have been diagnosed in homosexual or bisexual men infected with HIV. Signs of ... type of nonepidemic Kaposi sarcoma that develops in homosexual men who have no signs or symptoms of ...

  17. Pre-micro RNA signatures delineate stages of endothelial cell transformation in Kaposi sarcoma.

    Andrea J O'Hara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA have emerged as key regulators of cell lineage differentiation and cancer. We used precursor miRNA profiling by a novel real-time QPCR method (i to define progressive stages of endothelial cell transformation cumulating in Kaposi sarcoma (KS and (ii to identify specific miRNAs that serve as biomarkers for tumor progression. We were able to compare primary patient biopsies to well-established culture and mouse tumor models. Loss of mir-221 and gain of mir-15 expression demarked the transition from merely immortalized to fully tumorigenic endothelial cells. Mir-140 and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral miRNAs increased linearly with the degree of transformation. Mir-24 emerged as a biomarker specific for KS.

  18. Functional characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus small capsid protein by bacterial artificial chromosome-based mutagenesis

    A systematic investigation of interactions amongst KSHV capsid proteins was undertaken in this study to comprehend lesser known KSHV capsid assembly mechanisms. Interestingly the interaction patterns of the KSHV small capsid protein, ORF65 suggested its plausible role in viral capsid assembly pathways. Towards further understanding this, ORF65-null recombinant mutants (BAC-Δ65 and BAC-stop65) employing a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system were generated. No significant difference was found in both overall viral gene expression and lytic DNA replication between stable monolayers of 293T-BAC36 (wild-type) and 293T-BAC-ORF65-null upon induction with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, though the latter released 30-fold fewer virions to the medium than 293T-BAC36 cells. Sedimentation profiles of capsid proteins of ORF65-null recombinant mutants were non-reflective of their organization into the KSHV capsids and were also undetectable in cytoplasmic extracts compared to noticeable levels in nuclear extracts. These observations collectively suggested the pivotal role of ORF65 in the KSHV capsid assembly processes.

  19. Kaposis sarkom tolket som haematom

    Balle, Jesper R; Hasselager, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a frequent skin cancer in HIV-positive patients, but is relatively uncommon in HIV-negative and non-immune compromised patients. We present a case of Kaposi's sarcoma of the face and scalp in a HIV-negative male with previous facial basal cell carcinoma....

  20. Human herpesvirus-8: beyond Kaposi's .

    Rimar, Doron; Rimar, Yossi; Keynan, Yoav

    2006-07-01

    Today, more than 10 years and 2000 articles since human herpesvirus 8 was first described by Chang et al., novel insights into the transmission and molecular biology of HHV-8 have unveiled a new spectrum of diseases attributed to the virus. The association of HHV-8 with proliferative disorders--including Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman disease and primary effusion lymphoma--is well established. Other aspects of HHV-8 infection are currently the subject of accelerated research. Primary HHV-8 infection may manifest as a mononucleosis-like syndrome in the immunocompetent host, or in various forms in the immunocompromised host. The association of HHV-8 with primary pulmonary hypertension was observed by Cool et al. in 2003, but six clinical trials evaluating the role of HHV-8 in pulmonary hypertension have not been able to replicate this intriguing observation. It has been speculated that HHV-8 may secondarily infect proliferating endothelium in patients with pulmonary hypertension. HHV-8 epidemiology, modes of transmission, new spectrum of disease and treatment are presented and discussed. PMID:16889165

  1. Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    ... in the United States have been diagnosed in homosexual or bisexual men infected with HIV. Signs of ... type of nonepidemic Kaposi sarcoma that develops in homosexual men who have no signs or symptoms of ...

  2. General Information about Kaposi Sarcoma

    ... in the United States have been diagnosed in homosexual or bisexual men infected with HIV. Signs of ... type of nonepidemic Kaposi sarcoma that develops in homosexual men who have no signs or symptoms of ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    ... in the United States have been diagnosed in homosexual or bisexual men infected with HIV. Signs of ... type of nonepidemic Kaposi sarcoma that develops in homosexual men who have no signs or symptoms of ...

  4. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Management of pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma: new perspectives

    Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article focuses on the current approach to diagnosis and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma involving the respiratory system. (author). 27 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199

  7. Recent advances in the study of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication and pathogenesis

    Denis; Avey; Brittany; Brewers; Fanxiu; Zhu

    2015-01-01

    It has now been over twenty years since a novel herpesviral genome was identified in Kaposi’s sarcoma biopsies. Since then, the cumulative research effort by molecular biologists, virologists, clinicians, and epidemiologists alike has led to the extensive characterization of this tumor virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus(KSHV; also known as human herpesvirus 8(HHV-8)), and its associated diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of KSHV biology and pathogenesis, with a particular emphasis on new and exciting advances in the field of epigenetics. We also discuss the development and practicality of various cell culture and animal model systems to study KSHV replication and pathogenesis.

  8. A viral gene that activates lytic cycle expression of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

    Sun, Ren; Lin, Su-Fang; Gradoville, Lyndle; YUAN, YAN; Zhu, Fanxiu; Miller, George

    1998-01-01

    Herpesviruses exist in two states, latency and a lytic productive cycle. Here we identify an immediate-early gene encoded by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus eight (HHV8) that activates lytic cycle gene expression from the latent viral genome. The gene is a homologue of Rta, a transcriptional activator encoded by Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). KSHV/Rta activated KSHV early lytic genes, including virus-encoded interleukin 6 and polyadenylated nuclear RNA, and a late ...

  9. Immunosuppressive Therapy-Related Kaposi Sarcoma

    ... in the United States have been diagnosed in homosexual or bisexual men infected with HIV. Signs of ... type of nonepidemic Kaposi sarcoma that develops in homosexual men who have no signs or symptoms of ...

  10. p53 Tumor Suppressor Protein Stability and Transcriptional Activity Are Targeted by Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Encoded Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 3

    Barešová, P.; Musilová, J.; Pitha, P. M.; Lubyová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 3 (2014), s. 386-399. ISSN 0270-7306 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/09/0773 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ATM-dependent phosphorylation * primary effusion lymphoma * DNA-damage Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.777, year: 2014

  11. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ORF60, the small subunit (R2) of ribonucleotide reductase from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)

    Gurmu, Daniel; Dahlroth, Sue-Li; Haas, Juergen; Nordlund, Par; Erlandsen, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is responsible for converting ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA. The enzyme is present in all life forms as well as in some large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses. The alpha-herpesviruses and gamma-herpesviruses encode two class Ia RNR subunits, R1 and R2, while the beta-herpesvirus subfamily only encode an inactive R1 subunit. Here, the crystallization of the R2 subunit of RNR encoded by the ORF60 gene from the oncov...

  12. The central repeat domain 1 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency associated-nuclear antigen 1 (LANA1) prevents cis MHC class I peptide presentation

    KSHV LANA1, a latent protein expressed during chronic infection to maintain a viral genome, inhibits major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) peptide presentation in cis as a means of immune evasion. Through deletional cloning, we localized this function to the LANA1 central repeat 1 (CR1) subregion. Other CR subregions retard LANA1 translation and proteasomal processing but do not markedly inhibit LANA1 peptide processing by MHC I. Inhibition of proteasomal processing ablates LANA1 peptide presentation. Direct expression of LANA1 within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) overcomes CR1 inhibition suggesting that CR1 acts prior to translocation of cytoplasmic peptides into the ER. By physically separating CR1 from other subdomains, we show that LANA1 evades MHC I peptide processing by a mechanism distinct from other herpesviruses including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Although LANA1 and EBV EBNA1 are functionally similar, they appear to use different mechanisms to evade host cytotoxic T lymphocyte surveillance.

  13. Bronchopulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with AIDS.

    Mitchell, D. M.; McCarty, M.; Fleming, J.; Moss, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common secondary neoplasm to complicate HIV infection and may cause pulmonary disease. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in 140 consecutive patients who were HIV seropositive and required bronchoscopy for new respiratory symptoms of at least two weeks' duration, with either a chest radiographic abnormality or abnormality of pulmonary function. The patients were classified into those with single local endobronchial lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma...

  14. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus microRNAs induce metabolic transformation of infected cells.

    Ohad Yogev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Altered cell metabolism is inherently connected with pathological conditions including cancer and viral infections. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS. KS tumour cells display features of lymphatic endothelial differentiation and in their vast majority are latently infected with KSHV, while a small number are lytically infected, producing virions. Latently infected cells express only a subset of viral genes, mainly located within the latency-associated region, among them 12 microRNAs. Notably, the metabolic properties of KSHV-infected cells closely resemble the metabolic hallmarks of cancer cells. However, how and why KSHV alters host cell metabolism remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of KSHV infection on the metabolic profile of primary dermal microvascular lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC and the functional relevance of this effect. We found that the KSHV microRNAs within the oncogenic cluster collaborate to decrease mitochondria biogenesis and to induce aerobic glycolysis in infected cells. KSHV microRNAs expression decreases oxygen consumption, increase lactate secretion and glucose uptake, stabilize HIF1α and decreases mitochondria copy number. Importantly this metabolic shift is important for latency maintenance and provides a growth advantage. Mechanistically we show that KSHV alters host cell energy metabolism through microRNA-mediated down regulation of EGLN2 and HSPA9. Our data suggest that the KSHV microRNAs induce a metabolic transformation by concurrent regulation of two independent pathways; transcriptional reprograming via HIF1 activation and reduction of mitochondria biogenesis through down regulation of the mitochondrial import machinery. These findings implicate viral microRNAs in the regulation of the cellular metabolism and highlight new potential avenues to inhibit viral latency.

  15. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Kaposi Sarcoma?

    ... after treatment for Kaposi sarcoma? What should you ask your doctor about Kaposi sarcoma? As you cope ... honest, open discussions with your doctor. You should ask any question on your mind no matter how ...

  16. Electrical response of a B lymphoma cell line latently infected with Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus.

    Safavieh, Mohammadali; Khetani, Sultan; Juillard, Franceline; Kaul, Vivasvat; Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Kaye, Kenneth M; Shafiee, Hadi

    2016-06-15

    Certain viruses, such as herpesviruses, are capable of persistent and latent infection of host cells. Distinguishing and separating live, latently infected cells from uninfected cells is not easily attainable using current approaches. The ability to perform such separation would greatly enhance the ability to study primary, infected cells and potentially enable elimination of latently infected cells from the host. Here, the dielectrophoretic response of B cells infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) were investigated and compared to uninfected B cells. We evaluated the effect of applied voltage, signal frequency, and flow rate of the sample on the cell capture efficiency. We achieved 37.1%±8.5% difference in capture efficiencies between latently KSHV-infected and uninfected BJAB B lymphoma cells at the chip operational conditions of 1V, 50kHz and 0.02μl/min sample flow rate. Our results show that latently infected B lymphoma cells demonstrated significantly different electrical response compared to uninfected B cells and DEP-based microchips can be potentially used for sorting latently infected cells based on their electrical properties. PMID:26851580

  17. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus C-terminal LANA concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) tethers KSHV terminal repeat (TR) DNA to mitotic chromosomes to efficiently segregate episomes to progeny nuclei. LANA contains N- and C-terminal chromosome binding regions. We now show that C-terminal LANA preferentially concentrates to paired dots at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes through residues 996-1139. Deletions within C-terminal LANA abolished both self-association and chromosome binding, consistent with a requirement for self-association to bind chromosomes. A deletion abolishing TR DNA binding did not affect chromosome targeting, indicating LANA's localization is not due to binding its recognition sequence in chromosomal DNA. LANA distributed similarly on human and non-human mitotic chromosomes. These results are consistent with C-terminal LANA interacting with a cell factor that concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of mitotic chromosomes

  18. Lymphangiectatic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS.

    Santos, Mônica; Vilasboas, Virginia; Mendes, Luciana; Talhari, Carolina; Talhari, Sinésio

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant disease that originates in the lymphatic endothelium. It has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Its four distinct clinical forms are: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. In non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, the disease is typically limited to the lower extremities, but in immunodeficient patients, it is a multifocal systemic disease. The clinical course of the disease differs among patients, ranging from a single or a few indolent lesions to an aggressive diffuse disease. Advanced Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, typically those on the lower extremities, are often associated with lymphedema. In this paper, we report a case of a patient with a rare form of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma called lymphangiectatic Kaposis's sarcoma. PMID:23739700

  19. Primary Kaposi Sarcoma of Penis in HIV Negative Patient

    Karami, Hossein; Bagher-Tabrizi, Alireza; Yaghoobi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Primary Kaposi sarcoma of penis is very rare. We will introduce a 47 years old male patient referred to our clinic from dermatology service, in this report. The patient suffered from itchy penile papules around coronal region. The lab tests had revealed a negative serology of HIV but tissue PCR was positive for Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV8). Histological findings were compatible with Kaposi sarcoma. Primary Kaposi sarcoma of penis is rare but could occur in HIV negative patients.

  20. Lymphangiectatic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS *

    Santos, Mônica; Vilasboas, Virginia; Mendes, Luciana; Talhari, Carolina; Talhari, Sinésio

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant disease that originates in the lymphatic endothelium. It has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Its four distinct clinical forms are: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. In non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, the disease is typically limited to the lower extremities, but in immunodeficient patients, it is a multifocal systemic disease. The clinical course of the disease differs among patients, ranging from a single or a few in...

  1. Lymphangiectatic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS Sarcoma de Kaposi linfangiectásico em paciente com Aids

    Mônica Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant disease that originates in the lymphatic endothelium. It has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Its four distinct clinical forms are: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. In non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, the disease is typically limited to the lower extremities, but in immunodeficient patients, it is a multifocal systemic disease. The clinical course of the disease differs among patients, ranging from a single or a few indolent lesions to an aggressive diffuse disease. Advanced Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, typically those on the lower extremities, are often associated with lymphedema. In this paper, we report a case of a patient with a rare form of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma called lymphangiectatic Kaposis's sarcoma.O sarcoma de Kaposi é uma neoplasia originária do endotélio linfatico, que apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações, com quatro formas clínicas: sarcoma de Kaposi clássico, endêmico, iatrogêncio e epidêmico ou associado ao HIV. Em pacientes imunocompetentes, a doença é tipicamente limitada às extremidades. Porém em pacientes imunideprimidos, o sarcoma de Kaposi é uma doença sistêmica multifocal. Apresenta cursos clínicos diferentes, desde simples lesões cutâneas isoladas até lesões agressivas e difusas, com ou sem envolvimento sistêmico. Lesões avançadas de sarcoma de Kaposi, principalmente as localizadas nas extremidades, podem apresentar linfedema. Neste trabalho, reportamos caso de paciente com forma rara de Sarcoma de Kaposi associado a Aids, chamada de sarcoma de Kaposi linfangiectásico.

  2. Lymphangiectatic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS Sarcoma de Kaposi linfangiectásico em paciente com Aids

    Mônica Santos; Virginia Vilasboas; Luciana Mendes; Carolina Talhari; Sinésio Talhari

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant disease that originates in the lymphatic endothelium. It has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Its four distinct clinical forms are: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. In non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, the disease is typically limited to the lower extremities, but in immunodeficient patients, it is a multifocal systemic disease. The clinical course of the disease differs among patients, ranging from a single or a few in...

  3. Pulmonary capillary blood volume in patients with probable pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Camus, F.; de Picciotto, C.; Gerbe, J; S Roy; Bouchaud, O.; E. Casalino; Perronne, C

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increase in pulmonary capillary blood volume secondary to angiogenesis has been described in Kaposi's sarcoma. The value of the pulmonary capillary blood volume as an early marker of pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma was evaluated. METHODS: In a prospective study 45 HIV positive patients (nine asymptomatic for Kaposi's sarcoma, 29 with cutaneous or mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma, and seven with pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma), underwent pulmonary function tests and determination of transf...

  4. Studies of Kaposi's sarcoma with infrared photography

    Infrared photography, known to be useful in the study of cutaneous vascular structures but not yet extensively explored in the investigation of skin diseases, was used to study lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma in three patients. In all photographs, the tumors appeared as a stain which was lighter in color than the normal skin. In two patients, the infrared photographs showed a tumor identical with that seen clinically. In the third patient, the tumor showed a larger extension than it seemed to have on physical examination. We believe that this technique can be of value in establishing the presence of such tumors and evaluating their actual size

  5. Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma after heart transplantation: a case report

    Kristiansen Glen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kaposi's sarcomas have been associated with different conditions of immunosuppression and are also known to be a typical complication of solid organ transplantations. Case presentation We report the case of a 65-year-old Turkish man with a history of heart transplantation 10 months ago who presented for clarification of his dyspnea. The patient had a known history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a smoking history of 40 pack years. Radiologically, three progressively growing intra-pulmonary nodules were detected. The histology was diagnostic for a Kaposi's sarcoma. Visceral and especially primary intra-pulmonary Kaposi's sarcomas are very rare and have been described to have a rather unfavorable prognosis. Conclusions Even with a history suggestive for conventional lung cancer, Kaposi's sarcomas should be considered in patients after transplantation of solid organs. It should be noted that in a minority of cases this tumor exists in the absence of the typical cutaneous lesions.

  6. Modulation of immune system by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus:Lessons from viral evasion strategies

    Hye-RaLee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, a member of the herpesvirus family, has evolved to establish a long-term, latent infection of cells such that while they carry the viral genome gene expression is highly restricted. Latency is a state of cryptic viral infection associated with genomic persistence in their host and this hallmark of KSHV infection leads to several clinical-epidemiological diseases such as Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS, a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castelman’s disease (MCD, and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL upon immune suppression of infected hosts. In order to sustain an efficient life-long persistency as well as their life cycle, KSHV dedicates a large portion of its genome to encode immunomodulatory proteins that antagonize its host’s immune system. In this review, we will describe our current knowledge of the immune evasion strategies employed by KSHV at distinct stages of its viral life cycle to control the host’s immune system.

  7. Next-Generation Sequencing in the Understanding of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) Biology

    Strahan, Roxanne; Uppal, Timsy; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Non-Sanger-based novel nucleic acid sequencing techniques, referred to as Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), provide a rapid, reliable, high-throughput, and massively parallel sequencing methodology that has improved our understanding of human cancers and cancer-related viruses. NGS has become a quintessential research tool for more effective characterization of complex viral and host genomes through its ever-expanding repertoire, which consists of whole-genome sequencing, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and whole-epigenome sequencing. These new NGS platforms provide a comprehensive and systematic genome-wide analysis of genomic sequences and a full transcriptional profile at a single nucleotide resolution. When combined, these techniques help unlock the function of novel genes and the related pathways that contribute to the overall viral pathogenesis. Ongoing research in the field of virology endeavors to identify the role of various underlying mechanisms that control the regulation of the herpesvirus biphasic lifecycle in order to discover potential therapeutic targets and treatment strategies. In this review, we have complied the most recent findings about the application of NGS in Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) biology, including identification of novel genomic features and whole-genome KSHV diversities, global gene regulatory network profiling for intricate transcriptome analyses, and surveying of epigenetic marks (DNA methylation, modified histones, and chromatin remodelers) during de novo, latent, and productive KSHV infections. PMID:27043613

  8. Selective peptide inhibitors of antiapoptotic cellular and viral Bcl-2 proteins lead to cytochrome c release during latent Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection

    Burrer, Christine M.; Foight, Glenna W.; Keating, Amy E.; Chan, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with B-cell lymphomas including primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman’s disease. KSHV establishes latency within B cells by modulating or mimicking the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins to promote cell survival. Our previous BH3 profiling analysis, a functional assay that assesses the contribution of Bcl-2 proteins towards cellular survival, identified two Bcl-2 proteins, cellular Mcl-1 and viral KsBcl-2, as pote...

  9. Inhibition of Replication and Transcription Activator and Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus by Morpholino Oligomers

    Zhang, Yan-Jin; Wang, Kai-Yu; Stein, David A.; Patel, Deendayal; Watkins, Rheba; Moulton, Hong M.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Matson, David O.

    2006-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The KSHV replication and transcription activator (RTA) and latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) play key roles in activating KSHV lytic replication and maintaining KSHV latency, respectively. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO) are similar to short single-stranded DNA oligomers, but possess a modified backbone that confers highly specific binding and resistanc...

  10. Neoplasms HIV associated Kaposi sarcoma not

    Abstract - The incidence of malignancies in virus carriers acquired immunodeficiency (HIV) has increased in conjunction with the disease during the past decade. 40% of all AIDS patients develop cancer during the course of HIV infection. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and cervical cancer have an impact extremely high in HIV infected patients, and they are considered as disease AIDS-defining stage. Many reports suggest that other neoplasms they can have a high impact on the population of HIV carrier, including head and neck carcinoma, rectal cancer - anal, plasma cytomas, and melanoma lung cancer. Methods - We examined the spectrum of cancer in HIV-infected patients, specifically neoplasms except Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed between 1/1998 - 6/2004. Information on age, sex, factors was gathered risk for AIDS, neoplasms and mortality rate. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 21 patients, what 15 were male (71%) and 6 females (29%); the median age was 36 (29-70). Tumors were reported: 11 Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (52%), 2 Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.6%), 1 medullary thyroid cancer (6.6%), 1 melanoma (6.6%), 1 rectal cancer (5%) and three head and neck cancers (14%), 1 cancer 1 lung and breast cancer. Five of the patients were intravenous drug abusers (24%); 4 patients were homosexual, bisexual March 8 straight, on 6 patients know the data. Conclusions - The spectrum of malignancies associated with infection HIV in our study was similar to that described in other populations. ratio between the immune system and the epidemiology of the virus-induced tumors is to importance to identify new therapeutic approaches in the treatment and / or prevention of these neoplasms

  11. Thoracic manifestations of Kaposi`s sarcoma in AIDS: radiological findings; Manifestacoes toracicas do sarcoma de Kaposi na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida: aspectos radiologicos

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]|[Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Baptista, Maria Ines Garcia; Cardenas, Gloria Pamela; Costa Praxedes, Marcia da [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Boechat, Lucia de Fatima; Quaresma, Patricia Souto Maior [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho. Servico de Radiodiagnostico

    1995-09-01

    The radiological findings of 189 cases of Kaposi`s sarcoma occurring in patients with AIDS were studied. There was also made pathological correlations in these patients. Interstitial reticular infiltrations were frequently detected on thoracic examination showing paracardiac confluent areas. There was also lymphadenopathy, gross nodules and pleural fluid accumulation. Although there was no detection of any pathognomonic aspect, the interstitial reticular infiltration finding together with the paracardiac confluent areas and associated with gross nodules, is highly indicative to thoracic involvement by the disease. (author). 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Kaposi's sarcoma in an HIV-positive person successfully treated with paclitaxel

    Dongre, Atul; Montaldo, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma is one of the malignant neoplasms, which can develop in HIV-infected patients. Although the prevalence of HIV infection is reported to be high in Asian countries, Kaposi's sarcoma is rarely reported. We report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma involving the skin and oral mucosa along with extensive bilateral lymphedema of lower extremities, treated successfully with paclitaxel and antiretrovirals.

  13. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus latency associated nuclear antigen protein release the G2/M cell cycle blocks by modulating ATM/ATR mediated checkpoint pathway.

    Amit Kumar

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infects the human population and maintains latency stage of viral life cycle in a variety of cell types including cells of epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial origin. The establishment of latent infection by KSHV requires the expression of an unique repertoire of genes among which latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA plays a critical role in the replication of the viral genome. LANA regulates the transcription of a number of viral and cellular genes essential for the survival of the virus in the host cell. The present study demonstrates the disruption of the host G2/M cell cycle checkpoint regulation as an associated function of LANA. DNA profile of LANA expressing human B-cells demonstrated the ability of this nuclear antigen in relieving the drug (Nocodazole induced G2/M checkpoint arrest. Caffeine suppressed nocodazole induced G2/M arrest indicating involvement of the ATM/ATR. Notably, we have also shown the direct interaction of LANA with Chk2, the ATM/ATR signalling effector and is responsible for the release of the G2/M cell cycle block.

  14. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  15. Sarcoma de Kaposi en paciente con SIDA

    Jesús Ramón León Polanco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 33 años de edad, con antecedentes de VIH-SIDA desde hace 10 años, que se mantiene en tratamiento con antirretrovirales. Durante todo este tiempo ha presentado varios episodios de infecciones respiratorias, incluyendo tuberculosis pulmonar 5 años atrás. Acude a consulta refiriendo edemas en miembros inferiores acompañado de lesiones en piel de color violáceo de un año de evolución, previamente interpretado como linfangitis rebelde al tratamiento y que se extendió a la cara interna de los muslos y a los miembros inferiores. Con pérdida de peso, no prurito en las lesiones, fiebre, lesiones en la mucosa oral. Se determinó hemoglobina 89 g/L, leucocitos 4,5 x 109 /L, se estudiaron las funciones hepática y renales resultando normales. Radiografías de tórax y ultrasonido abdominal normales. Se realizó estudio anatomopatológico de piel que informó Sarcoma de Kaposi. Se impuso tratamiento con quimioterapia

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in a Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cell Line Stimulates Lytic-Phase Replication of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    Varthakavi, Vasundhara; Browning, Philip J.; Spearman, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) coinfect many individuals in North America and in parts of Africa. Infection with HIV is a leading risk factor for the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HIV infection of common or adjacent cells would stimulate replication and spread of KSHV. Infection of a primary effusion lymphoma cell line by vesicular stomatitis virus type G-pseudotyped HIV type 1 led to a...

  17. Pleuropulmonary Kaposi Sarcoma in the Setting of Immune Reactivation

    Suresh, Karthik; Semaan, Roy; Arias, Sixto; Karakousis, Petros; Lee, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 26 year with history of HIV/AIDS who presented with a pleural effusion. Serial radiography, pleural fluid analysis as well as clinical symptoms revealed development of Kaposi Sarcoma related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (KS-IRIS) in the setting of initiation of effective anti- retroviral therapy.

  18. Radiotherapy of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with AIDS

    From August 1986 to May 1989, 15 patients suffering from Kaposi's sarcoma and serologically proven HIV infections were treated in the Department of Radiotherapy, University of Cologne, Medical Hospital. All patients were male and homosexual. Therapeutic objectives were palliation of pain and functional impairment as well as elimination of the cosmetically disturbing Kaposi's sarcoma. 68 localizations (facial skin, torso, extremities, sole of the foot, penis, oral mucosa and oropharynx) were irradiated. Depending on the individual therapy regimen, photons or high-energy electrons up to a total dose of 26 to 40 Gy, with single doses of 1.8 to 2.5 Gy were applied four to five times a week. In 66% of the cases, complete remission was achieved within the area of irradiation at the dermal or mucosal level, with at most a discrete residual pigmentation of the cluster remaining. Partial remission with at least 50% regression or a distinctive residual pigmentation was achieved in 31%. In 3% of the cases, a less than 50% regression of the Kaposi's lesions were achieved after radiotherapy. There were five local recurrences. Treatment with radiation is an effective local therapy in epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma and yields good functional and cosmetic results and also provides relief from pain. (orig.)

  19. Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma as the initial presentation of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Tasnim F. Imran; Ziyaad Al-Khateeb; Jin Jung; Stephen Peters; Lisa L. Dever

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) usually presents in HIV-infected patients with cutaneous lesions that may advance to extensive visceral disease. There have been only a few documented cases in which the initial presentation of Kaposi's sarcoma involved the bronchopulmonary system. We describe a newly diagnosed patient who presented with pulmonary KS as his initial presentation of the disease. Our report is intended to increase clinicians’ awareness that pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma should be considered in...

  20. Kaposi's sarcoma in an HIV-positive person successfully treated with paclitaxel.

    Dongre, Atul; Montaldo, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma is one of the malignant neoplasms, which can develop in HIV-infected patients. Although the prevalence of HIV infection is reported to be high in Asian countries, Kaposi's sarcoma is rarely reported. We report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma involving the skin and oral mucosa along with extensive bilateral lymphedema of lower extremities, treated successfully with paclitaxel and antiretrovirals. PMID:19439884

  1. Imaging of Kaposi sarcoma in a transplanted liver: A rare case report

    Saumya Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In post-transplant patients, de novo malignancies such as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD, lung carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, cutaneous malignancies, and Kaposi sarcoma are now seen. The immunotherapy used to prevent graft failure indirectly increases their risk. We present a rare case of visceral Kaposi sarcoma in a patient with orthotopic liver transplant.

  2. Kaposi´s sarcoma, epidemic type. Case presentation Sarcoma de Kaposi, variedad epidémica. Presentación de un caso

    Ilen Ochoa Tamayo; Gilberto Serrano Ocaña; Juan Carlos Ortiz Sablon

    2009-01-01

    Before the AIDS epidemic, Kaposi's sarcoma was found mainly in elderly men of Mediterranean coast, eastern European background and Jewish ancestry (rarely in older women) and is a slow growing skin tumor. In AIDS patients, the KS tends to develop more rapidly compromising the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and other organs. In people with AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma is caused by an interaction between HIV, a weakened immune system and human herpes virus 8. It affects approximately 20% of peop...

  3. Thoracic manifestations of Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS: radiological findings

    The radiological findings of 189 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma occurring in patients with AIDS were studied. There was also made pathological correlations in these patients. Interstitial reticular infiltrations were frequently detected on thoracic examination showing paracardiac confluent areas. There was also lymphadenopathy, gross nodules and pleural fluid accumulation. Although there was no detection of any pathognomonic aspect, the interstitial reticular infiltration finding together with the paracardiac confluent areas and associated with gross nodules, is highly indicative to thoracic involvement by the disease. (author). 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Primary characterization of a herpesvirus agent associated with Kaposi's sarcomae.

    Moore, P S; Gao, S. J.; Dominguez, G.; Cesarman, E.; Lungu, O.; Knowles, D M; Garber, R; Pellett, P E; McGeoch, D J; Chang, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Detection of novel DNA sequences in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and AIDS-related body cavity-based, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas suggests that these neoplasms are caused by a previously unidentified human herpesvirus. We have characterized this agent using a continuously infected B-lymphocyte cell line derived from an AIDS-related lymphoma and a genomic library made from a KS lesion. In this cell line, the agent has a large episomal genome with an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of 270-kb linea...

  5. Incidence rates of classical Kaposi's sarcoma and multiple myeloma do not correlate.

    Hjalgrim, H; Frisch, M; Melbye, M

    1998-08-01

    We compared population-based incidence rates for classical Kaposi's sarcoma and multiple myeloma. Neither for men (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) = 0.01, P = 0.97, 13 pairs) nor for women (r = 0.24, P = 0.42, 13 pairs) did the incidences of the two conditions correlate. This absence of correlation does not support the hypothesis that Kaposi's sarcoma and multiple myeloma share a common aetiology, such as HHV-8. PMID:9703293

  6. Incidence rates of classical Kaposi's sarcoma and multiple myeloma do not correlate.

    Hjalgrim, H; Frisch, M.; Melbye, M

    1998-01-01

    We compared population-based incidence rates for classical Kaposi's sarcoma and multiple myeloma. Neither for men (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) = 0.01, P = 0.97, 13 pairs) nor for women (r = 0.24, P = 0.42, 13 pairs) did the incidences of the two conditions correlate. This absence of correlation does not support the hypothesis that Kaposi's sarcoma and multiple myeloma share a common aetiology, such as HHV-8.

  7. Disseminated Kaposi sarcoma with osseous metastases in an HIV-positive patient

    Bell, Bruce M.; Syed, Almas; Carmack, Susanne W.; Thomas, Cody A.; Layton, Kennith F.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm commonly associated with human herpesvirus 8 and HIV/AIDS. We present a 44-year-old African immigrant woman who presented to the emergency department after several months of abdominal pain. She was found to be HIV positive, and computed tomography demonstrated numerous lesions of the lungs, liver, and spleen, gastric wall thickening, and several lytic lesions of the spine. Fluoroscopy-guided biopsy of a lytic lesion of the spine yielded the diagnosis of Kaposi sar...

  8. Kaposi sarcoma of the conjunctiva and eyelids associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Three studies were performed to assess more accurately the prevalence, natural history, and appropriate treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma involving ocular structures. The first study was a prospective examination of 100 male homosexuals with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma for signs of ophthalmic involvement. Of the 20 patients who had ophthalmic lesions, 16 had eyelid lesions and seven had conjunctival lesions. In four patients, the ophthalmic lesion was the first, and initially the only, clinically identified manifestation of Kaposi sarcoma. The second study was a retrospective review of all patients with ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma examined at one institution over a six-year period to determine its natural history and response to therapy. Most lesions were slowly progressive and responded to systemic drug therapy. Six patients were successfully treated with radiation therapy to prevent complications. The third study was a retrospective review of all patients with AIDS-related ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma treated with local irradiation by one radiation oncologist. Each of 12 patients showed a response to treatment, and ten had a complete resolution of lesions, but recurrences were common. Side effects included skin erythema in six patients and hair loss in one patient. For local treatment of ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma, irradiation appears to be safe and effective for palliative therapy

  9. Psychosocial considerations in the therapy of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Holland, J C; Tross, S

    1987-06-01

    Since the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) burst into prominence in 1981, it has claimed victims at an exponential rate and taxed the resources of physicians, health workers, and social support agencies. A sizeable minority of AIDS patients, mainly male homosexuals, have been presented with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (EKS). Although life expectancy with this presentation may be greater than with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or other opportunistic infection, the underlying immunodeficiency still foreshadows an untimely death, usually from infection. Those remaining months or years are frequently marked by a poor quality of life attended by pain, functional impairment, cosmetic stigmata, central nervous system (CNS) complications, loss of employment, poverty, ostracism, guilt, and anger. Psychologic burdens may disrupt the patient's efforts to deal with the disease. Health care workers must often overcome their own prejudices and fears about AIDS to provide effective management. PMID:3603057

  10. Molecular analysis of Kaposi's sarcoma occurring during haemodialysis.

    Metaxa-Mariatou, V; Chiras, T; Loli, A; Gazouli, M; Vallis, D; Nasioulas, G

    2004-03-01

    Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). In this paper we attempted to confirm the connection between dialysis, HHV-8, and KS by examining the case of an elderly haemodialysis nonimmunosuppressed male patient with end-stage renal disease, who developed KS. By using PCR we have verified the presence of DNA from two different genomic regions (ORF 26 and ORF K1) of HHV-8. In addition, our RT-PCR results suggest active replication of HHV-8 in blood and KS lesions of the patient. Phylogenetic analysis revealed identical DNA sequence to ORF K1, and a close relation to its C1 variant. In conclusion, we document the case of KS and HHV-8 coexistence in a Greek elderly patient undergoing regular haemodialysis. Furthermore, our results indicate that factors other than immunosuppression could lead to KS development possibly due to activation of HHV-8. PMID:14987280

  11. Morphologic and immunophenotypic evidence of in-situ Kaposi's sarcoma

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spectrum of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS has been expanded to include pre-KS lesions. Case Presentation We report, for the first time, a case providing direct histological evidence of the development of early (in-situ KS from mediastinal lymphatic vessels in the setting of chronic lymphedema in an HIV-positive patient. Spindle-shaped and endothelial cells in these early KS-appearing lesions were immunoreactive for HHV8, D2-40 and CD34. Conclusion Our findings suggest that HHV8-infected spindle-shaped cells associated with lymphangiogenesis that evolve into KS lesions, acquire from the outset an aberrant mixed vascular and lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype.

  12. Insights into pathogenic events of HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma and immune reconstitution syndrome related Kaposi sarcoma

    Lemmer Johan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A decrease in the incidence of human immune deficiency virus-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS and regression of some established HIV-KS lesions is evident after the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART, and is attributed to generalized immune restoration, to the reconstitution of human herpesvirus (HHV-8 specific cellular immune responses, and to the decrease in HIV Tat protein and HHV-8 loads following HAART. However, a small subset of HIV-seropositive subjects with a low CD4+ T cell count at the time of introduction of HAART, may develop HIV-KS as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS within 8 weeks thereafter.

  13. Sarcoma de Kaposi primário do pênis Primary Kaposi's sarcoma of the penis

    Maira Mitsue Mukai; Talitha Chaves; Lucio Caldas; José Fillus Neto; Jesus Rodriguez Santamaría

    2009-01-01

    Sarcoma de Kaposi é um tumor vascular que afeta a parede dos vasos linfáticos. Possui quatro formas: clássica, endêmica, iatrogênica e associada ao HIV. É uma doença sistêmica, maligna, multifatorial e de curso variável. A apresentação inicial no pênis é rara, e mais observada em pacientes HIV positivos. Em pacientes HIV negativos, os casos que ocorrem nesta região, apresentam-se com pápulas, nódulos, placas e lesões verruciformes, assintomáticas. Para o tratamento da forma clássica, dispõem-...

  14. Sarcoma de Kaposi primário do pênis Primary Kaposi's sarcoma of the penis

    Maira Mitsue Mukai

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma de Kaposi é um tumor vascular que afeta a parede dos vasos linfáticos. Possui quatro formas: clássica, endêmica, iatrogênica e associada ao HIV. É uma doença sistêmica, maligna, multifatorial e de curso variável. A apresentação inicial no pênis é rara, e mais observada em pacientes HIV positivos. Em pacientes HIV negativos, os casos que ocorrem nesta região, apresentam-se com pápulas, nódulos, placas e lesões verruciformes, assintomáticas. Para o tratamento da forma clássica, dispõem-se de excisão cirúrgica, crioterapia, eletrocirurgia, laser e radioterapia. Neste trabalho, é relatado um caso raro de um paciente com a forma clássica, em região peniana tratado com sucesso com radioterapia.Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular tumor involving the wall of lymphatic vessels. There are four types: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and HIV-associated. It is a systemic, malignant and multifactorial disease and has a variable course. The primary presentation on the penis is uncommon and is mainly observed in HIV-positive patients. In HIV-negative individuals, asymptomatic papules, nodules, plaques and verrucous lesions are found. The treatment for the classic form involves surgery, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, laser and radiation therapy. The authors present a rare case of a patient with the classic form on the penis, who was successfully treated by radiation therapy.

  15. Late post transplant HIV infection with BK viremia and allograft tuberculosis in a renal transplant recipient with Kaposi sarcoma

    Viswanathan, V.; Kandasamy, V.; Reddy, Y. N.; Kurien, A.; Mathew, M.; Abraham, G

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we discuss a case of a 51-year-old African renal transplant who presented with metastatic Kaposi sarcoma 1 year after transplant. The Kaposi sarcoma was treated with a switch of immunosuppressants and chemotherapy. Six years after transplant, he presented with chronic allograft nephropathy, allograft tuberculosis, BK viremia, and was diagnosed to have contracted HIV infection.

  16. Iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis in a human immunodeficiency negative-virus patient.

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; Kilani, Houda; Bouassida, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Moufida; Chalbi, Emna; Siai, Karima; Ezzine, Heykel; Touinsi, Hassen; Azzouz, Mohamed M'saddak; Sassi, Sadok

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor associated to a human herpes virus-8. It often occurs in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. Colorectal localization is rare. We report the case of a colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis treated with surgery after the failure of immunomodulator therapy in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative heterosexual man. PMID:24396560

  17. Complete regression of visceral Kaposi's sarcoma after conversion to sirolimus.

    Mohsin, N; Budruddin, M; Pakkyara, A; Darweesh, A; Nayyer, M; Amitabh, J; Daar, A S

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is much greater in organ transplant recipients than it is in the general population. Its etiology appears to be related to geographic, genetic, and viral factors. Treatment of transplant-related KS has, until now, consisted mainly of reduction of, or withholding of, immunosuppression, often with deleterious effects on both graft and patient survival. In recent years, the immunosuppressive drug, sirolimus, has been demonstrated as possessing anti-neoplastic properties in both in vitro and animal models. In view of these properties and some preliminary clinical experience, we postulated that sirolimus would be beneficial in our patients who developed transplant-related KS. Here, we report the first case of a patient with both cutaneous and visceral KS who was successfully treated in the Middle East by conversion from a cyclosporine-based to a sirolimus-based immunosuppression regimen. The KS regressed completely within a few months after the conversion. The chronologic events and the extensive documentation, which included repeat computed tomography scans, are very suggestive of a selective anti-neoplastic effect of sirolimus. PMID:16417445

  18. Viral oncogene-induced DNA damage response is activated in Kaposi sarcoma tumorigenesis.

    Sonja Koopal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi sarcoma is a tumor consisting of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV-infected tumor cells that express endothelial cell (EC markers and viral genes like v-cyclin, vFLIP, and LANA. Despite a strong link between KSHV infection and certain neoplasms, de novo virus infection of human primary cells does not readily lead to cellular transformation. We have studied the consequences of expression of v-cyclin in primary and immortalized human dermal microvascular ECs. We show that v-cyclin, which is a homolog of cellular D-type cyclins, induces replicative stress in ECs, which leads to senescence and activation of the DNA damage response. We find that antiproliferative checkpoints are activated upon KSHV infection of ECs, and in early-stage but not late-stage lesions of clinical Kaposi sarcoma specimens. These are some of the first results suggesting that DNA damage checkpoint response also functions as an anticancer barrier in virally induced cancers.

  19. SARCOMA DE KAPOSI EXTRATORÁCICO: EVIDENCIAS DE UNA ENFERMEDAD MULTISISTÉMICA EXTRA-THORACIC KAPOSI'S SARCOMA: EVIDENCE OF A MULTISYSTEMIC INVOLVEMENT

    Javier Willatt H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El sarco made Kaposies un tumor vascular de bajo grado, que manifesta típicamente cuatro formas diferentes, siendo la epidémica (o relacionada con el SIDA la más conocida de ellas. El compromiso pulmonar de esta enfermedad está bien descrito y se manifiesta principalmente por nódulos parenquimatosos bilateral es de morfología característica ; sin embargo, esta neoplasia produce un compromiso multisistémico que no es ampliamente conocido. Debido a la creciente incidencia y sobrevida de los pacientes con VIH y el hecho de que el sarcoma de Kaposi es una de sus complicaciones frecuentes, decidimos describir su estadificación y los principales hallazgos imaginológicos en tomografía computada, por la importancia de su conocimiento para el adecuado pronóstico y manejo de esta enfermedad.Kaposi's sarcoma is a low-grade vascular neoplasm that typically manifests as one of four variants, being the epidemic (or AIDS-related the best known of them. The pulmonary involvement of this disease is well described and is expressed mainly by bilateral parenchymal nodules of characteristic morphology; however, this tumor produces a multisystemic compromise that is not widely known. Due to the increasing incidence and survival rates of patients with HIV, and the fact that Kaposi's sarcoma is one of its frequent complications, we sought to describe its staging and major imaging findings in computed tomography, given the importance of timely recognition of this neoplasm for a proper prognosis and management of the disease.

  20. L'atteinte osseuse dans le sarcome de Kaposi classique et agressif: à propos d'un cas

    Sbiyaa, Mouhcine; El Alaoui, Adil; El Bardai, Mohammed; Mezzani, Amine; Lahrach, Kamal; Marzouki, Amine; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Le sarcome de Kaposi classique est une tumeur rare multifocale d'origine des cellules endothéliales vasculaires à caractère évolutif progressif et peu maligne. L'atteinte viscérale dans le sarcome de kaposi est parfois observée chez les patients VIH positif par contre la dissémination tumorale dans les ganglions lymphatiques viscérales dans le SK classique reste très rare. On rapporte un cas rare de sarcome de kaposi classique agressif de la main avec une évolution rapide et destructive. PMID:27347285

  1. Targeting mTOR in HIV-Negative Classic Kaposi's Sarcoma

    Ofer Merimsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year old female with HIV-negative classic Kaposi's sarcoma responded to mTOR targeting by rapamycin. The response was well documented by PET-CT. This case provides supporting evidence that the mTOR pathway may be important in the tumorigenesis of KS and that rapamycin may have activity in this disease.

  2. Epidemic and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma: A comparison of outcomes and survival after radiotherapy

    Summary: We retrospectively studied the outcomes of 80 Epidemic and African-Endemic Kaposi's Sarcoma (EKS and AKS) patients treated with radiotherapy doses of 8.0 Gy. The objective response for EKS at one month was 74 and 58% for AKS while 5-year survival for EKS was 27 and 46% for AKS

  3. Human herpesvirus 8 genotype E in patients with Kaposi sarcoma, Peru.

    Cassar, Olivier; Blondot, Marie Lise; Mohanna, Salim; Jouvion, Gregory; Bravo, Francisco; Maco, Vicente; Duprez, Renan; Huerre, Michel; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gessain, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    International audience To determine human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) K1 genotypes in patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) from Peru, we characterized HHV-8 in 25 KS biopsy samples. Our findings of 8 A, 1 B, 14 C, and 2 E subtypes showed high HHV-8 diversity in these patients and association between E genotype and KS development.

  4. Kaposi´s sarcoma, epidemic type. Case presentation Sarcoma de Kaposi, variedad epidémica. Presentación de un caso

    Ilen Ochoa Tamayo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Before the AIDS epidemic, Kaposi's sarcoma was found mainly in elderly men of Mediterranean coast, eastern European background and Jewish ancestry (rarely in older women and is a slow growing skin tumor. In AIDS patients, the KS tends to develop more rapidly compromising the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and other organs. In people with AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma is caused by an interaction between HIV, a weakened immune system and human herpes virus 8. It affects approximately 20% of people with HIV that don’t take antiretroviral drugs. It is more common in homosexual’s patients, but may appear in any HIV positive individual, in Africa where heterosexual HIV transmission route is the most important can also be found in children and women. We are presenting a case of Kaposi sarcoma in a young female admitted at the Internal Medicine Department of Dora Nginza Hospital.Antes de la epidemia del SIDA, el sarcoma de Kaposi se presentaba principalmente en hombres ancianos en la costa mediterránea, Europa del este y judíos (rara vez en mujeres de edad avanzada en quienes se desarrollaba lentamente. En los pacientes con SIDA, el cáncer tiende desarrollarse mas rápidamente comprometiendo la piel, los pulmones, el tracto gastrointestinal y otros órganos. En personas con SIDA, el sarcoma de Kaposi es causado por una interacción entre el VIH , un sistema inmunitario debilitado y el herpes virus humano 8. Afecta aproximadamente al 20% de las personas con VIH que no toman medicamentos antirretrovirales. Predomina en los pacientes homosexuales, pero puede aparecer en cualquier individuo VIH positivo, en África donde la vía de transmisión heterosexual es la más importante puede ser encontrado también en niños y mujeres. A continuación presentaremos un caso en una paciente femenina joven atendida en el servicio de medicina Interna del Hospital Dora Nginza.

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ORF60, the small subunit (R2) of ribonucleotide reductase from Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)

    Crystals of the R2 subunit from the oncovirus Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated γ-herpesvirus (KSHV) were obtained by the use of in situ proteolysis. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is responsible for converting ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA. The enzyme is present in all life forms as well as in some large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses. The α-herpesviruses and γ-herpesviruses encode two class Ia RNR subunits, R1 and R2, while the β-herpesvirus subfamily only encode an inactive R1 subunit. Here, the crystallization of the R2 subunit of RNR encoded by the ORF60 gene from the oncovirus Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated γ-herpesvirus (KSHV) is reported. These are the first crystals of a viral R2 subunit; the use of in situ proteolysis with chymotrypsin and the addition of hexamine cobalt(III) chloride that were necessary to obtain crystals are described. Optimization of the crystallization conditions yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.9, b = 71.2, c = 71.8 Å, α = 90, β = 106.7, γ = 90°. The data set collected was 95.3% complete, with an Rmerge of 9.6%. There are two molecules in the asymmetric unit, corresponding to a solvent content of 43.4%

  6. Changing patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma in Danish acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with complete follow-up. The Danish Study Group for HIV Infection (DASHI)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Melbye, M; Pedersen, C;

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to study changes in the occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related Kaposi's sarcoma and the association with degree of immunodeficiency over time. Danish patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosed between 1979 and 1990 (n = 687) were followed...... developing Kaposi's sarcoma after the AIDS diagnosis. Age, antiretroviral therapy, and primary Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis failed to influence the development of Kaposi's sarcoma. Thus, the occurrence of Kaposi's sarcoma remained constant over time but developed later in the course of AIDS and...

  7. Effective palliative treatment of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma of the foot

    PURPOSE: Limited information is available in the medical literature on Epidemic Kaposi's Sarcoma (EKS) of the foot. A considerable amount of distress is experienced from EKS of the foot because minimal disease can cause severe discomfort, making it difficult to ambulate and even wear shoes. Various fractionation schemes and doses have been proposed to palliate these patients. The limiting factor for higher dose regimens appears to be the acute toxicity of foot discomfort which is experienced towards the end of treatment. Even doses as low as 20.0 Gy at 2.0 Gy/fx have been associated with transient episodes of generalized foot pain followed by desquamation of the skin of the sole in (5(7)) patients treated to the foot at Los Angeles County Hospital (JCO 6:863-867, 1988). In fact, Piedbois et al. (IJROBP 30:1207-1211, 1994) discontinued treatment to the foot if a partial remission was appreciated with split course radiation therapy to 20.0 Gy to lessen the risk of morbidity. These observations prompted us to review the treatment results of radiation therapy for EKS of the foot at our institutions. METHODS: Between 1985 and 1996, 36 patients with EKS of the foot were treated with palliative intent. All of the patients were homosexual or bisexual males with a median age of 35 years (range 24 - 68 years). Most patients were referred for radiation therapy due to foot discomfort and difficulty with ambulation. The majority of patients had prior or concurrent treatment with chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Opportunistic infections were noted in 43% of patients at the time of treatment. From the pool of 36 patients, 40 sites were evaluable at least one month after completion of radiation therapy with a median follow-up time of 7 months. These sites were treated with either electrons (n = 10), orthovoltage photons (n = 3), or megavoltage photons (n 27). The most common regimen entailed a novel fractionation schedule of 3 fractions a week at 3.5 Gy/fx to a total dose of 21.0 Gy

  8. Absolute dose measurement Gafchromic R EBT2 movies. Case Study of Kaposis sarcoma

    Because of its high spatial resolution, low energy dependence and good response over a wide energy range, EBT2 Gafchromic films are widely used in many applications in radiotherapy for measuring relative dose. Despite being the most common use can be used to measure absolute dose. This text is an example of using films as EBT2 for in vivo absolute dose in a Kaposis sarcoma.

  9. Disseminated Kaposi's Sarcoma in Patients with HIV Infection Correlates to High Serum Levels of IL-10

    Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Genre, Julieta; Oliveira, Carlo José Freire; Guedes, Paulo Marcos Matta; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiologic agent of all Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the outcome of which is associated with immuno-dysregulation, resulting in the abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α from patients with KS-AIDS, classic KS, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without KS. A correlation between HHV-8 molecul...

  10. Disseminated cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma in a patient receiving triptolide/tripdiolide for rheumatoid arthritis

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E.; Frankiewicz, Dorota; Bręborowicz, Danuta; Matławska, Irena; Bylka, Wiesława

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background To date, Kaposi sarcoma has not been mentioned among the adverse effects of triptolide/tripdiolide, ethyl acetate extracts or polyglycosides of the Chinese herbal remedy Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. Case Report A patient was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at the age of 29 years. She underwent treatment with corticosteroids, methotrexate and gold sodium thiosulfate, and was chronically taking ketoprofen. At the age of 59 years she started to take a powder (≈2 g/day) f...

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates angiogenesis and vascular permeability in Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Cornali, E.; Zietz, C; Benelli, R; Weninger, W.; Masiello, L.; Breier, G; Tschachler, E; Albini, A; Stürzl, M

    1996-01-01

    Abundant vasculature with increased permeability is a prominent histological feature of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a multifocal, cytokine-regulated tumor. Here we report on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in AIDS-KS angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We demonstrate that different cytokines, which were previously shown to be active in KS development, modulate VEGF expression in KS spindle cells and cooperate with VEGF on the functional level. Northern blot analysis as we...

  12. Kaposi's sarcoma of the small intestine after renal transplantation : radiological and endoscopic findings

    A case of Kaposi's sarcoma involving the small bowel two years after receiving a renal transplant is described. Immunosuppression had been achieved using cyclosporine A and prednisolone. Lesions extended from the duodenum to the ileum;radiologically, they were demonstrated on small bowel follow-through study and computed tomography as multiple small nodular intraluminal masses with or without central umbilication, and endoscopically, were seen as intramural mucosal elevations with a central crater-like ulceration

  13. Trends in Kaposi's Sarcoma in Miami Beach from 1987 to 2007

    Simon B. Zeichner; Ana L. Ruiz; Gabriel P. Suciu; Rachel Lerner Zeichner; Estelamari Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a rare low-grade vascular tumor associated with the human herpes virus 8. By analyzing the epidemiology, staging, and treatment of KS, we hoped to improve the quality of care at our institution. Methods. Review of the Mount Sinai Medical Center tumor registry database in Miami Beach, FL, USA, identified 143 cases of KS between January 1, 1987 and December 31, 2007. Results. The majority of patients were non-Hispanic whites, non smoking males diagnosed between...

  14. Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus microRNAs Target Caspase 3 and Regulate Apoptosis

    Guillaume Suffert; Georg Malterer; Jean Hausser; Johanna Viiliäinen; Aurélie Fender; Maud Contrant; Tomi Ivacevic; Vladimir Benes; Frédéric Gros; Olivier Voinnet; Mihaela Zavolan; Ojala, Päivi M.; Haas, Juergen G.; Sébastien Pfeffer

    2011-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a cluster of twelve micro (mi)RNAs, which are abundantly expressed during both latent and lytic infection. Previous studies reported that KSHV is able to inhibit apoptosis during latent infection; we thus tested the involvement of viral miRNAs in this process. We found that both HEK293 epithelial cells and DG75 cells stably expressing KSHV miRNAs were protected from apoptosis. Potential cellular targets that were significantly down-regulated upon KS...

  15. HIV-associated cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma - palliative local treatment by radiotherapy

    The increasing number of HIV-infected patients makes palliative treatment of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma more common. We retrospectively evaluated a reduced fractionated radiotherapy with 20 Gy in respect to response rates and acute side-effects. From January 1992 to January 1995, 52 patients with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma were treated with 133 single portals. Six weeks after the end of radiotherapy 42 patients with 124 portals were evaluable with respect to response rates and side-effects. Of the treated portals 32% were judged as complete responses (CR), 55% as partial responses (PR) and 12% as no change (NC). Skin reactions RTOG, grade 1 were seen in 74% of the patients. Compared with literature data the reduced overall dose of 20 Gy in 10 fractions led to a reduction of CRs by approximately 50% while the overall response rate remained equal. The success of radiotherapy for the nodular component of Kaposi's sarcoma can be improved, if a dose exceeding 20 Gy in 10 fractions is applied but at the cost of increasing side-effects in case that non-conventional fractionation schemes are used. (orig.)

  16. Clinical Features, Presence of Human Herpesvirus-8 and Treatment Results in Classic Kaposi Sarcoma

    Özlem Su

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Classic Kaposi sarcoma (KS occurs predominantly among the elderly, with Jews, Italians and Greeks. Classic KS has been seen relatively frequently in Turkey. Our aim was to evaluate the demographic, clinical features of Kaposi sarcoma and etiopathological role of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8. Treatment results of 18 classic Kaposi’s sarcoma were also concluded.Material and Method: Eighteen cases of classic Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed as clinically and histopathologically between January 2001 and August 2008 in our dermatology department were taken to this study. Demographic, clinical features and treatment results were reviewed retrospectively in all patients. HHV-8 was investigated in the lesional skin of 7 patients.Results: A male/female ratio of 2/1 was found. Mean age at diagnosis was 67.2 (37-94 years. Bilaterally lower extremities were involved in 15 patients (83.3%, the trunk was involved in 3 patients (16.6%. Plaques and nodules were the common type of lesions (66.6% and 55.5%. Nine patients had no symptoms (50%. Edema was the most common symptom (38.8%. A second primary malignancy was found in 2 patients (11.1%. HHV-8 was detected in 6 of the 7 patients(85.7%. Majority of the patients were treated with interferon alfa (subcutaneously and cryotherapy as a monotherapy or a combination therapy. Imiquimod was the second agent in combined treatment (27.7%. Conclusion: We suggest that interferon alfa and imiquimod can be used as first line therapy agents with their antiviral and immunmodulatuar features in the treatment of KKS. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 122-6

  17. Aqueous immersion technique for the irradiation with photons Kaposi's sarcoma multiple foot and ankle

    Classic Kaposi sarcoma presents as asymptomatic red-violaceus plaques, usually on the legs below the knees, ankles and soles preferentially. When the disease is spread on the skin preferential treatment is radiation therapy at low doses. Homogeneous irradiation of the various lesions could be very complex due to the irregular geometry of the feet, interdigital lesions on different planes. To overcome this problem, and in the case of disseminated disease and low doses, we propose the technique of dipping the tip in Cuba expanded polystyrene filled with saline with a methacrylate plate 2 cm in depth and irradiation with parallel opposed fields.

  18. Platelet activating factor produced in vitro by Kaposi's sarcoma cells induces and sustains in vivo angiogenesis.

    Bussolino, F.; Arese, M; Montrucchio, G; Barra, L; Primo, L; Benelli, R; Sanavio, F; M. Aglietta; Ghigo, D; Rola-Pleszczynski, M R

    1995-01-01

    Imbalance in the network of soluble mediators may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). In this study, we demonstrated that KS cells grown in vitro produced and in part released platelet activating factor (PAF), a powerful lipid mediator of inflammation and cell-to-cell communication. IL-1, TNF, and thrombin enhanced the synthesis of PAF. PAF receptor mRNA and specific, high affinity binding site for PAF were present in KS cells. Nanomolar concentration of PAF stim...

  19. Consensus of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases and Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology on the management and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma

    Érico Arruda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma is a multifocal vascular lesion of low-grade potential that is most often present in mucocutaneous sites and usually also affects lymph nodes and visceral organs. The condition may manifest through purplish lesions, flat or raised with an irregular shape, gastrointestinal bleeding due to lesions located in the digestive system, and dyspnea and hemoptysis associated with pulmonary lesions. In the early 1980s, the appearance of several cases of Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men was the first alarm about a newly identified epidemic, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In 1994, it was finally demonstrated that the presence of a herpes virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma called HHV-8 or Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus and its genetic sequence was rapidly deciphered. The prevalence of this virus is very high (about 50% in some African populations, but stands between 2% and 8% for the entire world population. Kaposi's sarcoma only develops when the immune system is depressed, as in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which appears to be associated with a specific variant of the Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus. There are no treatment guidelines for Kaposi's sarcoma established in Brazil, and thus the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology and the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases developed the treatment consensus presented here.

  20. Endolysosomal trafficking of viral G protein-coupled receptor functions in innate immunity and control of viral oncogenesis.

    Dong, Xiaonan; Cheng, Adam; Zou, Zhongju; Yang, Yih-Sheng; Sumpter, Rhea M; Huang, Chou-Long; Bhagat, Govind; Virgin, Herbert W; Lira, Sergio A; Levine, Beth

    2016-03-15

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system degrades viral oncoproteins and other microbial virulence factors; however, the role of endolysosomal degradation pathways in these processes is unclear. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, and a constitutively active viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) contributes to the pathogenesis of KSHV-induced tumors. We report that a recently discovered autophagy-related protein, Beclin 2, interacts with KSHV GPCR, facilitates its endolysosomal degradation, and inhibits vGPCR-driven oncogenic signaling. Furthermore, monoallelic loss of Becn2 in mice accelerates the progression of vGPCR-induced lesions that resemble human Kaposi's sarcoma. Taken together, these findings indicate that Beclin 2 is a host antiviral molecule that protects against the pathogenic effects of KSHV GPCR by facilitating its endolysosomal degradation. More broadly, our data suggest a role for host endolysosomal trafficking pathways in regulating viral pathogenesis and oncogenic signaling. PMID:26929373

  1. Pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma and disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in an HIV-infected patient.

    Tribuna, Cindy; Ângela, Cristina; Eira, Isabel; Carvalho, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and disseminated infection by Mycobacterium genavense in a 40-year-old HIV-positive man with CD4+ T-cell count 5/µL. He presented with anorexia, diarrhoea, cachexia and multiple firm violaceous nodules distributed over the face, neck and upper and lower extremities. Biopsy of a skin nodule was performed, confirming KS. Immunoperoxidase staining for human herpesvirus 8 was strongly positive. Endoscopic examination revealed erosive duodenopathy. Multiple biopsy samples showed numerous acid-fast bacilli at direct microscopic examination. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) identified M. genavense. A CT scan showed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates with a 'tree-in-bud' appearance, striking splenomegaly and abdominal lymphadenopathy. A bronchoscopy was performed, revealing typical Kaposi's lesions in the upper respiratory tract. RT-PCR of bronchial aspirate identified M. genavense and Pneumocystis jirovecii. Despite treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy, antimycobacterial therapy and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, the outcome was fatal. PMID:26452414

  2. AIDS Kaposi sarcoma-derived cells produce and respond to interleukin 6

    Cell lines derived from Kaposi sarcoma lesions of patients with AIDS (AIDS-KS cells) produce several cytokines, including an endothelial cell growth factor, interleukin 1β, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Since exposure to human immunodeficiency virus increases interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in monocytes and endothelial cells produce IL-6, the authors examined IL-6 expression and response in AIDS-KS cell lines and IL-6 expression in AIDS Kaposi sarcoma tissue. The AIDS-KS cell lines (N521J and EKS3) secreted large amounts of immunoreactive and biologically active IL-6. The authors found both IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6-R) RNA by slot blot hybridization analysis of AIDS-KS cells. The IL-6-R was functional, as [3H]thymidine incorporation by AIDS-KS cells increased significantly after exposure to human recombinant IL-6 (hrIL-6) at >10 units/ml. When AIDS-KS cells (EKS3) were exposed to IL-6 antisense oligonucleotide, cellular proliferation decreased by nearly two-thirds, with a corresponding decrease in the production of IL-6. These results show that both IL-6 and IL-6-R are produced by AIDS-KS cells and that IL-6 is required for optimal AIDS-KS cell proliferation, and they suggest that IL-6 is an autocrine growth factor for AIDS-KS cells

  3. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 and the etiopathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma Herpesvírus humano tipo 8 (HHV-8 e a etiopatogênese do sarcoma de Kaposi

    Jair Carneiro Leão

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on human herpesvirus 8 with particular attention to the aspects related to the etiopathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors searched original research and review articles on specific aspects of human herpesvirus 8 infection, including virology, epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, natural history, therapy, and Kaposi's sarcoma etiopathogenesis. The relevant material was evaluated and reviewed. RESULTS: Human herpesvirus 8 is a recently discovered DNA virus that is present throughout the world but with major geographic variation. In the Western world, the virus, transmitted mainly by means of sexual contact, is strongly associated with Kaposi's sarcoma and body cavity-based lymphoma and more controversially with multiple myeloma and other non-proliferative disorders. There is no specific effective treatment, but HIV protease inhibitors may play an indirect role in the clearance of human herpesvirus 8 DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected patients. Human herpesvirus 8 DNA is present in saliva, but there are as yet no documented cases of nosocomial transmission to health care workers. The prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 among health care workers is probably similar to that in the general population. CONCLUSION: Human herpesvirus 8 appears to be, at least in Western Europe and United States, restricted to a population at risk of developing Kaposi's sarcoma. Human herpesvirus 8 certainly has the means to overcome cellular control and immune responses and thus predispose carriers to malignancy, particularly Kaposi's sarcoma. The wide diffusion of Human herpesvirus 8 in classic Kaposi's sarcoma areas appears to represent an important factor in the high incidence of the disease. However, additional co-factors are likely to play a role in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente artigo foi revisar a literatura recente em rela

  4. Feline intraocular sarcoma associated with phthisis bulbi

    E. Perlmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of feline intraocular sarcoma were reported in stray cats that presented blindness and hypotonia of the affected eye for years before the tumor development. Phthisis bulbi, a final stage of a severe inflammation of the eye, is frequently unmonitored because eyes are blind, small, opaque, and not painful. Yet, this report shows that monitoring and early enucleation of eyes of cats with phthisis bulbi are important and should be considered as a treatment option, because feline intraocular sarcoma is an aggressive tumor that significantly decreases live expectancy.

  5. The Inflammatory Kinase MAP4K4 Promotes Reactivation of Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus and Enhances the Invasiveness of Infected Endothelial Cells

    Haas, Darya A.; Kiran Bala; Guntram Büsche; Magdalena Weidner-Glunde; Susann Santag; Semra Kati; Silvia Gramolelli; Modester Damas; Oliver Dittrich-Breiholz; Michael Kracht; Jessica Rückert; Zoltan Varga; György Keri; Schulz, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a mesenchymal tumour, which is caused by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) and develops under inflammatory conditions. KSHV-infected endothelial spindle cells, the neoplastic cells in KS, show increased invasiveness, attributed to the elevated expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The majority of these spindle cells harbour latent KSHV genomes, while a minority undergoes lytic reactivation with subsequent production of new virions and...

  6. Local measures in HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma - importance of radiation therapy

    In 23 patients with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma 53 tumor lesions were treated with fractional radiotherapy. Indication for the radiotherapy were mostly cosmetic reasons in stigmatising tumors, but also in several cases pain, oedema or functional deficits as a result of the tumor lesions. 21 patients received orthovoltage irradiation, the remaining four patients were treated with telecobalt therapy. A complete response was observed in 17%, a partial response in 76% and unchanged lesions in 4%. In two cases (4%), both were treated with telecobalt-therapy by large tumor masses, there occurred a further tumor progression inspite of the radiotherapy. In ten lesions, all with partial remission, we later observed a repeated tumor progression. Important side effects were signs of inflammation as mucositis and edema or hyperpigmentation. The occurrence of acute side effects can be reduced by fractionating of the radiotherapy. (orig.)

  7. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphadenopathy syndrome: limitations of abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Abrams, D.I.; Volberding, P.; Lewis, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in 31 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with classic KS, and 12 patients with the newly described lymphadenopathy syndrome (LNS). The frequency, distribution, and appearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were similar in the AIDS-related KS and LNS groups. Rectal and perirectal disease was identified in 86% of homosexual men studied; rectal KS could not be distinguished from proctitis on CT criteria alone. No CT abnormalities were seen in patients with classic KS. The CT demonstration of retroperitoneal, mesenteric, or pelvic adenopathy or of rectal or perirectal disease in patients with AIDS-related KS is not necessarily indicative of widespread involvement with the disease.

  8. The prognostic significance of facial lymphoedema in HIV-seropositive subjects with Kaposi sarcoma

    Raubenheimer EJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi Sarcoma (KS is a multifocal angioproliferative neoplasm characterized by inflammation, oedema, neoangiogenesis and spindle cell proliferation. The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated KS (HIV-KS is multifactorial. HHV-8 is an essential factor but not in itself sufficient to cause HIV-KS, the development of which is influenced by HIV, by increased production of cytokines and by growth factors. Whether HIV-KS is a true malignancy or a reactive hyperplastic inflammatory condition is debatable. Results and Conclusion Oedema of the face, legs and hands is a prominent feature of HIV-KS and is probably caused by lymphoedema related to the HIV-KS lesions. The cases of two HIV-seropositive subjects with KS-associated facial lymphoedema are reported. Extensive oral HIV-KS in association with facial oedema in the absence of anti-retroviral treatment appears to be an indication of a poor prognosis.

  9. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphadenopathy syndrome: limitations of abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in 31 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with classic KS, and 12 patients with the newly described lymphadenopathy syndrome (LNS). The frequency, distribution, and appearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were similar in the AIDS-related KS and LNS groups. Rectal and perirectal disease was identified in 86% of homosexual men studied; rectal KS could not be distinguished from proctitis on CT criteria alone. No CT abnormalities were seen in patients with classic KS. The CT demonstration of retroperitoneal, mesenteric, or pelvic adenopathy or of rectal or perirectal disease in patients with AIDS-related KS is not necessarily indicative of widespread involvement with the disease

  10. Radiation therapy of epidemic kaposi sarcoma: the Henri-Mondor hospital experience (643 patients)

    From June 1986 to December 1996, 643 patients presenting with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma were treated with irradiation at the Oncology Department of Henri Mondor University Hospital. Three-hundred eighty-seven patients (60 %) had previously received a treatment with interferon (259 patients, 40.2 %), vinblastine (225 patients, 34.5 %), doxorubicin (22 patients, 3.4 %), bleomycin (19 patients, 2.9 %), and/or antiviral treatment (216, 33.5 %). The radiotherapy was delivered by 4 MeV OR 8 MeV electron beam for extended cutaneous fields and 45-100 kV x-ray for localized fields. The delivered dose was 20 Gy in 2 weeks (2.5 Gy/fraction, 4 fractions/week) followed by 2 weeks rest and second series of 10 Gy in 1 week. For oral cavity lesions, we used a series of 15.2 Gy was delivered (1.9 Gy/fraction, 4 fractions/week), followed for three patients by a 3 week rest and by a similar second series of 15.2 Gy.Six-hundred and twenty-one patients were evaluable and the objective response rate was 92 %, with e complete regression of clinical and functional symptoms for all patients. The skin tolerance was good, with 7.3 % grade I reactions, 69.3 % of grade II reactions, and 23.4 % grade III reactions. There was a correlation between recurrence rate and the occurrence of opportunistic infections. This analysis shows the efficacy of dose radiotherapy for treatment of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma. (author)

  11. Visceral Kaposi's Sarcoma Related to Human Herpesvirus-8 in Liver Transplant Recipient: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Benhammane, H; Mentha, G; Tschanz, E; El Mesbahi, O; Dietrich, P Y

    2012-01-01

    Background. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in transplant recipients is about 400 to 500 times rate in the general population. It is strongly associated to Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection which has been found in 95% of KS lesions. The optimal approach to managing posttransplantation KS is to reduce or discontinue immunosuppressive therapy but this strategy carries a risk of the acute rejection of the graft. Recently, the use of an mTOR inhibitor has added new opportunities for KS treatment and prevention. Case Report. We report a case of 24 years-old Turkish woman with visceral HHV-8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma after orthotopic liver transplantation. Conclusion. Posttransplantation KS is considered an experimental model of virus induced tumor suggesting the usefulness of HHV-8 screening in transplant recipient and donor. Therapeutic approaches are complex and require a multidisciplinary team. PMID:23320218

  12. Kaposi's Sarcoma

    ... its prevalence. It is almost exclusively seen in homosexual or bisexual men. Nonepidemic Gay related KS - There is a type of KS that develops in homosexual men who have no signs or symptoms of ...

  13. Extravasation and transcytosis of liposomes in Kaposi's sarcoma-like dermal lesions of transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene.

    Huang, S K; F. J. Martin; Jay, G; Vogel, J.; Papahadjopoulos, D; Friend, D S

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene develop dermal lesions resembling a common malignant tumor in AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). To evaluate the permeability characteristics of these lesions and the therapeutic potential of drug-carrying liposomes, we have studied the localization of sterically stabilized liposomes, which show long circulation time in blood and increased accumulation in tumors. Liposomes encapsulating colloidal gold were injected intravenously into transgenic mice bearing ...

  14. Use of X-Chromosome Inactivation Pattern to Analyze the Clonality of 14 Female Cases of Kaposi Sarcoma

    Yuan, Ding; XiuJuan, Wu; Yan, Zhang; JunQin, Liang; Fang, Xiang; Shirong, Yu; Xiaojing, Kang; Yanyan, Feng; Weidong, Wu; Dong, Luo; Qingli, Lu; DeZhi, Zhang; XiongMing, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Background Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has features of both neoplastic growth and hyperplastic proliferation. It is the most common tumor seen in patients with HIV infection. Whether KS is a real tumor or a benign hyperplastic disease is not known. Material/Methods Tissues from KS and cutaneous hemangioma lesion DNA were extracted, and then digested with methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease HpaII. Human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) was amplified with PCR method and the product was separa...

  15. Palatal Actinomycosis and Kaposi Sarcoma in an HIV-Infected Subject with Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection

    Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomyces and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare are facultative intracellular organisms, members of the bacterial order actinomycetales. Although Actinomyces can behave as copathogen when anatomic barriers are compromised, its coinfection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has not previously been reported. We present the first reported case of palatal actinomycosis co-infection with disseminated MAC, in an HIV-infected subject with Kaposi sarcoma and diabetes. We discuss the pathogenesis of the complex condition of this subject.

  16. Maladie de Kaposi à localisation broncho-pulmonaire révélant une infection VIH

    Sebbar, Amal; Zaghba, Nahid; Benjelloun, Hanane; Bakhatar, Abdelaziz; Yassine, Najiba

    2015-01-01

    La maladie de Kaposi (MK) associée au VIH, forme dite épidémique, a été décrite la 1ère fois en 1981 par Hymmes. C'est l'affection maligne la plus fréquente au cours du SIDA. La MK est à l'origine de 10% des atteintes pleuropulmonaires au cours de l'infection par le VIH et 40% des pneumopathies en cas de MK cutanéomuqueuse. Les localisations pulmonaires occupent la deuxième place des atteintes viscérales après la forme digestive. Le diagnostic repose sur des arguments épidémiologiques, cliniques, radiologiques, biologiques, endoscopiques et histologiques. Nous rapportons un cas de MK broncho-pulmonaire compliquant une infection VIH chez un patient présentant une maladie de Kaposi cutanée de découverte fortuite au cours de l'atteinte pulmonaire. Le diagnostic a été retenu après avoir éliminé les maladies opportunistes à tropisme pulmonaire. Le Kaposi pulmonaire constitue l'atteinte la plus grave de la MK-sida et la survie après le diagnostic est courte malgré les thérapeutiques agressives. PMID:26958142

  17. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma in morocco: clinico -epidemiological study at the national institute of oncology

    Errihani Hassan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classic Kaposi's sarcoma (CKS is a rare disease likely associated with human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8 infection, and occurs predominantly in Jewish, Mediterranean and middle eastern men .There is a dearth of data in Moroccan patients with CKS regarding epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes. This report examines a cohort of patients with CKS evaluated at the national institute of oncology over 11-year period. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients referred to the national institute of oncology with classical Kaposi sarcoma, between January 1998 and February 2008, was performed. Reviewed information included demographics, clinical and pathological staging, death or last follow-up. Results During the study period, 56 patients with a diagnosis of CKS have been referred to our hospital. There were 11(19,7% females and 45 (80,3% males (male-to-female ratio: 4:1. Mean age at diagnosis was 61,7 ± 15 (range: 15- 86 years. Nodules and/or plaques were the most frequent type of lesion. The most common location was the lower limbs, particularly the distal lower extremity (90%. In addition to skin involvement, visceral spread was evident in 9 cases. The most common visceral involvement sites were lymph nodes (44%, lung (22%, and gastrointestinal tract (22%. Associated lymphoedema was seen in 24 (42% of the patients. There were 18 stage I patients (32,14%, 8: stage II (14,28%, 21 stage III(37,5% and 9 stage IV (16,07%. A second primary malignancy was diagnosed in 6 cases (10,7%, none of the reticuloendothelial system. With a median follow-up of 45 months, 38 (67,8 patients are alive, of whom 25 (65,78% patients with stable disease, five with progressive disease currently under systemic chemotherapy and 8(21,05% are alive and free of disease, over a mean interval of 5 years. Conclusion This is the largest reported series in our context. In Morocco, CKS exhibits some special characteristics including a disseminated skin

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12300-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 05694_1( AF305694 |pid:none) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes... 60 8e-07 BC151676_1( BC151676 |pid:none) Bos taurus trichohyalin...nthus annuus LIM domain prote... 60 8e-07 U52064_1( U52064 |pid:none) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated... mth2-15... 61 4e-07 U93872_83( U93872 |pid:none) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvir... 60 5e-...0574_1( AF370574 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana transcription... 59 1e-06 AF192756_1( AF192756 |pid:none) Kaposi's sarcoma-associate...05 BC090651_1( BC090651 |pid:none) Mus musculus microtubule associate... 55 2e-05 AB384532_1( AB384532 |pid:none

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06742-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ... 42 0.009 U93872_83( U93872 |pid:none) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvir... 42 0.009 (Q8STA9) RecName: Full=UPF0329 protein...ronuclea... 42 0.007 AF305694_1( AF305694 |pid:none) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated...) Human herpesvirus 8 type P isolat... 41 0.015 U52064_1( U52064 |pid:none) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated...20 BC025777_1( BC025777 |pid:none) Homo sapiens microtubule-associate... 40 0.020...ri... 38 0.13 AF192756_1( AF192756 |pid:none) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes... 38 0.13 AY325131_1( AY325131 |pid:none) Rat

  20. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  1. Initial lesions of HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma--a histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study.

    Schulze, H J; Rütten, A; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1987-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) has become a rather frequent manifestation of the previously rare disease with fatal outcome. Initial lesions of KS were studied by means of histopathology, immunohistology, and electron microscopy in order to define the earliest alterations. The histopathological changes of initial lesions were distinct, consisting of (1) discrete proliferation of capillary vessels, (2) dissection of collagen by proliferating spindle cells which formed slits, (3) atypical spindle cells arranged in an Indian file pattern, and (4) the lack of any inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Double staining with antibodies against vimentin and immunohistochemical markers for endothelial cells revealed that slits forming vimentin-positive spindle cells displayed laminin, factor VIII, and PAL-E. Atypical vimentin-positive spindle cells arranged in an Indian file pattern inconsistently expressed laminin and factor VIII, but not PAL-E. KS cells rarely stained with the lectin UEA I, not even in case of less advanced dedifferentiation. Electron microscopy showed gradual transformation between spindle cells forming slits and those having lost the ability to form incomplete vessel walls. The present findings support the view that KS develops from the endothelial cells of the blood vessels. The proliferation of atypical endothelial cells as early as in initial lesions and the lack of inflammation favors the primary neoplastic genesis of KS. PMID:3324975

  2. Systematic Identification of Cellular Signals Reactivating Kaposi Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus

    Yu, Fuqu; Harada, Josephine N; Brown, Helen J; Deng, Hongyu; Song, Moon Jung; Wu, Ting-Ting; Kato-Stankiewicz, Juran; Nelson, Christian G; Vieira, Jeffrey; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Chanda, Sumit K; Sun, Ren

    2007-01-01

    The herpesvirus life cycle has two distinct phases: latency and lytic replication. The balance between these two phases is critical for viral pathogenesis. It is believed that cellular signals regulate the switch from latency to lytic replication. To systematically evaluate the cellular signals regulating this reactivation process in Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus, the effects of 26,000 full-length cDNA expression constructs on viral reactivation were individually assessed in primary effusion lymphoma–derived cells that harbor the latent virus. A group of diverse cellular signaling proteins were identified and validated in their effect of inducing viral lytic gene expression from the latent viral genome. The results suggest that multiple cellular signaling pathways can reactivate the virus in a genetically homogeneous cell population. Further analysis revealed that the Raf/MEK/ERK/Ets-1 pathway mediates Ras-induced reactivation. The same pathway also mediates spontaneous reactivation, which sets the first example to our knowledge of a specific cellular pathway being studied in the spontaneous reactivation process. Our study provides a functional genomic approach to systematically identify the cellular signals regulating the herpesvirus life cycle, thus facilitating better understanding of a fundamental issue in virology and identifying novel therapeutic targets. PMID:17397260

  3. Predictors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with Kaposi's sarcoma: a case report.

    Cattelan, Anna Maria; Mattiolo, Adriana; Grassi, Angela; Piano, Maria Assunta; Sasset, Lolita; Trevenzoli, Marco; Zanovello, Paola; Calabrò, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We present here a case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS-IRIS) developed in an AIDS patient two months after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Baseline characteristics of this IRIS-KS case, within a cohort of 12 naïve AIDS-KS patients, were analyzed. No statistically significant differences in CD4 cell counts, plasma HIV RNA load, KS clinical staging, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) antibody titers and HHV8 load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva were evidenced. HHV8 load in plasma was found to be significantly higher in the KS-IRIS patient (> 6 log10 genome equivalents/ml, p = 0.01, t-test) compared to the 11 patients with KS regression. This case highlights that measurement of HHV8 load in plasma may be useful to identify patients at risk for KS-IRIS, and that this parameter should be included in the design of larger studies to define KS-IRIS risk predictors. PMID:26848307

  4. Treatment of cutaneous Kaposi's Sarcoma with tin ethyl etiopurpurin (SnET2) photodynamic therapy

    Purpose: Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) lesions in immunocompromised individuals are often physiologically and psychologically distressing. The multifocal nature of these lesions makes local treatments (i.e., surgery, radiation) difficult and time consuming. Further, cosmetic outcomes are generally poor. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can overcome some of these negative outcomes in a single treatment session and as such may be of benefit to these patients. Methods: SnET2 PDT was performed on 9 pts. with known KS lesions. The total number of lesions treated was 121. All patients were HIV positive. The drug SnET2 was intravenously injected and subsequently activated, 24 hours post-injection, by 665 nm light delivered via fiberoptic from a diode laser light source. The total light dose delivered was 300J/sq. cm at a power density of 50-150mW/sq.cm. Response rates were assessed by serial follow-up and patient subjective satisfaction rates were recorded. Results: Subjectively each patient was satisfied with the cosmetic outcome of treatment. Of 8 evaluable patients with 116 lesions response rates were: (CR 75%; PR 19%; NR 0%; 6% of lesions were of Indeterminate status at follow-up). Follow-up ranged from 1-9 months. Adverse experiences were mild to moderate of which 100% were due to sun exposure and did not require treatment. Conclusions: PDT is a well tolerated procedure that produces excellent subjective and objective responses. The patient is treated in a single session on an outpatient basis

  5. Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Diffuse Skin Thickening as Kaposi Sarcoma Clinical Presentation

    Sara Querido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old African patient received a kidney from a deceased donor with 4 HLA mismatches in April 2013. He received immunosuppression with basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Immediate diuresis and a good allograft function were soon observed. Six months later, the serum creatinine level increased to 2.6 mg/dL. A renal allograft biopsy revealed interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy grade II. Toxicity of calcineurin inhibitor was assumed and, after a switch for everolimus, renal function improved. However, since March 2014, renal function progressively deteriorated. A second allograft biopsy showed no new lesions. Two months later, the patient was admitted due to anuria, haematochezia with anaemia, requiring 5 units of packed red blood cells, and diffuse skin thickening. Colonoscopy showed haemorrhagic patches in the colon and the rectum; histology diagnosis was Kaposi sarcoma (KS. A skin biopsy revealed cutaneous involvement of KS. Rapid clinical deterioration culminated in death in June 2014. This case is unusual as less than 20 cases of KS with gross gastrointestinal bleeding have been reported and only 6 cases had the referred bleeding originating in the lower gastrointestinal tract. So, KS should be considered in differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding in some kidney transplant patients.

  6. Hypofractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma - A prospective randomized trial

    Purpose: To compare a conventional fractionation regimen with a hypofractionated regimen in the treatment of Epidemic Kaposi sarcoma with radiation therapy. Materials and methods: Sixty patients were randomized to receive a standard regimen of 24 Gy in 12 fractions (ARM A) or the study regimen of 20 Gy in five fractions (ARM B). Radiation technique was individualized. Treatment response, local control and toxicity were recorded. Results: Thirty five sites were treated in ARM A and 30 sites in ARM B. Treatment arms were similar for gender, ECOG performance score, treated site, antiretroviral therapy usage, T stage, I stage and S stage. The overall survival using the Kaplan Meier method was 37% at 1 year. Complete responses were recorded at 28 sites (13 Arm A, 15 Arm B), partial responses at 19 sites (8 Arm A, 11 Arm B) and stable disease at three sites (2 Arm A, 1 Arm B). The mean time to maximum objective response was 3 months (range: 1-14 months). Response rates and local control were equal in the two arms (p = 0.73 and 0.77, respectively, log rank test). Acute skin toxicity (p = 0.77) and late skin toxicity (p = 0.24) were equal in the two arms. Conclusion: The two treatment regimens produced equivalent results for treatment response, local recurrence-free survival and toxicity

  7. Sarcoma de Kaposi: a propósito de un caso clínico, actualización del tema Kaposi 's sarcoma: a case report, update on the topic

    Anadely Gámez Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El sarcoma de Kaposi (KS por sus siglas en inglés es una enfermedad similar al cáncer. Se relaciona con la infección del VIH, y se presenta en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad, afectando el 20% de las personas con VIH que no toman medicamentos antirretrovirales. En Pinar del Río existe una baja incidencia de infección por VIH/SIDA. Dada la infrecuencia del Sarcoma de Kaposi se presenta un caso. Paciente de 50 años de edad, que después de un cuadro de dolor en epigastrio comienza con lesiones en la piel similares a hematoma en resolución, con centro más oscuro y nodular, que toman prácticamente todo el cuerpo. El paciente presenta ligera pérdida de peso, pero no prurito, no fiebre, no lesiones en mucosa oral. Se determinó Hb: 112g/l Hto: 0.34l/l Leucocitos: 4.4x10(9/l. Se encontró aumento de células mononucleares en el diferencial con linfopenia asociada; velocidad de sedimentación, colesterol, transaminasas, función renal y proteínas totales, normales, pero trombocitopenia moderada, acido úrico elevado. En el aspirado medular aparece predominio de linfocitos atípicos, con depresión relativa de las series hematopoyéticas. Gastroscopia, negativa. Biopsia de piel: Compatible con Sarcoma de Kaposi. VIH: tres exámenes durante el estudio con tiempo de intervalo entre ellos 3 meses desde el inicio resultaron negativos. Último examen viral a los 7 meses de iniciado el estudio (positivo con Western Blot.Kaposi´s Sarcoma (KS is a cancer-like disease. It is most frequent related to HIV infection, present in late stages of the disease and affecting 20 % of HIV infected people having no Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART. Since in Pinar del Rio Province a low incidence rate of HIV/AIDS is observed , Kaposi´s Sarcoma is very infrequent. A 50 year-old male who after presenting an epigastralgia suffers from hematoma-like skin lesions, in resolution and when palpated the darker center was nodular. These lesions take

  8. Plasma accelerators

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  9. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics.

  10. Aqueous immersion technique for the irradiation with photons Kaposi's sarcoma multiple foot and ankle; Tecnica de inmersion acuosa para la irradiacion con fotones del sarcoma de Kaposi multiple en pies y tobillos

    Velazquez Miranda, S.; Munoz Carmona, D. M.; Ortyiz Seidel, M.; Gomez-Millan Barrachina, J.; Delgado Gil, M. M.; Ortega Rodriguez, M. J.; Dominguez Rodriguez, M.; Marquez Garcia Salazar, M.; Bayo Lozano, E.

    2011-07-01

    Classic Kaposi sarcoma presents as asymptomatic red-violaceus plaques, usually on the legs below the knees, ankles and soles preferentially. When the disease is spread on the skin preferential treatment is radiation therapy at low doses. Homogeneous irradiation of the various lesions could be very complex due to the irregular geometry of the feet, interdigital lesions on different planes. To overcome this problem, and in the case of disseminated disease and low doses, we propose the technique of dipping the tip in Cuba expanded polystyrene filled with saline with a methacrylate plate 2 cm in depth and irradiation with parallel opposed fields.

  11. Factores de progresión tumoral en el sarcoma de Kaposi: estudio inmunohistoquímico

    Penín Mosquera, Rosa Maria

    2003-01-01

    El sarcoma de Kaposi (SK) es una enfermedad angioproliferativa con cuatro formas clínico-epidemiológicas: clásica (SK-C), africana endémica, relacionada con fármacos inmunosupresores y relacionada con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SK-SIDA). La afectación del SK es generalmente cutánea, pero en los casos agresivos puede diseminarse a localizaciones extracutáneas. En la piel, las lesiones se clasifican clínicopatológicamente en máculas, placas y tumores de acuerdo con su progresió...

  12. Viral Load of Human Herpesvirus 8 in Peripheral Blood of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Kaposi's Sarcoma

    Tedeschi, Rosamaria; Enbom, Malin; Bidoli, Ettore; Linde, Annika; De Paoli, Paolo; Dillner, Joakim

    2001-01-01

    Viral load is an important marker of activity of viral diseases for a number of viruses. We wished to evaluate whether the viral load of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in peripheral blood was a consistent feature of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) patients and whether the viral load correlated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA levels, CD4 counts, and/or the HHV-8 seroreactivity. Fifty-four consecutive plasma samples from 14 patients with KS were evaluated for HHV-8 viral load by quantitative rea...

  13. The human herpes virus 8-encoded chemokine receptor is required for angioproliferation in a murine model of Kaposi's sarcoma

    Jensen, Kristian K; Manfra, Denise J; Grisotto, Marcos G;

    2005-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus or human herpes virus 8 is considered the etiological agent of KS, a highly vascularized neoplasm that is the most common tumor affecting HIV/AIDS patients. The KS-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 open reading frame 74 encodes a constitutively......-like phenotype and that down-regulation of vGPCR expression results in reduced expression of angiogenic factors and regression of the lesions. Together, these findings implicate vGPCR as a key element in KS pathogenesis and suggest that strategies to block its function may represent a novel approach for the...

  14. A prospective ascertainment of cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Kaposi sarcoma.

    Semeere, Aggrey; Wenger, Megan; Busakhala, Naftali; Buziba, Nathan; Bwana, Mwebesa; Muyindike, Winnie; Amerson, Erin; Maurer, Toby; McCalmont, Timothy; LeBoit, Philip; Musick, Beverly; Yiannoutsos, Constantin; Lukande, Robert; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Laker-Oketta, Miriam; Kambugu, Andrew; Glidden, David; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Martin, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, problems in accurate cancer case ascertainment and enumeration of the at-risk population make it difficult to estimate cancer incidence. We took advantage of a large well-enumerated healthcare system to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a cancer which has become prominent in the HIV era and whose incidence may be changing with the rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To achieve this, we evaluated HIV-infected adults receiving care between 2007 and 2012 at any of three medical centers in Kenya and Uganda that participate in the East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium. Through IeDEA, clinicians received training in KS recognition and biopsy equipment. We found that the overall prevalence of KS among 102,945 HIV-infected adults upon clinic enrollment was 1.4%; it declined over time at the largest site. Among 140,552 patients followed for 319,632 person-years, the age-standardized incidence rate was 334/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 314-354/100,000 person-years). Incidence decreased over time and was lower in women, persons on ART, and those with higher CD4 counts. The incidence rate among patients on ART with a CD4 count >350 cells/mm(3) was 32/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 14-70/100,000 person-years). Despite reductions over time coincident with the expansion of ART, KS incidence among HIV-infected adults in East Africa equals or exceeds the most common cancers in resource-replete settings. In resource-limited settings, strategic efforts to improve cancer diagnosis in combination with already well-enumerated at-risk denominators can make healthcare systems attractive platforms for estimating cancer incidence. PMID:26823008

  15. HHV-8 infection in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil

    Keller R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8 in HIV-positive Brazilian patients with (HIV+/KS+ and without Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV+/KS- using PCR and immunofluorescence assays, to assess its association with KS disease, to evaluate the performance of these tests in detecting HHV-8 infection, and to investigate the association between anti-HHV-8 antibody titers, CD4 counts and staging of KS disease. Blood samples from 66 patients, 39 HIV+/KS+ and 27 HIV+/KS-, were analyzed for HHV-8 viremia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PCR and HHV-8 antigenemia for latent and lytic infection by immunofluorescence assay. Positive samples for latent nuclear HHV-8 antigen (LNA antibodies were titrated out from 1/100 to 1/409,600 dilution. Clinical information was collected from medical records and risk behavior was assessed through an interview. HHV-8 DNA sequences were detected by PCR in 74.3% of KS+ patients and in 3.7% of KS- patients. Serological assays were similar in detecting anti-LNA antibodies and anti-lytic antigens in sera from KS+ patients (79.5% and KS- patients (18.5%. HHV-8 was associated with KS whatever the method used, i.e., PCR (odds ratio (OR = 7.4, 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.16-25.61 or anti-LNA and anti-lytic antibodies (OR = 17.0, 95%CI = 4.91-59.14. Among KS+ patients, HHV-8 titration levels correlated positively with CD4 counts (rho 0.48, P = 0.02, but not with KS staging. HHV-8 is involved in the development of KS in different geographic areas worldwide, as it is in Brazil, where HHV-8 is more frequent among HIV+ patients. KS severity was associated with immunodeficiency, but no correlation was found between HHV-8 antibody titers and KS staging.

  16. Induction of interleukin-6 and oncostatin M by radiation in Kaposi's sarcoma cell lines

    Purpose: To define the in vitro radiosensitivity of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and to explore the mechanism of its extreme clinical radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: The radiation survivals of the three KS cell cultures (KSY-1, KS-JD, KS6-3E) were determined by clonogenic assay and MTT assay. Supernatants from irradiated cells were collected at different time points for measurement of the interleukin 6 (IL-6), oncostatin M (OSM), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by ELISA. Changes in the mRNA expression of these cytokines were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot hybridization. Fresh KS cells were preincubated with the irradiated supernatant before irradiation, and the change in survivals were assessed. Results: The mean SF-2 (survival fraction after 2 Gy) for KS was 0.43. Preincubation with the irradiated supernatant reduced the SF-2 significantly from 0.43 to 0.33 (p<0.05). Treatment with irradiated supernatant alone was not cytotoxic to the cells. Radiation induced IL-6 and OSM production by KS cells at the transcription level. A single dose of 2 Gy increased IL-6 and OSM mRNA expression of the KS Y-1 cells. This corresponded to an increase in the IL-6 and OSM levels in the culture medium. There was no significant change in the level of bFGF. Preincubation with recombinant human IL-6 or OSM sensitized KS in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: The low SF-2 value for these KS cell lines correlates with the clinical radiosensitivity of KS. The high radiosensitivity may be due to radiation induction of cytokines such as IL-6 and OSM, which are radiosensitizers for KS cells

  17. A rare complication of follicular hair unit extraction: Kaposi's varicelliform eruption.

    Mansur, A Tulin; Demirci, Gulsen T; Uzunismail, M Adnan; Yildiz, Semsi

    2016-01-01

    Follicular hair unit extraction (FUE) is becoming a popular type of hair transplantation recently. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption (KVE) is an uncommon skin emergency due to cutaneous dissemination of several types of viruses, most notably herpes virus, over the lesions of preexisting skin disorders. A 34-year-old man visited our dermatology outpatient clinic with a blistering, itchy and tender eruption on his head and body. He had undergone follicular FUE for androgenic alopecia 12 days previously, and 5 days after the procedure, umbilicated and/or hemorrhagic vesiculopustules appeared firstly on the occipital scalp skin where the hair units were taken. The lesions had rapidly spread over the upper chest and back. After the operation, he had taken oral methylprednisolone, amoxicillin clavulanate and had used fusidic acid ointment without any benefit. Bacterial culture of the pustules yielded no microorganism, while Tzanck smear from the vesicles revealed multinuclear giant cell groups. Based on a diagnosis of KVE, we treated the patient with oral valacyclovir hydrochloride 1000 mg 3 times a day for 14 days. Symptoms cleared rapidly, pustules and vesicles dried in a few days, and re-epithelialization of the eroded areas started at the end of the first week. The reported complications of FUE include necrosis of the donor site, postoperative hyperesthesia, recipient area folliculitis, keloids, bleeding, infection and pyogenic granuloma. Up to this date there are only three reports of KVE developing just after dermatological surgery, including dermabrasion, laser resurfacing, and skin grafting. According to our knowledge, this is the first case of KVE occurring after the FUE procedure. We think that the traumatic effects and skin barrier disruption due to operation and immune alteration due to postsurgical steroid treatment might have precipitated the activation and dissemination of latent herpesvirus infection. PMID:26937302

  18. Seroprevalence of Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 and incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in Iran

    Nategh Rakhshandeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seroepidemiological surveys show that the prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 infection mostly varies in various geographical areas and reflects the local incidence of classic and endemic KS, being widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and Mediterranean countries and uncommon in the USA and Northern Europe. In the Middle East only few populations, such as Ashkenazi and Sephardic groups in Israel, have been adequately evaluated for HHV-8 seroprevalence. Among Iranian population a striking higher seroprevalence of HHV8 has been reported among haemodialysis (16.9%, renal transplant recipients (25% and HIV (45.7% patients compared to blood donors (2%. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS is the rarest cancer in Iran, with an annual age-standardized incidence varying from 0.10 to 0.17 per 100,000 in males and from 0.06 to 0.08 per 100,000 in females. KS, however, is one of the most important malignancies in Iranian renal transplanted patients affecting up to 2.4% of organ recipients. The epidemiology of HHV8 and KS in Iran needs further evaluation. While the high prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies in HIV positive and haemodialysis individuals may be attributed to high-risk sexual behavior and polytransfusions, respectively, unknown determinants may be responsible for high seroprevalence of HHV8 and high incidence of KS in solid organ recipients. A global survey on HHV8 seroprevalence in Iran is mandatory to define co-factors associated with HHV8 infection and KS risk in the general Iranian population and in specific patient groups.

  19. Kaposi's sarcoma of the hand mimicking squamous cell carcinoma in a woman with no evidence of HIV infection: a case report

    Kosmidis, Christophoros; Efthimiadis, Christopher; Anthimidis, Georgios; karayannopoulou, Georgia; Grigoriou, Marios; Vassiliadou, Kalliopi; Berovali, Eleni; Fachantidis, Panagiotis; Fahantidis, Epaminondas

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular neoplasm mainly affecting the skin of the lower extremities. Although it is the most common neoplasm affecting patients with AIDS, sporadic cases in HIV-negative people have been reported. It is a lesion mainly affecting men and its clinical presentation presents a challenge, as it can resemble other benign or malignant skin lesions. Case presentation We report a rare case of Kaposi's sarcoma presenting in a 68-year-old Mediterranean woman with no evidence of HIV infection. The patient had a 6-month history of a slowly progressing pigmented lesion on the dorsum of her left hand. The lesion clinically resembled a squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was treated with a wide excision of the lesion and primary reconstruction with a full thickness skin graft. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the excised lesion revealed the presence of Kaposi's sarcoma. Serologic investigation for HIV was negative but polymerase chain reaction for human herpes virus type 8 infection was positive. Thorough clinical and imaging investigation of the abdomen and chest were both negative for loci of disease. Conclusion Kaposi's sarcoma, although rare in its sporadic form, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate skin lesions, especially those affecting the extremities. PMID:18565232

  20. Kaposi's sarcoma of the hand mimicking squamous cell carcinoma in a woman with no evidence of HIV infection: a case report

    Kosmidis Christophoros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular neoplasm mainly affecting the skin of the lower extremities. Although it is the most common neoplasm affecting patients with AIDS, sporadic cases in HIV-negative people have been reported. It is a lesion mainly affecting men and its clinical presentation presents a challenge, as it can resemble other benign or malignant skin lesions. Case presentation We report a rare case of Kaposi's sarcoma presenting in a 68-year-old Mediterranean woman with no evidence of HIV infection. The patient had a 6-month history of a slowly progressing pigmented lesion on the dorsum of her left hand. The lesion clinically resembled a squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was treated with a wide excision of the lesion and primary reconstruction with a full thickness skin graft. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the excised lesion revealed the presence of Kaposi's sarcoma. Serologic investigation for HIV was negative but polymerase chain reaction for human herpes virus type 8 infection was positive. Thorough clinical and imaging investigation of the abdomen and chest were both negative for loci of disease. Conclusion Kaposi's sarcoma, although rare in its sporadic form, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate skin lesions, especially those affecting the extremities.

  1. Future accelerators (?)

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made

  2. Future accelerators (?)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  3. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...

  4. Primary effect of chemotherapy on the transcription profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    van Noesel Carel JM

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drugs & used in anticancer chemotherapy have severe effects upon the cellular transcription and replication machinery. From in vitro studies it has become clear that these drugs can affect specific genes, as well as have an effect upon the total transcriptome. Methods Total mRNA from two skin lesions from a single AIDS-KS patient was analyzed with the SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression technique to assess changes in the transcriptome induced by chemotherapy. SAGE libraries were constructed from material obtained 24 (KS-24 and 48 (KS-48 hrs after combination therapy with bleomycin, doxorubicin and vincristine. KS-24 and KS-48 were compared to SAGE libraries of untreated AIDS-KS, and to libraries generated from normal skin and from isolated CD4+ T-cells, using the programs USAGE and HTM. SAGE libraries were also compared with the SAGEmap database. Results In order to assess the primary response of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS to chemotherapy in vivo, we analyzed the transcriptome of AIDS-KS skin lesions from a HIV-1 seropositive patient at two time points after therapy. The mRNA profile was found to have changed dramatically within 24 hours after drug treatment. There was an almost complete absence of transcripts highly expressed in AIDS-KS, probably due to a transcription block. Analysis of KS-24 suggested that mRNA pool used in its construction originated from poly(A binding protein (PABP mRNP complexes, which are probably located in nuclear structures known as interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs. IGCs are known to fuse after transcription inhibition, probably affecting poly(A+RNA distribution. Forty-eight hours after chemotherapy, mRNA isolated from the lesion was largely derived from infiltrating lymphocytes, confirming the transcriptional block in the AIDS-KS tissue. Conclusions These in vivo findings indicate that the effect of anti-cancer drugs is likely to be more global than up- or downregulation of

  5. Gene expression profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is a proliferation of aberrant vascular structures lined by spindle cells, and is caused by a gammaherpes virus (HHV8/KSHV). Its course is aggravated by co-infection with HIV-1, where the timing of infection with HIV-1 and HHV8 is important for the clinical outcome. In order to better understand the pathogenesis of KS, we have analysed tissue from two AIDS-KS lesions, and from normal skin by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was then used to validate the results. The expression profile of AIDS-related KS (AIDS-KS) reflects an active process in the skin. Transcripts of HHV8 were found to be very low, and HIV-1 mRNA was not detected by SAGE, although it could be found using RT-PCR. Comparing the expression profile of AIDS-KS tissue with publicly available SAGE libraries suggested that AIDS-KS mRNA levels are most similar to those in an artificially mixed library of endothelial cells and leukocytes, in line with the description of KS lesions as containing spindle cells with endothelial characteristics, and an inflammatory infiltrate. At least 64 transcripts were found to be significantly elevated, and 28 were statistically downregulated in AIDS-KS compared to normal skin. Five of the upregulated mRNAs, including Tie 1 and sialoadhesin/CD169, were confirmed by semi-quantitative PCR to be elevated in additional AIDS-KS biopsies. Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169, a known marker of activated macrophages, were shown to specifically label tumour macrophages. The expression profile of AIDS-KS showed 64 genes to be significantly upregulated, and 28 genes downregulated, compared with normal skin. One of the genes with increased expression was sialoadhesin (CD169). Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169 specifically labelled tumour-associated macrophages, suggesting that macrophages present in AIDS-KS lesions belong to a subset of human CD169+ macrophages

  6. Angiomatous reaction Kaposi-sarcoma-like as a side effect of topical corticosteroid therapy in lichen sclerosus of the penis.

    Catricalà, Caterina; Marenda, Samantha; Muscardin, Luca Maria; Donati, Pietro; Lepri, Andrea; Eibenschutz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition usually located in the anogenital area. Topical corticosteroid therapy is the first choice treatment which may arrest or delay the progression of the disorder. We report the case of a 74-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of nodular lesions localized on penis. The man had a previous history of genital lesions that had been diagnosed as LS and treated with long-term topical corticosteroid therapy. After 3 months of corticosteroid therapy, the patient observed the appearance of several nodular erythematous lesions on the penis with progressive disappearance of the clinical symptoms of LS. These purple to red asymptomatic angiomatoid nodules resembled the clinical features of Kaposi sarcoma. PMID:19580581

  7. Mapping the Epidemiology of Kaposi Sarcoma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Among Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review.

    Rees, Chris A; Keating, Elizabeth M; Lukolyo, Heather; Danysh, Heather E; Scheurer, Michael E; Mehta, Parth S; Lubega, Joseph; Slone, Jeremy S

    2016-08-01

    Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of developing Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) compared to HIV-negative children. We compiled currently published epidemiologic data on KS and NHL among children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Among countries with available data, the median incidence of KS was 2.05/100,000 in the general pediatric population and 67.35/100,000 among HIV-infected children. The median incidence of NHL was 1.98/100,000 among the general pediatric population, while data on NHL incidence among HIV-infected children were lacking. Larger regional studies are needed to better address the dearth of epidemiologic information on pediatric KS and NHL in SSA. PMID:27082516

  8. Laser accelerator

    Vigil, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1979,W. B. Colson and S. K. Ride proposed a new kind of electron accelerator using a uniform magnetic field in combination with a circularly-polarized laser field. A key concept is to couple the oscillating electric field to the electron’s motion so that acceleration is sustained. This dissertation investigates the performance of the proposed laser accelerator using modern high powered lasers and mag-netic fields that are significan...

  9. LIBO accelerates

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  10. Induction accelerators

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  11. Treatment Outcomes of AIDS-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma under a Routine Antiretroviral Therapy Program in Lilongwe, Malawi: Bleomycin/Vincristine Compared to Vincristine Monotherapy

    Mwafongo, Albert A.; ROSENBERG, Nora E.; Wingston Ng'ambi; Werner, Alexandra B.; Garneau, William M.; Joe Gumulira; Sam Phiri; Mina C Hosseinipour

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) being the most prevalent AIDS-associated cancer in resource limited settings, optimal treatment options remain unknown. We assessed whether bleomycin/vincristine compared to vincristine monotherapy was associated with improved treatment outcomes for AIDS-associated KS among patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Malawi. Methods All patients initiating cART and chemotherapy for AIDS-related KS were identified from an electronic da...

  12. Tandem accelerators

    After the installation of Ti-acceleration tubes and substantial modifications and additions to the EN tandem accelerator the performance of the machine has stabilized. The voltage behaviour of the tubes obviously improves as conditioning times necessary to run up to 6 MV decrease. A gridded lens has been added at the entrance of the first acceleration tube, and a second foil stripper is now installed in the short dead section between the high-energy tubes. The MP tandem also has been running stably during most of the year. However, beam instabilities originating from the last tube section and wear problems at the low-energy set of pelletron-chains caused some loss of beam time. During the fall, one set of pelletron charging chains has to be replaced after 49,000 hours of operation. In the course of the year, the MP and the EN tandem accelerators finished their 100,000th and 150,000th hours of operations, respectively. Preparations for the installation of the 3 MV negative heavy ion injector for the MP are progressing steadily. External beam transport, terminal ion optics, and data acquisition and control systems are to a major extent completed; the integration of the terminal power supplies has started. After the final assembly of the accelerator column structure, first voltage runs can be performed. (orig.)

  13. Immunohistochemical detection of the latent nuclear antigen-1 of the human herpesvirus type 8 to differentiate cutaneous epidemic Kaposi sarcoma and its histological simulators Detecção imuno-histoquímica do antígeno nuclear latente-1 do herpesvirus tipo 8 para diferenciar o sarcoma de Kaposi epidêmico cutâneo de seus simuladores histológicos

    Patricia Fonseca Pereira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common neoplasia diagnosed in AIDS patients and the expression of the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8 latent nuclear antigen-1 has been useful for its histological diagnosis. The aim of this study is to confirm that immunohistochemistry is a valuable tool for differentiating KS from its simulators in skin biopsies of HIV patients. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses were performed in 49 Kaposi's sarcoma skin biopsies and 60 of its histological simulators. Positivity was present in the 49 Kaposi's sarcoma skin biopsies and no staining was observed in the 60 simulators analyzed, resulting in sensibility and specificity of 100%. HHV-8 immunohistochemical detection is an effective tool for diagnosing Kaposi's sarcoma, especially in early lesions in which neoplastic features are not evident. It also contributes to its histological differential diagnosis.O sarcoma de Kaposi é a neoplasia mais diagnosticada em pacientes com SIDA e a expressão do antígeno nuclear latente-1 do herpesvírus humano tipo-8 (HHV-8 tem se mostrado útil no seu diagnóstico histológico. O objetivo deste estudo é confirmar que o método imuno-histoquímico é uma ferramenta útil para diferenciar o sarcoma de Kaposi cutâneo de seus simuladores histológicos em pacientes HIV positivos. Análise histológica e imuno-histoquímica foram realizadas em 49 casos de sarcoma de Kaposi cutâneo e 60 casos de seus simuladores histológicos. Positividade à imuno-histoquímica para o antígeno nuclear latente 1 do HHV-8 foi observada nos 49 casos de sarcoma de Kaposi e nenhuma reação foi detectada nos 60 simuladores analisados, resultando em 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade. A detecção do HHV-8 por imuno-histoquímica é uma ferramenta útil para o diagnóstico de sarcoma de Kaposi, especialmente na lesão inicial cujo caráter neoplásico não é evidente, e contribui para seu diagnóstico diferencial histológico.

  14. Extravasation and transcytosis of liposomes in Kaposi's sarcoma-like dermal lesions of transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene.

    Huang, S K; Martin, F J; Jay, G; Vogel, J; Papahadjopoulos, D; Friend, D S

    1993-07-01

    Transgenic mice bearing the HIV tat gene develop dermal lesions resembling a common malignant tumor in AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). To evaluate the permeability characteristics of these lesions and the therapeutic potential of drug-carrying liposomes, we have studied the localization of sterically stabilized liposomes, which show long circulation time in blood and increased accumulation in tumors. Liposomes encapsulating colloidal gold were injected intravenously into transgenic mice bearing KS lesions, and tissues were processed 24 hours later for both electron microscopy and for light microscopy with silver enhancement. Liposomes and silver marker were detected predominantly in the dermis surrounding the early and mature KS lesions, which were characterized by a proliferation of fibroblast-like spindle cells and abnormal blood vessels close to the epidermis. The silver-enhanced gold marker often surrounded vascular channels and scattered erythrocytes. As determined by electron microscopy, some spindle cells and macrophages had ingested intact liposomes. Transendothelial transport of liposomes was observed both through open channels between endothelial cells and also through endothelial cells lining intact vessels. Both extravasation and transcytosis of liposomes through irregular endothelium were much higher in KS lesions than in the adjacent normal skin. The high accumulation of sterically stabilized liposomes in KS lesions and their intracellular uptake by some spindle cells enhances their potential as carriers of chemotherapeutic agents against this neoplasm. PMID:8317543

  15. KS-Detect - Validation of Solar Thermal PCR for the Diagnosis of Kaposi's Sarcoma Using Pseudo-Biopsy Samples.

    Snodgrass, Ryan; Gardner, Andrea; Jiang, Li; Fu, Cheng; Cesarman, Ethel; Erickson, David

    2016-01-01

    Resource-limited settings present unique engineering challenges for medical diagnostics. Diagnosis is often needed for those unable to reach central healthcare systems, making portability and independence from traditional energy infrastructure essential device parameters. In 2014, our group presented a microfluidic device that performed a solar-powered variant of the polymerase chain reaction, which we called solar thermal PCR. In this work, we expand on our previous effort by presenting an integrated, portable, solar thermal PCR system targeted towards the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma. We call this system KS-Detect, and we now report the system's performance as a diagnostic tool using pseudo-biopsy samples made from varying concentrations of human lymphoma cell lines positive for the KS herpesvirus (KSHV). KS-Detect achieved 83% sensitivity and 70% specificity at high (≥10%) KSHV+ cell concentrations when diagnosing pseudo-biopsy samples by smartphone image. Using histology, we confirm that our prepared pseudo-biopsies contain similar KSHV+ cell concentrations as human biopsies positive for KS. Through our testing of samples derived from human cell lines, we validate KS-Detect as a viable, portable KS diagnostic tool, and we identify critical engineering considerations for future solar-thermal PCR devices. PMID:26799834

  16. Particle acceleration

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  17. Accelerator design

    The feasibility of constructing a TeV region electron-positron linear collider in Japan is discussed. The design target of the collider is given as follows: Energy, 1 TeV + 1 TeV; luminosity, 1032-1033/cm2/s; total length, 25km; electric power, 250MW; energy dispersion, 1%-10%; the start of the first experiment, early 1990s. For realizing the above target, the following research and developmental works are necessary. (a) Development of an acceleration tube with short filling time and high shunt resistance. (b) Short pulse microwave source with high peak power. (c) High current, single bunch linac. (d) Beam dynamics. As for the acceleration tube, some possibility is considered: For example, the use of DAW (Disk and Washer) which is being developed for TRISTAN as a traveling-wave tube; and the Jungle Gym-type acceleration tube. As a promising candidate for the microwave source, the Lasertron has been studied. The total cost of the collider construction is estimated to be about 310 billion yen, of which 120 billion yen is for the tunnel and buildings, and 190 billion yen for the accelerator facilities. The operation cost is estimated to be about 3 billion yen per month. (Aoki, K.)

  18. Accelerator operations

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  19. Advanced accelerators

    This report discusses the suitability of four novel particle acceleration technologies for multi-TeV particle physics machines: laser driven linear accelerators (linac), plasma beat-wave devices, plasma wakefield devices, and switched power and cavity wakefield linacs. The report begins with the derivation of beam parameters practical for multi-TeV devices. Electromagnetic field breakdown of materials is reviewed. The two-beam accelerator scheme for using a free electron laser as the driver is discussed. The options recommended and the conclusions reached reflect the importance of cost. We recommend that more effort be invested in achieving a self-consistent range of TeV accelerator design parameters. Beat-wave devices have promise for 1-100 GeV applications and, while not directly scalable to TeV designs, the current generation of ideas are encouraging for the TeV regime. In particular, surfatrons, finite-angle optical mixing devices, plasma grating accelerator, and the Raman forward cascade schemes all deserve more complete analysis. The exploitation of standard linac geometry operated in an unconventional mode is in a phase of rapid evolution. While conceptual projects abound, there are no complete designs. We recommend that a fraction of sponsored research be devoted to this approach. Wakefield devices offer a great deal of potential; trades among their benefits and constraints are derived and discussed herein. The study of field limitation processes has received inadequate attention; this limits experiment designers. The costs of future experiments are such that investment in understanding these processes is prudent. 34 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  20. MUON ACCELERATION

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  1. KEKB accelerator

    KEKB, the B-Factory at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) recently achieved the luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1. This luminosity is two orders higher than the world's level at 1990 when the design of KEKB started. This unprecedented result was made possible by KEKB's innovative design and technology in three aspects - beam focusing optics, high current storage, and beam - beam interaction. Now KEKB is leading the luminosity frontier of the colliders in the world. (author)

  2. Accelerating networks

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  3. Characterization of Ewing sarcoma associated cancer/testis antigens

    Mahlendorf, Dorothea E.; Staege, Martin Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from tumors of the Ewing family (EFT) is still poor. Immunotherapy strategies are pursued and EFT-specific antigens have to be identified as targets for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Due to the lack of expression of cancer/testis antigens (CTA) in normal tissues, these antigens are partially able to induce immune responses in cancer patients. Therefore, they are promising targets for immunotherapy. EFT are characterized by chromosomal rearrangements involv...

  4. Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8 sequentially shapes the NK cell repertoire during the course of asymptomatic infection and Kaposi sarcoma.

    Stéphanie Dupuy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of innate immunity to immunosurveillance of the oncogenic Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV8 has not been studied in depth. We investigated NK cell phenotype and function in 70 HHV8-infected subjects, either asymptomatic carriers or having developed Kaposi's sarcoma (KS. Our results revealed substantial alterations of the NK cell receptor repertoire in healthy HHV8 carriers, with reduced expression of NKp30, NKp46 and CD161 receptors. In addition, down-modulation of the activating NKG2D receptor, associated with impaired NK-cell lytic capacity, was observed in patients with active KS. Resolution of KS after treatment was accompanied with restoration of NKG2D levels and NK cell activity. HHV8-latently infected endothelial cells overexpressed ligands of several NK cell receptors, including NKG2D ligands. The strong expression of NKG2D ligands by tumor cells was confirmed in situ by immunohistochemical staining of KS biopsies. However, no tumor-infiltrating NK cells were detected, suggesting a defect in NK cell homing or survival in the KS microenvironment. Among the known KS-derived immunoregulatory factors, we identified prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 as a critical element responsible for the down-modulation of NKG2D expression on resting NK cells. Moreover, PGE2 prevented up-regulation of the NKG2D and NKp30 receptors on IL-15-activated NK cells, and inhibited the IL-15-induced proliferation and survival of NK cells. Altogether, our observations are consistent with distinct immunoevasion mechanisms that allow HHV8 to escape NK cell responses stepwise, first at early stages of infection to facilitate the maintenance of viral latency, and later to promote tumor cell growth through suppression of NKG2D-mediated functions. Importantly, our results provide additional support to the use of PGE2 inhibitors as an attractive approach to treat aggressive KS, as they could restore activation and survival of tumoricidal NK cells.

  5. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  6. accelerating cavity

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  7. Kaposin-B Enhances the PROX1 mRNA Stability during Lymphatic Reprogramming of Vascular Endothelial Cells by Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpes Virus

    Yoo, Jaehyuk; Kang, Jinjoo; Lee, Ha Neul; Aguilar, Berenice; Kafka, Darren; Lee, Sunju; Choi, Inho; Lee, Juneyong; Ramu, Swapnika; Haas, Juergen; Koh, Chester J.; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common cancer among HIV-positive patients. Histogenetic origin of KS has long been elusive due to a mixed expression of both blood and lymphatic endothelial markers in KS tumor cells. However, we and others discovered that Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) induces lymphatic reprogramming of blood vascular endothelial cells by upregulating PROX1, which functions as the master regulator for lymphatic endothelial differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that the KSHV latent gene kaposin-B enhances the PROX1 mRNA stability and plays an important role in KSHV-mediated PROX1 upregulation. We found that PROX1 mRNA contains a canonical AU-rich element (ARE) in its 3′-untranslated region that promotes PROX1 mRNA turnover and that kaposin-B stimulates cytoplasmic accumulation of the ARE-binding protein HuR through activation of the p38/MK2 pathway. Moreover, HuR binds to and stabilizes PROX1 mRNA through its ARE and is necessary for KSHV-mediated PROX1 mRNA stabilization. Together, our study demonstrates that kaposin-B plays a key role in PROX1 upregulation during lymphatic reprogramming of blood vascular endothelial cells by KSHV. PMID:20730087

  8. Electron Accelerator Facilities

    Lecture presents main aspects of progress in development of industrial accelerators: adaptation of accelerators primary built for scientific experiments, electron energy and beam power increase in certain accelerator constructions, computer control system managing accelerator start-up, routine operation and technological process, maintenance (diagnostics), accelerator technology perfection (electrical efficiency, operation cost), compact and more efficient accelerator constructions, reliability improvement according to industrial standards, accelerators for MW power levels and accelerators tailored for specific use

  9. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  10. Primary effect of chemotherapy on the transcription profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    Drugs & used in anticancer chemotherapy have severe effects upon the cellular transcription and replication machinery. From in vitro studies it has become clear that these drugs can affect specific genes, as well as have an effect upon the total transcriptome. Total mRNA from two skin lesions from a single AIDS-KS patient was analyzed with the SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) technique to assess changes in the transcriptome induced by chemotherapy. SAGE libraries were constructed from material obtained 24 (KS-24) and 48 (KS-48) hrs after combination therapy with bleomycin, doxorubicin and vincristine. KS-24 and KS-48 were compared to SAGE libraries of untreated AIDS-KS, and to libraries generated from normal skin and from isolated CD4+ T-cells, using the programs USAGE and HTM. SAGE libraries were also compared with the SAGEmap database. In order to assess the primary response of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) to chemotherapy in vivo, we analyzed the transcriptome of AIDS-KS skin lesions from a HIV-1 seropositive patient at two time points after therapy. The mRNA profile was found to have changed dramatically within 24 hours after drug treatment. There was an almost complete absence of transcripts highly expressed in AIDS-KS, probably due to a transcription block. Analysis of KS-24 suggested that mRNA pool used in its construction originated from poly(A) binding protein (PABP) mRNP complexes, which are probably located in nuclear structures known as interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs). IGCs are known to fuse after transcription inhibition, probably affecting poly(A)+RNA distribution. Forty-eight hours after chemotherapy, mRNA isolated from the lesion was largely derived from infiltrating lymphocytes, confirming the transcriptional block in the AIDS-KS tissue. These in vivo findings indicate that the effect of anti-cancer drugs is likely to be more global than up- or downregulation of specific genes, at least in this single patient with

  11. Pulsed DC accelerator for laser wakefield accelerator

    For the acceleration of ultra-short, high-brightness electron bunches, a pulsed DC accelerator was constructed. The pulser produced megavolt pulses of 1 ns duration in a vacuum diode. Results are presented from field emission of electrons in the diode. The results indicate that the accelerating gradient in the diode is approximately 1.5 GV/m

  12. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Linear Accelerator A linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays to ... ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used ...

  13. Human Herpesvirus-8 Infection Associated with Kaposi Sarcoma, Multicentric Castleman's Disease, and Plasmablastic Microlymphoma in a Man with AIDS: A Case Report with Review of Pathophysiologic Processes

    Christian Eaton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi sarcoma (KS, multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD, and plasmablastic microlymphoma, are all linked to human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8 infection and HIV-induced immunodeficiency. Herein, we describe the case of a Kenyan man diagnosed with HIV in 2000. He deferred highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and remained in good health until his CD4+ count declined in 2006. He was hospitalized with bacterial pneumonia in 2008, after which he agreed to take HAART but did so sporadically. In 2010, he was hospitalized with fever, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, and an elevated HHV-8 viral load. A lymph node biopsy showed findings consistent with KS, MCD, and plasmablastic microlymphoma. Eight months after starting liposomal doxorubicin, Rituximab, and a new HAART regimen, he has improved clinically, and his HIV and HHV-8 viral loads are suppressed. These three conditions, found in the same lymph node, underscore the inflammatory and malignant potential of HHV-8, particularly in the milieu of HIV-induced immunodeficiency.

  14. KSHV G protein-coupled receptor inhibits lytic gene transcription in primary-effusion lymphoma cells via p21-mediated inhibition of Cdk2

    Cannon, M; Cesarman, E; Boshoff, C

    2006-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) remains the most common AIDS-associated malignancy worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa especially, this aggressive endothelial-cell tumor is a cause of widespread morbidity and mortality. Infection with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is now known to be an etiologic force behind KS and primary-effusion lymphoma (PEL). Over time, KSHV has pirated many human genes whose products regulate angiogenesis, inflammation, and the cell cycle. One of these, the KSHV vGPCR, ...

  15. Non-Detection of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-Seropositive Blood Donors from Three Brazilian Regions

    LEVI, JE; Nascimento, MC; Sumita, LM; Souza, V. de; Freire, WS; Mayaud, P; Pannuti, CS

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of serop...

  16. Estudo dos doentes com sarcoma de Kaposi após a introdução da terapêutica HAART nos últimos 19 anos no Hospital de Santa Maria - Lisboa (1994-2012)

    Junger, Juliana Miglio Bensabat, 1979-

    2013-01-01

    O Sarcoma de Kaposi é um tumor vascular de baixa malignidade que atinge principalmente a pele, causado por HHV-8. O HHV-8 encontra-se distribuído em todo o mundo, sendo endémico em alguns países africanos. As suas vias de transmissão ainda não estão bem estabelecidas, mas a transmissão através da saliva parece ter um papel importante na sua disseminação. O Sarcoma de Kaposi apresenta quatro formas de acordo com a epidemiologia, a clássica, endémica africana, iatrogénica e associada à SIDA/VIH...

  17. Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS)

    ... systemic (whole-body) drug treatment is used. If ART is not enough, the drugs doxorubicin (Doxil,) daunorubicin (DaunoXome) or paclitaxel (Taxol) may ... best treatment for KS is strong antiretroviral therapy (ART.) KS in the skin ... treated with anti-cancer drugs. If you notice new dark spots on your ...

  18. Acceleration without Horizons

    Doria, Alaric; Munoz, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} < c$. The motion of the accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  19. High intensity hadron accelerators

    In this paper we give an introductory discussion of high intensity hadron accelerators with special emphasis on the high intensity feature. The topics selected for this discussion are: Types of acclerator - The principal actions of an accelerator are to confine and to accelerate a particle beam. Focusing - This is a discussion of the confinement of single particles. Intensity limitations - These are related to confinement of intense beams of particles. Power economics - Considerations related to acceleration of intense beams of particles. Heavy ion kinematics - The adaptation of accelerators to accelerate all types of heavy ions

  20. The direction of acceleration

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  1. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  2. Relationship between open reading frame 26 subtypes in human herpesvirns-8 and Kaposi's sarcoma%人类疱疹病毒8型ORF26基因亚型与Kaposi肉瘤的相关性研究

    吴秀娟; 普雄明; 吴卫东

    2008-01-01

    Objective To learn the subtypes of open reading frame 26 (ORF26) of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma, and to evaluate the relationship of ORF26 subtypes to clinical types and invasiveness of Kaposi's sarcoma. Methods Thirty-two paraffin-embeded tissue speci-mens of Kaposi's sarcoma were collected in the Department of Dermatology, People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, from 1996 to 2007. DNA was extracted from these specimens, nested-PCR was used to amplify HHV-8 DNA. PCR products were subjected to bi-directional sequencing after extraction from agarose gels. Phylogenetic analysis was carded out by using the software DNAStar, program Clustal W and PHYLIP package for the determination of ORF26 subtype. Fisher's exact test was performed to evaluate the relationship of ORF26 subtypes to clinical types and invasiveness of Kaposi's sarcoma. Results Of the 32 specimens, 30 were positive for HHV-8 DNA with a positivity rate of 93.75%, and 6 specimens of AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma were all positive. ORF26 A subtype was detected in the HHV-8 DNA of 17 posi-tive specimens, and C subtype in that of other 13 specimens. Neither the incidence of mucosal lesions nor the distribution of clinical subtypes was of significant difference between patients with ORF26 A subtype and those with ORF26 C subtype (both P > 0.05). Conclusions A and C may be the predominate subtypes of ORF 26 in HHV-8 of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma, and the ORF26 subtype is unrelated to the presence of mucosal lesions in or the clinical types of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.%目的 明确Kaposi肉瘤患者感染的人类疱疹病毒8型(HHV-8)ORF26基因亚型分类,初步探讨其与Kaposi肉瘤不同临床分型及侵袭性的相关性.方法 对32例Kaposi肉瘤石蜡包埋组织进行HHV-8 DNA抽提、扩增、双向测序,使用DNAStar软件、Clustal W软件和PHYLIP软件包对测序结果进行系统发生学分析,从而确定HHV-8 ORF26基因亚型,

  3. Excellent clinical outcomes and retention in care for adults with HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma treated with systemic chemotherapy and integrated antiretroviral therapy in rural Malawi

    Michael E Herce

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS is the most common cancer in Malawi. In 2008, the non-governmental organization, Partners In Health, and the Ministry of Health established the Neno Kaposi Sarcoma Clinic (NKSC to treat HIV-KS in rural Neno district. We aimed to evaluate 12-month clinical outcomes and retention in care for HIV-KS patients in the NKSC, and to describe our implementation model, which featured protocol-guided chemotherapy, integrated antiretroviral therapy (ART and psychosocial support delivered by community health workers. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using routine clinical data from 114 adult HIV-KS patients who received ART and ≥1 chemotherapy cycle in the NKSC between March 2008 and February 2012. Results: At enrolment 97% of patients (n/N=103/106 had advanced HIV-KS (stage T1. Most patients were male (n/N=85/114, 75% with median age 36 years (interquartile range, IQR: 29–42. Patients started ART a median of 77 days prior to chemotherapy (IQR: 36–252, with 97% (n/N=105/108 receiving nevirapine/lamivudine/stavudine. Following standardized protocols, we treated 20 patients (18% with first-line paclitaxel and 94 patients (82% with bleomycin plus vincristine (BV. Of the 94 BV patients, 24 (26% failed to respond to BV requiring change to second-line paclitaxel. A Division of AIDS grade 3/4 adverse event occurred in 29% of patients (n/N=30/102. Neutropenia was the most common grade 3/4 event (n/N=17/102, 17%. Twelve months after chemotherapy initiation, 83% of patients (95% CI: 74–89% were alive, including 88 (77% retained in care. Overall survival (OS at 12 months did not differ by initial chemotherapy regimen (p=0.6. Among patients with T1 disease, low body mass index (BMI (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR=4.10, 95% CI: 1.06–15.89 and 1 g/dL decrease in baseline haemoglobin (aHR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.03–2.25 were associated with increased death or loss to follow-up at 12 months. Conclusions

  4. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  5. Dielectric Laser Acceleration

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Wu, Ziran; Qi, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    We describe recent advances in the study of particle acceleration using dielectric near-field structures driven by infrared lasers, which we refer to as Dielectric Laser Accelerators. Implications for high energy physics and other applications are discussed.

  6. Standing wave linear accelerator

    Consideration is being given to standing wave linear accelerator containing generator, phase shifter, two accelerating resonator sections, charged particle injector and waveguide bridge. Its first arm is oined up with generator via the phase shifter, the second and the third ones-with accelerating sections and the fourth one - with HF-power absorber. HF-power absorber represents a section of circular diaphragmatic wavequide with transformer with input wave and intrawaveguide output load located between injector and the first accelerating section. The section possesses holes in side walls lying on accelerator axis. The distances between centers of the last cell of the fast accelerating section and the first cell of the second accelerating sectiOn equal (2n+3)lambda/4, where n=1, 2, 3..., lambda - wave length of generator. The suggested system enables to improve by one order spectral characteristics of accelerators as compared to the prototype in which magnetrons are used as generator

  7. Improved plasma accelerator

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  8. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  9. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    Page, Don N.

    1997-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruenc...

  10. Accelerators at school

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required

  11. A Solid state accelerator

    We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 105 TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed

  12. Superconducting accelerator technology

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  13. Applications of particle accelerators

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  14. Accelerator development in BARC

    Charged particle accelerators have played crucial role in the field of both basic and applied sciences. This has been possible because the accelerators have been extensively utilized from unraveling the secrets of nature to diverse applications such as implantation, material modification, medical diagnostics and therapy, nuclear energy and clean air and water. The development of accelerators in BARC can be categorized in two broad categories namely proton and heavy ion based accelerators and electron based accelerators. The heavy ion accelerators with sufficiently high energies are currently being used for conducting frontline nuclear and allied research whereas the electron accelerators are being routinely used for various industrial applications. Recently, there is a strong interest for developing the high energy and high intensity accelerators due to their possibility of effective utilization towards concept of energy amplification (Accelerator Driven System), incineration nuclear waste and transmutation. This talk will discuss details of the accelerator development program in BARC with particular emphasis on the recent development at Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) Facility in Ion Accelerator Development Division, BARC. (author)

  15. Far field acceleration

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail

  16. The CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  17. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  18. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  19. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  20. Lymphatic Reprogramming by Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus Promotes the Oncogenic Activity of the Virus-Encoded G-protein Coupled Receptor

    Aguilar, Berenice; Choi, Inho; Choi, Dongwon; Chung, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Sunju; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Lee, Yong Suk; Maeng, Yong Sun; Lee, Ha Neul; Park, Eunkyung; Kim, Kyu Eui; Kim, Nam Yoon; Baik, Jae Myung; Jung, Jae U.; Koh, Chester J.; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS), the most common cancer in HIV-positive individuals, is caused by endothelial transformation mediated by the KS herpes virus (KSHV)-encoded G-protein coupled receptor (vGPCR). Infection of blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) by KSHV reactivates an otherwise silenced embryonic program of lymphatic differentiation. Thus, KS tumors express numerous lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)-signature genes. A key unanswered question is how lymphatic reprogramming by the virus promotes tumorigenesis leading to KS formation. In this study, we present evidence that this process creates an environment needed to license the oncogenic activity of vGPCR. We found that the G-protein regulator RGS4 is an inhibitor of vGPCR that is expressed in BECs, but not in LECs. RGS4 was downregulated by the master regulator of LEC differentiation PROX1, which is upregulated by KSHV and directs KSHV-induced lymphatic reprogramming. Moreover, we found that KSHV upregulates the nuclear receptor LRH1, which physically interacts with PROX1 and synergizes with it to mediate repression of RGS4 expression. Mechanistic investigations revealed that RGS4 reduced vGPCR-enhanced cell proliferation, migration, VEGF expression and Akt activation and to suppress tumor formation induced by vGPCR. Our findings resolve long-standing questions about the pathological impact of KSHV-induced reprogramming of host cell identity, and they offer biological and mechanistic insights supporting the hypothesis that a lymphatic microenvironment is more favorable for KS tumorigenesis. PMID:22942256

  1. Opposing Regulation of PROX1 by Interleukin-3 Receptor and NOTCH Directs Differential Host Cell Fate Reprogramming by Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus

    Choi, Inho; Choi, Dongwon; Chung, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Kyu Eui; Lee, Sunju; Aguilar, Berenice; Kang, Jinjoo; Park, Eunkyung; Lee, Yong Suk; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Nam Yoon; Koh, Chester J.; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are differentiated from blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) during embryogenesis and this physiological cell fate specification is controlled by PROX1, the master regulator for lymphatic development. When Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) infects host cells, it activates the otherwise silenced embryonic endothelial differentiation program and reprograms their cell fates. Interestingly, previous studies demonstrated that KSHV drives BECs to acquire a partial lymphatic phenotype by upregulating PROX1 (forward reprogramming), but stimulates LECs to regain some BEC-signature genes by downregulating PROX1 (reverse reprogramming). Despite the significance of this KSHV-induced bidirectional cell fate reprogramming in KS pathogenesis, its underlying molecular mechanism remains undefined. Here, we report that IL3 receptor alpha (IL3Rα) and NOTCH play integral roles in the host cell type-specific regulation of PROX1 by KSHV. In BECs, KSHV upregulates IL3Rα and phosphorylates STAT5, which binds and activates the PROX1 promoter. In LECs, however, PROX1 was rather downregulated by KSHV-induced NOTCH signal via HEY1, which binds and represses the PROX1 promoter. Moreover, PROX1 was found to be required to maintain HEY1 expression in LECs, establishing a reciprocal regulation between PROX1 and HEY1. Upon co-activation of IL3Rα and NOTCH, PROX1 was upregulated in BECs, but downregulated in LECs. Together, our study provides the molecular mechanism underlying the cell type-specific endothelial fate reprogramming by KSHV. PMID:22719258

  2. Imatinib for highly chemoresistant Kaposi sarcoma in a patient with long-term HIV control: a case report and literature review.

    Cao, W; Vyboh, K; Routy, B; Chababi-Atallah, M; Lemire, B; Routy, J P

    2015-10-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (ks) is a vascular tumour caused by oncogenic human herpesvirus type 8; it often occurs with hiv-associated immunosuppression. Numerous cellular signalling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of ks, among which receptor tyrosine kinases such as the c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptors play an important role. Imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has resulted in partial regression of ks lesions in one third of treated patients, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we report the case of a white man with recurrent ks despite well-suppressed hiv infection and multiple chemotherapies who received imatinib and showed a complete and sustained tumour response. To our knowledge, this report is the first showing the value of imatinib in the management of ks in the context of long-lasting hiv control with adequate quantitative CD4 recovery. Our case indicates that imatinib can be a treatment option for highly chemoresistant recurrent ks in patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26628884

  3. Direct Laser Acceleration in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    Shaw, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, the direct laser acceleration (DLA) of ionization-injected electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) operating in the quasi-blowout regime has been investigated through experiment and simulation. In the blowout regime of LWFA, the radiation pressure of an intense laser pulse can push a majority of the plasma electrons out and around the main body of the pulse. The expelled plasma electrons feel the electrostatic field of the relatively-stationary ions and are t...

  4. The future of particle accelerators

    Plasma-based accelerators are developing as credible, and compact, accelerators for the future. We review the status and prospects for electron and proton accelerators using laser Wakefield acceleration. (author)

  5. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  6. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration

  7. Accelerator and radiation physics

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  8. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    Shah, Kushal; Rom-Kedar, Vered; Turaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  9. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  10. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    This paper describes many of the nuclear physics heavy-ion accelerator facilities in the US and the research programs being conducted. The accelerators described are: Argonne National Laboratory--ATLAS; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (Proposed); Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Bevalac; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--88-Inch Cyclotron; Los Alamos National Laboratory--Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF); Massachusetts Institute of Technology--Bates Linear Accelerator Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center--Nuclear Physics Injector; Texas AandM University--Texas AandM Cyclotron; Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL); University of Washington--Tandem/Superconducting Booster; and Yale University--Tandem Van de Graaff

  11. Accelerator reliability workshop

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  12. Switched Matrix Accelerator

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm-wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We provide also an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392. GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high-power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium

  13. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: RF for Accelerators

    2012-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twenty-fourth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held in Ebeltoft, Denmark, from 8-17 June, 2010 in collaboration with Aarhus University, with the topic 'RF for Accelerators' While this topic has been covered by CAS previously, early in the 1990s and again in 2000, it was recognized that recent advances in the field warranted an updated course. Following introductory courses covering the background physics, the course attempted to cover all aspects of RF for accelerators; from RF power generation and transport, through cavity and coupler design, electronics and low level control, to beam diagnostics and RF gymnastics. The lectures were supplemented with several sessions of exercises, which were completed by discussion sessions on the solutions.

  14. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author)

  15. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T. [and others

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author).

  16. The foxhole accelerating structure

    This report examines some properties of a new type of open accelerating structure. It consists of a series of rectangular cavities, which we call foxholes, joined by a beam channel. The power for accelerating the particles comes from an external radiation source and enters the cavities through their open upper surfaces. Analytic and computer calculations are presented showing that the foxhole is a suitable structure for accelerating relativistic electrons

  17. Japan Accelerator Conference

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  18. Superconducting accelerator magnets

    In the near future, a large number of high quality superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets will be required for construction of the next generation multi-TeV high energy hadron accelerator-colliders. To establish the construction technology of such accelerator- colliders, extensive and world-wide R and D programs are now carrying out at several laboratories. In this paper the important issues in superconducting accelerator magnets such as cables, design, fabrication, testing and cryogenic system are discussed together with some details on coil cross- sectional current configurations, quality control of materials, quench protections, radiation heating and etc. The key technology in superconducting accelerator magnets is summarized

  19. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  20. High-intensity accelerators

    The design of high-intensity accelerators is described, using examples of machines being built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The major design problem with these accelerators is associated with control of beam loss when accelerator intensity is increased. Beam dynamics, beam loss, and the radio-frequency quadrupole structure are discussed in the first part of the chapter followed by an explanation of plans to achieve high-intensity operation in three projects: the Fusion Material Irradiation Tests (a joint effort with the Hanford Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington), the Proton Storage Ring (an addition to the LAMPF accelerator), and the Racetrack Microtron Project

  1. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  2. Accelerator Modeling with MATLAB Accelerator Toolbox

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model storage rings and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. The objective is to illustrate the flexibility and efficiency of the AT-MATLAB framework. The paper discusses three examples of problems that are analyzed frequently in connection with ring-based synchrotron light sources

  3. Role of radiotherapy in local control of non-AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients in Korea: a single institution experience

    Chang, Ji Hyun; Kim, Il Han [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    There has been no definite consensus on standard treatment, either local or systemic, for the Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Radiotherapy (RT) can be a good local therapeutic choice especially in non-AIDS associated KS (NAKS) for its indolent behavior. Medical records of 17 KS patients treated with RT at the Seoul National University Hospital from February 1998 to January 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. One human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ patient with 3 lesions was excluded. The total number of the lesion was 23 among the 16 patients. The median follow-up period was 27.9 months. Correlation between response and variables was analyzed using the logistic regression model. Median age of the patients was 75 years. All the 23 lesions were located at the extremities. Fourteen (61%) of those had pain or local swelling as the initial presentation. Ten patients had possible causes of immunodeficiency and were regarded as iatrogenic, and other 6 were classic KS. Median dose of RT was 36 Gy. No KS-related death was observed. Excluding 2 with short-term follow-up only, complete response and partial response were obtained in 2 (9%) and 19 (73%) lesions, respectively. Of those, 3 lesions underwent local progression. Six had out-of-field recurrence after RT. Symptom improvement was achieved in 13 (93%) of 14 patients. Grade 2 skin toxicities were found in 9 lesions but all got improvement after treatment. When divided into responsive and progressive group, free from progression was not related to any of the possible variables. RT is effective in local control of NAKS resulting great response rate.

  4. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8 antibodies in women from São Paulo, Brazil: association with behavioral factors and Kaposi's sarcoma

    Caterino-de-Araujo Adele

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the spread of AIDS, many HIV-infected women have been diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, especially in Africa. Since the discovery of a novel herpesvirus as the causative agent of KS (human herpesvirus 8 - HHV-8 several seroepidemiological studies have been conducted to identify groups at risk for KS. The risk for women in Brazil has not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched for HHV-8 antibodies in sera obtained from a bank made up of samples from 3 groups of individuals: Group I: 163 HIV-1-infected women attended at an ambulatory clinic in 1994; Group II: 108 children born to HIV-1-infected mothers from 1990 to 1992, their antibodies reflected maternal infection, and Group III: 630 HIV-1-seronegative, healthy women. In-house immunofluorescence and Western-Blot assays based on the BCBL-1 cell line were used to detect anti-latent and anti-lytic HHV-8 antibodies. RESULTS: Group I had an overall frequency of antibodies of 8.6%, with a 1.2% frequency of anti-latent antibodies and an 8.0% frequency of anti-lytic antibodies. Similar results were detected in Group II, i.e., no cases with anti-latent antibodies and a 7.4% frequency of anti-lytic antibodies. In contrast, prevalences of 1.1% anti-latent antibodies and 0.3% anti-lytic antibodies were observed in Group III. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiologic pattern of HHV-8 in women from São Paulo varies according to behavioral factors, with emphasis on the sexual and blood routes of virus transmission/acquisition. Although HHV-8 anti-lytic antibodies were found in HIV-1-infected women, no case of KS was detected. Protective factors against KS are probably related to gender and/or to antiretroviral therapies introduced in Brazil since 1994.

  5. Accelerator-based BNCT

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the 9Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. - Highlights: • The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. • Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. • The present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. • Topics cover intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams and beam diagnostics, among others

  6. COLLECTIVE-FIELD ACCELERATION

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1969-07-04

    Diverse methods proposed for the acceleration of particles by means of collective fields are reviewed. A survey is made of the various currently active experimental programs devoted to investigating collective acceleration, and the present status of the research is briefly noted.

  7. Racetrack linear accelerators

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  8. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval

  9. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  10. Accelerators for energy production

    A tremendous progress of accelerators for these several decades, has been motivated mainly by the research on subnuclear physics. The culmination in high energy accelerators might be SSC, 20 TeV collider in USA, probably the ultimate accelerator being built with the conventional principle. The technology cultivated and integrated for the accelerator development, can now stably offer the high power beam which could be used for the energy problems. The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with high current, 10 kA and short pulse, 20 ns heavy ion beam (HIB) of mass number ∼200, would be the most promising application of accelerators for energy production. In this scenario, the fuel containing D-T mixture, will be compressed to the high temperature, ∼10 keV and to the high density state, ∼1000 times the solid density with the pressure of ablative plasma or thermal X ray produced by bombarding of high power HIB. The efficiency, beam power/electric power for accelerator, and the repetition rate of HIB accelerators could be most suitable for the energy production. In the present paper, the outline of HIB ICF (HIF) is presented emphasizing the key issues of high current heavy ion accelerator system. (author)

  11. KEK digital accelerator

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  12. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  13. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program

  14. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  15. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    Page, D N

    1998-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruences are defined completely locally, unlike the case of Zero Angular Momentum Observers (ZAMOs), which requires knowledge around a symmetry axis. The SCALE subcase of a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Maximally (SCAM) is made up of stationary worldlines that may be considered to be locally most nearly at rest in a stationary axisymmetric gravitational field. Formulas for the angular velocity and other properties of the SCALEs are given explicitly on a generalization of an equatorial plane, infinitesimally near a symmetry...

  16. Collinear wake field acceleration

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs

  17. Plasma based accelerators

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.

  18. Controllable Laser Ion Acceleration

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Wang, W. M.; Limpouch, J.; Andreev, A.; Bulanov, S. V.; Sheng, Z. M.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a future laser ion accelerator is discussed to make the laser-based ion accelerator compact and controllable. Especially a collimation device is focused in this paper. The future laser ion accelerator should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers, and ion post acceleration devices [Laser Therapy 22, 103(2013)]: the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled to meet requirements for a future compact laser ion accelerator for ion cancer therapy or for other purposes. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching would be successfully realized by a multistage laser-target interaction.

  19. Linear induction accelerator

    This paper examines a new layout for the injector and accelerating sectins of a linear induction accelerator. The sections are combined in a single housing: an induction system with a current-pulse generator based on double strip shaping lines laid over ferromagnetic cores; a multichannel spark discharger with forced current division among channels; and a system for core demagnetization and electron-beam formation and transport. The results of formation of an electron beam in the injector system and its acceleration in the first accelerating section of the accelerator for injection of beams with energies of 0.2-0.4 MeV, currents of 1-2 kA, and pulse durations of 60 nsec are given

  20. Accelerator programme at CAT

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  1. The miniature accelerator

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  2. Collective ion acceleration

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed

  3. Collective ion acceleration

    Godfrey, B.B.; Faehl, R.J.; Newberger, B.S.; Shanahan, W.R.; Thode, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed.

  4. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  5. RF linear accelerators

    Wangler, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  6. Entropic accelerating universe

    Easson, Damien A., E-mail: easson@asu.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Frampton, Paul H., E-mail: frampton@physics.unc.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Smoot, George F., E-mail: gfsmoot@lbl.go [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University and Advanced Academy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chaire Blaise Pascale, Universite Paris Denis Diderot, Paris (France)

    2011-01-31

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic force naturally arising from the information storage on the horizon surface screen. We consider an additional quantitative approach inspired by surface terms in general relativity and show that this leads to the entropic accelerating universe.

  7. Entropic accelerating universe

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic force naturally arising from the information storage on the horizon surface screen. We consider an additional quantitative approach inspired by surface terms in general relativity and show that this leads to the entropic accelerating universe.

  8. ACCELERATORS: School prizes

    Dedicated to its goal of encouraging scientists and students to work in the field of particle accelerators, the US Particle Accelerator School (operating since 1981) has switched to a new format. Starting this year, it will offer in alternate years basic accelerator physics plus advanced subjects in both university and symposium styles over four weeks. Expanding the school from two to four weeks gives additional flexibility, and undergraduate participation should be encouraged by university credits being offered for particular courses. In the intervening years, the school will organize six-day topical courses

  9. FMIT accelerator vacuum system

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility accelerator is being designed to continuously accelerate 100-mA deuterons to 25 MeV. High vacuum pumping of the accelerator structure and beam lines will be done by ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. The design of the roughing system includes a Roots blower/mechanical pump package. For economy the size of the system has been designed to operate at 10-6 torr, where beam particle scattering on residual gases is negligible. For minimum maintenance in this neutron factory, the FMIT vacuum system is designed from the point of view of simplicity and reliability

  10. Hadron accelerators in medicine

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadron-therapy Project is then described in some detail, with reference ro both the National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy and the design of different types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large umber of hospitals. (author)

  11. The auroral electron accelerator

    A model of the auroral electron acceleration process is presented in which the electrons are accelerated resonantly by lower-hybrid waves. The essentially stochastic acceleration process is approximated for the purposes of computation by a deterministic model involving an empirically derived energy transfer function. The empirical function, which is consistent with all that is known of electron energization by lower-hybrid waves, allows many, possibly all, observed features of the electron distribution to be reproduced. It is suggested that the process occurs widely in both space and laboratory plasmas. (author)

  12. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2016-05-01

    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  13. Auroral electron acceleration

    Two theories of auroral electron acceleration are discussed. Part 1 examines the currently widely held view that the acceleration is an ordered process in a quasi-static electric field. It is suggested that, although there are many factors seeming to support this theory, the major qualifications and uncertainties that have been identified combine to cast serious doubt over its validity. Part 2 is devoted to a relatively new interpretation in terms of stochastic acceleration in turbulent electric fields. This second theory, which appears to account readily for most known features of the electron distribution function, is considered to provide a more promising approach to this central question in magnetospheric plasma physics. (author)

  14. Accelerated simulated tempering

    We propose a new stochastic global optimization method by accelerating the simulated tempering scheme with random walks executed on a temperature ladder with various transition step sizes. By suitably choosing the length of the transition steps, the accelerated scheme enables the search process to execute large jumps and escape entrapment in local minima, while retaining the capability to explore local details, whenever warranted. Our simulations confirm the expected improvements and show that the accelerated simulated tempering scheme has a much faster convergence to the target distribution than Geyer and Thompson's simulated tempering algorithm and exhibits accuracy comparable to the simulated annealing method

  15. Accelerated simulated tempering

    Li, Yaohang; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Gorin, Andrey

    2004-08-01

    We propose a new stochastic global optimization method by accelerating the simulated tempering scheme with random walks executed on a temperature ladder with various transition step sizes. By suitably choosing the length of the transition steps, the accelerated scheme enables the search process to execute large jumps and escape entrapment in local minima, while retaining the capability to explore local details, whenever warranted. Our simulations confirm the expected improvements and show that the accelerated simulated tempering scheme has a much faster convergence to the target distribution than Geyer and Thompson's simulated tempering algorithm and exhibits accuracy comparable to the simulated annealing method.

  16. The particle accelerator

    As the Palais de la Decouverte (in Paris) is the sole scientific vulgarization establishment in the world to operate an actual particle accelerator able to provoke different types of nuclear reactions, the author recalls some historical aspects of the concerned department since the creation of the 'Radioactivity - Atom synthesis' department in 1937. He recalls the experiments which were then performed, the installation of the particle accelerator in 1964 and its renewal. He describes what's going on in this accelerator. He gives an overview of the difficulties faced after it has been decided to move it, of the works which had to be performed, and of radiation protection measures

  17. Accelerator Toolbox for MATLAB

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model particle accelerators and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. At SSRL, it has become the modeling code of choice for the ongoing design and future operation of the SPEAR 3 synchrotron light source. AT was designed to take advantage of power and simplicity of MATLAB--commercially developed environment for technical computing and visualization. Many examples in this paper illustrate the advantages of the AT approach and contrast it with existing accelerator code frameworks

  18. SPS accelerating cavity

    1983-01-01

    See photo 8202397: View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  19. SPS accelerating cavity

    1983-01-01

    View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  20. Applicatons of accelerators

    The great diversity of possible applications of accelerators has been demonstrated in the past few years. Apart from the more familiar uses of accelerators for fundamental particle, nuclear, and solid state physics research, the applications range from microscopic trace analysis through cancer therapy to nuclear power and large volume radiation processing. Accelerators are also being used for applied research in proton radiography, radiation damage studies, laser excitation and materials analysis. The required beam properties vary from an extremely low emittance with very low beam current to megawatt beam power with a low level of beam spill. At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories developments are underway on applications of accelerators to nuclear fuel breeding and to cancer therapy. (author)

  1. Non-accelerator experiments

    This report discusses several topics which can be investigated without the use of accelerators. Topics covered are: (1) proton decay, (2) atmospheric neutrinos, (3) neutrino detection, (4) muons from Cygnus X-3, and (5) the double-beta decay

  2. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  3. Rejuvenating CERN's Accelerators

    2004-01-01

    In the coming years and especially in 2005, CERN's accelerators are going to receive an extensive renovation programme to ensure they will perform reliably and effectively when the LHC comes into service.

  4. Vibration control in accelerators

    Montag, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.

  5. Acceleration of Logarithmic Convergence

    Gaskin, J. G.; Ford, W. F.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we shall give a characterization of all monotonically decreasing sequence of positive terms, whose sum converge and then introduce a Transformation which can be used to accelerate the convergence of a large class of logarithmically convergent series.

  6. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  7. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    Igenbergs, E. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Raumfahrttechnik, Richard-Wagner-Strasse 18, 8000 Muenchen 2 (DE))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator.

  8. Entropic Accelerating Universe

    Easson, Damien A.; Frampton, Paul H.; Smoot, George F.

    2010-01-01

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic...

  9. Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests

    Prošek T.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated corrosion testing is indispensable for material selection, quality control and both initial and residual life time prediction for bare and painted metallic, polymeric, adhesive and other materials in atmospheric exposure conditions. The best known Neutral Salt Spray (NSS) test provides unrealistic conditions and poor correlation to exposures in atmosphere. Modern cyclic accelerated corrosion tests include intermittent salt spray, wet and dry phases and eventually other technical p...

  10. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  11. Designing reliability into accelerators

    Future accelerators will have to provide a high degree of reliability. Quality must be designed in right from the beginning and must remain a central theme throughout the project. The problem is similar to the problems facing US industry today, and examples of the successful application of quality engineering will be given. Different aspects of an accelerator project will be addressed: Concept, Design, Motivation, Management Techniques, and Fault Diagnosis. The importance of creating and maintaining a coherent team will be stressed

  12. Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    This conference proceedings represent the results of theThird Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held in PortJefferson, New York. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S.Department of Energy, the Office of Navel Research and BrookhavenNational Laboratory. The purpose was to assess new techniques forproduction of ultra-high gradient acceleration and to addressengineering issues in achieving this goal. There are eighty-onepapers collected in the proceedings and all have been abstractedfor the database

  13. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    Brief descriptions are given of DOE and Nuclear Physics program operated and sponsored accelerator facilities. Specific facilities covered are the Argonne Tandem/Linac Accelerator System, the Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the proposed Continuous Beam Accelerator at Newport News, Virginia, the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory at Duke University, the Bevalac and the SuperHILAC at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Bates Linear Accelerator Center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Nuclear Physics Injector at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the Texas A and M Cyclotrons, the Tandem/Superconducting Booster Accelerator at the University of Washington and the Tandem Van de Graaff at the A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory of Yale University. Included are acquisition cost, research programs, program accomplishments, future directions, and operating parameters of each facility

  14. Multimegawatt cyclotron autoresonance accelerator

    Means are discussed for generation of high-quality multimegawatt gyrating electron beams using rf gyroresonant acceleration. TE111-mode cylindrical cavities in a uniform axial magnetic field have been employed for beam acceleration since 1968; such beams have more recently been employed for generation of radiation at harmonics of the gyration frequency. Use of a TE11-mode waveguide for acceleration, rather than a cavity, is discussed. It is shown that the applied magnetic field and group velocity axial tapers allow resonance to be maintained along a waveguide, but that this is impractical in a cavity. In consequence, a waveguide cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) can operate with near-100% efficiency in power transfer from rf source to beam, while cavity accelerators will, in practice, have efficiency values limited to about 40%. CARA experiments are described in which an injected beam of up to 25 A, 95 kV has had up to 7.2 MW of rf power added, with efficiencies of up to 96%. Such levels of efficiency are higher than observed previously in any fast-wave interaction, and are competitive with efficiency values in industrial linear accelerators. Scaling arguments suggest that good quality gyrating megavolt beams with peak and average powers of 100 MW and 100 kW can be produced using an advanced CARA, with applications in the generation of high-power microwaves and for possible remediation of flue gas pollutants. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Accelerators for America's Future

    Bai, Mei

    2016-03-01

    Particle accelerator, a powerful tool to energize beams of charged particles to a desired speed and energy, has been the working horse for investigating the fundamental structure of matter and fundermental laws of nature. Most known examples are the 2-mile long Stanford Linear Accelerator at SLAC, the high energy proton and anti-proton collider Tevatron at FermiLab, and Large Hadron Collider that is currently under operation at CERN. During the less than a century development of accelerator science and technology that led to a dazzling list of discoveries, particle accelerators have also found various applications beyond particle and nuclear physics research, and become an indispensible part of the economy. Today, one can find a particle accelerator at almost every corner of our lives, ranging from the x-ray machine at the airport security to radiation diagnostic and therapy in hospitals. This presentation will give a brief introduction of the applications of this powerful tool in fundermental research as well as in industry. Challenges in accelerator science and technology will also be briefly presented

  16. APT accelerator technology

    The proposed accelerator production of tritium (APT) project requires an accelerator that provides a cw proton beam of 100 m A at 1300 MeV. Since the majority of the technical risk of a high-current cw (continuous-wave, 100% DF) accelerator resides in the low-energy section, Los Alamos is building a 20 MeV duplicate of the accelerator front end to confirm design codes, beam performance, and demonstrate operational reliability. We report on design details of this low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) and discuss the integrated design of the full accelerator for the APT plant. LEDA's proton injector is under test and has produced more than 130 mA at 75 keV. Fabrication is proceeding on a 6.7- MeV, 8-meter-long RFQ, and detailed design is underway on coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) structures. In addition, detailed design and technology experiments are underway on medium-beta superconducting cavities to assess the feasibility of replacing the conventional (room-temperature copper) high-energy linac with a linac made of niobium superconducting RF cavities. (author)

  17. Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Reconnection Acceleration Processes

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Li, Gang; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O.; Cummings, A.; Stone, E.; Decker, R.

    2015-12-01

    Shock waves, as shown by simulations and observations, can generate high levels of downstream vortical turbulence, including magnetic islands. We consider a combination of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and downstream magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes as an energization mechanism for charged particles. Observations of electron and ion distributions downstream of interplanetary shocks and the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) are frequently inconsistent with the predictions of classical DSA. We utilize a recently developed transport theory for charged particles propagating diffusively in a turbulent region filled with contracting and reconnecting plasmoids and small-scale current sheets. Particle energization associated with the anti-reconnection electric field, a consequence of magnetic island merging, and magnetic island contraction, are considered. For the former only, we find that (i) the spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed, and (ii) the downstream solution is constant. For downstream plasmoid contraction only, (i) the accelerated spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed; (ii) the particle intensity for a given energy peaks downstream of the shock, and the distance to the peak location increases with increasing particle energy, and (iii) the particle intensity amplification for a particular particle energy, f(x,c/{c}0)/f(0,c/{c}0), is not 1, as predicted by DSA, but increases with increasing particle energy. The general solution combines both the reconnection-induced electric field and plasmoid contraction. The observed energetic particle intensity profile observed by Voyager 2 downstream of the HTS appears to support a particle acceleration mechanism that combines both DSA and magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes.

  18. Accelerator business in Japan expanding

    Accelerators have become to be used increasingly in Japan in such fields as medicine, physics research and industry. This has caused stiff competition for market share by the manufacturers of accelerators. Electron beam accelerators for industrial use provide an indispensable means for adding values to products, for example, electric cables with incombustible insulators. Linear accelerators for the nondestructive inspection of nuclear components have been widely installed at equipment manufacturing plants. Active efforts have been exerted to develop small synchrotron radiation accelerators for next generation electronic industry. Cyclotrons for producing short life radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and electron beam accelerators for radiation therapy are also used routinely. The suppliers of accelerators include the companies manufacturing heavy electric machinery, heavy machinery and the engineering division of steelmakers. Accelerator physics is being formed, but universities do not yet offer the course regarding accelerators. Accelerator use in Japan and the trend of accelerator manufacturers are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Small type accelerator. Try for accelerator driven system

    Mori, Y

    2003-01-01

    FFAG (Fixed-field alternating gradient) accelerator for accelerator driven subcritical reactor, which aims to change from long-lived radioactive waste to short-lived radioactivity, is introduced. It is ring accelerator. The performance needed is proton as accelerator particle, 10MW (total) beam power, about 1GeV beam energy, >30% power efficiency and continuous beam. The feature of FFAG accelerator is constant magnetic field. PoP (Proof-of-principle)-FFAG accelerator, radial type, was run at first in Japan in 2000. The excursion is about some ten cm. In principle, beam can be injected and extracted at any place of ring. The 'multi-fish' acceleration can accelerate beams to 100% duty by repeating acceleration. 150MeV-FFAG accelerator has been started since 2001. It tried to practical use, for example, treatment of cancer. (S.Y.)

  20. High energy plasma accelerators

    Colinear intense laser beams ω0, kappa0 and ω1, kappa1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 1018 cm-3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  1. Relativistic heavy ion accelerators

    There is a growing interest in the scientific community in the use of accelerators to produce relativistic heavy ion beams for a number of purposes. It now appears that relativistic heavy ion collisions may provide an opportunity to study nuclear matter far from equilibrium density, pressure, and temperature. Heavy ion beams can also be used as simulated cosmic rays for astrophysical research and in planning space probes. At present the only relativistic heavy ion accelerator is the Belvalac at LBL. It has been devoted to this use since 1974. The operating experience and capabilities of this machine are reviewed as well as present and planned experimental programs. Designs of accelerators for relativistic heavy ions are discussed. A number of considerations will cause a machine to differ from a proton machine if optimally designed for heavy ion acceleration. A possible set of parameters is presented for an accelerator to produce intense beams of mass 10 to 200 ions, at energies up to 10 GeV/amu

  2. Dielectric laser accelerators

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2014-10-01

    The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

  3. Accelerating nondiffracting beams

    Yan, Shaohui; Li, Manman; Yao, Baoli, E-mail: yaobl@opt.ac.cn; Yu, Xianghua; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yang, Yanlong; Min, Junwei; Peng, Tong

    2015-06-05

    We present a set of beams which combine the properties of accelerating beams and (conventional) diffraction-free beams. These beams can travel along a desired trajectory while keeping an approximately invariant transverse profile, which may be (higher-order) Bessel-, Mathieu- or parabolic-nondiffracting-like beams, depending on the initial complex amplitude distribution. A possible application of these beams presented here may be found in optical trapping field. For example, a higher-order Bessel-like beam, which has a hollow (transverse) pattern, is suitable for guiding low-refractive-index or metal particles along a curve. - Highlights: • A set of beams having arbitrary trajectories of accelerating and nondiffracting behaviors are generalized and presented. • Bessel-like accelerating beams are generalized to the higher-order (hollow) version. • Mathieu-like accelerating beams and parabolic-nondiffracting-like accelerating beams are presented. • A possible application of these beams may be found in optical trapping and guiding of particles.

  4. Accelerators for atomic energy research

    The research and educational activities accomplished using accelerators for atomic energy research were studied. The studied items are research subjects, facility operation, the number of master theses and doctor theses on atomic energy research using accelerators and the future role of accelerators in atomic energy research. The strategy for promotion of the accelerator facility for atomic energy research is discussed. (author)

  5. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas

  6. Uniform Acceleration in General Relativity

    Friedman, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    We extend de la Fuente and Romero's defining equation for uniform acceleration in a general curved spacetime from linear acceleration to the full Lorentz covariant uniform acceleration. In a flat spacetime background, we have explicit solutions. We use generalized Fermi-Walker transport to parallel transport the Frenet basis along the trajectory. In flat spacetime, we obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system to an inertial system. We obtain the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We apply our acceleration transformations to the motion of a charged particle in a constant electromagnetic field and recover the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation.

  7. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  8. Entropic Accelerating Universe

    Easson, Damien A; Smoot, George F

    2010-01-01

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the temperature intrinsic to the information holographically stored on the screen which is the surface of the universe. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic force naturally arising from the information storage on a surface screen. We consider an additional quantitative approach based upon the entropy and surface terms usually neglected in General Relativity and show that this leads to the entropic accelerating universe.

  9. Superconducting accelerator magnet design

    Superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles and correction magnets are necessary to achieve the high magnetic fields required for big accelerators presently in construction or in the design phase. Different designs of superconducting accelerator magnets are described and the designs chosen at the big accelerator laboratories are presented. The most frequently used cosθ coil configuration is discussed in detail. Approaches for calculating the magnetic field quality including coil end fields are presented. Design details of the cables, coils, mechanical structures, yokes, helium vessels and cryostats including thermal radiation shields and support structures used in superconducting magnets are given. Necessary material properties are mentioned. Finally, the main results of magnetic field measurements and quench statistics are presented. (orig.)

  10. Accelerators for therapy

    In the past decades circular and linear electron accelerators have been developed for clinical use in radiation therapy of tumors with the aim of achieving a high radiation dose in the tumor and as low as possible dose in the adjacent normal tissues. Today about one thousand accelerators are in medical use throughout the world and many hundred thousand patients are treated every day with accelerator-produced radiation. There exists, however, a large number of patients who cannot be treated satisfactorily in this way. New types of radiations such as neutrons, negative pions, protons and heavy ions were therefore tested recently. The clinical experience with these radiations and with new types of treatment procedures indicate that in future the use of a scanning beam of high energy protons might be optimal for the treatment of tumors. (orig.)

  11. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Lee, Robb M.; Shul, Randy J.; Polosky, Marc A.; Hoke, Darren A.; Vernon, George E.

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  12. Studies of accelerated compact toruses

    In an earlier publication we considered acceleration of plasma rings (Compact Torus). Several possible accelerator configurations were suggested and the possibility of focusing the accelerated rings was discussed. In this paper we consider one scheme, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focusing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force, F/sub a/ = kappaU/sub m//R where (kappa -2, the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case, however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  13. CERN: Accelerator school

    Full text: Jyvaskyla, a university town in central Finland, was the setting for last year's General Accelerator School organized by the CERN Accelerator School. Well over a hundred students - more than for some time - followed two weeks of lectures on a broad spectrum of accelerator topics, the first step en route to becoming the designers, builders and operators of the surprisingly large number of, accelerators of all kinds either built or planned throughout Europe and further afield. This was the fifth such school organized by CAS in a biennial cycle which alternates this introductory level with more advanced tuition. The next, advanced, school will be from 20 October - 1 November, hosted by Athens University on the Greek Island of Rhodes. (Application details will become available in Spring but would-be participants should already reserve the dates.) After Finland, the CAS caravan moved to Benalmadena near Malaga in Spain where, together with Seville University, they organized one of the joint US-CERN schools held every two years and focusing on frontier accelerator topics. This time the subject was electron-positron factories - machines for high luminosity experiments in phi, tau-charm, beauty and Z physics. Experts from both sides of the Atlantic and from Japan shared their knowledge with an equally representative audience and probed the many intensity related phenomena which must be mastered to reach design performance. A number of these topics will receive extended coverage in the next specialist CAS School which is a repeat - by public demand - of the highly successful radiofrequency course held in Oxford in 1991. This school will be in Capri, Italy, with the support of the University of Naples from 29 April to 5 May. Details and application forms are now available by e-mail (CASRF@CERNVM.CERN.CH), by fax (+41 22 7824836) or from Suzanne von Wartburg, CERN Accelerator School, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland

  14. Nuclear Physics accelerator facilities

    The Nuclear Physics program requires the existence and effective operation of large and complex accelerator facilities. These facilities provide the variety of projectile beams upon which virtually all experimental nuclear research depends. Their capability determine which experiments can be performed and which cannot. Seven existing accelerator facilities are operated by the Nuclear Physics program as national facilities. These are made available to all the Nation's scientists on the basis of scientific merit and technical feasibility of proposals. The national facilities are the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory; the Bates Linear Accelerator Center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Bevalac at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; the Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory; the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory; the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Nuclear Physics Injector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) enables the SLAC facility to provide a limited amount of beam time for nuclear physics research on the same basis as the other national facilities. To complement the national facilities, the Nuclear Physics program supports on-campus accelerators at Duke University, Texas A and M University, the University of Washington, and Yale University. The facility at Duke University, called the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL), is jointly staffed by Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina. These accelerators are operated primarily for the research use of the local university faculty, junior scientists, and graduate students

  15. Intermittent Sea Level Acceleration

    Olivieri, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna, Italia; Spada, G.; Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Fondamenti, Università di Urbino Carlo Bo, Urbino

    2013-01-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea{level acceleration for the last 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, con firm the existence of a global sea level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0:01 mm/yr2. However, di fferently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or ...

  16. Acceleration of polarized particles

    The spin kinetics of polarized beams in circular accelerators is reviewed in the case of spin-1/2 particles (electrons and protons) with emphasis on the depolarization phenomena. The acceleration of polarized proton beams in synchrotrons is described together with the cures applied to reduce depolarization, including the use of 'Siberian Snakes'. The in-situ polarization of electrons in storage rings due to synchrotron radiation is studied as well as depolarization in presence of ring imperfections. The applications of electron polarization to accurately calibrate the rings in energy and to use polarized beams in colliding-beam experiments are reviewed. (author) 76 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  17. Space charge wave accelerators

    We present an account of experimental observations showing control of the wave phase velocity for a slow wave, measurements of the wave electric field, and indicate how these results might apply to an ion accelerator. An interesting and new possibility is also indicated, namely the use of fast waves for electron accelerators. In this case preliminary estimates indicate that comparable field gradients to those already obtained in the slow wave scheme should be obtainable in fast waves and that these field gradients can be maintained at phase velocities close to the speed of light. (orig./HSI)

  18. High intensity hadron accelerators

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  19. Seismic surveying and accelerators

    The paper deals with an investigation into the impact of earth vibrations on charged particle beams in modern colliders. It is ascertained that the displacement of accelerator magnetic elements from the perfect position results in the excitation of betatron oscillations and distortion of particle orbit position. The results of experimental investigations into seismic noises are presented for ASR, SSC, DESY and KEK. The rms orbit displacement in accelerators is estimated relying on the law of earth diffusion motion, according to which the variance of relative displacements is proportional to the distance between these points and time of observation. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed

  1. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    One of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). The power that is fed into the upstream end of the cavity is extracted at the downstream end and sent into a dump load. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8011289, 8302397.

  2. SPS accelerating cavity

    1983-01-01

    See photo 8302397: View from the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138. Giacomo Primadei stands on the left.

  3. Hamburg Accelerator Conference

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). A natural highlight was the recent commissioning success of the HERA electron-proton collider at Hamburg's DESY Laboratory and its first high energy electron-proton collision data. This gave the meeting the feel of a family event celebrating a newborn

  4. Heavy ion accelerator GANIL

    This article presents GANIL, a large national heavy ion accelerator. The broad problems of nuclear physics, atomic physics, astrophysics and physics of condensed media which can be approached and studied with this machine are discussed first, after which the final construction project is described. The project comprises a circular injector, a separated sector cyclotron up beam stripper, and a second separated cyclotron downstream

  5. Dissociation by acceleration

    Peeters, K.; Zamaklar, M.

    2008-01-01

    We show that mesons, described using rotating relativistic strings in a holographic setup, undergo dissociation when their acceleration 'a' exceeds a value which scales with the angular momentum 'J' as a_max ~ \\sqrt{T_s/J}, where 'T_s' is the string tension.

  6. Dissociation by acceleration

    2007-01-01

    We show that mesons, described using rotating relativistic strings in a holographic setup, undergo dissociation when their acceleration 'a' exceeds a value which scales with the angular momentum 'J' as a_max ~ \\sqrt{T_s/J}, where 'T_s' is the string tension.

  7. The CERN accelerator complex

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  8. SPS accelerating cavity

    1980-01-01

    One of the SPS acceleration cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). On the ceiling one sees the coaxial transmission line which feeds the power from the amplifier, located in a surface building above, to the upstream end of the cavity. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138, 8302397.

  9. Accelerators in the sky

    The author surveys the large body of evidence showing that there are very efficient mechanisms capable of accelerating particles to high energies under very different astrophysical conditions. The circumstances whereby huge amounts of relativistic and ultrarelativistic particles such as one finds in a) cosmic rays, b) supernova remnants and c) radio galaxies and quasars are produced are considered. (Auth.)

  10. Prospects for Accelerator Technology

    Todd, Alan

    2011-02-01

    Accelerator technology today is a greater than US$5 billion per annum business. Development of higher-performance technology with improved reliability that delivers reduced system size and life cycle cost is expected to significantly increase the total accelerator technology market and open up new application sales. Potential future directions are identified and pitfalls in new market penetration are considered. Both of the present big market segments, medical radiation therapy units and semiconductor ion implanters, are approaching the "maturity" phase of their product cycles, where incremental development rather than paradigm shifts is the norm, but they should continue to dominate commercial sales for some time. It is anticipated that large discovery-science accelerators will continue to provide a specialty market beset by the unpredictable cycles resulting from the scale of the projects themselves, coupled with external political and economic drivers. Although fraught with differing market entry difficulties, the security and environmental markets, together with new, as yet unrealized, industrial material processing applications, are expected to provide the bulk of future commercial accelerator technology growth.

  11. Radioisotope Dating with Accelerators.

    Muller, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Explains a new method of detecting radioactive isotopes by counting their accelerated ions rather than the atoms that decay during the counting period. This method increases the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, and allows one to find the ages of much older and smaller samples. (GA)

  12. Accelerating News Issue 5

    Szeberenyi, A

    2013-01-01

    In this spring issue, we look at developments towards higher luminosity and higher energy colliders. We report on the technology developed for the remote powering of the LHC magnets and studies of diagnostics based on higher order mode port signals. We also inform you about the main outcome of the TIARA survey on market needs for accelerator scientists.

  13. The CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

      Introduction to accelerator physics This course will take place in Istanbul, Turkey, from 18 to 30 September 2016. It is now open for registration, and further information can be found here: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Turkey-2016/Turkey-advert.html

  14. The CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics This course will take place in Budapest, Hungary, from 2 to 14 October 2016. It is now open for registration and further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Hungary2016/Hungary-advert.html and http://indico.cern.ch/event/532397/.

  15. The CERN accelerator complex

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  16. The CERN accelerator complex

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  17. Superconducting traveling wave accelerators

    This note considers the applicability of superconductivity to traveling wave accelerators. Unlike CW operation of a superconducting standing wave or circulating wave accelerator section, which requires improvement factors (superconductor conductivity divided by copper conductivity) of about 106 in order to be of practical use, a SUperconducting TRaveling wave Accelerator, SUTRA, operating in the pulsed mode requires improvement factors as low as about 103, which are attainable with niobium or lead at 4.2K, the temperature of liquid helium at atmospheric pressure. Changing from a copper traveling wave accelerator to SUTRA achieves the following. (1) For a given gradient SUTRA reduces the peak and average power requirements typically by a factor of 2. (2) SUTRA reduces the peak power still further because it enables us to increase the filling time and thus trade pulse width for gradient. (3) SUTRA makes possible a reasonably long section at higher frequencies. (4) SUTRA makes possible recirculation without additional rf average power. 8 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  18. Accelerating Fermionic Molecular Dynamics

    Clark, M. A.; Kennedy, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    We consider how to accelerate fermionic molecular dynamics algorithms by introducing n pseudofermion fields coupled with the nth root of the fermionic kernel. This reduces the maximum pseudofermionic force, and thus allows a larger molecular dynamics integration step size without hitting an instability in the integrator.

  19. The Bevalac accelerator

    Presented are the characteristics of the Bevatron and SuperHilac heavy ion accelerators in a very general manner. Some aspects of their application in the field of biological medicine and some of the interesting results obtained in experiments on nuclear physics are mentioned. (Author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Kaposi’s sarcoma in Brazilian AIDS patients: a study of 144 cases Sarcoma de Kaposi em pacientes com AIDS: estudo de 144 casos

    Esther G. BIRMAN

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty-four Brazilian AIDS patients presenting with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS were evaluated with respect to the frequency of oral neoplasms and their clinical features. The majority of the patients were young male adults (age range: 21-40 years old, from which 11.1 % presented with oral KS (OKS exclusively. Oral and skin lesions were associated in 25% of the cases, while only four patients showed association between oral and visceral KS; 49.3% of the cases were exclusively dermatological. The hard palate was the main site affected, followed by the oropharynx. The localization of KS was found to be similarly frequent in the tongue, gingiva and other sites of the oral mucosa. Candidosis was the prevailing fungal disease; in 20% of the cases it was restricted to the oral mucosa and in 80% it was systemic. No high frequency of paracoccidioidomicosis and cryptococcosis was detected. The prevailing bacterial disease was Tuberculosis and there was only one case of syphilis. Among the viral diseases, the most frequently detected was herpes simplex, followed by molusco contagiosum, condiloma acuminatum and cytomegaloviroses at lower frequencies. Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystes carinii and toxoplasmosis were also identified. The authors emphasise the importance of oral examination in HIV-infected patients bearing in mind several aspects related especially to KS, and stress the need for an interdisciplinary team in the management of these patients, in order to provide better quality of life as well as rapid diagnosis and treatment.Foram estudados pacientes brasileiros portadores de SIDA apresentando sarcoma de Kaposi (SK. O perfil de idade mostrou um grupo com média de idade entre 21 e 40 anos, sendo que 11,1% da amostra apresentava SK exclusivamente na cavidade bucal, observando-se em 25% da amostra uma associação de lesões bucais e na pele. Somente quatro pacientes apresentaram associação de lesões bucais e viscerais, enquanto 49

  1. Nonlinear dynamics in particle accelerators

    Dilão, Rui

    1996-01-01

    This book is an introductory course to accelerator physics at the level of graduate students. It has been written for a large audience which includes users of accelerator facilities, accelerator physicists and engineers, and undergraduates aiming to learn the basic principles of construction, operation and applications of accelerators.The new concepts of dynamical systems developed in the last twenty years give the theoretical setting to analyse the stability of particle beams in accelerator. In this book a common language to both accelerator physics and dynamical systems is integrated and dev

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry programme at Mumbai pelletron accelerator facility

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) programme and the related developments based on the Mumbai Pelletron accelerator are described. The initial results of the measurement of the ratio, 36Cl / Cl in water samples are presented. (author)

  3. accelerating cavity from LEP

    This is an accelerating cavity from LEP, with a layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  4. Review of accelerator instrumentation

    Some of the problems associated with the monitoring of accelerator beams, particularly storage rings' beams, are reviewed along with their most common solutions. The various electrode structures used for the measurement of beam current, beam position, and the detection of the bunches' transverse oscillations, yield pulses with sub-nanosecond widths. The electronics for the processing of these short pulses involves wide band techniques and circuits usually not readily available from industry or the integrated circuit market: passive or active, successive integrations, linear gating, sample-and-hold circuits with nanosecond acquisition time, etc. This report also presents the work performed recently for monitoring the ultrashort beams of colliding linear accelerators or single-pass colliders. To minimize the beam emittance, the beam position must be measured with a high resolution, and digitized on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Experimental results obtained with the Stanford two-mile Linac single bunches are included

  5. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-04-12

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists.

  6. Review of ion accelerators

    The field of ion acceleration to higher energies has grown rapidly in the last years. Many new facilities as well as substantial upgrades of existing facilities have extended the mass and energy range of available beams. Perhaps more significant for the long-term development of the field has been the expansion in the applications of these beams, and the building of facilities dedicated to areas outside of nuclear physics. This review will cover many of these new developments. Emphasis will be placed on accelerators with final energies above 50 MeV/amu. Facilities such as superconducting cyclotrons and storage rings are adequately covered in other review papers, and so will not be covered here

  7. RFQ accelerator development

    Radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerators have established themselves as highly efficient and potential tools for delivering intense beams of the order of 100 mA or more. They are being employed as injectors to high energy machines used for basic sciences, spallation neutron sources, fusion devices and accelerator breeders. They have also made their mark as neutron generators, ion implanters, x-ray generators, etc. Realising the importance of this programme, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre initiated a totally indigenous effort to develop RFQs for the light as well as heavy ion beams. A low power RFQ for the proton and deuteron beams is already in the final phase of commissioning. (author). 30 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Accelerator research studies

    This progress report for the Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland covers the second year (June 1, 1989 to May 31, 1990) of the current three-year contract period from June 1, 1988 to May 31, 1991, funded by the Department of Energy under Contract No. AC05-85ER40216. The research program is divided into three separate tasks, as follows: the study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams; the study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pulse-Powered Plasma Focus; the study of Microwave Sources and Parameter Scaling for High-Frequency Linacs. This report consists of three sections in which the progress for each task is documented separately. An introduction and synopsis is presented at the beginning of the progress report for each task

  9. Particle accelerator physics

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense bea...

  10. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  11. Accelerator research studies

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under contract number AC05-85ER40216-8, is currently in the third year of its three-year funding cycle. This Renewal Proposal requests DOE support for the next three-year period from June 1, 1991 to May 31, 1994. It documents the progress made during the past year and outlines the proposed research program for the next three years. The program consisted of the following three tasks: Task A, ''Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' Task B, ''Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' Task C, ''Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders.'' These tasks will be discussed in this paper

  12. Accelerator research studies

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, ''Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, ''Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' (Co-P.I.'s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, ''Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,'' (Co-P.I.'s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  13. Accelerator research studies

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  14. Advanced medical accelerator design

    This report describes the design of an advanced medical facility dedicated to charged particle radiotherapy and other biomedical applications of relativistic heavy ions. Project status is reviewed and some technical aspects discussed. Clinical standards of reliability are regarded as essential features of this facility. Particular emphasis is therefore placed on the control system and on the use of technology which will maximize operational efficiency. The accelerator will produce a variety of heavy ion beams from helium to argon with intensities sufficient to provide delivered dose rates of several hundred rad/minute over large, uniform fields. The technical components consist of a linac injector with multiple PIG ion sources, a synchrotron and a versatile beam delivery system. An overview is given of both design philosophy and selected accelerator subsystems. Finally, a plan of the facility is described

  15. Particle acceleration by pulsars

    The evidence that pulsars accelerate relativistic particles is reviewed, with emphasis on the γ-ray observations. The current state of knowledge of acceleration in strong waves is summarized, with emphasis on the inability of consistent theories to accelerate very high energy particles without converting too much energy into high energy photons. The state of viable models for pair creation by pulsars is summarized, with the conclusion that pulsars very likely lose rotational energy in winds instead of in superluminous strong waves. The relation of the pair creation models to γ-ray observations and to soft X-ray observations of pulsars is outlined, with the conclusion that energetically viable models may exist, but none have yet yielded useful agreement with the extant data. Some paths for overcoming present problems are discussed. The relation of the favored models to cosmic rays is discussed. It is pointed out that the pairs made by the models may have observable consequences for observation of positrons in the local cosmic ray flux and for observations of the 511 keV line from the interstellar medium. Another new point is that asymmetry of plasma supply from at least one of the models may qualitatively explain the gross asymmetry of the X-ray emission from the Crab nebula. It is also argued that acceleration of cosmic ray nuclei by pulsars, while energetically possible, can occur only at the boundary of the bubbles blown by the pulsars, if the cosmic ray composition is to be anything like that of the known source spectrum

  16. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  17. Accelerator Experiments for Astrophysics

    Ng, Johnny S. T.

    2003-01-01

    Many recent discoveries in astrophysics involve phenomena that are highly complex. Carefully designed experiments, together with sophisticated computer simulations, are required to gain insights into the underlying physics. We show that particle accelerators are unique tools in this area of research, by providing precision calibration data and by creating extreme experimental conditions relevant for astrophysics. In this paper we discuss laboratory experiments that can be carried out at the S...

  18. GPU accelerated face detection

    Mäkelä, J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphics processing units have massive parallel processing capabilities, and there is a growing interest in utilizing them for generic computing. One area of interest is computationally heavy computer vision algorithms, such as face detection and recognition. Face detection is used in a variety of applications, for example the autofocus on cameras, face and emotion recognition, and access control. In this thesis, the face detection algorithm was accelerated with GPU using OpenCL. The goal was...

  19. Compact pulsed accelerator

    The formation of fast pulses from a current charged transmission line and opening switch is described. By employing a plasma focus as an opening switch and diode in the prototype device, a proton beam of peak energy 250 keV is produced. The time integrated energy spectrum of the beam is constructed from a Thomson spectrograph. Applications of this device as an inexpensive and portable charged particle accelerator are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Laser plasma accelerators

    Malka, V.

    2012-01-01

    Research activities on laser plasma accelerators are paved by many significant breakthroughs. This review article provides an opportunity to show the incredible evolution of this field of research which has, in record time, allowed physicists to produce high quality electron beams at the GeV level using compact laser systems. I will show the scientific path that led us to explore different injection schemes and to produce stable, high peak current and high quality electron beams with control ...

  1. Future Accelerator Magnet Needs

    Devred, Arnaud; Yamamoto, A

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting magnet technology is continually evolving in order to meet the demanding needs of new accelerators and to provide necessary upgrades for existing machines. A variety of designs are now under development, including high fields and gradients, rapid cycling and novel coil configurations. This paper presents a summary of R&D programs in the EU, Japan and the USA. A performance comparison between NbTi and Nb3Sn along with fabrication and cost issues are also discussed.

  2. GPU accelerated dislocation dynamics

    Ferroni, Francesco; Tarleton, Edmund; Fitzgerald, Steven

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the computational bottlenecks in discrete dislocation dynamics modeling (associated with segment-segment interactions as well as the treatment of free surfaces), discuss the parallelization and optimization strategies, and demonstrate the effectiveness of Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) computation in accelerating dislocation dynamics simulations and expanding their scope. Individual algorithmic benchmark tests as well as an example large simulation of a thin film are presented.

  3. Laser-driven electron accelerators

    The following possibilities are discussed: inverse free electron laser (wiggler accelerator); inverse Cerenkov effect; plasma accelerator; dielectric tube; and grating linac. Of these, the grating acceleraton is considered the most attractive alternative

  4. How Is Kaposi Sarcoma Diagnosed?

    ... of the procedure, and spending hours in the bathroom. Just before the procedure, you will be given ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  5. Accelerated Profile HMM Searches.

    Sean R Eddy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs and probabilistic inference methods have made important contributions to the theory of sequence database homology search. However, practical use of profile HMM methods has been hindered by the computational expense of existing software implementations. Here I describe an acceleration heuristic for profile HMMs, the "multiple segment Viterbi" (MSV algorithm. The MSV algorithm computes an optimal sum of multiple ungapped local alignment segments using a striped vector-parallel approach previously described for fast Smith/Waterman alignment. MSV scores follow the same statistical distribution as gapped optimal local alignment scores, allowing rapid evaluation of significance of an MSV score and thus facilitating its use as a heuristic filter. I also describe a 20-fold acceleration of the standard profile HMM Forward/Backward algorithms using a method I call "sparse rescaling". These methods are assembled in a pipeline in which high-scoring MSV hits are passed on for reanalysis with the full HMM Forward/Backward algorithm. This accelerated pipeline is implemented in the freely available HMMER3 software package. Performance benchmarks show that the use of the heuristic MSV filter sacrifices negligible sensitivity compared to unaccelerated profile HMM searches. HMMER3 is substantially more sensitive and 100- to 1000-fold faster than HMMER2. HMMER3 is now about as fast as BLAST for protein searches.

  6. Oxidised cosmic acceleration

    We give detailed proofs of several new no-go theorems for constructing flat four-dimensional accelerating universes from warped dimensional reduction. These new theorems improve upon previous ones by weakening the energy conditions, by including time-dependent compactifications, and by treating accelerated expansion that is not precisely de Sitter. We show that de Sitter expansion violates the higher-dimensional null energy condition (NEC) if the compactification manifold M is one-dimensional, if its intrinsic Ricci scalar R-ring vanishes everywhere, or if R-ring and the warp function satisfy a simple limit condition. If expansion is not de Sitter, we establish threshold equation-of-state parameters w below which accelerated expansion must be transient. Below the threshold w there are bounds on the number of e-foldings of expansion. If M is one-dimensional or R-ring everywhere vanishing, exceeding the bound implies the NEC is violated. If R-ring does not vanish everywhere on M, exceeding the bound implies the strong energy condition (SEC) is violated. Observationally, the w thresholds indicate that experiments with finite resolution in w can cleanly discriminate between different models which satisfy or violate the relevant energy conditions

  7. Accelerated GLAS exposure station

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is being developed by NASA/GSFC to measure the dynamics of the ice sheet mass balance, land, and cloud and atmospheric properties. An instrument altimetric resolution of 10 cm per shot is required. The laser transmitter will be a diode pumped, Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser producing 1064 nm, 100 mJ, 4 ns pulses at 40 Hz repetition rate in a TEM∞ mode. A minimum lifetime goal of 2 billion shots is required per laser transmitter. The performance of the GLAS laser can be limited by physical damage to the optical components caused by the interaction of intense laser energy with the optical coatings and substrates. Very little data exists describing the effects of long duration laser exposure, of 4 ns pulses, on an optical component. An Accelerated GLAS Exposure Station (AGES) is being developed which will autonomously operate and monitor the GLAS laser at an accelerated rate of 500 Hz. The effects of a large number of laser shots will be recorded. Parameters to be monitored include: laser power, pulsewidth, beam size, laser diode drive current and power, Q-switch drive voltage, temperature, and humidity. For comparison, one set of AGES-sister optical components will be used in the non-accelerated GLAS laser and another will be evaluated by a commercial optical damage test facility

  8. Linac transport and acceleration

    The acceleration of intense bunches maintaining high brightness is limited both by single-particle effects, e.g., misalignments, injection errors, and rf-steering, and collective phenomena, where the effects of the longitudinal and transverse wakefield on particles within a single bunch are the most severe. The working group has considered both problems and potentials of linac acceleration from ∼50 MeV to 1 GeV for free electron laser (FEL) applications, as well as from a few Gev to 1 TeV for linear colliders. The outlook for free electron lasers is bright: no fundamental problems seem to arise in the acceleration of peak currents in excess of 100 A with small emittance and low momentum spread. The situation of linear colliders is more complex and more difficult. Two examples, one operating at 11.4 GHz, the other at 30 GHz, are used to illustrate some of the difficulties and the exceedingly tight tolerances required. Both examples are based on round beams, and thus neither benefit from the advantages of flat beams nor address the increased care required in transporting beams of very small emittance in one plane. The working group acknowledges, but did not explore, promising concepts for colliders based on RF superconductivity

  9. TRACKING ACCELERATOR SETTINGS

    Recording setting changes within an accelerator facility provides information that can be used to answer questions about when, why, and how changes were made to some accelerator system. This can be very useful during normal operations, but can also aid with security concerns and in detecting unusual software behavior. The Set History System (SHS) is a new client-server system developed at the Collider-Accelerator Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory to provide these capabilities. The SHS has been operational for over two years and currently stores about IOOK settings per day into a commercial database management system. The SHS system consists of a server written in Java, client tools written in both Java and C++, and a web interface for querying the database of setting changes. The design of the SHS focuses on performance, portability, and a minimal impact on database resources. In this paper, we present an overview of the system design along with benchmark results showing the performance and reliability of the SHS over the last year

  10. Laser driven particle acceleration

    This dissertation summarizes the last ten years of research at the Laboratory of Applied Optics on laser-plasma based electron acceleration. The main result consists of the development and study of a relativistic electron source with unique properties: high energy (100-300 MeV) in short distances (few millimeters), mono-energetic, ultra-short (few fs), stable and tunable. The manuscript describes the steps that led to understanding the physics, and then mastering it in order to produce this new electron source. Non linear propagation of the laser pulse in the plasma is first presented, with phenomena such as non linear wakefield excitation, relativistic and ponderomotive self-focusing in the short pulse regime, self-compression. Acceleration and injection of electrons are then reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Experimental demonstrations of self-injection in the bubble regime and then colliding pulse injection are then presented. These experiments were among the first to produce monoenergetic, high quality, stable and tunable electron beams from a laser-plasma accelerator. The last two chapters are dedicated to the characterization of the electron beam using transition radiation and to its applications to gamma radiography and radiotherapy. Finally, the perspectives of this research are presented in the conclusion. Scaling laws are used to determine the parameters that the electron beams will reach using peta-watt laser systems currently under construction. (author)

  11. CESR Test Accelerator

    Rubin, David L

    2013-01-01

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was reconfigured in 2008 as a test accelerator to investigate the physics of ultra-low emittance damping rings. During the approximately 40 days/year available for dedicated operation as a test accelerator, specialized instrumentation is used to measure growth and mitigation of the electron cloud, emittance growth due to electron cloud, intra-beam scattering, and ions, and single and multi-bunch instabilities generated by collective effects. The flexibility of the CESR guide field optics and the integration of accelerator modeling codes with the control system have made possible an extraordinary range of experiments. Findings at CesrTA with respect to electron cloud effects, emittance tuning techniques, and beam instrumentation for measuring electron cloud, beam sizes, and beam positions are the basis for much of the design of the ILC damping rings as documented in the ILC-Technical Design Report. The program has allowed the Cornell group to cultivate the kind of talen...

  12. Optimizing accelerator technology

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research and training network, oPAC, is bringing together 22 universities, research centres and industry partners to optimize particle accelerator technology. CERN is one of the network’s main partners and will host 5 early-stage researchers in the BE department.   A diamond detector that will be used for novel beam diagnostics applications in the oPAC project based at CIVIDEC. (Image courtesy of CIVIDEC.) As one of the largest Marie Curie Initial Training Networks ever funded by the EU – to the tune of €6 million – oPAC extends well beyond the particle physics community. “Accelerator physics has become integral to research in almost every scientific discipline – be it biology and life science, medicine, geology and material science, or fundamental physics,” explains Carsten P. Welsch, oPAC co-ordinator based at the University of Liverpool. “By optimizing the operation of accelerators, all of these...

  13. Acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    Beresnyak, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-16

    The presentation begins with colorful depictions of solar x-ray flares and references to pulsar phenomena. Plasma reconnection is complex, could be x-point dominated or turbulent, field lines could break due to either resistivity or non-ideal effects, such as electron pressure anisotropy. Electron acceleration is sometimes observed, and sometimes not. One way to study this complex problem is to have many examples of the process (reconnection) and compare them; the other way is to simplify and come to something robust. Ideal MHD (E=0) turbulence driven by magnetic energy is assumed, and the first-order acceleration is sought. It is found that dissipation in big (length >100 ion skin depths) current sheets is universal and independent on microscopic resistivity and the mean imposed field; particles are regularly accelerated while experiencing curvature drift in flows driven by magnetic tension. One example of such flow is spontaneous reconnection. This explains hot electrons with a power-law tail in solar flares, as well as ultrashort time variability in some astrophysical sources.

  14. Overview of accelerators in medicine

    Accelerators used for medicine include synchrotrons, cyclotrons, betatrons, microtrons, and electron, proton, and light ion linacs. Some accelerators which were formerly found only at physics laboratories are now being considered for use in hospital-based treatment and diagnostic facilities. This paper presents typical operating parameters for medical accelerators and gives specific examples of clinical applications for each type of accelerator, with emphasis on recent developments in the field

  15. Electron accelerators for environmental protection

    The primary objective of this publication is to provide information suitable for electron accelerators implementation in facilities applying radiation technology for environmental protection. It should be noticed that radiation processing has been successfully used in the fields of crosslinking polymer curing and medical products sterilization for more than 40 years. Practical application of radiation technology today extends on SO2 and NOx removal from the flue gas (one of major power intensive radiation processing), destruction and removal of organic chemicals from water, decreasing bacteria content in the irradiated sludge and waste water. On the other hand the increased awareness of environmental pollution hazards and more stringent waste regulations in many countries may open stronger support for environmentally oriented technologies. This publication provides an evaluation of electron accelerators capabilities in respect of environmental applications where technological and economical criteria are now well defined. In order to determine the potential of electron accelerators, the literature data were examined as well visits and meetings with various accelerator manufacturers were performed by the author. Experience of the author in accelerator facilities construction and exploitation including those which were used for environmental protection are significant part of this publication. The principle of accelerator action was described in Chapter 1. Early development, accelerator classification and fields of accelerators application were included to this chapter as well. Details of accelerator construction was described in Chapter 2 to illustrate physical capability of accelerators to perform the function of ionizing radiation source. Electron beam extraction devices, under beam equipment, electron beam parameters and measuring methods were characterized in this chapter as well. Present studies of accelerator technology was described in Chapter 3, where direct

  16. ACCELERATORS: Nonlinear dynamics in Sardinia

    In the last few years, two schools devoted to accelerator physics have been set up, one on either side of the Atlantic. The US School on High Energy Particle Accelerators has organized Summer Schools on the physics of particle accelerators, hosted by the major American Laboratories, each year since 1981

  17. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  18. High intensity proton accelerator program

    Industrial applications of proton accelerators to the incineration of the long-lived nuclides contained in the spent fuels have long been investigated. Department of Reactor Engineering of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has formulated the Accelerator Program through the investigations on the required performances of the accelerator and its development strategies and also the research plan using the accelerator. Outline of the Program is described in the present report. The target of the Program is the construction of the Engineering Test Accelerators (ETA) of the type of a linear accelerator with the energy 1.5 GeV and the proton current ∼10 mA. It is decided that the construction of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA) is necessary as an intermediate step, aiming at obtaining the required technical basis and human resources. The Basic Technology Accelerator with the energy of 10 MeV and with the current of ∼10 mA is composed of the ion source, RFQ and DTL, of which system forms the mock-up of the injector of ETA. Development of the high-β structure which constitutes the main acceleration part of ETA is also scheduled. This report covers the basic parameters of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA), development steps of the element and system technologies of the high current accelerators and rough sketch of ETA which can be prospected at present. (J.P.N.)

  19. APT accelerator. Topical report

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation's stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century

  20. VLHC accelerator physics

    Michael Blaskiewicz et al.

    2001-11-01

    A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

  1. APT accelerator. Topical report

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D. [comp.] [ed.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  2. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... features of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in...

  3. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Power Converters will be held in Baden, Switzerland, from 7 to 14 May 2014. Please note that the deadline for applications is 7 FEBRUARY 2014. A course on Introduction to Accelerator Physics will be held in Prague, Czech Republic, from 31 August to 12 September 2014. Applications are now open for this school; the application deadline is 25 APRIL 2014. Further information on these schools and other CAS events can be found on the CAS website and on the Indico page. For further information please contact Barbara.strasser@cern.ch

  4. Hardware Accelerated Power Estimation

    Coburn, Joel; Raghunathan, Anand

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present power emulation, a novel design paradigm that utilizes hardware acceleration for the purpose of fast power estimation. Power emulation is based on the observation that the functions necessary for power estimation (power model evaluation, aggregation, etc.) can be implemented as hardware circuits. Therefore, we can enhance any given design with "power estimation hardware", map it to a prototyping platform, and exercise it with any given test stimuli to obtain power consumption estimates. Our empirical studies with industrial designs reveal that power emulation can achieve significant speedups (10X to 500X) over state-of-the-art commercial register-transfer level (RTL) power estimation tools.

  5. Plasma wake field accelerator

    A new scheme of electron acceleration, employing relativistic electron bunches in a cold plasma, is analyzed. The wake field of a leading bunch is derived in a single-particle model. We then extend the model to include finite bunch length effect. In particular, we discuss the relation between the charge distributions of the driving bunch and the energies transformable to the trailing electrons. It is shown that for symmetric charge distribution of the driving bunches, the maximum energy gain for a driven electron is 2γ0mc2. This limitation can be overcome by introducing asymmetric charge distributions. 13 refs., 5 figs

  6. Accelerated Innovation Pilot

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities: I. Engage NASA team (examples) a) Research and technology calls . provide suggestions to AES, HRP, OCT. b) Use NASA@Work to solicit other ideas; (possibly before R+D calls). II. Stimulate collaboration (examples) a) NHHPC. b) Wharton Mack Center for Technological Innovation (Feb 2013). c) International ] DLR ] :envihab (July 2013). d) Accelerated research models . NSF, Myelin Repair Foundation. III. Engage public Prizes (open platform: InnoCentive, yet2.com, NTL; Rice Business Plan, etc.) IV. Use same methods to engage STEM.

  7. Chicago particle accelerator conference

    Naturally, emphasis at the Particle Accelerator Conference in Chicago in March was on work in the US, just as the newly instituted European Particle Accelerator Conference places emphasis on work in the 'old continent'. All will come together at the international conference in Japan in August. The proposed US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) was highlighted in the opening talk at Chicago. Progress on this inchoate project to explore the TeV (1000 GeV) energy region by colliding 20 TeV proton beams was reported by the recently-appointed Director of the SSC Laboratory, Roy Schwitters. He reviewed the physics challenges and described progress and plans towards full authorization of construction.This year, the SSC conceptual design will be transformed into a 'site specific' report, now that the location at Waxahachie in Ellis County, Texas, has been selected. The Central Design Group, based in Berkeley for the past few years, will soon move to the Waxahachie region. The top management structure is taking shape and an International Advisory Committee is being formed

  8. Accelerator research studies

    1993-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' (Co-P.I.'s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,'' (Co-P.I.'s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  9. Accelerator School Success

    2004-01-01

    Accelerator specialists don't grow on trees: training them is the job of the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). Group photo during visit to the Daresbury Laboratory. CAS and the CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory jointly organised a specialised school on Power Converters in Warrington, England from 12-18 May 2004. The last CAS Power Converter course was in 1990, so there was plenty of ground to cover. The challenging programme proposed a review of the state of the art and the latest developments in the field, including 30 hours of tuition. The school also included a visit to the CCLRC Daresbury laboratory, a one-day excursion to Liverpool and Chester and a themed (Welsh medieval) dinner at the school's closure. A record attendance of 91 students of more than 20 different nationalities included not only participants from Europe and North America but also from Armenia, Taiwan, India, Turkey, Iran and for the first time, fee-paying students from China and Australia. European industry showed a welcome and solid interest in...

  10. Medical Proton Accelerator Project

    A project for a medical proton accelerator for cancer treatment is outlined. The project is motivated by the need for a precise modality for cancer curing especially in children. Proton therapy is known by its superior radiation and biological effectiveness as compared to photon or electron therapy. With 26 proton and 3 heavy-ion therapy complexes operating worldwide only one (p) exists in South Africa, and none in south Asia and the Middle East. The accelerator of choice should provide protons with energy 75 MeV for eye treatment and 250 MeV for body treatment. Four treatment rooms are suggested: two with isocentric gantries, one with fixed beams and one for development. Passive scanning is recommended. The project can serve Middle East and North Africa with ∼ 400 million populations. The annual capacity of the project is estimated as 1,100 to be compared with expected radiation cases eligible for proton cancer treatment of not less than 200,000

  11. Broadband accelerator control network

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel

  12. Washington Accelerator Conference

    Highlights of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Washington in May, were picked out in the previous issue (page 18). Talks on the big hadron colliders reflected the sea-change in the accelerator world where the scale, complexity and cost of the front-line projects has slowed the pace of developments (not unlike the scene in particle physics itself). Speaking before the anti-SSC vote in the House of Representatives in June, Dick Briggs reviewed the situation at the SSC Superconducting Supercollider in Ellis County, Texas. The linac building is near completion and the Low Energy Booster will be ready to receive components early next year. Tunnelling for the Main Ring is advancing rapidly with four boring machines in action. Five miles of tunnel have been completed since January and the pace has now stepped up to nearly a mile each week. The superconducting magnet news is good. Following the successful initial string test of a half cell of the magnet lattice, a two-ring full cell with all associated services is being assembled. The mechanical robustness of the magnet design was confirmed when a dipole was taken to 9.7 T when cooled to 1.8 K. In the Magnet Test Lab itself, ten test stands are installed and equipped

  13. Accelerator Technology: Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators

    Missiaen, D

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '8.9 Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators' of the Chapter '8 Accelerator Technology' with the content: 8.9 Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators 8.9.1 Introduction 8.9.2 Reference and Co-ordinate Systems 8.9.3 Definition of the Beam Line on the Accelerator Site 8.9.4 Geodetic Network 8.9.5 Tunnel Preliminary Works 8.9.6 The Alignment References 8.9.7 Alignment of Accelerator Components 8.9.8 Permanent Monitoring and Remote Alignment of Low Beta Quadrupoles 8.9.9 Alignment of Detector Components

  14. 2014 Joint International Accelerator School: Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection

    JAS - Joint US-CERN-Japan-Russia Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    Many particle accelerators operate with very high beam power and very high energy stored in particle beams as well as in magnet systems. In the future, the beam power in high intensity accelerators will further increase. The protection of the accelerator equipment from the consequences of uncontrolled release of the energy is essential. This was the motivation for organizing a first school on beam losses and accelerator protection (in general referred to as machine protection). During the school the methods and technologies to identify, mitigate, monitor and manage the technical risks associated with the operation of accelerators with high-power beams or subsystems with large stored energy were presented. At the completion of the school the participants should have been able to understand the physical phenomena that can damage machine subsystems or interrupt operations and to analyze an accelerator facility to produce a register of technical risks and the corresponding risk mitigation and management strategie...

  15. Viral Interferon Regulatory Factors

    Lee, Hye-Ra; Kim, Myung Hee; Lee, Jong-Soo; Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U.

    2009-01-01

    Upon viral infection, the major defensive strategy employed by the host immune system is the activation of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral pathway, which is overseen by IFN regulatory factors (IRFs). In order to complete their life cycles, viruses must find a way to modulate the host IFN-mediated immune response. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a human tumor-inducing herpesvirus, has developed a unique mechanism for antagonizing cellular IFN-mediated antiviral activity...

  16. A Genetic System for Rhesus Monkey Rhadinovirus: Use of Recombinant Virus To Quantitate Antibody-Mediated Neutralization

    Bilello, John P.; Morgan, Jennifer S.; Damania, Blossom; Lang, Sabine M.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2006-01-01

    Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a simian gamma-2 herpesvirus closely related to the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, replicates lytically in cultured rhesus monkey fibroblasts and establishes persistence in B cells. Overlapping cosmid clones were generated that encompass the entire 130-kilobase-pair genome of RRV strain 26-95, including the terminal repeat regions required for its replication. Cloned RRV that was produced by cotransfection of overlapping cosmids spanning the entire RR...

  17. Whole-Genome Transcription Profiling of Rhesus Monkey Rhadinovirus

    DITTMER, DIRK P; Gonzalez, Carlos M.; Vahrson, Wolfgang; DeWire, Scott M.; Hines-Boykin, Rebecca; Damania, Blossom

    2005-01-01

    Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also called human herpesvirus 8) belong to the gamma-2 grouping of herpesviruses. RRV and KSHV share a high degree of sequence similarity, and their genomes are organized in a similar fashion. RRV serves as an excellent animal model system to study the gamma herpesvirus life cycle both in vitro and in vivo. We have developed a high-sensitivity, high-throughput, high-specificity real-time quantitative reverse t...

  18. Oncogenes and RNA splicing of human tumor viruses

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10.8% of human cancers are associated with infection by an oncogenic virus. These viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). These oncogenic viruses, with the exception of HCV, require the host RNA splicing machinery in order to exercise their oncogenic activities, a strategy that a...

  19. Efficient Internalization of MHC I Requires Lysine-11 and Lysine-63 Mixed Linkage Polyubiquitin Chains

    Boname, Jessica M.; Thomas, Mair; Stagg, Helen R.; Xu, Ping; Peng, Junmin; Lehner, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The downregulation of cell surface receptors by endocytosis is a fundamental requirement for the termination of signalling responses and ubiquitination is a critical regulatory step in receptor regulation. The K5 gene product of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is an E3 ligase that ubiquitinates and downregulates several cell surface immunoreceptors, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Here, we show that K5 targets the membrane proximal lysine of MHC I f...

  20. An In Vitro System for Studying Murid Herpesvirus-4 Latency and Reactivation

    May, Janet S.; Bennett, Neil J; Stevenson, Philip G.

    2010-01-01

    The narrow species tropisms of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and the Kaposi's Sarcoma -associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) have made Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) an important tool for understanding how gammaherpesviruses colonize their hosts. However, while MuHV-4 pathogenesis studies can assign a quantitative importance to individual genes, the complexity of in vivo infection can make the underlying mechanisms hard to discern. Furthermore, the lack of good in vitro MuHV-4 latency/reactivation systems w...

  1. An Interaction between KSHV ORF57 and UIF Provides mRNA-Adaptor Redundancy in Herpesvirus Intronless mRNA Export

    Jackson, Brian R.; Boyne, James R.; Marko Noerenberg; Adam Taylor; Hautbergue, Guillaume M.; Walsh, Matthew J; Rachel Wheat; Blackbourn, David J.; Wilson, Stuart A.; Adrian Whitehouse

    2011-01-01

    Author Summary Herpesviruses hijack cellular components to enhance viral gene expression. This is particularly important for the efficient nuclear export of herpesvirus intronless mRNAs to allow the production of viral proteins. We have previously demonstrated that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a conserved protein, ORF57, which recruits essential cellular mRNA export proteins onto the viral intronless mRNAs to form an export competent viral ribonucleoprotein particle. Specif...

  2. A Heparan-Dependent Herpesvirus Targets the Olfactory Neuroepithelium for Host Entry

    Ricardo Milho; Bruno Frederico; Stacey Efstathiou; Stevenson, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Herpesviruses are supremely successful mammalian parasites. Yet their infections rarely present until well established, so how new hosts are first infected has been unclear. Understanding this is likely to be crucial for infection control. Using Murid Herpesvirus-4, a relative of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus, we identified the olfactory neuroepithelium as a major portal of host entry. Heparan sulfate (HS) binding, which is common to many herpesviruses, played a k...

  3. Recombinant Murine Gamma Herpesvirus 68 Carrying KSHV G Protein-Coupled Receptor Induces Angiogenic Lesions in Mice

    Junjie Zhang; Lining Zhu; Xiaolu Lu; Feldman, Emily R.; Keyes, Lisa R.; Yi Wang; Hui Fan; Hao Feng; Zanxian Xia; Jiya Sun; Taijiao Jiang; Shou-Jiang Gao; Tibbetts, Scott A; Pinghui Feng

    2015-01-01

    Human gamma herpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are capable of inducing tumors, particularly in in immune-compromised individuals. Due to the stringent host tropism, rodents are resistant to infection by human gamma herpesviruses, creating a significant barrier for the in vivo study of viral genes that contribute to tumorigenesis. The closely-related murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (γHV68) efficiently infects laboratory mouse strai...

  4. Proteomic characterization of murid herpesvirus 4 extracellular virions.

    Sarah Vidick; Baptiste Leroy; Leonor Palmeira; Bénédicte Machiels; Jan Mast; Sylvie François; Ruddy Wattiez; Alain Vanderplasschen; Laurent Gillet

    2013-01-01

    Gammaherpesvirinae, such as the human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are highly prevalent pathogens that have been associated with several neoplastic diseases. As EBV and KSHV are host-range specific and replicate poorly in vitro, animal counterparts such as Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) have been widely used as models. In this study, we used MuHV-4 in order to improve the knowledge about proteins that compose gammaherpesviruses virions. To this...

  5. Murine Gamma-Herpesvirus 68 Hijacks MAVS and IKKβ to Initiate Lytic Replication

    Xiaonan Dong; Hao Feng; Qinmiao Sun; Haiyan Li; Ting-Ting Wu; Ren Sun; Tibbetts, Scott A; Chen, Zhijian J; Pinghui Feng

    2010-01-01

    Upon viral infection, the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS)-IKKbeta pathway is activated to restrict viral replication. Manipulation of immune signaling events by pathogens has been an outstanding theme of host-pathogen interaction. Here we report that the loss of MAVS or IKKbeta impaired the lytic replication of gamma-herpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68), a model herpesvirus for human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus. gammaHV68 infection activated IKKbeta in a MAVS...

  6. Synovial Sarcoma Associated With Indwelling Intramedullary Pin in a Peach-Faced Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis).

    Nakano, Yumiko; Une, Yumi

    2016-03-01

    Sarcoma developing in association with a metallic orthopedic procedure is an uncommon but well-recognized complication in mammals. We report on a synovial sarcoma that developed at the site of an intramedullary pin after surgery to treat a bone fracture. A 17-year-old female peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) developed a spherical mass on the distal right dorsal wing at a site that was previously fractured and surgically repaired with an indwelling intramedullary pin. The right wing was amputated at the scapulohumeral joint. One year later, the bird died. Postmortem examination revealed metastases in the right lung, left thoracic wall, and proventricular serosa. Histologically, the tumor had a characteristic biphasic pattern. The tumor was immunohistologically and ultrastructurally identified as a synovial sarcoma. This is the first report of a suspected fracture-associated sarcoma in a bird. PMID:27088741

  7. Sarcomas associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: broad anatomical and morphological spectrum

    Nilbert, Mef; Therkildsen, Christina; Nissen, Anja; Akerman, Måns; Bernstein, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is primarily linked to colorectal and endometrial cancer, but is associated with a broad tumor spectrum. Though not formally part of the syndrome, occasional sarcomas have been reported in individuals with HNPCC. We used the national Danish HNPCC-...

  8. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggest its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were strikingly different in response to the induction of SYT–SSX, and more than half of SYT–SSX target genes in hPSCs were not induced in hMSCs. These results suggest the importance of cellular context for correct understanding of SYT–SSX function, and demonstrated how our new system will help to overcome this issue

  9. Recent advances in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

    Dissinger, Nathan J.; Blossom Damania

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic human herpesvirus. KSHV is associated with three cancers in the human population: KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD). KS is the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals. In this review, we discuss the most recent discoveries behind the mechanisms of KSHV latency maintenance and lytic replication. We also review current therapies for KSHV-associated cancers.

  10. Histiocytic Sarcoma Associated with Coombs Negative Acute Hemolytic Anemia: A Rare Presentation

    Martin, Stephen C.; Nassiri, Mehdi; Qureshi, Amna; Markel, Troy A.

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) rarely involves extranodal sites, such as the spleen. We report a unique pediatric case of massive splenomegaly and refractory Coombs negative hemolytic anemia (CNHA) secondary to HS. The CNHA resolved completely after an emergent splenectomy. Next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed novel ASXL1, PTPN11, KIT, and TP53 mutations, unmasking a clonal heterogeneity within the same neoplasm. PMID:27429816

  11. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    Hayakawa, Kazuo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Ikeya, Makoto [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuta, Makoto [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Woltjen, Knut [Department of Reprogramming Sciences, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tamaki, Sakura; Takahara, Naoko; Kato, Tomohisa; Sato, Shingo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Otsuka, Takanobu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Toguchida, Junya, E-mail: togjun@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggest its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were strikingly different in response to the induction of SYT–SSX, and more than half of SYT–SSX target genes in hPSCs were not induced in hMSCs. These results suggest the importance of cellular context for correct understanding of SYT–SSX function, and demonstrated how our new system will help to overcome this issue.

  12. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Advanced accelerator physics. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    This advanced course on general accelerator physics is the second of the biennial series given by the CERN Accelerator School and follows on from the first basic course given at Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris, in 1984. Stress is placed on the mathematical tools of Hamiltonian mechanics and the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, which are widely used in accelerator theory. The main topics treated in this present work include: nonlinear resonances, chromaticity, motion in longitudinal phase space, growth and control of longitudinal and transverse beam emittance, space-charge effects and polarization. The seminar programme treats some specific accelerator techniques, devices, projects and future possibilities. (orig.)

  13. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Advanced accelerator physics. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    This advanced course on general accelerator physics is the second of the biennial series given by the CERN Accelerator School and follows on from the first basic course given at Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris, in 1984. Stress is placed on the mathematical tools of Hamiltonian mechanics and the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, which are widely used in accelerator theory. The main topics treated in this present work include: nonlinear resonances, chromaticity, motion in longitudinal phase space, growth and control of longitudinal and transverse beam emittance, space-charge effects and polarization. The seminar programme treats some specific accelerator techniques, devices, projects and future possibilities. (orig.)

  14. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of accelerator physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  15. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of Accelerator Physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  16. Electrostatic accelerators fundamentals and applications

    2005-01-01

    Electrostatic accelerators are an important and widespread subgroup within the broad spectrum of modern, large particle acceleration devices. They are specifically designed for applications that require high-quality ion beams in terms of energy stability and emittance at comparatively low energies (a few MeV). Their ability to accelerate virtually any kind of ion over a continuously tunable range of energies make them a highly versatile tool for investigations in many research fields including, but not limited to, atomic and nuclear spectroscopy, heavy ion reactions, accelerator mass spectroscopy as well as ion-beam analysis and modification. The book is divided into three parts. The first part concisely introduces the field of accelerator technology and techniques that emphasize their major modern applications. The second part treats the electrostatic accelerator per se: its construction and operational principles as well as its maintenance. The third part covers all relevant applications in which electrosta...

  17. Accelerator Technology for the Mankind

    Sultansoy, S

    2006-01-01

    Particle accelerators technology is one of the generic technologies which is locomotive of the development in almost all fields of science and technology. According to the U.S. Department of Energy: "Accelerators underpin every activity of the Office of Science and, increasingly, of the entire scientific enterprise. From biology to medicine, from materials to metallurgy, from elementary particles to the cosmos, accelerators provide the microscopic information that forms the basis for scientific understanding and applications. The combination of ground and satellite based observatories and particle accelerators will advance our understanding of our world, our galaxy, our universe, and ourselves." Because of this, accelerator technology should become widespread all over the world. Existing situation shows that a large portion of the world, namely the South and Mid-East, is poor on the accelerator technology. UNESCO has recognized this deficit and started SESAME project in Mid-East, namely Jordan. Turkic Acceler...

  18. Lectures in accelerator theory

    Lecture I deals with the behavior of particles in the nonlinear field arising from the electromagnetic interaction of colliding beams. The case treated, that of counter-rotating proton beams crossing each other at a non-zero angle, has the simple feature that the force between the beam is one dimensional. In lecture II, an analysis of the development of traveling waves on particle beams is presented. The situation studied is that of a uniform beam current in a circular accelerator and the excitation for the coherent motion is induced by the resistivity of the vacuum chamber wall. Finally, in lecture III, a description of the current accumulation process used at the proton storage rings at CERN (The ISR) is given. Particle pulses of rather low average current are injected and stored along the length and width of the vacuum chamber. The efficiency is very high and large currents (over 40 amperes) have been achieved

  19. Accelerator vacuum system elements

    Some elements of vacuum systems are investigated. Considerable attention has been given to the investigation into peculiarities in pumping out of a ionoguide for transportation of an accelerated charged particles beam the spread of which often attains a considerable length. The number of pumps over the ionoguide length is experimentally determined. It is shown that as a result of ionoguide warm-up the pumping out time is considerably reduced maximum permissible pressure is decreased by two orders and lesser rate of pump pumping out is required. The investigations have shown that when operating the ionoguide there is no necessity in setting up seals between the ionoguide and magnetodischarged pump. The causes of the phenomenon in which the pressure near the pump is greater than in the end of the ionoguide, are impurities carried in by the pump into the ionoguide volume and the pumping out capacity of the pressure converter

  20. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... features of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in...... that opportunities are generally poorly appreciated by the industry and research communities alike. It is found that the construction industry is characterized by low-tech trajectories where dedicated innovation networks are often too fragile for innovations to stabilize and diffuse. The institutional...

  1. The entangled accelerating universe

    González-Díaz, Pedro F

    2009-01-01

    Using the known result that the nucleation of baby universes in correlated pairs is equivalent to spacetime squeezing, we show in this letter that there exists a T-duality symmetry between two-dimensional warp drives, which are physically expressible as localized de Sitter little universes, and two dimensional Tolman-Hawking and Gidding-Strominger baby universes respectively correlated in pairs, so that the creation of warp drives is also equivalent to spacetime squeezing. Perhaps more importantly, it has been also seen that the nucleation of warp drives entails a violation of the Bell's inequalities, and hence the phenomena of quantum entanglement, complementarity and wave function collapse. These results are generalized to the case of any dynamically accelerating universe filled with dark or phantom energy whose creation is also physically equivalent to spacetime squeezing and to the violation of the Bell's inequalities, so that the universe we are living in should be governed by essential sharp quantum the...

  2. SPS accelerating cavity

    1976-01-01

    The SPS started up with 2 accelerating cavities (each consisting of 5 tank sections) in LSS3. They have a 200 MHz travelling wave structure (see 7411032 and 7802190) and 750 kW of power is fed to each of the cavities from a 1 MW tetrode power amplifier, located in a surface building above, via a coaxial transmission line. Clemens Zettler, builder of the SPS RF system, is standing at the side of one of the cavities. In 1978 and 1979 another 2 cavities were added and entered service in 1980. These were part of the intensity improvement programme and served well for the new role of the SPS as proton-antiproton collider. See also 7411032, 8011289, 8104138, 8302397.

  3. Self-accelerated Universe

    Kosyakov, B P

    2005-01-01

    It is widely believed that the large redshifts for distant supernovae are explained by the vacuum energy dominance, or, in other words, by the cosmological constant in Einstein's equations, which is responsible for the anti-gravitation effect. A tacit assumption is that particles move along a geodesic for the background metric. This is in the same spirit as the consensus regarding the uniform Galilean motion of a free electron. However, there is a runaway solution to the Lorentz--Dirac equation governing the behavior of a radiating electron, in addition to the Galilean solution. Likewise, a runaway solution to the entire system of equations, both gravitation and matter equations of motion including, may provide an alternative explanation for the accelerated expansion of the Universe, without recourse to the hypothetic cosmological constant.

  4. Testing Gravity on Accelerators

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2016-01-01

    Weak equivalence principle (WEP) is one of the cornerstones of the modern theories of gravity, stating that the trajectory of a freely falling test body is independent of its internal structure and composition. Even though WEP is known to be valid for the normal matter with a high precision, it has never been experimentally confirmed for relativistic matter and antimatter. We make an attempt to constrain possible deviations from WEP utilizing the modern accelerator technologies. We analyze the (absence of) vacuum Cherenkov radiation, photon decay, anomalous synchrotron losses and the Compton spectra to put limits on the isotropic Lorentz violation and further convert them to the constraints on the difference between the gravitational and inertial masses of the relativistic electrons/positrons. Our main result is the 0.1% limit on the mentioned difference.

  5. Accelerating Universe and Event Horizon

    He, Xiao-Gang(INPAC, SKLPPC and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China)

    2001-01-01

    It has been argued in the literature that if a universe is expanding with an accelerating rate indefinitely, it presents a challenge to string theories due to the existence of event horizons. We study the fate of a currently accelerating universe. We show that the universe will continue to accelerate indefinitely if the parameter $\\omega = p/\\rho$ of the equation of state is a constant, no matter how many different types of energy (matter, radiation, quintessence, cosmological constant and et...

  6. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    Sanders, David M.; Sampayan, Stephen; Slenes, Kirk; Stoller, H. M.

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  7. Particle accelerator development: Selected examples

    Wei, Jie

    2016-03-01

    About 30 years ago, I was among several students mentored by Professor Yang at Stony Brook to enter the field of particle accelerator physics. Since then, I have been fortunate to work on several major accelerator projects in USA and in China, guided and at times directly supported by Professor Yang. The field of accelerator physics is flourishing worldwide both providing indispensable tools for fundamental physics research and covering an increasingly wide spectrum of applications beneficial to our society.

  8. Collective accelerator for electron colliders

    Briggs, R.J.

    1985-05-13

    A recent concept for collective acceleration and focusing of a high energy electron bunch is discussed, in the context of its possible applicability to large linear colliders in the TeV range. The scheme can be considered to be a member of the general class of two-beam accelerators, where a high current, low voltage beam produces the acceleration fields for a trailing high energy bunch.

  9. Accelerator science in medical physics

    Peach, K.; Wilson, P.; Jones, B

    2011-01-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered sin...

  10. Stationary plasma accelerator - ATON engine

    The principles of a stationary plasma accelerator (engine) with closed electron drift are described. The accelerator has record integral characteristics. A method for analysis of operating process features in the integral characteristics is proposed. Results are presented of local measurements of the plasma parameters in the accelerator channel and in the leaving plasma jet Main attention is paid to determination of the part of twice ionized ions in the plasma flow

  11. Accelerator control systems in China

    Three accelerator facilities were built in the past few years, the 2.8 GeV electron positron collider BEPC, the heavy ion SSC cyclotron accelerator HIRFL and the 800 MeV synchrotron radiation storage ring HESYRL. Aimed at different research areas, they represent a new generation of accelerator in China. This report describes the design philosophy, the structure, performance as well as future improvements of the control systems of the these facilities. (author)

  12. Superposed-laser electron acceleration

    A new mechanism is proposed for electron acceleration by using two superposed laser beams in vacuum. In this mechanism, an electron is accelerated by the longitudinal component of the wave electric field in the overlapped region of two laser beams. Single-particle computations and analytical works are performed in order to demonstrate the viability. These results show that the electron can be accelerated well in this proposed mechanism. (author)

  13. New Accelerator Projects

    There is large number of ambitious accelerator projects with promising performances in the near (and short term) future which aims at exploring energy and/or luminosity frontiers and Complementary aspects of various particles species. High Energy Physics requirements are extremely demanding with challenging parameters: entering into the new territories of the tera-scale data, high Energy or/and High (Integrated) Luminosity, high performance, high availability, long lifetime, luminosity leveling etc.. New projects are more and more challenging: larger, more powerful, more expensive, technology above present standard. Innovative ideas and breakthrough on novel technologies are key for HEP adventure. Aggressive R and D is imperative on beam and Technology related, on cost and power consumption mitigation.. There is ambitious Test Facilities to address feasibility. More and more time and (M and P) resources are required from first ideas to project proposal: it is of prime importance to launch R and D early, explore all possible options of schemes and technologies (anticipating future Physics requests), make realistic status and schedule estimates (preserve credibility and make reasonable plans). Global Collaboration is mandatory from the R and D phase to the construction and operation in order to make best use of limited resources and available expertise as inspired from successful collaborations on Detectors. The global strategy of new accelerator projects in truly world-wide collaboration aims at: - defining all various Projects and Technology options worth exploring, - taking advantage of global teams made of world-wide experts, and of synergies to address common issues (generic R and D) of various projects, - preparing together plethora of project proposals to cover Physics Landscape (ready for window opportunity), - developing Collaborative/Competition (Experts in Collaboration, Technology and Projects options in Competition), - Joining resources on (few) selected

  14. Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) Acceleration Technology

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — SRF cavities enable accelerators to increase particle beam energy levels while minimizing the use of electrical power by all but eliminating electrical resistance....

  15. Accelerators for research and applications

    The newest particle accelerators are almost always built for extending the frontiers of research, at the cutting edge of science and technology. Once these machines are operating and these technologies mature, new applications are always found, many of which touch our lives in profound ways. The evolution of accelerator technologies will be discussed, with descriptions of accelerator types and characteristics. The wide range of applications of accelerators will be discussed, in fields such as nuclear science, medicine, astrophysics and space-sciences, power generation, airport security, materials processing and microcircuit fabrication. 13 figs

  16. The Legacy of Cornell Accelerators

    Tigner, M.; Cassel, D. G.

    2015-10-01

    This is the story of a culture and its evolution and legacy. Beginning with the invention of the cyclotron at Berkeley, the path of further accelerator development at Cornell via the Los Alamos experience of the primary actors is described. The science done with the accelerators and on the accelerators and beams themselves is reviewed and brought up to the current time. The evolution of the user community and the sources of support for accelerators and science done with them are discussed at the appropriate places in the story.

  17. Physics Needs for Future Accelerators

    Lykken, Joseph D.

    2000-01-01

    Contents: 1. Prologomena to any meta future physics 1.1 Physics needs for building future accelerators 1.2 Physics needs for funding future accelerators 2. Physics questions for future accelerators 2.1 Crimes and misapprehensions 2.1.1 Organized religion 2.1.2 Feudalism 2.1.3 Trotsky was right 2.2 The Standard Model as an effective field theory 2.3 What is the scale of new physics? 2.4 What could be out there? 2.5 Model-independent conclusions 3. Future accelerators 3.1 What is the physics dr...

  18. Thomas Precession by Uniform Acceleration

    Pardy, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    We determine the nonlinear transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal acceleration limit follows from the kinematical origin and it is an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity. We derive the dependence of mass, length, time, Doppler effect, Cherenkov effect and transition radiation angle on acceleration as an analogue phenomena in special theory of relativity. The last application of our method is the Thomas precession by uniform acceleration with the possible role in the modern physics and cosmology. The comparison of derived results with other relativistic methods is necessary.

  19. Short Acceleration Times from Superdiffusive Shock Acceleration in the Heliosphere

    Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of time profiles of particles accelerated at interplanetary shocks allows particle transport properties to be inferred. The frequently observed power-law decay upstream, indeed, implies a superdiffusive particle transport when the level of magnetic field variance does not change as the time interval from the shock front increases. In this context, a superdiffusive shock acceleration (SSA) theory has been developed, allowing us to make predictions of the acceleration times. In this work we estimate for a number of interplanetary shocks, including the solar wind termination shock, the acceleration times for energetic protons in the framework of SSA and we compare the results with the acceleration times predicted by standard diffusive shock acceleration. The acceleration times due to SSA are found to be much shorter than in the classical model, and also shorter than the interplanetary shock lifetimes. This decrease of the acceleration times is due to the scale-free nature of the particle displacements in the framework of superdiffusion. Indeed, very long displacements are possible, increasing the probability for particles far from the front of the shock to return, and short displacements have a high probability of occurrence, increasing the chances for particles close to the front to cross the shock many times.

  20. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Second general accelerator physics course

    The course on general accelerator physics given at Aarhus is basically a repeat of that organised by the CERN Accelerator School at Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris in September 1984 and whose proceedings were published as CERN Yellow Report 85-19 (1985). However, the opportunity was taken to improve or extend certain subjects while introducing new ones and it is these which are included in the present proceedings. The lectures treated here include accelerator optics, insertions, image and space charge forces, neutralisation, diagnostics and intra-beam scattering while the seminar programme includes a number of specialised accelerator topics. Reports on a separate series of seminars organised by the University of Aarhus, Denmark, and devoted to advanced technology arising from general accelerator physics are also included, as well as errata to CERN 85-19. (orig.)

  1. CAS CERN Accelerator School superconductivity in particle accelerators

    One of the objectives of the CERN Accelerator School is to run courses on specialised topics in the particle accelerator field. The present volume contains the proceedings of one such course, this time organized in conjunction with the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) on the subject of superconductivity in particle accelerators. This course reflects the very considerable progress made over the last few years in the use of the technology for the magnet and radio-frequency systems of many large and small accelerators already in use or nearing completion, while also taking account of the development work now going on for future machines. The lectures cover the theory of superconductivity, cryogenics and accelerator magnets and cavities, while the seminars include superfluidity, superconductors, special magnets and the prospects for high-temperature superconductors. (orig.)

  2. ICT accelerators for radiation applications

    Several ICT accelerators were designed and constructed during the past two decades and are now in use in some factories and institutes in various parts of China. The specifications, design considerations, construction specialities and information about the applications of these accelerators are given in the present paper. (author)

  3. Correct and efficient accelerator programming

    Cohen, Albert; Donaldson, Alistair F.; Huisman, Marieke; Katoen, Joost-Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 13142 “Correct and Efficient Accelerator Programming”. The aim of this Dagstuhl seminar was to bring together researchers from various sub-disciplines of computer science to brainstorm and discuss the theoretical foundations, design and implementation of techniques and tools for correct and efficient accelerator programming.

  4. Thomas Edison Accelerated Elementary School.

    Levin, Henry M.; Chasin, Gene

    This paper describes early outcomes of a Sacramento, California, elementary school that participated in the Accelerated Schools Project. The school, which serves many minority and poor students, began training for the project in 1992. Accelerated Schools were designed to advance the learning rate of students through a gifted and talented approach,…

  5. Lorentz contraction and accelerated systems

    Tartaglia, Angelo; Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of the Lorentz contraction in accelerated systems, in the context of the special theory of relativity. Equal proper accelerations along different world lines are considered, showing the differences arising when the world lines correspond to physically connected or disconnected objects. In all cases the special theory of relativity proves to be completely self-consistent

  6. Accelerator technology for the mankind

    Full text: Particle accelerators technology is one of the generic technologies which is locomotive of the development in almost all fields of science and technology. According to the U. S. Department of Energy: Accelerators underpin every activity of the Office of Science and, increasingly, of the entire scientific enterprise. From biology to medicine, from materials to metallurgy, from elementary particles to the cosmos, accelerators provide the microscopic information that forms the basis for scientific understanding and applications. The combination of ground and satellite based observatories and particle accelerators will advance our understanding of our world, our galaxy, our universe, and ourselves. Because of this, accelerator technology should become widespread all over the world. Existing situation shows that a large portion of the world, namely the South and Mid-East, is poor on the accelerator technology. UNESCO has recognized this deficit and started SESAME project in Mid-East, namely Jordan. Turkic Accelerator Complex (TAC) project is more comprehensive and ambitious project, from the point of view of it includes light sources, particle physics experiments and proton and secondary beam applications. At this stage, TAC project includes: Linac-ring type charm factory; Synchrotron light source based on positron ring; Free electron laser based on electron linac; GeV scale proton accelerator; TAC-Test Facility

  7. Lorentz contraction and accelerated systems

    The paper discusses the problem of the Lorentz contraction in accelerated systems, in the context of the special theory of relativity. Equal proper accelerations along different world lines are considered, showing the differences arising when the world lines correspond to physically connected or disconnected objects. In all cases the special theory of relativity proves to be completely self-consistent

  8. Software for virtual accelerator designing

    The article discusses appropriate technologies for software implementation of the Virtual Accelerator. The Virtual Accelerator is considered as a set of services and tools enabling transparent execution of computational software for modeling beam dynamics in accelerators on distributed computing resources. Distributed storage and information processing facilities utilized by the Virtual Accelerator make use of the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) according to a cloud computing paradigm. Control system tool-kits (such as EPICS, TANGO), computing modules (including high-performance computing), realization of the GUI with existing frameworks and visualization of the data are discussed in the paper. The presented research consists of software analysis for realization of interaction between all levels of the Virtual Accelerator and some samples of middle-ware implementation. A set of the servers and clusters at St.-Petersburg State University form the infrastructure of the computing environment for Virtual Accelerator design. Usage of component-oriented technology for realization of Virtual Accelerator levels interaction is proposed. The article concludes with an overview and substantiation of a choice of technologies that will be used for design and implementation of the Virtual Accelerator. (authors)

  9. New directions in linear accelerators

    Current work on linear particle accelerators is placed in historical and physics contexts, and applications driving the state of the art are discussed. Future needs and the ways they may force development are outlined in terms of exciting R and D challenges presented to today's accelerator designers. 23 references, 7 figures

  10. Introduction to RF linear accelerators

    The basic features of RF linear accelerators are described. The concept of the 'loaded cavity', essential for the synchronism wave-particle, is introduced, and formulae describing the action of electromagnetic fields on the beam are given. The treatment of intense beams is mentioned, and various existing linear accelerators are presented as examples. (orig.)

  11. The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), presently under construction at Brookhaven National laboratory, is described. It consists of a 50-MeV electron beam synchronizable to a high-peak power CO2 laser. The interaction of electrons with the laser field will be probed, with some emphasis on exploring laser-based acceleration techniques. 5 refs., 2 figs

  12. COMPASS Accelerator Design Technical Overview

    Nanni, Emilio; Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC

    2016-03-14

    This report is a survey of technical options for generating a MeV-class accelerator for space based science applications. The survey was performed focusing on the primary technical requirements of the accelerator in the context of a satellite environment with its unique challenges of limited electrical power (PE), thermal isolation, dimensions, payload requirement and electrical isolation.

  13. Industrial accelerators and their applications

    Hamm, Marianne E

    2012-01-01

    This unique new book is a comprehensive review of the many current industrial applications of particle accelerators, written by experts in each of these fields. Readers will gain a broad understanding of the principles of these applications, the extent to which they are employed, and the accelerator technology utilized. The book also serves as a thorough introduction to these fields for non-experts and laymen. Due to the increased interest in industrial applications, there is a growing interest among accelerator physicists and many other scientists worldwide in understanding how accelerators are used in various applications. The government agencies that fund scientific research with accelerators are also seeking more information on the many commercial applications that have been or can be developed with the technology developments they are funding. Many industries are also doing more research on how they can improve their products or processes using particle beams.

  14. Heavy ion accelerators at GSI

    The status of the Unilac heavy ion linear accelerator at GSI, Darmstadt is given. A schematic overall plan view of the Unilac is shown and its systems are described. List of isotopes and intensities accelerated at the Unilac is presented. The experimental possibilities at GSI should be considerably extended by a heavy ion synchrotron (SIS 18) in combination with an experimental storage ring (ESR). A prototype of the rf-accelerating system of the synchrotron has been built and tested. Prototypes for the quadrupole and dipole magnets for the ring are being constructed. The SIS 18 is desigmed for a maximum magnetic rigidity of 18Tm so that neon can be accelerated to 2 GeV/W and uranium to 1 GeV/u. The design allows also the acceleration of protons up to 4.5 GeV. The ESR permits to storage fully stripped uranium ions up to an energy of approximately R50 MeV/u

  15. Computer codes in accelerator domain

    In this report a list of computer codes for calculations in accelerator physics is presented. The codes concern the design of accelerator shieldings, beam dynamics of synchrotrons and storage rings, the simulation of radiation fields in accelerators, the design of RF cavities, beam dynamics of microtrons, the optics of charged-particle beams, the design of accelerator components, the calculation of magnetic fields, the computation of thermal and mechanical processes in accelerator structures, the design of magnets, and the optimization of beam lines. Most of the codes are written in FORTRAN. (HSI) nge of computational results and pieces of software via E-mail. Also outstanding is the problem of a more efficient application of the known and tested forms of communication, e.g. selection and systematization of the data on the available program packages, Workshops of the interested users and unification of experts into working groups. (orig.)

  16. Ion sources for electrostatic accelerators

    Maybe the most important part of an electrostatic accelerator system, and also often the most tricky part is the ion source. There has been a rapid growth in activity in ion-source research and development during the last two to three decades. Some of these developments have also been of benefit to electrostatic accelerator users. In this report some of the different types of ion sources used in electrostatic accelerators are described. The list is not complete but more an overview of some of the more commonly used sources. The description is divided into two groups; positive ion sources for single stage electrostatic accelerators and negative ion sources for two stages (i.e. tandem) accelerators

  17. Linear Accelerating Superluminal Motion Model

    Zhou, J F; Li, T P; Su, Y; Venturi, T

    2004-01-01

    Accelerating superluminal motions were detected recently by multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. Here, a Linear Accelerating Superluminal Motion (LASM) model is proposed to interpret the observed phenomena. The model provides a direct and accurate way to estimate the viewing angle of a relativistic jet. It also predicts that both Doppler boosting and deboosting effects may take place in an accelerating forward jet. The LASM model is applied to the data of the quasar 3C 273, and the initial velocity, acceleration and viewing angle of its three components are derived through model fits. The variations of the viewing angle suggest that a supermassive black hole binary system may exist in the center of 3C273. The gap between the inner and outer jet in some radio loud AGNs my be explained in terms of Doppler deboosting effects when the components accelerate to ultra-relativistic speed.

  18. Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Sources

    Amato, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical sources are extremely efficient accelerators. Some sources emit photons up to multi-TeV energies, a signature of the presence, within them, of particles with energies much higher than those achievable with the largest accelerators on Earth. Even more compelling evidence comes from the study of Cosmic Rays, charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with incredibly high energies: at the highest energy end of their spectrum, these subatomic particles are carrying a macroscopic energy, up to a few Joules. Here I will address the best candidate sources and mechanisms as cosmic particle accelerators. I will mainly focus on Galactic sources such as Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae, which being close and bright, are the best studied among astrophysical accelerators. These sources are held responsible for most of the energy that is put in relativistic particles in the Universe, but they are not thought to accelerate particles up to the highest individual energies, $\\approx 10^{20}$ eV...

  19. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  20. Is Global Warming Accelerating?

    Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.