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Sample records for accelerates gastric emptying

  1. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent;

    2008-01-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated...... the effect of ingested orlistat on gastric emptying and plasma responses of gut peptides in response to a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load. In healthy subjects, gastric emptying was determined using scintigraphy and studies were performed without and with 120 mg of orlistat in pellet form...... in random order. Orlistat shortened t lag and t half and decreased the area under the gastric emptying curve. Orlistat significantly attenuated the secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but did not alter the plasma responses of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1...

  2. Gastric emptying in morbid obesity

    Weight loss following gastroplasty had no correlation with gastric emptying rate. Patients who showed transient prolongation of gastric emptying returned to normal one year later and showed no significant difference in weight loss from those who did not have temporary delayed gastric emptying. Perhaps gatroplasty (at least temporarily) reduces the gastric volume producing early satiation without affecting the gastric emptying rate as tested by a small volume radiolabelled test meal. Longer follow-up is indicated to see if delayed weight gain occurs because of gastric pouch stretching and if this has any correlation with gastric emptying rate. (Author)

  3. Distal gastrectomy in pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with accelerated gastric emptying, enhanced postprandial release of GLP-1, and improved insulin sensitivity

    Harmuth, Stefan; Wewalka, Marlene; Holst, Jens Juul; Nemecek, Romina; Thalhammer, Sabine; Schmid, Rainer; Sahora, Klaus; Gnant, Michael; Miholić, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    cause of which is unclear. The procedure is carried out with pylorus preservation (PPPD) or with distal gastrectomy (Whipple procedure). Accelerated gastric emptying and ensuing enhanced release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) conceivably play a role in glucose metabolism after PD. It was the purpose...... of this study to shed light on the relationship between gastric emptying, GLP-1 and glycemic control after PPPD and the Whipple procedure. METHODS: A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was carried out in 13 patients having undergone PPPD and in 13 after the Whipple procedure, median age 61 (range, 32......-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and oral glucose insulin sensitivity were calculated from glucose and insulin concentrations. RESULTS: Patients with Whipple procedure as compared to PPPD had accelerated gastric emptying (p = 0.01) which correlated with early (0-30 min) integrated GLP-1 (AUC30; r (2) = 0...

  4. Ghrelin receptor agonist (TZP-101) accelerates gastric emptying in adults with diabetes and symptomatic gastroparesis

    Ejskjaer, N; Vestergaard, E T; Hellström, P M;

    2009-01-01

    microg/kg) infusions in a cross-over manner following a radiolabelled meal. Blood glucose levels were stabilized using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Primary endpoints were gastric half emptying and latency times. Secondary measures included assessment of gastroparesis symptoms and endocrine...... between TZP-101 and placebo. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that the ghrelin agonist TZP-101 is well-tolerated in diabetes patients with moderate-to-severe chronic gastroparesis and shows statistically significant improvements in gastric emptying....... responses. RESULTS: Ten patients with type 1 (n = 7) or 2 (n = 3) diabetes, moderate-to-severe gastroparesis symptoms and > or =29% retention 4 h after a radiolabelled solid meal were enrolled. TZP-101 produced significant reductions in solid meal half-emptying (20%, P = 0.043) and latency (34%, P = 0...

  5. Effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin

    Min Yang; Dian-Chun Fang; Qian-Wei Li; Nian-Xu Sun; Qing-Lin Long; Jian-Feng Sui; Lu Gan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To invertigate the effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin level in a canine model of gastric motility disorders and the correlation between gastric emptying and plasma motilin level.METHODS: Ten healthy Mongrel dogs were divided into:experimental group of six dogs and control group of four dogs. A model of gastric motility disorders was established in the experimental group undergone truncal vagotomy combined with injection of glucagon. Gastric half-emptying time (GEt1/2) was monitored with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and the half-solid test meal was labeled with an isotope-99m Tc sulfur colloid. Plasma motilin concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Surface gastric pacing at 1.1-1.2 times the intrinsic slow-wave frequency and a superimposed series of high frequency pulses (10-30 Hz) was performed for 45 min daily for a month in conscious dogs.RESULTS: After surgery, GEt1/2 in dogs undergone truncal vagotomy was increased significantly from 56.35±2.99 min to 79.42±l.91 min (P<0.001), but surface gastric pacing markedly accelerated gastric emptying and significantly decreased GEt1/2 to 64,94±l.75 min (P<0.001) in animals undergone vagotomy. There was a significant increase of plasma level of motilin at the phase of IMCⅢ (interdigertive myoelectrical complex, IMCⅢ) in the dogs undergone bilateral truncal vagotomy (baseline vs vagotomy, 184.29±9.81 pg/ml vs 242.09±17,22 pg/ml; P<0.01). But plasma motilin concentration (212.55±11.20 pg/ml; P<0.02) was decreased significantly after a long-term treatment with gastric pacing.Before gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and plasma motilin concentration of the dogs undergone vagotomy showed a positive correlation (r=0.867, P<0.01), but after a long-term gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and motilin level showed a negative correlation (r=-0.733, P<0,04).CONCLUSION: Surface gastric pacing with optimal pacing parameters can improve gastric emptying

  6. Gastric emptying in patients with fundal gastritis and gastric cancer.

    Tatsuta, M.; Iishi, H.; Okuda, S

    1990-01-01

    Gastric emptying was compared in patients with gastric cancers and fundal gastritis to determine its value in identifying patients at high risk of gastric cancer. Gastric emptying was measured by the acetaminophen absorption method, and the extent of fundal gastritis was determined by the endoscopic Congo red test. The results showed that gastric emptying was significantly slower in patients with severe fundal gastritis than in those without. Gastric emptying in patients with differentiated a...

  7. Idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying presenting in adults with post-prandial diarrhea and reactive hypoglycemia: a case series

    Middleton Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We have previously reported the association of gastrointestinal and hypoglycemic symptoms, with idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying. We now report the first series of six similar cases. Case presentations Patient 1: A 24-year-old Caucasian man presented to our facility with a six-month history of post-prandial nausea, flatulence, bloating, abdominal discomfort and associated diarrhea. He had associated episodes of fatigue, sweating, anxiety, confusion and craving for sweet foods. Patient 2: A 52-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a 15-year history of post-prandial bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhea, often associated with nausea, severe sweating, and fatigue. Patient 3: An 18-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a nine-year history of post-prandial diarrhea, abdominal bloating and pain. There was associated nausea, tremor, lethargy, and craving for sweet foods. Patient 4: A 77-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a four-month history of epigastric distension, pain after eating and a change in bowel habit. She experienced intermittent severe diarrhea and marked fatigue, nausea and sweating. Patient 5: A 23-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a two-year history of early satiety, and diarrhea after eating. She also complained of feeling faint and weak between meals, when she became cold and clammy, and on several occasions lost consciousness during these episodes. Patient 6: A 64-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a 10-year history of nausea, early satiety and profound bloating followed by diarrhea. All symptoms predominantly occurred in the first three hours after eating, when she felt faint, lethargic, and had a craving for sweet foods. In all cases, symptoms were alleviated or resolved by taking sweet food or drink and response to treatment was 90% or greater in all cases. Conclusions This series extends our description

  8. Patient motion artifacts on scintigraphic gastric emptying studies

    Patient motion during scintigraphic gastric emptying studies can result in the false diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux or of accelerated gastric emptying. A simple means of detecting patient motion, by generating a time-activity curve from a region of interest drawn about a Tc-99m marker, is described

  9. Gastric emptying measured by ultrasonography

    1999-01-01

    @@ A number of different methods have been used to estimate gastric emptying in humans, and all have their advantages and disadvantages. The method of choice will depend on whether solid or liquid meals are studied, the level of precision required, the degree of invasiveness that the subject or patient will tolerate, ethical considerations, and not at least the facilities available.

  10. Gastric emptying in normal subjects

    Rasmussen, L.; Oster-Jorgensen, E.; Qvist, N.;

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between meal ingestion and phase activity of the migrating motor complex and whether reproducibility is increased when meal ingestion takes place in relation to preselected...... investigations on gastric emptying have to be performed with phase related meal ingestion and a double radionuclide technique....... that liquid lag phase (min) and was significantly shorter in Phase II than in Phase I (1 vs. 4, P = 0.007). The half emptying time of solid linear phase (min) was reproduced with nearly identical median and range values in the three series (I[1]: 67[51-87]; I[2]: 63[47-80]; 61[47-76]). With meal ingestion...

  11. A study of the dynamics of gastric emptying

    Factors influencing gastric emptying were studied by measuring gastric emptying time (GET) with RI experimentally and clinically. The restlts are as follows: 1. The parasympathetic blockers suppressed gastric emptying but the parasympathetic stimulater did not accelerate it. 2. Posture of the subject in measurement influenced gastric emptying and GET was reduced in order of prone, sitting and supine positions. 3. In cases of gastric and duodenal ulcer, there were differences of GET between pre-operation and post-operation depending on the methods of operation. 4. The GET was measured to investigate the gastric emptying of liquid and solid food by double RI tracer method, using 99mTc-DTPA and 111In-DTPA which were measured separately. The GET of liquid food was faster than that of solid food and was influenced by the stickiness of coexistent solid food. On the other hand, the GET of solid food tended to be faster with increasing stickiness. (author)

  12. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera. (U.K.)

  13. Gastric emptying: a comparison of three methods

    Glerup, Henning; Bluhme, Henrik; Villadsen, Gerda Elisabeth;

    2007-01-01

    -acetate breath test) are compared with the gold standard (gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES)). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three techniques were used simultaneously in 10 healthy subjects. A gastric emptying time-retention curve was drawn for each technique and the results were compared at the 75%, 50% and 25......OBJECTIVE: A better understanding of the clinical relevance of delayed gastric emptying (e.g. in diabetes) requires a simple, easily accessible and inexpensive method for measuring it. Two "new" methods for measuring gastric emptying of liquids (the paracetamol absorption test and the 13C...

  14. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  15. [Gastric emptying in reflux esophagitis. Effect of metoclopramide and cinitapride].

    Monés, J; Espinós, J C; Carrió, I; Calabuig, R; Vilardell, F

    1989-09-30

    The gastric emptying of solids was evaluated with radionuclide techniques in 16 patients with reflux esophagitis, demonstrated by two of the following methods: endoscopy, pathology, and/or pH measurement. The percentage of radionuclide remaining within the stomach was 80.8 +/- 17% after 45 minutes, 63.3 +/- 10% after 75 minutes, and 48.8 +/- 19% after 105 minutes, with a half time (T1/2) of gastric emptying of 103.4 +/- 6 minutes. These results showed significant differences in T1/2 with those from a control group of healthy individuals, the gastric emptying being slower in patients with esophagitis (103.4 min vs 85.3 min; p less than 0.01). Subsequently, a double blind study to assess the effect of metoclopramide and cinitapride on gastric emptying in patients with reflux esophagitis was carried out. Cinitapride accelerated the gastric emptying of solids with statistically significant differences when compared with placebo (84 min vs 104 min, p less than 0.05). In this study, metoclopramide showed a tendency to accelerate gastric emptying, although it did not achieve a significant difference with placebo. PMID:2691780

  16. Gastric emptying abnormalities in progressive systemic sclerosis

    The authors studied gastric emptying (GE) in patients with peripheral manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) using a radionuclide method. 18 patients underwent esophageal manometry and a GE study using chicken liver labeled in vivo with Tc-99m sulfur colloid as a marker of solid emptying. GE was also measured in 13 normal volunteers. 4 PSS patients with normal esophageal motility also had normal GE. The GE of 14 PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed; with 67.4% retention of isotope after 2 hours compared to 49.8 in normals. The authors conclude that GE of solids is slow in approximately 2/3 of PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility but is normal if the esophagus is uninvolved; Delayed GE may contribute to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux in PSS patients and the degree of dysphasgia; and Metoclopramide accelerates GE in PSS patients and should have a valuable therapeutic role

  17. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals

  18. Review article: gastric emptying in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Although delayed gastric emptying has been described in several functional gastrointestinal disorders, and appears to be especially common in functional dyspepsia, the relationship of this finding to symptoms and basic pathophysiology is difficult to define. The delineation of the interactions between delayed gastric emptying, on the one hand, and symptom pathogenesis, on the other, has been hampered by several factors. These include the limitations of the methodology itself, the extent of overlap between the various functional disorders and the sensitivity of gastric emptying to factors external to the stomach, be they elsewhere within the gastrointestinal tract, in the central nervous system or in the environment. In many instances, delayed gastric emptying is an epiphenomenon, reflecting the overlap between inadequately defined functional syndromes, shared pathophysiology or the activation of physiological interactions between the various organs of the gut. In others, it may imply a truly diffuse motor disorder. The disappointments attendant on attempts to alleviate symptoms through approaches designed to accelerate gastric emptying should therefore not come as a surprise. Pending the definition of the true significance of delayed gastric emptying in all functional gastrointestinal disorders, caution should be exerted in the interpretation of this finding in a patient with functional symptoms.

  19. A New Approach in Modelling Gastric Emptying in Fish

    SEYHAN, Kadir

    2003-01-01

    In this study, gastric emptying and factors affecting gastric emptying in fish are briefly reviewed. How stomach-sampling time affects gastric emptying curves in relation to realising the chyme in fish is presented. A new modelling approach describing gastric emptying in fishes is also given.

  20. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K;

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb......To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  1. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  2. Gastric emptying with gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Di Lorenzo, C.; Piepsz, A; Ham, H; Cadranel, S

    1987-01-01

    The time taken for gastric emptying of a liquid (milk) or a semi-liquid (pudding) meal was evaluated in 477 infants and children. These patients were referred for suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux and underwent gastro-oesophageal scintigraphy, prolonged oesophageal pH study, manometric evaluation of the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, and fibreoptic endoscopy. No difference in gastric emptying was observed in children aged under 3 years, regardless of the presence or absence of the ga...

  3. Influences of fat restriction and lipase inhibition on gastric emptying in obesity

    E.M.H. Mathus-Vliegen; M.L. van Ierland-van Leeuwen; R.J. Bennink

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Accelerated gastric emptying of solids may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Orlistat, a potent lipase inhibitor, induces fat malabsorption and body weight loss but might accelerate gastric emptying as a result of suppressed CCK release. The aim was to investigate the role of fa

  4. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets

  5. Disorders of gastric emptying and the application of radionuclide techniques

    There has been a greatly increased understanding of the physiology of gastric emptying in normal subjects, and of the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of gastric empyting disorders associated with the development and application of methods to quantify gastric emptying in humans. The non-invasive measurement of gastric emptying by means of radionuclide-labelled food markers has widespread clinical and research applications

  6. Gastric emptying in the normal cat: a radiographic study

    Liquid-phase gastric emptying times of cats have been documented, but not solid-phase gastric emptying times. Gastric transit times, gastric emptying times, and small intestine transit times were determined in eight normal cats. The mean values +/- SD were 42.5 +/- 15.6 min, 11.6 +/- 0.9 hrs, and 4.1 +/- 3.0 hrs respectively

  7. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens;

    2004-01-01

    The insulinotropic gut hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric acid secretion and was proposed to possess "enterogastrone" activity. GIP effects on gastric emptying have not yet been studied. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (23.9 +/- 3.3 yr, body mass....... Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA...... and 31 +/- 9 pmol/l for intact GIP during the administration of GIP and placebo, respectively (P Gastric half-emptying times were 120 +/- 9 and 120 +/- 18 min (P = 1...

  8. Simultaneous gastric emptying of two solid foods

    Weiner, K.; Graham, L.S.; Reedy, T.; Elashoff, J.; Meyer, J.H.

    1981-08-01

    A variety of radionuclide-labeled, solid foods have been used to measure gastric emptying. Implicit is the idea that the nuclide label identifies the rate of emptying of meal contents. The present studies tested whether different foods empty from the human stomach at different rates. Eight volunteers were fed meals of 200 ml of water + 213 g of beef stew + 52 g of chicken liver, with half the liver as 0.25-mm particles and half as 10-mm chunks, labeled with /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 113m/In, respectively, or the reverse. Another 8 subjects ingested 200 ml of water + 75 g of noodles, labeled with /sup 123/I, + 30 g of liver, labeled with /sup 113/In. Gastric emptying of each radionuclide was determined for 3 h by measuring the decline of counts in the gastric region of interest, using an Ohio Nuclear S410 gamma camera interfaced to a DEC computer. In each case, appropriate corrections were made for nuclear decay, down-scatter from /sup 113m/In, and septal penetration. Seven of 8 subjects emptied 0.25-mm liver particles more quickly than 10-mm chunks of liver, while 1 subject emptied the two sizes of liver at the same rate. The t 1/2 for the 0.25-mm liver was 70 +/- 10 min; and for the 10-mm liver, 117 +/- 19 min (p less than 0.05). Six of 8 subjects emptied noodles much faster than liver, while 2 emptied the two foods at similar rates. The t 1/2 for the noodles was 52 +/- 8 min; and for the liver, 82 +/- 5 min (p less than 0.02). Since different foods in the same meal were found to empty at different rates, we conclude the gastric emptying of every food in a meal is not accurately represented by the emptying of a single, nuclide-labeled food. The different t 1/2s for the emptying of 10-mm liver in the two meals (p less than 0.05) probably reflected the influence of other meal components on gastric motility.

  9. Simultaneous gastric emptying of two solid foods

    A variety of radionuclide-labeled, solid foods have been used to measure gastric emptying. Implicit is the idea that the nuclide label identifies the rate of emptying of meal contents. The present studies tested whether different foods empty from the human stomach at different rates. Eight volunteers were fed meals of 200 ml of water + 213 g of beef stew + 52 g of chicken liver, with half the liver as 0.25-mm particles and half as 10-mm chunks, labeled with /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 113m/In, respectively, or the reverse. Another 8 subjects ingested 200 ml of water + 75 g of noodles, labeled with /sup 123/I, + 30 g of liver, labeled with /sup 113/In. Gastric emptying of each radionuclide was determined for 3 h by measuring the decline of counts in the gastric region of interest, using an Ohio Nuclear S410 gamma camera interfaced to a DEC computer. In each case, appropriate corrections were made for nuclear decay, down-scatter from /sup 113m/In, and septal penetration. Seven of 8 subjects emptied 0.25-mm liver particles more quickly than 10-mm chunks of liver, while 1 subject emptied the two sizes of liver at the same rate. The t 1/2 for the 0.25-mm liver was 70 +/- 10 min; and for the 10-mm liver, 117 +/- 19 min (p less than 0.05). Six of 8 subjects emptied noodles much faster than liver, while 2 emptied the two foods at similar rates. The t 1/2 for the noodles was 52 +/- 8 min; and for the liver, 82 +/- 5 min (p less than 0.02). Since different foods in the same meal were found to empty at different rates, we conclude the gastric emptying of every food in a meal is not accurately represented by the emptying of a single, nuclide-labeled food. The different t 1/2s for the emptying of 10-mm liver in the two meals (p less than 0.05) probably reflected the influence of other meal components on gastric motility

  10. Definition of a gastric emptying abnormality in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Upper gastrointestinal symptoms may be prominent in anorexia nervosa. This study is an investigation of the gastric emptying of solid and liquid meal components in 16 female patients who met accepted psychiatric diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. The results were compared with those of gastric emptying studies in 10 normal females of ideal body weight, 13 normal persons (12 males), and six patients with weight loss secondary to Crohn's disease with no psychiatric symptoms. A dual-isotope technique using chicken liver intracellularly labeled with technetium-/sup 99m/ (/sup 99m/Tc) bound to sulfur colloid as the solid-phase marker, and indium-111 (111In) -labeled water as the liquid-phase marker was used. In 13 of the 16 anorexia nervosa patients (80%), gastric emptying of solids was slower than the range in the two groups of normal subjects, and mean gastric emptying was significantly slower than in the weight-loss patients. Liquid emptying (water) in anorexia nervosa was normal and similar to the control groups studied. In 11 of the anorexia nervosa patients with delayed gastric emptying, intramuscular metoclopramide, 10 mg, significantly accelerated the mean gastric emptying from 60 through 120 min after the meal. The authors conclude that these data are consistent with an antral motility disturbance, either primary or secondary; and metoclopramide, a gastric prokinetic agent, accelerates (delayed) gastric emptying

  11. Gastric emptying after proximal subtotal gastrectomy for cardiac cancer

    Objective: To assess emptying of the remaining stomach after proximal subtotal gastrectomy for cardiac cancer, and to explore a method improving the life quality of postoperative patients. Methods: Radio-nuclide gastric emptying test was performed on 17 patients who underwent proximal subtotal gastrectomy plus disruption of pyloric sphincter (PSG + DPS) by manipulative nipping and on 8 patients who underwent proximal subtotal gastrectomy (PSG) only 18 to 20 d before, and on 5 normal controls. Test meal was prepared from the mixture of soybean milk powder (40 g), water (200 mL) and 99Tcm-DTPA (18.5 MBq) as a tracer. Results: During the first 105 min after ingestion of test meal, gastric emptying rate at each time was lower in PSG group than those in PSG + DPS group (P 0.05). The time required for the stomach to empty half of its radioactive content (T1/2) was longer in the patients who had PSG only [(61.5 +- 7.0) min] than that in those who underwent PSG + DPS [(25.6 +- 5.6) min], (P = 0.0013) and normal controls [(33.6 +- 6.1) min], (P = 0.026). However, there was no significant difference regarding T1/2 between the patients with PSG + DPS and normal controls (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Proximal subtotal gastrectomy inevitably delays the emptying of remaining stomach, and DPS can effectively accelerate its emptying and improve postoperative symptoms

  12. Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were assessed using scintigraphic techniques in 12 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 22 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was significantly delayed in the patient group, with 7 of the 12 patients beyond the normal range. Gastric emptying was slower in patients than in controls, with 9 patients being outside the normal range for solid emptying and 7 patients outside the normal range for liquid emptying. Findings from gastric and esophageal emptying tests generally correlated well with symptoms of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux. However, 2 patients with normal emptying studies had symptomatic heartburn, and 2 patients with delay of both solid and liquid gastric emptying gave no history of gastroesophageal reflux. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis

  13. Normal range of gastric emptying in children

    Full text: As part of a larger study looking at gastric emptying times in cystic fibrosis, we assessed the normal range of gastric emptying in a control group of children. Thirteen children (8 girls, 5 boys) aged 4-15 years (mean 10) were studied. Excluded were children with a history of relevant gastrointestinal medical or surgical disease, egg allergy or medication affecting gastric emptying. Imaging was performed at 08.00 h after an overnight fast. The test meal was consumed in under 15 min and comprised one 50 g egg, 80 g commercial pancake mix, 10 ml of polyunsaturated oil, 40 ml of water and 30 g of jam. The meal was labelled with 99Tcm-macroaggregates of albumin. Water (150 ml) was also consumed with the test meal. One minute images of 128 x 128 were acquired over the anterior and posterior projections every 5 min for 30 min, then every 15 min until 90 min with a final image at 120 min. Subjects remained supine for the first 60 min, after which they were allowed to walk around. A time-activity curve was generated using the geometric mean of anterior and posterior activity. The half emptying time ranged from 55 to 107 min (mean 79, ± 2 standard deviations 43-115). Lag time (time for 5% to leave stomach) ranged from 2 to 26 min (mean 10). The percent emptied at 60 min ranged from 47 to 73% (mean 63%). There was no correlation of half emptying time with age. The normal reference range for a test meal of pancakes has been established for 13 normal children

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may be defined as a dysfunction of the distal esophagus causing return of gastric contents into the esophagus. GER is a rather common problem during infancy, with an incidence estimated as 1 in 500 infants. Several methods are available to diagnose and quantitate GER. These include fluoroscopy after barium feedings, in conjunction with an upper gastrointestinal series; esophageal manometry; endoscopy; pH probe monitoring, in conjunction with a Tuttle Test; and extended pH probe evaluation for a 24-h period. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy has been advocated as an alternative noninvasive study requiring no sedation. Scintigraphy offers the advantages of prolonged observation, high sensitivity, and low radiation exposure

  15. Gastric emptying in children: unusual patterns detected by scintigraphy

    Seibert, J.J.; Byrne, W.J.; Euler, A.R.

    1983-07-01

    The time-activity curve of gastric emptying of milk was evaluated in 49 infants and children who were also being evaluated for gastrointestinal reflux. After oral ingestion of technetium-99m sulfur colloid in a milk formula, the normal 1 hr were determined. Normal gastric emptying in infants was 48% (+/- 16%) and in children 51% (+/- 7%). Unusual emptying patterns were observed when an overlying duodenum was present, making accurate estimation of gastric emptying difficult. Three children with gastric outlet abstruction showed similar delayed plateau emptying patterns.

  16. Gastric emptying in children: unusual patterns detected by scintigraphy

    The time-activity curve of gastric emptying of milk was evaluated in 49 infants and children who were also being evaluated for gastrointestinal reflux. After oral ingestion of technetium-99m sulfur colloid in a milk formula, the normal 1 hr were determined. Normal gastric emptying in infants was 48% (+/- 16%) and in children 51% (+/- 7%). Unusual emptying patterns were observed when an overlying duodenum was present, making accurate estimation of gastric emptying difficult. Three children with gastric outlet abstruction showed similar delayed plateau emptying patterns

  17. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-08-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with /sup 51/Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK.

  18. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with 51Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK

  19. Measurements of Gastric Emptying by Biomagnetic Techniques

    Vázquez, L. A.; Sosa, M.; Córdova, T.; Vargas, F. M.; Huerta, M. R.

    2006-09-01

    In the present work a new method to measure the average time of gastric emptying by using a magnetic tracer is showed, this work shows the application of foundations of the electromagnetic theory in the study of the gastrointestinal system. The presented technique is relatively cheap and can be used it to diagnose of diseases, is a noninvasive method, is a technique that does not use ionizing radiation. In this investigation was possible to measure the average time of gastric emptying with a very high precision. In this investigation measurements of 10 healthy volunteers were made, and an average time of gastric emptying of 36.45 minutes in the space of the time was obtained, in addition with the analysis to the signal by means of the use of a pass-band filter it was possible to measure the peristaltic frequencies of the stomach and an average time of 37.24 minutes in the space of frequencies. With this technique it is possible to obtain data of the walls of the stomach. A peristaltic frequency of 2.79 was obtained cpm (cycles per minute).

  20. Novel method to assess gastric emptying in humans: the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test

    Choe, S. Y.; Neudeck, B. L.; Welage, L. S.; Amidon, G. E.; Barnett, J. L.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    To further validate the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test (PGET) as a marker of gastric emptying, a randomized, four-way crossover study was conducted with 12 healthy subjects. The study consisted of oral co-administration of enteric coated caffeine (CAFF) and acetaminophen (APAP) pellets in four treatment phases: Same Size (100 kcal), Fasted, Small Liquid Meal (100 kcal), and Standard Meal (847 kcal). The time of first appearance of measurable drug marker in plasma, t(initial), was taken as the emptying time for the markers. Co-administration of same size enteric coated pellets of CAFF and APAP (0.7 mm in diameter) revealed no statistically significant differences in t(initial) values indicating that emptying was dependent only on size and not on chemical make-up of the pellets. Co-administration of different size pellets indicated that the smaller 0.7-mm diameter (CAFF) pellets were emptied and absorbed significantly earlier than the larger 3.6-mm diameter (APAP) pellets with both the Small Liquid Meal (by 35 min) and the Standard Meal (by 33 min) (P<0.05). The differences in emptying of the pellets were not significant in the Fasted Phase. The results suggest that the pellet gastric emptying test could prove useful in monitoring changes in transit times in the fasted and fed states and their impact on drug absorption.

  1. Definition of a gastric emptying abnormality in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    McCallum, R W; Grill, B B; Lange, R; Planky, M; Glass, E E; Greenfeld, D G

    1985-08-01

    Upper gastrointestinal symptoms may be prominent in anorexia nervosa. This study is an investigation of the gastric emptying of solid and liquid meal components in 16 female patients (mean age 20.0 years, range 14-40 years) who met accepted psychiatric diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. The results were compared with those of gastric emptying studies in 10 normal females of ideal body weight (mean age 25.4 years, range 20-35), 13 normal persons (12 males), and six patients (mean age 12 years, range 9-14 years) with weight loss (less than 90 percent ideal body weight) secondary to Crohn's disease with no psychiatric symptoms. A dual-isotope technique using chicken liver intracellularly labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) bound to sulfur colloid as the solid-phase marker, and indium-111 (111In) -labeled water as the liquid-phase marker was used. Gastric emptying was monitored for 2 hr by gamma camera. In 13 of the 16 anorexia nervosa patients (80%), gastric emptying of solids was slower than the range in the two groups of normal subjects, and mean gastric emptying was significantly slower (P less than 0.05) than in the weight-loss patients. Liquid emptying (water) in anorexia nervosa was normal and similar to the control groups studied. In 11 of the anorexia nervosa patients with delayed gastric emptying, intramuscular metoclopramide, 10 mg, significantly (P less than 0.05) accelerated the mean gastric emptying from 60 through 120 min after the meal. We conclude that in anorexia nervosa patients who are symptomatic and seeking medical care: gastric emptying of solids is significantly delayed when compared with female subjects of similar age and normal body weight and with patients of less than 90% ideal body weight but without psychiatric disorder; these data are consistent with an antral motility disturbance, either primary or secondary; and metoclopramide, a gastric prokinetic agent, accelerates (delayed) gastric emptying. PMID:4017831

  2. Effect of sucralfate on gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients

    Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may have accelerated gastric emptying (GE) suggesting that there is an increase in unbuffered gastric acid reaching the duodenum contributing to DU disease. Aluminum-containing antacids were shown to delay GE. The authors' aim was to investigate whether another aluminum-containing compound, Sucralfate, affects GE in normal and DU patients. Nine normal volunteers and 10 patients with documented DU disease were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of chicken liver Tc-99m-S-C mixed with beef stew and eaten with 4 oz. of water labelled with 100μCi of III-in-DTPA. On two separate days, subjects received 1 gram of Sucralfate (190 mg of aluminum per gram) or placebo in a randomized double-blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. GE of liquids and solids in normal subjects was not significantly changed by Sucralfate. Sucralfate in the DU patients significantly slowed liquid emptying in the initial 40 min and solid food throughout the study compared to placebo (p<0.05). This paper summarizes that; GE of solids but not liquids is accelerated in DU patients compared to normal subjects; and sucralfate delays GE of both liquid and solid components of a meal in DU patients but has no effect on GE in normals. The authors conclude that a slowing of gastric emptying possibly mediated by aluminum ions, may be one mechanism by which Sucralfate enhances healing and decreases recurrence of DU

  3. Gastric emptying in patients with chronic liver diseases

    Ishizu, Hirotaka; Shiomi, Susumu; Kawamura, Etsushi; Iwata, Yoshinori; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Kawabe, Joji; Ochi, Hironobu [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    There have been a number of reports of gastric emptying in cirrhosis, all with unconfirmed results. Moreover, the mechanism for delayed emptying in cirrhotic patients in unclear. We evaluated gastric emptying in patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis by means of gastric emptying scintigraphy. The subjects were 18 normal controls and 75 patients with chronic viral hepatitis (50 patients had chronic hepatitis and 25 patients had cirrhosis). Tc-99m diethyltriamine pentaacetic acid labeled solid meals were used to evaluate gastric emptying; the half-time (T 1/2) of which was calculated. Digestive symptom scores were determined at the time of gastric emptying tests. Fourteen (28%) of 50 patients with chronic hepatitis and 16 (64%) of 25 patients with cirrhosis had delayed gastric emptying. T 1/2 in patients with cirrhosis was significantly higher than that in normal controls and patients with chronic hepatitis (p=0.0001 and 0.0003, respectively). The difference between T 1/2 in patients with chronic hepatitis and that in normal controls was not significant. On regression analysis, two indices, the serum albumin level and platelet count, were found to be significantly related to delayed gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was more delayed in cirrhotic patients than in those with chronic hepatitis and normal controls. Delayed gastric emptying may be related to liver function and portal hypertension. (author)

  4. Atrial fibrillation and delayed gastric emptying.

    Isadora C Botwinick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and delayed gastric emptying (DGE are common after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Our aim was to investigate a potential relationship between atrial fibrillation and DGE, which we defined as failure to tolerate a regular diet by the 7(th postoperative day. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 249 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at our institution between 2000 and 2009. Data was analyzed with Fisher exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U or unpaired T-test for continuous variables. RESULTS: Approximately 5% of the 249 patients included in the analysis experienced at least one episode of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Median age of patients with atrial fibrillation was 74 years, compared with 66 years in patients without atrial fibrillation (p = 0.0005. Patients with atrial fibrillation were more likely to have a history of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.03. 92% of the patients with atrial fibrillation suffered from DGE, compared to 46% of patients without atrial fibrillation (p = 0.0007. This association held true when controlling for age. CONCLUSION: Patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation are more likely to experience delayed gastric emptying. Interventions to manage delayed gastric function might be prudent in patients at high risk for postoperative atrial fibrillation.

  5. Gastric emptying in patients with supraventricular tachycardia

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) on gastric emptying (GE). Six patients (pts) with episodic SVT had electrophysiological evaluation while a Swan-Ganz catheter was in place. Liquid GE was determined during SVT and twice in sinus rhythm (SR). All studies were done at least 24 hours apart and were analyzed blindly. Serial Anger camera images were obtained over the anterior abdomen after ingestion of 500 μCi of Tc-99m S.C. mixed with one ounce of beverage and at 5 minute intervals for 90 minutes. Results are shown in this paper. There were no significant differences in GE between SR on two occasions. Simultaneous hemodynamic measurement during SR and SVT suggested impairment of gastric emptying was related to the extent of hemodynamic change during SVT. The clinical importance of establishing impaired GE in pts with SVT is that reduced GE may delay or prevent absorption of anti-arrhythmic drugs, as the medication will tend to remain in the stomach and not reach the small intestine. This may prevent the use of intermittent outpatient oral drug therapy to terminate episodic SVT

  6. Radionuclide study of gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients

    To evaluate gastric emptying, 20 patients with anorexia nervosa were given 150 μCi of Tc-99m triethylene tetraamine polystyrene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5-minute intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The GET results were divided into three categories: prolonged (10 patients); rapid (eight); and normal (two). Although all patients had symptoms of gastric dysfunction, only 50% had prolonged GET. This study allows the objective documentation of gastric emptying and the separation of patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide

  7. Gastric Emptying in Patients with Diabetes: Gastric Emptying Time, Retention Rate and Effect of Cisapride

    Gastic emptying scan in diabetic patients is widely used to assess the degree of motility disturbance and the symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain and early gastric fullness which we can't find anatomic lesion by fiberoscopic or barium study. In order to determine the relationship among diabetic gastropathy, neropathy, retinopathy and disease duration, gastric emptying scan using 99mTc-tin colloid labeled scramble egg in hamburger was performed in 10 healthy male controls and 50 diabetic patients which were subdivided to no neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy groups according to the degree of diabetic neuropathy and no retinopathy, background retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy groups according to the degree of diabetic retinopathy. After medication of cisapride for 2 weeks, we observed the presence of improvement of gastric motility in diabetics. The results were as following: 1) In controls, gastric emptying time (GET1/2) was 75 ± 13.6 min and 2 hour gastric retension rate(GRR2) was 32 ± 11.1%. 2) In diabetics, GET/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours and GRR2 was 58 ± 23.1%. According to degree of neuropathy, GET1/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours in all three groups and GRR2 was 54± 24.1% in no neuropathy group, 57 ± 24.3% in peripheral neuropathy group and 69 ± 24.6% in autonomic neuropathy group. According to degree of retinopathy, GET1/2 was 110 ± 23.4 min in no retinopathy group and prolonged more than 2 hours in other two groups and GRR2 was 45 ± 21.6% in no retinopathy group, 71 ± 19.7% in background retinopathy group and 73 ± 21.5% in proliferative retinopathy group. 3) After cisapride for 2 weeks, GET1/2 and GRR2 were improved as 90 ± 14.6 min and 40 ± 13.8% (initial GET1/2 and GRR2 were above 2 hours and 61 ± 15.4%). We can conclude from above findings that gastropathy in diabetic neuropathy suggesting main underlying factor in motility disorder. The degree of retinopathy and disease

  8. Gastric Emptying Time in Acute and Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

    Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting are one of the most frequent symptoms in viral hepatitis patients. These may be due to poorly detoxified substances by dysfunctioned hepatocytes or by gastritis, but the pathophysiology is not totally understood. The symptoms interfere with adequate nutrient intake and are managed by metaclopramide, which accelerates gastric emptying. Thus delayed gastric emptying may well be a contributing factor to such symptoms. To determine such a relationship, we measured gastric emptying time in 11 normal subjects, 9 acute (AVH), and 12 chronic B viral hepatitis (CVH) patients. All were males with a mean age of 23 years. An egg was labeled with 0.5 mCi of 99mTc-sulfur colloid, fried, then eaten between 2 slices of bread with 100 cc of water. Anterior and posterior images were taken at 20 minute intervals over a 2 hour period. A geometric mean of activity pertaining to the gastric region was measured, and T1/2 was calculated from the time activity curve. T1/2 for normal the group was 57.8 ± 6.3 minutes while that for the AVH and CVH group was 58.2 ± 8.2 (p=0.40) and 64.1 ± 10.5 (p=0.09), respectively. There was 1 AVH patient and 4 CVH patients with prolonged T1/2. Anorexia and nausea was seen in 71% and 46% of the patients, respectively. 80% and 60% of the patients with prolonged T1/2 had anorexia and nausea, respectively.

  9. Gastric emptying and gastro-oesophageal reflux in preterm infants.

    Ewer, A K; Durbin, G M; Morgan, M E; Booth, I W

    1996-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in preterm infants, but the role of gastric emptying as a causal factor has not been studied before. Gastric emptying was therefore measured in 19 healthy preterm infants (median gestational age 32 weeks) while concurrently measuring 24 hour lower oesophageal pH, using an antimony pH electrode, positioned manometrically. Real time ultrasonic images of the gastric antrum were obtained, and measurements of antral cross-sectional area (ACSA) were made immediat...

  10. Image registration in gastric emptying studies

    Shuter, B.; Cooper, R.G. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia). Dept of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: We have previously shown that image registration, based upon a two-dimensional cross-correlation (CC) of logarithmic Laplacian images (LLI), corrected motion in biliary studies in up to 90% of cases with minimal artifact. We have now applied the same technique to gastric emptying studies (GES). GES were acquired on an LFOV gamma camera over a two-hour period as 20-26 pairs of anterior-posterior frames (30 second duration and 64 x 64 matrix) for both solid and liquid components. All images were manually registered so that the solid contents of the stomach lay within an operator-drawn ROI. The anterior images of the solid component for 30 randomly selected patients were subjected to further image registration using CC of LLI, CC of raw images (Rl) (a common approach to image registration) and CC of Laplacian images (Ll). All images were aligned to the third image of the study, on which an ROI was drawn to outline the stomach. The number of images in which stomach counts appeared outside this ROI were tallied, in the original and all re-registered studies. Maximum displacements in X/Y position between images of studies registered by the LLI and Rl methods were also computed to directly compare positional accuracy. Stomachs partially exceeded the limits of the ROI in 27, 9, 53 and 54 frames (total of 710) in the original, LLI, Rl and Ll studies respectively. There were 4, 1, 6 and 7 studies with misregistered stomachs on more than 2 frames. Frames in seven Rl studies differed from the LLI studies in X/Y position by 3 pixels or more. Cross-correlation using LLI was the only method which improved upon the original manual registration. The Rl and Ll methods increased the number of misregistered frames. We conclude that in gastric emptying studies, as in biliary studies, object tracking by CC of LLI is the method of choice for image registration.

  11. Study of the Gastric Emptying in Humans: Biomagnetic Assessments

    Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sosa, M.; Vargas-Luna, M.

    2006-09-01

    Biomagnetic studies of the gastrointestinal system can be carried out in two ways. Recording the magnetic field produced by the myenteric nervous system or created by any oral contrast mean as magnetic tracers or markers. In the first case, a SQUID magnetometer is demanded while a fluxgate magnetometer is enough in the second case. In this work, a magnetic marker was ingested by 8 healthy volunteers, in three gastric volume conditions, to measure the luminal content volume effect in the gastric emptying and to perform the quantification of the peristaltic frequencies in gastric and duodenum tract segments. The average emptying times for low luminal content, relative to the emptying time when the intake was the highest, were 43.6 ± 15.6 % and 77.3 ± 47.0 %. These results show that the biomagnetic technique is a powerful modality to estimate the effects of the gastric volume in the gastric emptying and a way to record the peristaltic frequencies.

  12. Gastric emptying in adults treated for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jörgensen, E; Hansen, L P;

    1989-01-01

    The gastric emptying rate was scintigraphically determined in 6 women and 26 men who had undergone medical or surgical treatment for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis a median of 29 years previously. Dyspeptic complaints were reported by four of the seven medically treated and nine of the 25...... surgically treated group. No intergroup difference was demonstrated in the gastric emptying rate of liquid or solid food, and neither group differed significantly from the normal values. The gastric emptying rate, measured as in this study, thus was uninfluenced by treatment....

  13. Morbid obesity treated by gastroplasty: radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    Arnstein, N.B.; Shapiro, B.; Eckhauser, F.E.; Dmuchowski, C.F.; Knol, J.A.; Strodel, W.E.; Nakajo, M.; Swanson, D.P.

    1985-08-01

    Mechanisms by which gastroplasty for morbid obesity causes weight loss are poorly understood. The authors studied the role of altered gastric emptying in 50 patients before surgery, 1-4 weeks after surgery, and 2-24 months after surgery using technetium-99m pentetate in water for liquid meals and a Tc-99m styrene divinylbenzene copolymer resin in oatmeal for semisolid meals. They determined the emptying half-times of the stomach before and after surgery in the proximal and distal compartments. The proximal compartment emptied promptly in the early and late postoperative periods. The distal compartment emptied liquid at rates similar to those before surgery, while the late postoperative emptying of semisolids was significantly faster. No correlation was seen between the emptying half-times or changes thereof and eventual weight loss. Delayed gastric emptying is therefore not the mechanism for satiety and weight loss after gastroplasty has been performed.

  14. Morbid obesity treated by gastroplasty: radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    Mechanisms by which gastroplasty for morbid obesity causes weight loss are poorly understood. The authors studied the role of altered gastric emptying in 50 patients before surgery, 1-4 weeks after surgery, and 2-24 months after surgery using technetium-99m pentetate in water for liquid meals and a Tc-99m styrene divinylbenzene copolymer resin in oatmeal for semisolid meals. They determined the emptying half-times of the stomach before and after surgery in the proximal and distal compartments. The proximal compartment emptied promptly in the early and late postoperative periods. The distal compartment emptied liquid at rates similar to those before surgery, while the late postoperative emptying of semisolids was significantly faster. No correlation was seen between the emptying half-times or changes thereof and eventual weight loss. Delayed gastric emptying is therefore not the mechanism for satiety and weight loss after gastroplasty has been performed

  15. Disorders of gastric emptying in humans and the use of radionuclide techniques

    Associated with the development of methods to quantify gastric emptying, there has been an increased understanding of the physiology of gastric emptying in normal subjects and the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of gastric emptying disorders. The measurement of gastric emptying, using radionuclide-labeled food markers and a scintillation camera, has widespread clinical and research applications

  16. Delayed gastric emptying time in adult cerebral falciparum malaria

    M.K. Mohapatra , P.C. Dash , S.C. Mohapatro & R.N. Mishra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We hypothesize that upper gastrointestinal symptoms in cerebral malaria are due to gastric motordysfunction. But gastric motility studies in cerebral malaria are scarce.Methods: We determined gastric emptying half-time (GET½ of liquid meals quantitatively by radio isotopescintigraphy in 25 patients of cerebral malaria and 10 healthy controls.Results: GET½ was prolonged (46.5 ± 4.8 min significantly (p <0.001 in patients of cerebral malaria comparedto healthy controls (27.6 ± 5.3 min.Conclusion: Cerebral malaria can cause prolongation of gastric emptying time of liquid foods.

  17. Radionuclide assessment of gastric emptying in Parkinson disease

    The aim of the study is to assess gastric motility disorders in Parkinson's disease using dynamic scintigraphy of gastric emptying by 99mTc-sulfo-colloid. Gastric emptying study is performed in 21 patients with PD - 11 males and 10 females, aged 38-76 years, with 1- 6 years duration of the disease, 10 at stage I and 11 at stage II according to the Hoehn-Yahr scale. Only 4 patients at Hoehn-Yahr stage II have subjective complaints, suggestive of gastro-paresis. After receiving a standard semi-solid food, 99m-Tc labeled, patients are studied in supine position. Gastric emptying is monitored with gamma camera positioned over the stomach. Recordings are made at the 0, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th minutes. Our results demonstrate delayed gastric emptying in 40% of patients at the Hoehn-Yahr stage I and in 72,7% at stage II. Gastric motility disorders are more frequent and more pronounced in patients with more severe disease, but are present even in patients in the early stage of the disease without subjective complaints.Dynamic scintigraphy of the gastric emptying in PD provides possibilities to evaluate the gastric motility. The evacuatory disturbances are an essential factor, impacting on the effect of the medication and on the quality of life of these patients

  18. Delayed Gastric Emptying after Living Donor Hepatectomy for Liver Transplantation

    Hanjay Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed gastric emptying is a significant postoperative complication of living donor hepatectomy for liver transplantation and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention in severe cases. Although the mechanism of posthepatectomy delayed gastric emptying remains unknown, vagal nerve injury during intraoperative dissection and adhesion formation postoperatively between the stomach and cut liver surface are possible explanations. Here, we present the first reported case of delayed gastric emptying following fully laparoscopic hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Additionally, we also present a case in which symptoms developed after open right hepatectomy, but for which dissection for left hepatectomy was first performed. Through our experience and these two specific cases, we favor a neurovascular etiology for delayed gastric emptying after hepatectomy.

  19. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T1/2). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B12 deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B12 levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B12 replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T1/2 in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83±48.80 min, 90.00±17.29 min and 74.55±8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T1/2 between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P12 treatment (P1/2 was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T1/2 and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B12 level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T1/2 was prolonged in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B12 replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B12 deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon. The level of vitamin B12 does not correlate with the degree of autonomic nervous system dysfunction measured by radionuclide gastric emptying studies. (orig.)

  20. Effect of MWCNTs on Gastric Emptying in Mice

    Li, Z.; Qi, W.; Geng, Yx; Pan, Dq; Lu, Y.; Xu, Jz; Wu, Ws

    2011-12-01

    After making model of gastric functional disorder (FD), part of model mice were injected intravenously (i.v.) with oxide multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) to investigate effect of carbon nanotubes on gastric emptying. The results showed that NO content in stomach, compared with model group, was decreased significantly and close to normal level post-injection with oMWCNTs (500 and 800 μg/mouse). In contrast to FD or normal groups, the content of acetylcholine (Ach) in stomach was increased obviously in injection group with 500 or 800 μg/mouse of oMWCNTs. The kinetic curve of emptying was fitted to calculate gastric motility factor k; the results showed that the k of injection group was much higher than FD and normal. In other words, the gastric motility of FD mice was enhanced via injection with oMWCNTs. In certain dosage, oMWCNTs could improve gastric emptying and motility.

  1. Gastric emptying of organic acids in the dog.

    Blum, A L; Hegglin, J; Krejs, G J; Largiadèr, F; Säuberli, H; Schmid, P

    1976-10-01

    Test meals of 300 ml. of six different organic acids were instilled into the stomach of six healthy mongrel dogs. Citric, acetic, propionic, lactic, tartaric and succinic acid were given in 50, 100, 150, and 200 mN concentrations. 2. During the emptying process, the gastric contents were aspirated and immediately re-instilled at 10 min intervals, and the following parameters were recorded: volume, concentration of the organic anion, pH, hydrogen ion concentration and osmolarity. 3. By multiple stepwise regression analysis, the combination of parameters which most effectively determines gastric emptying rate was found to be: concentration of the organic anion, followed by intragastric volume and number of previous test meals given on the same day. These three parameters appear in the equation for gastric emptying rate in which the individual characteristic of each acid is expressed by a constant. 4. Among the various acids, inhibition of emptying rate increases with rising number of carboxylic groups of the acid and its molecular weight. 5. After proximal gastric vagotomy, emptying rate of organic acids is independent of volume, and emptying approaches an exponential pattern. 6. A model for gastric emptying of organic acids with at least three different receptors is proposed: one for the structure of the organic acid, one for concentration and one for intragastric volume. PMID:10436

  2. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  3. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control

  4. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t1/2). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography

  5. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    Reynaga-Ornelas, M. G.; De la Roca-Chiapas, J. M.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-01

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t1/2). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography.

  6. Delayed postoperative gastric emptying following intrathecal morphine and intrathecal bupivacaine.

    Lydon, A M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: A decrease in the rate of gastric emptying can delay resumption of enteral feeding, alter bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and result in larger residual gastric volumes, increasing the risk of nausea and vomiting. We compared the effects of 1) intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) and 2) the combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) on the rate of gastric emptying in patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty four fasting ASA 1-3 patients were randomly assigned, in a double blind manner, to receive intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (17.5 mg), either alone (group 1), or followed by intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) (group 2). Gastric emptying was measured (using an acetaminophen absorption technique), twice in each patient; preoperatively, and approximately one hour postoperatively. Gastric emptying parameters are: AUC (area under the plasma acetaminophen concentration time curve), maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration (Cmax), and time to Cmax (tCmax), analyzed using paired Student\\'s t tests. RESULTS: Gastric emptying rates were reduced in both group 1 (AUC = 14.98 (3.8) and 11.05 (4.6) pre- and postoperatively, respectively) and group 2 (AUC = 13.93 (3.59) and 6.4 (3.42) pre- and postoperatively, respectively); the magnitude of the reduction was greater in group 2 [AUC (P = 0.04), Cmax (P = 0.05), tCmax (P = 0.13)]. CONCLUSION: The combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) delays gastric emptying postoperatively.

  7. Erythromycin effects on gastric emptying, antral motility and plasma motilin and pancreatic polypeptide concentrations in anorexia nervosa.

    Stacher, G; Peeters, T L; Bergmann, H; Wiesnagrotzki, S; Schneider, C; Granser-Vacariu, G V; Gaupmann, G; Kugi, A

    1993-01-01

    In primary anorexia nervosa, gastric motility is often impaired and ensuing symptoms further discourage eating. Prokinetic agents have been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in affected patients. This study investigated whether emptying of a radiolabelled semisolid 1168 kJ meal and antral contractility were enhanced by intravenous erythromycin. Eight women and two men with anorexia nervosa (21-46 years, 50-75% of ideal body weight) received 200 mg erythromycin or placebo under crossover do...

  8. Delayed gastric emptying: a novel gastrointestinal finding in Turner's syndrome.

    Staiano, A.; Salerno, M.; Di Maio, S; Marsullo, G; Marino, A.; Concolino, D; Strisciuglio, P

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate gastric emptying in girls with Turner's syndrome to detect if gastrointestinal motor dysfunction was present. SUBJECTS: Thirteen girls (mean age 8.1 years) with Turner's syndrome, seven girls with familial short stature (6.1 years), and eight control girls (7.6 years). METHODS: Gastric emptying studies were performed by using 500 microCi of technetium 99m-sulphur colloid bound to a scrambled egg, and scintigraphic measurements were made for 60 to 90 minutes. RESULTS: Mean (SD...

  9. Neuromedin U inhibits food intake partly by inhibiting gastric emptying

    Dalbøge, Louise S; Pedersen, Søren L; Secher, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a gut-brain peptide, implicated in energy and glucose homeostasis via the peripherally expressed NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1) and the central NMUR2. We investigated the effects of a lipidated NMU analog on gastric emptying (GE), glucose homeostasis and food intake to evaluate......) and arcuate nuclei (ARC) in mice, with a reduced expression in ARC in rats. In summary, the anorectic effect of the lipidated NMU is partly mediated by a decrease in gastric emptying which is subject to tachyphylaxis after continuous dosing. Susceptibility to NMU appears to be species specific....

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies

    Türkan Ertay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA, as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions.

  11. SIRT1 regulates the mouse gastric emptying and intestinal growth

    This study addressed physiological significance of SIRT1 gene on mouse gastrointestinal growth and function (gastric emptying and intestinal growth). SIRT1 (a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase) is a key cellular energy sensor, and involved in a wide variety of cellular functions including energy me...

  12. Association between postprandial symptoms and gastric emptying after sleeve gastrectomy

    Burgerhart, J.S.; Rutte, P.W. van; Edelbroek, M.A.; Wyndaele, D.N.; Smulders, J.F.; Meeberg, P.C. van de; Siersema, P.D.; Smout, A.J.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric procedure. However, postprandial symptoms can compromise its beneficial effect. It is not known if a changed gastric emptying and these symptoms are related. This study aimed to assess the association between postprandial sy

  13. Gastric emptying and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    Keller, Jutta; Binnewies, Ulrich; Rösch, Marie;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric emptying (GE) is delayed in a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have shown before that altered release of gastrointestinal hormones may contribute to GE disturbances, but overall effects of disease activity remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to evaluate GE...

  14. Xylitol vs glucose: Effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release

    Salminen, E.K.; Salminen, S.J.; Porkka, L.; Kwasowski, P.; Marks, V.; Koivistoinen, P.E.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of xylitol and glucose on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit and on motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and insulin release were studied in human volunteers. A single oral dose of 200 mL water containing 30 g glucose or 30 g xylitol, mixed with a /sup 99m/technetium-tin (99mTc-Sn) colloid, was used. Similar dosing without the label was used in motilin, GIP, and insulin studies. Xylitol decreased the rate of gastric emptying but concomitantly accelerated intestinal transit compared with glucose. The half-times for gastric emptying were 77.5 +/- 4.6 and 39.8 +/- 3.4 min after ingestion of xylitol and glucose solutions, respectively. Glucose suppressed motilin and stimulated GIP secretion; xylitol stimulated motilin secretion but had no effect on GIP, which is currently the main candidate for the role of enterogastrone. The accelerated intestinal transit and increase in plasma motilin observed after xylitol ingestion were thought to be causally related to the diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort produced by it.

  15. Xylitol vs glucose: Effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release

    The effect of xylitol and glucose on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit and on motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and insulin release were studied in human volunteers. A single oral dose of 200 mL water containing 30 g glucose or 30 g xylitol, mixed with a 99mtechnetium-tin (99mTc-Sn) colloid, was used. Similar dosing without the label was used in motilin, GIP, and insulin studies. Xylitol decreased the rate of gastric emptying but concomitantly accelerated intestinal transit compared with glucose. The half-times for gastric emptying were 77.5 +/- 4.6 and 39.8 +/- 3.4 min after ingestion of xylitol and glucose solutions, respectively. Glucose suppressed motilin and stimulated GIP secretion; xylitol stimulated motilin secretion but had no effect on GIP, which is currently the main candidate for the role of enterogastrone. The accelerated intestinal transit and increase in plasma motilin observed after xylitol ingestion were thought to be causally related to the diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort produced by it

  16. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with /sup 113m/In or /sup 99m/Tc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with /sup 113m/In and of chicken liver labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as /sup 99m/Tc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food

  17. Oral amino acids and gastric emptying: an investigation of the mechanism of levodopa-induced gastric stasis.

    Waller, D G; Usman, F; Renwick, A G; Macklin, B; George, C F

    1991-01-01

    To investigate possible mechanisms of levodopa-induced gastric stasis, we have studied the effect of other amino acids on gastric emptying. The large neutral amino acid tryptophan delays gastric emptying in the dog at molar concentrations below those required to stimulate duodenal osmoreceptors. In healthy volunteers, we have shown that neither tryptophan nor the small neutral amino acid glycine delayed gastric emptying when given in concentrations similar to those of levodopa which produce g...

  18. Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding is not Caused by Altered Gastric Emptying

    de Jong, J. R.; van Ramshorst, B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Buul, M. M. C. Tiel-Van

    2009-01-01

    In order to know the role of gastric emptying in the mechanism of weight loss and early satiety after a restrictive surgical procedure for treatment of morbid obesity, a consecutive series of patients were scintigraphically investigated before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Sixte

  19. Variability of gastric emptying time using standardized radiolabeled meals

    To define the range of inter- and intra-subject variability on gastric emptying measurements, eight healthy male subjects (ages 19-40) received meals on four separate occasions. The meal consisted of 150 g of beef stew labeled with Tc-99m SC labeled liver (600 μCi) and 150 g of orange juice containing In-111 DTPA (100 μCi) as the solid- and liquid-phase markers respectively. Images of the solid and liquid phases were obtained at 20 min intervals immediately after meal ingestion. The stomach region was selected from digital images and data were corrected for radionuclide interference, radioactive decay and the geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts. More absolute variability was seen with the solid than the liquid marker emptying for the group. The mean solid half-emptying time was 58 +- 17 min (range 29-92) while the mean liquid half-emptying time was 24 +- 8 min (range 12-37). A nested random effects analysis of variance showed moderate intra-subject variability for solid half-emptying times (rho = 0.4594), and high intra-subject variability was implied by a low correlation (rho = 0.2084) for liquid half-emptying. The average inter-subject differences were 58.3% of the total variance for solids (rho = 0.0017). For liquids, the inter-subject variability was 69.1% of the total variance, but was only suggestive of statistical significance (rho = 0.0666). The normal half emptying time for gastric emptying of liquids and solids is a variable phenomenon in healthy subjects and has great inter- and intra-individual day-to-day differences

  20. Gastric emptying in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating chronic illness of unknown cause characterized by mental fatigue and sensorimotor disturbances. Moreover, gastrointestinal symptoms (GI) are frequently noticed in those patients. A possible cause could be a dysfunction of the NANC neurotransmitter system in which Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and NO plays an important role in the speed of the gastric relaxation. The Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastric motility disorder in CFS patients. Materials and Methods: 51 patients affected by CFS (45 females and 6 males; mean age 38.5 ± 14.7 y) were prospectively studied by a gastric emptying scintigraphy and the results compared with a control population. The patients were categorized in two clinical groups according to the severity criteria of Holmes and Fukuda (H/F - or H/F +). The presence of GI symptoms was noticed for each patient. Gastric emptying was assessed by the standard procedure according to the guidelines of the Belgian Society of Nuclear Medicine. The acquisition of a series of 10 static images in anterior and posterior projections was started after a test meal (1 fried egg + 20 Mbq Tc99m sulfur colloids, 2 pieces of bread and 125 ml of water). Geometric means were calculated after correction for the half-life of Tc99m and the gastric half-emptying time (T1/2) was determined for each patient. Results: A significantly prolonged T 1/2 was found in CFS patients (97.8 ± 41.6 min) compared to our control population (70 ± 15 min) independently of the presence of associated GI symptoms. (p<0.01) There was also a close relationship between the T1/2 and severity of the CFS disease: the gastric emptying time of the two CFS groups (according to the H/F criteria) were respectively 78.9 and 112.9 min. which is highly significant. (p<0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that delayed gastric emptying is frequently encountered in patients with CFS (with mild or severe symptoms of gastroparesis) which

  1. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi [/sup 99m/Tc]triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET

  2. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.

  3. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Domstad, P A; Shih, W J; Humphries, L; DeLand, F H; Digenis, G A

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi [99mTc]triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET. PMID:3572544

  4. Radioisotopic measurement of gastric emptying in man: a tool for assessing drug effect on gastric motility

    With the use of radiopharmaceutical preparation it is possible to label selectively the liquid or/and the solid component of the meal. This potentially allows to study the gastric emptying of liquids, of solids or of both simultaneously. However a severe limitation of all water soluble radiopharmaceuticals (usually markers of the liquid component of the meal) is their unpredictable intragastric dilution by secretion. Gastric emptying of solids is more reliably evaluated, because it appears to be largely independent of the volume of intragastric liquid. A radioisotopic technique for the study of gastric emptying of solid meals is described and validated. This technique is proved to be simple inexpensive and reproducible. It has been successfully used to study the effect of new drugs and gastrointestinal peptides on gastric motility in man

  5. Scintigraphic assessment of gastric emptying, small bowel and colonic transit

    This paper describes a simplified scintigraphy method of whole gut transit measurement proposed by Camilleri et al. Two tracers are used: 111In-labelled Amberlite beads for colonic motility study and 99mTc-labelled beads for gastric emptying evaluation. The 111In-labelled beads are placed in a capsule given to the patient at time T2, which disintegrates in the distal ileon or proximal colon in order to release the radiopharmaceutical at the beginning of the colon. The 99mTc-labelled beads are incorporated in a omelette served to the patient at T0 and are used to measure gastric emptying and small bowel transit. Static anterior and posterior views are obtained at different times (T0, T2, T4 and ring the different transit times. (authors). 241 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Does Braun Enteroenterostomy Reduce Delayed Gastric Emptying After Pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    Zhang, Xu-Feng; Yin, Guo-Zhi; Liu, Qing-Guang; Liu, Xue-Min; Wang, Bo; Yu, Liang; Liu, Si-Nan; Cui, Hong-Ying; Lv, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Whether an additional Braun enteroenterostomy is necessary in reducing delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) has not yet been well investigated. Herein, in this retrospective study, 395 consecutive cases of patients undergoing classic PD from 2009 to 2013 were reviewed. Patients with and without Braun enteroenterostomy were compared in preoperative baseline characteristics, surgical procedure, postoperative diagnosis, and morbidity including DGE. The DGE w...

  7. Preliminary observation of gastric emptying time on the gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia patients

    Gastric emptying studies were performed on 10 healthy volunteers and 20 duodenal ulcer (DU), 14 gastric ulcer (GU) and 4 non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) patients utilizing a radionuclide technique to assess emptying rate of solid meal (99mTc-phytate collide labelled chicken liver). For normal subjects the average gastric half-emptying time was 53.8 +- 13.2 min. 6 DU patients (6/20) has significantly faster gastric half-emptying time (23.3 +- 3.6 min) and other DU patients (7/20) had slower gastric half-emptying time (>90 min) than normals. In addition, 2 GU patients had fast (90 min). These results suggested that gastric emptying time may be useful for monitoring the therapeutic effect

  8. Comparison of solid food markers in gastric emptying studies

    In studies of gastric emptying of solid foods, it is essential that the radiolabel remain firmly bound to the food to trace its behavior. Initial studies with radiolabeled solid meals suffered from the apparent dissociation of the radiolabel from the solid food and actually traced the liquid phase of the gastric contents rather than the solid phase. This problem was eventually overcome by the introduction of technetium-99m-sulfur colloid labeled in vivo chicken liver, in which the radiocolloid is believed to the trapped intracellularly in the chicken liver. Although the in vivo chicken liver gives good results clinically, many patients do not care for chicken liver, and the agent requires the housing and slaughtering of live chickens, a process for which most Nuclear Medicine departments are not equipped. Some alternative radiolabeled solid foods have been evaluated for their stability in vitro and the best of these were then compared in vivo in normal subjects. When tested in vitro, the firmest label for solid food appears to be in vivo chicken liver, although Tc-ovalbumin-egg and Tc-sulfur colloid egg are almost as stable. Evaluation of solid food labels in vitro should be done in gastric juice, not HCl. Based on the studies of normal subjects, Tc-sulfur colloid-egg is equivalent to in vivo chicken liver for gastric emptying studies. In addition, it is more convenient to prepare, and has better patient acceptance

  9. Relationship between gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal symptoms and delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspeptic patients

    N Pallotta; P Pezzotti; E Calabrese; F Baccini; E Corazziari

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Delayed gastric emptying and an enlarged fasting gastric antrum are common findings in functional dyspepsia but their relationship with gastrointestinal (GI), and the frequently associated extra-GI symptoms remains unclear.This study evaluated the relationship between GI and extra-GI symptoms, fasting antral volume and delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia.METHODS: In 108 functional dyspeptic patients antral volume and gastric emptying were assessed with ultrasonography (US). Symptoms were assessed with standardized questionnaire. The association of symptoms and fasting antral volume with delayed gastric emptying was estimated with logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Delayed gastric emptying was detected in 39.8% of the patients. Postprandial drowsiness (AOR 11.25; 95%CI 2.75-45.93), nausea (AOR 3.51; 95%CI 1.19-10.32), fasting antral volume (AOR 1.93; 95%CI 1.22-3.05), were significantly associated with delayed gastric emptying. Symptoms, mainly the extra-GI ones as postprandial drowsiness and nausea, combined with fasting antral volume predicted the modality of gastric emptying with a sensitivity and specificity of 78%.CONCLUSION: In functional dyspeptic patients, (1) an analysis of fasting antral volume and of symptoms can offer valuable indication on the modality of gastric emptying,and (2) it seems appropriate to inquire on postprandial drowsiness that showed the best correlation with delayed gastric emptying.

  10. Ghrelin stimulates gastric emptying and hunger in normal-weight humans

    Levin, F; Edholm, T; Schmidt, P T;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin is produced primarily by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and increases gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis. MAIN OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on gastric emptying, appetite, and postprandial hormone secretion...... omelette (310 kcal) or GH substitution in GH-deficient patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measures consisted of gastric empty-ing parameters and postprandial plasma levels of ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, and motilin. RESULTS: The emptying rate was significantly faster...... for ghrelin (1.26 +/- 0.1% per minute), compared with saline (0.83% per minute) (P emptying time (49.4 +/- 3.9 and 75.6 +/- 4.9 min) of solid gastric emptying were shorter during ghrelin infusion, compared with infusion of saline (P

  11. Glycaemic Response in Relation to Gastric Emptying and Satiety in Health and Disease

    Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fibre and whole grains are recommended to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. Low glycaemic index foods that are rich in fibre are recommended to control blood glucose levels. Gastric emptying, together with other factors, regulate the postprandial blood glucose response. A delay in the gastric emptying rate (GER) leads to a lower postprandial blood glucose concentration. However, 30-50% of diabetes patients have delayed gastric emptying.The aims of these studies were to evalu...

  12. The use of barium meal to evaluate total gastric emptying time in the dog

    Total gastric emptying time was determined in nine mongrel dogs using a barium meal contrast procedure. Within the group, total gastric emptying time ranged from 7.0-15.0 hours. Comparison of the population mean showed a statistical difference (p = 0.01) from previously published values. Individual dogs showed consistent total gastric emptying time over three trials. The technique can be used to test the effect of a procedure on total gastric emptying time when a normal value has been established for the dog. Due to the wide range of normal values observed, evaluation of clinical patients could be difficult unless there is a gross abnormality in function

  13. EFFECTS AND MECHANISM OF STRESS AND OF CRFMICROINJECTION INTO PVN ON GASTRIC EMPTYING

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of wrap-restraint stress and of CRF or CRF antagonist (α-helical-CRF9-41) mi croinjection on gastric emptying, and the role of plasma motilin (Mot). Methods The effects of wrap-restraint stress or CRF and CRF antagonist microinjection into paraventricular nucleus ( PVN) on gastric emptying were determined by using dextran blue-2000 as a marker. The plasma level of Mot was determined by radioimmunoassay. Results Wrap-restraint stress inhibi ted gastric emptying. Microinjection of CRF into PVN inhibited gastric emptying dose-dependently. In normal condition, α-he lical-CRF9-41 bilaterally microinjected into PVN didn ' t modify gastric emptying; however, α-helical-CRF9-41 microinjection bi laterally into PVN 15min before wrap-restraint stress could significantly antagonize the effect of stress on gastric emptying. After 30min of stress or CRF microinjection into PVN, plasma levels of Mot significantly decreased, as compared with the normal control group. Conelusion Wrap-restraint stress can inhibit gastric emptying, and microinjection of CRF into PVN has the similar effect. The PVN is one of the specific sites for the action of CRF affecting on gastric emptying. Plasma Mot might partic ipate in the effects of stress and CRF-indluced alteration of gastric emptying.

  14. Gastrografin administration in the treatment of postoperative delayed gastric emptying.

    Karavias, D D; Tepetes, K; Vagenas, K; Panagopoulos, K; Agelopoulou, H; Androulakis, J; Androulakis, J

    2002-04-01

    Five cases of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) are reported. Three patients had pancreatic head carcinoma and underwent a Whipple operation during which truncal vagotomy and gastrectomy were performed. The remaining two patients underwent vagotomy and gastrectomy because of benign peptic ulcer. In one of the pancreatectomy cases, the pylorus was at first preserved, but after DGE developed, a gastrectomy was carried out, which did not result in any improvement. The duration of DGE was 16-72 days, during which time the patients were under total parenteral or enteral nutrition. There were no other major complications. The patients received prokinetic agents (metoclopramide, erythromycin) but without any improvement. Finally, all patients were treated with Gastrografin, 40 ml every two hours, via a nasogastric tube. In all cases, gastric motility was restored within 20-36 hours. PMID:12018819

  15. Gastric emptying of combined liquid-solid meals in healed duodenal ulcer

    The gastric emptying rates of combined liquid and solid radioisotopically labeled meals in 47 healed duodenal ulcer subjects and 17 healthy control subjects are compared. No significant differences were found between the groups in emptying slopes and the emptying half-times or in the percent retention values at any of the counting intervals for either the liquid or solid meals. These results are compatible with the observation that the rapid gastric emptying in many patients with duodenal ulcer is associated with the disease and that healing results in a return to normal gastric emptying rates. However, since gastric emptying rates during active ulceration were not determined in our patients, a more definitive interpretation awaits a study comparing emptying rates obtained during and after healing of active ulceration in the same patient

  16. Measurement of gastric emptying during and between meal intake in free-feeding Lewis rats.

    van der Velde, P; Koslowsky, I; Koopmans, H S

    1999-02-01

    A new scintigraphic measurement technique is described that allows accurate assessment of gastric emptying in between as well as during a number of successive meals. Measurements were made every minute of food intake, gastric nutrient filling, and gastric emptying over a 6 h, 40 min period in conscious, free-feeding, loosely restrained rats. Before receiving access to the food, the animals had been deprived for a period of 31 h. Over the full duration of the experiment, an average rate of gastric emptying of 2.46 +/- 0.18 (SE) kcal/h was established. During most meals, however, the gastric emptying rate was increased so that an average of 26.9 +/- 2.7% of the ingested calories was emptied while the animals were feeding, with an average emptying rate of 0.15 +/- 0.014 kcal/min or 8.88 +/- 0.84 kcal/h. This transient increase in the rate of gastric emptying was followed by a subsequent slowing of gastric emptying after meal termination; in the 10-min postmeal interval, an average emptying rate of 0.96 +/- 0.12 kcal/h was found. Despite these fluctuations during and immediately after meals, a relatively constant rate of caloric emptying is maintained over longer periods. There were no differences between the emptying rate during the first meal when the gastrointestinal tract was still empty, compared with later meals when the gastrointestinal tract had been filled with food. The emptying rate during the 10-min postmeal interval, however, was significantly reduced during later meals. The results suggest that gastric emptying is controlled by different mechanisms during and after the ingestion of food and that these mechanisms remain in effect at various degrees of gastrointestinal filling. PMID:9950942

  17. The effect of posture on errors in gastric emptying measurements

    Scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were made with subjects supine and upright using a dual-detector rectilinear scanner. Previously reported variations of the depth of activity during the course of a study were again found with both postures. Although there was no significant mean depth change in the group when upright, some individual variations were substantial. Measurements with a gamma camera demonstrated similar changes of depth of stomach contents with seated subjects. The resulting variations of attenuation of the emergent radiation leads to appreciable errors in the emptying rates determined by unilateral detection. In about half the cases the mean movement of a 99Tcsup(m)-labelled solid phase marker exceeded 1 cm; such a movement led to an average 20% error in emptying rate determination by an anterior detector. Depth changes of a liquid marker were less marked, exceeding 0.5 cm in half the subjects; this movement gave rise to an average 6% error when 113Insup(m) was used as the tracer. (author)

  18. Study on Gastric Empty Disorder after the Gastric Ulcer Healing and Therapeutic Effect of Cisapride

    ZOU Kaifang; LIU Shi; LIU Jinsong; LIU Yongge; HOU Xiaohua; YI Cuiqiong

    2000-01-01

    Gastric emptying time of liquid meal was detected by using ultrasonography in 28 gas tric ulcer patients with continual or recurrent dyspepsia symptoms after the ulcer healing. Sixteen out of 28 patients (57.1%) with a delay of gastric emptying time (T1/2) were randomly divided into two groups: 8 cases were treated with cisapride 5 mg three times a day and 8 cases with cis apride 10 mg three times a day respectively. The results showed that cisapride could relieve the symptoms with the effective rate being 68.8% in the two groups. T1/2 in the patients after treat ment with cisapride was significantly shorter than before treatment (P<0.001). It was concluded that there is a delay of T1/2 in some patients with gastric ulcer healing. Cisapride could promote gastric empty of liquid meal and relieve the symptoms efficiently. The effect of lower dose of cis apride is similar to that of higher dose.

  19. Scintigraphy to determine gastric emptying times in small animals; Szintigrafie zur Bestimmung der Magenentleerungszeit beim Kleintier

    Schmitz, Silke [Royal Veterinary Coll., Veterinary Clinical Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Neiger, R. [Klinik fuer Kleintiere (Innere Medizin), Klinikum Veterinaermedizin, Justus-Liebig Univ. Giessen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Gastric emptying disorders are known in the dog and cat as a primary process as well as a secondary phenomenon to different underlying diseases. Diagnosing gastric emptying disorders remains difficult in veterinary medicine; however, gastric scintigraphy is considered the gold standard method. Unfortunately, determination of reference values is problematic and the significance of alimentary or physiological influences, breed or weight remains largely unknown. In addition, performance of scintigraphy in routinediagnostics is limited by law restrictions, availability and difficulties in interpretation of results. This article gives an overview of scintigraphic techniques used in small animals so far to assess gastric emptying times and discusses advantages and disadvantages of this method. (orig.)

  20. Does antecolic reconstruction decrease delayed gastric emptying after pancreatoduodenectomy?

    Nadia Peparini; Piero Chirletti

    2012-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a frequent complication after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PpPD).Kawai and colleagues proposed pylorus-resecting pancreatoduodenectomy (PrPD) with antecolic gastrojejunal anastomosis to obviate DGE occurring after PpPD.Here we debate the reported differences in the prevalence of DGE in antecolic and retrocolic gastro/duodeno-jejunostomies after PrPD and PpPD,respectively.We conduded that the route of the gastro/duodeno-jejunal anastomosis with respect to the transverse colon;i.e.,antecolic route or retrocolic route,is not responsible for the differences in prevalence of DGE after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) and that the impact of the reconstructive method on DGE is related mostly to the angulation or torsion of the gastro/duodeno-jejunostomy.We report a prevalence of 8.9% grade A DGE and 1.1%grade C DGE in a series of 89 subtotal stomach-preserving PDs with Roux-en Y retrocolic reconstruction with anastomosis of the isolated Roux limb to the stomach and single Roux limb to both the pancreatic stump and hepatic duct.Retrocolic anastomosis of the isolated first jejunal loop to the gastric remnant allows outflow of the gastric contents by gravity through a "straight route".

  1. Automated analysis for scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying using invariant moments.

    Abutaleb, A; Delalic, Z J; Ech, R; Siegel, J A

    1989-01-01

    This study introduces a method for automated analysis of the standard solid-meal gastric emptying test. The purpose was to develop a diagnostic tool to characterize more reproducibly abnormalities of solid-phase gastric emptying. The processing of gastric emptying is automated using geometrical moments that are invariant to scaling, rotation, and shift. Twenty subjects were studied. The first step was to obtain images of the stomach using a nuclear gamma camera immediately after the subject had eaten a radio-labeled meal. The second step was to process and analyze the images by a recently developed automated gastric emptying analysis (AGEA) method, which determines the gastric contour and the geometrical properties include such parameters as area, centroid, orientation, and moments of inertia. Statistical tests showed that some of the moments were sensitive to the patient's gastric status (normal versus abnormal). The difference between the normal and abnormal patients became noticeable approximately 1 h after meal ingestion. PMID:18230536

  2. Vomiting and Dysphagia Predict Delayed Gastric Emptying in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects

    Doron Boltin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastroparesis is a heterogeneous disorder most often idiopathic, diabetic, or postsurgical in nature. The demographic and clinical predictors of gastroparesis in Israeli patients are poorly defined. Methods. During the study period we identified all adult patients who were referred to gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES for the evaluation of dyspeptic symptoms. Of those, 193 patients who were referred to GES from our institution were retrospectively identified (76 (39% males, mean age 60.2±15.6 years. Subjects were grouped according to gastric half-emptying times (gastric T1/2. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records or by a phone interview. Key Results. Gastric emptying half-times were normal (gastric T1/2 0–99 min in 101 patients, abnormal (gastric T1/2 100–299 min in 67 patients, and grossly abnormal (gastric T1/2≥300 min in 25 patients. Vomiting and dysphagia, but neither early satiety nor bloating, correlated with delayed gastric emptying. Diabetes was associated with grossly abnormal gastric T1/2. Idiopathic gastroparesis was associated with a younger age at GES. No correlation was observed between gastric T1/2 values and gender, smoking, H. pylori infection, HBA1C, or microvascular complication of diabetes. Conclusions Inferences. Vomiting and dysphagia are predictive of delayed gastric emptying in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes is associated with more severe gastroparesis.

  3. Gastric emptying of glucose solution and associated plasma concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, and PYY before and after fundoplication

    Miholic, J; Hoffmann, M; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the relationship between gastric emptying of glucose solution and the ensuing plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in patients having undergone fundoplication...... with the integrated plasma glucose during the third hour after ingestion (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: After fundoplication, gastric emptying may, if accelerated in its initial phases, give rise to greater and earlier increases in plasma glucose, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations and thus to reactive hypoglycemia....... for gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 10 male patients the emptying of 50% glucose solution was determined scintigraphically and its relationship with plasma glucose, GLP-1, PYY, and GIP concentrations was studied before and 3 months after fundoplication. RESULTS: In the first 30 min after...

  4. Gastric emptying studies in the morbidly obese before and after gastroplasty

    Dual isotope gastric emptying studies were performed on 16 morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty to determine the effect of this surgery on the rate of emptying. The solid and liquid phases of gastric emptying were compared with a normal control group. In the 900-g and 50-g meals there was a significant difference in the mean half emptying time between solid and liquid phases of emptying (p less than 0.05). Pre-operatively, the 900-g meal half emptying times of both solids and liquids and the 50-g liquid phase meal did not differ significantly between obese patients and the control group. However, in the solid phase of the 50-g meal obese patients differed significantly from a control group (p = 0.007). Three months after gastroplasty, gastric emptying of 50-g meals from the total stomach was not significantly changed from the pre-operative 50-g meal values in ten of 12 patients (p less than 0.05) and no change in total stomach emptying times were seen at 12 mo compared to the 3-mo study (p less than 0.05). Emptying of the pouch alone for both solids and liquids was significantly faster than the pre-operative and postoperative total stomach studies. Gastric emptying in the obese is normal with large meals, but is delayed in small meals. In most patients, gastroplasty does not result in slower emptying of meals

  5. Improvement of gastric emptying by enhanced recovery after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Efstratios Zouros; Theodoros Liakakos; Anastasios Machairas; Paulos Patapis; Christos Agalianos; Christos Dervenis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has improved postoperative outcomes particularly in colorectal surgery. This study aimed to assess compliance with an ERAS protocol and evaluate its effect on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: Fifty patients who had received conventional peri-operative management from 2005 to 2009 (conventional group) were compared with 75 patients who had received perioperative care with an ERAS protocol (fast-track group) from 2010 to 2014. Mortality, complications, readmissions and length of hospital stay were evaluated and compared in the groups. RESULTS: Compliance with each element of the ERAS pro-tocol ranged from 74.7% to 100%. Uneventful patients had a signiifcant higher adherence to the ERAS protocol (87.5% vs 40.7%;P CONCLUSION: ERAS pathway was feasible and safe in im-proving gastric emptying, yielding an earlier postoperative recovery, and reducing the length of hospital stay.

  6. Neuromedin U inhibits food intake partly by inhibiting gastric emptying.

    Dalbøge, Louise S; Pedersen, Søren L; Secher, Thomas; Holst, Birgitte; Vrang, Niels; Jelsing, Jacob

    2015-07-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a gut-brain peptide, implicated in energy and glucose homeostasis via the peripherally expressed NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1) and the central NMUR2. We investigated the effects of a lipidated NMU analog on gastric emptying (GE), glucose homeostasis and food intake to evaluate the use of a NMU analog as drug candidate for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Finally mRNA expression of NMU and NMUR1 in the gut and NMUR2 in the hypothalamus was investigated using a novel chromogen-based in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. Effects on food intake (6 and 18 h post dosing) were addressed in both mice and rats. The effects on GE and glycaemic control were assessed in mice, immediately after the first dose and after seven days of bidaily (BID) dosing. The lipidated NMU analog exerted robust reductions in GE and food intake in mice and improved glycaemic control when measured immediately after the first dose. No effects were observed after seven days BID. In rats, the analog induced only a minor effect on food intake. NMU mRNA was detected in the enteric nervous system throughout the gut, whereas NMUR1 was confined to the lamina propria. NMUR2 was detected in the paraventricular (PVN) and arcuate nuclei (ARC) in mice, with a reduced expression in ARC in rats. In summary, the anorectic effect of the lipidated NMU is partly mediated by a decrease in gastric emptying which is subject to tachyphylaxis after continuous dosing. Susceptibility to NMU appears to be species specific. PMID:25895852

  7. Tc-99m labeled triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin gastric emptying studies in bulimia patients

    Shih Weijen; Castellanos, F.X.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Humphries, L.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in patients with bulimia, 20 patients (all women, ranging in age from 12 to 49 years) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms ingested 150-200 ..mu..Ci/sup 99m/ Tc-triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and had scintigraphy in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The results showed that the gastric emptying time was prolonged in 12 patients and decreased in 8. All 12 patients with prolonged emptying time were given 10 mg metoclopramide intravenously; 9 of these had a good response and 3 had no response. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, the results indicate that about 60% had delayed and 40% had rapid gastric emptying. The findings of two extremes of gastric emptying time remain to be explained, however, this enables (Albibi and McCullum 1983) objective documentation of gastric emptying as this technique (American Psychiatric Association 1980) can separate those patients with rapid GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide.

  8. Tc-99m labeled triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin gastric emptying studies in bulimia patients

    To evaluate gastric emptying in patients with bulimia, 20 patients (all women, ranging in age from 12 to 49 years) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms ingested 150-200 μCi99m Tc-triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and had scintigraphy in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The results showed that the gastric emptying time was prolonged in 12 patients and decreased in 8. All 12 patients with prolonged emptying time were given 10 mg metoclopramide intravenously; 9 of these had a good response and 3 had no response. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, the results indicate that about 60% had delayed and 40% had rapid gastric emptying. The findings of two extremes of gastric emptying time remain to be explained, however, this enables (Albibi and McCullum 1983) objective documentation of gastric emptying as this technique (American Psychiatric Association 1980) can separate those patients with rapid GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide. (orig.)

  9. Gastric emptying in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis

    Hessel G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the gastric emptying (GE of liquids in fasted and sucrose-fed rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen. The GE of three test meals (saline, glucose and mayonnaise was evaluated in Wistar rats. For each meal, the animals were divided into two groups (N = 24 each. Group I was fed a sucrose diet throughout the experiment (66 h while group II was fasted. Forty-two hours after the start of the experiment, each group was divided into two subgroups (N = 12 each. Subgroup A received a placebo and subgroup B was given acetaminophen (1 g/kg. Twenty-four hours later, the GE of the three test meals was assessed and blood samples were collected to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and acetaminophen. In group IB, the mean AST and ALT values were 515 and 263 IU/l, respectively, while for group IIB they were 4014 and 2472 IU/l, respectively. The mean serum acetaminophen levels were higher in group IIB (120 µg/ml than in group IB (87 µg/ml. The gastric retention values were significantly higher in group IIB than in group IIA for all three test meals: saline, 51 vs 35%; glucose, 52 vs 38% and mayonnaise, 51 vs 29% (median values. The correlation between gastric retention and AST levels was significant (P<0.05 for group IIB for the three test meals: r = 0.73, 0.67 and 0.68 for saline, glucose and mayonnaise, respectively. We conclude that GE is altered in rats with hepatic lesions induced by acetaminophen, and that these alterations may be related to the liver cell necrosis caused by the drug.

  10. Measurement of gastric emptying using isotopic method in diabetes, simple obesity and anorexia nervosa

    Gastric emptying of technetium labeled liquid meal were studied in 46 non-insulin-dependent diabetics, 7 obese patients, 8 anorexia nervosa patients, and 21 normal subjects. All subjects underwent endoscopy and barium study, and none showed any lesion in upper gastrointestinal tract. T1/2, time at which 50% of meal remained, was used as an indicator of gastric emptying. Eight normal subjects have some epigastric discomforts, and have slightly slower gastric emptying than the remaining 13 subjects. But there was no significant difference in T1/2 between the both groups (53.2±12.8 min vs 45.1±10.9 min). Fourteen diabetics have some epigastric discomforts, and have significantly more slower gastric emptying than the remaining 32 diabetics (T1/2; 67.7±24.6 vs 50.5±17.4, p<0.02). The gastric emptying of 13 diabetics who have three major diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy), was significantly more slower than that of 15 diabetics without any complication (T1/2; 68.1±24.6 vs 43.5±14.8, p<0.005). The gastric emptying of simple obesity did not show a fixed pattern, but the emptying of anorexia nervosa was remarkably delayed. These findings indicate that diabetic gastroparesis is common in the presence of the three major complications, and the delayed gastric emptying is associated with post-prandial discomfort in diabetics and anorexia nervosa patients. The measurement of gastric emptying can be useful to evaluate the management and the treatment for diabetes and anorexia nervosa. (author)

  11. Measurement of gastric emptying using isotopic method in diabetes, simple obesity and anorexia nervosa

    Tomofuji, Yoshinobu

    1988-12-01

    Gastric emptying of technetium labeled liquid meal were studied in 46 non-insulin-dependent diabetics, 7 obese patients, 8 anorexia nervosa patients, and 21 normal subjects. All subjects underwent endoscopy and barium study, and none showed any lesion in upper gastrointestinal tract. T1/2, time at which 50% of meal remained, was used as an indicator of gastric emptying. Eight normal subjects have some epigastric discomforts, and have slightly slower gastric emptying than the remaining 13 subjects. But there was no significant difference in T1/2 between the both groups (53.2+-12.8 min vs 45.1+-10.9 min). Fourteen diabetics have some epigastric discomforts, and have significantly more slower gastric emptying than the remaining 32 diabetics (T1/2; 67.7+-24.6 vs 50.5+-17.4, p<0.02). The gastric emptying of 13 diabetics who have three major diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy), was significantly more slower than that of 15 diabetics without any complication (T1/2; 68.1+-24.6 vs 43.5+-14.8, p<0.005). The gastric emptying of simple obesity did not show a fixed pattern, but the emptying of anorexia nervosa was remarkably delayed. These findings indicate that diabetic gastroparesis is common in the presence of the three major complications, and the delayed gastric emptying is associated with post-prandial discomfort in diabetics and anorexia nervosa patients. The measurement of gastric emptying can be useful to evaluate the management and the treatment for diabetes and anorexia nervosa. (author).

  12. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric emptying rate in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia

    Grigoris I Leontiadis; George I Minopoulos; Efstratios Maltezos; Stamatia Kotsiou; Konstantinos I Manolas; Konstantinos Simopoulos; Dimitrios Hatseras

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The pathogenesis of delayed gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) remains unclear.We aimed to examine whether gastric emptying rate in NUD patients was associated with Helicobacter pylori(H pylori)infection and whether it was affected by eradication of the infection.METHODS: Gastric emptying rate of a mixed solid-liquid meal was assessed by the paracetamol absorption method in NUD patients and asymptomatic controls (n=17). H pylori status was assessed by serology and biopsy urease test.H pylori-positive NUD patients (n=23) received 10-day triple eradication therapy. H pylori status was re-assessed by biopsy urease test four weeks later, and if eradication was confirmed, gastric emptying rate was re-evaluated.RESULTS: Thirty-three NUD patients and 17 controls were evaluated. NUD patients had significantly delayed gastric emptying compared with controls. The mean maximum plasma paracetamol concentration divided by body mass (P=0.02), the mean area under plasma paracetamol concentration-time curve divided by body mass (AUC/BM)Gastric emptying rate did not differ significantly between H pylori-positive and H pylori-negative NUD patients. The were initially H pylori-positive, confirmed eradication of the infection did not significantly alter gastric emptying rate.and after Hp eradication, respectively (P=0.64), the mean eradication, respectively (P=0.93).CONCLUSION: Although gastdc emptying is delayed in NUD patients compared with controls, gastric emptying rate is not associated with H pylori status nor it is affected by eradication of the infection.

  13. The effects of trimebutine maleate on gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia

    Aktas, A. [Baskent Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Caner, B.; Ozturk, F.; Bayhan, H.; Narin, Y.; Mentes, T.

    1999-08-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of trimebutine maleate, a drug used in both hyperkinetic and hypokinetic motility disorders, on gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia having prolonged gastric emptying rates and to compare the parameters used for the determination of the lag period observed during the emptying of solid foods from the stomach. Gastric emptying was measured by the radionuclide technique. Twenty normal volunteers and 43 patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia participated in the study. Radionuclide imaging was performed by using a solid meal labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-tin colloid. Of the patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, 20 had prolonged gastric emptying. They were given three weeks of oral treatment with trimebutine maleate and had their radionuclide gastric emptying study repeated. Treatment with trimebutine maleate resulted in reduction in duration of the lag period and less retention of food at 100 minutes (p<0.0005). After treatment with trimebutine maleate, no significant difference has been observed in the mean symptom score of patients with prolonged gastric emptying. Among the parameters used for the determination of the lag period, lag period determined by a mathematical equation (TLAG) has been found to be longer than the lag period determined by visual inspection of the images (VLAG) and there was correlation between the two parameters when the lag time was short. (author)

  14. Validation of gastric emptying scintigraphy of solids and liquids in mice using dedicated animal pinhole scintigraphy

    Aim: Gastric emptying in small laboratory animals is a useful parameter to assess gastrointestinal motility for pharmacological or other research purposes. In mice, phenol red photospectrometry is considered as the gold standard. However, this method requires sacrifice of the animal and yields only data of gastric emptying at one time-point. Gastric emptying scintigraphy, the gold standard technique in humans, allows sequential and serial measurements in the same subject. The aim of this study was first to validate gastric emptying scintigraphy applied in mice, by comparing it with phenol red photospectrometry and secondly to characterise gastric emptying of solids in mice. Materials and Methods: A dedicated animal pinhole gamma camera was equipped with a specially designed mouse application device. The study population consisted of 5 groups of 5 female BALB/c mice. Gastric emptying was measured in un-anesthetized mice using scintigraphic imaging after oral gavage of a 99mTc and phenol red labelled non-caloric semi-liquid meal. Sequences of 5 scans were made every 16 min. A ROI was drawn around the stomach and the small intestinal area. After each gastric emptying session, a group of animals was sacrificed and tissue (stomach, and intestine) was isolated and processed for photospectrometry separately. A separate group of 14 mice was fed with Tc99m-Albures labelled egg yolk and scanned in the same way without sacrificing. Results: There was no significant difference between the gastric emptying of liquids measured by pinhole scintigraphy and phenol red photospectrometry. Mean half emptying time values for scintigraphy and photospectrometry were 13.3 and 14.5 min respectively. Scintigraphic quantitation of gastric emptying was accurate: there was a good correlation between gastric retention determined by scintigraphy and photospectrometry (linear regression slope =0.96, r=0.86, P<0.001). For the same information, a reduction of 80% of animals was achieved using the

  15. Gastric emptying time and the effect of cisapride in cirrhotic patients with autonomic neuropathy.

    Gumurdulu, Yuksel; Yapar, Zeynep; Canataroglu, Abdullah; Serin, Ender; Gumurdulu, Derya; Kibar, Mustafa; Colakoglu, Salih

    2003-02-01

    GOALS To investigate the relationships between gastric emptying and autonomic dysfunction in hepatic cirrhosis and to assess the effects of cisapride on gastric emptying in cirrhotic patients. STUDY Twenty-four cirrhotic patients (8 patients in each Child-Pugh classification) and 25 healthy controls were enrolled. All the patients had viral (B or C) hepatitis. Patients with DM, alcoholic cirrhosis, active peptic ulcer, gastric malignancy and pyloric obstruction were excluded by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Parasympathetic and sympathetic functions were assessed by the criteria set forth by Ewing and Clark. Drugs affecting GI motility and smoking were discontinued 48 hours and 12 hours prior to the study respectively. A solid-phase of gastric emptying study was conducted by scintigraphic method for the calculation of gastric half-emptying time (GET1/2). RESULTS The study revealed that 9 patients with Child-Pugh B and C cirrhosis had autonomic neuropathy and none of Child-Pugh A cirrhosis had autonomic neuropathy. Prolonged GET1/2 was noted in cirrhotics compared with the control group (p hepatitis may cause prolonged gastric emptying. Cisapride can shorten gastric emptying time in such patients. PMID:12544204

  16. Effect of sildenafil on gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy humans

    Madsen, J L; Søndergaard, S B; Fuglsang, S;

    2004-01-01

    gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions. RESULTS: The area under the curve of gastric retention versus time of liquid or solid radiolabelled marker was not changed by sildenafil intake, nor was the postprandial frequency of antral contractions affected by sildenafil. CONCLUSION......: A single dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not change gastric emptying or postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy volunteers.......BACKGROUND: Sildenafil is known to block phosphodiesterase type 5, which degrades nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thereby relaxing smooth muscle cells in various organs. The effect of sildenafil on gastric motor function after a meal was investigated in healthy humans...

  17. Measurement of Normal Gastric Emptying Rate Using Chicken Liver Labeled with 99mTc-Colloid

    Measurement of gastric emptying rate has been performed by a variety of techniques. Nuclear medicine method is a major advance in the quantitative evaluation of gastric function and also of pharmacologic intervention. Normal gastric emptying rate was measured in 48 healthy volunteers using live chicken liver labeled with 99mTc-Tin Colloid as a solid phase marker. In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the labeling efficiency and stability in hydrochloric acid and in human gastric juice of intracellularly labeled chicken liver. Anterior image counts only were compared with the geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts in 12 healthy volunteers who were studied by both anterior count and posterior count. The results were as follows: 1) The labeling efficiency in gastric juice and hydrochloric acid were 95.5±1.23%, 95.7±1.15%, respectively. 2) HaIf gastric emptying time by anterior count only was 126±21 minutes. 3) Although standard deviation of geometric mean method was smaller than anterior count method, gastric emptying curves from both method were similar. In daily practice, anterior count method may be useful alternative to geometric mean method in evaluation of gastric emptying rate.

  18. Application of gastric emptying imaging in the therapy of functional dyspepsia

    Objective: To investigate the application of gastric emptying imaging in the therapy of functional dyspepsia (FD) of Spleen deficiency and qi stagnation. Methods: 78 cases of patients with FD were divide into Chinese herbal medicine group (40 cases treated with Chinese herbal medicine of Decoction of invigorating spleen) and Western medicine group (38 cases treated with regulating qi and Domperidone). The gastric emptying imagings were carried out before and after treatment. Results: The gastric emptying imaging results showed that both traditional Chinese Medicine and Western medicine treatments had good curative effects (P<0.01), and the traditional Chinese Medicine was better than that of Wester medicine (P<0.05). Conclusion: Gastric emptying imaging is very useful in observation curative effect of FD treatment. (authors)

  19. Rapid tachyphylaxis of the glucagon-like peptide 1-induced deceleration of gastric emptying in humans

    Nauck, Michael A; Kemmeries, Guido; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 lowers postprandial glycemia primarily through inhibition of gastric emptying. We addressed whether the GLP-1-induced deceleration of gastric emptying is subject to rapid tachyphylaxis and if so, how this would alter postprandial glucose control. RESEARCH...... DESIGN AND METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers (25 ± 4 years old, BMI: 24.6 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) were examined with intravenous infusion of GLP-1 (0.8 pmol · kg(-1) · min(-1)) or placebo over 8.5 h. Two liquid mixed meals were administered at a 4-h interval. Gastric emptying was determined, and blood samples were...... drawn frequently. RESULTS: GLP-1 decelerated gastric emptying significantly more after the first meal compared with the second meal (P = 0.01). This was associated with reductions in pancreatic polypeptide levels (marker of vagal activation) after the first but not the second meal (P

  20. Comparison of total and compartmental gastric emptying and antral motility between healthy men and women

    Bennink, R.; Van den Maegdenbergh, V.; Roo, M. de; Mortelmans, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium); Peeters, M.; Geypens, B.; Rutgeerts, P. [Department of Gastroenterology, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of gender-related differences in gastric emptying. The purpose of this study was first, to confirm the difference in gastric emptying for both solid and liquid test meals between healthy men and women, and secondly, to investigate the origin of this difference by studying regional gastric emptying and antral motility. A standard gastric emptying test with additional compartmental (proximal and distal) evaluation and dynamic imaging of the antrum was performed in 20 healthy women studied during the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle, and in 31 healthy age-matched men. In concordance with previous reports, women had a longer half-emptying time for solids as compared to men (86.2{+-}5.1 vs 52.2{+-}2.9 min, P<0.05). In our observations this seemed to be related to a significantly prolonged lag phase and a significant decrease in terminal slope. Dynamical antral scintigraphy did not show a significant difference. The distribution of the test meal within the stomach (proximal vs distal) showed more early proximal retention in women as compared to men. The terminal slope of the distal somach was significantly lower in women. We did not observe a significant difference in gastric emptying of the liquid test meal between men and women. Gastric emptying of solids is significantly slower in healthy women as compared to men. These findings emphasise the importance of using different normal values for clinical and research purposes in gastric emptying scintigraphy in men and women. The difference could not be explained by antral motility alone. Increased proximal retention and a lower terminal emptying rate in women are observations to be further investigated. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 36 refs.

  1. Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying and ultrasonographic assessment of antral area: relation to appetite.

    Hveem, K.; Jones, K L; Chatterton, B E; Horowitz, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound measurement of gastric emptying has potential advantages over scintigraphy, but there is little information about its accuracy. AIMS: The relation between ultrasonographic measurements of antral area and (a) scintigraphic measurements of gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of liquids (b) postprandial satiation, were evaluated. SUBJECTS: Seven normal volunteers were studied. METHOD: Each subject drank 75 g dextrose dissolved in 350 ml of water (300 kcal) or be...

  2. Magnetic characterization of solid food to gastric emptying studies by mechanical-magnetogastrography assessment

    T Córdova-Fraga; Rodríguez, D.; J.M. De la Roca-Chiapas; Sosa, M.; Hernández, M. A.; Vargas, M; S.E. Solorio; Bernal, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical-Magnetogastrography (M-MGG) is a technique that has been used to measure gastric emptying in healthy subjects and pa- tients with gastrointestinal pathologies. This has allowed implementing a non-invasive technology, free of ionizing-radiation and it may be used in diagnostic tests in clinical medicine. The characterization of a phantom which has a magnetic behavior similar to that observed in gastric emptying studies carried out in persons is presented. A fluxgate magnetomet...

  3. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount

  4. A simple labeled test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying

    Ishii, Keita; Tanabe, Satoshi; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Saigenji, Katsunori (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-10-01

    We developed a simple test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying. Preparation of a test meal for routine clinical use in institutions should be as simple as possible. The newly developed test meal consists of instant noodles labeled with 37 MBq (1 mCi) technetium-99m and does not require the use of cooking utensils. The test meal was given with drinking water (180 ml) to healthy adult volunteers (6 men, 34.5[+-]2.2 years old) and gastric emptying was measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80, 100, 120 minutes after the end of the meal, and results were compared with those derived without drinking water. The emptying pattern of the test meal with water exhibited an exponential pattern typical of a liquid meal, and that without water formed a linear pattern after an initial lag phase in keeping with gastric emptying of a solid meal. In addition, the test meal was given to 11 patients of diabetic gastroparesis (5 men, 6 women, 50.4[+-]4.5 years old), and gastric emptying was measured. At each period evaluated, emptying was significantly slower in diabetic gastroparesis than in healthy controls (6 men, 1 woman, 32.1[+-]3.0 years old). These results show that the test meal is reliable and applicable to the clinical assessment of gastric emptying, while fulfilling the need for simplicity. (author).

  5. A simple labeled test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying

    We developed a simple test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying. Preparation of a test meal for routine clinical use in institutions should be as simple as possible. The newly developed test meal consists of instant noodles labeled with 37 MBq (1 mCi) technetium-99m and does not require the use of cooking utensils. The test meal was given with drinking water (180 ml) to healthy adult volunteers (6 men, 34.5±2.2 years old) and gastric emptying was measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80, 100, 120 minutes after the end of the meal, and results were compared with those derived without drinking water. The emptying pattern of the test meal with water exhibited an exponential pattern typical of a liquid meal, and that without water formed a linear pattern after an initial lag phase in keeping with gastric emptying of a solid meal. In addition, the test meal was given to 11 patients of diabetic gastroparesis (5 men, 6 women, 50.4±4.5 years old), and gastric emptying was measured. At each period evaluated, emptying was significantly slower in diabetic gastroparesis than in healthy controls (6 men, 1 woman, 32.1±3.0 years old). These results show that the test meal is reliable and applicable to the clinical assessment of gastric emptying, while fulfilling the need for simplicity. (author)

  6. Effect of anxiety on the rate of gastric emptying of liquids.

    Lydon, A

    2012-02-03

    The efficacy of preoperative fasting is reduced in the presence of any factor which delays gastric emptying. We examined the association between anxiety and gastric emptying in adult patients undergoing elective surgery. Immediately before operation, 21 patients completed both a Spielberger state trait inventory (used to quantify current anxiety state (STAIs) and anxiety predisposition (STAIt)), and the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (used to quantify anxiety and need for information). Gastric emptying was measured using the paracetamol absorption technique. Four to 10 weeks later, gastric emptying and STAI were measured again. Patients were more anxious before than after operation (STAIs = mean 35.4 (SD 10.9) and 25 (4.1), respectively; P = 0.0004). Neither anxiety state (P = 0.40) nor measures of anxiety relative to anxiety predisposition (P = 0.86) influenced gastric emptying (as measured by area under the paracetamol absorption-time curve). This contrasts with previous findings that anxiety in patients with low anxiety predisposition scores delays gastric emptying.

  7. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  8. Influence of Delayed Gastric Emptying in Radiotherapy after a Subtotal Gastrectomy

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Won Taek; Lee, Mi Ran; Ki, Yong Gan; Nam, Ji Ho; Park, Dal; Jeon, Ho Sang; Jeon, Kye Rok; Kim, Dong Won [Pusan National University of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    This aim of this study was to evaluate changes in gastric volume and organ position as a result of delayed gastric emptying after a subtotal gastrectomy performed as part of the treatment of stomach cancer. The medical records of 32 patients who underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy after a subtotal gastrectomy from March 2005 to December 2008 were reviewed. Of these, 5 patients that had more than 50 cc of residual gastric food detected at computed tomography (CT) simulation, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Gastric volume and organ location was measured from CT images obtained before radiotherapy, twice weekly. In addition, authors evaluated the change of radiation dose distribution to planning the target volume and normal organ in a constant radiation therapy plan regardless of gastric volume variation. A variation in the gastric volume was observed during the radiotherapy period (64.2{approx}340.8 cc; mean, 188.2 cc). According to the change in gastric volume, the location of the left kidney was shifted up to 0.7 - 2.2 cm (mean, 1.2 cm) in the z-axis. Under-dose to planning target volume (V43, 79.5{+-}10.4%) and over-dose to left kidney (V20, 34.1{+-}12.1%; Mean dose, 23.5{+-}8.3 Gy) was expected, given that gastric volume change due to delayed gastric emptying wasn't taken into account. This study has shown that a great change in gastric volume and left kidney location may occur during the radiation therapy period following a subtotal gastrectomy, as a result of delayed gastric emptying. Detection of patients who experienced delayed gastric emptying and the application of gastric volume variation to radiation therapy planning will be very important.

  9. Effect of metoclopramide on normal and delayed gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux patients

    Gastric emptying has an important role in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The effect of metoclopramide, a gastric prokinetic agent, in gastroesophageal reflux patients with normal as well as delayed emptying was investigated. Twenty-six patients with subjective and objective evidence of gastroesophageal reflux ingested an egg salad sandwich meal labeled with /sub 99m/technetium-DTPA for a baseline study, and then again on a separate day after receiving oral metoclopramide, 10 mg, 30 min prior to the test meal. The mean percent isotope remaining in the stomach after 90 min improved significantly from 70.3 +/- 3.9% (SEM) to 55.2 +/- 4.2% after metoclopramide. Fourteen (54%) had a basal emptying in the normal range of 34-69% retention of isotope at 90 min, (means +/- 2 SD), while it was slow in 12 (46%). For those with delayed basal gastric emptying, the mean retention of 88.9 +/- 2.9% at 90 min was significantly decreased by metoclopramide to 68.6 +/- 6.1%. In those patients with a normal basal gastric emptying and a mean retention of 54.4 +/- 2.3% at 90 min, there was also significant improvement (P less than 0.025) to 43.6 +/- 3.6% after metoclopramide. These data indicate that metoclopramide increased gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux patients with normal as well as delayed gastric emptying. Therefore on a patient management level a trial of metoclopramide is warranted in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and is not limited by the gastric emptying status of the patient

  10. CLINICAL FEATURES AND SEVERITY OF GASTRIC EMPTYING DELAY IN BRAZILIAN PATIENTS WITH GASTROPARESIS

    Cláudio Marins Rocha BORGES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ContextGastroparesis is defined by delayed gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction of the gastroduodenal junction, which has been increasingly investigated. Nevertheless, knowledge on the relationships between etiology, symptoms and degree of delayed gastric emptying is limited.ObjectivesThe demographic, clinical and etiological features of Brazilian patients with gastroparesis were studied and the relationships between these findings and the severity of gastric emptying were determined.MethodThis is a retrospective study of medical records of 41 patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis admitted between 1998 and 2011, who had evidence of abnormally delayed gastric emptying on abdominal scintigraphy. Cases with idiopathic gastroparesis were compared with those of patients with neurologic disorders or diabetes mellitus, in whom autonomic neuropathy is likely to occur.ResultsThe majority of the patients were women (75.6% with a median age of 41 years and a long-term condition (median: 15 years. Twelve patients (29.3% had a body mass index of less than 20 kg/m2. The most common presenting symptoms were dyspepsia (53.6%, nausea and vomiting (46.3%, weight loss (41.4% and abdominal pain (24.3%. Regarding etiology, 16 patients had digestive disorders including idiopathic gastroparesis (n = 12, 12 had postoperative conditions, 11 had diseases of the nervous system, five had diabetes mellitus and in three cases gastroparesis was associated to a variety of conditions. In the majority of patients (65.8% gastric emptying was severely delayed. There was no association between etiology of gastroparesis, type of presenting symptoms and the degree of delay in gastric emptying. Gastroparesis patients with proven (neurological conditions or presumed (diabetes nervous system involvements were significantly younger (P= 0.001, had more recent symptom onset (P= 0:03 and a trend towards more severe gastric empty (P = 0:06. There were no significant

  11. Gastric Emptying Assessment in Frequency and Time Domain Using Bio-impedance: Preliminary Results

    Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Sosa, M.; Gutiérrez, G.; Reyes, P.; Mendiola, C.

    2006-09-01

    The impedance assessment to measure gastric emptying and in general gastric activity has been reported since 1985. The physiological interpretation of these measurements, is still under research. This technique usually uses a single frequency, and the conductivity parameter. The frequency domain and the Fourier analysis of the time domain behavior of the gastric impedance in different gastric conditions (fasting state, and after food administration) has not been explored in detail. This work presents some insights of the potentiality of these alternative methodologies to measure gastric activity.

  12. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the gastric emptying upon administration of ten different fats in order to determine whether major differences in fatty acid profiles resulted in differences in gastric emptying. Methods: Gastric emptying was measured as the appearance of acetaminophen in plasma which represents...... an indirect measure of gastric emptying. Emulsified fats with added acetaminophen were fed by gavage to rats, and the plasma concentration of acetaminophen was followed for 3 h by repeated blood sampling from the carotid artery. The fats administered included rapeseed, corn, and fish oils, lard, and cocoa...... in gastric emptying between the groups fed the different fats, except for the emptying of tridecanoin (tri-10:0) that was statistically significantly slower than that of randomized oil, cocoa butter, and rapeseed oil (p emptying of tri-10:0 could be caused by a lower caloric intake...

  13. Mechanisms of gastric emptying disturbances in chronic and acute inflammation of the distal gastrointestinal tract

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders in such patients....... Thirteen healthy subjects (CON), 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 7 with diverticulitis (DIV) underwent a standardized (13)C-octanoic acid gastric emptying breath test. Plasma glucose, CCK, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured periodically...

  14. Mechanisms of Gastric Emptying Disturbances in Chronic and Acute Inflammation of the Distal Gastrointestinal Tract

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    Objective: It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus, we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders...... in such patients. Methods: 13 healthy subjects (CON), 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 7 with diverticulitis (DIV) underwent a standardized (13)C-octanoic acid gastric emptying breath test. Plasma glucose, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1...

  15. Effect of antiemetic drugs on decrease in gastric emptying in experimental model of motion sickness in rats

    YKGUPTA; GeetaCHAUDHARY

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of pretreatment with different antiemetic drugs on the motion sickness-induced inhibition in gastric emptying.METHODS:The rats were rotated for a period of 45 min at the rate of 30 rotations per min.RESULTS:Rotating the rats caused a significant decrease in gastric emptying as cvompared to the non-rotated group.Pretreatment with scopolamine(5 mg/kg,ip)did not reverse the delay in gastric emptying,while it per se caused inhibition of gastric emptying in the non-rotated group.Similarly other drugs mepyramine,cisapride,and granisetron did not have any effect on delay in gastric emptying caused by rotation.However beta blocker propranolol could partially but significantly reverse the decrease in gastric emptying.CONCLUSION:The present study demonstrated the potential use of propranolol as adjuvant with conventional antiemetics for motion sickness to combat associated secondary symptoms.

  16. Studying the effect of different elements in gastric emptying that produce normal variations in `healthy` individuals

    Hauser, L. [Sydney University, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-06-01

    Maintaining the rate of emptying solids and liquids at normal levels, is an essential component for the correct functioning of the entire gastro-intestinal tract. There is no single-test available which provides a `baseline` for all gastric emptying studies. This problem arises due to many elements which normally effect the rate of gastric emptying, such as those dealing with patient factors, the composition of the liquid/solid meal used and also which radiopharmaceutical is chosen. It is therefore recommended that each Nuclear Medicine practice needs to set-up guidelines which are able to be consistently reproduced. One such guideline may be in the form of a `liquid glucose meal` which provides consistent and accurate results for gastric emptying studies 18 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Technetium-99m carboxymethylcellulose: A newly developed fibre marker for gastric emptying studies

    We report a study of technetium-99m-labelled carboxymethyl-cellulose (99mTc-CMC) as a newly developed non-digestible marker of the solid phase of gastric contents. The radiosynthesis is simple and shows a high labelling efficiency. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated stability of the marker in the gastrointestinal tract during the process of gastric emptying. The gastric half-emptying time in ten healthy volunteers of both sexes was 105±17 min (mean±SD). This rate of gastric emptying is similar to that of non-digestible solid-phase markers such as in vivo labelled 99mTc-chicken liver or radio-iodinated cellulose. In comparison with digestible solid-phase markers such as 99mTc-labelled pancake or 99mTc-cooked egg, gastric emptying of 99mTc-CMC occurred more slowly, confirming the expected behaviour of a non-digestible solid-phase marker. We conclude that 99mTc-CMC has the advantage of a simple and rapid labelling procedure and may be useful for clinical studies of gastric emptying. (orig.)

  18. Effects of pramlintide, an amylin analogue, on gastric emptying in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Vella, A; Lee, J S; Camilleri, M; Szarka, L A; Burton, D D; Zinsmeister, A R; Rizza, R A; Klein, P D

    2002-04-01

    Pramlintide delays gastric emptying, possibly by a centrally mediated mechanism. Our aim was to determine whether the effects of pramlintide on gastric emptying differ in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who had no history of complications. Using a randomized, three-period, two-dose, crossover design, we studied the effects of 0, 30, or 60 microg t.i.d. pramlintide subcutaneously for 5 days each in six type 1 and six type 2 diabetic subjects. Gastric emptying of solids was measured by 13C-Spirulina breath test. Plasma pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) response to the test meal was also measured. Relative to placebo [t 50% 91 +/- 6 min (means +/- SEM)], pramlintide equally delayed gastric emptying following 30 or 60 microg t.i.d. (268 +/- 37 min, 329 +/- 49 min, respectively; P diabetic subjects. Pramlintide delays gastric emptying in diabetes unassociated with clinically detected complications. Further studies are needed in diabetic patients with impaired gastric motor function. PMID:11975712

  19. Gastric emptying for solids in patients with duodenal ulcer before and after highly selective vagotomy

    In a series of 31 duodenal ulcer patients (23 males and 8 females), who underwent a highly selective vagotomy, gastric emptying characteristics of a solid meal, labeled with [99mTc]stannous colloid, were assessed before, two weeks and six months after operation. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy and x-ray; failure of treatment with H2 antagonists or antacids during 1-18 (mean 5) years was the direct indication for operative treatment. A temporary delay in gastric emptying is noted two weeks after operation (T1/2: 124 vs 57 min). After six months, gastric emptying time has practically normalized. It appears that this is the result of the preservation of the antropyloric vagal nerve supply. In these patients, a 10% recurrence rate is noted, comparable to the results in the literature. Highly selective vagotomy proves to be a safe and effective procedure with few side effects. It does not impair gastric motility

  20. Delayed gastric emptying does not normalize after gluten withdrawal in adult celiac disease.

    Usai-Satta, Paolo; Oppia, Francesco; Scarpa, Mariella; Giannetti, Cristiana; Cabras, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Objective Delayed gastric emptying has been frequently detected in patients with untreated celiac disease. According to several studies, gluten withdrawal showed to be effective in normalizing the gastric emptying rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying rate of solids in patients with celiac disease before and after a gluten-free diet. Methods Twelve adult patients with celiac disease (age range 20-57 years) and 30 healthy controls (age range 30-54 years) underwent a (13)C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying. Half emptying time (t1/2) and lag phase (tlag) were calculated. After at least 12 months of a gluten-free diet, celiac patients underwent a new (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. A symptom score was utilized to detect dyspeptic and malabsorption symptoms in all the patients. Results The gastric motility parameters, t1/2 and tlag, were significantly longer in patients than in controls. On a gluten-free diet, surprisingly, the gastric emptying did not normalize despite an improvement of symptom score. No significant correlation between abnormal gastric emptying and specific symptom patterns, anthropometric parameters or severity of histological damage was found. Conclusions This finding supports the hypothesis that gluten-driven mucosal inflammation might determine motor abnormalities by affecting smooth muscle contractility or impairing gut hormone function. The persistence of these abnormalities on a gluten free diet suggests the presence of a persistent low-grade mucosal inflammation with a permanent perturbation of the neuro-immunomodulatory regulation. PMID:27161492

  1. Gastric emptying after a new, more physiological anti-obesity operation: the Magenstrasse and Mill procedure

    The Magenstrasse and Mill (M and M) procedure for obesity is designed to preserve normal gastric emptying mechanisms. The hypothesis investigated in this study was that gastric emptying would be normal after the M and M gastroplasty. Gastric emptying studies were performed using both liquid and solid test meals, in ten morbidly obese patients (MO group) and in 13 patients after the M and M procedure (MM group). Seven people of normal weight served as controls and were matched for age, sex and height to the M and M and MO groups. Three years after the M and M procedure, mean (SD) weight loss was 42 (19) kg, with a mean loss of excess weight of 58% (20%). Gastric emptying half-times (t1/2) are expressed in minutes, as median values (25th and 75th percentiles). The t1/2 for solids was 97 (85-110) min in the control group, 140 (86-220) min in the MO group and 79 (46-150) min in the MM group. Median gastric emptying for solids was 0.7% (0.6%-0.8%) per minute in the control group, 0.5% (0.3%-0.8%) in the MO group and 0.9% (0.4%-1.4%) in the M and M group. There were no statistically significant differences in the emptying times of the three groups. It is concluded that the M and M procedure achieves acceptable weight loss, while preserving gastric emptying mechanisms and thus minimising possible side-effects such as vomiting, dumping and diarrhoea, which are common complications of gastric bypass procedures. (orig.)

  2. Gastric emptying after a new, more physiological anti-obesity operation: the Magenstrasse and Mill procedure

    Carmichael, A.R.; Johnston, D.; Barker, M.C.J.; Bury, R.F.; Boyce, J.; Sue-Ling, H. [Leeds General Infirmary (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    The Magenstrasse and Mill (M and M) procedure for obesity is designed to preserve normal gastric emptying mechanisms. The hypothesis investigated in this study was that gastric emptying would be normal after the M and M gastroplasty. Gastric emptying studies were performed using both liquid and solid test meals, in ten morbidly obese patients (MO group) and in 13 patients after the M and M procedure (MM group). Seven people of normal weight served as controls and were matched for age, sex and height to the M and M and MO groups. Three years after the M and M procedure, mean (SD) weight loss was 42 (19) kg, with a mean loss of excess weight of 58% (20%). Gastric emptying half-times (t{sub 1/2}) are expressed in minutes, as median values (25th and 75th percentiles). The t{sub 1/2} for solids was 97 (85-110) min in the control group, 140 (86-220) min in the MO group and 79 (46-150) min in the MM group. Median gastric emptying for solids was 0.7% (0.6%-0.8%) per minute in the control group, 0.5% (0.3%-0.8%) in the MO group and 0.9% (0.4%-1.4%) in the M and M group. There were no statistically significant differences in the emptying times of the three groups. It is concluded that the M and M procedure achieves acceptable weight loss, while preserving gastric emptying mechanisms and thus minimising possible side-effects such as vomiting, dumping and diarrhoea, which are common complications of gastric bypass procedures. (orig.)

  3. Pre- and post-operative gastric emptying studies in gastroplasty patients

    Dual isotope gastric emptying studies were performed pre- and post-operatively on 16 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastroplasty. Pre-operative 50 g and 900 g meals of beef stew contained Tc-99m labeled liver to monitor the solid-phase of emptying and orange juice with In-111 DTPA to follow the liquid phase. Identical 50 g meals were given post-operatively at 3 months to 12 patients and at 12 months to 9 patients for comparison of gastric emptying and evaluation of the surgical intervention. Total stomach emptying studies at 3 and 12 months did not significantly differ from pre-operative studies, however, the 50 g pouch emptied solids (21 min) and liquids (18 min) significantly faster (p<0.05) than the post-operative total stomach and pre-operative studies. In summary, pre-operative gastric emptying in the obese patients was not different from a control group. Post-op there was no difference in total stomach emptying compared to pre-op studies, however, pouch emptying was significantly more rapid as compared to the pre-operative studies

  4. Background analysis and comparison of two solid food markers (DTPA and HSA) in the measurement of human gastric emptying

    The measurement of gastric emptying of radiolabelled solid food is described. A procedure enabling the assessment of background radiation, and connected with it corrections of the parameters characterizing gastric emptying curves are discussed in detail. Considering background radiation, /sup 99m/Tc/labelled DTPA and HSA are shown to be equivalent as solid meal markers in studying gastric emptying. Corrections for background radiation can be neglected, if the background to total count ratio has been sufficiently reduced. (author)

  5. Faster gastric emptying of a liquid meal in rats after hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus lesion

    Denofre-Carvalho S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH nucleus lesion on body weight, plasma glucose levels, and the gastric emptying of a liquid meal were investigated in male Wistar rats (170-250 g. DMH lesions were produced stereotaxically by delivering a 2.0-mA current for 20 s through nichrome electrodes (0.3-mm tip exposure. In a second set of experiments, the DMH and the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH nucleus were lesioned with a 1.0-mA current for 10 s (0.1-mm tip exposure. The medial hypothalamus (MH was also lesioned separately using a nichrome electrode (0.3-mm tip exposure with a 2.0-mA current for 20 s. Gastric emptying was measured following the orogastric infusion of a liquid test meal consisting of physiological saline (0.9% NaCl, w/v plus phenol red dye (6 mg/dl as a marker. Plasma glucose levels were determined after an 18-h fast before the lesion and on the 7th and 15th postoperative day. Body weight was determined before lesioning and before sacrificing the rats. The DMH-lesioned rats showed a significantly faster (P<0.05 gastric emptying (24.7% gastric retention, N = 11 than control (33.0% gastric retention, N = 8 and sham-lesioned (33.5% gastric retention, N = 12 rats, with a transient hypoglycemia on the 7th postoperative day which returned to normal by the 15th postoperative day. In all cases, weight gain was slower among lesioned rats. Additional experiments using a smaller current to induce lesions confirmed that DMH-lesioned rats had a faster gastric emptying (25.1% gastric retention, N = 7 than control (33.4% gastric retention, N = 17 and VMH-lesioned (34.6% gastric retention, N = 7 rats. MH lesions resulted in an even slower gastric emptying (43.7% gastric retention, N = 7 than in the latter two groups. We conclude that although DMH lesions reduce weight gain, they do not produce consistent changes in plasma glucose levels. These lesions also promote faster gastric emptying of an inert liquid meal, thus suggesting a role for

  6. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 . 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 . 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of indigestible solids; the method may be a more sensitive indicator of gastric motor dysfunction than radionuclide scintigraphy

  7. In vitro and in vivo effects of ferulic acid on gastrointestinal motility: Inhibition of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats

    Osama A Badary; Azza S Awad; Mohey A Sherief; Farid MA Hamada

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of ferulic acid on gastrointestinal motility both in vitro and in vivo.METHODS: Ferulic acid induced concentrationdependent stimulation of the basal tone of isolated guinea pig ileum (2-20 μmol/L) and isolated rat fundus (0.05-0.4 mmol/L).RESULTS: Ferulic acid significantly accelerated the gastrointestinal transit and gastric emptying in rats in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg/kg, po). Cisplatin (2.5-20 mg/kg, ip) induced a dose-dependent delay in gastric emptying in rats. Pretreatment with ferulic acid dose-dependently, significantly reversed the cisplatininduced delay in gastric emptying.CONCLUSION: The endogenous prostaglandins (PGs)are involved in mediating the stimulant effects of ferulic acid. This effect of dietary ferulic acid may help improve other accompanying gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal discomfort and also may protect against emesis induced by cytotoxic drugs.

  8. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency

    Yagci, Muenci; Yamac, Kadri; Acar, Kadir; Haznedar, Rauf [Department of Hematology, Gazi Medical School (Turkey); Cingi, Elif; Kitapci, Mehmet [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi Medical School (Turkey)

    2002-09-01

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T{sub 1/2}). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B{sub 12} levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83{+-}48.80 min, 90.00{+-}17.29 min and 74.55{+-}8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P<0.01). The statistically significant difference persisted after vitamin B{sub 12} treatment (P<0.05), though mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B{sub 12} level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was prolonged in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon

  9. Amylin level and gastric emptying in obese children: before and after weight loss.

    El-Rasheidy, Omnia F; Amin, Dina A; Ahmed, Hala A; El Masry, Hesham; Montaser, Zeinab M

    2012-08-01

    Amylin is a neuroendocrine hormone that inhibits food intake and gastric emptying in animal studies. Its role in obese human beings is still controversial. We aimed to estimate the fasting and postprandial amylin levels in obese children before and after weight loss [through weight loss intervention program (WLIP)] and to relate these levels to the lipid profile, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ultrasonography gastric half emptying time (t1/2). This study was conducted initially on 20 obese children, 10 of them only continued 6 months follow up strategy on WLIP. Ten lean children served as controls. All children were subjected initially and on follow up to dietetic history taking, anthropometric measurements and laboratory assessment oflipid profile, HOMA-IR, fasting and postprandial amylin levels and ultrasonography gastric half emptying time (t1/2). The results showed that IR, significantly increased in fasting and postprandial amylin levels and significant delay in gastric emptying among obese children. After WLIP completion, IR was reversible, fasting and postprandial amylin levels decreased and gastric emptying significantly improved yet still significantly delayed than controls. There was significant positive correlation between fasting amylin levels and body mass index %, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. PMID:23214220

  10. Gastric emptying, postprandial blood pressure, glycaemia and splanchnic flow in Parkinson’s disease

    Trahair, Laurence G; Kimber, Thomas E; Flabouris, Katerina; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine gastric emptying, blood pressure, mesenteric artery blood flow, and blood glucose responses to oral glucose in Parkinson’s disease. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects (13 M, 8 F; age 64.2 ± 1.6 years) with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn and Yahr score 1.4 ± 0.1, duration of known disease 6.3 ± 0.9 years) consumed a 75 g glucose drink, labelled with 20 MBq 99mTc-calcium phytate. Gastric emptying was quantified with scintigraphy, blood pressure and heart rate with an automated device, superior mesenteric artery blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography and blood glucose by glucometer for 180 min. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated with cardiovascular reflex tests and upper gastrointestinal symptoms by questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean gastric half-emptying time was 106 ± 9.1 min, gastric emptying was abnormally delayed in 3 subjects (14%). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure fell (P Parkinson’s disease, gastric emptying is related to autonomic dysfunction and a determinant of the glycaemic response to oral glucose.

  11. Scintigraphic test of gastric emptying and motility: preliminary results in patients with chronic gastritis

    Hausmann, T. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Mueller-Schauenburg, W. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Goeke, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Luebeck, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ.-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Gratz, K.F. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meier, P. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Manns, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Hundeshagen, H. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)

  12. Scintigraphic test of gastric emptying and motility: preliminary results in patients with chronic gastritis

    To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)

  13. Use of technegas as a radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying

    Many radiopharmaceuticals and test meals that are used to measure gastric emptying are less than optimal. A vegetable-based solid meal, such as rice, labelled with a radiopharmaceutical that also has the capacity to measure gastric emptying of liquids, is likely to be ideal. The role of Technegas as a radioisotopic marker to measure gastric emptying of rice and liquids was evaluated. Technegas-labelled rice was incubated in 0.9% saline, 1 M HCl and simulated gastric fluid (3.2 g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-3) to assess stability of the label. In eight healthy volunteers gastric emptying of two meals - 200 g rice (370 kcal) and 75 g dextrose dissolved in 300 ml water (300 kcal), both labelled with 20 MBq of Technegas - was measured scintigraphically. Over 4 h, the average label stability was 93.7%±0.5% in 0.9% saline, 91.0%±0.4% in 1 M HCl and 93.6%±0.7% in simulated gastric juice. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25±7 min vs 4±2 min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post-lag emptying rate (2.1±0.3 kcal/min vs 1.7±0.2 kcal/min; P=0.2) between the two meals. We conclude that Technegas is a suitable radiopharmaceutical for measurement of gastric emptying of rice and nutrient-containing liquids. (orig.)

  14. Effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on gastric emptying in rats

    F. Bucaretchi

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the gastric emptying of liquids was studied in 176 young adult male Wistar rats (2-3 months of age divided into subgroups of 8 animals each. Toxin-g was injected iv at doses of 25, 37.5, 50 or 100 µg/kg and the effect on gastric emptying was assessed 30 min and 8 h later. A time-course study was also performed by injecting 50 µg of toxin-g /kg and measuring the effect on gastric emptying at times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h post-venom. Each envenomed animal was paired with its saline control and all received a saline test meal solution containing phenol red (60 µg/ml as a marker. Ten minutes after administering the test meal by gavage the animals were sacrificed and gastric retention was determined by measuring the residual marker concentration of the test meal. A significant delay in gastric emptying, at 30 min and 8 h post-venom, was observed only after 50 and 100 µg of toxin-g /kg compared to control values. The responses to these two doses were significantly different after 8 h post-venom. Toxin-g (50 µg/kg significantly delayed the gastric emptying of liquids at all times studied, with a peak response at 4 h after toxin administration compared to control values. These results indicate that the iv injection of toxin-g may induce a rapid, intense and sustained inhibition of gastric emptying 0.25 to 48 h after envenomation.

  15. Use of technegas as a radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying

    Kwiatek, M.A. [School of Medical Radiation, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Jones, K.L. [School of Medical Radiation, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia)]|[Department of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Burch, W.M. [John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Australian Capital Territory (Australia); Horowitz, M. [Department of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Bartholomeusz, F.D.L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    1999-08-01

    Many radiopharmaceuticals and test meals that are used to measure gastric emptying are less than optimal. A vegetable-based solid meal, such as rice, labelled with a radiopharmaceutical that also has the capacity to measure gastric emptying of liquids, is likely to be ideal. The role of Technegas as a radioisotopic marker to measure gastric emptying of rice and liquids was evaluated. Technegas-labelled rice was incubated in 0.9% saline, 1 M HCl and simulated gastric fluid (3.2 g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-3) to assess stability of the label. In eight healthy volunteers gastric emptying of two meals - 200 g rice (370 kcal) and 75 g dextrose dissolved in 300 ml water (300 kcal), both labelled with 20 MBq of Technegas - was measured scintigraphically. Over 4 h, the average label stability was 93.7%{+-}0.5% in 0.9% saline, 91.0%{+-}0.4% in 1 M HCl and 93.6%{+-}0.7% in simulated gastric juice. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25{+-}7 min vs 4{+-}2 min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post-lag emptying rate (2.1{+-}0.3 kcal/min vs 1.7{+-}0.2 kcal/min; P=0.2) between the two meals. We conclude that Technegas is a suitable radiopharmaceutical for measurement of gastric emptying of rice and nutrient-containing liquids. (orig.) With 2 figs., 16 refs.

  16. Gastric emptying patterns of a liquid meal in newborn infants, measured by epigastric impedance

    Lange, Aksel; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Thommesen, Peter;

    1997-01-01

      Epigastric impedance was used to measure patterns of the gastric emptying of a liquid non-caloric meal (5 ml water/kg) in newborn infants. The emptying patterns consisted of two components, theemptying signal - the DC component - and a phasic 3 cycle per minutes (CPM) signal - the AC component....... Phasic 3 CPM signal was also seen during the fasting state. Measurements were erformed in thirty healthy infants. Twenty-six mature infants were examined in the first eight days of life, and four preterm infants were examined within 6 weeks after birth. For the emptying signal the median half emptying...... time (T50) was calculated. For mature infants it was found to be 6.9 mins. For a second meal given within an hour after the first meal the half emptying time was 5.5 mins (p emptying times were not significant different from mature infants, but the number examined was small...

  17. First pass metabolism of ethanol is strikingly influenced by the speed of gastric emptying

    ONETA, C; Simanowski, U; Martinez, M.; Allali-Hassani, A; Pares, X; Homann, N; Conradt, C; Waldherr, R; Fiehn, W.; Coutelle, C; Seitz, H.

    1998-01-01

    Background—Ethanol undergoes a first pass metabolism (FPM) in the stomach and liver. Gastric FPM of ethanol primarily depends on the activity of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). In addition, the speed of gastric emptying (GE) may modulate both gastric and hepatic FPM of ethanol. 
Aims—To study the effect of modulation of GE on FPM of ethanol in the stomach and liver. 
Methods—Sixteen volunteers (eight men and eight women) received ethanol (0.225 g/kg body weight) orally ...

  18. Opioid-induced delay in gastric emptying: a peripheral mechanism in humans.

    Murphy, D B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Opioids delay gastric emptying, which in turn may increase the risk of vomiting and pulmonary aspiration. Naloxone reverses this opiate action on gastric emptying, but it is not known whether this effect in humans is mediated by central or peripheral opiate antagonism. The importance of peripheral opioid receptor antagonism in modulating opioid-induced delay in gastric emptying was evaluated using methylnaltrexone, a quaternary derivative of the opiate antagonist naltrexone, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover placebo-controlled study, 11 healthy volunteers were given either placebo (saline), 0.09 mg\\/kg morphine, or 0.09 mg\\/kg morphine plus 0.3 mg\\/kg methylnaltrexone on three separate occasions before ingesting 500 ml deionized water. The rate of gastric emptying was measured by two methods: a noninvasive epigastric bioimpedance technique and the acetaminophen absorption test. RESULTS: The epigastric bioimpedance technique was sufficiently sensitive to detect opioid-induced changes in the rate of gastric emptying. The mean +\\/- SD time taken for the gastric volume to decrease to 50% (t0.5) after placebo was 5.5 +\\/- 2.1 min. Morphine prolonged gastric emptying to (t0.5) of 21 +\\/- 9.0 min (P < 0.03). Methylnaltrexone given concomitantly with morphine reversed the morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying to a t0.5 of 7.4 +\\/- 3.0 (P < 0.04). Maximum concentrations and area under the concentration curve from 0 to 90 min of serum acetaminophen concentrations after morphine were significantly different from placebo and morphine administered concomitantly with methylnaltrexone (P < 0.05). No difference in maximum concentration or area under the concentration curve from 0 to 90 min was noted between placebo and methylnaltrexone coadministered with morphine. CONCLUSIONS: The attenuation of morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying by methylnaltrexone suggests that the opioid effect is

  19. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. II. Study, in an experimental model in rats, of gastric retention of a sodium bicarbonate solution].

    Belangero, V M; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of a 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate solution was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by a previous (6 hours) orogastric infusion of a 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one previously infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water, in the same volume that further solutions. Every animal was fed with 2 ml/100 g of its weight of these solutions. The test meal (bicarbonate solution) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric retentions were determined 6 hours after those first meals at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results demonstrated that the gastric retentions of the bicarbonate solution were significantly lower in the acidotic group than that one of water group (at 20 minutes) and that one of the sodium chloride (at 10, 20 and 30 minutes). The data here presented suggest that metabolic acidosis accelerates the gastric emptying of a sodium bicarbonate solution. PMID:1339142

  20. The determination of neonatal gastric emptying and gastroesophageal reflux with radionuclide gastroesophageal scintigraphy

    Objective: To evaluate neonatal gastric emptying and gastroesophageal reflux with gastroesophageal scintigraphy. Methods: Gastrointestinal motility was expressed as gastric emptying rate at 60 min after feeding (GE60%) and reflux index (RI) on 99Tcm-DTPA gastroesophageal scintigraphy. 77 normal neonates were enrolled in this study. Results: GE60% in preterm infants was lower than that in full-term neonates (28.3% +- 7.7% vs 49.2% +- 12.8%). Gestational age was positively correlated to gastric emptying rate. Asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux was 60.9% in 46 full-term neonates and 83.9% in 31 preterm infants, P 60% than that in full-term neonates. There is a considerable incidence of asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux in normal neonates

  1. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Sharma, S S; Gupta, Y K

    1998-08-01

    Cisplatin causes nausea, vomiting and inhibition of gastric emptying. We have demonstrated the antiemetic effect of the acetone and ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the acetone and 50% ethanolic extract of ginger in the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg (p.o.) and ginger juice, in the doses of 2 and 4 ml/kg, were investigated against cisplatin effect on gastric emptying in rats. All three ginger preparations significantly reversed cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying. The ginger juice and acetone extract were more effective than the 50% ethanolic extract. The reversal produced by the ginger acetone extract was similar to that caused by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron; however, ginger juice produced better reversal than ondansetron. Therefore, ginger, an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy, may also be useful in improving the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:9720611

  2. The effects of omeprazole on intragastric pH, intestinal motility, and gastric emptying rate

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate whether omeprazole changes the characteristics and thereby the functions ascribed to fasting intestinal motility, postprandial motility, postprandial pH, and gastric emptying. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects were investigated. The studies were......H. Pretreatment with omeprazole was followed by a delay in gastric emptying of liquid at 30 min (64% (49%-66%) (omeprazole series) versus 78% (67%-83%); P ... of postprandial motility (305 min (157-350 min) (omeprazole) versus 259 min (129-403 min)). CONCLUSIONS: Omeprazole eliminates the temporal relationship between intragastric pH and characteristics of the migrating motor complex and induces a delay in gastric emptying of both liquid and solid. A non...

  3. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility; Nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik der Magenmotilitaet

    Linke, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The stomach consists of two functionally distinct parts. The fundus and upper corpus mainly serve as a reservoir and exert primarily a tonic activity, which presses ingesta towards the antrum and duodenum. The phasic contractility of the lower corpus and antrum cause mechanical breakdown and mixing of the food particels. A complex regulation of these mechanisms provides a regular gastric emptying. Various disorders such as diabetes mellitus, mixed connective tissue diseases, gastritis, tumors, dyspeptic disorders but also drugs and gastric surgery may influence or impair gastric function and may cause typical symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and vomiting. However, the interpretation of gastrointestinal symptoms often is difficult. Radionuclide studies of gastric emptying and motility are the most physiologic tools available for studying gastric motor function. Gastric scintigraphy is non-invasive, uses physiologic meal and is quantitative. Emptying curves generated from the gastric ROI offer information whether a disorder is accompanied by a regular, fast or slow gastric emptying. Data on gastric contractions (amplitude and frequency) provide additional information to results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.) [German] Proximaler und distaler Magen haben funktionell unterschiedliche Aufgaben. Waehrend der proximale Magen die Nahrung voruebergehend speichert und ueber die Generierung eines gastroduodenalen Druckgefaelles eine fraktionierte Entleerung in den Duenndarm bewirkt, dient die Peristaltik des distalen Magens der Durchmischung und Zerkleinerung des Speisebreis. Eine komplexe hormonelle, humorale und nervale Regulation dieser ineinandergreifenden Funktionen

  4. Relationship of gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying in infants and children: concise communication

    One hundred twenty-six pediatric patients (0-16 yr of age) with clinically suspected gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were evaluated using radionuclide scintigraphy. Although 46 of the patients (38.3%) had abnormal studies exhibiting evidence of GER, there were no signifcant differences in gastric emptying between patients with and without GER. At 60 min after ingestion, the 76 patients less than 2 yr old had a mean residual of 54%, whereas those over 2 yr of age had a value of 29%. Gastric emptying values may be age-related

  5. Relationship of gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying in infants and children: concise communication

    Rosen, P.R.; Treves, S.

    1984-05-01

    One hundred twenty-six pediatric patients (0-16 yr of age) with clinically suspected gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were evaluated using radionuclide scintigraphy. Although 46 of the patients (38.3%) had abnormal studies exhibiting evidence of GER, there were no signifcant differences in gastric emptying between patients with and without GER. At 60 min after ingestion, the 76 patients less than 2 yr old had a mean residual of 54%, whereas those over 2 yr of age had a value of 29%. Gastric emptying values may be age-related.

  6. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Study of gastrointestinal opiate receptors: the role of the mu receptor on gastric emptying: concise communication

    Animal and in vitro experiments suggest that opiates exert their actions by interaction with possibly five different subtypes of opiate receptors, identified as mu, kappa, sigma, delta, and epsilon. As yet there is no conclusive evidence for their existence in man. Our experiments on morphine and the enkephalin analog DAMME have suggested at least two types of opiate receptors involved in gastric secretion. In this study we have used the very powerful and nonselective opiate agonist etorphine to stimulate as many of the different opiate receptors as possible. We have then attempted to block selectively the μ receptor by administering a small dose of naloxone. Etorphine delayed gastric emptying whereas naloxone alone had no effect. In combination, the inhibitory effect of etorphine on gastric emptying was incompletely prevented while the subjective effects of etorphoine were completely abolished. These results may indicate that μ receptors are important in the regulation of gastric emptying, but that other (non-μ) receptors are also involved. The radionuclide study of gastric emptying, as used here, is a potentially powerful tool in physiological research on the gastrointestinal tract

  8. A role for pancreatic polypeptide in the regulation of gastric emptying and short-term metabolic control

    Schmidt, P T; Näslund, E; Grybäck, P;

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Previous studies using pancreatic polypeptide (PP) infusions in humans have failed to show an effect on gastric emptying, glucose metabolism, and insulin secretion. This might be due to the use of nonhuman sequences of the peptide. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to use...... synthetic human PP to study gastric emptying rates of a solid meal and postprandial hormone secretion and glucose disposal as well as the gastric emptying rate of water. DESIGN: This was a single-blind study. SETTING: The study was performed at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen healthy adult...... subjects were studied. INTERVENTIONS: Infusion of saline or PP at 0.75 or 2.25 pmol/kg.min was given to eight subjects (gastric emptying of solid food), and infusion of saline or PP at 2.25 pmol/kg.min was given to six subjects (gastric emptying of water). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures...

  9. Semimechanistic model describing gastric emptying and glucose absorption in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes

    Alskär, Oskar; Bagger, Jonatan I; Røge, Rikke M;

    2015-01-01

    and gastric emptying after tests with varying glucose doses. The developed model's performance was compared to empirical models. To develop our model, data from oral and intravenous glucose challenges in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy control subjects were used together with present knowledge...... of small intestinal transit time, glucose inhibition of gastric emptying, and saturable absorption of glucose over the epithelium to improve the description of gastric emptying and glucose absorption in the IGI model. Duodenal glucose was found to inhibit gastric emptying. The performance of the saturable...... glucose absorption was superior to linear absorption regardless of the gastric emptying model applied. The semiphysiological model developed performed better than previously published empirical models and allows better understanding of the mechanisms underlying glucose absorption. In conclusion, our new...

  10. Technegas - A new radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying in normal subjects

    Full text: Scintigraphy is now used widely to measure gastric emptying in humans. Both solid and liquid emptying should ideally be measured - most techniques employ test meals of minced beef and eggs. These meals are not always suitable for patients, especially those observing strict dietary regimens or vegetarians, in whom a vegetable-based meal such as rice is likely to be more acceptable. A previous study attempted to label rice with pertechnetate, but label stability was inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine whether Technegas could be used as a radioisotopic marker to assess gastric emptying of rice and liquids. The stability of Technegas rice was evaluated for three brands of rice by incubation in 0.9% saline, 1M HCI and simulated gastric fluid (3.2g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-4). The labelling stability of each type of rice after four hours was greater than 80%. Gastric emptying of 200g (370kcal) rice and 300ml (300kcal) dextrose drink, both labelled with approximately 20MBq of Technegas, was measured in eight normal subjects (6M, 2F) on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained for three hours after ingestion of the meal to quantify intestinal absorption of the radiolabel. Gastric emptying of rice was characterised by a lag phase followed by a linear emptying phase, while emptying of dextrose approximated a linear pattern after a short lag phase. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25±7min vs 4±2min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post lag emptying rate (2.1±0.3kca/min vs 1.7±0.2kcal/min; P=0.2), between the two meals. Intestinal absorption of the radiolabel increased over time, with a plateau after two hours; the total amount absorbed (5.3±13% rice and 6.7±1.8% dextrose) was small. These observations indicate that Technegas labelled rice and dextrose are suitable test meals for measurement of gastric emptying of solids and nutrient containing liquids

  11. Technegas - A new radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying in normal subjects

    Kwiatek, M.A.; Jones, K.L. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medical Radiation; Burch, W. [Tetley Medical, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Horowitz, M.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Scintigraphy is now used widely to measure gastric emptying in humans. Both solid and liquid emptying should ideally be measured - most techniques employ test meals of minced beef and eggs. These meals are not always suitable for patients, especially those observing strict dietary regimens or vegetarians, in whom a vegetable-based meal such as rice is likely to be more acceptable. A previous study attempted to label rice with pertechnetate, but label stability was inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine whether Technegas could be used as a radioisotopic marker to assess gastric emptying of rice and liquids. The stability of Technegas rice was evaluated for three brands of rice by incubation in 0.9% saline, 1M HCI and simulated gastric fluid (3.2g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-4). The labelling stability of each type of rice after four hours was greater than 80%. Gastric emptying of 200g (370kcal) rice and 300ml (300kcal) dextrose drink, both labelled with approximately 20MBq of Technegas, was measured in eight normal subjects (6M, 2F) on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained for three hours after ingestion of the meal to quantify intestinal absorption of the radiolabel. Gastric emptying of rice was characterised by a lag phase followed by a linear emptying phase, while emptying of dextrose approximated a linear pattern after a short lag phase. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25{+-}7min vs 4{+-}2min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post lag emptying rate (2.1{+-}0.3kca/min vs 1.7{+-}0.2kcal/min; P=0.2), between the two meals. Intestinal absorption of the radiolabel increased over time, with a plateau after two hours; the total amount absorbed (5.3{+-}13% rice and 6.7{+-}1.8% dextrose) was small. These observations indicate that Technegas labelled rice and dextrose are suitable test meals for measurement of gastric emptying of solids and nutrient containing liquids

  12. Gastric emptying in normal subjects--a reproducible technique using a single scintillation camera and computer system.

    Collins, P. J.; Horowitz, M; Cook, D. J.; Harding, P E; Shearman, D J

    1983-01-01

    The gastric emptying of a mixed solid and liquid meal was assessed in 24 normal subjects using a single camera/computer system which allowed continuous monitoring of both solids and liquids. It was shown that variation in tissue attenuation caused by the changing depth of radionuclide within the stomach accounted for large errors in the measurement of gastric emptying (alteration in 50% emptying time of up to 65%). A technique for the correction of attenuation is described which used factors ...

  13. Measurement of gastric emptying and antral motor activity in patients with primary anorexia nervosa

    The quantification of gastric motor activity is of great clinical importance. This investigation was aimed at critically evaluating a scintigraphic method of measuring gastric emptying of a semi-solid meal and antral motor activity in patients with primary anorexia nervosa (PAN). Data obtained from 50 patients were evaluated. Twelve patients participated each in two studies, in which the effects of the prokinetic drug, cisapride, were compared to those of placebo under random double-blind conditions. A dual head gamma camera with camera heads in anterior and posterior positions, respectively, was used. After ingestion of the radiolabelled meal, recording with 1 min frames continued for 50 min. Half-emptying times as determined under the assumption of a mono-exponential emptying pattern correlated perfectly with the emptying rate per minute as determined under the assumption of a linear emptying pattern, suggesting the validity of both assumptions. No initial lag phase was observed, which can be attributed to the semi-solid meal consistency but also the measurement geometry improved by simultaneous ventral and dorsal recording. PAN patients had significantly slower emptying rates than 24 healthy volunteers studied earlier. Antral motor activity was recorded in minutes 7-10, 27-30 and 47-50 with 3 s frames. Time/activity curves were analysed using data obtained from three small regions of interest positioned across the antrum. The modulation depth of the time/activity curves corresponding to the amplitude of contractions and the contraction frequency could be computed reliably in most; the propagation velocity of contractions, however, could only be computed reliably in a few instances. Patients showed significantly lower modulation depths than controls, whereas frequency and propagation velocity did not differ. After cisapride, slightly higher modulation depths and significantly lower frequencies occurred than after placebo. It is concluded that the employed

  14. Effect of size and density on canine gastric emptying of nondigestible solids

    Previous studies suggested that the food-containing canine stomach retains large, nondigestible spheres until all food has emptied; but it is not known whether there is a threshold size or a gradation of sizes that will empty along with food. Further, nothing is known of the effects of such parameters as density, shape, and surface energy on the emptying of nondigestible particles of any given size. To answer these questions 6 dogs with chronic duodenal fistulas were studied. Radiolabeled food and spheres were collected from the fistulas to compare the rate of gastric emptying of the spheres with that of the food. After a standard test meal of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled liver, steak, and water, diverted chyme was collected over a stack of sieves in 30-min fractions over 5 postcibal hours. The percent of fed spheres and fed /sup 99m/Tc-labeled liver in each collection was counted, and liquid chyme was returned to the distal duodenum. Spheres with a density of 1 emptied progressively faster as sphere diameters were decreased from 5 to 1 mm; but 0.015-mm spheres emptied at about the same rate as those with diameters of 1 mm. Emptying of the spheres became similar to emptying of the /sup 99m/Tc-labeled liver at about 1.6 mm. Spheres with densities less than 1 or greater than 1 emptied more slowly than spheres of the same size with a density of 1, whereas paper squares emptied the same way as spheres of comparable size and density. Surface energy did not affect emptying. The findings indicated that both sphere size and density affect their emptying in the presence of food

  15. Comments on: The effects of sitagliptin on gastric emptying in healthy humans - a randomised, controlled study

    Ekaterina A Pigarova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comments on: Stevens JE, Horowitz M, Deacon CF, Nauck M, Rayner CK, Jones KL. The effects of sitagliptin on gastric emptying in healthy humans - a randomised, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Jun 28. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2012.05198.x

  16. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  17. Impact of the reconstruction method on delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Tamandl, Dietmar; Sahora, Klaus; Prucker, Johannes;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is of considerable concern in patients undergoing pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). Prolonged hospital stay, increased cost, and decreased quality of life add on to interventions needed to treat DGE. This study was conducted to determine...

  18. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal. (orig.)

  19. The effects of increasing liquid calories on gastric emptying in normal subjects

    Radionuclide methods are the simplest and potentially the most accurate techniques for the measurement of gastric emptying, but there are methodological problems which may limit the sentivity and specificity of these tests. A significant source of error is photon attenuation, due to the changing depth of radionuclides in the stomach during the study. This error can be eliminated by adding counts obtained in both anterior and posterior views or by applying attenuation correction factors to the data. Radionuclides were used to study the effect of increasing the calorie content of the liquid component of a mixed solid-liquid meal on gastric emptying in normal subjects, using a single detector system, and assessed the reproductibility of the technique. The solid meal comprised 1-1.5 mCi ''in vivo'' sup(99m)Tc-labelled chicken liver which was added to 100 g of ground beef and the resultant ''hamburger'' grilled. The liquids studied were 0.5 mCi sup(113m)In-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) added to 100 ml of either water, 10% dextrose or 25% dextrose. In this study the progressive increase in caloric content of the liquid meal from 0 to 0.4 to 1 kcal/ml resulted in a corresponding delay in both solid and liquid emptying. For liquids a generalised slowing of the entire emptying curve was evident, while the delay in solid emptying reflected a lengthening of the lag period, with no alteraction in the rate of linear emptying

  20. Effect of sumatriptan on gastric emptying: A crossover study using the BreathID system

    Yasunari Sakamoto; Yusuke Sekino; Eiji Yamada; Takuma Higurashi; Hidenori Ohkubo; Eiji Sakai; Hiroki Endo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the effect of oral sumatriptan on gastric emptying using a continuous 13C breath test (BreathID system).METHODS:Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized,2-way crossover study.The subjects fasted overnight and were randomly assigned to receive a test meal (200 kcal/200 mL) 30 min after pre-medication with sumatriptan 50 mg (sumatriptan condition),or the test meal alone (control condition).Gastric emptying was monitored for 4 h after administration of the test meal by the 13C-acetic acid breath test performed continually using the BreathID system.Then,using Oridion Research Software (β version),the time taken for emptying of 50% of the labeled meal (T1/2) similar to the scintigraphy lag time for 10%emptying of the labeled meal (Tlag),the gastric emptying coefficient (GEC),and the regression-estimated constants (β and κ) were calculated.The statistical significance of any differences in the parameters were analyzed using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test.RESULTS:In the sumatdptan condition,significant differences compared with the control condition were found in T1/2 [median 131.84 min (range,103.13-168.70) vs 120.27 min (89.61-138.25); P =0.0016],Tlag [median 80.085 min (59.23-125.89) vs 61.11 min (39.86-87.05);P =0.0125],and β [median 2.3374 (1.6407-3.8209)vs 2.0847 (1.4755-2.9269); P =0.0284].There were no significant differences in the GEC or κ between the 2 conditions.CONCLUSION:This study showed that oral sumatriptan significantly delayed gastric emptying of a liquid meal.

  1. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis. PMID:27072508

  2. Esophageal reconstruction surgery in oncologic patients. Determination of gastric emptying time

    Fonseca, L.; Maliska, C.M [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rio de Janeiro, Univ. Federal, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Sector de Medicina Nuclear, Dept. de Radiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cruz, M.G.A. [Rio de Janeiro, Univ. Federal, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Sector de Medicina Nuclear, Dept. de Radiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Castro, L. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gutfilen, B. [Rio de Janeiro, Univ. do Estado, Hospital Universitario Pedro Ernesto, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2000-06-01

    All parts of the gastrointestinal tract are accessible for study using nuclear medicine techniques. It has been studied the effect of esophageal reconstruction surgery, in different periods of time, after surgical procedure. Oncologic patients (19) were evaluated after esophageal reconstruction surgery with gastric (group II-14 patients) or colonic tube (group III - 5 patients) and they were compared with 15 healthy volunteers (group I). Gastric emptying was performed in the same subjects using solid food (egg sandwich) labeled with 99mTc-phytate. In emptying gastric studies, the mean (T1/2) of the patients was much faster than those of the control (p<0.05) when 1/3 distal tube was considered as stomach. However, there was no difference between the T1/2 of group II and group III. It could be concluded that this nuclear medicine method could be useful in the monitoring the surgical reconstruction of the esophagus.

  3. Differential effect of PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on gastric emptying in man

    Witte, A-B; Grybäck, P; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    the effect of intravenously administered PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on gastric emptying and short-term metabolic control. Eight healthy adults were studied in single-blinded, randomized design. At separate occasions, intravenous infusion of saline, PYY1-36 or PYY3-36 (0.8 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) and a radio......-labelled omelette were given. Gastric emptying (scintigraphy), appetite ratings (VAS), and plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, GLP-1 and PYY were measured. PYY3-36 and PYY1-36 both inhibited gastric emptying, PYY3-36 most effectively. Half-emptying time was prolonged from 63.1+/-5.2 (saline) to 87...... prospective consumption (VAS change 39.5+/-7.7 mm). In conclusion, PYY3-36's reducing effect upon food intake might be mediated by a decreased gastric emptying rate....

  4. Gastric emptying of orally administered glucose solutions and incretin hormone responses are unaffected by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

    Usinger, Lotte; Hansen, Katrine B; Kristiansen, Viggo B;

    2011-01-01

    of LAGB on glucose intolerance. In order to clarify the applicability of the diagnostic 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to measure the effect of LAGB on glucose metabolism, we investigated the effect of LAGB on gastric emptying for liquids as well as pancreatic and incretin hormone responses.......Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) provides weight loss in obese individuals and is associated with improved glucose homeostasis and resolution of type 2 diabetes. However, in most available reports, potentially inappropriate methodology has been applied when measuring the impact...

  5. Sustained delayed gastric emptying during repeated restraint stress in oxytocin knockout mice.

    Babygirija, R; Zheng, J; Bülbül, M; Cerjak, D; Ludwig, K; Takahashi, T

    2010-11-01

    We have recently shown that impaired gastric motility observed in acute restraint stress was restored following repeated restraint stress in mice. Repeated restraint stress up-regulates oxytocin mRNA expression and down-regulates corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA expression at the hypothalamus. Oxytocin knockout mice (OXT-KO) have been widely used to study the central oxytocin signalling pathways in response to various stressors. We studied the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on solid gastric emptying and hypothalamic CRF mRNA expression in wild-type (WT) and OXT-KO mice. Heterozygous (HZ) parents (B6; 129S-Oxt(tm1Wsy)/J mice) were bred in our animal facility. Male OXT-KO, WT and HZ littermates were used for the study. Solid gastric emptying was measured following acute restraint stress (for 90 min) or repeated restraint stress (for five consecutive days). Expression of CRF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There were no significant differences of gastric emptying in WT (68.4 ± 4.1%, n = 6), HZ (71.8 ± 3.1%, n = 6) and OXT-KO (70.6 ± 3.1%, n = 6) mice in nonstressed conditions. Acute stress significantly delayed gastric emptying in OXT-KO mice (33.10 ± 2.5%, n = 6) WT (39.1 ± 1.1%, n = 6) and HZ mice (35.8 ± 1.2%, n = 6). Following repeated restraint stress loading, gastric emptying was significantly restored in WT (68.3 ± 4.5%, n = 6) and HZ mice (63.1 ± 2.6%, n = 6). By contrast, gastric emptying was still delayed in OXT-KO mice (34.7 ± 1.3%, n = 6) following repeated restraint stress. The increase in CRF mRNA expression at the PVN was much pronounced in OXT-KO mice compared to WT or HZ mice following repeated restraint stress. These findings suggest that central oxytocin plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation mechanism following repeated restraint stress in mice. PMID:20969650

  6. Chronic lactose intake modifies the gastric emptying of monosaccharides but not of disaccharides in weanling rats

    E.A.L. da-Costa-Pinto

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six weanling male Wistar rats were fed for four weeks one of two different chows: a normal rat chow containing 55.5% (w/w starch (control group, N = 48 or a rat chow in which starch was partially replaced by lactose, in such a way that the experimental group (N = 48 received 35.5% (w/w starch and 20% (w/w lactose. The gastric emptying of fluid was then studied by measuring the gastric retention of four test meals containing lactose (5% or 10%, w/v or glucose + galactose (5% or 10%, w/v. Homogenates of the small intestine were assayed for lactase activity. The gastric retention values were obtained 15 min after orogastric infusion of the liquid meals. The median values for gastric retention of the 5% lactose solutions were 37.7% for the control group and 37.0% for the experimental group (P>0.02. For the 10% lactose solution the median values were 51.2% and 47.9% (P>0.02 for the control and experimental groups, respectively. However, for the 2.5% glucose + 2.5% galactose meal the median gastric retention was lower (P0.05. These results suggest that the prolonged ingestion of lactose by young adult rats changes the gastric emptying of a solution containing 5% monosaccharides. This adaptation may reflect the desensitization of intestinal nutrient receptors, possibly by an osmotic effect of lactose present in the chow.

  7. Nationwide standardisation and evaluation of scintigraphic gastric emptying: reference values and comparisons between subgroups in a multicentre trial

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermansson, G. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Oestra Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Lyrenaes, E. [Department of Medicine, Blekinge Hospital, Karlskrona (Sweden); Beckman, K.-W. [Hospital Physics, Oerebro Hospital (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    By means of a standardised procedure, reference values for scintigraphic gastric emptying were established. The influence of gender, age, menstrual cycle, body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits was also evaluated. Eight centres recruited 20 healthy subjects each. The meal consisted of a technetium-99m labelled omelet (1300 kJ) and of 150 ml unlabelled soft drink. Geometric means of frontal and dorsal acquisitions were utilised in a linear fit model for determination of the linear emptying rate, and by using the intercepts of the regression line with the 90% and 50% levels, the lag phase and half-emptying time, respectively, were defined. All individuals showed an initial lag phase and subsequent linear emptying. Because of a longer lag phase and a slower linear emptying rate, premenopausal women had a slower gastric emptying than postmenopausal women and men of all ages. The gastric emptying rate increased with age in the women, mainly due to a shortened lag phase, while the emptying rate remained almost unchanged with age in the males. There were no significant differences in results between the centres. The menstrual cycle, BMI and smoking habits did not affect emptying. In conclusion, the fact that the results showed a slower gastric emptying rate in younger women compared with older women and men indicates that it is necessary to use separate reference values for fertile females. (orig.)

  8. Ectopic jejunal pacemakers and gastric emptying after Roux gastrectomy: Effect of intestinal pacing

    The aims of this study were to determine whether ectopic pacemakers are present after meals in the Roux limbs of dogs after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy, whether these pacemakers slow gastric emptying of liquids or solids, and whether abolishing the pacemakers with electric pacing might speed any slow emptying that occurs. In six dogs that underwent vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy and in four dogs that underwent vagotomy and Billroth gastrectomy (controls), myoelectric activity of the Roux limb or duodenum was measured during gastric emptying of a 500 kcal mixed meal of 99mTc-labeled cooked egg and 111In-labeled milk. Roux dogs were tested with and without pacing of the Roux limb. Roux dogs showed ectopic pacemaker in the Roux limb that drove the pacesetter potentials of the limb in a reverse, or orad, direction during 57% of the postprandial recordings. Billroth dogs had no ectopic pacemakers (p less than 0.05). Liquids emptied more slowly in Roux dogs (half-life (t1/2) = 121 +/- 15 minutes) than in Billroth dogs (t1/2 = 43 +/- 9 minutes; p less than 0.05), but solids emptied similarly in both groups of dogs (t1/2 approximately 8 hours). Pacing the Roux limb abolished the ectopic pacemakers, restored the slow emptying of liquids to the more rapid rate found in the Billroth dogs (t1/2: paced Roux, 72 +/- 15 minutes; Billroth, 43 +/- 9 minutes; p greater than 0.05) and did not change emptying of solids. The conclusion was that ectopic pacemakers present in the Roux limb after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy drove the limb in a reverse direction and slowed emptying of liquids after the operation. The defect was corrected by pacing the Roux limb in a forward direction

  9. Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.

    Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2014-04-01

    Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some

  10. Peripheral administration of GLP-2 to humans has no effect on gastric emptying or satiety

    Schmidt, P T; Näslund, E; Grybäck, P;

    2003-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) are secreted in parallel to the circulation after a meal. Intravenous (IV) GLP-1 has an inhibitory effect on gastric emptying, hunger and food intake in man. In rodents, central administration of GLP-2 increases satiety similar...... to GLP-1. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of IV administered GLP-2 on gastric emptying and feelings of hunger in human volunteers. In eight (five men) healthy subjects (age 31.1+/-2.9 years and BMI 24.1+/-1.0 kg m(-2)), scintigraphic solid gastric emptying, hunger ratings (VAS...... of GLP-2 on either the lag phase (29.5+/-4.4, 26.0+/-5.2 and 21.2+/-3.6 min for saline, GLP-2 0.75 or 2.25 pmol kg(-1) min(-1), respectively) or the half emptying time (84.5+/-6.1, 89.5+/-17.8 and 85.0+/-7.0 min for saline, GLP-2 0.75 or 2.25 pmol kg(-1) min(-1), respectively). The change in hunger...

  11. Gastric emptying time (GET) with Tc-99m-labeled semisolid meal in diabetic patients

    Measurement of gastric emptying in diabetic gastroenteropathy is of interest because of the gastric atony that may produce signs and symptoms of visceral neuropathy. The purpose of this study is to present the result of GET measurements in diabetic patients. The correlation between GET and complications, fasting blood sugar (FBS), duration of disease, age, sex, and HbAlc was evaluated. Included in this study were 21 diabetic patients. Fourteen patients had diabetic complications such as peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. Following an overnight fast, semisolid test meal mixed with 200 uCi of Tc-99m Sn-colloid was ingested by the patients. In nine normal volunteers, the GET range previously established by this method in our institution was from 47 to 78 minutes (mean 62.5 +- 7.7). In the patients with diabetic complication, particulary with triopathy, GET was significantly prolonged compared to those of normal subjects and diabetic patients without complication. On the contrary, four out of seven patients without complications, showed rapid emptying than normal subjects. This rapid emptying may reveal the early stage of pathophysiological change in diabetics. No correlation between GET and FBS, duration of disease, age, sex and HbAlc was seen. This test of radiolabeled semisolid meal was found to provide a convenient, safe and effective diagnostic tool to examine gastric emptying function in diabetic patients. (author)

  12. Dual-radionuclide simultaneous gastric emptying and bile transit study after gastric surgery with double-tract reconstruction

    The physiology of gastrointestinal transfer function after proximal gastrectomy with bypass-tract reconstruction is not well understood. We applied a simultaneous dual-radionuclide method with a hepatobiliary imaging and gastric emptying study to evaluate physiologic alterations occurring after surgery. Nineteen patients with early gastric cancer, including 9 preoperative control patients and 10 who had proximal gastrectomy and double-tract reconstruction surgery were examined by dual-radionuclide hepatobiliary and gastric emptying studies (99mTc PMT and 111In DTPA). Retention fraction in the stomach at 3 minutes (R3) and 60 minutes (R60) and gastric emptying half-time (GET) were calculated. Bile reflux and mixture of bile and food were also evaluated. The retention fractions of R3 and R60 were significantly lower in the double-tract reconstruction group than those in the preoperative group. GET differed significantly between the double-tract and preoperative groups (20.7 min±7.1 min and 36.2 min±11.0 min, p=0.0018). The mixture of bile and food was not good in the double-tract reconstruction group (p=0.014 vs. preoperative). Patients with a large residual stomach showed slower initial emptying (p=0.0068) and a better mixture of bile and food (p=0.058) compared to those with a small residual stomach. The bile reflux was not significantly increased after surgery. The dual-radionuclide gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary imaging was feasible and could demonstrate characteristic transit patterns of the foods and bile in the double-tract reconstruction procedure. A larger residual stomach, if possible, is desirable to provide better transfer and mixing of bile and foods. (author)

  13. Effects of clonidine and sumatriptan on postprandial gastric volume response, antral contraction waves and emptying: an MRI study.

    Kwiatek, M A; Fox, M R; Steingoetter, A; Menne, D; Pal, A; Fruehauf, H; Kaufman, E; Forras-Kaufman, Z; Brasseur, J G; Goetze, O; Hebbard, G S; Boesiger, P; Thumshirn, M; Fried, M; Schwizer, W

    2009-09-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) may be driven by tonic contraction of the stomach ('pressure pump') or antral contraction waves (ACW) ('peristaltic pump'). The mechanism underlying GE was studied by contrasting the effects of clonidine (alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist) and sumatriptan (5-HT(1) agonist) on gastric function. Magnetic resonance imaging provided non-invasive assessment of gastric volume responses, ACW and GE in nine healthy volunteers. Investigations were performed in the right decubitus position after ingestion of 500 mL of 10% glucose (200 kcal) under placebo [0.9% NaCl intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC)], clonidine [0.01 mg min(-1) IV, max 0.1 mg (placebo SC)] or sumatriptan [6 mg SC (placebo IV)]. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV) were assessed every 5 min for 90 min, interspersed with dynamic scan sequences to measure ACW activity. During gastric filling, TGV increased with GCV indicating that meal volume dictates initial relaxation. Gastric contents volume continued to increase over the early postprandial period due to gastric secretion surpassing initial gastric emptying. Clonidine diminished this early increase in GCV, reduced gastric relaxation, decreased ACW frequency compared with placebo. Gastric emptying (GE) rate increased. Sumatriptan had no effect on initial GCV, but prolonged gastric relaxation and disrupted ACW activity. Gastric emptying was delayed. There was a negative correlation between gastric relaxation and GE rate (r(2 )=49%, P < 0.001), whereas the association between ACW frequency and GE rate was inconsistent and weak (r2=15%, P = 0.05). These findings support the hypothesis that nutrient liquid emptying is primarily driven by the 'pressure pump' mechanism. PMID:19413683

  14. The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on gastric emptying in rats suffering from moderate renal insufficiency

    Rigatto S.Z.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the response of rats suffering from moderate renal insufficiency to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, or endotoxin. The study involved 48 eight-week-old male SPF Wistar rats (175-220 g divided into two groups of 24 animals each. One group underwent 5/6 nephrectomy while the other was sham-operated. Two weeks after surgery, the animals were further divided into two subgroups of 12 animals each and were fasted for 20 h but with access to water ad libitum. One nephrectomized and one sham-treated subgroup received E. coli LPS (25 µg/kg, iv while the other received a sterile, pyrogen-free saline solution. Gastric retention (GR was determined 10 min after the orogastric infusion of a standard saline test meal labeled with phenol red (6 mg/dl. The gastric emptying of the saline test meal was studied after 2 h. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the plasma levels of urea and creatinine. The levels of urea and creatinine in 5/6 nephrectomized animals were two-fold higher than those observed in the sham-operated rats. Although renal insufficiency did not change gastric emptying (median %GR = 26.6 for the nephrectomized subgroup and 29.3 for the sham subgroup, LPS significantly retarded the gastric emptying of the sham and nephretomized groups (median %GR = 42.0 and 61.0, respectively, and was significantly greater (P<0.01 in the nephrectomized rats. We conclude that gastric emptying in animals suffering from moderate renal insufficiency is more sensitive to the action of LPS than in sham animals

  15. Changes in patients’ symptoms and gastric emptying after Helicobacter pylori treatment

    Zhang, Chun-Ling; Geng, Chang-Hui; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yan-Lin; Tong, Li-Quan; Gao, Ping; Gao, Yue-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changes in clinical symptoms and gastric emptying and their association in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. METHODS: Seventy FD patients were enrolled and divided into 2 groups Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative group (28 patients), and H. pylori-positive group (42 patients). Patients in the H. pylori-positive group were further randomly divided into groups: H. pylori-treatment group (21 patients) and conventional treatment group (21 patients). Seventy two healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The proximal and distal stomach area was measured by ultrasound immediately after patients took the test meal, and at 20, 40, 60 and 90 min; then, gastric half-emptying time was calculated. The incidence of symptoms and gastric half-emptying time between the FD and control groups were compared. The H. pylori-negative and conventional treatment groups were given conventional treatment: domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The H. pylori-treatment group was given H. pylori eradication treatment + conventional treatment: lansoprazole 30 mg once daily, clarithromycin 0.5 g twice daily and amoxicillin 1.0 g twice daily for 1 wk, then domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The incidence of symptoms and gastric emptying were compared between the FD and control groups. The relationship between dyspeptic symptoms and gastric half-emptying time in the FD and control groups were analyzed. Then total symptom scores before and after treatment and gastric half-emptying time were compared among the 3 groups. RESULTS: The incidence of abdominal pain, epigastric burning sensation, abdominal distension, nausea, belching, and early satiety symptoms in the FD group were significantly higher than in the control group (50.0% vs 20.8%; 37.1% vs 12.5%; 78.6% vs 44.4%; 45.7% vs 22.2%; 52.9% vs 15.3%; 57.1% vs 19.4%; all P 1). The total symptom score of the 3 groups after treatment was lower than before treatment (P pylori-treatment group and H. pylori

  16. Anterior, posterior, left anterior oblique, and geometric mean views in gastric emptying studies using a glucose solution

    Previous research has shown that the single anterior view of the stomach overestimates the gastric half-emptying time of a solid meal compared to the geometric mean of the anterior and posterior views. Little research has been performed comparing the various views of gastric emptying of a glucose solution. After an overnight fast, 49 nondiabetic subjects were given a 450 ml solution containing 50 g of glucose and 200 μCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid. Sequential 1-min anterior, posterior, and left anterior oblique views were obtained every 15 min. The mean percent solution remaining in the stomach for all three views differed from the geometric mean by 1.9% or less at all time points. Average gastric half-emptying times were: geometric mean, 62.7±3.3 min; anterior, 61.9±3.2 min; posterior, 63.5±3.5 min; and left anterior oblique, 61.6±3.3 min. These half-emptying times were not statistically different. For individual patients, differences between all three views and the geometric mean were not clinically important. Approximately 95% of all patients are expected to have gastric half-emptying times measured by any of the three single views within 17 min of the gastric half-emptying time obtained using the geometric mean. The imaging of gastric emptying using glucose solutions can be performed using a convenient single view which allows continuous dynamic imaging. (orig.)

  17. Practical solid and liquid phase markers for studying gastric emptying in man

    This paper presents a method used to evaluate solid and liquid phase markers for radionuclide gastric emptying studies. The authors conducted in vitro and in vivo comparative experiments employing several radiolabeled markers. Among the solid phase markers tested, Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in vivo-labeled liver and I-131-fiber performed optimally. However, Tc-99M sulfur colloid in scrambled egg showed very acceptable performance and it is significantly easier to prepare. Among liquid phase markers, they found In-111-DTPA stabilized with 1% albumin to be a good agent and appropriate for dual isotope emptying studies

  18. The value of determining the level of serum gastrin and time of gastric emptying in children with simple anorexia

    Objective: To observe the level of serum gastrin and gastric emptying time for the liquid and solid foods in children with simple anorexia, so that it will benefit etiological diagnosis and pertinence therapy of the disease. Methods: 34 children with anorexia were recruited. 22 patients had simple anorexia (11 boys, 11 girls, median age 4.9 years). The other 12 patients had gastritis and/or gastric ulcer at the same time (3 boys, 9 girls, median age 7.3 years). 10 normal children (4 boys, 6 girls, median age 5.6 years) were compared with the patients. Serum gastrin was determined by radioimmunoassay. Gastric emptying times of the liquid and solid foods that were labelled with 113mIn-DTPA were measured by nuclear multifunction instrument and nuclear imaging equipment. The gastric emptying curve for the liquid food was drawn for 15 minutes after drinking the tracer. Then, abdominal scintigraphy was performed at 1.5 hours after eating solid food containing the trace. Results: (1) Gastrin level: The level of serum gastrin was 133.7 ± 27 pg/ml in the control group, 209.7 ± 81 pg/ml in the simple anorexia group and 187.4 ± 44 pg/ml in the gastritis and/or gastric ulcer group. There was significant difference between simple anorexia group and control group (P0.05). (2) Gastric emptying time: 8 of 14 patients with simple anorexia had prolonged gastric emptying of liquid food (57%), 6 patients (43%) had duodenogastric reflux. 5 of 12 patients (42%) with simple anorexia had delayed gastric emptying of solid food. Conclusion: Results show that simple anorexia in children may be the prophase symptom of functional indigestion. Therefore, to determine the level of serum gastrin and time of gastric emptying in children with simple anorexia may benefit etiological diagnosis and pertinence therapy. This may help to prevent chronic gastritis or gastric ulcer

  19. Ultrasonographic study of postcibal gastro-esophageal reflux and gastric emptying in infants with recurrent respiratory disease

    Ciaula, Agostino Di; Portincasa, Piero; Terlizzi, Leonardo Di; Paternostro, Domenico; Palasciano, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To check the utility of postcibal ultrasonography for the evaluation of reflux in relation to gastric emptying in infants with recurrent respiratory symptoms and to link imaging with clinical data.

  20. Electroacupuncture at ST36 ameliorates gastric emptying and rescues networks of interstitial cells of Cajal in the stomach of diabetic rats.

    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC is certified in the stomach of diabetic patients. Though electroacupuncture (EA at ST36 is an effective therapy to regulate gastric motility, the mechanisms of EA at ST36 on gastric emptying and networks of ICC remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of EA on gastric emptying and on the alterations of ICC networks. Rats were randomized into the control, diabetic rats (DM, diabetic rats with sham EA (DM+SEA, diabetic rats with low frequency EA (DM+LEA and diabetic rats with high frequency EA groups (DM+HEA. The expression of c-kit in each layer of gastric wall was assessed by western blotting. The proliferation of ICC was identified by immunolabeling of c-kit and Ki67 as the apoptosis of ICC was examined by TUNEL staining. The results were as follows: (1 Gastric emptying was severely delayed in the DM group, but accelerated in the LEA and HEA group, especially in the LEA group. (2 The expression of c-kit in each layer was reduced apparently in the DM group, but also up-regulated in the LEA and HEA group. (3 Plentiful proliferated ICC (c-kit+/Ki67+ forming bushy networks with c-kit+ cells were observed in the LEA and HEA group, while the apoptotic cells (c-kit+/TUNEL+ were hardly captured in the LEA and HEA group. Collectively, low and high frequency EA at ST36 rescue the damaged networks of ICC by inhibiting the apoptosis and enhancing the proliferation in the stomach of diabetic rats, resulting in an improved gastric emptying.

  1. Electroacupuncture at ST36 ameliorates gastric emptying and rescues networks of interstitial cells of Cajal in the stomach of diabetic rats.

    Chen, Yan; Xu, Juan Juan; Liu, Shi; Hou, Xiao Hua

    2013-01-01

    Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) is certified in the stomach of diabetic patients. Though electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 is an effective therapy to regulate gastric motility, the mechanisms of EA at ST36 on gastric emptying and networks of ICC remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of EA on gastric emptying and on the alterations of ICC networks. Rats were randomized into the control, diabetic rats (DM), diabetic rats with sham EA (DM+SEA), diabetic rats with low frequency EA (DM+LEA) and diabetic rats with high frequency EA groups (DM+HEA). The expression of c-kit in each layer of gastric wall was assessed by western blotting. The proliferation of ICC was identified by immunolabeling of c-kit and Ki67 as the apoptosis of ICC was examined by TUNEL staining. The results were as follows: (1) Gastric emptying was severely delayed in the DM group, but accelerated in the LEA and HEA group, especially in the LEA group. (2) The expression of c-kit in each layer was reduced apparently in the DM group, but also up-regulated in the LEA and HEA group. (3) Plentiful proliferated ICC (c-kit+/Ki67+) forming bushy networks with c-kit+ cells were observed in the LEA and HEA group, while the apoptotic cells (c-kit+/TUNEL+) were hardly captured in the LEA and HEA group. Collectively, low and high frequency EA at ST36 rescue the damaged networks of ICC by inhibiting the apoptosis and enhancing the proliferation in the stomach of diabetic rats, resulting in an improved gastric emptying. PMID:24391842

  2. The oxytocin/vasopressin receptor antagonist atosiban delays the gastric emptying of a semisolid meal compared to saline in human

    Ekberg Olle; Björgell Ola; Ohlsson Bodil; Darwiche Gassan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxytocin is released in response to a meal. Further, mRNA for oxytocin and its receptor have been found throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether oxytocin, or the receptor antagonist atosiban, influence the gastric emptying. Methods Ten healthy volunteers (five men) were examined regarding gastric emptying at three different occasions: once during oxytocin stimulation using a pharmacological dose; once during blockag...

  3. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Darwich Gassan; Björgell Ola; Lindstedt Sandra; Jönsson Jenny; Hlebowicz Joanna; Almér Lars-Olof

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 ...

  4. Delayed gastric emptying: whom to test, how to test, and what to do.

    Friedenberg, Frank K; Parkman, Henry P

    2006-07-01

    Gastroparesis, or delayed gastric emptying, is a common cause of chronic nausea and vomiting as seen in a gastroenterology practice. Diabetic, postsurgical, and idiopathic causes remain the three most common forms of gastroparesis. In addition to nausea and vomiting, symptoms of gastroparesis may include early satiety, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain. Physiologic changes that may explain symptoms in patients with gastroparesis, in addition to delayed gastric emptying, include impaired fundic accommodation, antral hypomotility, gastric dysrhythmias, pylorospasm, and perhaps visceral hypersensitivity. Diagnosis of gastroparesis is best determined using a radioisotope-labeled solid meal with scintigraphic imaging for at least 2 hours, and preferably 4 hours, postprandially. Most commonly, a 99mTc sulfur colloid-labeled egg sandwich with imaging at 0, 1, 2, and 4 hours is used. Extension of the gastric emptying test to 4 hours improves the accuracy of the test, but unfortunately, this is not commonly performed at many centers. Emptying of liquids remains normal until the late stages of gastroparesis and is less useful. The aims of treatment should be to control symptoms and maintain adequate nutrition and hydration. Patients should be advised to eat small meals and to limit their intake of fat and fiber. Additional dietary recommendations may include increasing caloric intake in the form of liquids. For diabetic patients, control of blood glucose levels is important, as symptom exacerbation is frequently associated with poor glycemic control. Specific treatment often begins with metoclopramide, 10 mg, up to four times daily, after a discussion of possible side effects with the patient. An antiemetic agent, such as prochlorperazine, 5 to 10 mg orally or 25 mg by suppository, can be added on an as-needed basis every 4 to 6 hours to control nausea. If these antiemetic medications are not effective, or if side effects develop, orally dissolving ondansetron, 8 mg

  5. Paracetamol as a Post Prandial Marker for Gastric Emptying, A Food-Drug Interaction on Absorption.

    R Bartholomé

    Full Text Available The use of paracetamol as tool to determine gastric emptying was evaluated in a cross over study. Twelve healthy volunteers were included and each of them consumed two low and two high caloric meals. Paracetamol was mixed with a liquid meal and administered by a nasogastric feeding tube. The post prandial paracetamol plasma concentration time curve in all participants and the paracetamol concentration in the stomach content in six participants were determined. It was found that after paracetamol has left the stomach, based on analysis of the stomach content, there was still a substantial rise in the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Moreover, the difference in gastric emptying between high and low caloric meals was missed using the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. The latter curves indicate that (i part of the paracetamol may leave the stomach much quicker than the meal and (ii part of the paracetamol may be relatively slowly absorbed in the duodenum. This can be explained by the partition of the homogenous paracetamol-meal mixture in the stomach in an aqueous phase and a solid bolus. The aqueous phase leaves the stomach quickly and the paracetamol in this phase is quickly absorbed in the duodenum, giving rise to the relatively steep increase of the paracetamol concentration in the plasma. The bolus leaves the stomach relatively slowly, and encapsulation by the bolus results in relatively slow uptake of paracetamol from the bolus in the duodenum. These findings implicate that paracetamol is not an accurate post prandial marker for gastric emptying. The paracetamol concentration time curve rather illustrates the food-drug interaction on absorption, which is not only governed by gastric emptying.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335503 Nederlands Trial Register NTR2780.

  6. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects

    Ma, Jing; Bellon, Max; Wishart, Judith M.; Young, Richard; Blackshaw, L Ashley; Jones, Karen L.; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K.

    2009-01-01

    The incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), play an important role in glucose homeostasis in both health and diabetes. In mice, sucralose, an artificial sweetener, stimulates GLP-1 release via sweet taste receptors on enteroendocrine cells. We studied blood glucose, plasma levels of insulin, GLP-1, and GIP, and gastric emptying (by a breath test) in 7 healthy humans after intragastric infusions of 1) 50 g sucrose in water to a...

  7. Determinants of delayed gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Robinson, P H; M Clarke; Barrett, J.

    1988-01-01

    Gastric emptying was measured using a gamma camera in 22 patients with anorexia nervosa, in 10 patients of normal or high weight with bulimia nervosa and in 10 controls. Patients with anorexia nervosa were tested (1) while underweight and selecting their own diet (10 patients); (2) underweight, but receiving an adequate diet on an inpatient unit (refeeding diet) (12 patients); and (3) under refeeding diet conditions after weight gain (eight patients). Three meals, each labelled with technetiu...

  8. Prevalence and determinants of delayed gastric emptying in hospitalised Type 2 diabetic patients

    Vladimir Kojecloy; Jaromir Bernatek; Michael Horowitz; Stanislav Zemek; Jiri Bakala; Ales Hep

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To determine the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in older patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.METHODS:One hundred and forty seven patients with Type 2 diabetes,of whom 140 had been hospitalised,mean age 62.3±8.0 years,HbA1c 9.1%±1.9%,treated with either oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin were studied.GE of a solid meal(scintigraphy),autonomic nerve function,upper gastrointestinal symptoms,acute and chronic glycemic control were evaluated.Gastric emptying results were compared to a control range of hospitalised patients who did not have diabetes.RESULTS:Gastric emptying was delayed(T50>85 min)in 17.7% patients.Mean gastric emptying was slower in females(T50 72.1±72.1 rain vs 56.9±68.1 min,P=0.02)and in those reporting nausea(112.3±67.3 vs 62.7±70.0 min,P<0.01)and early satiety(114.0±135.2vs 61.1±62.6 min,P=0.02).There was no correlation between GE with age,body weight,duration of diabetes,neuropathy,current glycemia or the total score for upper gastrointestinal symptoms.CONCLUSION:Prolonged GE occurs in about 20% of hospitalisecl elderly patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to hospitalised patients who do not have diabetes.Female gender,nausea and early satiety are associated with higher probability of delayed GE.

  9. Prostacyclin inhibits gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit in rats and dogs

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) antagonizes 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea in rats, presumably by inhibiting the fluid accumulation of ''enteropooling'' in the small intestine. The effect of PGI2 on gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colonic transit was examined in rats and dogs to determine if interference with propulsion might also contribute to the antidiarrheal properties of this compound. Rats implanted with chronic duodenal cannulas were given subcutaneous PGI2 (0.1-1000 microgram/kg) followed 10 min later by intragastric 2Cr and a visually detectable duodenal transit marker. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were killed. Subcutaneous PGI2 inhibited gastric emptying maximally at 10 micrograms/kg. Small-intestinal transit was significantly decreased at 50 micrograms/kg and almost completely suppressed at 1.0 mg/kg. Subcutaneous naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) given 10 min before and 20 min after subcutaneous PGI2 administration did not block PGI2's effects. Intravenous or oral PGI2, had none of these effects. Small intestinal transit was only decreased by PGI2 infusion, suggesting that this parameter was more sensitive to a sustained blood level than gastric emptying. Hourly injections of subcutaneous PGI2 (0.5 mg/kg) had no effect on rat colonic transit measured over a 3-h period after deposition of the transit marker through a colonic cannula in a manner similar to that described for small-intestinal transit above. Small-intestinal transit was also measured in dogs given a barium suspension through a chronic duodenal cannula. In vehicle-treated dogs, barium reached the cecal area in an average of 2.8 h after instillation. In PGI2-treated dogs, barium never reached the cecum in the 5-h examination period. Thus, PGI2 inhibits gastric emptying in rat and small-intestinal transit in rat and dog but has no effect on rat colonic transit

  10. Evaluation of a simple non-invasive 13C breath test to evaluate diet effects on gastric emptying in pigs

    Jørgensen, Henry; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to validate gastric emptying using non-invasive 13C breath test against total evacuation of the stomach content through a gastric cannulae. Three different diets were used; a high soluble fibre diet based on sugar beet pulp, a high insoluble fibre diet based on wheat bran...... red isotope spectrometry (IRIS) analyzer. Feeding the sugar beet diet high in soluble fibre and high water-binding capacity reduced the physical activity. Gastric emptying estimated using non-invasive breath test with 13C labelled isotope was comparable to that observed with total collection...... of the gastric content. Thus, the breath test is applicable for evaluating dietary effects on gastric emptying and potentially improves the behaviour and well being of gestating sows and lends confidence to applicability in clinical human trials....

  11. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  12. Delayed gastric emptying and enteric nervous system dysfunction in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

    Greene, James G; Noorian, Ali Reza; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2009-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is the most common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Symptoms of GI dysmotility in PD include early satiety and weight loss from delayed gastric emptying and constipation from impaired colonic transit. Understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of these symptoms in PD patients has been hampered by the lack of investigation into GI symptoms and pathology in PD animal models. We report that the parkinsonian neurotoxin and mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone causes delayed gastric emptying and enteric neuronal dysfunction when administered chronically to rats in the absence of major motor dysfunction or CNS pathology. When examined 22-28 days after initiation of rotenone infusion by osmotic minipump (3 mg/kg/day), 45% of rotenone-treated rats had a profound delay in gastric emptying. Electrophysiological recording of neurally-mediated muscle contraction in isolated colon from rotenone-treated animals confirmed an enteric inhibitory defect associated with rotenone treatment. Rotenone also induced a transient decrease in stool frequency that was associated with weight loss and decreased food and water intake. Pathologically, no alterations in enteric neuron numbers or morphology were apparent in rotenone-treated animals. These results suggest that enteric inhibitory neurons may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of mitochondrial inhibition by parkinsonian neurotoxins and provide evidence that parkinsonian gastrointestinal abnormalities can be modeled in rodents. PMID:19409896

  13. Relationship between severity of clinical symptoms and delay in gastric emptying in chronic gastritis; studied with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA scintigraphy

    The gastric emptying time is studied with sup(99m)TC-DTPA-labeled mixed meal in 18 patients with chronic gastritis, all confirmed by endoscopic examination and biopsy. Emptying was slow in all such patients, but the intensity of symptomatology showed no correlation with gastric emptying half time. (orig.)

  14. Correlation of gastric emptying at one and two hours following formula feeding

    Tolia, V. (Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)); Kuhns, L. (Department of Radiology, Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)); Kauffman, R. (Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States))

    1993-03-01

    We performed this prospective study to determine the correlation between gastric emptying (GE) at 1 h or 2 h, respectively, and for 2 h following a feeding in 27 infants under one year of age, who were referred for evaluating of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Continuous scintigraphy was performed for 2 h following a formula feeding. Gastric emptying at 1 h was calculated as percent of original dose emptied by 60 min; GE at 2 h was calculated as percent of isotope remaining in the stomach at 60 min which was emptied by 120 min. The median GE between 0 to 60 min was 36% (95% CI 26.0-42.0) and median GE of the residual formula between 60 to 120 min was 45% (95% CI 34.3-51.3). The correlation coefficient of GE, at 1 h with total GE over 2 h was 0.75 and of GE during the 2nd h with total GE over 2 h was 0.76. We conclude that routine determination of GE for 2 h continuously does not appear to offer clinically signifiant additional information. (orig./MG)

  15. Correlation of gastric emptying at one and two hours following formula feeding

    We performed this prospective study to determine the correlation between gastric emptying (GE) at 1 h or 2 h, respectively, and for 2 h following a feeding in 27 infants under one year of age, who were referred for evaluating of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Continuous scintigraphy was performed for 2 h following a formula feeding. Gastric emptying at 1 h was calculated as percent of original dose emptied by 60 min; GE at 2 h was calculated as percent of isotope remaining in the stomach at 60 min which was emptied by 120 min. The median GE between 0 to 60 min was 36% (95% CI 26.0-42.0) and median GE of the residual formula between 60 to 120 min was 45% (95% CI 34.3-51.3). The correlation coefficient of GE, at 1 h with total GE over 2 h was 0.75 and of GE during the 2nd h with total GE over 2 h was 0.76. We conclude that routine determination of GE for 2 h continuously does not appear to offer clinically signifiant additional information. (orig./MG)

  16. Satiating properties of diets rich in dietary fibre fed to sows asevaluated by physico-chemical properties, gastric emptying rate and physical activity

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    and these satiating properties could be attributed to increased swelling and WBC in the stomach, which in turn delayed the gastric emptying rate of the liquid phase of gastric content. Measurements of gastric emptying turned out to be a practical tool for ranking of the ability of DF sources to reduce activity...

  17. Human gastric emptying and colonic filling of solids characterized by a new method

    Our first aim was to compare 111In-labeled Amberlite IR-12OP resin pellets and 131I-labeled fiber in the assessment of gastric and small bowel transit and colonic filling in healthy humans. Both radiolabels were highly stable for 3 h in an in vitro stomach model and remained predominantly bound to solid phase of stools collected over 5 days [90.5 +/- 2.1 (SE)% for 131I and 87.4 +/- 1.4% for 111In]. The lag phase of gastric emptying was shorter for 111In-pellets (30 +/- 11 min compared with 58 +/- 12 min for 131I-fiber, P less than 0.05). However, the slope of the postlag phase of gastric emptying and the half time of small bowel transit were not significantly different for 111In-pellets and 131I-fiber. Filling of the colon was characterized by bolus movements of the radiolabel (10-80% range, 26% mean) followed by plateaus (periods of no movement of isotope into colon lasting 15-120 min, range; 51 min, mean). Half of the bolus movements occurred within 1 h of the intake of a second meal. Thus 111In-labeled Amberlite pellets provide an excellent marker for the study of gastric and small bowel transit and colonic filling in humans. The ileum acts as a reservoir and transfers boluses of variable sizes into the colon, often soon after the intake of a subsequent meal

  18. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN

  19. A Mechanistic Model of Intermittent Gastric Emptying and Glucose-Insulin Dynamics following a Meal Containing Milk Components

    MacPherson, Jayden A. R.; Berends, Harma; Steele, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    To support decision-making around diet selection choices to manage glycemia following a meal, a novel mechanistic model of intermittent gastric emptying and plasma glucose-insulin dynamics was developed. Model development was guided by postprandial timecourses of plasma glucose, insulin and the gastric emptying marker acetaminophen in infant calves fed meals of 2 or 4 L milk replacer. Assigning a fast, slow or zero first-order gastric emptying rate to each interval between plasma samples fit acetaminophen curves with prediction errors equal to 9% of the mean observed acetaminophen concentration. Those gastric emptying parameters were applied to glucose appearance in conjunction with minimal models of glucose disposal and insulin dynamics to describe postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. The final model contains 20 parameters, 8 of which can be obtained by direct measurement and 12 by fitting to observations. The minimal model of intestinal glucose delivery contains 2 gastric emptying parameters and a third parameter describing the time lag between emptying and appearance of glucose in plasma. Sensitivity analysis of the aggregate model revealed that gastric emptying rate influences area under the plasma insulin curve but has little effect on area under the plasma glucose curve. This result indicates that pancreatic responsiveness is influenced by gastric emptying rate as a consequence of the quasi-exponential relationship between plasma glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin release. The fitted aggregate model was able to reproduce the multiple postprandial rises and falls in plasma glucose concentration observed in calves consuming a normal-sized meal containing milk components. PMID:27253712

  20. A Mechanistic Model of Intermittent Gastric Emptying and Glucose-Insulin Dynamics following a Meal Containing Milk Components.

    Priska Stahel

    Full Text Available To support decision-making around diet selection choices to manage glycemia following a meal, a novel mechanistic model of intermittent gastric emptying and plasma glucose-insulin dynamics was developed. Model development was guided by postprandial timecourses of plasma glucose, insulin and the gastric emptying marker acetaminophen in infant calves fed meals of 2 or 4 L milk replacer. Assigning a fast, slow or zero first-order gastric emptying rate to each interval between plasma samples fit acetaminophen curves with prediction errors equal to 9% of the mean observed acetaminophen concentration. Those gastric emptying parameters were applied to glucose appearance in conjunction with minimal models of glucose disposal and insulin dynamics to describe postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. The final model contains 20 parameters, 8 of which can be obtained by direct measurement and 12 by fitting to observations. The minimal model of intestinal glucose delivery contains 2 gastric emptying parameters and a third parameter describing the time lag between emptying and appearance of glucose in plasma. Sensitivity analysis of the aggregate model revealed that gastric emptying rate influences area under the plasma insulin curve but has little effect on area under the plasma glucose curve. This result indicates that pancreatic responsiveness is influenced by gastric emptying rate as a consequence of the quasi-exponential relationship between plasma glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin release. The fitted aggregate model was able to reproduce the multiple postprandial rises and falls in plasma glucose concentration observed in calves consuming a normal-sized meal containing milk components.

  1. A Mechanistic Model of Intermittent Gastric Emptying and Glucose-Insulin Dynamics following a Meal Containing Milk Components.

    Stahel, Priska; Cant, John P; MacPherson, Jayden A R; Berends, Harma; Steele, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    To support decision-making around diet selection choices to manage glycemia following a meal, a novel mechanistic model of intermittent gastric emptying and plasma glucose-insulin dynamics was developed. Model development was guided by postprandial timecourses of plasma glucose, insulin and the gastric emptying marker acetaminophen in infant calves fed meals of 2 or 4 L milk replacer. Assigning a fast, slow or zero first-order gastric emptying rate to each interval between plasma samples fit acetaminophen curves with prediction errors equal to 9% of the mean observed acetaminophen concentration. Those gastric emptying parameters were applied to glucose appearance in conjunction with minimal models of glucose disposal and insulin dynamics to describe postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. The final model contains 20 parameters, 8 of which can be obtained by direct measurement and 12 by fitting to observations. The minimal model of intestinal glucose delivery contains 2 gastric emptying parameters and a third parameter describing the time lag between emptying and appearance of glucose in plasma. Sensitivity analysis of the aggregate model revealed that gastric emptying rate influences area under the plasma insulin curve but has little effect on area under the plasma glucose curve. This result indicates that pancreatic responsiveness is influenced by gastric emptying rate as a consequence of the quasi-exponential relationship between plasma glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin release. The fitted aggregate model was able to reproduce the multiple postprandial rises and falls in plasma glucose concentration observed in calves consuming a normal-sized meal containing milk components. PMID:27253712

  2. Effect of sildenafil on gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy humans

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Søndergaard, S B; Fuglsang, Stefan; Rumessen, J J; Graff, J

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sildenafil is known to block phosphodiesterase type 5, which degrades nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thereby relaxing smooth muscle cells in various organs. The effect of sildenafil on gastric motor function after a meal was investigated in healthy humans....... METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers (21-28 years) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. In random order and on two separate days each volunteer ingested either 50 mg sildenafil (Viagra, Pfizer, New York, N.Y., USA) or placebo. A gamma camera technique was used to measure...... gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions. RESULTS: The area under the curve of gastric retention versus time of liquid or solid radiolabelled marker was not changed by sildenafil intake, nor was the postprandial frequency of antral contractions affected by sildenafil. CONCLUSION...

  3. Role of delayed gastric emptying in the pathogenesis of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1982-01-01

    Cysteamine is a potent duodenal ulcerogen in rats. It has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric empyting, whose role in ulcer formation is unknown. In the present study the effect of cysteamine on gastric motility and emptying rate in rats was studied by direct fluoroscopic observation. The delayed....... After 4 h this pool of undiluted gastric secretions gradually is emptied into the duodenum, where the mucosal resistance is reduced by inhibition of the secretory activity of Brunner's glands, and ulceration rapidly develops. The time relationship is supported by histopathologic findings...... gastric empyting was due to a pronounced relaxation of the stomach and a complete blocking of gastric peristalsis. These effects have their maximum within the first 4 h after administration of cysteamine. Thereafter peristalsis and gastric empyting slowly return. In controls contrast medium administered...

  4. Effects of progesterone on gastric emptying and intestinal transit in male rats

    Chuan-Yong Liu; Lian-Bi Chen; Pei-Yi Liu; Dong-Ping Xie; Paulus S. Wang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the dose-dependent of progesterone (P) effect and the interaction between the oxytocin (OT) and Pon gastrointestinal motility.METHODS: In order to monitor the gastric emptying andintestinal transit, the SD male rats were intubated via acatheter with normal saline (3 mi/kg) containing Na251 CrO4(0.5 μCi/ml) and 10 % charcoal.OT was dissolved intonormal saline and P was dissolved into 75 % alcohol.RESULTS: Low does of P (1 mg/kg, i. p. ) enhanced thegastric emptying (75 ± 3 %, P< 0.05) and high dose of P (5mg/kg, i.p. ) inhibit it (42± 11.2 %, P< 0.01). P (1 rog/kg)increased the intestinal transit (4.2 ± 0. 3, P < 0.05) whilethe higher dose ( 10-20 mg/kg) had no effect. OT (0.8 mg/kg, i.p. ) inhibited the gastric emptying (23.5 ± 9.8 %, P <0.01). The inhibitory effects of P (20 mg/kg) (32± 9.7 %, P< 0.05) and OT (0.8 mg/kg) on gastric emptying enhancedeach other when the two chemicals were administratedsimultaneously ( 17 ± 9.4 %, P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Low dose of P increased Gl motility whilehigh dose of P decreased it. During the later period ofpregnancy, elevated plasma level of OT may also participatein the gastrointestinal inhibition.

  5. Preventing Delayed Gastric Emptying After Whipple's Procedure-Isolated Roux Loop Reconstruction With Pancreaticogastrostomy.

    Krishna, Asuri; Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Kumar, Subodh; Sridhar, P; Kapoor, Sameer; Misra, Mahesh C; Garg, Pramod

    2015-12-01

    Although delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after Whipple's pancreaticoduodenectomy is not life-threatening and can be treated conservatively, it results in discomfort and significant prolongation of the hospital stay and adds on to the hospital costs. To overcome this problem, we started using the isolated loop technique of reconstruction along with pancreaticogastrostomy and we present our series using this technique. All consecutive patients undergoing Whipple's pancreaticoduodenectomy in a single surgical unit from January 2009 until December 2012 were included. In the absence of hepatic and peritoneal metastasis, resection (Whipple's procedure) with curative intent was done using isolated loop technique with pancreaticogastrostomy. Delayed gastric emptying was assessed clinically and on oral gastrograffin study. Bile reflux was also assessed on clinical parameters and evidence of beefy friable gastric mucosa on upper GI endoscopy and presence of reflux on hepatobiliary scintigraphy. A total of 52 patients were operated using this technique from January 2009 to October 2012. The mean operative time was 260.8 ± 50.3, and the mean operative blood loss was 1,068.0 ± 606.1 ml. Mean gastric emptying time 106.0 ± 6.1 min (89-258 min). Three out of the 52(5.7 %) patients had persistent vomiting in the post-operative period requiring reinsertion of NG tube. A HIDA scan done on POD7 for all patients did not show any evidence of bile reflux in any of the patients. Pancreatogastrostomy with isolated loop in pancreaticoduodenal resection markedly reduces the post-operative incidence of alkaline reflux gastritis and DGE. PMID:26730093

  6. Effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on gastric emptying of liquids in rats

    E.F. Collares

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present investigation were 1 to study the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS on rat gastric emptying (GE and 2 to investigate a possible involvement of the vagus nerve in the gastric action of LPS. Endotoxin from E. coli (strain 055:B5 was administered sc, ip or iv to male Wistar rats (220-280 g body weight at a maximum dose of 50 µg/kg animal weight. Control animals received an equivalent volume of sterile saline solution. At a given time period after LPS administration, GE was evaluated by measuring gastric retention 10 min after the orogastric infusion of a test meal (2 ml/100 g animal weight, which consisted of 0.9% NaCl plus the marker phenol red (6 mg/dl. One group of animals was subjected to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or sham operation 15 days before the test. A significant delay in GE of the test meal was observed 5 h after iv administration of the endotoxin at the dose of 50 µg/kg animal weight. The LPS-induced delay of GE was detected as early as 30 min and up to 8 h after endotoxin administration. The use of different doses of LPS ranging from 5 to 50 µg/kg animal weight showed that the alteration of GE was dose dependent. In addition, vagotomized animals receiving LPS displayed a GE that was not significantly different from that of the sham control group. However, a participation of the vagus nerve in LPS-induced delay in GE could not be clearly demonstrated by these experiments since vagotomy itself induced changes in this gastric parameter. The present study provides a suitable model for identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of LPS on gastric emptying

  7. Measurement of gastric emptying time of solids in healthy subjects using scintigraphic method: A revised technique

    The gastric emptying half time (GET) of solid food in 24 healthy volunteers (11 M/13 F) was evaluated using a revised technique and a gamma camera scan. Within 20 min and after 8 h of fasting, each volunteer ate two pieces of toast with a two-egg-omelette that was mixed with 18.5 MBq 99mTc-labelled phytate. The raw data were analysed in the MATLAB program to establish the gastric intestine tract (GI tract) biokinetic model. The GI tract model defines the metabolic mechanism with reference to five compartments, which are stomach, body fluid, small intestine (SI), upper large intestine and lower large intestine, according to the ICRP-30 report. The model was expressed using four simultaneous time-dependent differential equations. The gastric emptying half-time and T1/2eff(SI) of males were 62.6±15.4 and 149.8±204.1 min, respectively, and those of females were 98.8±16.3 and 131.6±38.4 min. (authors)

  8. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor for nNOS, restores gastric emptying and nNOS expression in female diabetic rats.

    Gangula, Pandu R R; Mukhopadhyay, Sutapa; Ravella, Kalpana; Cai, Shijie; Channon, Keith M; Garfield, Robert E; Pasricha, Pankaj J

    2010-05-01

    Gastroparesis is a debilitating disease predominantly affecting young women. Recently, dysregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric plexus neurons has been implicated for delayed solid gastric emptying/gastroparesis in diabetic patients. In this study, we have explored the role of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a major cofactor for nNOS activity and NO synthesis in diabetic gastroparesis. Diabetes was induced with single injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body wt, ip) in female rats, with experiments performed on week 3 or 9 following induction, with or without 3-wk BH4 supplementation. Gastric pyloric BH4 levels were significantly decreased in diabetic female rats compared with control (18.6 +/- 1.45 vs. 31.0 +/- 2.31 pmol/mg protein). In vitro studies showed that 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), an inhibitor of BH4 synthesis, significantly decreased gastric NO release and nitrergic relaxation. Three-week dietary supplementation of BH4 either from day 1 or week 6 significantly attenuated diabetes-induced delayed gastric emptying for solids (3 wk: BH4, 67 +/- 6.7 vs. diabetic, 36.05 +/- 7.09; 9 wk: BH4, 57 +/- 8.45 vs. diabetic, 33 +/- 9.91) and diabetes-induced reduction in pyloric nNOS-alpha protein expression in female rats. Supplementation of BH4 significantly restored gastric nNOS-alpha dimerization in 9-wk-old diabetic female rats. In addition, BH4 treatment reversed (17.23 +/- 5.81 vs. 42.0 +/- 2.70 mmHg x s) the diabetes-induced changes in intragastric pressures (IGP) and gastric pyloric nitrergic relaxation (-0.62 +/- 0.01 vs. -0.22 +/- 0.07). BH4 deficiency plays a critical role in diabetes-induced alterations including delayed solid gastric emptying, increased IGP, reduced pyloric nitrergic relaxation, and nNOS-alpha expression in female rats. Supplementation of BH4 accelerates gastric emptying by restoring nitrergic system in diabetic female rats. Therefore, BH4 supplementation is a potential therapeutic option for female

  9. Lack of systematic effects of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist ICS 205-930 on gastric emptying and antral motor activity in patients with primary anorexia nervosa.

    Stacher, G; Bergmann, H; Granser-Vacariu, G V; Wiesnagrotzki, S; Wenzelabatzi, T A; Gaupmann, G; Kugi, A; Steinringer, H; Schneider, C; Höbart, J

    1991-01-01

    1. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist, ICS 205-930, has been reported to have potent effects on gastric smooth muscle and to enhance gastric emptying in animals, but findings in man have been inconsistent. 2. This study investigated the effects of ICS 205-930 on gastric emptying of an isotopically labelled semisolid 1168 kJ meal and on antral contractility in patients with primary anorexia nervosa, a condition frequently associated with impaired gastric motor function. 3. Thirteen ...

  10. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    Björgell Ola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1, or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2. The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2. Results The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p Conclusion This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control. Trial registration number ISRCTN33841495.

  11. [Electrogastrography: responses to food and sham feeding and relationships with gastric emptying of solids in men].

    Bruley des Varannes, S; Bury, A; Lartigue, S; Bizais, Y; Galmiche, J P

    1993-01-01

    Cutaneous electrogastrography is a non invasive method to study gastric electromechanical activity. The aim of this work was to determine the amplitude of electrogastrographic (EGG) activity a) during fasting, b) after a meal, c) following vagal stimulation by sham feeding, and to determine the relationship between gastric emptying of solids and EGG activity. EGG activity was recorded in eight healthy subjects in various experimental conditions, twice after sham feeding, twice after a meal, and once during the simultaneous scintigraphic assessment of gastric emptying of the solid component of a meal. During one of the sham feeding tests, subjects were intubated and acid secretion was measured. The EGG signal amplitude was continuously monitored and an intercorrelation function (IF) was calculated using the Fast Fourier Transforms of electrical activity recorded by 2 cutaneous electrodes placed on the epigastric area. During fasting, IF was usually of low amplitude with occasional short increases of amplitude. Sham feeding without intubation rarely induced an early and brief increase in IF amplitude (2 of 8 subjects). Sham feeding-induced acid secretion was negatively correlated with IF amplitude (r = 0.78, P = 0.02) suggesting a motor inhibition associated with vagally stimulated acid secretion. When given orally, meals induced an increase in IF amplitude, but there was major intra- and interindividual variations. There was no significant correlation between the IF increase and the half emptying time for solids (r = 0.62, P = 0.10). This study shows that the high variability of EGG activity during fasting considerably hampers the analysis of changes induced by any stimulus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8500697

  12. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper

  13. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  14. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  15. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty

  16. Conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (<20 min) and coveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty

  17. Gastric Emptying and Curding of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk and Mother's Own Milk in Preterm Infants.

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P intolerance. PMID:25729886

  18. Conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    Wirth, N. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor); Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (<20 min) and coveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  19. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    Wirth, N.; Swanson, D.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  20. Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin

    L.E.A. Troncon; A.A. Santos; V.L. Garbacio; M. Secaf; A.V. Verceze; Cunha-Melo, J R

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a fraction (T1) of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. Scorpion toxin (250 µg/kg) or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g) labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq) was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals wer...

  1. Gastric emptying and the effects of peritoneal dialysis, among other things: a case study

    Full text: A 27 year old female presented to the Nuclear Medicine department with diabetes acute renal failure and constant nausea and vomiting with the diagnosis of gastroparesis secondary to autonomic neuropathy in question. A solid gastric empty study was performed with the patients peritoneal dialysis fluid in situ, and the results were noted. The study was then repeated, this time after draining the peritoneal dialysis fluid to see if this had any effect.The results were extremely remarkable, and causes for this will be discussed. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Gongronema Latifolium Delays Gastric Emptying of Semi-Solid Meals in Diabetic Dogs

    Ogbu, Sylvester Osita; Agwu, Kenneth Kalu; Asuzu, Isaac Uzoma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate sonographically the effect of Gongronema latifolium on gastric emptying of semi-solid meals in diabetic dogs. Twenty-five alloxan-induced diabetic dogs were randomly allotted into five groups of five dogs each in a randomised placebo-controlled study. These are placebo, prokinetic dose, low dose, moderate dose and high dose groups. The placebo group served as the control. The low, moderate and high dose groups ingested methanolic leaf extract of G. lati...

  3. Is delayed gastric emptying so terrible after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy? Prevention and management

    Xian-Min Bu; Jin Xu; Xian-Wei Dai; Kai Ma; Fu-Quan Yang; Jun Hu; Nai-Fu Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore some operative techniques to prevent the occurrence of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD).METHODS: One hundred and eighty-six patients in a single medical center who accepted PPPD were retrospectively studied. The incidence of DGE was investigated and the influence of some operative techniques on the prevention of DGE was analyzed.RESULTS: During the operative process of PPPD, the methods of detached drainage of pancreatic fluid and bile and gastric fistulization were used. Postoperatively,six patients suffered DGE among the 186 cases;the incidence was 3.23% (6/186). One of them was complicated with intraabdominal infection at the same time, and two with pancreatic leakage.CONCLUSION: Appropriate maneuvers during operation are essential to avoid postoperative DGE in PPPD. The occurrence of DGE is avoidable. It should not be used as an argument to advocate hemigastrectomy in PPPD.

  4. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Wilson Ranu Ramirez Nunez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE of liquid in rats. Objective: Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC in infarcted rats. Methods: Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular. Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR of a saline meal. Results: No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion: Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  5. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABA{sub B} receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABA{sub B} receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABA{sub B} receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  6. Selective lack of tolerance to delayed gastric emptying after daily administration of WIN 55,212-2 in the rat.

    Abalo, R; Cabezos, P A; López-Miranda, V; Vera, G; González, C; Castillo, M; Fernández-Pujol, R; Martín, M I

    2009-09-01

    The use of cannabinoids to treat gastrointestinal (GI) motor disorders has considerable potential. However, it is not clear if tolerance to their actions develops peripherally, as it does centrally. The aim of this study was to examine the chronic effects of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) on GI motility, as well as those in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. WIN was administered for 14 days, at either non-psychoactive or psychoactive doses. Cardiovascular parameters were measured in anaesthetized rats, whereas central effects and alterations in GI motor function were assessed in conscious animals using the cannabinoid tetrad and non-invasive radiographic methods, respectively. Tests were performed after first (acute effects) and last (chronic effects) administration of WIN, and 1 week after discontinuing treatment (residual effects). Food intake and body weight were also recorded throughout treatment. Blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged after acute or chronic administration of WIN. Central activity and GI motility were acutely depressed at psychoactive doses, whereas non-psychoactive doses only slightly reduced intestinal transit. Most effects were reduced after the last administration. However, delayed gastric emptying was not and could, at least partially, account for a concomitant reduction in food intake and body weight gain. The remaining effects of WIN administration in GI motility were blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM 251, which slightly accelerated motility when administered alone. No residual effects were found 1 week after discontinuing cannabinoid treatment. The different systems show differential sensitivity to cannabinoids and tolerance developed at different rates, with delayed gastric emptying being particularly resistant to attenuation upon chronic treatment. PMID:19413685

  7. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J;

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter released by non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurons that innervate the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. We examined whether NO, derived from a sustained-release preparation of isosorbide dinitrate, influenced gastric emptying...... and gastroduodenal motility after a meal. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Each subject ingested 40 mg isosorbide dinitrate orally as a sustained-release formulation or oral placebo, in random order. Gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility were...... consecutive 15-min periods. A 40 mg single dose of sustained-released isosorbide dinitrate does not seem to alter gastric emptying or gastroduodenal motility after a meal....

  8. Reduction in Delayed Gastric Emptying Following Non-Pylorus Preserving Pancreaticoduodenectomy by Addition of a Braun Enteroenterostomy

    Mehrdad Nikfarjam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Delayed gastric emptying is a major cause of morbidity following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Objective The impact of a Braun enteroenterostomy on delayed gastric emptying, used in reconstruction following classic pancreaticoduodenectomy, was assessed. Patients Forty-four consecutive patients undergoing non-pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy from 2009 to 2011 by a single surgeon were included in this study. Interventions The first 20 patients had a standard antecolic gastroenterostomy and the subsequent 24 had the addition of a Braun enteroenterostomy. Results Patient characteristics, the extent of surgery, surgical findings and tumor characteristics were similar between the two groups. The delayed gastric emptying rate in the Braun enteroenterostomy (1/24, 4.2% was significantly lower (P=0.008 than the standard reconstruction group (7/20, 35.0%. In the standard group, 6 of 7 cases (85.7% of delayed gastric emptying were class C in nature. After exclusion of 8 total pancreatectomy patients, the pancreatic fistula rate in the Braun enteroenterostomy group (4/19, 21.1% was similar (0.706 to the standard reconstruction group (5/17, 29.4% as was the median length of hospital stay (10 days vs. 15 days; P=0.291. Braun enteroenterostomy technique was the only significant independent factor associated with reduced delayed gastric emptying with an odds ratio of 0.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.73; P=0.025. Conclusion The use of Braun enteroenterostomy following nonpylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy appears to result in a significant reduction in delayed gastric emptying.

  9. Histamine delays gastric emptying of solid food in man through histamine, receptors

    The authors have shown that histamine (H) contracts the cat pylorus and duodenum through H/sub 1/ receptor mechanisms. The authors investigated the effect of H infusion on gastric emptying (GE) and the role of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ receptor blockade in healthy volunteers. Radionuclide GE studies were performed using chicken liver labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Technetium-sulfur colloid as a marker of solid food. Study days were as follows: a baseline GE study (Day 1); H infused continuously IV at a rate of 40 μg/kg/hr during the GE study (Day 2); an IV bolus of 50 mg of diphenhydramine (Day 3), or 300 mg cimetidine (Day 4) given just prior to the continuous infusion of H; a final day when cimetidine was given alone (Day 5). GE was monitored for 2 hours on each day. The results of days 1, 2 and 3 are summarized below (+p<0.05 vs baseline or Day 1). Pretreatment with cimetidine (Day 4) augmented the delay in GE induced by H infusion, while cimetidine without H (Day 5) had no effect on GE. The authors conclude that: 1) H given at a dose which elicits maximal acid secretory response in man significantly delays GE; and 2) H/sub 1/ receptor blockade but not H/sub 2/ blockade prevented this effect. Histamine may play a modulatory role in human gastric emptying through an H/sub 1/ receptor mechanism

  10. The design of a two-phase radiolabelled meal for gastric emptying studies

    A meal intended for use in gastric emptying studies must be highly reproducible, must provide a normal physiological stimulus in terms of bulk, calorie content and composition and must employ stable radiotracers which accurately reflect in their biodistribution, the fate of the two-phases. This is particularly important in a field, such as gastric emptying, where so many variables may influence the results. A conventional pancake and orange juice were chosen as suitable vehicles for the solid and liquid phases. 111In-labelled resin beads were used as the solid-phase marker and a variety of 99Tcm-labelled radiopharmaceuticals including pertechnetate, DTPA and colloid forms were investigated as liquid-phase markers. Prior to administration to patients, the stability of the phases and their interactions in vitro were investigated. The use of 99Tcm-DTPA resulted in a loss of 111In from solid to liquid phase. All non-colloidal markers exhibited a tendency for adsorption onto solid phase. Colloidal markers including rhenium and antimony sulphide colloids showed the truest delineation of the liquid phase. (author)

  11. Towards a less costly but accurate test of gastric emptying and small bowel transit

    Our aim is to develop a less costly but accurate test of stomach emptying and small bowel transit by utilizing selected scintigraphic observations 1-6 hr after ingestion of a radiolabeled solid meal. These selected data were compared with more detailed analyses that require multiple scans and labor-intensive technical support. A logistic discriminant analysis was used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of selected summaries of scintigraphic transit measurements. We studied 14 patients with motility disorders (eight neuropathic and six myopathic, confirmed by standard gastrointestinal manometry) and 37 healthy subjects. The patient group had abnormal gastric emptying (GE) and small bowel transit time (SBTT). The proportion of radiolabel retained in the stomach from 2 to 4 hr (GE 2 hr, GE 3 hr, GE 4 hr), as well as the proportion filling the colon at 4 and 6 hr (CF 4 hr, CF 6 hr) were individually able to differentiate health from disease (P less than 0.05 for each). From the logistic discriminant model, an estimated sensitivity of 93% resulted in similar specificities for detailed and selected transit parameters for gastric emptying (range: 62-70%). Similarly, combining selected observations, such as GE 4 hr with CF 6 hr, had a specificity of 76%, which was similar to the specificity of combinations of more detailed analyses. Based on the present studies and future confirmation in a larger number of patients, including those with less severe motility disorders, the 2-, 4-, and 6-hr scans with quantitation of proportions of counts in stomach and colon should provide a useful, relatively inexpensive strategy to identify and monitor motility disorders in clinical and epidemiologic studies

  12. Effect of 4-aminoantipyrine on gastric compliance and liquid emptying in rats

    A.M. Vinagre

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone (Dp delays gastric emptying (GE in rats. There is no information about whether 4-aminoantipyrine (AA, one of its metabolites, has the same effect. The objectives of the present study were to assess the effects of AA and Dp on GE when administered intravenously (iv and intracerebroventricularly (icv (240 µmol/kg and 4 µmol/animal, respectively and on gastric compliance when administered iv (240 µmol/kg. GE was determined in male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (5-10 per group after icv or iv injection of the drug by measuring percent gastric retention (GR of a saline meal labeled with phenol red 10 min after administration by gavage. Gastric compliance was estimated in anesthetized rats (10-11 per group, with the construction of volume-pressure curves during intragastric infusion of a saline meal. Compliance was significantly greater in animals receiving Dp (mean ± SEM = 0.26 ± 0.009 mL/mmHg and AA (0.24 ± 0.012 mL/mmHg than in controls (0.19 ± 0.009 mL/mmHg. AA and Dp administered iv significantly increased GR (64.4 ± 2.5 and 54.3 ± 3.8%, respectively compared to control (34 ± 2.2%, a phenomenon observed only with Dp after icv administration. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy reduced the effect of AA (GR = 31.4 ± 1.5% compared to sham-treated animals. Baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, administered icv significantly reduced the effect of AA (GR = 28.1 ± 1.3%. We conclude that Dp and AA increased gastric compliance and AA delayed GE, with the participation of the vagus nerve, through a pathway that does not involve a direct action of the drug on the central nervous system.

  13. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    cocoa butter as well as different structured lipids containing decanoic acid (10:0) and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin. Overall, these fats had wide variations in fatty acid compositions and triacylglycerol structures. Results: No statistically significant differences were...... observed in gastric emptying between the groups fed the different fats, except for the emptying of tridecanoin (tri-10:0) that was statistically significantly slower than that of randomized oil, cocoa butter, and rapeseed oil (p <0.05). The slower emptying of tri-10:0 could be caused by a lower caloric...

  14. A renal transplant recipient with delayed gastric emptying in amyloidosis due to familial Mediterranean fever improved with erythromycin: a case report.

    Saglam, F; Celik, A; Cavdar, C; Sifil, A; Atila, K; Kaya, G C; Bora, S; Gulay, H; Camsari, T

    2008-01-01

    Patients with systemic amyloidosis often have symptoms related to impared gastrointestinal motility due to delayed gastric emptying, which results from autonomic nerve or smooth muscle infiltration with amyloid. There is no current report about gastric delaying secondary to amyloidosis due to familial Mediterranean fever. In this report, we have described a renal transplant recipient with delayed gastric emptying secondary to amyloidosis due to familial Mediterranean fever, which improved with erithromycin treatment. PMID:18261613

  15. Ultrasonographic study of postcibal gastro-esophageal reflux and gastric emptying in infants with recurrent respiratory disease

    Agostino Di Ciaula; Piero Portincasa; Leonardo Di Terlizzi; Domenico Paternostro; Giuseppe Palasciano

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To check the utility of postcibal ultrasonography for the evaluation of reflux in relation to gastric emptying in infants with recurrent respiratory symptoms and to link imaging with clinical data.METHODS: Esophageal reflux (hyperechoic retrograde filling) and gastric emptying (antral areas) were quantified before and after ingestion of a standard formula in 35 untreated infants (13 with chronic cough,22 with recurrent bronchitis) and in 31 controls.RESULTS: The prevalence of abnormal (≥8 episodes)postcibal refluxes was 74% in patients and 3% in controls. Number, duration of the longest episode and extent of refluxes were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. Number of refluxes was higher in patients with symptomatic refluxes than in those without.Infants with recurrent bronchitis had more refluxes than those with chronic cough and controls. Extent and timing of gastric emptying were similar in patients and controls.CONCLUSION: Esophageal ultrasonography is a useful and physiological test in infants with recurrent respiratory diseases, which have a high prevalence of abnormal postcibal esophageal reflux and a gastric emptying similar to that of normal controls. Esophageal reflux is more severe in subjects with recurrent bronchitis than in those with chronic cough.

  16. Effect of sustained-release isosorbide dinitrate on post-prandial gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility in healthy humans

    Madsen, J L; Rasmussen, S L; Linnet, J;

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter released by non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurons that innervate the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. We examined whether NO, derived from a sustained-release preparation of isosorbide dinitrate, influenced gastric emptying and...... consecutive 15-min periods. A 40 mg single dose of sustained-released isosorbide dinitrate does not seem to alter gastric emptying or gastroduodenal motility after a meal.......Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter released by non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurons that innervate the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. We examined whether NO, derived from a sustained-release preparation of isosorbide dinitrate, influenced gastric emptying...... and gastroduodenal motility after a meal. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Each subject ingested 40 mg isosorbide dinitrate orally as a sustained-release formulation or oral placebo, in random order. Gastric emptying and gastroduodenal motility were...

  17. Influence of the menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids in female volunteers

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the normal menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids. Gastric emptying was studied in 15 premenopausal and ten postmenopausal women with an isotopic technique after the ingestion of a radiolabelled test meal. Premenopausal women were studied twice: Within 1 week prior to menses and again 1 week after onset of menses. Postmenopausal women were studied only once. The emptying curves of the solid component of the meal fitted a linear model. The half-emptying time was 78±5 min during the follicular phase, 75±7 min during the luteal phase and 76±6 min in postmenopausal women (differences not statistically significant). The mean percentages of the meal retained in the stomach at different time intervals were also similar in the three groups. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not influence the gastric emptying rate of solids, which remains unchanged in relation to the follicular phase or after menopause. (orig.)

  18. Cheese is a reliable alternative meal for solid-phase gastric emptying study.

    Drubach, Laura A; Kourmouzi, Vasiliki; Fahey, Frederic H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7 MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2+/-1.9, 95.6+/-1.1, 62.1+/-1.7, 41.8+/-0.6, and 74.5+/-3.8% at 1 h and 98.5+/-1.0, 95.8+/-2.6, 77.2+/-6.8, 55.5+/-3.4 and 40.2+/-22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P>0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs. PMID:20145582

  19. Simultaneous markers for fluid and solid gastric emptying: new variations on an old theme: concise communication

    Radiotracer techniques for the assessment of gastric emptying have become popular in the past 6 yr. A new double-nuclide technique, for the simultaneous tagging of the solid and fluid phases, is described. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC) is used in a manner similar to that described by Meyer and colleagues, but the new technique does not involve the use of live chickens, a significant advantage over the earlier procedures. Several fluid-phase radionuclides were tested to be used in conjunction with the Tc-99m SC. Indium-111 DTPA was found to be the only compatible fluid-phase agent. This new double-tracer technique promises to be safe, economical, simple, and physiologically sound

  20. The role of the evaluation of gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa and bulimia

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are common eating disorders that are frequently associated with symptoms of bloating, belching, nausea, and vomiting. The authors currently studying this population with Tc-99m TETA to determine the gastric emptying time (ET) and response to metoclopramide. The authors' findings to date show that the majority (80%) of anorexics have a normal ET; the remainder are delayed. The bulimics demonstrate a normal ET in 34%, delayed in 45%, and rapid in 21%. The response to metoclopramide was good in the delayed anorexic patients and in 71% of bulimic patients treated. The extent of rapidity or delay in ET is being compared with the clinical data including age, weight/height, length and degree of disorder, diet, degree of symptoms, and response to drug and diet therapy. This correlation will help determine the incidence and severity of ET abnormality, the relation of disease and symptom severity to ET, and the effect of different treatments based on the ET

  1. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO4). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28

  2. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis or ulcer disease and gastric emptying

    Forty-five patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastritis or ulcer disease were included in this study. Radionuclide-labelled solid meals were used to calculate gastric emptying times (GETs) and carbon-14 urea breath tests (14C UBTs) were used to measure the HP colonies quantitatively. The patients were assessed according to the following two criteria: (a) the HP colony number (i.e. high or low) and (b) the recorded duration of the GET (i.e. long or short). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of abnormal GET between high and low 14C UBT patients or in the incidence of abnormal 14C UBT between long and short GET cases. In conclusion, no significant relationship between HP-associated gastritis or ulcer disease and GET was found in this study. (orig.)

  3. Diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach to prevent early delayed gastric emptying after esophagectomy

    Chao Sun; Weiping Shi; Yusheng Shu; Hongcan Shi; Shichun Lu; Kang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical ef icacy of a diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach to prevent delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after esophagectomy through the cervico-tho-racoabdominal approach. Methods A total of 980 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy through the cer-vico-thoracoabdominal approach were retrospectively included in this study and divided into two groups. Al patients underwent tubular stomach creation (group A; n = 530) or a diaphragmatic suture and tubular stomach creation (group B; n = 450). The incidence of early DGE was observed. Results The incidence of early DGE in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P Conclusion This observation study suggests that the use of a diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach through the cervico-thoracoabdominal approach can decrease the incidence of early DGE after esopha-gectomy.

  4. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO4). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  5. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  6. Ghrelin and obestatin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without delayed gastric emptying.

    Harsch, Igor A; Koebnick, Corinna; Tasi, Atingwa M; Hahn, Eckhart Georg; Konturek, Peter C

    2009-10-01

    Alterations in the neurohumoral regulation of the upper intestine may change rhythmicity and pattern of ghrelin and obestatin, the latter presumably antagonizing ghrelin effects. Five nongastroparetic diabetic patients and five with gastroparesis were investigated. Over 390 min including breakfast and lunch, ghrelin was significantly lower in patients with gastroparesis compared with in those without (P = 0.015). Ghrelin subsequent to lunch decreased significantly (P = 0.011) in patients without gastroparesis, but not in gastroparetic patients (P = 0.669). Obestatin was similar in both groups and unchanged. No significant differences in ghrelin-to-obestatin ratio were observed (P = 0.530). Loss of rhythmicity in the ghrelin levels of gastroparetic diabetics highlights the importance of integrity of the neurohumoral-intestinal axis. Stable diurnal obestatin levels do not support the concept of interaction between ghrelin and obestatin in terms of regulation of food intake and gastric emptying. PMID:19082715

  7. Gastric emptying, small intestinal transit and fecal output in dystrophic (mdx) mice.

    Mulè, Flavia; Amato, Antonella; Serio, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which results from deficiency in dystrophin, a sarcolemma protein of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle, is characterized by progressive striated muscle degeneration, but various gastrointestinal clinical manifestations have been observed. The aim was to evaluate the possible impact of the dystrophin loss on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mdx mice (animal model for DMD). The gastric emptying of a carboxymethyl cellulose/phenol red dye non-nutrient meal was not significantly different at 20 min from gavaging between wild-type and mdx mice. The intestinal transit and the fecal output were significantly decreased in mdx versus normal animals, although the length of the intestine was similar in both animals. The present results provide evidence for motor intestinal alterations in mdx mice in in vivo conditions. PMID:19784719

  8. The effect of pylorus removal on delayed gastric emptying after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a meta-analysis of 2,599 patients.

    Wenming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying is a serious complication of pancreaticoduodenectomy. The effect of pylorus removal on delayed gastric emptying has not been well evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus and Web of Science up to July 2014. The meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate any factors accountable for the heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by Egger's test, and corrected by Duval's trim and fill method. Subgroup analyses were conducted for different surgical techniques of pyloric removal. Other intraoperative and postoperative parameters were compared between two groups. RESULTS: We included 27 studies involving 2,599 patients, with a moderate-high heterogeneity for primary outcome (I(2 = 63%. Meta-regression analysis showed that four variables primarily contributed to the heterogeneity, namely nasogastric tube intubation time, solid food start time, preoperative diabetes percentage and the number of patients in pylorus-preserving group. After excluding four studies, the remaining twenty-three studies showed reduced heterogeneity (I(2 = 51%. Then we used Duval's trim and fill method to correct publication bias. The corrected MH odds ratio was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.52-1.17. A subgroup analysis showed that pylorus removal tends to reduce delayed gastric emptying incidence for subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy or pylorus-resecting pancreaticoduodenectomy, compared with pylorus-preserving group. However, standard Whipple procedure failed to show any significant reduction of DGE compared with pylorus-removal group. No significant differences were observed in terms of length of hospital stay, infection and pancreatic fistula; however, pylorus removal resulted in longer operation time, more blood loss and higher mortality. CONCLUSION: The pylorus removal does not significantly reduce the overall incidence of delayed

  9. Gastric emptying and timing of insulin injection in insulin-treated diabetics Using99m Te-sulfur colloid

    Gastric emptying of 99mTc labelled liquid and solid meals were studied in 112 long-standing insulin insulin treated diabetics to evaluate the relationship of gastroparesis to patients age, sex, gastrointestinal symptoms, diabetic neuropathic complication and glycemic control, and to evaluate the influence of gastric emptying and timing of insulin injection as modifying factors for blood glucose control aiming at objective optimization of timing of insulin injection for every individual patient using the proposed equation: time of insulin injection=onset of insulin action -solid lag time. Patients were classified into three group: A) no neuropathy; B) peripheral neuropathy; and C) peripheral and autonomic neuropathy and compared to healthy volunteers as controls. Diabetics showed statistically significant prolonged gastric lag time and T1/2 for both liquid and solid meals compared to those of controls

  10. The effect of gastric secretion on gastric physiology and emptying in the fasted and fed state assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Goetze, O; Treier, R; Fox, M; Steingoetter, A; Fried, M; Boesiger, P; Schwizer, W

    2009-07-01

    Conventional measurement of gastric secretion is invasive and cannot assess the intra-gastric distribution of gastric contents or the effects of secretion on gastric function. This study assessed the effect of gastric secretion on gastric volume responses and emptying (GE) using a validated fast T(1) mapping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. Twelve healthy participants were studied in the fasted state and after 200 kcal Gadolinium-DOTA labelled glucose meal during intravenous infusion of pentagastrin or placebo in double-blind, randomized order. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV) was assessed by MRI volume scans and secretion by fast T(1) mapping. Data was described by the kappa-coefficient (volume change after meal ingestion), by GE half time (T(50)) and maximal GE rate (GER(max)) derived all from a GE model. Pentagastrin increased GCV and TGV compared to placebo [kappa(GCV):1.6 +/- 0.1 vs 0.6 +/- 0.1; kappa(TGV): 1.6 +/- 0.1 vs 0.7 +/- 0.1; P TGV and GCV change were similar in both conditions (kappa; P = ns). T(50) was higher for pentagastrin than for placebo (84 +/- 7 vs 56 +/- 4min, P TGV accommodation without evidence of a direct effect of pentagastrin or excess acid on gastric function. Secretion increases GCV thus prolongs GE as assessed by T(50); however, GE rate is unchanged. PMID:19344341

  11. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N;

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... characteristics and whether different hormone secretion patterns are associated with specific alterations in emptying rate. METHODS: Twelve healthy men were examined on two occasions: one with meal ingestion in phase I and the other with meal ingestion in phase II. The meal consisted of an omelette labelled...... a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II (998 pmol/l*30 min (495 to 2010) versus 210 pmol/l*30 min (-270 to 2323), p emptying at 120 min in phase I (Rs = 0.58; p...

  12. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled solid-phase meal: a quantitative clinical measurement of human gastric emptying

    A solid-phase meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid provides an improved clinical test for the quantitative evaluation of human gastric emptying. We studied 12 healthy male controls and five male patients with known gastric stasis secondary to a vagotomy and drainage procedure. All subjects were fasted for 8 hours before the study, and each consumed an unbuttered biscuit and a poached egg white containing 1 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. For 2 hours, 60-second counts were measured every 10 minutes by a Pho Gamma III scintillation camera. The t1/2 for control subjects was 60 minutes, at which time patients with gastric stasis had retained 98% of the test meal. At 120 minutes, control subjects and patients with gastric stasis had 4.7% and 89%, respectively, of the meal remaining in the stomach. The solid-phase test meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid is easy to perform and can be used clinically to quantitatively measure gastric emptying in humans. This test can discriminate between control subjects and patients with known gastric stasis

  13. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. III. Study of gastric retention of a sodium citrate solution using an experimental model of metabolic acidosis in rats].

    Baracat, E C; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of sodium citrate solution 0.25 mEq/ml was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by orogastric infusion of 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water. The 3 solutions content was 2 ml/100 g weight of the animal. Six hours after the infusion, there was a moderate metabolic acidosis in the group with ammonium citrate. This 6 hour interval marked the beginning of the gastric emptying study. The test meal (sodium citrate 0.25 mEq/ml) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric emptying of sodium citrate was studied at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the infusion, and the results showed no differences between the 3 groups. The data suggest that the duodenal receptors to pH were more effective do determine the pattern of gastric response than the acidosis. PMID:1339143

  14. Upregulation of bile acid receptor TGR5 and nNOS in gastric myenteric plexus is responsible for delayed gastric emptying after chronic high-fat feeding in rats.

    Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Shiyi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Guanpo; Lu, Yuanxu; Owyang, Chung

    2015-05-15

    Chronic high-fat feeding is associated with functional dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. We hypothesize that high-fat feeding upregulates gastric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression, resulting in delayed gastric emptying. We propose this is mediated by increased bile acid action on bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) located on nNOS gastric neurons. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet for 2 wk. Rats fed the high-fat diet were subjected to concurrent feeding with oral cholestyramine or terminal ileum resection. TGR5 and nNOS expression in gastric tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and Western blot. Gastric motility was assessed by organ bath and solid-phase gastric emptying studies. The 2-wk high-fat diet caused a significant increase in neurons coexpressing nNOS and TGR5 in the gastric myenteric plexus and an increase in nNOS and TGR5 gene expression, 67 and 111%, respectively. Enhanced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation, deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced inhibition in fundic tissue, and a 26% delay in gastric emptying accompanied these changes. A 24-h incubation of whole-mount gastric fundus with DCA resulted in increased nNOS and TGR5 protein expression, 41 and 37%, respectively. Oral cholestyramine and terminal ileum resection restored the enhanced gastric relaxation, as well as the elevated nNOS and TGR5 expression evoked by high-fat feeding. Cholestyramine also prevented the delay in gastric emptying. We conclude that increased levels of circulatory bile acids induced by high-fat feeding upregulate nNOS and TGR5 expression in the gastric myenteric plexus, resulting in enhanced NANC relaxation and delayed gastric emptying. PMID:25540233

  15. Upregulation of bile acid receptor TGR5 and nNOS in gastric myenteric plexus is responsible for delayed gastric emptying after chronic high-fat feeding in rats

    Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Shiyi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Guanpo; Lu, Yuanxu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic high-fat feeding is associated with functional dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. We hypothesize that high-fat feeding upregulates gastric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression, resulting in delayed gastric emptying. We propose this is mediated by increased bile acid action on bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) located on nNOS gastric neurons. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet for 2 wk. Rats fed the high-fat diet were subjected to concurrent feeding with oral cholestyramine or terminal ileum resection. TGR5 and nNOS expression in gastric tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and Western blot. Gastric motility was assessed by organ bath and solid-phase gastric emptying studies. The 2-wk high-fat diet caused a significant increase in neurons coexpressing nNOS and TGR5 in the gastric myenteric plexus and an increase in nNOS and TGR5 gene expression, 67 and 111%, respectively. Enhanced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation, deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced inhibition in fundic tissue, and a 26% delay in gastric emptying accompanied these changes. A 24-h incubation of whole-mount gastric fundus with DCA resulted in increased nNOS and TGR5 protein expression, 41 and 37%, respectively. Oral cholestyramine and terminal ileum resection restored the enhanced gastric relaxation, as well as the elevated nNOS and TGR5 expression evoked by high-fat feeding. Cholestyramine also prevented the delay in gastric emptying. We conclude that increased levels of circulatory bile acids induced by high-fat feeding upregulate nNOS and TGR5 expression in the gastric myenteric plexus, resulting in enhanced NANC relaxation and delayed gastric emptying. PMID:25540233

  16. Whey Protein Delays Gastric Emptying and Suppresses Plasma Fatty Acids and Their Metabolites Compared to Casein, Gluten, and Fish Protein

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    studies, the WI meal caused a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to the other test meals. The WI meal also caused elevated levels of a number of amino acids, possibly stimulating insulin release leading to reduced plasma glucose. The WI meal also caused decreased levels of a number of fatty acids......Whey protein has been demonstrated to improve fasting lipid and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals. To establish new hypotheses for this effect and to investigate the impact of stomach emptying, we compared plasma profiles after intake of whey isolate (WI), casein, gluten (GLU...

  17. Effect of meal volume and calorie load on postprandial gastric function and emptying: studies under physiological conditions by combined fiber-optic pressure measurement and MRI.

    Kwiatek, Monika A; Menne, Dieter; Steingoetter, Andreas; Goetze, Oliver; Forras-Kaufman, Zsofia; Kaufman, Elad; Fruehauf, Heiko; Boesiger, Peter; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Fox, Mark R

    2009-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of meal volume (MV) and calorie load (CL) on gastric function. MRI and a minimally invasive fiber-optic recording system (FORS) provided simultaneous measurement of gastric volume and pressure changes during gastric filling and emptying of a liquid nutrient meal in physiological conditions. The gastric response to 12 iso-osmolar MV-CL combinations of a multinutrient drink (MV: 200, 400, 600, 800 ml; CL: 200, 300, 400 kcal) was tested in 16 healthy subjects according to a factorial design. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV = MV + secretion) were measured by MRI during nasogastric meal infusion and gastric emptying over 60 min. Intragastric pressure was assessed at 1 Hz by FORS. The dynamic change in postprandial gastric volumes was described by a validated three-component linear exponential model. The stomach expanded with MV, but the ratio of GCV:MV at t(0) diminished with increasing MV (P TGV followed those of GCV. Intragastric pressure increased with MV, and this effect was augmented further by CL (P = 0.02); however, the absolute pressure rise was <4 mmHg. A further postprandial increase of gastric volumes was observed early on before any subsequent volume decrease. This "early" increase in GCV was greater for smaller than larger MV (P < 0.01), indicating faster initial gastric emptying of larger MV. In contrast, volume change during filling and in the early postprandial period were unaffected by CL. In the later postprandial period, gastric emptying rate continued to be more rapid with high MVs (P < 0.001); however, at any given volume, gastric emptying was slowed by higher CL (P < 0.001). GCV half-emptying time decreased with CL at 18 +/- 6 min for each additional 100-kcal load (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that gastric wall stress (passive strain and active tone) provides the driving force for gastric emptying, but distal resistance to gastric outflow regulates further passage of nutrients. The

  18. Phenylpyrazolone derivatives inhibit gastric emptying in rats by a capsaicin-sensitive afferent pathway

    A.M. Vinagre

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone (Dp, 4-aminoantipyrine (AA and antipyrine (At administered iv and Dp administered icv delay gastric emptying (GE in rats. The participation of capsaicin (Cps-sensitive afferent fibers in this phenomenon was evaluated. Male Wistar rats were pretreated sc with Cps (50 mg/kg or vehicle between the first and second day of life and both groups were submitted to the eye-wiping test. GE was determined in these animals at the age of 8/9 weeks (weight: 200-300 g. Ten minutes before the study, the animals of both groups were treated iv with Dp, AA or At (240 μmol/kg, or saline; or treated icv with Dp (4 μmol/animal or saline. GE was determined 10 min after treatment by measuring % gastric retention (GR of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after orogastric administration. Percent GR (mean ± SEM, N = 8 in animals pretreated with Cps and treated with Dp, AA or At (35.8 ± 3.2, 35.4 ± 2.2, and 35.6 ± 2%, respectively did not differ from the GR of saline-treated animals pretreated with vehicle (36.8 ± 2.8% and was significantly lower than in animals pretreated with vehicle and treated with the drugs (52.1 ± 2.8, 66.2 ± 4, and 55.8 ± 3%, respectively. The effect of icv administration of Dp (N = 6 was not modified by pretreatment with Cps (63.3 ± 5.7% compared to Dp-treated animals pretreated with vehicle (62.3 ± 2.4%. The results suggest the participation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent fibers in the delayed GE induced by iv administration of Dp, AA and At, but not of icv Dp.

  19. Effect of the GABA B agonist baclofen on dipyrone-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats

    E.F. Collares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone administered intravenously (iv or intracerebroventricularly (icv delays gastric emptying (GE in rats. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is the most potent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of icv baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, on delayed GE induced by dipyrone. Adult male Wistar rats received a saline test meal containing phenol red as a marker. GE was indirectly evaluated by determining the percent of gastric retention (%GR of the meal 10 min after orogastric administration. In the first experiment, the animals were injected iv with vehicle (Civ or 80 mg/kg (240 µmol/kg dipyrone (Dp iv, followed by icv injection of 10 µl vehicle (bac0, or 0.5 (bac0.5, 1 (bac1 or 2 µg (bac2 baclofen. In the second experiment, the animals were injected icv with 5 µl vehicle (Cicv or an equal volume of a solution containing 4 µmol (1333.2 µg dipyrone (Dp icv, followed by 5 µl vehicle (bac0 or 1 µg baclofen (bac1. GE was determined 10 min after icv injection. There was no significant difference between control animals from one experiment to another concerning GR values. Baclofen at the doses of 1 and 2 µg significantly reduced mean %GR induced by iv dipyrone (Dp iv bac1 = 35.9% and Dp iv bac2 = 26.9% vs Dp iv bac0 = 51.8%. Similarly, baclofen significantly reduced the effect of dipyrone injected icv (mean %GR: Dp icv bac1 = 30.4% vs Dp icv bac0 = 54.2%. The present results suggest that dipyrone induces delayed GE through a route in the central nervous system that is blocked by the activation of GABA B receptors.

  20. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan; Holst, Jens Juul; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  1. The effect of oxytocin on the gastric emptying rate of liquids: the role of oxytocin and CCK-2 receptors

    Özdemir Kumral, Zarife Nigar; Novruzov, Emil; Turan, Nefize; Ç. Yeğen, Berrak

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Studies have indicated that oxytocin (OT), a regulatory nonapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, is endogenously released into blood following a fatty meal or by the stimulation of exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK). Despite OT’s acceleratory effect on gastric emptying, there are also experimental studies documenting its delaying action. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were used to evaluate the effect of centrally or peripherally administered OT...

  2. The oxytocin/vasopressin receptor antagonist atosiban delays the gastric emptying of a semisolid meal compared to saline in human

    Ekberg Olle

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxytocin is released in response to a meal. Further, mRNA for oxytocin and its receptor have been found throughout the gastrointestinal (GI tract. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether oxytocin, or the receptor antagonist atosiban, influence the gastric emptying. Methods Ten healthy volunteers (five men were examined regarding gastric emptying at three different occasions: once during oxytocin stimulation using a pharmacological dose; once during blockage of the oxytocin receptors (which also blocks the vasopressin receptors and thereby inhibiting physiological doses of oxytocin; and once during saline infusion. Gastric emptying rate (GER was assessed and expressed as the percentage reduction in antral cross-sectional area from 15 to 90 min after ingestion of rice pudding. The assessment was performed by real-time ultrasonography. At the same time, the feeling of satiety was registered using visual satiety scores. Results Inhibition of the binding of endogenous oxytocin by the receptor antagonist delayed the GER by 37 % compared to saline (p = 0.037. In contrast, infusion of oxytocin in a dosage of 40 mU/min did not affect the GER (p = 0.610. Satiation scores areas in healthy subjects after receiving atosiban or oxytocin did not show any significant differences. Conclusion Oxytocin and/or vasopressin seem to be regulators of gastric emptying during physiological conditions, since the receptor antagonist atosiban delayed the GER. However, the actual pharmacological dose of oxytocin in this study had no effect. The effect of oxytocin and vasopressin on GI motility has to be further evaluated.

  3. Noninvasive ¹³C-octanoic acid breath test shows delayed gastric emptying in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Toepfer, Marcel; Folwaczny, Christian; Lochmüller, H.; Schroeder, M; Riepl, R. L.; Pongratz, D; Müller-Felber, W.

    1999-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. However, ALS has been recognized to also involve non-motor systems. Subclinical involvement of the autonomic system in ALS has been described. The recently developed C-13-octanoic acid breath test allows the noninvasive measurement of gastric emptying. With this new technique we investigated 18 patients with ALS and 14 healthy volunteers. None of the patients had diabe...

  4. L-lysine dose dependently delays gastric emptying and increases intestinal fluid volume in humans and rats

    Baruffol, C; Jordi, J; Camargo, S.; RADOVIC, T; Herzog, B.; Fried, M; Schwizer, W; Verrey, F; Lutz, T. A.; Steingoetter, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Novel sensory inputs for the control of food intake and gastrointestinal (GI) function are of increasing interest due to the rapid increase in nutrition-related diseases. The essential amino acid L-lysine was demonstrated to have a selective impact on food intake, gastric emptying, and intestinal transit in rats, thus indicating a potential novel direct sensory input to assess dietary protein content and quality. The aim of this study was to assess translational aspects of this fi...

  5. Study on the method of ultrasonic measurement for gastric emptying function%胃排空功能超声测定方法的研究

    杨舒萍; 林丽卿; 洪理伟; 蔡晓菡; 刘彦; 沈浩霖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To search one ultrasonic method which could evaluate gastric emptying function accurately.Methods The gastric emptying time of 74 normal volunteers were measured by radioisotope scanning and different ultrasonic methods which including gastric antrum area,gastric antrum volume and whole gastric cylinder method.Results The gastric emptying time measured by whole gastric cylinder method related best with those measured by radioisotope scanning (r =0.79).The gastric emptying time was no significant difference between the cylinder method and radionuclide scanning (P >0.05).Compared with radionuclide scanning,those measured by gastric antrum area and gastric antrum volume had significant differences.Conclusions The whole gastric cylinder method can accurately reflect the gastric emptying function.%目的 探讨超声技术准确测定胃排空功能的方法.方法 分别采用胃窦面积法、胃窦体积法和全胃圆柱体法对74例正常志愿者的胃排空时间进行测定,并与核素扫描测定结果比较,准确反映胃排空功能.结果 应用全胃圆柱体法超声所测定的胃排空时间与核素扫描测定的胃排空时间相关性最好(r=0.79),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).胃窦面积法、胃窦体积法测得的胃排空时间与核素扫描对比差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 应用超声全胃圆柱体法能够准确测定胃排空功能.

  6. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  7. Comparison of the barium test meal and the gamma camera scanning technic in measuring gastric emptying

    In 21 patients with nonresected stomachs and symptoms of delayed gastric emptying, obstruction was excluded by upper gastrointestinal series and upper endoscopy; all had abnormal results of barium test meal (BTM) study. Each had repeat BTM after the administration of 10 mg of metoclopramide. Each patient also had two gamma camera studies after a technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid labeled meal; normal saline or metoclopramide was administered before each test in a blinded and random manner. Half-time (T 1/2) and percentage of isotope remaining at six hours (GC6) were recorded. Ten asymptomatic controls had a gamma camera scanning study, and seven of these had a BTM. Nine of 19 patients had a T 1/2 in the normal range, and in 12 of 19 patients the GC6 was in the normal range. The magnitude of retention of barium at six hours on the BTM did not correlate with the T 1/2 (r = 0.076) or the GC6 (r = 0.296). Thus, these tests were not comparable in this study. By regression analysis, a significant reduction was shown in the amount of retained food and barium (P < .01), the T 1/2 (P < .01), and the GC6 (P < .01) after intramuscular administration of metoclopramide, indicating that both tests were able to evaluate the effects of this drug

  8. Zinc directly stimulates cholecystokinin secretion from enteroendocrine cells and reduces gastric emptying in rats.

    Nakajima, Shingo; Hira, Tohru; Iwaya, Hitoshi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2016-07-15

    Zinc, an essential mineral element, regulates various physiological functions such as immune responses and hormone secretion. Cholecystokinin (CCK), a gut hormone, has a role in protective immunity through the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, appetite, and inflammatory response. Here, we examined the effect of zinc on CCK secretion in STC-1 cells, an enteroendocrine cell line derived from murine duodenum, and in rats. Extracellular zinc triggered CCK secretion accompanied with increased intracellular Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) mobilization in STC-1 cells. Zinc-induced CCK secretion was abolished in the absence of intracellular Zn(2+) or extracellular calcium. Upon inhibition of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), extracellular zinc failed to increase intracellular Ca(2+) and subsequent CCK secretion. In rats, oral zinc administration decreased gastric emptying through the activation of CCK signaling. These results suggest that zinc is a novel stimulant for CCK secretion through the activation of TRPA1 related to intracellular Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:27107934

  9. Simultaneous noninvasive evaluation of gastric emptying and orocaecal transit times. Use in studying the actions of cisapride in diabetic patients.

    Bergmann, J F; Chassany, O; Guillausseau, P J; Bayle, M; Chagnon, S; Caulin, C; Sallenave, J R

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to use a novel combination of two methods for the simultaneous evaluation of two effects of oral cisapride in 10 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy; gastric empyting time was measured by following radio-opaque markers and orocaecal transit time by the sulphasalazine-sulphapridine method. The study was of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. It was possible to evaluate the effect of a prokinetic drug on gastric emptying and orocaecal transit times using these two noninvasive techniques at the same time. Cisapride significantly reduced both the gastric empyting (1.2 h versus 2.1 h) and orocaecal tansit (5.9 h versus 7.7 h) times. PMID:1425866

  10. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying characteristics and whether different hormone secretion patterns are associated with specific alteration in emptying rate. 12 healthy men were examined on two occasion: one with meal ingestion in phase I and the other with meal ingestion in phase II. The meal consisted of an omelette labelled with 99mTc followed by 150 ml water labelled with 111In. Plasma concentrations of gastrin, cholecystokinin, motilin, and peptide YY were measured in the fasting state, immediately after food ingestion, and at 15 min-min intervals in the postprandial period. New findings from the present study include a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II, and a linear relationship between median total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I. Furthermore, in phase I a linear relationship between total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated. The findings from the present investigation have to be considered in the future design of studies that focus on postprandial release of gastrointestinal hormones. The transition from phase III to phase I is a reproducible and easily recognized pressure event. Therefore, the authors recommend the use of food ingestion immediately after termination of duodenal phase III. 14 refs

  11. Optimizing the diagnostic power with gastric emptying scintigraphy at multiple time points

    Gajewski Byron J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy (GES at intervals over 4 hours after a standardized radio-labeled meal is commonly regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing gastroparesis. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the best time point and the best combination of multiple time points for diagnosing gastroparesis with repeated GES measures, and 2 to contrast and cross-validate Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, a rank based Distribution Free (DF approach, and the Classification And Regression Tree (CART model. Methods A total of 320 patients with GES measures at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hour (h after a standard meal using a standardized method were retrospectively collected. Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve and the rate of false classification through jackknife cross-validation were used for model comparison. Results Due to strong correlation and an abnormality in data distribution, no substantial improvement in diagnostic power was found with the best linear combination by LDA approach even with data transformation. With DF method, the linear combination of 4-h and 3-h increased the Area Under the Curve (AUC and decreased the number of false classifications (0.87; 15.0% over individual time points (0.83, 0.82; 15.6%, 25.3%, for 4-h and 3-h, respectively at a higher sensitivity level (sensitivity = 0.9. The CART model using 4 hourly GES measurements along with patient's age was the most accurate diagnostic tool (AUC = 0.88, false classification = 13.8%. Patients having a 4-h gastric retention value >10% were 5 times more likely to have gastroparesis (179/207 = 86.5% than those with ≤10% (18/113 = 15.9%. Conclusions With a mixed group of patients either referred with suspected gastroparesis or investigated for other reasons, the CART model is more robust than the LDA and DF approaches, capable of accommodating covariate effects and can be generalized for cross institutional applications, but

  12. The antagonistic metabolite of GLP-1, GLP-1 (9-36)amide, does not influence gastric emptying and hunger sensations in man

    Nagell, Carl Frederic; Pedersen, Jan F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 (7-36)amide) is an intestinal hormone that is released in response to meal ingestion. GLP-1 reduces postprandial gastric and exocrine pancreatic secretion and is believed to inhibit gastric emptying. Furthermore, GLP-1 may play a role in hunger and thirst......-36)amide (5 pmol/kg body wt/min) resulting in supraphysiological concentrations. RESULTS: Infusion of GLP-1 (9-36)amide had no effect on gastric emptying or the sensation of hunger compared to saline. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggests that the rapid formation of the antagonistic metabolite does...... not influence gastric emptying and hunger ratings in humans even when it is present in supraphysiological concentrations....

  13. Erythromycin antagonizes the deceleration of gastric emptying by glucagon-like peptide 1 and unmasks its insulinotropic effect in healthy subjects

    Meier, Juris J; Kemmeries, Guido; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2005-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been proposed to act as an incretin hormone due to its ability to enhance glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Because GLP-1 also decelerates gastric emptying, it physiologically reduces rather than augments postprandial insulin secretory responses. Therefore......, we aimed to antagonize the deceleration of gastric emptying by GLP-1 to study its effects on insulin secretion after a meal. Nine healthy male volunteers (age 25 +/- 4 years, BMI 25.0 +/- 4.9 kg/m2) were studied with an infusion of GLP-1 (0.8 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1) from -30 to 240 min) or placebo......) was administered at 0 min. Capillary and venous blood samples were drawn for the determination of glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, glucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and pancreatic polypeptide (specific immunoassays). Gastric emptying was assessed by the phenol red dilution...

  14. 13C-octanoic acid breath test for measurement of solid gastric emptying: reproducibility in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus

    Objective: To examine the intra-individual reproducibility of the octanoic acid breath test in normal subjects and diabetics and to investigate whether cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying influence the intra-individual reproducibility. Methods: Nine normal subjects (six men, three women,mean age 38 years) and 15 diabetics with insulin treatment [nine men, six women; mean age 47 years; six had cardiovascular autonomic diabetic neuropathy (CADN) and/or delayed gastric emptying time] were, after a nocturnal fasting period, given a standard test meal (labelled with 13C-octanoic acid, 1 046 kJ). Breath samples were taken at ten minute intervals over first one hour and at fifteen minute intervals over the following three hours and examined for 13CO2 by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. Using a regression method gastric emptying half times (t1/2) and lag phase (tlag) were determined. Results: There was not a significant difference of t1/2 and tlag between two measurements in normal subjects and diabetics. The coefficients of variation of day-to-day reproducibility were 11.7% for t1/2, 19.4% for tlag in normal subjects and 17.8% for t1/2, 28.2% for tlag in diabetics, but there was not significant difference between normal subjects and diabetics. There was not significant difference of intra-individual coefficient of variation of t1/2 and tlag between diabetics with/without CADN and between diabetics with normal gastric emptying time and diabetics with delayed gastric emptying time. Conclusions: The 13C-octanoic acid breath test has a high intra-individual reproducibility which is not affected by the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying. It can be recommended as a non-invasive test for assessing gastric emptying time after a solid test meal in diabetics

  15. Does delayed gastric emptying shorten the H pylori eradication period? A double blind clinical trial

    Mohammad Hassan Emami; Rahim Bahri-Najafi; Bita Geramizadeh; Abbas Esmaeili; Mohammad Mehdi Saberfiroozi; Abbas Arj; Ali Reza Taghavi; Kamran Bagheri-Lankarani; Najaf Dehbashi; Mohammad Reza Fattahi; Mahvash Alizadeh; Mohammad Javad Kaviani

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the gastric emptying inhibitory effects of sugar and levodopa on H pylori eradication period.METHODS: A total of 139 consecutive patients were randomized into 6 groups. The participants with peptic ulcer disease or non-ulcer dyspepsia non-responding to other medications who were also H pylori-positive patients either with positive rapid urease test (RUT)or positive histology were included. All groups were pretreated with omeprazole for 2 d and then treated with quadruple therapy regimen (omeprazole, bismuth,tetracycline and metronidazole);all drugs were given twice daily. Groups 1 and 2 were treated for 3 d, groups 3, 4 and 5 for 7 d, and group 6 for 14 d. Groups 1 to 4 received sugar in the form of 10% sucrose syrup.Levodopa was prescribed for groups 1 and 3. Patients in groups 2 and 4 were given placebo for levodopa and groups 5 and 6 received placebos for both sugar and levodopa. Upper endoscopy and biopsies were carried out before treatment and two months after treatment.Eradication of H pylori was assessed by RUT and histoloqy 8 wk later.RESULTS: Thirty patients were excluded. Per-protocol analysis showed successful eradication in 53% in group 1, 56% in group 2, 58% in group 3, 33.3% in group 4,28% in group 5, and 53% in group 6. Eradication rate,patient compliance and satisfaction were not significantly different between the groups.CONCLUSION: It seems that adding sugar or levodopa or both to anti H pylori eradication regimens may lead to shorter duration of treatment.

  16. Vincristine delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquid in awake rats

    A.A. Peixoto Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of vincristine on the gastrointestinal (GI motility of awake rats and correlated them with the course of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Vincristine or saline was injected into the tail vein of male Wistar rats (180-250 g on alternate days: 50 µg/kg (5 doses, N = 10, 100 µg/kg (2, 3, 4 and 5 doses, N = 49 or 150 µg/kg (1, 2, or 5 doses, N = 37. Weight and stool output were measured daily for each animal. One day after completing the vincristine treatment, the animals were fasted for 24 h, gavage-fed with a test meal and sacrificed 10 min later to measure gastric emptying (GE, GI transit and colon weight. Sensory peripheral neuropathy was evaluated by hot plate testing. Chronic vincristine treatments with total cumulative doses of at least 250 µg/kg significantly decreased GE by 31-59% and GI transit by 55-93%. The effect of 5 doses of vincristine (150 µg/kg on GE did not persist for more than 1 week. Colon weight increased after 2 and 5 doses of vincristine (150 µg/kg. Fecal output decreased up to 48 h after the fifth dose of vincristine (150 µg/kg. Vincristine decreased the heat pain threshold 1 day after 5 doses of 50-100 µg/kg or after 3-5 doses of 150 µg/kg. This effect lasted for at least 2 weeks after the fifth dose. Chronic intravenous vincristine treatment delayed GE and GI transit of liquid. This effect correlated with the peak increase in colon weight but not with the pain threshold changes.

  17. Oxytocin prolongs the gastric emptying time in patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis, but does not affect satiety or volume intake in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Borg Julia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxytocin is released in response to a fatty meal. Blockage of the oxytocin receptor led to slower gastric emptying whereas stimulation resulted in less satiety in healthy volunteers. Patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis lack oxytocin elevation, and dyspepsia is partly caused by reduced fundus accommodation causing early satiety and related symptoms. The aim of this study was thus to examine the effect of oxytocin on gastric emptying, satiety and volume intake in patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Results Gastric emptying scintigraphy was performed twice in 12 patients with diabetic gastroparesis, once with oxytocin and once with saline as intravenous infusions. The patients scored their sensation of satiety using a visual analogue scale (VAS. The gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis was prolonged during oxytocin infusion (p = 0.034 without affecting satiety. A slow satiety drinking test was performed in 14 patients with functional dyspepsia. The patients scored their satiety every five minutes until maximal satiety was reached, and the total volume was determined. The VAS was also completed 30 minutes afterwards. The test was performed twice, once with oxytocin and once with saline as intravenous infusions. There was no difference in satiety scores or volume of nutrient intake between saline and oxytocin infusions, either before, during or after the meal. Conclusions Oxytocin prolongs gastric emptying in patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis, but has no effect on volume of nutrient intake or satiety and other related symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  18. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Trinick Tom R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p half and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78, eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84 and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72. The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  19. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Markey, Oonagh

    2011-09-07

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http:\\/\\/www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  20. Biologic gastric emptying time in diabetic patients, using Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal with and without metoclopramide

    Domstad, P.A.; Kim, E.E.; Coupal, J.J.; Beihn, R.; Yonts, S.; Choy, Y.C.; Mandelstam, P.; DeLand, F.H.

    1980-11-01

    Biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) was measured in 24 patients with severe diabetes mellitus complicated by vascular damage and peripheral or sensory neuropathy. This population had a BGET of 192 +- 32.9 min (mean +- s.e.m. normal 40 to 85 min). Patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy had prolongation of BGET to 295 +- 45 (p < 0.05). Metoclopramide significantly shortened BGET in this subgroup to 101 +- 40 min, with return to normal values in eight of the 12 patients given the drug. The Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal test meal used as described in this study provides a reliable measure of BGET and of the response to metoclopramide.

  1. [Regulation factors of stomach emptying in dogs].

    Krejs, G J; Hegglin, J; Säuberli, H; Largiadér, F; Schmid, P; Blum, A L

    1976-03-01

    Gastric emptying of organic acids was studied in 6 healthy mongrel dogs. After chronic esophagostomies were performed according to the method of Komarov, a total of 340 test meals were instilled. Each test meal consisted of 300 ml of 6 different organic acids with decreasing molecular weight and different concentrations. After the experiments were achieved, each dog underwent a proximal gastric vagotomy according to the method of Amdrup, and experiments with citric acid were repeated. The results may be summarized as follows: multiple stepwise regression analysis of the data is consistent with a model in which gastric emptying of organic acids is regulated by 3 receptors. The receptors respond to concentration of the organic acid, the actual volume, and the type of acid. The volume receptor is located in the corpus of the stomach because the effect of volume accelerates the emptying rate after proximal gastric vagotomy while the effects of concentration and type of acid remain unchanged. PMID:1270294

  2. Reducing the scan time in gastric emptying scintigraphy by using mathematical models

    Yoon, Min Ki; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choe, Won Sick [Gachon Medical School Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byeong Il; Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-15

    Gastric emptying scan (GES) is usually acquired up to 2 hours. Our study investigated whether a fraction of meal-retention in the stomach at 120 minutes (FR120) was predicted from the data measured for 90 minutes by using non-linear curve fitting. We aimed at saving the delayed imaging by utilizing mathematical models. Ninety-six patients underwent GES immediately after taking a boiled egg with 74 MBq (2 mCi) Tc-99m DTPA. The patients were divided into Group I (T{sub 1/2} {<=} 90 min) and Group II (90 min

  3. Delayed gastric emptying after pancreatic surgery. Analysis of factors determinant for the short-term outcome.

    Lars Ragnar Lundell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE frequently complicates pancreatoduodenectomy (PD. Mainly DGE develops as consequence of postoperative intra-abdominal complications (secondary, whilst the incidence of primary DGE (i.e. not related to surgical complications has rarely been studied. Moreover the pathogenesis of DGE is complex and needs to be further elucidated. The present study aimed at highlighting potential mechanisms behind primary and above all secondary DGE by studying a variety of different pancreatic surgical procedures.Patients and methods: During the time period 2008 – 2011, 327 patients underwent pancreatic resective procedures at Karolinska University Hospital. Of these 242 were PD and 56 tail resections, 17 had a duodenal preserving pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis and 15 patients with familial duodenal polyposis had a pancreas preserving duodenectomy. All postoperative courses were assessed and scored according to Clavien-Dindo. The presence of DGE was evaluated and recorded according to the definition launched by the International Study Group for Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS. Crude associations were studied in a univariate model, followed by a multivariate analysis of the respective factors. The associations were presented as odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: In total DGE emerged during the postoperative course in about 40 % of the PD cases. About half of those (n= 47 were scored as being primary. The majority of the primary DGEs were classified as A (n= 26 and only 4 as grade C, whereas among the secondary cases significantly more patients were scored as grade C (p< 0, 01. In those submitted to a pancreatic body and tail resection 25 % reported DGE. The distribution of the different grades of DGE in patients with a tail resection followed the same pattern with a predominance of Grade A cases with an equal distribution between those being scored as primary and secondary. Duodenal

  4. Study on Correlation of Spleen-Qi Deficiency and Gastric Emptying%脾胃气虚对胃排空影响的研究

    赵金勇; 翟兴红; 王朝晖; 戴娜; 王浩元

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation of spleen-Qi deficiency and gastric emptying.Methods: 128 patients with spleen-Qi deficiency is classified into three groups according to symptom scores.Observe the emptying rate of X-ray markers in stomach.Finally analyze the correlation of spleen-Qi deficiency and gastric emptying statistically.Results: the ratings below 50 points for mild, 45 patients, the average emptying markers 18, and the average rate of emptying 90%.Score 50-80: medium, 40 cases, the average emptying markers 12,emptying rate 60%.Score above 80 points for severe,43 patients, the average emptying markers 7, emptying rate 30%.Conclusion: Spleen-Qi deficiency has significant effect on gastric emptying ,positive correlation between them.%目的:探讨脾胃气虚对胃排空的影响.方法:对128例脾胃气虚患者辩证评分,根据分值多少分成轻、中、重度3组.拍摄X线腹平片观察胃内标志物的排空情况并分组进行统计学处理.结果:评分50分以下为轻度共45例,平均排除标志物18根,平均排空率90%;评分50-80分为中度共40例,平均排除标志物12根,排空率60%;评分80分以上为重度共43例,平均排除标志物7根,排空率35%.结论:脾胃气虚对胃排空有明显影响,脾胃气虚程度越重,胃排空能力越弱.

  5. 功能性消化不良患儿胃黏膜肥大细胞与胃排空的关系%Relationship between Gastric Mucosa Mast Cell and Gastric Emptying in Children with Functional Dyspepsia

    覃肇源; 叶辉霞; 何真

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨功能性消化不良(FD)患儿胃黏膜肥大细胞(MC)的密度及其活化状态与胃排空的关系.方法 按罗马Ⅱ标准选择FD患儿40例,每例患儿均取胃窦黏膜1块,应用免疫组织化学法检测其MC数及其脱颗粒数,然后行固体胃排空检测,固体胃排空正常患儿为胃排空正常组,其他患儿为胃排空延迟组;统计所有标本MC的密度及脱颗粒程度,比较二组患儿的MC密度及活化状态的差异,比较MC密度正常患儿与异常患儿的胃排空差异,评估MC的脱颗粒指数与胃排空间的关系,最后进行胃排空与MC密度及脱颗粒指数间的相关性分析.结果 1.FD患儿的胃黏膜MC脱颗粒指数为(65.7±23.9)%,其中>50%者占82.5%;2.与1h胃排空正常组相比,1h胃排空延迟组MC密度显著升高(P=0.010);3.与MC密度正常组相比,MC密度异常组1h胃排空明显延迟(P=0.001);4.MC脱颗粒指数与胃排空无明显关系;5.MC密度与1h胃排空率呈负相关(P=0.030).结论 FD患儿的胃排空延迟与MC密度升高有关,MC可能通过影响胃排空介导儿童FD的发生和发展.%Objective To investigate the correlations of gastric mucosa mast cells (MC) density and activation states with gastric emptying in children with functional dyspepsia( FD). Methods Forty pediatric patients diagnosed as FD according to Rome II criteria were recruited in this study. After an antral biopsy was obtained for calculating the amount and degranulation index of MC, the gastric emptying was detected for each patient. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the density and the degranulation degrees of MC ,then the MC density and its activation state between normal and abnormal gastric emptying groups were compared,and the gastric emptying between normal and abnormal MC density groups were compared, and the correlation of MC degranulation index was evaluated with gastric emptying. And then, interactions of MC density and activation states

  6. The effect of guar gum and fiber-enriched wheat bran on gastric emptying of a semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    The effect of physiological doses of guar gum (Guarem), 5 g, and fiber-enriched wheat bran (Fiberform), 10.5 g, on gastric emptying was studied by two different methods in healthy subjects: by a simple isotope localization monitor placed over the upper part of the abdomen, and by gamma camera. The fiber preparations were added to a semisolid meal consisting of wheatmeal porridge and juice, using technetium-99 DTPA as a marker. The gamma camera showed no effect of fiber on gastric emptying. The isotope localization monitor, however, indicated that Fiberform prevented postprandial accumulation of the meal within the upper part of stomach. The simple isotope localization monitor cannot be recommended for measurements of gastric emptying

  7. Evaluation of standard haemodynamic tests of autonomic function and HbA1c as predictors of delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Lydon, A

    2012-02-03

    We examined the relation between chronic glycaemic control (using glycosylated haemoglobin), haemodynamic autonomic function and rate of gastric emptying in 16 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Gastric emptying was measured using a paracetamol absorption technique. Parameters of gastric emptying include area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Patients were classified as diabetic autonomic neuropathy positive or negative using five standardized haemodynamic reflex tests. Area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve in the neuropathy positive (10.36 (4.5) mmol.-1. min) and negative (9.84 (3.0) mmol.-1. min) groups were similar (.P.=0.42) using unpaired Student\\'s.t. -tests. Glycosylated haemoglobin concentration and area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve (.n.=16) demonstrated a Pearson\\'s correlation co-efficient of 0.24. Neither tests of haemodynamic autonomic function, nor concentration of glycosylated haemoglobin, are predictive of diabetic gastroparesis.

  8. The glucagon-like peptide-1 metabolite GLP-1-(9-36) amide reduces postprandial glycemia independently of gastric emptying and insulin secretion in humans

    Meier, Juris J; Gethmann, Arnica; Nauck, Michael A;

    2006-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) lowers glycemia by modulating gastric emptying and endocrine pancreatic secretion. Rapidly after its secretion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide is degraded to the metabolite GLP-1-(9-36) amide. The effects of GLP-1-(9-36) amide in humans are less well characterized. Fourteen...... healthy volunteers were studied with intravenous infusion of GLP-1-(7-36) amide, GLP-1-(9-36) amide, or placebo over 390 min. After 30 min, a solid test meal was served, and gastric emptying was assessed. Blood was drawn for GLP-1 (total and intact), glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon measurements......-(7-36) amide administration]. GLP-1-(7-36) amide reduced fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations (P gastric emptying (P

  9. Normalization of glucose concentrations and deceleration of gastric emptying after solid meals during intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Meier, Juris J; Gallwitz, Baptist; Salmen, Stefan;

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different i.v. doses of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on glucose homeostasis and gastric emptying were compared in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twelve patients with type 2 diabetes received three different infusion rates of GLP-1 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 pmol/kg x min) or placebo...... in the fasting state and after a solid test meal (containing [(13)C]octanoic acid). Blood was drawn for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and GLP-1 determinations. The gastric emptying rate was calculated from the (13)CO(2) excretion rates in breath samples. Statistics were determined using repeated...... ingestion (P = 0.0031 and 0.0074, respectively). Glucagon secretion was suppressed with GLP-1. Gastric emptying was decelerated by GLP-1 in a dose-dependent fashion (P

  10. Effects of a Protein Preload on Gastric Emptying, Glycemia, and Gut Hormones After a Carbohydrate Meal in Diet-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

    Ma, Jing; Stevens, Julie E.; Cukier, Kimberly; Maddox, Anne F.; Wishart, Judith M.; Jones, Karen L.; Clifton, Peter M.; Horowitz, Michael; Christopher K Rayner

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether a whey preload could slow gastric emptying, stimulate incretin hormones, and attenuate postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight type 2 diabetic patients ingested 350 ml beef soup 30 min before a potato meal; 55 g whey was added to either the soup (whey preload) or potato (whey in meal) or no whey was given. RESULTS Gastric emptying was slowest after the whey preload (P < 0.0005). The incremental area under the blood glucose cur...

  11. Gastric emptying of a solid meal starts during meal ingestion : Combined study using C-13-octanoic acid breath test and Doppler ultrasonography - Absence of a lag phase in C-13-octanoic acid breath test

    Minderhoud, IM; Mundt, MW; Roelofs, JMM; Samsom, M

    2004-01-01

    Scintigraphy and the C-13-octanoic acid breath test are both applied to assess gastric emptying. Using the C-13-octanoic acid breath test, excretion curves show C-13 excretion immediately after ingestion of a solid egg meal, in contrast with scintigraphy where gastric emptying is observed after a la

  12. Clinical significance of the measurement of the gastric emptying time using sup(99m)Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid)

    The gastric emptying time (GET) was measured by the radioisotopic method (sup(99m)Tc-DTPA) in healthy volunteers, normal controls and patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The gastric juice after tetragastrin-stimulation was also analyzed in all patients, and in some patients to determine the serum gastrin levels (gastrin response) to test meal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The present method provided excellent reproducibility and safety without absorption of the radiochemical, and demonstrated an exponentially linear pattern of GET. 2) GET was delayed in patients with atrophic gasritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer but was shortened significantly in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to normal controls. 3) GET was significantly correlated to aging and gastric acid secretion in non-ulcer subjects (normal controls and atrophic gastritis) but not in gastric ulcer patients. GET was delayed markedly in gastric ulcer patients with hypersecretion. 4) GET was shortened in duodenal ulcer patients, especially those with normosecretion, but was within a normal range in those with hypersecretion. Both the gastric emptying time and acid output in gastroduodenal ulcer patients were similar to those in duodenal ulcer patients with hypersecretion, suggesting the similarity of pathophysiology between them. 5) GET was delayed in gastric cancer patients, especially in advanced patients, suggesting impairment of the gastric motility due to cancer invasion into the muscular layer. 6) The gastrin response after test meal rapidly descended in duodenal ulcer patients but conversely continued to be high in gastric ulcer patients. This difference might have resulted from prolonged stimulation caused by gastric stasis. There may also be other factors, i.e., severity of atrophic gastritis. (J.P.N.)

  13. Empirical study in the relation of gastric mucosal lesion with gastric emptying and gastric add secretion%应激状态下胃黏膜损伤与胃排空及胃酸分泌的关系

    张洪峰; 薛英威

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the precise cause and the specific procedure about gastric mucesal lesion in rats with water immersion-restraint stress(WRS).Methods One hundred and forty-four Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups randomly: A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H and I group.There were 16 rats in each group.A,B and C groups underwent gastric emptying determination.Emptying rate of gastric fluid was determined with radiate nuclide 99mTc. D,E and F groups underwent gastric acid secretion determination after cleaning gastric contents and pylorus ligation. G, H and I groups underwent gastric acid secretion determination after pylorus ligation without cleaning gastric contents.Gastric mucosal lesion ulcer index (UI) was evaluated. The relationship between of gastric mucosal lesion and gastric emptying rate and gastric acid secretion were examined. Results Gastric emptying rate decreased obviously when the WRS time was prolonged. There were significant differences among B (WRS 2 h),C group (WRS 4 h) and A group (controlled group) (P<0.01).There was also significant difference between B and C group (P<0.01).The rats' gastric acid secretion was inhibited significantly.The differences among E (WRS 2 h),F (WRS 4 h) and D groups (controlled group)were significant(P<0.01).There was no significant difference between F and E groups (P>0.05).The gastric mucosal lesions were aggravated with time of stress. Gastric contents cleaning could effectively prevent gastric mucosal lesions originated by stress .The operation had no influence on this test.There were significant gastric mucosal lesion UI in B and C groups compared with A group (P<0.01). The difference between B and C group was significant (P<0.01).There were no gastric mucosal lesions inA,D,E,F and G groups. However,There was significant difference between and F group (P<0.01).No significant difference were found among A,D,E,F and G groups (P>0.05).There were significant difference between H and B group and also between I and C

  14. Accuracy of localizing radiopaque markers by abdominal radiography and correlation between their gastric emptying rate and that of a canned food in dogs

    Objectives: To determine accuracy of abdominal radiography in locating radiopaque markers in the gastrointestinal tract and to assess correlation between gastric emptying rate of radiopaque markers and that of canned food. Animals: 17 healthy dogs. Procedure: Dogs were fed thirty 1.5-mm markers and ten 5-mm markers mixed in sufficient food to meet 25% of their daily caloric intake. They were then euthanatized by administration of an overdose of barbiturate at 1, 2, 5, 8, or 12 hours after eating and the abdomen was radiographed. The stomach, small intestine, and large intestine were then separated and radiographed in isolation. The wet and dry weights of the stomach contents were determined. The apparent and actual locations of the markers and the gastric emptying rates of markers, wet matter, and dry matter were compared, using rank correlation. Results: All comparisons indicated significant (P 0.92). The mean difference between the apparent and actual locations of the markers was < 3% for all comparisons. The mean difference between the percentage of small markers and large markers retained in the stomach and that of dry matter was 7.8 (SD, 6.2; range, 0 to 18)% and 11.9 (SD, 12.5; range, 0 to 44)%, respectively. Conclusions: The gastric emptying and orocolic transit rates of the markers were accurately predicted by abdominal radiography. The gastric emptying rate of the diet and the small markers and, to a lesser extent, the large markers was closely correlated. Clinical Relevance: When fed with a special canned food diet, radiopaque markers can be used to assess the gastric emptying rate of food with sufficient accuracy for clinical purposes

  15. The Research Progress of the impact Factors of Gastric Emptying of FD%功能性消化不良胃排空的影响因素

    高娃; 苏秉忠

    2013-01-01

      功能性消化不良的发病机制复杂,目前大多研究表明FD主要由胃肠动力障碍引起,胃肠动力障碍常表现为胃排空延缓。然而胃排空受多种因素的影响,如神经系统、胃肠激素,以及局部某些调节因子的影响。这些调控作用的失常会造成胃排空障碍,进而导致功能性消化不良,故胃排空的影响因素倍受关注。本文在复习有关胃排空影响因素的文献的基础上进行综述报道,旨在探讨功能性消化不良的胃排空的影响因素,为进一步研究胃排空障碍相关性疾病奠定基础。%The Gastric emptying of FD is influenced by many factors, such as the nervous system, as wel as local gastrointestinal hormones, some adjustment factor control. These disorders may cause the regulation of gastric emptying and obstacles, then wil cause some disorders,such as functional indi-gestion.Thus gastric emptying factors concerned. Based on the review of the literature gastric emptying and influencing factors were reviewed based on the report, aims to explore the influence factors, gastric emptying for further study on the stomach disease dyskinesia correlation.

  16. Ambulatory electrogastrography in patients with sclerodermia, delayed gastric emptying, dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. Is there any clinical relevance?

    Hocke, M; Seidel, T; Sprott, H; Oelzner, P; Eitner, K; Bosseckert, H

    2001-07-01

    Background: Changes in electrogastrographic parameters are described in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, sclerodermia, dyspepsia, and delayed gastric emptying in static measurements. However, no information is available about changes in ambulatory measurements. The objective of this study was to find parameters that discriminate between these diseases using cutaneous 24-h-electrogastrography. Methods: Cutaneous 24-h electrogastrography (EGG) measurements were taken from 20 patients with dyspepsia, 10 patients with systemic sclerosis (sclerodermia, SSc), 7 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 7 patients with delayed gastric emptying, and 10 healthy volunteers. Measurements were made using a DIGITRAPPER EGG (Synectics Medical Inc., Stockholm, Sweden) and the accompanying computerized data analysis package (ElectroGastroGram Version 6.30, Gastrosoft Inc., Synectics Medical Inc., Stockholm, Sweden). Frequency and power were compared pre- and postprandially, as well as during the entire day of measurement. Results: The 24-h measurements in healthy volunteers revealed 45.00%+/-12.12% normal values (2.4-3.7 cpm), 30.10%+/-7.15% bradygastric values (3.7 cpm). There was no significant change in frequency between rest and motion, but there was a significant increase in power (P<0.05). There was significantly more bradygastria in patients with dyspepsia periprandially as well as after 24 h (P<0.01) than in healthy volunteers. The mean power of patients with dyspepsia was significantly higher than that of patients with IBS (P<0.05). Conclusion: Cutaneous 24-h-EGG may be used as an additional means of differentiating between dyspepsia and IBS. PMID:11395301

  17. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects.

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino; Doody, Alison; Rehfeld, Jens F; Drewe, Juergen; Peterli, Ralph; Beglinger, Christoph; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin

    2016-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol have been known for a long time and their beneficial effects on caries prevention and potential health benefits in diabetic patients have been demonstrated in several studies. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the gut in response to food intake, promote satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers were given 75 g of glucose, 50 g of xylitol, or 75 g of erythritol in 300 ml of water or placebo (water) by a nasogastric tube. We examined plasma glucose, insulin, active GLP-1, CCK, and GE with a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test and assessed subjective feelings of satiation. Xylitol and erythritol led to a marked increase in CCK and GLP-1, whereas insulin and plasma glucose were not (erythritol) or only slightly (xylitol) affected. Both xylitol and erythritol induced a significant retardation in GE. Subjective feelings of appetite were not significantly different after carbohydrate intake compared with placebo. In conclusion, acute ingestion of erythritol and xylitol stimulates gut hormone release and slows down gastric emptying, whereas there is no or only little effect on insulin release. PMID:27117004

  18. Anorexigenic effects of miglitol in concert with the alterations of gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

    Kaku, H; Tajiri, Y; Yamada, K

    2012-04-01

    Although the α-glucosidase inhibitor miglitol (MG) has been reported to have anorexigenic effects, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of MG on appetite in relation to concomitant changes in postprandial gut hormone levels. This randomized open-label crossover study included 20 healthy volunteers. The effects of 50 mg MG on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin levels were assessed in conjunction with a simultaneous determination of appetite scores using visual analogue scales (VAS) over 3 h after the ingestion of a 592 kcal test cookie. Additionally, the gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using breath ¹³CO₂ appearance in 10 subjects. 12 subjects were administered 50 mg MG thrice a day for 1 week, and alterations of the gut hormone levels and the VAS scores for appetite were evaluated. MG pre-administration resulted in a significant enhancement of GLP-1 and PYY responses induced by the cookie ingestion. Following MG administration, ghrelin level declined at 1 h, with a persistent suppression during the postprandial phase in contrast to the restoration to the basal level without MG. Furthermore, MG pre-administration suppressed appetite and maintained satiety evaluated using a VAS rating with concomitant inhibition of GER after cookie ingestion. One-week administration of MG did not influence either gut hormone levels before a meal or VAS rating during a whole day. These observations suggest that MG exerts an anorexigenic effects with concomitant alterations of gut hormone secretions and gastric emptying after meal ingestion. PMID:22351480

  19. A double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of omeprazole on gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying rate

    Rasmussen, L; Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate whether an effect of omeprazole on gastric emptying is related to changes in the secretion of selected gut hormones. METHODS: The studies were performed in healthy men after 10 days' treatment with 40 mg omeprazole daily/placebo. Food.......05). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with 40 mg omeprazole daily decreases the gastric emptying rates and has a substantial influence on the secretion of gastrin, motilin, and CCK. The finding of an omeprazole-induced decrease in CCK release may have clinical implications. Further investigation into the possible effect...... ingestion took place in a duodenal phase, I and the meal consisted of an omelette labelled with technetium Tc 99m, followed by 150 ml water labelled with indium In 111. Plasma concentrations of gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and motilin were measured. RESULTS: Pretreatment with omeprazole reduced gastric...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the gastric emptying and antral motion: Feasibility and reproducibility of a fast not invasive technique

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate reproducibility of a fast MRI protocol to measure gastric emptying and motility of the gastric antrum. Methods and materials: Gastric emptying and antral speed were measured in 12 type 1 diabetic patients (mean age 43 years) and 9 healthy volunteers (mean age 31 years). Subjects, fasting from 6 h, were evaluated in supine position using a 1.5 T MR scanner and a eight-channels phased-array body coil after ingestion of 400 ml of a vanillas pudding mixed with 5 ml of Gd-DTPA. Axial 3D T1w sequence at 0 and 30 min for volume evaluation and cine-steady state acquisition every 5 min for a total time of 30 min for gastric wave speed assessing were acquired. Two blinded observers extrapolated T1/2 from gastric volume assessment and speed of gastric waves. Results: All the patients tolerated the examination. The T1/2 cut-off was of 115 min with an accuracy in differentiate controls from diabetics of 96% (95% CI 0.766-0.992; p < 0.001), while the antral speed cut-off was of 0.15 mm/s with an accuracy of 87% (95% CI 0.628-0.977; p < 0.001). The inter-observer agreement for the volumes at time 0 and 30 min was respectively 0.983 (95% CI 0.9628-0.9929; p < 0.001) and 0.9933 (95% CI 0.9847-0.9971; p < 0.001) with an agreement of 0.9918 (95% CI 0.9853-0.9954; p < 0.001), while for antral speed it was of 0.935 (95% CI 0.9097-0.9528; p < 0.001). Conclusions: MRI is a reproducible technique for the evaluation of gastric emptying and antral motility.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the gastric emptying and antral motion: Feasibility and reproducibility of a fast not invasive technique

    Carbone, Salvatore Francesco, E-mail: frcarbone@interfree.i [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, viale Bracci, 53100 Siena (Italy); Tanganelli, Italo, E-mail: tanganelli@unisi.i [Department of Medicine - Unit of Applied Biotechnology, University Hospital, 53100 Siena (Italy); Capodivento, Saverio, E-mail: capodivento@libero.i [Department of Radiological, Orthopedic and Otorynolaryngoiatric Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy); Ricci, Veronica, E-mail: veronicaricci@interfree.i [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, viale Bracci, 53100 Siena (Italy); Volterrani, Luca, E-mail: volterrani@unisi.i [Department of Radiological, Orthopedic and Otorynolaryngoiatric Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate reproducibility of a fast MRI protocol to measure gastric emptying and motility of the gastric antrum. Methods and materials: Gastric emptying and antral speed were measured in 12 type 1 diabetic patients (mean age 43 years) and 9 healthy volunteers (mean age 31 years). Subjects, fasting from 6 h, were evaluated in supine position using a 1.5 T MR scanner and a eight-channels phased-array body coil after ingestion of 400 ml of a vanillas pudding mixed with 5 ml of Gd-DTPA. Axial 3D T1w sequence at 0 and 30 min for volume evaluation and cine-steady state acquisition every 5 min for a total time of 30 min for gastric wave speed assessing were acquired. Two blinded observers extrapolated T1/2 from gastric volume assessment and speed of gastric waves. Results: All the patients tolerated the examination. The T1/2 cut-off was of 115 min with an accuracy in differentiate controls from diabetics of 96% (95% CI 0.766-0.992; p < 0.001), while the antral speed cut-off was of 0.15 mm/s with an accuracy of 87% (95% CI 0.628-0.977; p < 0.001). The inter-observer agreement for the volumes at time 0 and 30 min was respectively 0.983 (95% CI 0.9628-0.9929; p < 0.001) and 0.9933 (95% CI 0.9847-0.9971; p < 0.001) with an agreement of 0.9918 (95% CI 0.9853-0.9954; p < 0.001), while for antral speed it was of 0.935 (95% CI 0.9097-0.9528; p < 0.001). Conclusions: MRI is a reproducible technique for the evaluation of gastric emptying and antral motility.

  2. 通腑汤对大鼠快速胃排空影响的实验研究%Effects of Tongfu Decoction on Rats' Rapid Gastric Emptying

    张良梅; 朱欣佚; 王长松; 屈海船; 窦国祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of Tongfu Decoction (TFD) on the gastric emptying of normal rats, thus exploring whether it could promote gastric emptying rapidly. Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, i.e., the normal control group, the domperidone group, and the TFD group, 10 in each group. They were respectively administered with normal saline, the domperidone suspension, and TFD by gastrogavage. Thirty min later the gastric emptying of mice was detected by single photon emission computed tomography technology (SPECT) labeled with 99mTc-DTPA, and the gastric half-emptying time and the gastric emptying rate were calculated. Results The gastric half-emptying time was (19.0 ±1.7) min in the normal control group, (12.9 ±3.4) min in the domperidone group, and (12.7 ±4.1) min in the TFD group. Compared with the normal control group, the gastric half-emptying time was significantly shortened in the domperidone group and the TFD group (P 0.05). Conclusion TFD showed similar effects as domperidone in rapidly promoting gastric emptying, and could shorten the gastric half-emptying time in normal rats.%目的 观察通腑汤对正常大鼠胃排空的影响,探讨其有无快速促进胃排空作用.方法 30只SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组、吗丁啉组和通腑汤组,每组10只,分别予生理盐水、吗丁啉混悬液和通腑汤煎剂灌胃,30 min后,采用以99mTc-DTPA标记的单光子发射计算机体层摄影技术(single photon emission computed tomography,SPECT)检测大鼠胃排空,计算胃半排空时间和胃排空率.结果 正常对照组、吗丁啉组和通腑汤组的胃半排空时间分别为(19.0±1.7) min、(12.9±3.4) min、(12.7±4.1) min; 与正常对照组比较,吗丁啉组和通腑汤组胃半排空时间均明显缩短(P<0.05).3组15 min胃排空率分别为(41.1±5.8)%、(52.9±1 0.9)%、(56.0±1 0.3)%,30 min胃排空率分别为(65.6±2.8)%、(72.9±2.6)%、(72.4±4.9)%;

  3. Gastric emptying and sieving of solid food and pancreatic and biliary secretions after solid meals in patients with nonresective ulcer surgery

    This study was undertaken to compare with previously published findings in normal subjects and subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy the effects of nonresective ulcer surgery on (a) gastric emptying, grinding, and sieving of solid food and on (b) pancreatic and biliary secretions. Six subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy and 7 subjects with truncal vagotomy with pyloroplasty were studied using a previously validated indicator perfusion system with its aspiration port placed in the proximal jejunum. All subjects were given a meal of 30 g of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, 60 g of beefsteak, and 100 ml of H2O. In conjunction with a gamma-camera to measure total gastric emptying of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, this method allowed the estimation of the fraction of 99mTc-liver emptied from the stomach as particles of less than 1-mm diameter; in addition, it was possible to measure jejunal concentrations and outputs of bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy, all parameters studied were indistinguishable from normal. Subjects with truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty behaved similarly to subjects with vagotomy and antrectomy, showing (a) early precipitous emptying of food, (b) heterogeneous distribution of half-emptying times, (c) near normal concentration of biliary and pancreatic secretions, (d) markedly reduced jejunal flow rates, and (e) a reduction in postcibal trypsin secretion. In contrast to subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy, however, the majority of subjects with vagotomy and pyloroplasty did not show a persistent defect in grinding and sieving of solid food

  4. alpha-Glucosidase inhibition (acarbose) fails to enhance secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36 amide) and to delay gastric emptying in Type 2 diabetic patients

    Hücking, K; Kostic, Z; Pox, C;

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Acarbose is able to enhance GLP-1 release and delay gastric emptying in normal subjects. The effect of alpha-glucosidase inhibition on GLP-1 has been less evident in Type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of acarbose on GLP-1 release...... and gastric emptying in Type 2 diabetic patients after a mixed test meal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten Type 2 diabetic patients were tested with 100 mg acarbose or placebo served with a mixed meal that was labelled with 100 mg 13C-octanoic acid. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP......-1 and GIP were determined over 6 h. Gastric emptying was measured by determining breath 13CO2 using infrared absorptiometry. Statistics repeated-measures anova. RESULTS: Gastric emptying rates (t1/2: 162 +/- 45 vs. 163 +/- 62 min, P = 0.65) and plasma concentrations (increasing from approximately 12...

  5. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-12-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group.

  6. Decreased gastric emptying and gastrointestinal and intestinal transits of liquid after complete spinal cord transection in awake rats

    Gondim F. de-A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of complete spinal cord transection (SCT on gastric emptying (GE and on gastrointestinal (GI and intestinal transits of liquid in awake rats using the phenol red method. Male Wistar rats (N = 65 weighing 180-200 g were fasted for 24 h and complete SCT was performed between C7 and T1 vertebrae after a careful midline dorsal incision. GE and GI and intestinal transits were measured 15 min, 6 h or 24 h after recovery from anesthesia. A test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red in 5% glucose solution was administered intragastrically (1.5 ml and the animals were sacrificed by an iv thiopental overdose 10 min later to evaluate GE and GI transit. For intestinal transit measurements, 1 ml of the test meal was administered into the proximal duodenum through a cannula inserted into a gastric fistula. GE was inhibited (P<0.05 by 34.3, 23.4 and 22.7%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. GI transit was inhibited (P<0.05 by 42.5, 19.8 and 18.4%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Intestinal transit was also inhibited (P<0.05 by 48.8, 47.2 and 40.1%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Mean arterial pressure was significantly decreased (P<0.05 by 48.5, 46.8 and 41.5%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. In summary, our report describes a decreased GE and GI and intestinal transits in awake rats within the first 24 h after high SCT.

  7. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, parallel-group clinical trial to assess the effects of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects

    Berg, Jolene Kay; Kim, Eric H; Li, Benjamin; Joelsson, Bo; Youssef, Nader N

    2014-01-01

    Background Teduglutide, a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2, is a novel therapy recently approved for the treatment of adult patients with short bowel syndrome who are dependent on parenteral support. Previous studies assessing the effect of GLP-2 on gastric emptying in humans have yielded inconsistent results, with some studies showing no effect and others documenting a GLP-2–dependent delay in gastric emptying. The primary objective of this study was to assess the ef...

  8. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of Cinnamaldehyde via altered Ghrelin Secretion and Functional impact on Food Intake and Gastric Emptying

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; De Senarclens-Bezencon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghre...

  9. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L.; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; Macdonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent naso...

  10. Change of Gastric Emptying With Chewing Gum: Evaluation Using a Continuous Real-Time 13C Breath Test (BreathID System)

    Sakamoto, Yasunari; Kato, Shingo; Sekino, Yusuke; Sakai, Eiji; Uchiyama, Takashi; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Fujita, Koji; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yoneda, Masato; Tokoro, Chikako; Goto, Ayumu; Abe, Yasunobu

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims There are few reports on the correlation between chewing gum and the gastrointestinal functions. But previous report showed use of chewing gum to be an effective method for controlling gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between chewing gum and gastric emptying using the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system). Methods Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 2-way crossover study. The subjects fa...

  11. Increased accuracy of the carbon-14 D-xylose breath test in detecting small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth by correction with the gastric emptying rate

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the accuracy of 14C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth can be increased by correction with the gastric emptying rate of 14C-D-xylose. Ten culture-positive patients and ten culture-negative controls were included in the study. Small-intestinal aspirates for bacteriological culture were obtained endoscopically. A liquid-phase gastric emptying study was performed simultaneously to assess the amount of 14C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. The results of the percentage of expired 14CO2 at 30 min were corrected with the amount of 14C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. There were six patients in the culture-positive group with a 14CO2 concentration above the normal limit. Three out of four patients with initially negative results using the uncorrected method proved to be positive after correction. All these three patients had prolonged gastric emptying of 14C-D-xylose. When compared with cultures of small-intestine aspirates, the sensitivity and specificity of the uncorrected 14C-D-xylose breath test were 60% and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of the corrected 14C-D-xylose breath test improved to 90% and 100%, respectively. (orig./MG)

  12. Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P34 kDa; P< 0·05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin fed in the form of fresh green kiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins. PMID:24252432

  13. Aperitif effects on gastric emptying: a crossover study using continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID System).

    Inamori, M; Iida, H; Endo, H; Hosono, K; Akiyama, T; Yoneda, K; Fujita, K; Iwasaki, T; Takahashi, H; Yoneda, M; Goto, A; Abe, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kubota, K; Nakajima, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between aperitif and gastric emptying. Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. Under two conditions (after drinking an aperitif versus not), the (13)C breath test was performed for 4 h with a liquid meal (200 kcal/200 ml) containing 100 mg (13)C acetate. We used 50 ml of umeshu as the aperitif. This is a traditional Japanese plum liqueur, and contains 7 ml alcohol (14%). In the aperitif group, T(1/2), T(lag), and T(peak) were significantly delayed [T(1/2) (132: 113-174) versus (112: 92-134) (P = 0.0069); T(lag) (80: 63-94) versus (55: 47-85) (P = 0.0069); and T(peak) (81: 62-96) versus (54: 34-84) (P = 0.0069), (median: range, aperitif versus control, min)]. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the aperitif group as compared with the control group. This study revealed that even a small amount of alcohol such as an aperitif may contribute to delayed gastric emptying. PMID:18688714

  14. Increased accuracy of the carbon-14 D-xylose breath test in detecting small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth by correction with the gastric emptying rate

    Chang Chisen [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Chen Granhum [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Kao Chiahung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang Shyhjen [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Peng Shihnen [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Huang Chihkuen [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Poon Sekkwong [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the accuracy of {sup 14}C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth can be increased by correction with the gastric emptying rate of {sup 14}C-D-xylose. Ten culture-positive patients and ten culture-negative controls were included in the study. Small-intestinal aspirates for bacteriological culture were obtained endoscopically. A liquid-phase gastric emptying study was performed simultaneously to assess the amount of {sup 14}C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. The results of the percentage of expired {sup 14}CO{sub 2} at 30 min were corrected with the amount of {sup 14}C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. There were six patients in the culture-positive group with a {sup 14}CO{sub 2} concentration above the normal limit. Three out of four patients with initially negative results using the uncorrected method proved to be positive after correction. All these three patients had prolonged gastric emptying of {sup 14}C-D-xylose. When compared with cultures of small-intestine aspirates, the sensitivity and specificity of the uncorrected {sup 14}C-D-xylose breath test were 60% and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of the corrected {sup 14}C-D-xylose breath test improved to 90% and 100%, respectively. (orig./MG)

  15. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric emptying in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Kao Chiahung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Pan Dahyou [Div. of Gastroenterology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang Shyhjen [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Chen Granhum [Div. of Gastroenterology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-02-01

    Forty-four patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were included in this study. Radionuclide-labelled solid meals were used to calculate gastric emptying times (GETs). The carbon-14 urea breath test ({sup 14}C-UBT) was used to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. The patients were separated into groups according to the following two criteria: (1) HP infection was diagnosed on the basis of a {sup 14}C-UBT value of {>=}1.5; (2) the GET was defined as abnormal when it was {>=}117.1 min. The results showed that 61% (27/44) of the NIDDM patients had an HP infection, and 59% (26/44) had an abnormal GET. The incidence of abnormal GET in positive {sup 14}C-UBT patients (62%) was higher than that in negative {sup 14}C-UBT patients (56%). Similarly, the incidence of positive {sup 14}C-UBT in abnormal GET cases (62%) was higher than that in normal GET cases (56%). However, according to chi-square tests the differences were not significant. In conclusion, no significant relationship between HP infection and GET was found in patients with NIDDM. (orig.)

  16. 胃大部分切除术后出现功能性排空障碍的临床分析%The clinical analysis of the majority of gastric resection of functional delayed gastric emptying

    李永红

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore diagnosis and treatment the subtotal gastrectomy functional delayed gastric emptying(FDGE) cause. Methods Retrospective analysis of 294 cases of gastrectomy cases of data during 2000 to 2006 in our hospital. Results 294 cases in 13 patients had postoperative nausea and vomiting and the incidence of intractable hiccups 4.4% of all cases after conservative treatment,7 to 28 days cured. Conclusion Residual postoperative delayed gastric emptying disorders are the emergence of a functional delayed gastric emptying ,postoperative change in gastrointestinal motility and postoperative anastomotic edema may be the main reason for delayed gastric emptying, while the elderly, malnutrition, water-electrolyte imbalance, but the incentives for intra-abdominal infections; gastrointestinal tract imaging, endoscopy, gastric emptying time of the determination of gastric EMG methods to diagnose this disease; use of non-surgical treatment in general can be cured.%目的 探讨胃大部切除术后出现功能性排空障碍的病因及其诊断及治疗方法.方法 对我院2000~2009年294例胃大部切除术病例资料进行回顾性分析.结果 294例中有13例出现术后出现恶心呕吐及顽固性呃逆的发生率4.4%,所有病例经保守治疗后,7~28 d内治愈.结论 残胃排空延迟症是术后出现的一种功能性胃排空障碍,术后胃肠道运动功能的改变及吻合口水肿可能是术后排空障碍的主要原因,而高龄、营养不良、水电解质失衡、腹腔感染而是诱因;胃肠道造影、胃镜检查、胃排空时间测定、胃肌电图检查是诊断本病的方法;采用非手术治疗一般均可治愈.

  17. Itopride hydrochloride efficacy in the management of delayed gastric emptying in type 1 diabetis mellitus patients in the presence of autonomic neuropathy

    Irina Yur’evna Budennaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AimEvaluation of the itopride (Ganaton®, Abbot therapy efficacy in the management of gastrointestinal (GI symptoms and gastric motor function (GMF in type 1 diabetis mellitus (T1DM patients (pts in the presence of GMF dysfunction and other forms of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN.Materials and MethodsThe total of 34 patients with T1DM, GMF dysfunction and DAN were selected for randomized, prospective, open-label, comparative study. The duration of the study was 6 weeks. The study group (17 pts received itopride 150 mg total daily. The control group (17 pts did not receive any treatment for GMF. А questionnaire was used for the assessment of gastrointestinal (GI symptoms. Gastric emptying velocity was evaluated with 13C-octanoate breath test.ResultsAs a result of itopride therapy there was a statistically significant decrease in the amount of time (T1/2 needed for the gastric emptying. The median amount of time decreased from 89.0 [82.3; 101.0] min to 53.0 [82.3; 101.0] min (p<0.001; decrease of the incidents of gastroesophageal reflux (p=0.013 and symptoms of intestinal dyspepsia (p=0.005. In control group there was no change in parameters. There was no positive dynamics of glycaemic control parameters (fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, fructosamine, and no reduction in the frequency of hypoglycaemic episodes during the test in any of the groups.ConclusionsItopride therapy in T1DM patients with GMF dysfunction and DAN in the total daily dose of 150 mg improves gastric emptying velocity. This therapy also improves symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and intestinal dyspepsia. Improvement GMF doesn’t lead to positive dynamics of glycaemic control parameters.

  18. 止吐药物对大鼠实验性晕动病模型产生的胃排空抑制的影响%Effect of antiemetic drugs on decrease in gastric emptying in experimental model of motion sickness in rats

    Gupta YK; Chaudhary G

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of pretreatment with different antiemetic drugs on the motion sickness-induced inhibitionin gastric emptying. METHODS: The rats were rotated for a period of 45 min at the rate of 30 rotations per min.RESULTS: Rotating the rats caused a significant decrease in gastric emptying as compared to the non-rotatedgroup. Pretreatment with scopolamine (5 mg/kg, ip) did not reverse the delay in gastric emptying, while it per secaused inhibition of gastric emptying in the non-rotated group. Similarly other drugs mepyramine, cisapride, andgranisetron did not have any effect on delay in gastric emptying caused by rotation. However beta blocker propra-nolol could partially but significantly reverse the decrease in gastric emptying. CONCLUSION: The present studydemonstrated the potential use of propranolol as adjuvant with conventional antiemetics for motion sickness tocombat associated secondary symptoms.

  19. Acute effect of alginate-based preload on satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate in healthy subjects.

    Georg Jensen, Morten; Kristensen, Mette; Belza, Anita; Knudsen, Jes C; Astrup, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation. PMID:21779093

  20. Acute and chronic gastric emptying disorders in rats after localized X-irradiation, and the therapy of these disorders

    After localized 300 kV X-irradiation of the rat stomach the stomach emptying time of a liquid and a solid test meal was examined with a non-invasive radiological method. In the acute period one to three weeks after irradiation with single doses between 10.7 and 21.3 Gy we observed a faster emptying of the liquid and a delayed emptying of the solid test meal. The faster emptying of the liquid test meal was treated successfully with atropin. In the chromic period we observed a delayed emptying of the liquid and of the solid test meal. These emptying disorders were treated partially successfully with the parasympathomimeticum carbachol and they were treated completeley successfully with the dopamine antagonist metoclopramide. (orig.)

  1. Relationship between ghrelin and gastric emptying in diabetic rats at different stages%糖尿病大鼠不同阶段Ghrelin变化与胃排空关系的研究

    尹红; 张喜娟; 严祥; 陈明; 刘纯

    2014-01-01

    group (NC-20w group). Type 2 diabetes model was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin plus long-term high fat and high caloric laboratory chow. The gastric emptying half time (GET1/2) and 50 min residual rate were mea-sured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the level of ghrelin in plasma was detected by En-zyme-linked immunosorbent test (ELISA) and ghrelin immunoreactive positive cells were observed in gastric tissue at 2 weeks, 8 weeks or 20 weeks, respectively before the rats were sacrificed. Those data were compared between the control and model groups. Results (1) The GET1/2 in DM-2w group was significantly faster than that in NC-2w group [(22.99 ± 2.53) min vs (48.76 ± 22.06) min, P0.05). The GET1/2 in DM-20w group was significantly lower than that in NC-20w group [(84.02±27.54) min vs (47.79±13.22) min, P0.05). There were significant differences between DM-20w group and NC-20w group and DM-2w group (P>0.05). (3)There was a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin level and gastric half-emptying time. Conclusion (1) The changes of gastric motility varied at different stages of diabetes. In early stage, it presented accelerates gastric motility. With the progression of diabetes, gastric emptying gradually slowed down. (2) With the changes of gastric motility, ghrelin in plasma showed a similar trending with gastric motility. (3) There was a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin level and gastric half-emptying time.

  2. Determination of the gastric emptying of solid dosage forms using gamma-scintigraphy: a problem of image timing and mathematical analysis

    Podczeck, F.; Course, N.J.; Newton, J.M. [Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Univ. of London (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-29

    This work was designed to identify the maximum time interval of image acquisition by gamma-scintigraphy for monitoring the emptying of a dosage form such as a tablet. Appropriate statistical parameters to describe this process were sought, including a statistical procedure for group comparisons of such data. Gamma-scintigraphy was employed in seven healthy male volunteers, who swallowed a light and a dense tablet, each 12 mm in diameter, formulated to contain different isotopes to allow identification. Images were taken sequentially at 30-s intervals to provide images of each tablet in 1-min spacing until emptying of both tablets was reported. In selecting images, it was also possible to simulate image acquisition intervals of 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The values derived are discrete random variables. The maximum time interval between image acquisitions that permitted reliable results to be obtained was found to be 3 min for light and 2 min for dense tablets. Consideration of the emptying of a tablet as a Bernoulli random event provided a suitable statistical approach to the analysis of such data, giving a median and an interquartile range. While the commonly applied method, which is based on parametric procedures deriving arithmetic means and standard deviations, failed to detect a difference in the emptying times of the two types of tablets, the use of non-parametric statistics (Wilcoxon test) provided a clear distinction between them in this respect. The assessment of gastric emptying by gamma-scintigraphy studies can be improved by using short image intervals and application of appropriate statistical analysis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 23 refs.

  3. Simulation research on gastric emptying measurement experiment by electrical impedance tomography with three-layer electrodes%三层电极电阻抗断层成像胃排空检测模拟实验研究

    王磊; 赵舒; 邓娟; 王妍; 沙洪

    2016-01-01

    Objective To verify the effectiveness of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with multi-layer electrodes in gastric emptying measurement by simulation experiments using EIT with three-layer electrodes.Methods Firstly,EIT system with three-layer electrodes and gastric emptying measurement simulation equipment was designed and constructed to simulate gastric emptying process and obtain EIT reconstruction images.Secondly,the region where the electrical characteristic of gastric changes was selected as region of interest.Finally,the relative impedance change rate in region of interest for every image obtained from all three layers was consecutively recorded,then the gastric emptying curve was formed and gastric emptying time was calculated.Results There are obvious differences among the sharp of impedance change curves of interested region for three layers,and the gastric emptying time and process of each layer is also different from one another.It is suggested that the passing path and emptying manner of food in gastric emptying process reflected by EIT images varied from layer to layer.Therefore,the necessity and feasibility of using EIT with three-layer electrodes in gastric emptying measurement study is verified.Conclusions EIT with three-layer electrodes can provide more abundant information of gastric motility function associated with gastric emptying pathology and physiology state.It is likely to be a noninvasive,convenient and effective imaging method for the detection and evaluation research on gastric emptying and gastric motility.%目的 采用三层电阻抗断层成像(EIT)系统进行胃排空检测模拟实验,验证多层EIT胃排空检测方法 的有效性.方法 设计、构建三层EIT系统和胃排空检测模拟实验装置,重建模拟胃排空过程的电阻抗变化图像,设置电特性变化兴趣区,连续记录每一层上兴趣区域在每一帧图像上的相对阻抗变化率值,以形成排空曲线,计算胃排空时间.结果 三

  4. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper

  5. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  6. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti, E-mail: sabujsau@gmail.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd., E-mail: magfish05@yahoo.com [Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, University of Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Das, Simon Kumar, E-mail: skdas-maa@yahoo.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  7. Low antroduodenal pressure gradients are responsible for gastric emptying of a low-caloric liquid meal in humans

    Hausken, T; Mundt, M; Samsom, M

    2002-01-01

    The motor mechanisms responsible for transpyloric flow of gastric contents are still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between luminal pressures and gastric wall motion and between gastroduodenal pressure gradients and pressure waves, and ante- and retrograd

  8. Urocortins and CRF type 2 receptor isoforms expression in the rat stomach are regulated by endotoxin: role in the modulation of delayed gastric emptying.

    Yuan, Pu-Qing; Wu, S Vincent; Taché, Yvette

    2012-07-01

    Peripheral activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF(2)) by urocortin 1, 2, or 3 (Ucns) exerts powerful effects on gastric function; however, little is known about their expression and regulation in the stomach. We investigated the expression of Ucns and CRF(2) isoforms by RT-PCR in the gastric corpus (GC) mucosa and submucosa plus muscle (S+M) or laser captured layers in naive rats, their regulations by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg ip) over 24 h, and the effect of the CRF(2) antagonist astresssin(2)-B (100 μg/kg sc) on LPS-induced delayed gastric emptying (GE) 2-h postinjection. Transcripts of Ucns and CRF(2b,) the most common wild-type CRF(2) isoform in the periphery, were expressed in all layers, including myenteric neurons. LPS increased Ucn mRNA levels significantly in both mucosa and S+M, reaching a maximal response at 6 h postinjection and returning to basal levels at 24 h except for Ucn 1 in S+M. By contrast, CRF(2b) mRNA level was significantly decreased in the mucosa and M+S with a nadir at 6 h. In addition, CRF(2a), reportedly only found in the brain, and the novel splice variant CRF(2a-3) were also detected in the GC, antrum, and pylorus. LPS reciprocally regulated these variants with a decrease of CRF(2a) and an increase of CRF(2a-3) in the GC 6 h postinjection. Astressin(2)-B exacerbated LPS-delayed GE (42-73%, P gastric motor alterations to endotoxemia. PMID:22517775

  9. Efeito do tratamento da depressão sobre o esvaziamento gástrico Treatment of depression effect on the gastric emptying

    Frederico Navas Demetrio

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O esvaziamento gástrico foi medido por meio de refeição sólida marcada com 99mTc em 11 pacientes que atendiam os critérios de "depressão maior" do DSM-III-R antes e após o tratamento com fluoxetina (20 a 40mg por dia durante nove semanas. Após o tratamento não se observou redução no tempo para o esvaziamento gástrico de metade da refeição de prova (T1/2 em relação a antes do tratamento. Pode-se, no entanto, separar os pacientes em dois subgrupos: 1 Os que exibiram resposta ao antidepressivo (redução do escore da Escala de Depressão de Hamilton >50% e apresentaram redução significativa do T1/2 (p0,10. Concluímos que a alteração da velocidade do esvaziamento gástrico pode estar correlacionada à resposta ao tratamento antidepressivo e que sua redução ou aumento não pode ser atribuída à ação farmacológica da fluoxetina sobre o estômago, mas antes ao efeito da melhoria da depressão sobre a motilidade gástrica.The gastric emptying was evaluated with 99mTc-labeled solidphase meal in 11 patients who met DSM-III-R criteria for Major Depression, before and after treatment with fluoxetine (20 to 40mg/day for nine weeks. After teatment the patients did not show increased velocity to reduction of half probe meal radioactivity in gastric area (T1/2. On the other hand, we observed two groups of patients: 1 The group that responded to antidepressant (Hamilton Depression Scale score reduction >50%, that showed a significant decrease of T1/2 (p0,10. We conclude that the modification in the gastric emptying velocity is related to the degree of response to antidepressant teatment, and velocity reduction or increase cannot be attributed to fluoxetine pharmachological activity over stomach but in fact to the impact of depression relief on gastric motility.

  10. Randomized study to compare nasojejunal with nasogastric nutrition in critically ill patients without prior evidence of altered gastric emptying

    Gilberto Friedman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Studies comparing jejunal and gastric nutrition show inconsistent results regarding pneumonia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pneumonia comparing gastric with jejunal nutrition. Secondarily, we evaluated 28 th day Intensive Care Unit (ICU mortality rate and other complications related to enteral feeding. Subjects: Age >18 years; need for enteral nutrition without contraindication for placement of an enteral tube, duration of ICU stay > than 48 h. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to receive enteral feed via a gastric or jejunal tube. Jejunal tubes were inserted at bedside and placement was confirmed radiographically. Results: A total of 115 patients were enrolled, with 61 patients into the gastric tube group and 54 patients into the jejunal group tube. Baseline characteristics were similar. There was no difference in pneumonia or ICU mortality rates, ICU length of stay and ventilator days. Complications rates were similar. Conclusions: We conclude that the enteral nutrition through a jejunal tube does not reduce the rate of pneumonia in comparison to a gastric tube. In addition, we did not observe differences in rates of gastrointestinal complications or ICU mortality. The routine placement of a jejunal tube in critically ill-patients cannot be recommended.

  11. Effect of Cynomorium songaricum polysaccharide on mice of gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion%锁阳多糖对小鼠胃排空、小肠推进功能的影响

    李兰城

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究锁阳多糖(Cynomorium Songaircum polysalcharides,CSP)对小鼠胃肠运动的影响。方法:采用酚红标记的小鼠胃排空、小肠推进实验,观察CSP对正常小鼠胃排空、小肠推进影响以及对在阿托品负荷的小鼠胃排空、小肠推进抑制的影响。结果:CSP对小鼠的胃排空无显著影响(P>0.05),但对小肠的推进性蠕动作用明显(P<0.05),且成剂量依赖性。结论:CSP对小鼠胃排空的促进作用不明显,CSP对小鼠肠推进具有明显的促进作用,并且可以拮抗由阿托品引起的小鼠肠蠕动的抑制。%Objective:To study the effect of GSP on gastrointestinal motility in mice. Method:the gastric emptying, intestinal phenolsulfonphthalein propulsion experiments,the effects of CSP on gastric emptying,intestinal propulsion in normal mice and mice gastric emptying,intestinal propulsion in atropine loadinhibition effect. Results:there was no significant effect of CSP on mice gastric emptying (P>0.05),but on small intestinal propulsion significantly peristalsis function (P<0.05)in a dose-dependent;conclusion:CSP had less effect on gastric emptying in mice,CSP has obvious effect on small intestinal propulsion,suppression and can be antagonized by atropine due to the small intestinal peristalsis of mice.

  12. 功能性消化不良胃排空及食物分布与症状的关系%Relationship between gastric emptying and intragastric distribution and dyspepsia symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia

    刘秋月; 严祥; 马苏美

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨功能性消化不良(FD)患者不同胃区胃排空及胃内食物分布与症状之间的关系。方法采用实时超声检测73例FD患者和27例正常对照组胃排空功能,并调查73例FD患者的症状。结果 FD患者各胃区半排空时间均较正常对照组延长(P<0.05),胃排空延迟率明显增加(P<0.01);远端胃半排空时间与早饱、体重指数呈正相关(P<0.05);全胃半排空时间与年龄呈负相关(P<0.05);分别对各胃区排空情况与症状进行Logistic回归分析,仅早饱与远端胃排空延迟相关(P<0.05);20 min、40 min近端胃面积,40 min全胃面积与上腹部烧灼感呈负相关(P<0.05);20 min、40 min远端胃面积与早饱呈负相关(P<0.05)。结论 FD患者存在胃排空异常,远端胃排空情况与早饱存在相关性。%Objective To study relationship between gastric emptying on proximal stomach, distal stomach, total stomach and intragastric distribution and dyspepsia symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods A real-time ultrasonography was performed in 73 cases of FD patients and 27 healthy controls (HC). Dyspepsia symptoms were investigated by using a questionnaire. Results As compared with that in HC group, the half time of gastric emptying on proximal stomach (pT1/2), half time of gastric emptying on distal stomach (dT1/2) and gastric emptying half-time on total stomach (GT1/2) was prolonged significantly in FD (P<0.05).The delay rate of proximal stomach, distal stomach and total gastric was significantly increased (P<0.01). In FD patients, dT1/2 and early satiety, body mass index were related (P<0.05);GT1/2 was negative correlated with age (P<0.05). Taking gastric emptying and symptoms for logistic regression analysis, the only relationship was between delayed distal gastric emptying and early satiety (P<0.05). There were negative correlations between proximal gastric area at 20, 40 min

  13. Drug-resin drug interactions in patients with delayed gastric emptying: What is optimal time window for drug administration?

    Camilleri, M

    2016-08-01

    Most drug-drug interactions involve overlap or competition in drug metabolic pathways. However, there are medications, typically resins, whose function is to bind injurious substances such as bile acids or potassium within the digestive tract. The objective of this article is to review the functions of the stomach and the kinetics of emptying of different food forms or formulations to make recommendations on timing of medication administration in order to avoid intragastric drug interactions. Based on the profiles and kinetics of emptying of liquid nutrients and homogenized solids, a window of 3 h between administration of a resin drug and another 'target' medication would be expected to allow a median of 80% of medications with particle size interaction such as binding of the 'target' medication within the stomach. PMID:26987693

  14. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L.; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; Macdonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent nasogastric intubation before a baseline MRI scan, received 400 mL of Resource Energy (Nestle) as a bolus over 5 minutes or continuously over 4 hours via pump in this randomized crossover study. Changes in gastric volume, small bowel water content, and superior mesenteric artery blood flow and velocity were measured over 4 hours using MRI and blood glucose and plasma concentrations of insulin, peptide YY, and ghrelin were assayed every 30 minutes. Results: Bolus nasogastric feeding led to significant elevations in gastric volume (P < 0.0001), superior mesenteric artery blood flow (P < 0.0001), and velocity (P = 0.0011) compared with continuous feeding. Both types of feeding reduced small bowel water content, although there was an increase in small bowel water content with bolus feeding after 90 minutes (P < 0.0068). Similarly, both types of feeding led to a fall in plasma ghrelin concentration although this fall was greater with bolus feeding (P < 0.0001). Bolus feeding also led to an increase in concentrations of insulin (P = 0.0024) and peptide YY (P < 0.0001), not seen with continuous feeding. Conclusion: Continuous nasogastric feeding does not increase small bowel water content, thus fluid flux within the small bowel is not a major contributor to the etiology of tube feeding-related diarrhea. PMID:25549202

  15. 2型糖尿病患者胃排空影响因素分析%Analysis on Factors Influencing Gastric Emptying in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    陈琳; 喻明; 顾新刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估2型糖尿病患者胃排空和病程、血糖、血管病变及血清维生素B12的关系.方法 选取2009年10月-2010年5月上海市普陀区中心医院内分泌科住院2型糖尿病患者100名及糖调节正常者40名,口服胃助显剂后超声检测15、30、45、60、75、90 min胃排空率,并计算半排空和全排空时间.每位受试者测空腹及早餐后血糖、糖化血红蛋白、血清维生素B12.分析糖尿病患者胃排空影响因素.结果 口服胃助显剂后,病程5年以上糖尿病患者胃半排空和全排空时间较糖调节正常者和病程小于5年患者显著延长;15、30、45、60 min胃排空率明显小于糖调节正常组和5年以下糖尿病患者.大量白蛋白尿患者较尿白蛋白阴性患者45、60、75 min胃排空率下降、全排空时间延长.糖尿病患者胃排空时间与血清维生素B12水平和早餐后2h血糖负相关.结论 超声方法可反映糖尿病患者胃排空.长期高血糖患者胃排空明显减慢.糖尿病胃轻瘫可能与微血管病变及维生素B12缺乏有关.胃排空减慢可能通过延缓糖尿病患者碳水化合物吸收降低餐后血糖波动.%Objective To evaluate the correlation between gastric emptying and blood glucose, vascular complications, and serum vitamin B12 level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus patients hospitalized in Department of Endocrinology, the Central Hospital of Putuo District from October 2009 to May 2010 were selected, and 40 normal individuals were served as controls. Fasting blood samples were collected and blood glucose, HbAlc, vitamin B12 levels were detected. Each subject took gastric developer orally for ultrasonic examination. Then the percentages of gastric emptying were examined every 15 minutes, and the gastric emptying time was calculated. Results Compared with control individuals and short- period patients, those who suffered from diabetes > 5 years

  16. 云木香不同提取物对小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能的影响%Effect of Yunmuxiang on Gastric Emptying and Intestinal Propulsion of Mice

    张猛; 郭建生; 王小娟; 刘红艳; 聂子文; 陈君

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究云木香3种提取物对小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能的影响,并探讨云木香影响胃肠道的物质基础.方法:采用改良的酚红含量测定法观察云木香3种提取液对正常状态下、新斯的明所致的亢进状态下、阿托品所致的抑制状态下小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能的影响.结果:挥发油能够显著降低正常小鼠胃酚红排空率(P<0.01),能够显著提高阿托品所致抑制状态下的小鼠胃酚红排空率(P<0.01),能够显著降低新斯的明所致亢进状态下的小鼠胃酚红排空率(P<0.01),并降低小肠酚红推进率(P<0.05).结论:云木香挥发油能够抑制正常小鼠胃排空,改善阿托品所致抑制状态下的小鼠胃排空障碍,拮抗新斯的明所致的小鼠胃排空和小肠推进功能亢进.挥发油是云木香对小鼠胃肠道起作用的物质基础.%Objective: To study the effect of 3 kinds of extract of Yunmuxiang on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion of mice, and to find the material basis of Yunmuxiang which affact gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion of mice. Method: Using modified determination of content of phenol red to observe the effect of 3 kinds of extract of Yunmuxiang on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion of mice in normal state, hyperthyroidism state caused by neostigmine, inhibiting state caused by atropine. Result: Volatile oil of Yunmuxiang could significant decrease gastric emptying rate of phenol red of normal mice ( P < 0. 01 ), could significantly improve gastric emptying rate of phenol red in the state of inhibition caused by atropine (P < 0. 01 ) , could significantly decrease gastric emptying rate of phenol red in the state of hyperthyroidism caused by neostigmine (P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion: The extract of Yunmuxiang can inhibit gastric emptying of normal mice, can improve gastric emptying of mice in the state of inhibition caused by atropine, antagonistise gastric emptying and intestinal

  17. 13C-辛酸呼气试验测定肝硬化胃固体排空功能研究%Measurement of solid gastric emptying by 13C-octanoic acid breath test in patients with cirrhosis

    泽塔多吉; 吕洪敏; 向慧玲; 李凤惠

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of gastric emptying functions in patients with cirrhosis with 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Methods: Select 43 cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) related liver cirrhosis and 10 healthy controls. The gastric emptying time of solid food was then measured in both groups and the gastric half-emptying time was compared. Results: The GETm and Tlag of HBV related liver cirrhosis were prolonged significantly than those of healthy control group (P0.05). Compared with control group, the GET1/2 of Child-pugh grade B and C was prolonged significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: There is delayed gastric emptying in patients with cirrhosis,which displays the higher of Child-pugh scores, the weaker of gastric emptying ability .There are not delayed significantly in gastric emptying time in Child-pugh class A patients of HBV related cirrhosis compared with control group.%目的:观察13C-辛酸呼气试验测定肝硬化患者胃固体排空功能变化特点.方法:选取43例乙肝肝硬化患者测定胃固体食物排空时间并与10例健康对照者的胃固体食物排空时间进行比较,按Child-pugh分级进行A、B、C3级之间胃固体排空时间的比较.结果:乙肝肝硬化患者GET1/2和Tlag较健康对照组明显延长(P<0.05);乙肝肝硬化组Child-pugh分级A级与健康对照组GET1/2无统计学差异(P>0.05),B级、C级患者GET1/2较健康对照组明显延长(P<0.05).结论:肝硬化患者存在胃排空延迟,表现为肝功能Child-pugh评分越高胃排空能力越弱;肝硬化患者Child-pugh A级患者与健康正常者比较胃排空无明显延迟.

  18. Effects of Weichanglisu oa gastric emptying%中药胃肠力苏胶囊对胃排空影响的动物实验与临床研究

    许翠萍; 李亮成; 耿引凤; 徐大毅

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Chinese herbs Weichanglisu capsule on gastric emptying of methyl orange in experimental animals and patients with functional dyspepsia. Methods The gastric residual rate of methyl orange was examined by colorimetry. The serum gastrin and the plasma motilin were examined by radioimmunoassay, and the gastric emptying rate was examined by B-ultrasonography. Results There was no statistical difference in the gastric residual rate of methyl orange between both Weichanglisu and domperidone animal groups but there was statistical difference between drng-tsking and control amimal groups. There was statistical difference in plasma motilin between the two patient groups (P<0.05), and there was no statistical difference in gastric emptying rate between the two groups. Conclusion Weichanglisu capsule can promote gastric emptying. The curative effect of Weichanglisu capsule on functional dyspepsia is similar to domperidone tablet, but the mechanism of promoting gastric emptying is different.%目的探讨中药胃肠力苏胶囊对实验动物和功能性消化不良患者胃排空的影响。方法比色法测动物甲基橙的胃残留率。放免法测血清胃泌素,血浆胃动素,B超法测胃排空率。结果胃肠力苏组和吗丁啉组动物胃内甲基橙残留率差异无显著性,两组与对照组动物胃内甲基橙残留率比较差异有显著性。血浆胃动素含量胃肠力苏胶囊组与吗丁啉组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05),胃排空率两组比较差异无显著性。结论胃肠力苏胶囊有促进胃排空作用,对功能性消化不良患者的疗效类似吗丁啉片,但其促进胃排空的机制不同于吗丁啉片。

  19. Gastric motor effects of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 in diabetic mice with gastroparesis

    Wen-Cai Qiu, Zhi-Gang Wang, Wei-Gang Wang, Jun Yan and Qi Zheng

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the potential therapeutic significance of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6 in diabetic mice with gastric motility disorders.METHODS: A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal (ip injection of alloxan. Diabetic mice were injected ip with ghrelin or GHRP-6 (20-200 μg/kg, and the effects on gastric emptying were measured after intragastric application of phenol red. The effect of atropine, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME or D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R antagonist on the gastroprokinetic effect of ghrelin or GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg was also investigated. The effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6 (0.01-10 μmol/L on spontaneous or carbachol-induced contractile amplitude were also investigated in vitro, in gastric fundic circular strips taken from diabetic mice. The presence of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a transcripts in the fundic strips of diabetic mice was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.RESULTS: We established a diabetic mouse model with delayed gastric emptying. Ghrelin and GHRP-6 accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis. In the presence of atropine or L-NAME, which delayed gastric emptying, ghrelin and GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg failed to accelerate gastric emptying. D-Lys3-GHRP-6 also delayed gastric emptying induced by the GHS-R agonist. Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased the carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic strips taken from diabetic mice. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of GHS-R mRNA in the strip preparations.CONCLUSION: Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increase gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis, perhaps by activating peripheral cholinergic pathways in the enteric nervous system.

  20. Gastric motor effects of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 in diabetic mice with gastroparesis

    Wen-Cai Qiu; Zhi-Gang Wang; Wei-Gang Wang; Jun Yan; Qi Zheng

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the potential therapeutic significance of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6(GHRP-6) in diabetic mice with gastric motility disorders.METHODS:A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan.Diabetic mice were injected ip with ghrelin or GHRP-6 (20-200 μg/kg),and the effects on gastric emptying were measured after intragastric application of phenol red.The effect of atropine,NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) or D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) antagonist) on the gastroprokinetic effect of ghrelin or GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg)was also investigated.The effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6(0.01-10 μmol/L) on spontaneous or carbachol-induced contractile amplitude were also investigated in vitro,in gastric fundic circular strips taken from diabetic mice.The presence of growth hormone secretagogue receptor la transcripts in the fundic strips of diabetic mice was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS:We established a diabetic mouse model with delayed gastric emptying.Ghrelin and GHRP-6accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis.In the presence of atropine or L-NAME,which delayed gastric emptying,ghrelin and GHRP-6(100 μg/kg) failed to accelerate gastric emptying.D-Lys3-GHRP-6 also delayed gastric emptying induced by the GHS-R agonist.Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased the carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic strips taken from diabetic mice.RT-PCR confirmed the presence of GHS-R mRNA in the strip preparations.CONCLUSION:Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increase gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis,perhaps by activating peripheral cholinergic pathways in the enteric nervous system.

  1. Duodeno gastric reflux in peptic ulcer disease: gall bladder emptying provoked by cholecystokinin or a fatty meal

    A wide range of incidence of diodeno-gastric bile reflux has been reported in patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) or gastric ulcer (GU). Using either 100 units of CCK i/v or a fatty meal of 320 Cal containing 20 g fat to contract the gall bladder, we have investigated the incidence of reflux in 170 subjects: CCK (Control: 20; DU: 60; GU: 19), Meal (Control: 19; DU: 37; GU: 15). The CCK or meal was given in the supine subject 30 minutes after injection of 75 MBq sup(99m)Tc diethyl Hida. Reflux was considered present if labelled bile was seen in the stomach on 3 successive 2 minute gamma camera pictures. The percentage of patients showing reflux was as follows: CCK (Control: 45%; DU: 53%; GU: 58%), Meal (Control: 11%; DU: 24%; GU: 40%). These results have been compared using the Chi-squared test. There was no significant difference in the incidence of reflux between control, DU or GU patients either in the group of patients given CCK or a meal. However, reflux was more common after CCK than the meal in control subjects (p<0.05) and in those with DU (p<0.01) but not in those with GU. We conclude that the stimulus given to contract the gall bladder affects the incidence of reflux, and that any significant difference in reflux incidence of DU or GU patients may become apparent when more patients are studied. (Author)

  2. Evidence for the involvement of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats

    Dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At) delay liquid gastric emptying (GE) in rats. We evaluated adrenergic participation in this phenomenon in a study in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) pretreated subcutaneously with guanethidine (GUA), 100 mg·kg−1·day−1, or vehicle (V) for 2 days before experimental treatments. Other groups of animals were pretreated intravenously (iv) 15 min before treatment with V, prazosin (PRA; 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (YOH; 3 mg/kg), or propranolol (PRO; 4 mg/kg), or with intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 25 µg PRO or V. The groups were treated iv with saline or with 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that GUA abolished the effect of Dp (GUA vs V=31.7±1.6 vs 47.1±2.3%) and of At (33.2±2.3 vs 54.7±3.6%) on GE and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.1±3.2 vs 67.2±3.1%). PRA and YOH did not modify the effect of the drugs. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that iv, but not icv, PRO abolished the effect of Dp (PRO vs V=29.1±1.7 vs 46.9±2.7%) and At (30.5±1.7 vs 49±3.2%) and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.4±2.6 vs 59.5±3.1%). These data suggest activation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in the delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazolone derivatives

  3. Evidence of the effect of dipyrone on the central nervous system as a determinant of delayed gastric emptying observed in rats after its administration

    Collares E.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone administered intravenously (iv delays gastric emptying (GE in rats. The objectives of the present study were to assess: 1 the effect of the dose of dipyrone and time after its iv administration on GE in rats, 2 the effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VgX and bilateral electrolytic lesion of the paraventricular nucleus (PVNX on the delayed GE induced by the drug, and 3 the intracerebroventricular (icv action of dipyrone and of one of its metabolites, 4-aminoantipyrine on GE. Male Wistar rats received saline labeled with phenol red intragastrically as a test meal. GE was indirectly assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention (GR of the test meal 10 min after administration by gavage. Dipyrone delays GE in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thirty minutes after the iv administration of 80 mg/kg dipyrone, the animals showed significantly higher GR (mean = 62.6% compared to those receiving vehicle (31.5%. VgX and PVNX significantly reduced the iv effect of 80 mg/kg dipyrone (mean %GR: VgX = 28.3 vs Sham = 55.5 and PVNX = 34.5 vs Sham = 52.2. Icv administration of 4 µmol dipyrone caused a significant increase in GR (54.1% of the test meal 10 min later, whereas administration of 4 µmol 4-aminoantipyrine had no effect (34.4%. Although the dipyrone dose administered icv was 16 times lower than that applied iv, for the same time of action (10 min, the GR of animals that received the drug icv (54.1% or iv (54.5% did not differ significantly. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the effect of dipyrone in delaying GE is due to the action of the drug on the central nervous system, with the participation of the PVN and of the vagus nerve.

  4. Evidence for the involvement of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats

    Vinagre, A.M. [Núcleo de Medicina e Cirurgia Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Collares, E.F. [Departamento de Pediatria, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Núcleo de Medicina e Cirurgia Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-27

    Dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At) delay liquid gastric emptying (GE) in rats. We evaluated adrenergic participation in this phenomenon in a study in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) pretreated subcutaneously with guanethidine (GUA), 100 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, or vehicle (V) for 2 days before experimental treatments. Other groups of animals were pretreated intravenously (iv) 15 min before treatment with V, prazosin (PRA; 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (YOH; 3 mg/kg), or propranolol (PRO; 4 mg/kg), or with intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 25 µg PRO or V. The groups were treated iv with saline or with 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that GUA abolished the effect of Dp (GUA vs V=31.7±1.6 vs 47.1±2.3%) and of At (33.2±2.3 vs 54.7±3.6%) on GE and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.1±3.2 vs 67.2±3.1%). PRA and YOH did not modify the effect of the drugs. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that iv, but not icv, PRO abolished the effect of Dp (PRO vs V=29.1±1.7 vs 46.9±2.7%) and At (30.5±1.7 vs 49±3.2%) and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.4±2.6 vs 59.5±3.1%). These data suggest activation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in the delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazolone derivatives.

  5. 肠内营养治疗食管癌和贲门癌术后功能性胃排空障碍%Enteral nutrition in the treatment of functional delayed gastric emptying after resection of esophageal or gastric cardiac carcinoma

    陶宇; 韩继彪; 张俊峰; 陈梦苒

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨肠内营养在功能性胃排空障碍治疗中的作用.方法 15例食管癌、贲门癌手术后功能性胃排空障碍患者,10例应用肠内营养,5例应用肠外营养,比较2组术后住院时间、胃肠减压 量、胃排空障碍恢复时间,评估肠内营养的疗效.结果 肠外营养组住院时间为(20.3±6.6)d,肠内营养组为(14.4±4.6)d;胃排空障碍恢复时间分别为(19±9)、(12±4)d.结论 肠内营养能促进胃肠道功能恢复,是治疗食管癌、贲门癌手术后功能性胃排空障碍的有效手段.%Objective To explore the role of enteral nutrition in the treatment of functional delayed gastric emptying. Methods Among 15 patients with functional delayed gastric emptying after resection of esophageal or gastric cardiac carcinoma, 10 patients were treated with enteral nutrition( EN group),5 patients were treated with parenteral nutrition (PN group). Postoperative hospital stay, gastrointestinal decompression amount, recovering time of postoperative gastric emptying were observed to assess the efficacy of enteral nutrition. Results The average postoperative hospital stay was ( 14. 4 ± 4. 6) days in the EN group, whereas (20. 3 ±6. 6) days in the PN group. The average recovering time of postoperative gastric emptying was (19 ±9)days in the PN group and( 12 ± 4)days in the EN group. Conclusion The method of EN can enhance gastric emptying and is effective for functional delayed gastric emptying after resection of esophageal or gastric cardiac carcinoma

  6. Experience of Treatment of Functional Delayed Gastric Emptying after Biliary Tract Operation%胆道术后胃功能性排空障碍治疗体会

    白明辉; 董玉宁; 刘建洛; 宋剑锋

    2011-01-01

    To approach the diagnosis and treatment experince to the functional delayed gastric emptying(FDGE)after biliary tract operation, the clincal data of 32 cases with functional delayed gastric emptying after biliary tract operation were analyzed retrospectively. FDGE occurred in 5 to 10 days after surgery. All the 32 patients recovered after conservative treatment. The functional delayed gastric emptying after biliary tract operation belongs to functional disorders and it can be cured by non-surgical treatment.%探讨胆道术后胃功能性排空障碍的诊治经验.回顾性分析32例胆道术后胃功能性排空障碍病例.结果32例胃功能性排空障碍发生于术后5天~10天,经保守治疗后均痊愈.胆道术后胃功能性排空障碍是胃的功能性病变,经综合保守治疗是可以治愈的.

  7. Delayed gastric emptying is associated with pylorus-preserving but not classical Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy: A review of the literature and critical reappraisal of the implicated pathomechanism

    Kosmas I Paraskevas; Costas Avgerinos; Costas Manes; Dimitris Lytras; Christos Dervenis

    2006-01-01

    Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD)is nowadays considered the treatment of choice for periampullary tumors, namely carcinoma of the head,neck, or uncinate process of the pancreas, the ampulla of Vater, distal common bile duct or carcinoma of the peri-Vaterian duodenum. Delayed gastric emptying (DGE)comprises one of the most troublesome complications of this procedure. A search of the literature using Pubmed/Medline was performed to identify clinical trials examining the incidence rate of DGE following standard Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) vs PPPD. Additionally we performed a thorough in-depth analysis of the implicated pathomechanism underlying the occurrence of DGE after PPPD. In contrast to early studies, the majority of recently performed clinical trials demonstrated no significant association between the occurrence of DGE with either PD or PPPD. PD and PPPD procedures are equally effective operations regarding the postoperative occurrence of DGE. Further randomized trials are required to investigate the efficacy of a recently reported (but not yet tested in largescale studies) modification, that is, PPPD with antecolic duodenojejunostomy.(C) 2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  8. Paraventricular Nucleus infusion of GLP-1-(7-36) Amide Suppresses Gastric Emptying in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats%室旁核注射胰高血糖素样肽-1对不同病程糖尿病大鼠胃排空的影响

    尹继萍; 魏良洲; 鞠辉; 田字彬; 孔心涓; 吕丰香

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect ofparaventricular nucleus (PVN) injection Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on the alterations of gastric emptying in early stages of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,and to study the related mechanism of thses effects.Methods:Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (NC group),diabetes melitus group (DM group),GLP-1 treated group (GLP-1 group) with 20 in each.The intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce diabetic models in the later two groups.All the animals were surgically implanted with indwelling cannulas in the PVN.Two and six weeks after injection STZ,saline or GLP-1 (1 μg) in 0.5 μl saline was delivered to the PVN.Gastric emptying was measured by intragastric administration of methyl cellulose-phenol red solution.The plasma GLP-1 levels were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).The expression levels of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) mRNA in the gastric tissue were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Results:Two weeks after streptozotocin,the gastric emptying in DM group increased compared with NC group (P<0.01).The gastric emptying of GLP-1 group decreased compared with DM group (P<0.01),the level of plasma GLP-1 and the GLP-1R mRNA of the gastric antrum was increased significantly compared with those in the other groups (P<0.05,respectively).Six weeks after streptozotocin,the gastric emptying of DM group accelerated significantly compared with NC group (P<0.01).The gastric emptying of GLP-1 group decreased compared with DM group (P<0.01),the level of plasma GLP-1 and the GLP-1R mRNA of the gastric antrum was increased significantly compared with those in the other groups (P<0.01,respectively).Conclusions:GLP-1 treatment in the PVN can inhibit the accumulated gastric emptying in the early stages of diabetes rats,this may be achieved through increasing the level of the plasma GLP-1 and the GLP-1R mRNA of the gastric antrum.%目

  9. Accelerated protein digestion and amino acid absorption after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    Bojsen-Møller, Anna Kirstine; Jacobsen, Siv H; Dirksen, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) involves exclusion of major parts of the stomach and changes in admixture of gastro-pancreatic enzymes, which could have a major impact on protein digestion and amino acid absorption. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of RYGB on amino acid appearance...... RYGB. CONCLUSIONS: RYGB accelerates caseinate digestion and amino acid absorption, resulting in faster and higher but more transient postprandial elevation of plasma amino acids. Changes are likely mediated by accelerated intestinal nutrient entry and clearly demonstrate that protein digestion is not...

  10. Esvaziamento gástrico nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica submetidos à hemodiálise Gastric emptying study in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis

    Eunice Sizue Hirata

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Queixas dispépticas são comuns em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica. As mais frequentemente relatadas são anorexia, náusea, vômito, sensação de plenitude gástrica e dor epigástrica. A possibilidade destes sinais e sintomas estarem associadas ao retardo no esvaziamento gástrico é atraente. OBJETIVO: Estudar o esvaziamento gástrico de uma refeição sólida padronizada, em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em tratamento dialítico. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 31 pessoas de ambos os sexos com idade variável de 18 à 60 anos, sendo 14 com insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise há mais de 6 meses e 17 sadios. Foram excluídos pacientes com diabetes mellitus, amiloidose, doenças do colágeno, doenças dispépticas e/ou submetidos à operação gástrica, pacientes em uso de drogas pró-cinéticas gástricas e grávidas. O método do esvaziamento gástrico foi a cintilografia, através de câmara de cintilação de dois cabeçotes. A refeição teste padronizada consistiu de omelete de três ovos de galinha preparado com mistura de enxofre coloidal marcado com 185 MBq de tecnécio-99m. Foram estudados a curva de retenção gástrica total e o T½ do esvaziamento gástrico. Os testes estatísticos utilizados foram o de c2 e o de Kruskal Wallis. RESULTADOS: Os resultados confirmaram a homogeneidade dos grupos quanto à idade e o sexo. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação às curvas de retenção gástrica total e o T½, semelhantes nos dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O esvaziamento gástrico de pacientes urêmicos em tratamento hemodialítico há mais de seis meses é igual ao de indivíduos sadios.BACKGROUND: Dyspeptic symptoms are frequent in renal patients. They are anorexia, nausea, vomit, pain and epigastric distension. These symptoms can be related to the delay in gastric emptying. AIM: To investigate gastric emptying in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis

  11. Does antecolic reconstruction for duodenojejunostomy improve delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    An-Ping Su; Shuang-Shuang Cao; Yi Zhang; Zhao-Da Zhang; Wei-Ming Hu; Bo-Le Tian

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether antecolic reconstruction for duodenojejunostomy (DJ) can decrease delayed gastric emptying (DGE) rate after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) through literature review and meta-analysis.METHODS:Articles published between January 1991 and April 2012 comparing antecolic and retrocolic reconstruction for DJ after PPPD were retrieved from the databases of MEDLINE (PublMled),EMBASE,OVID and Cochrane Library Central.The primary outcome of interest was DGE.Either fixed effects model or random effects model was used to assess the pooled effect based on the heterogeneity.RESULTS:Five articles were identified for inclusion:two randomized controlled trials and three non-randomized controlled trials.The meta-analysis revealed that antecolic reconstruction for DJ after PPPD was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of DGE [odds ratio (OR),0.06; 95% CI,0.02-0.17; P < 0.00 001] and intra-operative blood loss [mean difference (MD),-317.68; 95% CI,-416.67to-218.70; P < 0.00 001].There was no significant difference between the groups of antecolic and retrocolic reconstruction in operative time (MD,25.23; 95%CI,-14.37 to 64.83; P =0.21),postoperative mortality,overall morbidity (OR,0.54; 95% CI,0.20-1.46; P =0.22) and length of postoperative hospital stay (MD,-9.08; 95% CI,-21.28 to 3.11; P =0.14).CONCLUSION:Antecolic reconstruction for DJ can decrease the DGE rate after PPPD.

  12. Effect of Psychological Stress on Gastric Emptying and Gastrointestinal Hormones and the Preventive Effects of Shengjiang Fang in Rats%升降方对应激大鼠胃排空及胃肠激素的影响

    徐伟; 孙维峰; 梁静; 张娴娴; 刘玲; 李丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of psychological stress on gastric emptying and gastrin (GAS) , motilin (MOT) in rats and the preventive effect of Shengjiang Fang. Method: Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; control group,psychological stress group,psychological stress plus low dose of Shengjiang Fang 5. 5 g·kg-1 and high-dose group(11. 0 g'kg ) ,respectively. Gastric emptying ratios,GAS and MOT contents were measured. Result:Compared with the control group, the body weight, the gastric emptying ratio and GAS and MOT contents significantly decreased (P < 0. 01 or P < 0. 05 ) in psychological stress group. Compared with the psychological stress group,the body weight and the gastric emptying ratio and GAS and MOT contents both in psychological stress plus low and high-dose of Shengjiang Fang group were all increased ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion: Psychological stress can decrease the gastric emptying rate and the GAS and MOT contents, Shengjiang Fang can antagonize the inhibitory effect of psychological stress on gastric emptying and increase the GAS and MOT contents in rats.%目的:探讨心理应激对大鼠胃排空及胃泌素(GAS)、胃动素(MOT)的影响及中药升降方的干预作用.方法:Wistar大鼠随机分成空白对照组、心理应激组、升降方高、低剂量(11.0,5.5 g·kg-1)加心理应激组.心理应激组给予复合应激,升降方高、低剂量组在心理应激组基础上分别给予升降方高、低剂量灌胃给药,15 d后测定各组大鼠胃排空及GAS,MOT的含量.结果:15 d后心理应激组大鼠的体重、胃排空率,GAS,MOT与空白对照组比较均明显下降(P<0.01或P<0.05);升降方高、低剂量(11.0,5.5 g·kg-1)加心理应激组的体重、胃排空率,GAS,MOT含量与心理应激组比较均明显升高(P<0.05).结论:心理应激对大鼠胃排空有明显抑制作用,引起实验大鼠GAS和MOT水平下降,升降方可拮抗心理应激对大鼠胃排空的抑制,升高GAS和MOT水平.

  13. Risk factors analysis of delayed gastric emptying after pancreatico-duodenectomy%胰十二指肠切除术后胃排空延迟的危险因素分析

    连福珍

    2016-01-01

    objective To investigate the risk factors of delayed gastric emptying after pancreatico-duode-nectomy. Methods The clinical data of 69 patients underwent pancreatico- duodenectomy were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the risk factors of delayed gastric emptying, including gender, age, BMI, basic diseases, clinical symptoms, serum albumin level, operation condition, pancreatic fistula, peritoneal effusion and wound infection. Results Univariate analysis showed that the incidence rate of delayed gastric emptying after pancre-atico-duodenectomy in patients with BMI≥25 kg/m2, postoperative pancreatic fistula and abdominal effusion was significant higher (P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of delayed gastric emptying after pancreatico-duodenectomy included BMI≥25 kg/m2, postoperative pancreatic fistula and peritoneal effusion (P<0.05). Conclusion The risk factors of delayed gastric emptying after pancreatico-duode-nectomy include BMI≥25 kg/m2, postoperative pancreatic fistula and peritoneal effusion. Preventive strategies should be taken to reduce the incidence of delayed gastric emptying.%目的:探讨胰十二指肠切除术后发生胃排空延迟的危险因素。方法回顾性分析2011年1月至2015年1月期间在我院接受胰十二指肠切除术的患者69例临床资料,分析性别、年龄、BMI、基础疾病、临床症状、血清白蛋白水平、手术情况、胰瘘、腹腔积液及切口感染对胰十二指肠切除术后胃排空延迟的影响。结果单因素分析结果显示,BMI≥25kg/m2、术后发生胰瘘、腹腔积液的患者胰十二指肠切除术后胃排空延迟的发生率显著升高(P<0.05);多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,BMI≥25kg/m2、术后发生胰瘘、腹腔积液均是胰十二指肠切除术后发生胃排空延迟的危险因素(P<0.05)。结论 BMI≥25kg/m2、术后胰瘘、腹腔积液均是胰十二指肠切除术后发生

  14. 功能性消化不良患者血浆ghrelin变化及其与胃排空的关系%Plasma ghrelin and its Relationship with Gastric Emptying in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia

    苏菡; 朱一丹; 王新北; 刘广遐; 赵君宁; 梁国栋

    2011-01-01

    背景:ghrelin已被证实具有促进胃肠动力的作用,而胃肠动力障碍是功能性消化不良(FD)的重要发病机制,目前关于ghrelin与FD关系的临床研究较少.目的:探讨FD患者血浆ghrelin变化及其与临床症状和胃排空的关系.方法:纳入40例FD患者,其中餐后不适综合征(PDS)25例,上腹痛综合征(EPS)15例,并以20名健康者作为对照.评估临床症状评分,以实时B超检测胃半排空时间(GET(1/2)),ELISA法检测血浆酰基化ghrelin水平,并分析血浆酰基化ghrelin水平与临床症状评分和GET(1/2)的关系.结果:与对照组相比,PDS组GET(1/2)和血浆酰基化ghrelin水平明显升高(P<O.05),而EPS组无明显差异(P>0.05).FD患者餐后饱胀与早饱症状评分之和与GET(1/2)呈正相关(r=033,P=0.04),但与血浆酰基化ghrelin水平无关.PDS组和EPS组患者血浆酰基化ghrelin水平与临床症状评分均无关.PDS组患者血浆酰基化ghrelin水平与GET(1/2)呈正相关(r=043,P=0.033),而EPS组中两者无关.结论:PDS患者血浆酰基化ghrelin水平明显升高,并与胃排空功能相关,提示ghrelin在FD的发生过程中发挥一定的作用.%Background: ghrelin has been confirmed to play a role in accelerating gastrointestinal motility, and disorder of gastrointestinal motility is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia (FD). However, there are only few clinical studies on the relationship between ghrelin and FD. Aims: To investigate the alteration of plasma ghrelin and its relationship with clinical symptoms and gastric emptying in patients with FD. Methods: Forty FD patients including 25 postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and 15 epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) were enrolled in the study.Twenty healthy subjects were served as controls. Clinical symptom score was assessed and gastric emptying half-time (GET1/2) was determined by real-time B-ultrasound. Plasma acylated ghrelin level was measured by ELISA and its relationship with

  15. Gastric emptying time for liquids in healthy volunteers: determination by magnetic resonance imaging%健康志愿者液体胃排空时间:核磁共振法确定

    邱维吉; 李士通; 白刚; 罗禹; 孔宁; 花天放

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the gastric emptying time for liquids in the healthy volunteers by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to provide a reference for reasonable preoperative fasting time.Methods Nineteen healthy volunteers of both sexes,of ASA physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ,aged 20-60 yr,were enrolled in the study.The volunteers were fasted from the intake of liquids or solids starting from 22:00 the night before the trial,and 12.5% carbohydrate solution 400 ml containing 40 g maltodextrin and 10 g sucrose was given orally.MRI was performed to measure the baseline gastric fluid volume at 8:00 on the day of the trial (T0).The gastric fluid volume was measured immediately after administration of the oral solution,and then measured every 25 min until the gastric fluid volume was returned to the baseline before administration of the oral solution or to <25 ml,and was recorded as T25,T50,T75,T100,et al.The gastric fluid volume was drawn using a computer to obtain the curve for gastric emptying.The gastric half and total emptying time was calculated using the curves.Results The gastric half emptying time was (32± 12) min,and the gastric total emptying time was (99±22) min in the volunteers.Compared with those at Tb,the gastric fluid volume was significantly increased at T25,T50,T75,T100,and no significant change was found in gastric fluid volume at T125,T150and T175.Conclusion After oral intake of liquids,the gastric emptying time is about 2 h,indicating that the preoperative fasting time for liquids can be shortened to 2 h before anesthesia in the healthy volunteers.%目的 采用核磁共振法确定健康志愿者液体胃排空时间,为探讨合理的术前禁饮时间提供参考.方法 选择健康志愿者19名,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,年龄20~ 60岁,性别不限.于试验前1 d 22:00时开始禁饮、禁食,试验当日8:00(T0)时进行MRI检查,记录基础胃内液体容积.口服12.5%碳水化合物溶液(含40 g麦芽糊精和10 g蔗糖)400 ml.于

  16. Synchronized Dual Pulse Gastric Electrical Stimulation Induces Activation of Enteric Glial Cells in Rats with Diabetic Gastroparesis

    Wei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of synchronized dual pulse gastric electrical stimulation (SGES on gastric motility in different periods for diabetic rats and try to explore the possible mechanisms of the effects. Methods. Forty-six rats were used in the study. Gastric slow waves were recorded at baseline, 7–14-day diabetes and 56–63-day diabetes before and after stimulation and the age-matched control groups. SGES-60 mins and SGES-7 days (60 mins/day were performed to test the effects on gastric motility and to evaluate glial marker S100B expression in stomach. Results. (1 Gastric emptying was accelerated in 7–14-day diabetes and delayed in 56–63-day diabetes. (2 The S100B expression in 56–63-day diabetes decreased and the ultrastructure changed. (3 The age-associated loss of EGC was observed in 56–63-day control group. (4 SGES was able to not only accelerate gastric emptying but also normalize gastric slow waves. (5 The S100B expression increased after SGES and the ultrastructure of EGC was partially restored. The effect of SGES-7 days was superior to SGES-60 mins. Conclusions. Delayed gastric emptying due to the growth of age may be related to the EGC inactivation. The effects of the SGES on gastric motility may be associated with EGC activation.

  17. The effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 injected into the the dorsal vagal complex on the gastric emptying of diabetic rats%经迷走神经复合体注射胰高血糖素样肽-1对糖尿病大鼠胃排空的影响

    刘玲; 魏良洲; 田字彬; 梁少双; 孔心涓; 武军

    2012-01-01

    -linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)were assessed two weeks of the STZ,while the GLP-1 receptor(GLP-1R)mRNA of the gastric antrum and fundus were examined by means of reverse transcriptasemediated polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).[Results] Two weeks after streptozotocin,gastric emptying was enhanced [ (72 ± 11 ) %]compared with control rats [ (35 ± 8 ) %,P < 0.05],but the plasma GLP-1 level did not change significantly.GLP-1 treatment in the DVC attenuated accelerated gastric emptying significantly [ (39 ±12) %]and increased the plasma GLP-1 [ ( 15.35 ± 2.21 ) pmol/L]of the diabetic rats [ ( 10.78 ± 2.06 ) pmol/L,P < 0.05],while the GLP-1 R mRNA of the gastric antrum/β-actin(1.33 ± 0.22) was also increased compared with the diabetic rats( 1.10 ± 0.14,P <0.05).There was no significant change of the GLP-1R mRNA of the gastric fundus in our experiment.[Conclustons]GLP-1 treatment in the DVC can inhibit the accumulated gastric emptying in the early stages of diabetes rats,and this maybe achieved through increasing the level of the plasma GLP-1 and the GLP-1R mRNA of the gastric antrum.

  18. 胃肠超声造影对糖尿病胃轻瘫患者胃排空功能的评价%The assessment of gastric emptying function of diabetic gastroparesis by gastroenteric contrastenhanced ultrasonography

    吴俊; 赵志军; 赵改萍; 胡玉藏; 侯晓东

    2014-01-01

    目的 应用胃肠超声造影技术检测糖尿病胃轻瘫(DGP)患者胃排空功能,为DGP患者的诊断与治疗提供依据.方法 采用胃肠超声造影技术检测35例DGP患者(DGP组)及35例健康体检者(对照组)胃的排空功能,观察DGP组患者饮用胃肠超声造影剂后胃排空率(GER)和胃排空时间(ET),并与对照组比较.结果 DGP组GER显著低于对照组[(27.05±11.32)%比(45.38±15.08)%],ET显著长于对照组[(102.43±15.76) min比(75.31±11.52) min],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 胃肠超声造影检查是一种简单、可重复进行的实时评估DGP患者胃动力学改变的方法,并不影响胃肠道的正常功能,可作为临床检测DGP患者胃排空功能的一种可靠的无创检查手段.%Objective To detect the changes of gastric emptying function by gastroenteric contrastenhanced ultrasonography and to offer the evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic gastroparesis.Methods The gastric emptying function was measured by gastroenteric contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in 35 cases of diabetic gastroparesis (DGP,DGP group) and 35 volunteers (control group).The gastric emptying rate(GER) and emptying time(ET) after taking orally gastroenteric ultrasound developer in DGP group were observed and compared with control group.Results The GER in DGP group was lower than that in control group [(27.05 ± 11.32)% vs.(45.38 ± 15.08) %] (P < 0.05).The ET in DGP group was longer than that in control group[(102.43 ± 15.76) min vs.(75.31 ± 11.52) min] (P < 0.05).Conclusions The method of gastroenteric contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is a simple,and repeatable imaging method,which can be used to make a real-time assessment on the gastric dynamic changes,but don't influence gastroenteric function and can provide a dependent and noninvasive examine means for clinical physician to test the gastric emptying function in DGP.

  19. Significance of Evaluation of Gastric Emptying Motility in Children with Functional Dyspepsia%功能性消化不良患儿胃排空功能检测的意义

    王志华; 王玉水; 赵久龄

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the gastric motility in children with functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods Twenty - one children with FD in Tianjin Nankai Hospital were selected,and digested 2 pieces of bread and 1 egg labelled with 13C - octanoic acid within 1 min.Breath samples were collected in aluminum bags using the infra red isotope breath sample double bag at 15 min intervals for the following 240 min and the haft-time of solid gastric emptying of the children were deteeted with 13C - octanoic acid breath test,the T1/2 between the male and female children,and the rate of delayed gastric emptying between diffenent age were analyzed using non -dispersive infrared spectrometry. Results The average T1/2 were ( 199.43 ±51. 19) min of 21 FD children. Five children with FD had seriously delayed emptying time ,9 children with FD had mildly delayed emptying time, nevertheless,7 children with FD had normal emptying time. In addition,T1/2 of 7 female were ( 187.00 ±56.74) min,that of 7 male were (211.85 ±45.79) min in 14 children with FD. There was no significant difference of T1/2 between male and female(t= -0. 744,P>0.05). Among the 14 children with delayed emptying time,2 cases ( 14.29% ) were preschool children (aged 4- 8 years old), 12 cases( 85.71% ) were school children (aged 8 -15 years old), there was significant difference ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusions It is certain that the T1/2 is delayed in FD children. There is no obvious influence of gender on gastric emptying.And there is obvious influence of age on gastric emptying time. 13 C - octanoic acid breath test is a reliable method for measuring gastric emptying time in children.J Appl Clin Pediatr, 2011,26 (7): 511 -512%目的 评价功能性消化不良(FD)患儿胃运动功能状况.方法 选取2008年6月-2009年6月本院儿科门诊和病房符合FD患儿21例,服用试验餐(2片配餐面包、1个煎鸡蛋),鸡蛋中混有13C-辛酸,试验餐在1 min内用完.用后再于安静坐位状态下收集第15

  20. Effect of two-channel gastric electrical stimulation with trains of pulses on gastric motility

    Bin Yang; Xiao-Hua Hou; Geng-Qing Song; Jin-Song Liu; Jiande DZ Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of two-channel gastric electrical stimulation (GES) with trains of pulses on gastric emptying and slow waves. METHODS: Seven dogs implanted with four pairs of electrodes and equipped with a duodenal cannula were involved in this study. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment included a series of sessions in the fasting state with trains of short or long pulses, each lasted 10 min. A 5-min recording without pacing was made between two sessions. The second experiment was performed in three sessions (control, single-channel GES, and two-channel GES). The stimulus was applied via the 1st pair of electrodes for single-channel GES (GES via one pair of electrodes located at 14 cm above the pylorus), and simultaneously via the 1st and 3rd channels for two-channel GES (GES via two pairs of electrodes located at 6 and 14 cm above the pylorus). Gastric liquid emptying was collected every 15 min via the cannula for 90 min. RESULTS: GES with trains of pulses at a pulse width of 4 ms or higher was able to entrain gastric slow waves. Two-channel GES was about 50% more efficient than single-channel GES in entraining gastric slow waves. Two channel but not single-channel GES with trains of pulses was capable of accelerating gastric emptying in healthy dogs. Compared with the control session, two-channel GES significantly increased gastric emptying of liquids at 15 min (79.0% ± 6.4% vs 61.3% ± 6.1%, P < 0.01), 30 min (83.2% ± 6.3 % vs 68.2% ± 6.9%, P < 0.01),60 min (86.9% ± 5.5 % vs 74.1% ± 5.9%, P < 0.01),and 90 min (91.0% ± 3.4% vs 76.5% ± 5.9%, P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Two-channel GES with trains of pulses accelerates gastric emptying in healthy dogs and may have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of gastric motility disorders.

  1. MRI for the evaluation of gastric physiology

    Zwart, Ingrid M. de; Roos, Albert de [C2-S Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    Evaluation of gastric physiology (gastric emptying and motility) is important for the diagnosis of disturbances such as functional dyspepsia. MRI is a non-invasive technique that allows simultaneous registration of gastric emptying and motility. To provide an overview of the literature of studies that used MRI as a tool for evaluation of gastric function in both research and clinical settings. A MEDLINE search was performed (1990-2008) directed at the radiology and gastroenterology literature on gastric physiology. Key words that were used included: functional tests, gastric emptying, gastric motility, gastric physiology and MRI. Twenty-five articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Over the last decade, MRI has developed as a reliable, non-invasive method for detailed evaluation of gastric emptying and motility without the disadvantages of ionizing radiation and without the use of intragastric catheters that influence gastric physiology. (orig.)

  2. Short- and medium-term reproducibility of gastric emptying of a solid meal determined by a low dose of 13C-octanoic acid and nondispersive isotope-selective infrared spectrometry

    Anna Kasicka-Jonderko; Magdalena Kami(n)ska; Krzysztof Jonderko; Olga Setera; Barbara B(l)o(n)ska-Fajfrowska

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the reproducibility of a modified 13C breath test-based measurement of solid phase gastric emptying (GE) within the frames of a simple-repeated measure study protocol.METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects (6 females and 6 males, mean age 24.9±0.7 years) were recruited to undergo three identical GE examinations. In six subjects the first two examinations were performed 2 d apart,and the third session was carried out at a median interval of 19.5 d (range 18 - 20 d) from the second one.In another six subjects the first two measurements were taken 20 d apart (median, range: 17-23 d), whereas the third session took place 2 d after the second one.Probes of expiratory air collected before and during six hours after intake of a solid meal (378 kcal) labelled with 75 μL (68 mg) 13C-octanoic acid, were measured for 13CO2 enrichment with the nondispersive isotopeselective infrared spectrometry NDIRS apparatus.RESULTS: Taking coefficients of variation for paired examinations into account, the short-term reproducibility of the GE measurement was slightly but not significantly better than the medium-term one: 7.7% and 11.2% for the lag phase (T-Lag), 7.3% and 10.9% for the gastric half emptying time (T1/2). The least differences in GE parameters detectable at P= 0.05 level in the 12 paired examinations were 9.6 and 15.6 min for T-Lag, 11.6 and 19.7 min for T1/2 by a two-day or two to three-week time gap, respectively.CONCLUSION: The low-cost modification of the breath test involving a lower dose of 13C-octanoic acid and NDIRS, renders good short- and medium-term reproducibility, as well as sensitivity of the measurement of gastric emptying of solids.

  3. 采用核素法研究犬烧伤休克口服补液时胃排空率的变化%Study on the rate of gastric emptying with emission scanning tomography in oral resuscitation of burn shock in dogs

    段中响; 欧阳巧洪; 胡泉; 沈小鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes in the gastric emptying of dogs before and after burn, in order to provide the experimental basis for oral resuscitation of burn shock. Methods: Fighteen male Beagle dogs with 35% TBSA full-thickness degree burn in the back and limbs were randomly divided into two groups: hypertonic electrolyte glucose solution group ( HFGS group) and Mosapride + hypertonic electrolyte glucose solution group (MHEGS group). Gastric emptying rate of each group was measured before and after burn injury. In the HEGS group,2 ml · kg-1 · 1%TBSA-1 of hypertonic electrolyte-glucose solution and 99m Tc_DTPA were gavaged through stomach-tube after burn injury (fast for 8 hours before burn). In the MHFGS group, hypertonic electrolyte-glucose solution and Mosapride (0. 25 mg · kg-1 · h-1 ) were gavaged instead of hypertonic electrolyte-glucose solution alone. Gastric emptying rate and 50% gastric emptying time of the two groups were measured by detecting the radioactivity of intragastric 99m Tc_DTPA with emission scanning tomography ( ECT). Results : Gastric emptying rate of MHEGS group was obviously higher than that of HEGS group before burn injury ( P<O. 01). After burn injury gastric emptying time was obviously lower in HEGS group than that of before injury and also MHEGS group after injury (P<O. 01). In the MHEGS group, gastric emptying rate after burn was similar to that before burn injury (P>O. 05). The 50% gastric emptying time was prolonged after burn in HEGS group (P<O. 01), but it was shorter in MHEGS group after burn ( P<O. 01). Conclusion : The gastric emptying rate is obviously prolonged after 35% TBSA full-thickness burn injury, and the administration of Mosapride can expedite gastric emptying.%目的:研究犬烧伤前后胃排空的变化,为临床烧伤休克口服补液复苏提供实验依据.方法:采用成年雄性Beagle犬18只,均用凝固汽油造成背部及四肢35%TBSA Ⅲ度烧伤,随机分为高渗液组和

  4. Effects of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on gastric emptying, satiety, and postprandial blood glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and ghrelin concentrations in healthy subjects

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Hlebowicz, Anna; Lindstedt, Sandra;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous study of healthy subjects showed that intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduced postprandial blood glucose and the gastric emptying rate (GER) without affecting satiety. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on GER, postprandial blood...... and without 1 or 3 g cinnamon. Fifteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. RESULTS: The addition of 1 or 3 g cinnamon had no significant effect on GER, satiety, glucose, GIP, or the ghrelin response. The insulin response at 60 min and the area under the curve (AUC) at 120 min were...... significantly lower after ingestion of rice pudding with 3 g cinnamon (P = 0.05 and P = 0.036, respectively, after Bonferroni correction). The change in GLP-1 response (DeltaAUC) and the change in the maximum concentration (DeltaC(max)) were both significantly higher after ingestion of rice pudding with 3 g...

  5. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  6. Effection of GLP- 1 Injection in Paraventricular Nucleus on the Expression of GLP-1 Receptor and Gastric Emptying in Diabetic Rats%下丘脑室旁核注射GLP-1对糖尿病大鼠中枢GLP-1受体表达与胃排空的影响

    梁少双; 魏良洲; 荆雪; 田字彬; 孔心涓

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effection of GLP-1 injection GLP-1 in paraventricular nucleus on the expression of GLP-1 receptor and gastric emptying in diabetic rats.Methods:Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups:Group 1:normal control group (NC group),Group 2:diabetic mellitus group (DM group) and Group 3:GLP-1 treated group (GLP-1 group).All of rats were posited a cannula in PVN,the rats of Group 2 and Group 3 were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ).The rats of Group 3 were injected 0.5μg/0.5μl GLP-1 and isovolumic normal saline for Group 1 and Group 2 in PVN after 7-day recovery period following surgery.Gastric emptying was measured by intragastric administration of methyl cellulose-phenol red solution.The GLP-1 levels in the hypothalamus were measured by EISIA method,the expression levels of GLP-1R mRNA in the hypothalamus were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Results:The gastric emptying of Group 2 showed significantly accelerated compared with thatGroup 1 (P<0.05).which decreased significantly in Group 3 compared to Group 2 (P< 0.05),There was no statistical difference betweenGroup 2 and Group 1 (P>0.05).The expression of GLP-1 and GLP-1R mRNA in hypothalamus of Group 3 was increased significantlycompared with in the other two groups and no difference between Group 2 and Group 1 (P>0.05),which showed a negative correlation with decrease of gastric emptying (P<0.05).Conclusion:GLP-1 Injection in PVN delays acceleration of gastric emptying during the early stage of diabetic rats.The expression of GLP-1 receptor in the hypothalamus is promoted by GLP-1 may be the mechanism.%目的:探讨下丘脑室旁核(hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus,PVN)注射GLP-1(胰高血糖素样肽-1)对糖尿病大鼠胃排空的影响及机制.方法:30只Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照组(NC组)、糖尿病组(DM组)和GLP-1干预组(GLP-1组),每组各10只.DM组和GLP-1组腹腔注射链脲佐菌素,三组

  7. Evaluation of gastric motility by Fourier analysis of condensed images

    Linke, R.; Muenzing, W.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    In this study Fourier analysis was applied to condensed images of gastric emptying with the aim of evaluating the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions as well as gastric emptying in patients with various well-defined disorders. In 15 controls, 65 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 41 patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DM), 12 patients with pyloric stenosis and 9 patients who had undergone gastric surgery, gastric emptying was determined after ingestion of a semi-solid test meal. In addition, condensed images were generated to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions by means of Fourier analysis. In PSS and DM patients, gastric emptying and contraction amplitudes were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Patients with pyloric stenosis displayed regular peristalsis but significantly delayed emptying (P<0.01). Patients who had undergone gastric surgery showed normal or rapid gastric emptying associated with decreased amplitudes (P<0.01). The frequency of gastric contractions in the patient groups was not different from that in controls. This study showed Fourier analysis of condensed images to be a rapid and feasible approach for the evaluation of gastric contractions. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Data on gastric contractions provided additional information compared with results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  8. Effect of glucagon-like Peptide-1 in the dorsal vagal complex on the expression of GLP-1 receptor in the hypothalamus and the gastric emptying in diabetic rats%迷走神经复合体注射GLP-1对糖尿病大鼠下丘脑GLP-1受体表达及胃排空的影响

    吕丰香; 魏良洲; 田字彬; 王利华; 孔心涓; 尹继萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the glucagons-like Peptide 1 injection in the dorsal vagal complex ( DVC) on the expression of GLP-1 receptor in hypothalamus and the gastric emptying in diabetic rats. Methods 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; normal control group ( NC group) , diabetic mellitus group ( DM group) and GLP-1 treated group (GLP-1 group). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). All rats were posited cannulas in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). After 4 weeks of the STZ injection, GLP-1 (0. 5 μg) in 0. 5 μl saline was injected for GLP-1 group while isovolumic normal saline was injected for NC group and DM group through cannulas. Gastric emptying was measured by intragastric administration of methyl cellulose-phenol red solution and the expression levels of GLP-1 RmRNA in the hypothalamus were measured by means of real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain's reaction (RT-PCR). Results After 4 weeks of STZ injection, DM group showed significantly accelerated rates of gastric emptying of the fluid compared with those in the NC group ( P < 0. 05 ) , the gastric emptying decreased significantly in GLP-1 group compared with DM group (P <0.05) , but still accelerated compared with NC group (P<0.05). The expression of GLP-1 RmRNA in hypothalamus of GLP-1 group were increased significantly compared with DM group and NC group (P<0.05) , which showed a negative correlation with decrease of gastric emptying. Conclusion GLP-1 injection in DVC can delay the accelerated gastric emptying during the early stage of diabetic rats. This maybe achieve through promoting the expression of GLP-1 receptor in the hypothalamus.%目的 探讨中枢迷走神经复合体注射GLP-1(胰高血糖素样肽-1)对糖尿病大鼠胃排空的影响和中枢作用机制.方法 36只雄性清洁级Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照(NC)组、糖尿病(DM)组和糖尿病GLP-1(GLP-1)干预组.DM组和GLP-1组腹腔

  9. Theanine Depressed the Food Intake and Gastric Emptying in Female Mice via Lateral Hypothalamic AMPA and NMDA Receptor%茶氨酸经下丘脑腹外侧核抑制雌性小鼠摄食与胃排空作用研究

    虞希冲; 杨伟; 吴波拉

    2013-01-01

    采用比色法观察脑室、核团内微注射和腹腔注射茶氨酸对外周胃排空的影响。结果表明,腹腔给予茶氨酸3~30 mg/kg后显著抑制摄食量和胃排空;脑室给药3~100 ng后,对胃排空的影响表现出V型曲线,3~30 ng茶氨酸剂量依赖性抑制胃排空,50、100 ng茶氨酸使胃排空恢复到正常水平。然而,腹腔注射同样量的茶氨酸并无抑制作用。在下丘脑外侧核内注射同量茶氨酸,出现与脑室内类似的抑制胃排空作用,在弓状核、下丘脑腹内侧核内注射却无明显的改变。在下丘脑外侧核内注射NMDA和AMPA后均能诱导摄食和胃排空的增加,而茶氨酸10、30、100 ng能抑制两者诱导的胃排空及 NMDA诱导的摄食,茶氨酸3~100 ng能抑制 AMPA诱导的摄食。上述结果表明茶氨酸抑制摄食和胃排空作用可能与抑制下丘脑外侧核的NMDA受体和AMPA受体有关。%In the present study, the food intake and gastric emptying of female mice were evaluated after theanine microinjection in cerebral ventrile, lateral hypothalamus, arcurate nuleius and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Results showed that theanine 3~30 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection decreased food intake and gastric emptying;theanine 3~100 ng microinjection into cerebral ventrile induced “V” style effects on gastric, theanine 3~30 ng decreased gastric emptying dose-dependently while theanine 50 and 100 ng recovered gastric emptying. Theanine microinjection in lateral hypothalamus displayed similar effects on gastic emptying as theanine i.c.v while microinjection in arcurate nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus did not alert gastric emptying. Theanine decreased food intake and gastric emptying induced by NMDA and AMPA microinjection in lateral hypothalamus. It was concluded that theanine depressed the food intake and gastric emptying after microinjection in lateral hypothalamus via NMDA and AMP receptor, partly.

  10. Platelets accelerate gastric ulcer healing through presentation of vascular endothelial growth factor

    Wallace, John L; Dicay, Michael; McKnight, Webb; Dudar, Genevieve K

    2006-01-01

    Platelets contain an array of growth factors that can modulate healing processes, including both pro- (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) and antiangiogenic (e.g., endostatin) factors. Previous studies have shown that circulating platelets contribute significantly to gastric ulcer healing, acting as a delivery system for these growth factors to the site of injury. In this study, we examined the effects of orally administered human platelets on the healing of gastric ulcers in ra...

  11. 老年食欲不振患者幽门螺旋杆菌感染与胃排空关系的研究%Study on the relationship between Helicobacter Pylori infection and gastric emptying in old inappetence patients

    梁芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨老年食欲不振患者幽门螺旋杆菌(HP)感染与胃排空的相关性.方法 采用胶体金法和13C-辛酸呼气试验法对69例老年食欲不振患者,进行HP检测和胃排空检测.结果 69例患者中幽门螺旋杆菌阳性31例,阴性38例,阳性感染率为44.9%.HP阳性组和阴性组胃半排空时间分别为(244.5min±35.6min和232.4min+36.7min),差异无统计学意义.结论 幽门螺旋杆菌感染可能不是导致老年食欲不振的主要因素,且幽门螺旋杆菌感染与胃排空无相关性.%Objective To explore the correlation between HP infection and gastric emptying in old patients with anorexia. Method 69 inappetence patients were detected, dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) was used for testing Hp infection and the gastric emptying was detected by 13C - octanoic acid breath test Results In 69 cases, HP positive cases were 31 and negative cases were 38, Hp positive rate was 44. 9%. Hie half time of gastric emptying in both positive Hp group and negative group were (244. 5 ±35. 6) min and (232.4 ±36.7) min, respectively, and there were no significant difference. Conclusions HP infection was not main cause of old people anorexia, and there was no correlation between HP infection and gastric emptying.

  12. Gastric emptying scintigraphy: choice by in vitro test, of a new {sup 99m}Tc marker to label solid phase and further analysis with the better radiopharmaceuticals; Radiomarquage au {sup 99m}Tc de la phase solide pour la vidange gastrique: stabilite de 5 radiopharmaceutiques par test in vitro et analyse complementaire sur les 2 plus stables

    Blanc, F

    2005-05-15

    The study of gastric emptying by isotopic method occurs regularly in Brest nuclear medicine department. It consists in eating radiolabelled omelette with rhenium sulphide macro-colloid and in drinking radiolabelled water with {sup 111}In-DTPA. The two phases are followed in stomach with gamma-camera. Rhenium sulphide macro-colloid have been taken off the market in january 2004 and no radiopharmaceutical has replaced them. in vitro test permitted us to test solid phase radiolabeling stability with 5 {sup 99m}Tc-vectors used in nuclear medicine. Two of them are suitable for gastric emptying solid phase labelling: the tin fluoride colloids and the sodium phytate but tin fluoride colloids give better labelling stability than sodium phytate. In order to define solid phase marker properties, studies of medium composition by X fluorescence, size by laser granulometry, structure by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), TLC (thin layer chromatography) and by centrifugation are done either with the two vectors or only with sodium phytate. Structural properties of tin fluoride colloids are known. Results of this study indicate that phytates can be colloids. Finally, the good gastric emptying solid phase marker must be a colloid with a size of about 200 nm. (author)

  13. Effect of baclofen on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats Efeito do baclofen no esvaziamento gástrico de líquido e de sólidos em rato

    Edgard Ferro Collares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a potent inhibitory neurotransmitter. There is evidence that GABA B receptors located in the dorsal complex and in afferent fibers of the vagus nerve participate in the control of gastrointestinal motility. OBJECTIVE: To assess the intracerebroventricularly (ICV and intravenously (IV effect of baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n = 6-8 animals were used. Gastric emptying of liquid test meals labeled with phenol red was evaluated by the determination of percent gastric retention (%GR 10 and 15 min after orogastric administration of saline and 10% glucose meals, respectively. Baclofen was injected ICV (1 and 2 µg/animal through a tube implanted into the lateral ventricle of the brain and was injected IV (1 and 2 mg/kg into a tail vein. The gastric emptying of liquid was determined 10 or 30 min after ICV and IV baclofen administration, respectively. The gastric emptying of the solid meal was assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention 2 h after the beginning of the ingestion of the habitual ratio by the animal, consumed over a period of 30 min. Baclofen was administered ICV (1 and 2 µg/animal or IV (1 and 2 mg/kg immediately after the end of the ingestion of the solid meal. The control groups received vehicle (sterile saline solution ICV or IV. RESULTS: The group of animals receiving baclofen ICV (2 mg/animal presented a significantly lower (PCONTEXTO: O ácido gama-aminobutírico (GABA é um potente neurotransmissor inibitório. Há evidências que receptores GABA>B localizados no complexo dorsal do vago e em fibras aferentes do nervo vago participam no controle da motricidade gastrointestinal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito intracerebroventricular (ICV e intravenoso (IV do baclofen, um agonista para receptores GABA B, sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de líquidos e de sólidos em ratos. M

  14. 三维超声对非溃疡性消化不良患者胃排空功能的初步研究%Preliminary study on the gastric emptying function in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia using three-dimensional ultrasonography

    龙莎; 张竞超; 胡萍香; 张壮凤; 吴燕华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of three -dimensional ultrasonography on gastric emptying function in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD). Methods Sixty patients with NUD were divided randomly into chinese medicine group(n=30) and western medicine group(n=30). Gastric emptying time and antral volume were measured using three-dimensional ultrasonography. Gastric emptying function was reviewed 4 weeks after treatment. The efficacies of both drugs were assessed. Results After treatment, gastric emptying time and antral volume were lower than before treatment in the two groups. In chinese medicine group, half-time gastric emptying and all-time gastric emptying were (37.6±11.4)min and(78.9±14.6)min, respectively. In western medicine group, half-time gastric emptying and all-time gastric emptying were (39.2±14.0)min and (82.1±13.7)min, respectively. In chinese medicine group, gastric antral volume 15 min before treatment was (44.5±5.7)ml, 15 min after treatment was (41.5±4.8)ml, 105 min before treatment was (17.2±2.2)ml and 105 min after treatment was (10.2± 1.3)ml. In western medicine group, gastric antral volume 15 min before treatment was (45.1±5.8)ml, 15 min after treatment was (39.4±4.5 )ml, 105 min before treatment was (15.3±2.3)ml and 105 min after treatment was (9.3±1.0)ml. Gastric antral volume of the two groups showed a decreasing tendency. Conclusion Gastric emptying function in patients with NUD has a certain improvement through taking shuganhewei granule. It provides a new drug with curative effect and no side effects for treating NUD. Three-dimensional ultrasonography can be effectively detected gastric emptying function in patients with NUD, which may be of clinical application.%目的 探讨三维超声对服用疏肝和胃冲剂的非溃疡性消化不良(NUD)患者胃排空功能的诊断价值.方法 60例NUD患者随机分为疏肝和胃冲剂治疗组(中药组)和吗丁啉治疗组(西药组)各30例,应用三维超声技

  15. 根治性食管癌切除及食管重建术后功能性胸胃排空障碍的发生因素及对策%The occurrence factors and countermeasures of functional thoracic gastric emptying after radical resection of esopha-geal cancer and esophageal reconstruction

    唐德荣

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨根治性食管癌切除及食管重建术后功能性胸胃排空障碍的发生因素及对策。方法:收治进行根治性食管癌切除及食管重建术后患有功能性胸胃排空障碍的患者30例,均通过保守治疗康复。结果:根治性食管癌切除及食管重建术后功能性胸胃排空障碍的发生因素有很多,胃排空恢复时间5~33 d,平均19 d。结论:根治性食管癌切除及食管重建术后功能性胸胃排空障碍的发生因素有很多,通过积极的治疗和预防能够大大降低发生率。%Objective:To explore the factors and countermeasures of functional thoracic gastric emptying dysfunction after radical resection of esophageal cancer and esophageal reconstruction.Methods:30 patients with postoperative functional gastric emptying disorder who had radical resection of esophageal cancer and esophageal reconstruction operation,and all of them were given the conservative treatment and rehabilitation.Results:There were a lot of factors for the occurrence of functional thoracic gastric emptying disorder after radical resection of esophageal cancer and esophageal reconstruction.The recovery time of gastric emptying was 5 to 33 d,with an average of 19 d.Conclusion:There are many factors that cause the occurrence of functional thoracic gastric emptying disorder after radical resection of esophageal cancer and esophageal reconstruction,and the incidence rate is greatly reduced through active treatment and prevention.

  16. Mosapride clinical efficacy of functional dyspepsia and proximal stomach relaxation and gastric emptying%莫沙必利治疗功能性消化不良及近端胃舒张和胃排空功能的临床疗效

    刘若吟; 黄绍鹏; 邵卫华

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate mosapride functional dyspepsia and clinical treatment of proximal stomach relaxation and gastric emptying.Methods:A hospital from September 2013 to April 2015 admitted 90 patients with functional dyspepsia were randomly divided into two groups. In the control group were treated with oral domperidone domperidone therapy, patients in the experimental group oral mosapride, two groups were compared gastric emptying rate and proximal stomach volume changes and the like. Results: The experimental group and a control group of patients before and after treatment group difference in gastric emptying rate significantly, there was a significant difference was statistically significant (P<0.01); the experimental group patients after gastric emptying rate significantly higher than that patients after gastric emptying rate, there is a significant difference was statistically significant (P<0.01);patients in the experimental group after 30min and 60min proximal stomach volume were significantly lower than the control group patients after 30min and 60min proximal stomach volume, there was a significant difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). Con-clusion:Mosapride functional dyspepsia efficacy and proximal stomach relaxation and gastric emptying significantly , with reference.%目的:探讨莫沙必利治疗功能性消化不良及近端胃舒张和胃排空功能的临床治疗效果。方法:收集我院2013年9月~2015年4月入院的90例功能性消化不良患者随机分为两组。对照组给予口服吗丁啉多潘立酮片治疗,实验组口服莫沙必利治疗,比较两组胃排空率及近端胃容积变化情况。结果:实验组及对照组治疗前后胃排空率组内比较差异显著,存在显著差异,具有统计学意义(P<0.01);实验组治疗后胃排空率显著高于对照组,存在显著差异,具有统计学意义(P<0.01);实验组治疗后30min近端胃容积均显著小于对照

  17. Gastric control of food intake.

    Robinson, P H; McHugh, P R; Moran, T H; Stephenson, J D

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of gastric emptying leads to enhanced satiety and this mechanism may contribute to the undereating observed after administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) and fenfluramine, and in patients with anorexia nervosa. Pyloric smooth muscle bears specific CCK receptors and the evidence suggests that a major site of action for CCK satiety is in the periphery. CCK receptors are widespread in the neonatal rat stomach but not in the brain and over the first two weeks of life binding in the stomach decreases and that in the brain increases. This and the finding that independent ingestion as well as gastric emptying are inhibited by CCK at birth suggest the stomach as its likely site of action in the neonatal rat. Fenfluramine inhibits feeding in animals and in patients with bulimia nervosa. In monkeys, fenfluramine inhibits gastric emptying and this action correlates with its feeding inhibition. Patients with anorexia nervosa who are acutely starving and rats maintained on a restricted diet have delayed gastric emptying. Anorexic patients showed abnormal reporting of both hunger and satiety, and, together with those with bulimia nervosa, often associated gastric contents with symptoms of eating disorder, indicating disturbed interpretation of gastric signals. PMID:3065484

  18. Postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Sonne, David P; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2014-01-01

    , gallbladder emptying and gastric emptying were examined. RESULTS: Gallbladder emptying increased with increasing meal fat content, but no intergroup differences were demonstrated. GIP and GLP1 responses were comparable among the groups with GIP levels being higher following high-fat meals, whereas GLP1......-induced GLP1 secretion combined with the findings of reduced postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) led us to speculate whether reduced postprandial GLP1 responses in some patients with T2DM arise as a consequence of diabetic gallbladder dysmotility. DESIGN AND METHODS...... secretion was similar after both OGTT and meals. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients with T2DM exhibited normal gallbladder emptying to meals with a wide range of fat content. Incretin responses were similar to that in controls, and an association with postprandial gallbladder contraction could...

  19. Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avaliação do pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on the gastric emptying of rats: a pretreatment evaluation using Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME

    Edgard Ferro Collares

    2006-09-01

    é-tratados com as mesmas doses do inibidor das óxido nítrico-sintetases e tratados com veículo (40,5% e 38,7%, respectivamente e àqueles pré-tratados com veículo e tratados com a mesma toxina. CONCLUSÃO: O pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester numa dose baixa (1 mg/kg determinou redução discreta no efeito de retardo do esvaziamento gástrico determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio in vivo e aumento significativo do retardo com doses mais elevadas (2,5 e 5 mg/kg, doses estas que, per se, não interferem no esvaziamento.BACKGROUND: There is evidence that nitric oxide plays a role in the decrease in gastric emptying induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. AIM: To evaluate the effect of pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester, one competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide syntases, on the gastric emptying delay induced by lipopolysaccharide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats, SPF, were used after 24 h fast and 1 h-water withdrawn. The pretreatment was done intravenously with vehicle (saline or Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester in the doses of 0.5, 1, 2.5 e 5 mg/kg. After 10 min, the animals were treated iv with lipopolysaccharide (50 mg/kg or received vehicle (saline. The gastric emptying was evaluated 1 h after the lipopolysaccharide administration. A saline solution containing phenol red was used as the test meal. The gastric emptying was indirectly assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention of the test meal 10 min after orogastric administration. RESULTS: The animals pretreated with vehicle and treatment with lipopolysaccharide have significant rise of the gastric retention (average = 57% in comparison with the controls receiving only vehicle (38.1%. The pretreatment with the different doses of Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester did not modify per se the gastric retention in comparison with the animals pretreated with vehicle. Pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester with the dose of 1 mg/kg determined a

  20. 13C-octanoic acid breath test for measurement of solid gastric emptying: reproducibility in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus%13C-辛酸呼吸试验测定糖尿病胃固体排空功能的重复性研究

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the intraindividual reproducibility of the octanoic acid breath test in normal subjects and diabetics and to investigate whether cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying influence the intraindividual reproducibility.Methods Nine normal subjects (six men, three women,mean age 38 years) and 15 diabetics with insulin treatment [nine men, six women; mean age 47 years; six had cardiovascular autonomic diabetic neuropathy (CADN) and/or delayed gastric emptying time] were, after a nocturnal fasting period, given a standard test meal (labeled with 13C-octanoic acid, 1 046 kJ). Breath samples were taken at ten minute intervals over first one hour and at fifteen minute intervals over the following three hours and examined for 13CO2 by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. Using a regression method gastric emptying half times (t1/2) and lag phase (tlag) were determined.Results There was not a significant difference of t1/2 and tlag between two measurements in normal subjects and diabetics. The coefficients of variation of day-to-day reproducibility were 11.7% for t1/2, 19.4% for tlag in normal subjects and 17.8% for t1/2, 28.2% for tlag in diabetics, but there was not significant difference between normal subjects and diabetics. There was not significant difference of intraindividual coefficient of variation of t1/2 and tlag between diabetics with/without CADN and between diabetics with normal gastric emptying time and diabetics with delayed gastric emptying time.Conclusions  The 13C-octanoic acid breath test has a high intraindividual reproducibility which is not affected by the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying. It can be recommended as a non-invasive test for assessing gastric emptying time after a solid test meal in diabetics.%目的观察13C-辛酸呼吸试验测定糖尿病患者胃固体排空时间及其变异性,以及心自主神经病变和病理性胃排空

  1. Relevância da temperatura e do esvaziamento gástrico de líquidos consumidos por praticantes de atividade física Relevance of temperature and gastric emptying of liquids consumed by individuals who practice physical activities

    Rafael Pires da Silva

    2009-10-01

    effects on performance and possibly on health if the body liquids lost by sweating are not completely replaced. Hydration efficiency also depends on gastric emptying, which is affected by several factors, including the temperature of the ingested liquid. The objective of this study was to critically assess the fluid replacement practices used by individuals who practice physical activities and discuss how the effect of liquid temperature on gastric emptying influences this hydrating behavior. Studies on the theme have found contradicting results, probably due to the different methods used. The studies that investigate liquid temperature in the gastrointestinal tract during exercise are limited. Considering the total gastric emptying time during rest, extreme liquid temperatures have no significant effect on the total gastric emptying time, since the temperature inside the stomach normalizes quickly after ingestion of the liquid. However, there are clear scientific evidences that the ingestion of ice-cold liquids increases gastric emptying in the first minutes after ingestion. This fact needs to be better investigated when it is associated with other pre-competition factors, such as the psychological state of the athlete. However, low temperatures improve the palatability of the drink, implying in greater consumption by the athletes and reducing the risk of dehydration. The effects of low temperature on gastric emptying are not decisive, since fluid replacement has intervention factors that are more relevant than temperature.

  2. A prospective randomized controlled study of erythromycin on gastric and small intestinal distention: Implications for MR enterography

    Highlights: • Suboptimal small intestinal distention limits jejunal visualization during MRI. • In this controlled study, erythromycin increased gastric emptying measured with MRI. • However, effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess if erythromycin increases gastric emptying and hence improves small intestinal distention during MR enterography. Methods: Gastric, small intestinal, and large intestinal volumes were assessed with MR after neutral oral contrast (1350 ml in 45 min) and balanced randomization to erythromycin (200 mg i.v., age 31 ± 3y, 13 females), or placebo (37 ± 3y, 13 females) in 40 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images of the abdomen were acquired on a 1.5 T magnet at standard delay times for enterography. Gastric, small, and large intestinal volumes were measured by specialized software. In addition, two radiologists manually measured diameters and percentage distention of jejunal and ileal loops. Treatment effects were evaluated by an ITT analysis based on ANCOVA models. Results: All subjects tolerated erythromycin. MRI scans of the stomach and intestine were obtained at 62 ± 2 (mean ± SEM) and 74 ± 2 min respectively after starting oral contrast. Gastric volumes were lower (P < 0.0001) after erythromycin (260 ± 49 ml) than placebo (688 ± 63 ml) but jejunal, ileal, and colonic volumes were not significantly different. However, maximum (76–100%) jejunal distention was more frequently observed (P = 0.03) after erythromycin (8/20 subjects [40%]) than placebo (2/20 subjects [10%]). The diameter of a representative ileal loop was greater (P = 0.001) after erythromycin (18.8 ± 4.3 mm) than placebo (17.3 ± 2.8 mm) infusion. Conclusions: After ingestion of oral contrast, erythromycin accelerated gastric emptying but effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. In balance, erythromycin did not substantially enhance small intestinal distention during

  3. A prospective randomized controlled study of erythromycin on gastric and small intestinal distention: Implications for MR enterography

    Bharucha, Adil E., E-mail: bharucha.adil@mayo.edu [Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.) Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Fidler, Jeff L., E-mail: fidler.jeff@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Huprich, James E., E-mail: huprich@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Ratuapli, Shiva K., E-mail: ratuapli.shiva@mayo.edu [Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.) Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Holmes, David R., E-mail: holmes.david3@mayo.edu [Biomedical Imaging Resource, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Riederer, Stephen J., E-mail: riederer@mayo.edu [MR Research Laboratory, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Zinsmeister, Alan R., E-mail: zinsmeis@mayo.edu [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. S.W., Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Suboptimal small intestinal distention limits jejunal visualization during MRI. • In this controlled study, erythromycin increased gastric emptying measured with MRI. • However, effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess if erythromycin increases gastric emptying and hence improves small intestinal distention during MR enterography. Methods: Gastric, small intestinal, and large intestinal volumes were assessed with MR after neutral oral contrast (1350 ml in 45 min) and balanced randomization to erythromycin (200 mg i.v., age 31 ± 3y, 13 females), or placebo (37 ± 3y, 13 females) in 40 healthy asymptomatic volunteers. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR images of the abdomen were acquired on a 1.5 T magnet at standard delay times for enterography. Gastric, small, and large intestinal volumes were measured by specialized software. In addition, two radiologists manually measured diameters and percentage distention of jejunal and ileal loops. Treatment effects were evaluated by an ITT analysis based on ANCOVA models. Results: All subjects tolerated erythromycin. MRI scans of the stomach and intestine were obtained at 62 ± 2 (mean ± SEM) and 74 ± 2 min respectively after starting oral contrast. Gastric volumes were lower (P < 0.0001) after erythromycin (260 ± 49 ml) than placebo (688 ± 63 ml) but jejunal, ileal, and colonic volumes were not significantly different. However, maximum (76–100%) jejunal distention was more frequently observed (P = 0.03) after erythromycin (8/20 subjects [40%]) than placebo (2/20 subjects [10%]). The diameter of a representative ileal loop was greater (P = 0.001) after erythromycin (18.8 ± 4.3 mm) than placebo (17.3 ± 2.8 mm) infusion. Conclusions: After ingestion of oral contrast, erythromycin accelerated gastric emptying but effects on small intestinal dimensions were variable. In balance, erythromycin did not substantially enhance small intestinal distention during

  4. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  5. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) 60Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin

  6. The Role of Pyloromyotomy on Gastric Drainage in Esophagectomy and Gastric Pull-up Procedures: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study

    Mohsen Sokouti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastric drainage disorder is one of the complications of gastric pull-up and esophagectomy after surgery which might lead to esophageal cancer and benign strictures. The aim of this study was to determine the role of pyloromyotomy on gastric drainage. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial study, we studied 51 patients in two matched groups from July 2008 to August 2010 in ImamRezaHospital, Tabriz,Iran. Twenty-seven patients in group one had no pyloromyotomy and 24 patients in group two had pyloromyotomy after transhiatal esophagectomy and gastric pull-up procedure. The outcomes were measured as the incidence of gastric outlet compromise which was diagnosed 12 months after esophagectomy and gastric pull-up. Regurgitation, fullness, respiratory distress, coughing and, clinical delayed gastric emptying were observed and compared in two groups by radioisotope gastric emptying scanning. Results: A total number of 51 patients, 19 (37.25% male and 32 (62.75% female were studied in this research. The overall incidence of delayed gastric emptying was 19 /51 (37.25%. Pyloromyotomy did not reduce the incidence of delayed gastric emptying. There was no statistically significant difference in the length of hospital stay in study groups (group 1= 11 days versus 12 days in group 2, P=0.41. There was no statistical difference in anastomotic leak or anastomotic stricture (P= 0.72. Mortality was two (one patient, 3.7%, in group 1 and one patient, 4.2%, in group 2. The incidences of regurgitation and increased gastric emptying were not statistically different in two groups. Conclusion: Pyloromyotomy could not reduce the incidence of delayed gastric emptying after transhiatal esophagectomy, and vagotomy.

  7. Hypoglycaemia after gastric bypass: mechanisms and treatment.

    Ritz, P; Vaurs, C; Barigou, M; Hanaire, H

    2016-03-01

    Hypoglycaemia after gastric bypass can be severe, but is uncommon, and is sometimes only revealed through monitoring glucose concentrations. The published literature is limited by the heterogeneity of the criteria used for diagnosis, arguing in favour of the Whipple triad with a glycaemia threshold of 55 mg/dl as the diagnostic reference. Women who lost most of their excess weight after gastric bypass, long after the surgery was performed, and who did not have diabetes before surgery are at the greatest risk. In this context, hypoglycaemia results from hyperinsulinism, which is either generated by pancreas anomalies (nesidioblastosis) and/or caused by an overstimulation of β cells by incretins, mainly glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Glucose absorption is both accelerated and increased because of the direct communication between the gastric pouch and the jejunum. This is a post-surgical exaggeration of a natural adaptation that is seen in patients who have not undergone surgery in whom glucose is infused directly into the jejunum. There is not always a correspondence between symptoms and biological traits; however, hyperinsulinism is constant if hypoglycaemia is severe and there are neuroglucopenic symptoms. The treatment relies firstly on changes in eating habits, splitting food intake into five to six daily meals, slowing gastric emptying, reducing the glycaemic load and glycaemic index of foods, using fructose and avoiding stress at meals. Pharmacological treatment with acarbose is efficient, but other drugs still need to be validated in a greater number of subjects (insulin, glucagon, calcium channel blockers, somatostatin analogues and GLP-1 analogues). Lastly, if the surgical option has to be used, the benefits (efficient symptom relief) and the risks (weight regain, diabetes) should be weighed carefully. PMID:26508374

  8. Estudo do esvaziamento gástrico e da distribuição intragástrica de uma dieta sólida através da cintilografia: diferenças entre os sexos Scintigraphic study of gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of a solid meal: gender differences

    Sônia Letícia Silva LORENA

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Ainda existem controvérsias quanto a possíveis diferenças de esvaziamento gástrico entre os sexos. Os objetivos deste estudo são: confirmar se homens e mulheres realmente diferem no esvaziamento gástrico de uma dieta sólida e investigar se esta diferença está relacionada com diferentes padrões de distribuição da dieta entre os compartimentos proximal e distal do estômago. Dezoito voluntários assintomáticos (nove do sexo masculino, com idade média de 35 ± 9 anos e nove do sexo feminino, com idade média de 41 ± 11 anos foram estudados pela manhã, após ingestão da dieta sólida padronizada (omelete marcada com 185MBq de enxofre coloidal-99mTc. Imagens simultâneas do estômago nas projeções anterior e posterior foram adquiridas imediatamente após a ingestão da dieta e a cada 10 minutos, durante 120 minutos. Curvas de tempo versus contagem radioativa foram obtidas para o estômago total, proximal e distal. O T½ do esvaziamento gástrico foi maior para as mulheres (96,1 ± 17,2 minutos do que para os homens (79,9 ± 17,8 minutos; P = 0,02. A análise da distribuição intragástrica da dieta mostrou que não houve diferenças entre os sexos quanto ao esvaziamento gástrico proximal, mas as mulheres apresentaram maior retenção da dieta na porção distal do estômago (P = 0,04. Nossos resultados mostram que o esvaziamento gástrico de sólidos é mais lento nas mulheres não-menopausadas assintomáticas, do que nos homens de faixa etária semelhante, provavelmente devido a maior retenção da dieta na região distal do estômago. Este fato deve ser levado em conta nos estudos de esvaziamento gástrico pela cintilografia para evitar diagnósticos errôneos de gastroparesias nas pacientes do sexo feminino.Gender-related differences in gastric emptying are still controversial. The aims of this study were: to confirm the sex-related difference in gastric emptying of a solid meal and to investigate its association with

  9. Slow release delivery of rioprostil by an osmotic pump inhibits the formation of acute aspirin-induced gastric lesions in dogs and accelerates the healing of chronic lesions without incidence of side effects.

    Katz, L B; Shriver, D A

    1989-10-01

    Rioprostil, a primary alcohol prostaglandin E1 analog, inhibits gastric acid secretion and prevents gastric lesions induced by a variety of irritants in experimental animals. Because rioprostil is relatively short-acting, it would be of significant benefit clinically if its duration of action could be extended to allow once daily dosing. This investigation demonstrates that when administered via an osmotically driven pump (Osmet, Alza Corp.), rioprostil prevents the acute effects of aspirin on the gastric mucosa of dogs, accelerates the healing of aspirin-induced gastric lesions, and heals preexisting aspirin-induced gastric lesions during chronic administration of aspiring. The potency of rioprostil against acute gastric lesion formation was greatest when delivered from a 24-hr release pump (ED50 = 0.77 micrograms/kg/24 hr) and was 37 times greater than when administered as a single oral bolus. In addition, this activity occurred at doses which had little or no gastric antisecretory activity in betazole-stimulated Heidenhain pouch dogs. When delivered from a 24-hr pump, rioprostil (100 micrograms/kg/24 hr) healed preexisting aspirin-induced gastric lesions within 8 days after removal of aspirin, or after 15 days during continued daily aspirin administration. Additional studies determined that administration of rioprostil at doses of 720, 1440, or 2160 micrograms/kg/24 hr (935-2805 times the gastroprotective ED50 in 24 hr pumps) was well tolerated, with only slight, transient increases in body temperature, softening of the stools, and mild sedation at the highest dose. Administration of rioprostil daily for 5 days at 960 micrograms/kg/24 hr from 24-hr release pumps was also well tolerated by all dogs with no evidence of any accumulation of effect of rioprostil. In summary, administration of rioprostil via an osmotic pump increases its potency and duration of action against the gastric lesion-inducing effect of aspirin, and maintains a wide ratio of safety. PMID

  10. Emptiness Formation Probability

    Crawford, Nicholas; Ng, Stephen; Starr, Shannon

    2016-08-01

    We present rigorous upper and lower bounds on the emptiness formation probability for the ground state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ quantum spin system. For a d-dimensional system we find a rate of decay of the order {exp(-c L^{d+1})} where L is the sidelength of the box in which we ask for the emptiness formation event to occur. In the {d=1} case this confirms previous predictions made in the integrable systems community, though our bounds do not achieve the precision predicted by Bethe ansatz calculations. On the other hand, our bounds in the case {d ≥ 2} are new. The main tools we use are reflection positivity and a rigorous path integral expansion, which is a variation on those previously introduced by Toth, Aizenman-Nachtergaele and Ueltschi.

  11. Empty Container Logistics

    Karmelić, Jakov; dundović, Čedomir; Kolanović, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast a...

  12. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  13. Gastrointestinal hormone abnormalities and G and D cells in functional dyspepsiapatients with gastric dysmotility

    Mei-Rong He; Yu-Gang Song; Fa-Chao Zhi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between gastric dysmotility,gastrointestinal hormone abnormalities, and neuroendocrine cells in gastrointestinal mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD).METHODS: Gastric emptying was assessed with solid radiopaque markers in 54 FD patients, and the patients were divided into two groups according to the results, one with delayed gastric emptying and the other with normal gastric emptying. Seventeen healthy volunteers acted as normal controls. Fasting and postprandial plasma levels and gastroduodenal mucosal levels of gastrointestinal hormones gastrin, somatostatin (SS) and neurotensin (NT)were measured by radioimmunoassay in all the subjects.G cells (gastrin-producing cells) and D cells (SS-producing cells) in gastric antral mucosa were immunostained with rabbit anti-gastrin polyclonal antibody and rabbit anti-SS polyclonal antibody, respectively, and analyzed quantitatively by computerized image analysis.RESULTS: The postprandial plasma gastrin levels, the fasting and postprandial plasma levels and the gastric and duodenal mucosal levels of NT were significantly higher in the FD patients with delayed gastric emptying than in those with normal gastric emptying and normal controls. The number and gray value of G and D cells and the G cell/D cell number ratio did not differ significantly between normal controls and the FD patients with or without delayed gastric emptying.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the abnormalities of gastrin and NT may play a role in the pathophysiology of gastric dysmotility in FD patients, and the abnormality of postprandial plasma gastrin levels in FD patients with delayed gastric emptying is not related to the changes both in the number and gray value of G cells and in the G cell/D cell number ratio in gastric antral mucosa.

  14. Effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquid in rats%重组人脑利钠肽对大鼠液体胃排空和小肠传输功能的影响

    刘世雄; 严祥; 王晶; 赵丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重组人脑利钠肽对大鼠液体胃排空和小肠传输的影响.方法 将72只健康雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为治疗组和对照组,分别每日腹腔注射1次重组人脑利钠肽和生理盐水,1周后用葡萄糖酚红溶液灌胃,分别于灌胃后10、20、30 min处死大鼠,切取胃和小肠近、中、远各段留取内容物后,使用分光光度计测定胃肠各段酚红残留率.取治疗组和对照组大鼠各5只在灌胃前2h分别腹腔注射奥美拉唑,灌胃后10 min处死大鼠,测定胃内酚红残留率.结果 灌胃后10、20、30 min治疗组胃内酚红残留率分别为59.4%±1.9%、42.2%±1.7%和36.9%±2.7%,对照组为50.2%±2.0%、29.8%±1.1%和21.7%±1.3%,治疗组胃内酚红残留率高于对照组(P<0.05);治疗组和对照组小肠近段与中段酚红残留率差异无统计学意义;治疗组远段小肠酚红残留率分别为0.2%±0.2%、0.4%±0.1%和2.1%±1.9%,对照组分别为2.7%±0.6%、5.9%±1.4%和7.8%±2.1%,两组比较治疗组酚红残留率低于对照组(P<0.05);奥美拉唑预处理灌胃后10 min治疗组较对照组胃内酚红残留率增多,分别为60.7%±8.1%和49.8%±6.4%(P<0.05),与未给予奥美拉唑预处理组比较,差异无统计学意义.结论 重组人脑利钠肽可使大鼠液体胃排空减慢,小肠传输延迟.%Objective To assess the effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhB-NP) on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquid in rats. Methods The male Wistar rats were randomly divided into rhBNP treatment group and control group. The rats in treatment group received intraperitoneal injection of rhBNP (15 /μg/kg, once daily), while the rats of control group only received an equal volume saline. They were gavage fed (1.5 mL) next week with phenol red in 5% glucose solution and sacrificed 10, 20, 30 min later. Dye recovery in the stomach, proximal, mid, and distal small

  15. Gastric protein hydrolysis of raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig.

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Drechsler, Krista C; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2016-11-15

    Gastric protein hydrolysis may influence gastric emptying rate and subsequent protein digestibility in the small intestine. This study examined the gastric hydrolysis of dietary protein from raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig as a model for the adult human. The gastric hydrolysis of almond proteins was quantified by performing tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent image analysis. There was an interaction between digestion time, stomach region, and almond type for gastric protein hydrolysis (pGastric emptying rate of protein was a significant (pgastric protein hydrolysis. In general, greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in raw almonds (compared to roasted almonds), hypothesized to be related to structural changes in almond proteins during roasting. Greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in the distal stomach (compared to the proximal stomach), likely related to the lower pH in the distal stomach. PMID:27283660

  16. The Empty Seashell

    Bubandt, Nils

    The Empty Seashell explores what it is like to live in a world where cannibal witches are undeniably real, yet too ephemeral and contradictory to be an object of belief. In a book based on more than three years of fieldwork between 1991 and 2011, Nils Bubandt argues that cannibal witches for people...... anthropological literature, which views witchcraft as a system of beliefs with genuine explanatory power, is off the mark. Witchcraft for the Buli people doesn't explain anything. In fact, it does the opposite: it confuses, obfuscates, and frustrates. Drawing upon Jacques Derrida’s concept of aporia......—an interminable experience that remains continuously in doubt—Bubandt suggests the need to take seriously people’s experiential and epistemological doubts about witchcraft, and outlines, by extension, a novel way of thinking about witchcraft and its relation to modernity....

  17. The effects of acute citalopram dosing on gastric motor function and nutrient tolerance in healthy volunteers

    Janssen, Pieter; Oudenhove, Lukas Van; Casteels, Cindy; De Vos, Rita; Verbeke, Kristin; Tack, Jan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether endogenous serotonin release is involved in the regulation of gastric motility and food intake. AIM: To study the effect of acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on gastric motor function in man. METHODS: Nineteen healthy volunteers underwent a gastric barostat, gastric emptying and/or a drinking test after dosing with either placebo or citalopram (20 mg intravenously). In the barostat protocol, a flacc...

  18. Central oxytocin is involved in restoring impaired gastric motility following chronic repeated stress in mice

    Babygirija, Reji; Zheng, Jun; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of continuous life stress (chronic stress) often causes gastric symptoms. The development of gastric symptoms may depend on how humans adapt to the stressful events in their daily lives. Although acute stress delays gastric emptying and alters upper gastrointestinal motility in rodents, the effects of chronic stress on gastric motility and its adaptation mechanism remains unclear. Central oxytocin has been shown to have antistress effects. We studied whether central oxytocin is i...

  19. Gastric giardiasis.

    Doglioni, C; De Boni, M.; Cielo, R.; Laurino, L.; Pelosio, P.; P. Braidotti; Viale, G

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and to define the clinicopathological correlates of gastric Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: Consecutive gastric biopsy specimens (n = 15,023) from 11,085 patients, taken at Feltre City Hospital (north eastern Italy) from January 1986 to December 1991, were histologically and immunocytochemically examined for the occurrence of G lamblia trophozoites. Three gastric biopsy specimens ...

  20. The role of microRNA-1274a in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer: Accelerating cancer cell proliferation and migration via directly targeting FOXO4

    Wang, Guo-Jun, E-mail: wwangguojun@163.com; Liu, Guang-Hui; Ye, Yan-Wei; Fu, Yang; Zhang, Xie-Fu

    2015-04-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a series of 18–25 nucleotides length non-coding RNAs, which play critical roles in tumorigenesis. Previous study has shown that microRNA-1274a (miR-1274a) is upregulated in human gastric cancer. However, its role in gastric cancer progression remains poorly understood. Therefore, the current study was aimed to examine the effect of miR-1274a on gastric cancer cells. We found that miR-1274a was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues or gastric cancer cells including HGC27, MGC803, AGS, and SGC-7901 by qRT-PCR analysis. Transfection of miR-1274a markedly promoted gastric cancer cells proliferation and migration as well as induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. Our further examination identified FOXO4 as a target of miR-1274a, which did not influence FOXO4 mRNA expression but significantly inhibited FOXO4 protein expression. Moreover, miR-1274a overexpression activated PI3K/Akt signaling and upregulated cyclin D1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions. With tumor xenografts in mice models, we also showed that miR-1274a promoted tumorigenesis of gastric cancer in vivo. In all, our study demonstrated that miR-1274a prompted gastric cancer cells growth and migration through dampening FOXO4 expression thus provided a potential target for human gastric cancer therapy. - Highlights: • MiR-1274a expression was augmented in gastric cancer. • MiR-1274a promoted proliferation, migration and induced EMT in cancer cells. • MiR-1274a directly targeted FOXO4 expression. • MiR-1274a triggered PI3K/Akt signaling in cancer cells. • MiR-1274a significantly increased tumor xenografts growth.

  1. The role of microRNA-1274a in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer: Accelerating cancer cell proliferation and migration via directly targeting FOXO4

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a series of 18–25 nucleotides length non-coding RNAs, which play critical roles in tumorigenesis. Previous study has shown that microRNA-1274a (miR-1274a) is upregulated in human gastric cancer. However, its role in gastric cancer progression remains poorly understood. Therefore, the current study was aimed to examine the effect of miR-1274a on gastric cancer cells. We found that miR-1274a was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues or gastric cancer cells including HGC27, MGC803, AGS, and SGC-7901 by qRT-PCR analysis. Transfection of miR-1274a markedly promoted gastric cancer cells proliferation and migration as well as induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. Our further examination identified FOXO4 as a target of miR-1274a, which did not influence FOXO4 mRNA expression but significantly inhibited FOXO4 protein expression. Moreover, miR-1274a overexpression activated PI3K/Akt signaling and upregulated cyclin D1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions. With tumor xenografts in mice models, we also showed that miR-1274a promoted tumorigenesis of gastric cancer in vivo. In all, our study demonstrated that miR-1274a prompted gastric cancer cells growth and migration through dampening FOXO4 expression thus provided a potential target for human gastric cancer therapy. - Highlights: • MiR-1274a expression was augmented in gastric cancer. • MiR-1274a promoted proliferation, migration and induced EMT in cancer cells. • MiR-1274a directly targeted FOXO4 expression. • MiR-1274a triggered PI3K/Akt signaling in cancer cells. • MiR-1274a significantly increased tumor xenografts growth

  2. Ethanolic extract of roots from Arctium lappa L. accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Involvement of the antioxidant system.

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Allemand, Alexandra; Mendes, Daniel Augusto G B; Dos Santos, Ana Cristina; André, Eunice; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Dartora, Nessana; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the curative efficacy of the ethanolic extract (EET) of roots from Arctium lappa (bardana) in healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by 80% acetic acid in rats and additionally studies the possible mechanisms underlying this action. Oral administration of EET (1, 3, 10 and 30mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion area in 29.2%, 41.4%, 59.3% and 38.5%, respectively, and at 10mg/kg promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, which was confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. EET (10mg/kg) treatment did not increase the gastric mucus content but restored the superoxide dismutase activity, prevented the reduction of glutathione levels, reduced lipid hydroperoxides levels, inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the microvascular permeability. In addition, EET reduced the free radical generation and increased scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, intraduodenal EET (10 and 30mg/kg) decreased volume and acidity of gastric secretion. Total phenolic compounds were high in EET (Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main compounds present in EET were a serie of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers. In conclusion, these data reveal that EET promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antisecretory and antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:23036453

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-2 inhibits antral emptying in man, but is not as potent as glucagon-like peptide-1

    Nagell, C F; Wettergren, A; Pedersen, J F;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) and GLP-2 (glucagon-like peptide-2) are released in equimolar amounts in response to meal ingestion. GLP-1 inhibits gastric emptying and reduces postprandial gastric and exocrine pancreatic secretion and may play a physiological regulatory role...... with GLP-1 inhibits gastric emptying and the sensation of hunger in man. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. Antral emptying of a liquid meal and hunger ratings were determined using ultrasound technology and visual analogue scales scoring during...... in controlling appetite and energy intake in humans. The role of GLP-2 is more uncertain. Based on the results of animal studies, it has been suggested that GLP-2 may induce intestinal epithelial growth and inhibit gastric motility. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent GLP-2 alone or together...

  4. Therapeutic effect of cisapride on gastric injury following hemorrhagic shock resuscitation in rats

    ZHANG Lian-yang; WANG Zheng-guo; ZHU Pei-fang; XU Yan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of cisapride on gastric injury following hemorrhagic shock resuscitation.Methods: 108 Wistar rats weighing (200 g±30 g) were randomly divided into a sham shock (SS) group (n=36), a hemorrhagic shock resuscitation (HS) group (n=36) and a hemorrhagic shock cisapride treated (HSC) group (n=36). Sampling at 1, 2 and 4 hours after resuscitation was done and 6 samples for each observation item were taken. The gastric blood flow volume was measured by isotope label biological microglobulin. Gastric pHi, gastric emptying, MDA and Na+-K+-ATPase of gastric mucosa were measured.Results: In the HSC group, the relative residual rate of gastric pigment decreased significantly, the gastric blood flow volume elevated; gastric pHi increased significantly at 2 hours; the level of mucosal MDA decreased at 4 hours, the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase increased and the lactic acid level in the portal vein decreased significantly compared to the HS group.Conclusions: After hemorrhagic shock resuscitation, cisapride contained the following functions,1) promoting gastric emptying, 2) increasing the blood flow of gastric blood flow volume and gastric pHi, 3) depressing the lactic acid concentration of the portal vein and improving MDA volume and Na+-K+ -ATPase activity of gastric mucosa. It suggests that after comple menting effective circulating blood volume for hemorrhagic shock resuscitation, early use of cisapride for gastric motility is helpful for an improvement of lasting ischemia and hypoxia in stomach.

  5. Scintigraphic evaluation of esophageal transit, gastroesophageal reflux, and gastric emptying

    None of the current techniques available for the study of esophageal motor function, with the exception of esophageal scintigraphy, is quantitative. The other techniques, while supplying to the clinician and physiologist some important data regarding esophageal function, do not provide direct quantitative results, and each has some other limitation. For example, the acid clearance test requires intubation with a pH electrode, and esoiphageal manometry employs intraluminal pressure recordings. However, correlation of esophageal motor activity with transit has not been firmly established. Cine-esopghagography is not invasive; however, its interpretation is subjective and, in addition, the radiation burden to the patient is not insubstantial. The recently developed scintigraphic techniques all provide detailed, quantitative information regarding esophageal transit of a swallowed radioactive liquid bolus employing a gamma camera and digital computer. An understanding of the quantitation of esophageal transit and its validation is presented

  6. Small intestinal emptying time in normal Beagle dogs: a contrast radiographic study

    Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time in dogs are frequently discussed. However, it is often of interest to the radiologist to know what normal small intestinal emptying times should be. A total of 15 upper gastrointestinal studies was performed on five internal parasite-free, normal, standard Beagle dogs with three studies on each dog, 6 days apart. The ages and weights of the dogs ranged from 2–8 years and from 12.4–13.7 kg, respectively. Following 24-hour fasting, a dose of 10 ml/kg bw of 60% wt/vol barium sulfate suspension was administered through a stomach tube. Then, sequential radiographs were made at 30-minute intervals until the entire contrast medium column was in the colon and cecum. The mean, standard deviation, and range of gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time, and small intestinal emptying time were 76 ± 16.7 (30–120), 73 ± 16.4 (30–120), and 214 ± 25.1 (180–300) minutes, respectively. This study offers the possibility that small intestinal emptying time may be used to further evaluate patients with suspected small intestinal partial obstruction, pseudo-obstruction, ischemia, or lymphangiectasia

  7. The gastrointestinal emptying and transit of radiolabelled oral dosage forms in the pig

    Full text: By developing an animal model, the costs and time as well as the number of human studies involved to assess new oral pharmaceutical dosage forms could be greatly reduced. To validate the pig as a suitable model, the solid, liquid and particle gastric emptying rates (both fed and fasting) are required The aims were to:- train the pigs to be scanned under a variety of conditions, design and manufacture scanning cages, develop a scintigraphic imaging method in the pig, design a suitable system for the oral delivery of an intact radiolabelled capsule, acquire images providing information on the anatomical position and in-vivo performance of the capsule, perform a series of gastric emptying studies. Liquid emptying data shows a 50% emptying time of 15 minutes in the pig (human 4-31 min). Solid emptying in the sedated pig is poor at 2 hours. In the unsedated pig the maximum time for a solid study has been 45 minutes. This study has provided some useful information regarding the gastrointestinal anatomy of pigs. The preliminary data indicates that the model has potential. In the future, a simultaneous scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic study of drug absorption will be performed

  8. The gastrointestinal emptying and transit of radiolabelled oral dosage forms in the pig

    Anderson, D. L.; Kirkwood, I.D.; Chatterton, B.E.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Sansom, L.N. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: By developing an animal model, the costs and time as well as the number of human studies involved to assess new oral pharmaceutical dosage forms could be greatly reduced. To validate the pig as a suitable model, the solid, liquid and particle gastric emptying rates (both fed and fasting) are required The aims were to:- train the pigs to be scanned under a variety of conditions, design and manufacture scanning cages, develop a scintigraphic imaging method in the pig, design a suitable system for the oral delivery of an intact radiolabelled capsule, acquire images providing information on the anatomical position and in-vivo performance of the capsule, perform a series of gastric emptying studies. Liquid emptying data shows a 50% emptying time of 15 minutes in the pig (human 4-31 min). Solid emptying in the sedated pig is poor at 2 hours. In the unsedated pig the maximum time for a solid study has been 45 minutes. This study has provided some useful information regarding the gastrointestinal anatomy of pigs. The preliminary data indicates that the model has potential. In the future, a simultaneous scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic study of drug absorption will be performed

  9. GAS POWERED MUCOADHESIVE SYSTEM TO INCREASE GASTRIC RETENTION

    Zikriya Abrar; Quazi Aamer; Jathar Rajashree; Supute Trupti

    2012-01-01

    A lot of scientific and technological advancements have been made in the drug delivery research in the recent years. Physiological problems like short Gastric Residence Time (GRT) and the unpredictable Gastric Emptying Time (GET) were overcome with the use of gas powered mucoadhesive dosage forms which provide opportunity for both local and systemic drug action. Several approaches are currently being used in the prolongation of GRT, which includes the Gas Powered Drug Delivery Systems (GPDDS)...

  10. The Effect of Esophagectomy and Cervical Esophagogastrostomy with or Without of Pyloromyotomy on Emptying of intrathoracic Stomach

    H. Tirgar Fakheri, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: A gastric conduit is usually used to reconstruct the foregut after esophagectomy for cancer. The gastric emptying may be impaired after this operation, so some esophageal surgeons routinely add a pyloric drainage procedure. The aim of this study was to determine the emptying of the intrathoracic stomach after esophagectomy and cervical esophagogastrostomy with or without pyloromyotomy.Materials and Methods: Between January 2003 and April 2006, in a randomized controlled trial, 30 patients with esophageal carcinoma were randomized to have with or without pyloromyotomy as a gastric emptying procedure for the gastric conduit used for esophageal replacement. Patterns of gastric emptying in the vagotomized intrathoracic stomach were studied using radioisotope techniques. Gastric emptying (GE was evaluated 8 weeks after the operation. Patients were available for 6 months follow-up.Results: A total of 30 patients were enrolled in this study. Sixty percent (18 were male, and 40% (12 were female. Twenty three patients (76.7% had squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (23.3% had adenocarcinoma. Delayed GE was reported in 11 (73.3% and normal GE in 4 (26.7% of patients with Pyloromyotomy. Delayed GE was reported in 9 (60% and normal GE in 6 (40% of patients without Pyloromyotomy. There were not any significant differences between complications of post surgery in both groups.Conclusion: These findings were showed that esophageal surgery can be don’t add a pyloric drainage procedure in esophagectomy and cervical esophagogastrostomy and that very few patients actually need it.

  11. First-pass gastric mucosal metabolism of ethanol is negligible in the rat.

    SMITH, T; DeMaster, E G; Furne, J K; Springfield, J; Levitt, M D

    1992-01-01

    Ethanol metabolism by gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is thought to be an important determinant of peripheral ethanol time-concentration curves (AUCs) in rats and humans. We quantitated this metabolism in rats by measuring the gastric absorption of oral ethanol (0.25 g/kg) and the gastric venous-arterial (V-A) difference of ethanol versus ethanol metabolites (acetate, acetaldehyde, and bicarbonate). Over 1 h, approximately 20% of the ethanol was absorbed from the stomach and 70% was empti...

  12. Gastric culture

    ... test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years) School age test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 ... immune system. The final results of the gastric culture test may take several weeks. Your provider will ...

  13. Gastric Banding

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. [Gastric Acid].

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  15. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine

    Holzer Peter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Methods Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 – 30 mg/kg or cimetidine (10 mg/kg, and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M. During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Results Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. Conclusion These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect

  16. Assessment of gastric accommodation and gastric emptying using 3D- and Duplex ultrasonography

    Mundt, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    The stomach plays a crucial role in the digestion process. It is therefore not surprising that inadequate function of the stomach may induce upper abdominal symptoms, which are highly prevalent in the western society. Over the years the secretory function and more recently the grinding function of t

  17. Endoluminal Revision (OverStitch (TM) , Apollo Endosurgery) of the Dilated Gastroenterostomy in Patients with Late Dumping Syndrome After Proximal Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Stier, Christine; Chiappetta, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Dumping syndrome is a long-term postoperative complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures. Morphologically, dumping syndrome usually correlates with a dilatation of the gastroenterostomy with accelerated pouch emptying. Conservative therapy includes diet changes, complementary pharmacotherapy and, if symptoms persist, surgical revision. Surgical options include endoscopic, endoluminal surgery to constrict the gastrojejunostomy using a novel endoscopic suturing device (OverStitch(TM), Apollo). In our study, we aimed to assess the viability, safety and efficacy of this procedure in patients with late dumping; 14 patients who had developed late dumping syndrome underwent surgery using an endoscopic suturing technique (OverStitch(TM), Apollo). Late dumping was confirmed by Sigstad score and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Prior to surgery, objective analysis of pouch emptying speed was assessed by gastric scintigraphy. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia. None of the 14 patients suffered intra- or postoperative complications. No postsurgical increase in inflammation parameters was observed. The postinterventional pain scale (visual analogue scale) showed a mean score of 0.5 (range 0-10). In 13 of the 14 patients, no dumping was observed 1-month postsurgery. The postoperative Sigstad score (3.07 ± 2.06; range 1-9) showed an impressive reduction compared with the preoperative score (12.71 ± 4.18; range 7-24) (p dumping syndrome involving minimal trauma and offering rapid reconvalescence. PMID:27318467

  18. Gastric antrectomy with selective gastric vagotomy does not influence gallbladder motility during interdigestive and postprandial periods

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A;

    1996-01-01

    control group of healthy young males, the lag period was 13.5 min (9-22.5 min) and the emptying rate 0.61%/min (0.08-0.77%/min). When food ingestion occurred during phase II of the MMC, the lag period of gallbladder emptying in the patient group was median 0 min (0-5 min) and the emptying rate was 0......Fasting gastrointestinal motility and gallbladder motility during the interdigestive state and in the postprandial period was studied in eight patients who were operated for ulcer disease with an antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy. Nocturnal motility recording revealed all three phases of...... with emptying were confined to phase II and a total of 13 episodes with a median duration of 25 min (range 10-70 min) were observed. A median of 10.7% (6.1-17.7%) of the gallbladder contents was emptied. In a control group of eight healthy young men the values were 13.5 min (9-36 min) and 6.9% (3...

  19. Gastric Sarcina organisms in a patient with cystic fibrosis

    Michael A. DiMaio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcina are large Gram positive anaerobic bacteria which grow in recognizable tetrads and octets. Less than 10 cases of human infection with Sarcina have been reported, many of these in the setting of delayed gastric transit. Here, we present the first reported case of gastric Sarcina in a patient with cystic fibrosis, a known cause of gastroparesis. Following a 2 week history of intermittent epigastric pain, endoscopic and histologic examination revealed numerous Sarcina organisms in association with linear gastric ulcerations. Yeast forms morphologically compatible with Candida were also identified. The occurrence of Sarcina in cystic fibrosis further confirms the association of this organism with delayed gastric emptying and suggests a possible predisposition in patients with genetic disorders of chloride ion transport, as one previous report occurred in a patient with congenital chloride diarrhea. Recognition of this unique organism in endoscopic biopsies should prompt several diagnostic considerations.

  20. Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia

    Ming-Luen Hu; Christophan K Rayner; Keng-Liang Wu; Seng-Kee Chuah; Wei-Chen Tai; Yeh-Pin Chou; Yi-Chun Chiu; King-Wah Chiu; Tsung-Hui Hu

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effects of ginger on gastric motility and emptying,abdominal symptoms,and hormones that influence motility in dyspepsia.METHODS:Eleven patients with functional dyspepsia were studied twice in a randomized double-blind manner.After an 8-h fast,the patients ingested three capsules that contained ginger(total 1.2 g)or placebo,followed after 1 h by 500 mL low-nutrient soup.Antral area,fundus area and diameter,and the frequency of antral contractions were measured using ultrasound at frequent intervals,and the gastric half-emptying time was calculated from the change in antral area.Gastrointestinal sensations and appetite were scored using visual analog questionnaires,and blood was taken for measurement of plasma glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1),motilin and ghrelin concentrations,at intervals throughout the study.RESULTS:Gastric emptying was more rapid after ginger than placebo [median(range)half-emptying time 12.3(8.5-17.0)min after ginger,16.1(8.3-22.6)min after placebo,P ≤ 0.05].There was a trend for more antral contractions(P = 0.06),but fundus dimensions and gastrointestinal symptoms did not differ,nor did serum concentrations of GLP-1,motilin and ghrelin.CONCLUSION:Ginger stimulated gastric emptying and antral contractions in patients with functional dyspepsia,but had no impact on gastrointestinal symptoms or gut peptides.

  1. Clinical analysis of delayed gastrc emptying after alimentary tract operations%消化道术后胃排空障碍临床分析

    王志敏; 尹润彬; 臣海兵; 王剑

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore early diagnosis and treatment methods of delayed gastric emptying after almentary tract operations. Methods The hospital in January 2001 to January 2010 totally 14 cases were treated delayed gastric emptying after alimentary tract operations clinical data were ana-layzed retrospectively. Results Totally 14 patients with delayed gastric emptying after alimentary tract operations were cured by conservative. Conclusions The delayed gastric emptying is a common and severe postoperative complication, the correct and early diagnosis and conservative treatment is the key to achieve the best%目的 探讨消化道手术后胃排空障碍的早期诊断和治疗措施.方法 对2001年1月一2010年1月收治的14例消化道手术后胃排空障碍患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 14例消化道手术后胃排空障碍患者全部经保守治疗痊愈.结论 消化道手术后胃排空障碍是消化道术后常见和严重的并发症,正确早期诊断、坚持正规保守治疗是取得最佳效果的关键.

  2. Impact of gastric pH profiles on the proteolytic digestion of mixed βlg-Xanthan biopolymer gels.

    Dekkers, B L; Kolodziejczyk, E; Acquistapace, S; Engmann, J; Wooster, T J

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of how foods are digested and metabolised is essential to enable the design/selection of foods as part of a balanced diet. Essential to this endeavour is the development of appropriate biorelevant in vitro digestion tools. In this work, the influence of gastric pH profile on the in vitro digestion of mixtures of β-lactoglobulin (βlg) and xanthan gum prior to and after heat induced gelation was investigated. A conventional highly acidic (pH 1.9) gastric pH profile was compared to two dynamic gastric pH profiles (initial pH of 6.0 vs. 5.2 and H(+) secretion rates of 60 vs. 36 mmol h(-1)) designed to mimic the changes in gastric pH observed during clinical trials with high protein meals. In moving away from the pH 1.9 model, to a pH profile reflecting in vivo conditions, the initial rate and degree of protein digestion halved during the first 45 minutes. After 90 minutes of gastric digestion, all three pH profiles caused similar extents of protein digestion. Given that 50% gastric emptying times of (test) meals are in range of 30-90 min, it would seem highly relevant to use a dynamic pH gastric model rather than a pH 1.9 (USP) or pH 3 model (INFOGEST) in assessing the impact of food structuring approaches on protein digestion. The impact that heat induced gelation had on the degree of gel digestion by pepsin was also investigated. Surprisingly, it was found that heat induced gelation of βlg-xanthan mixtures at 70-90 °C for 20 minutes lead to a considerable decrease in the rate of proteolysis, which contrasts many studies of dispersed aggregates and gels of βlg alone whose heating accelerates pepsin activity due to unfolding. In the present case, the formation of a dense protein network created a fine pore structure which restricted pepsin access into the gel thereby slowing proteolysis. This work not only has implications for the in vitro assessment of protein digestion, but also highlights how protein digestion might be slowed, learnings that

  3. The surgical treatment of chronic gastric atony following Roux-Y diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis

    Symptoms of severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and frequent bezoars, as well as objective gastric retention, can occur following Roux-Y biliary diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis. Medical therapy and prokinetic drugs have proven ineffective. This review evaluates 37 patients who underwent further gastric resection from 1979 to 1987 to improve gastric emptying and resolve symptoms. Fifteen patients underwent perioperative radionuclide solid-food gastric emptying studies. Seventy-three per cent (27 of 37 patients) of the patients who underwent further gastric resection (70% to 95%) had a satisfactory postoperative response. Twenty patients were graded Visick 1 or 2 and 7 Visick-3 patients, although much improved, still had some symptoms of gastroparesis. Twenty-seven per cent (10 of 37 patients) failed to improve and underwent completion total gastrectomy. Overall, 70% of this group had almost complete resolution of their symptoms. Three of 10 patients were considered ''failures'' due to postprandial pain in 1 and early vasomotor dumping in 2. Of the 10 patients who failed initial revisional surgery, 7 underwent a 70% to 80% subtotal gastric resection (STG) and 3 patients underwent 85% to 95% extensive resection (EXT.G.). Of the 15 patients who underwent perioperative radionuclide evaluation, a mean two-hour gastric retention of 61.4% +/- 4% (SEM) decreased to 25% +/- 4% following further gastric resection. Eight patients were in the STG group and seven patients were in the EXT.G group. Following STG, mean two-hour gastric retention of 58.2% +/- 3.5% decreased to 38% +/- 3% (p less than 0.05). In seven patients who underwent EXT.G, mean two-hour retention of 65% +/- 4% decreased to 10% +/- 2.5% (p less than 0.005). EXT.G resulted in normal gastric emptying and few late failures

  4. REVIEW ON FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: AN APPROACH TO ORAL CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY VIA GASTRIC RETENTION

    Kadam Shashikant M; Kadam.S.R; Patil.U.S; Ratan G N; Jamkandi.V.G.

    2011-01-01

    Controlled release (CR) dosage forms have been extensively used to improve therapy with many important drugs. Several approaches are currently utilized in prolongation of gastric residence time, including floating drug delivery system, swelling and expanding system, polymeric bioadhesive system, modified shape system, high density system and other delayed gastric emptying devices. However, the development processes are faced with several physiological difficulties such as the inability to res...

  5. The Risk of Regurgitation and Pulmonary Aspiration in a Patient after Gastric Banding

    Abdulvahab Thekkethodika

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric banding is a popular surgical treatment performed to control morbid obesity all over the world. Regurgitation of food material from stomach is very common in these patients. Remnants of food material may risk the airway for pulmonary aspiration. This case experience shows that despite the extended fasting period, airway is not protected from the risk of aspiration. Delayed gastric emptying and altered gastroesophageal motility keep the food materials in the stomach and pr...

  6. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  7. Administration of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, improves the decrease in postprandial gastric motility in an acute restraint stress mouse model

    Nahata, M; Saegusa, Y.; C. Sadakane; Yamada, C; Nakagawa, K.; Okubo, N.; Ohnishi, S.; Hattori, T.; Sakamoto, N.; Takeda, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical or psychological stress causes functional disorders in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aims to elucidate the ameliorating effect of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine which acts as a ghrelin enhancer, on gastric dysfunction during acute restraint stress in mice. Methods Fasted and postprandial motor function of the gastric antrum was wirelessly measured using a strain gauge force transducer and solid gastric emptying was detected in mi...

  8. Gastric electromechanical dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Krygowska-Wajs, A; Lorens, K; Thor, P; Szczudlik, A; Konturek, S

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate gastric myoelectrical and mechanical activities in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients. Twenty patients with IPD (14 male and 6 female, mean age 42 +/- 9 years) were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: group A--early stage of disease (no. = 6) and group B--advanced IPD (no. = 14). Electrogastrography (EGG) was performed in fasting and postprandial conditions (Synectics system). The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured by sonography (Hitachi EUB-240). The antral area in fasting conditions was 2.1 +/- 0.4 and 4.2 +/- 1.2 cm2 and gastric emptying was 75 +/- 5 and 125 +/- 12 min in groups A and B respectively. EGG showed dysrhythmias (range 1-6 cycles per minute) in about 75% of both groups of IPD patients without increase in signal amplitude after a meal. Our results suggest that gastric motility is particularly impaired in patients with advanced IPD. It may be caused by the primary degenerative process in the autonomic nervous system of the gut. PMID:10842759

  9. Scintigraphic Methods to Evaluate Alterations of Gastric and Esophageal Functions in Female Obesity

    Özgür Ömür

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Altered gastrointestinal function has frequently been observed in obese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER and to determine the alterations of gastric emptying and esophageal transit by scintigraphic methods in obese patients. Methods: Scintigraphic studies of 50 obese female non-diabetic patients who had not received any treatment for weight control were retrospectively reviewed. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI was 34.96±3.04 kg/m² (range:32-39 kg/m². All subjects were submitted to scintigraphic evaluation of esophageal transit, gastro-esophageal reflux, gastric emptying and presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The data of obese patients were compared with those of sex-age matched 30 non-obese cases who were selected from our clinical archive. Results: In obese group, seventeen (34% patients were found to be GER positive scintigraphically; mean gastric emptying time (t½ was 59.18±30.8 min and the mean esophageal transit time was 8.9±7.2 s. Frequency of positive GER scintigraphy and the mean value of esophageal transit time were significantly higher in obese patients than non-obese control subjects. Gastric emptying time and esophageal transit time values were significantly longer in GER positive obese patients than GER negative ones. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of positive C14 urea breath test between obese and non-obese subjects and there were also no statistically significant correlations between BMI, GER, esophageal transit time and gastric emptying time. Conclusion: In our study, 42 of the 50 obese patients had esophago-gastric motility alterations. The significance of these alterations in obesity is not fully understood, but it is believed that these changes could be because of potential contributing factors in the development or maintenance of obesity or changes in eating habits

  10. Normal gastric antral myoelectrical activity in early onset anorexia nervosa.

    Ravelli, A M; Helps, B A; Devane, S P; Lask, B D; Milla, P J

    1993-01-01

    Anorexia, epigastric discomfort, nausea, and vomiting may result from disordered gastric motility and emptying. These features have been found in many adults with anorexia nervosa, but have never been investigated in early onset anorexia nervosa. In 14 patients with early onset anorexia nervosa (eight of whom had upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms), six children with other eating disorders, four children with non-ulcer dyspepsia, and 10 controls matched for age and sex, the non-invasive te...

  11. Gastric cancer

    Although gastric cancers are localized and surgically resectable in approximately 50% of patients at the time of diagnosis, regional metastases and direct invasion of surrounding structures frequently preclude cure by surgery alone. With recurrent or metastatic disease, some palliation can be obtained by chemotherapy, surgery, or irradiation, but few patients can actually be cured. This chapter addresses the rationale for adjuvant treatment in resectable disease and discusses results with single or combined modalities in locally advanced disease. The chapter also discusses future possibilities for aggressive combined modality approaches in patients who have undergone resection but are at high risk, who have undergone resection but have residual disease, or who have locally unresectable or recurrent disease

  12. High fat food increases gastric residence and thus thresholds for objective symptoms in allergic patients

    Mackie, Alan; Knulst, Andre; Le, Thuy-My; Bures, Peter; Salt, Louise; Mills, E. N. Clare; Malcolm, Paul; Andreou, Adrian; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K.

    2012-01-01

    Scope We have tested the hypothesis that high fat foods such as chocolate induce reduced rates of gastric emptying in comparison to lower fat foods and that this can impact uptake of allergens and subsequent reactions in allergic patients. Methods and results In four volunteers, magnetic resonance i

  13. Effect of DA-9701 on Gastric Motor Function Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Yang Won Min

    Full Text Available Improving gastric accommodation and gastric emptying is an attractive physiological treatment target in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. We evaluated the effect of DA-9701, a new drug for FD, on gastric motor function after a meal in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Forty healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive either DA-9701 or placebo. After 5 days of treatment, subjects underwent gastric MRI (60 min before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after a liquid test meal. Gastric volume was measured through 3-dimensional reconstruction from MRI data. We analyzed 4 outcome variables including changes in total gastric volume (TGV, proximal TGV, and proximal to distal TGV ratio after a meal and gastric emptying rates after adjusting values at the pre-test meal.Changes in TGV and proximal TGV after a meal did not differ between the DA-9701 and placebo groups (difference between groups -25.9 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -54.0 to 2.3 mL, P = 0.070 and -2.9 mL, 95% CI -30.3 to 24.5 mL, P = 0.832, respectively. However, pre-treatment with DA-9701 increased postprandial proximal to distal TGV ratio more than placebo (difference between groups 0.93, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.79, P = 0.034. In addition, pre-treatment with DA-9701 significantly increased gastric emptying as compared with placebo (mean difference between groups 3.41%, 95% CI 0.54% to 6.29%, P = 0.021, by mixed model for repeated measures.Our results suggested that DA-9701 enhances gastric emptying and does not significantly affect gastric accommodation in healthy volunteers. Further studies to confirm whether DA-9701 enhances these gastric motor functions in patients with FD are warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02091635.

  14. Non-invasive assessment of gastric activity

    There have been many suggestions for the routine clinical use of the electro-enterogram, but with the exception of the reported usage in the USSR no significant penetration into medical practice has been reported elsewhere. Amongst the many suggestions have been the possible application of electrical stimulation via surface electrodes to overcome post-operative inhibition of intestinal electrical activity, which can be recorded via surface electrodes. Gastric emptying studies have shown that duodenal ulceration is associated with changes in the rate and pattern of emptying of solid meals. Identifiable patterns in the electro-gastrogram following a metal might have diagnostic application. There is some evidence of correlations of electrical activity and pathology in the large intestine. In the colon diverticular disease has been shown to change the frequency content of the slow wave electrical activity and there is some evidence that this might be recorded from surface electrodes. A major obstacle to progress remains the inability to relate non-invasive recordings to intestinal motility. The best hope may be the use of direct and yet non-invasive methods of obtaining motility and in this context real-time ultrasound imaging is probably the most promising technique. The electro-gastrogram has certainly been shown to allow recording of gastric slow wave activity and there is a reasonable hope that further methods of analysis will allow inferential information on motility to be obtained. The following section makes brief mention of these techniques

  15. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  16. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    ... procedure done in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization (IVF). It allows people who carry a specific known ... gastric cancer before age 40 Personal or family history of both diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast ...

  17. Gallbladder emptying with ceruletide in oral cholecystography

    In a consecutive series of 148 patients the gallbladder emptying in oral cholecystography was investigated after administration of ceruletide given in doses of 0.3 μg/kg body weight intramuscularly and 0.03 and 0.05 μg/kg intravenously. No essential side effects occurred. The effect of ceruletide seems to be on a par with that of cholecystokinin. A dose of 0.3 μg/kg was found to be sufficient to assess the gallbladder emptying, but then in a few instances the emptying is delayed - up to one hour. The bile ducts are best demonstrated after intravenous administration of 0.05 μg/kg. (Auth.)

  18. Effect of food matrix microstructure on stomach emptying rate and apparent ileal fatty acid digestibility of almond lipids.

    Gallier, Sophie; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-10-01

    Almond lipids can be consumed in different forms such as nuts, oil-in-water emulsions or oil. The stomach emptying rate (SER) of almond lipids (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) as a function of the food matrix was studied using magnetic resonance spectroscopy based on the stomach emptying of a marker (AlCl3-6H2O) in the growing rat. Chyme and digesta samples were collected following serial gavaging (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) to study microstructural changes and determine the apparent ileal digestibility of almond fatty acids as a function of the native food matrix. The T(1/2) for the stomach emptying of crushed whole almonds and almond cream (194 ± 17 min and 185 ± 19 min, respectively) were not different (P > 0.05) from that of a gastric-stable Tween-oil emulsion (197 ± 19 min). The T(1/2) values for a sodium caseinate (NaCas)-oil emulsion (145 ± 11 min) and a gastric-unstable Span-oil emulsion (135 ± 7 min) were different (P almonds, almond cream and Tween-oil emulsion, while almond milk and oil emptied at an intermediate rate (157 ± 9 min and 172 ± 11 min, respectively). Extensively coalesced emulsions under gastric conditions (almond oil, almond cream and Span-oil) had lower (P almonds, almond milk, NaCas-oil and Tween-oil emulsions (91.0%, 92.2%, 92.1% and 88.7%, respectively). The original food matrix and structural changes occurring within the gastrointestinal tract had an impact on SER and ileal fatty acid digestibility of the almond preparations. PMID:25066699

  19. Gastric Electrical Stimulation with the Enterra System: A Systematic Review

    Nikhil Lal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES is a surgically implanted treatment option for refractory gastroparesis. Aim. To systematically appraise the current evidence for the use of gastric electrical stimulation and suggest a method of standardisation of assessment and follow-up in these patients. Methods. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, DISCOVER, and Cochrane Library was conducted using the keywords including gastric electrical stimulation, gastroparesis, nausea, and vomiting and neuromodulation, stomach, central nervous system, gastric pacing, electrical stimulation, and gastrointestinal. Results. 1139 potentially relevant articles were identified, of which 21 met the inclusion criteria and were included. The quality of studies was variable. There was a variation in outcome measures and follow-up methodology. Included studies suggested significant reductions in symptom severity reporting over the study period, but improvements in gastric emptying time were variable and rarely correlated with symptom improvement. Conclusion. The evidence in support of gastric electrical stimulation is limited and heterogeneous in quality. While current evidence has shown a degree of efficacy in these patients, high-quality, large clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this therapy and to identify the patients for whom this therapy is inappropriate. A consensus view on essential preoperative assessment and postoperative measurement is needed.

  20. Inhibitory neurotransmission regulates vagal efferent activity and gastric motility.

    McMenamin, Caitlin A; Travagli, R Alberto; Browning, Kirsteen N

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal tract receives extrinsic innervation from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which regulate and modulate the function of the intrinsic (enteric) nervous system. The stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract in particular are heavily influenced by the parasympathetic nervous system, supplied by the vagus nerve, and disruption of vagal sensory or motor functions results in disorganized motility patterns, disrupted receptive relaxation and accommodation, and delayed gastric emptying, amongst others. Studies from several laboratories have shown that the activity of vagal efferent motoneurons innervating the upper GI tract is inhibited tonically by GABAergic synaptic inputs from the adjacent nucleus tractus solitarius. Disruption of this influential central GABA input impacts vagal efferent output, hence gastric functions, significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe the development, physiology, and pathophysiology of this functionally dominant inhibitory synapse and its role in regulating vagally determined gastric functions. PMID:27302177

  1. Scintigraphic measurement of the contractile activity of the gastric antrum using factor analysis

    The motor activity of the gastric antrum is difficult to record by manometric means and scintigraphic methods have proved unsatisfactory so far as no consistent relationship between antral contractile activity and gastric emptying rate could be detected. We investigated, using data recorded in 16 healthy human subjects after the ingestion of a semisolid standard meal, whether a newly developed method employing factor analysis would yield more meaningful and reproducible results. Factor analysis was applied to sequential scintigraphic images (3-s frame time) of gastric antrum. The computed factor images and the respective factor curves are representative of distinct dynamic structures of the antrum. From the more or less sinusoidal excursions of the factor curves, which exhibited the 3 cycles per minute frequency characteristic for the stomach, amplitude, frequency and propagation velocity of antral contractions can be calculated. The amplitudes of the factor curves were used to calculate a contraction index. This contraction index was found to be correlated significantly negatively with the gastric half-emptying time of the ingested meal. The employed factor analytical approach thus seems a promising tool to further investigate the role of antral contractility in the process of gastric emptying. (Authors)

  2. A gamma scintigraphic study of gastric coating by Expidet, tablet and liquid formulations

    The gastric residence time and gastric coating properties of 10 mg of radiolabelled micronised resin incorporated into Expidet formulations, chewable tablets and 10 ml of a liquid formulation were measued by gamma scintigraphy in twelve fasted, healthy subjects. All preparations emptied from the stomach in a similar manner for the first 1.5 h; however, the final 10% of the activity from the Expidet formulation emptied considerably more slowly than the initial phase. The total mean gastric emptying times for the three formulations were 2.3, 2.5 and 5.5 h for the tablet, liquid and Expidet formulation, respectively. The amount of activity following administration of the table or Expidet formulation was the same in the three regions of the stomach, but the coating of the mucosa by the Expidet formulation within each area was observed to be more uniform due to the greater dispersion of the dose form. The table broke up into a number of small discrete pieces. The gastric residence time of 99mTc-labelled resin delivered in an Expidet formulation is significantly longer than the same marker administered in a table or in 10 ml of a liquid formulation. Moreover, coating of the gastric mucosa was more uniform with the Expidet formulation than the other two formulations studied. (author) 10 refs.; 6 figs

  3. Inhibitory effect of the herbal antidepressant St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on rat gastric motility.

    Capasso, Raffaele; Borrelli, Francesca; Aviello, Gabriella; Capasso, Francesco; Izzo, Angelo A

    2008-02-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a highly popular and effective herbal antidepressant that clinically interacts with a number of conventional drugs. Because alterations in gastric emptying can cause pharmacokinetic interactions, in the present study we evaluated the effect of a standardized extract prepared from the flowering tops of Hypericum perforatum (SJW extract) on rat gastric motility. Orally administered SJW extract delayed gastric emptying in vivo. In vitro studies showed that SJW extract was significantly more active in inhibiting acetylcholine (or prostaglandin E2)-induced contractions than electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions. The effect of SJW extract on EFS-induced contractions was unaffected by drugs that inhibit intrinsic inhibitory nerves or by tachykinin antagonists, but it was reduced by the 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist methysergide. The inhibitory effect of SJW extract on acetylcholine-induced contractions was reduced by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid, but not by the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine or by methysergide. Among the chemical constituents of SJW extract tested, hyperforin and, to a lesser extent, the flavonoids kaempferol and quercitrin, inhibited acetylcholine-induced contractions. It is concluded that SJW has a direct inhibitory effect on smooth muscle and could also possibly modulate gastric neurotransmission. If extended to humans, the inhibitory effect of SJW extract on gastric emptying in vivo could contribute, at least in part, to the clinical pharmacokinetic interactions between conventional medicines and this herbal antidepressant. PMID:18172613

  4. An Inefficient Representation of the Empty Word

    Asveld, P.R.J.; Tromp, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    We show that Post's system of tag with alphabet $\\{0,1\\}$, deletion number 3, productions $0\\rightarrow 00$ and $1\\rightarrow 1101$, and initial string $111\\cdots 1$ (330 times) converges to the empty word after a very large number of rewriting steps.

  5. Encouraging Classroom Participation with Empty Extrinsic Rewards

    Guinee, William

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to encourage classroom participation with empty extrinsic rewards. He uses "bonus points" in awarding students for particularly interesting or well thought-out contributions to the class discussion. These bonus points have absolutely no effect on the student's course grade. But the students respond…

  6. Gastric retention properties of superporous hydrogel composites.

    Chen, J; Blevins, W E; Park, H; Park, K

    2000-02-14

    In many applications, usefulness of conventional hydrogels is limited by their slow swelling. To improve the swelling property of the conventional hydrogels, we have synthesized superporous hydrogels (SPHs) which swell fast to equilibrium size in minutes due to water uptake by capillary wetting through numerous interconnected open pores. The swelling ratio was also large in the range of hundreds. The mechanical strength of the highly swollen SPHs was increased by adding a composite material during the synthesis. The composite material used in the synthesis of SPH composites was Ac-Di-Sol((R)) (croscarmellose sodium). The gastric retention property of the prepared SPH composites was tested in dogs both in fasted and fed conditions. The SPH composites were placed in a hard gelatin capsule (size 000) for oral administration. All dogs tested were fasted for 36 h before experiments. Under the fasted condition, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for 2-3 h after before breaking into two pieces and being emptied. When food was given before the experiment just once following 36 h of fasting, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for more than 24 h, even though the fed condition was maintained only for the first few hours. Our study indicated that SPH composites possessed three properties necessary for gastric retention: fast swelling; superswelling; and high mechanical strength. While more improvements need to be made, the SPH composites provide the basis for the development of effective long-term gastric retention devices. PMID:10640644

  7. Sustained acceleration of colonic transit following chronic homotypic stress in oxytocin knockout mice.

    Babygirija, Reji; Bülbül, Mehmet; Cerjak, Diana; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2011-05-01

    Acute restraint stress delays gastric emptying and accelerates colonic transit via central corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in rats. In contrast, central oxytocin has anxiolytic effects and attenuates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to stress. Our recent study showed that up regulated oxytocin expression attenuates hypothalamic CRF expression and restores impaired gastric motility following chronic homotypic stress in mice. We studied the effects of acute and chronic homotypic stress on colonic transit and hypothalamic CRF mRNA expression in wild type (WT) and oxytocin knockout (OXT-KO) mice. Colonic transit was measured following acute restraint stress or chronic homotypic stress (repeated restraint stress for 5 consecutive days). (51)Cr was injected via a catheter into the proximal colon. Ninety minutes after restraint stress loading, the entire colon was removed. The geometric center (GC) was calculated to evaluate colonic transit. Expression of CRF mRNA in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) was measured by real time RT-PCR. Colonic transit was significantly accelerated following acute stress in WT (GC=8.1±0.8; n=7) and OXT KO mice (GC=9.4±0.3; n=7). The accelerated colonic transit was significantly attenuated in WT mice (GC=6.6±0.5; n=9) following chronic homotypic stress while it was still accelerated in OXT KO mice (GC=9.3±0.5; n=8). The increase in CRF mRNA expression at the SON was much greater in OXT-KO mice, compared to WT mice following chronic homotypic stress. It is suggested that oxytocin plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation mechanism following chronic homotypic stress in mice. PMID:21439349

  8. A conscious mouse model of gastric ileus using clinically relevant endpoints

    Shao Yuanlin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric ileus is an unsolved clinical problem and current treatment is limited to supportive measures. Models of ileus using anesthetized animals, muscle strips or isolated smooth muscle cells do not adequately reproduce the clinical situation. Thus, previous studies using these techniques have not led to a clear understanding of the pathophysiology of ileus. The feasibility of using food intake and fecal output as simple, clinically relevant endpoints for monitoring ileus in a conscious mouse model was evaluated by assessing the severity and time course of various insults known to cause ileus. Methods Delayed food intake and fecal output associated with ileus was monitored after intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin, laparotomy with bowel manipulation, thermal injury or cerulein induced acute pancreatitis. The correlation of decreased food intake after endotoxin injection with gastric ileus was validated by measuring gastric emptying. The effect of endotoxin on general activity level and feeding behavior was also determined. Small bowel transit was measured using a phenol red marker. Results Each insult resulted in a transient and comparable decrease in food intake and fecal output consistent with the clinical picture of ileus. The endpoints were highly sensitive to small changes in low doses of endotoxin, the extent of bowel manipulation, and cerulein dose. The delay in food intake directly correlated with delayed gastric emptying. Changes in general activity and feeding behavior were insufficient to explain decreased food intake. Intestinal transit remained unchanged at the times measured. Conclusion Food intake and fecal output are sensitive markers of gastric dysfunction in four experimental models of ileus. In the mouse, delayed gastric emptying appears to be the major cause of the anorexic effect associated with ileus. Gastric dysfunction is more important than small bowel dysfunction in this model. Recovery of

  9. Enigmatic electrons, photons, and ''empty'' waves

    A spectroscopic analysis is made of electrons and photons from the standpoint of physical realism. In this conceptual framework, moving particles are portrayed as localized entities which are surrounded by ''empty'' waves. A spectroscopic model for the electron Stands as a guide for a somewhat similar, but in essential respects radically different, model for the photon. This leads in turn to a model for the ''zeron''. the quantum of the empty wave. The properties of these quanta mandate new basis states, and hence an extension of our customary framework for dealing with them. The zeron wave field of a photon differs in one important respect from the standard formalism for an electromagnetic wave. The vacuum state emerges as more than just a passive bystander. Its polarization properties provide wave stabilization, particle probability distributions, and orbit quantization. Questions with regard to special relativity are discussed

  10. Treatment of gastric cancer

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; MABILIA, ANDREA; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically...

  11. Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders

    Ziehlke, K.T. [MJB Technical Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on prostaglandins and gastric secretion in rhesus monkeys

    Early radiation toxicity is characterized by nausea and vomiting. We have previously shown that gastric emptying, gastric motility, and gastric secretion were suppressed after total body exposure to irradiation. In the present studies, we evaluated the relation between vomiting and gastric function in nine rhesus monkeys and explored the possible role of prostaglandins (PG) in these phenomena. The concentration of PG in plasma and gastric juice was determined using a standard radioimmunoassay and gastric acid output was measured concurrently using a marker dilution technique. The animals were studied in the basal state and after total body exposure to 800 cGy 60Co delivered at a rate of 500 cGy/min. Acid output was abolished from 40 min to 2 h after irradiation but had returned to preirradiation levels 2 days later. Plasma PGE2 and PGI2 (as measured by 6-keto-PGF1 alpha determination) were not significantly modified by irradiation. In contrast, irradiation produced an immediate significant increase (P less than 0.05) in gastric juice concentration of PGE2 (318 +/- 80 to 523 +/- 94 pg/ml; mean +/- SE) and PGI2 (230 +/- 36 to 346 +/- 57 pg/ml); both had returned to basal levels 2 days later. Thus, an increase in gastric juice concentration of both PGE2 and PGI2 is associated with the radiation induced suppression of acid output

  13. Novel Diet, Drugs, and Gastric Interventions for Gastroparesis.

    Camilleri, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This review of the pathophysiologic basis for gastroparesis and recent advances in the treatment of patients with gastroparesis shows that there are several novel approaches to advance treatment of gastroparesis including diet, novel prokinetics, interventions on the pylorus, and novel forms of gastric electrical stimulation. The field of gastroparesis is likely to advance with further studies, with help from a guidance document from the Food and Drug Administration on gastroparesis, and with recent approval of the stable isotope gastric emptying test to ensure eligibility of participants in multicenter trials. Clinical experience and a formal, randomized, controlled trial provide insights on optimizing dietary interventions in patients with gastroparesis. This review addresses the biologic rationale of these different treatments, based on known physiology and pathophysiology of gastric emptying. The novel medications include the motilin agonist, camicinal; 5-HT4 receptor agonists, such as velusetrag; and the ghrelin agonist, relamorelin. New approaches target pylorospasm by stent placement, endoscopic pyloric myotomy, or laparoscopic pyloroplasty. These approaches offer the opportunity to achieve more permanent reduction of resistance to flow at the pylorus over the intrapyloric injection of botulinum toxin, which typically has to be repeated every few months if it is efficacious. A novel device, deployed in porcine stomach, involved per-endoscopic electrical stimulation. These promising approaches require formal, randomized, controlled trials and deployment in patients. The presence of concomitant antral hypomotility may be a significant factor in the responsiveness to interventions at the pylorus. PMID:26762845

  14. Emptiness of the Universe as a Cause of Inflation and Dark Energy

    Marochnik, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that in a homogeneous isotropic empty (with no matter fields) Lorentzian space of the Universe gravitons and classical gravitational waves can be tunneled into Euclidean space of imaginary time through a topologically impenetrable barrier. They are damped here, giving their energy on the formation of the self-consistent de Sitter state, which is invariant with respect to Wick rotation. The latter suggests that it is formed in the Lorentzian space of real time too, and its appearance here can be considered as "tunneling from nothing". The present Universe is already ~70% empty, and it is going to become completely empty with decreasing of the energy density of non-relativistic matter in the process of cosmological expansion. The inflation is most likely had to start from the vacuum state also. De Sitter accelerated expansion of the empty Universe naturally explains the origin of dark energy and inflation because at the start (inflation) and by the end (dark energy)of its evolution the Universe is e...

  15. Gastric immature teratoma

    Gastric teratoma (GT) is a rare neoplasm which accounts for less than 1% of all teratomas in children. Little more than 100 cases of GT are reported in the literature out of which, about a dozen cases are of immature variety. We present a case of immature gastric teratoma in a 7-month-old male baby. (author)

  16. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  17. "Gastric bascule": an unusual form of gastric volvulus.

    Menezes, Amber; Sowerby, Leigh; Malthaner, Richard A; Parry, Neil G

    2010-03-01

    Gastric volvulus can occur along the organoaxial axis or the mesenteroaxial axis. We present a patient with a gastric bascule: a gastric volvulus due to two lead points. A 17-year-old boy with dextrogastria, asplenia, and left diaphragmatic eventration presented with acute onset of nonbilious emesis, jaundice, and diffuse abdominal tenderness. Surgical exploration demonstrated a gastric volvulus, with lead points of torsion at the gastroesophageal junction and the second part of the duodenum, causing biliary obstruction. After decompression, reduction, and gastropexy, the patient recovered well. Gastric bascule is a subtype of gastric volvulus, whereby two lead points cause gastric rotation and folding of the stomach upon itself. PMID:20172106

  18. Benign gastric filling defect

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  19. Treatment of gastric cancer

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  20. Influence of abuse history on gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia.

    Geeraerts, B; Van Oudenhove, L; Fischler, B; Vandenberghe, J; Caenepeel, P; Janssens, J; Tack, J

    2009-01-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders have elevated rates of sexual or physical abuse, which may be associated with altered rectal sensorimotor function in irritable bowel syndrome. The aim was to study the association between abuse history and gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia (FD). We studied gastric sensorimotor function with barostat (sensitivity, compliance and accommodation) and gastric emptying test in 233 consecutive FD patients from a tertiary care centre (162 women, mean age 41.6 +/- 0.9). Patients filled out self-report questionnaires on history of sexual and physical abuse during childhood or adulthood. Eighty-four patients (out of 198, 42.4%) reported an overall history of abuse [sexual and physical in respectively 30.0% (60/200) and 20.3% (42/207)]. FD patients reporting general as well as severe childhood sexual abuse have significantly lower discomfort thresholds during gastric distension [respectively 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 7.5 +/- 1.0 mmHg above minimal distending pressure (MDP), P = 0.014 and 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 6.6 +/- 1.2 mmHg above MDP, P = 0.007]. The corresponding intra-balloon volume was also significantly lower (respectively 579 +/- 21 vs 422 +/- 59 mL, P = 0.013 and 579 +/- 19 vs 423 +/- 79 mL, P = 0.033). Gastric accommodation was significantly more pronounced in patients reporting rape during adulthood (91 +/- 12 vs 130 +/- 40 mL, P = 0.016). Abuse history was not associated with differences in gastric emptying. A history of abuse is associated with alterations in gastric sensorimotor function in FD. Particularly sexual abuse, rather than physical abuse, may influence gastric sensitivity and motor function. PMID:18694440

  1. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  2. Prevention and treatment of the gastric symptoms of radiation sickness

    Currently available treatments for radiation-induced nausea and vomiting either are ineffective or reduce performance. The new antiemetic and gastrokinetic agent zacopride was tested in rhesus monkeys to assess its behavioral toxicity and its ability to inhibit radiation-induced emesis. Zacopride (intragastric, 0.3 mg/kg) or a placebo was given blindly and randomly in the basal state and 15 min before a whole-body 800 cGy 60Co gamma-radiation dose (except for the legs which were partially protected to permit survival of some bone marrow). We determined (1) gastric emptying rates; (2) the presence and frequency of retching and vomiting; and (3) the effect of zacopride on the performance of a visual discrimination task in nonirradiated subjects. No vomiting, retching, or decreased performance was observed after either placebo or zacopride in the control state. Following irradiation plus placebo, 70 emeses were observed in 5 of 6 monkeys, and 353 retches were observed in all 6 monkeys. In contrast, only 1 emesis was observed in 1 of 6 monkeys and 173 retches were seen in 4 of 6 monkeys after irradiation plus zacopride (P less than 0.01). Zacopride also significantly inhibited radiation-induced suppression of gastric emptying. When given after the first vomiting episode in a separate group of irradiated monkeys, zacopride completely prevented any subsequent vomiting. The present results demonstrate that intragastric administration of zacopride significantly inhibited radiation-induced retching, vomiting, and suppression of gastric emptying in rhesus monkeys and did not cause detectable behavioral side effects when given to nonradiated monkeys. This observation has important implications in the treatment of radiation sickness

  3. Will the Driver Seat Ever Be Empty?

    Fraichard, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Self-driving technologies have matured and improved to the point that, in the past few years, self-driving cars have been able to safely drive an impressive number of kilometers. It should be noted though that, in all cases, the driver seat was never empty: a human driver was behind the wheel, ready to take over whenever the situation dictated it. This is an interesting paradox since the point of a self-driving car is to remove the most unreliable part of the car, namely the human driver. So,...

  4. Adenoviral delivery of the EMX2 gene suppresses growth in human gastric cancer.

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EMX2 is a human orthologue of the Drosophila empty spiracles homeobox gene that has been implicated in embryogenesis. Recent studies suggest possible involvement of EMX2 in human cancers; however, the role of EMX2 in carcinogenesis needs further exploration. RESULTS: In this study, we reported that down-regulation of EMX2 expression was significantly correlated with EMX2 promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer. Restoring EMX2 expression using an adenovirus delivery system in gastric cancer cell lines lacking endogenous EMX2 expression led to inhibition of cell proliferation and Wnt signaling pathway both in vitro and in a gastric cancer xenograft model in vivo. In addition, we observed that animals treated with the adenoviral EMX2 expression vector had significantly better survival than those treated with empty adenoviral vector. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that EMX2 is a putative tumor suppressor in human gastric cancer. The adenoviral-EMX2 may have potential as a novel gene therapy for the treatment of patients with gastric cancer.

  5. Adenoviral Delivery of the EMX2 Gene Suppresses Growth in Human Gastric Cancer

    Li, Jie; Mo, Minli; Chen, Zhao; Chen, Zhe; Sheng, Qing; Mu, Hang; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Zhi, Xiu-Yi; Li, Hui; He, Biao; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2012-01-01

    Background EMX2 is a human orthologue of the Drosophila empty spiracles homeobox gene that has been implicated in embryogenesis. Recent studies suggest possible involvement of EMX2 in human cancers; however, the role of EMX2 in carcinogenesis needs further exploration. Results In this study, we reported that down-regulation of EMX2 expression was significantly correlated with EMX2 promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer. Restoring EMX2 expression using an adenovirus delivery system in gastric cancer cell lines lacking endogenous EMX2 expression led to inhibition of cell proliferation and Wnt signaling pathway both in vitro and in a gastric cancer xenograft model in vivo. In addition, we observed that animals treated with the adenoviral EMX2 expression vector had significantly better survival than those treated with empty adenoviral vector. Conclusion Our study suggests that EMX2 is a putative tumor suppressor in human gastric cancer. The adenoviral-EMX2 may have potential as a novel gene therapy for the treatment of patients with gastric cancer. PMID:23029345

  6. Research on bottom detection in Intelligent Empty Bottle Inspection System

    Bin Huang; Sile Ma; Yufeng Lv; Hualong Zhang; Chunming Liu; Huajie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent empty bottle inspection system is an important inspection equipment of empty bottle before filling beer, and it is a blend of machine vision, precision machine and real-time control. They need to cooperate perfectly to achieve the desired effect. In the design of the empty bottle inspection system, one of the key technologies is the bottle bottom detection which affects the speed and accuracy of the system. It includes positioning and defect recognition of bottle bottom. For the...

  7. Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humans

    Calbet, Jose A L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    -times of (mean +/- SEM) 21.4 +/- 1.3, 19.3 +/- 2.2, 18.0 +/- 2.5 and 19.4 +/- 2.8 min, for the WHY, CAHY, C and W, respectively. The rates of intestinal absorption of water and amino acids were similar with the exception of the casein protein solution, for which the speed of intestinal amino acid absorption...

  8. Real-time gastric motility monitoring using transcutaneous intraluminal impedance measurements (TIIM)

    The stomach plays a critical role in digestion, processing ingested food mechanically and breaking it up into particles, which can be effectively and efficiently processed by the intestines. When the motility of the stomach is compromised, digestion is adversely affected. This can lead to a variety of disorders. Current diagnostic techniques for gastric motility disorders are seriously lacking, and are based more on eliminating other possibilities rather than on specific tests. Presently, gastric motility can be assessed by monitoring gastric emptying, food transit, intragastric pressures, etc. The associated tests are usually stationary and of relatively short duration. The present study proposes a new method of measuring gastric motility, utilizing the attenuation of an oscillator-induced electrical signal across the gastric tissue, which is modulated by gastric contractions. The induced high-frequency oscillator signal is generated within the stomach, and is picked up transluminally by cutaneous electrodes positioned on the abdominal area connected to a custom-designed data acquisition instrument. The proposed method was implemented in two different designs: first a transoral catheter was modified to emit the signal inside the stomach; and second, a gastric retentive pill was designed to emit the signal. Both implementations were applied in vivo on two mongrel dogs (25.50 kg and 25.75 kg). Gastric contractions were registered and quantitatively compared to recordings from force transducers sutured onto the serosa of the stomach. Gastric motility indices were calculated for each minute, with transluminal impedance measurements and the measurements from the force transducers showing statistically significant (p < 0.05) Pearson correlation coefficients (0.65 ± 0.08 for the catheter-based design and 0.77 ± 0.03 for the gastric retentive pill design). These results show that transcutaneous intraluminal impedance measurement has the potential with further research

  9. The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects.

    Almér Lars-Olof; Höglund Peter; Björgell Ola; Lindstedt Sandra; Hlebowicz Joanna; Darwiche Gassan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar) in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained bot...

  10. A Preliminary Candidate Genotype-Intermediate Phenotype Study of Satiation and Gastric Motor Function in Obesity

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael; Carlson, Paula; Vella, Adrian; Nord, Sara Linker; Burton, Duane; Odunsi, Suwebatu; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Stomach motility contributes significantly to fullness sensation while eating and cessation of food intake in humans. Genes controlling adrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms (ADRA2A, GNB3 and SLC6A4) affect gastric emptying (GE), volume (GV) and satiation. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is linked with satiety. Our aim was to examine the association of these candidate genes with stomach functions that signal postprandial fullness: GE, GV, and maximum tolerated volume (MTV). These ...

  11. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima;

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects...

  12. Gradual sucrose gastric loading test: A method for the prediction of nonsuccess gastric enteral feeding in critically ill surgical patients

    Kaweesak Chittawatanarat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Intolerance of gastric enteral feeding (GEN commonly occurs in surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU. A liquid containing sugar could prolong gastric emptying time. This study was to propose a method for prediction of nonsuccess GEN using gastric volume after loading (GVAL following gradual sucrose gastric loading. Materials and Methods: Mechanical ventilator supported and hemodynamically stable patients in SICU were enrolled. About 180-240 min before the GEN starting, a sucrose solution (12.5%; 450 mosmole/kg, 800 mL was administered via gastric feeding tube over 30 min with 45° head upright position. GVAL was measured at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after loading. GEN success status using clinical criteria was assessed at 72 h after the starting GEN protocol. The receiving operating characteristic (ROC and c statistic were used for discrimination at each time point of GVAL. Results: A total of 32 patients were enrolled and completed the protocol. 14 patients (43.7% were nonsuccessful GEN. The nonsuccess group was found to have significantly more GVAL than the other group at all-time points during the test (P < 0.05. The most discriminating point of GVAL for the prediction of nonsuccess was 150 mL at 120 min after loading with a sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 88.9%, positive predictive value of 85.7%, negative predictive value of 94.1%, and ROC area 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.00. Conclusion: A high GVAL following sucrose gastric loading test might be a method to predict nonsuccess GEN in critically ill surgical patients.

  13. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  14. Diet and gastric cancer

    Šipetić Sandra B.; Tomić-Kundaković Slađana; Vlajinac Hristina D.; Janković Slavenka M.; Marinković Jelena M.; Maksimović Jadranka M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years), gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, fol...

  15. The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects

    Almér Lars-Olof

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained botanical integrity of cereals and the presence of acetic acid (vinegar on gastric emptying rate (GER, postprandial blood glucose and satiety. Methods Fifteen healthy subjects were included in a blinded crossover trial, and thirteen of the subjects completed the study. Equicarbohydrate amounts of the following wheat-based meals were studied: white wheat bread, whole-kernel wheat bread or wholemeal wheat bread served with white wine vinegar. The results were compared with a reference meal consisting of white wheat bread without vinegar. The GER was measured with standardized real-time ultrasonography using normal fasting blood glucose Results The whole-kernel wheat bread with vinegar resulted in significantly higher ( Conclusion The present study shows higher satiety after a whole-kernel wheat bread meal with vinegar. This may be explained by increased antral distension after ingestion of intact cereal kernels but, in this study, not by a lower gastric emptying rate or higher postprandial blood glucose response. Trial registration NTR1116

  16. Measurement of gastric meal and secretion volumes using magnetic resonance imaging

    Hoad, C. L.; Parker, H.; Hudders, N.; Costigan, C.; Cox, E. F.; Perkins, A. C.; Blackshaw, P. E.; Marciani, L.; Spiller, R. C.; Fox, M. R.; Gowland, P. A.

    2015-02-01

    MRI can assess multiple gastric functions without ionizing radiation. However, time consuming image acquisition and analysis of gastric volume data, plus confounding of gastric emptying measurements by gastric secretions mixed with the test meal have limited its use to research centres. This study presents an MRI acquisition protocol and analysis algorithm suitable for the clinical measurement of gastric volume and secretion volume. Reproducibility of gastric volume measurements was assessed using data from 10 healthy volunteers following a liquid test meal with rapid MRI acquisition within one breath-hold and semi-automated analysis. Dilution of the ingested meal with gastric secretion was estimated using a respiratory-triggered T1 mapping protocol. Accuracy of the secretion volume measurements was assessed using data from 24 healthy volunteers following a mixed (liquid/solid) test meal with MRI meal volumes compared to data acquired using gamma scintigraphy (GS) on the same subjects studied on a separate study day. The mean ± SD coefficient of variance between 3 observers for both total gastric contents (including meal, secretions and air) and just the gastric contents (meal and secretion only) was 3  ±  2% at large gastric volumes (>200 ml). Mean ± SD secretion volumes post meal ingestion were 64  ±  51 ml and 110  ±  40 ml at 15 and 75 min, respectively. Comparison with GS meal volumes, showed that MRI meal only volume (after correction for secretion volume) were similar to GS, with a linear regression gradient ± std err of 1.06  ±  0.10 and intercept -11  ±  24 ml. In conclusion, (i) rapid volume acquisition and respiratory triggered T1 mapping removed the requirement to image during prolonged breath-holds (ii) semi-automatic analysis greatly reduced the time required to derive measurements and (iii) correction for secretion volumes provided accurate assessment of gastric meal volumes and emptying. Together these features

  17. Pouch emptying of solid foods after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Uhrenholdt, A

    1985-01-01

    To obtain information on possible determinants of weight loss after horizontal gastroplasty, pouch emptying was prospectively investigated in 27 morbidly obese patients. A scintigraphic method was used. Examinations were carried out every 6 months until 2 years after surgery. Pouch emptying was...

  18. Effects of Danshen Decoction on experimental gastric ulcer in rats and mice

    LIU Li

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the preventive and therapeutic effects of Danshen Decoction on gastric ulcer in experimental animal models. Methods: The model of water immersion restraint stress ulcer in mice, and the models of acetic acid impaired gastric ulcer and pyloric ligation gastric ulcer in rats were established. The total gastric acid, the activity of pepsin and the amount of gastric wall binding mucus were detected. Results: Danshen Decoction reduced the acute gastric mucosal lesion. The effect of 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg group was obviously better than that of the normal saline control group (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively. Danshen Decoction accelerated the healing of ulcer induced by acetic acid significantly, and increased the content of gastric wall binding mucus (P<0.01; and it also inhibited the formation of gastric ulcer induced by pyloric ligation, while having no influence on the secretion of gastric acid and the activity of pepsin. Conclusion: Danshen Decoction has a significant anti-ulcerative effect, which may be related to improving the gastric mucosal defensive function.

  19. Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    Boggs, Joseph W.; Wenzel, Brian J.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2006-03-01

    Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensory nerve transection to prevent dyssynergic contraction of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). Stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve trunk (PN) activates spinal micturition circuitry, leading to a reflex bladder contraction without a reflex EUS contraction. The present study determined if PN stimulation could produce bladder emptying without nerve transection in cats anesthetized with α-chloralose. With all nerves intact, intermittent PN stimulation emptied the bladder (64 ± 14% of initial volume, n = 37 across six cats) more effectively than either distention-evoked micturition (40 ± 19%, p 0.10), indicating that PN stimulation was not limited by bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Intermittent PN stimulation holds promise for restoring bladder emptying following spinal injury without requiring nerve transection.

  20. RF empty bucket channelling combined with a betatron core to improve slow extraction in medical synchrotrons

    Crescenti, M

    1998-01-01

    The uniformity of a slow-extracted beam from a synchrotron is degraded by ripples from the power converters of the magnetic elements. This effect can be reduced by making the beam particles cross more quickly from the stable to the unstable region. Among the various methods that have been proposed for this purpose, RF bucket channelling seems to be a good candidate for compensating low frequency ripples in spills of the order of one second. The method is based on the technique of RF phase displacement acceleration. In the configuration studied, a coasting beam is accelerated slowly into a third-order resonance by a betatron core. The acceleration rate set by the betatron core determines the spill length. Empty buckets are then created at the resonance frequency and adjusted with a phase angle that would decelerate any trapped beam by an equal and opposite amount. The main RF system can be used for this purpose. The empty buckets cause an obstruction in phase space and the beam particles are forced to channel ...