WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerated type biological

  1. Small type accelerator. Try for accelerator driven system

    Mori, Y

    2003-01-01

    FFAG (Fixed-field alternating gradient) accelerator for accelerator driven subcritical reactor, which aims to change from long-lived radioactive waste to short-lived radioactivity, is introduced. It is ring accelerator. The performance needed is proton as accelerator particle, 10MW (total) beam power, about 1GeV beam energy, >30% power efficiency and continuous beam. The feature of FFAG accelerator is constant magnetic field. PoP (Proof-of-principle)-FFAG accelerator, radial type, was run at first in Japan in 2000. The excursion is about some ten cm. In principle, beam can be injected and extracted at any place of ring. The 'multi-fish' acceleration can accelerate beams to 100% duty by repeating acceleration. 150MeV-FFAG accelerator has been started since 2001. It tried to practical use, for example, treatment of cancer. (S.Y.)

  2. New type of collective accelerator

    A collective accelerator based on magnetically confined plasma rings is described. Typical rings which have been produced and which have 10 kJ magnetic energy and 0.1 to 10 coulombs of nuclei are predicted to be accelerated magnetically to 10 MJ or higher in acceleration lengths of 100 m if the final power delivered to the ring is 1012 W. Applications are discussed of current drive in Tokamak fusion reactions, fueling and heating magnetic fusion reactors, transuranic element synthesis, and, for focused rings, a high energy density driver for inertial confinement fusion

  3. Two stage-type railgun accelerator

    The present invention provides a two stage-type railgun accelerator capable of spiking a flying body (ice pellet) formed by solidifying a gaseous hydrogen isotope as a fuel to a thermonuclear reactor at a higher speed into a central portion of plasmas. Namely, the two stage-type railgun accelerator accelerates the flying body spiked from a initial stage accelerator to a portion between rails by Lorentz force generated when electric current is supplied to the two rails by way of a plasma armature. In this case, two sets of solenoids are disposed for compressing the plasma armature in the longitudinal direction of the rails. The first and the second sets of solenoid coils are previously supplied with electric current. After passing of the flying body, the armature formed into plasmas by a gas laser disposed at the back of the flying body is compressed in the longitudinal direction of the rails by a magnetic force of the first and the second sets of solenoid coils to increase the plasma density. A current density is also increased simultaneously. Then, the first solenoid coil current is turned OFF to accelerate the flying body in two stages by the compressed plasma armature. (I.S.)

  4. Railgun type double stage acceleration device

    Existent railgun type double stage acceleration devices for use in a thermonuclear device involved a problem so far that releasing amount of secondary electrons is reduced and destruction of electric insulation between rail electrodes is made unstable to increase a possibility of operation failure. In the present invention, there is disposed a means for accelerating plasmas to generate electric discharge between the rail electrodes by electric fields generated by a needle electrode disposed in the insulation material which supports the rail electrodes. Since ions of plasmas generated by laser beams are accelerated by high electric fields generated to the needle electrode, and collide against the rail electrodes at high energy, a large amount of secondary electrons are generated and the destruction of the electric insulation between a pair of rail electrodes is stabilized, to improve possibility of operation failure. (N.H.)

  5. Biological assessments for the low energy demonstration accelerator, 1996

    Cross, S.

    1997-03-01

    This report discusses the biological impact to the area around the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator. In particular the impact to the soils, water quality, vegetation, and wildlife are discussed.

  6. Detonation Type Ram Accelerator: A Computational Investigation

    Sunil Bhat

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model explaining the functional characteristics of detonation type ram accelerator is presented. Major flow processes, namely, (i supersonic flow over the cone of the projectile, (ii initiation ofconical shock wave and its reflection from the tube wall, (iii supersonic combustion, and (iv expansion wave and its reflection are modelled. Taylor-Maccoll approach is adopted for modellingthe flow over the cone of the projectile. Shock reflection is treated in accordance with wave angle theorytor flows over the wedge. Prandtl-Mayer analysis is used to model the expansion wave and its reflection.Steady one-dimensional flow with heat transfer along with Rayleigh line equation for perfect gases isused to model supersonic combustion. A computer code is developed to compute the thrust producedby combustion of gases. Ballistic parameters like thrust-pressure ratio and ballistic efficiency of the accelerator are evaluated and their maximum values are 0.032 and 0.068, respectively. The code indicates possibility ofachieving high velocity of 7 km/s on utilising gaseous mixture of 2H2+O2 in the operation.Velocity range suitable for operation of the accelerator lies between 3.8 - 7.0 km/s. Maximum thrust valueis 33721 N which corresponds to the projectile velocity of 5 km/s.

  7. Rail gun type two stage accelerator

    In a rail gun type two stage accelerator, a cavity resonator which resonates microwaves to once convert gases behind a fuel pellet into plasmas is disposed to a transport pipe between a gas injector and rail electrodes. When gases reach a fuel pellet to push it, the gases are once converted into plasmas by microwaves, pass through the cavity resonator to be gradually decayed, in which an ionization rate is decreased, and returned to neutral particles. Gas constituent particles flow between the rail electrodes while keeping a highly excited state, and the fuel pellet reaches a detection axial line of a pass detector. In this case, a pulse laser oscillator and a pulse current power source are operated to convert gases again into plasmas by a pulse laser restricted by a focusing lens, to which electric current is supplied to accelerate the fuel pellet. With such procedures, plasmas in an initial stage upon re-acceleration can be generated easily, as well as an optical axis can easily be controlled. (N.H.)

  8. Next generation tools to accelerate the synthetic biology process.

    Shih, Steve C C; Moraes, Christopher

    2016-05-16

    Synthetic biology follows the traditional engineering paradigm of designing, building, testing and learning to create new biological systems. While such approaches have enormous potential, major challenges still exist in this field including increasing the speed at which this workflow can be performed. Here, we present recently developed microfluidic tools that can be used to automate the synthetic biology workflow with the goal of advancing the likelihood of producing desired functionalities. With the potential for programmability, automation, and robustness, the integration of microfluidics and synthetic biology has the potential to accelerate advances in areas such as bioenergy, health, and biomaterials. PMID:27146265

  9. Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics

    Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

  10. Augment-type two stage accelerator

    When a flying body accelerated by a gas gun at a first stage enters into an augment rail passing through an introduction tube, an ignition capacitor for initial plasmas is turned ON to apply a voltage between the augment rails. Subsequently, the accelerating gas present behind the flying body is formed into plasmas by a laser, to flow electric current from one of the inner augment rails → plasma armature → the other of the inner augment rails, and additionally accelerate the flying body by Lorentz force formed in this case. Since the plasmas are maintained in a state of higher density than the plasmas obtained by using all of the augment rails, the ignition capacitor for initial plasmas in switched to a power source. As a result, it is possible to flow the maximum current before the plasmas expand, and a large accelerating force and a high magnetic flux density are attained, to improve acceleration performance of the flying body. (N.H.)

  11. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    three-dimensional axes, plus the length of the acceleration vector) are selected for each activity. Each time series is modeled using a Dynamic Linear Model with cyclic components. The classification method, based on a Multi-Process Kalman Filter (MPKF), is applied to a total of 15 times series of 120...

  12. A New Type of Accelerator for Charged Particle Cancer Therapy

    Edgecock, Rob

    2016-01-01

    acceleration of protons and light ions for the treatment of certain cancers. They have unique features as they combine techniques from the existing types of accelerators, cyclotrons and synchrotrons, and hence look to have advantages over both for this application. However, these unique features meant that it was necessary to build one of these accelerators to show that it works and to undertake a detailed conceptual design of a medical machine. Both of these have now been done. This paper will describe the concepts of this type of accelerator, show results from the proof-of-principle machine (EMMA) and described the medical machine (PAMELA).

  13. Tesla-transformer-type electron beam accelerator

    An electron-beam Tesla-transformer accelerator is described. It consists of the primary storage energy system. Tesla transformer, oil Blumlein pulse form line, and the vacuum diode. The experiments of initial stage showed that diode voltage rises up to about 500 kV with an input of 20 kV and the maximum electron-beam current is about 9 kA, the pulse width is about 50 ns. This device can operate stably and be set up easily

  14. Considerations related to breed or biological type.

    Van Eenennaam, Alison L

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the literature on breed, biological type, and breeding system and their impact on female fertility, especially as they relate to heifer development. The attributes of different breeding systems and their appropriate use is discussed. In addition, the extant and emerging selection tools that are available for replacement heifer selection are reviewed. PMID:24182431

  15. Conflation: a new type of accelerated expansion

    Fertig, Angelika; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Mallwitz, Enno

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity, we construct a new kind of cosmological model that conflates inflation and ekpyrosis. During a phase of conflation, the universe undergoes accelerated expansion, but with crucial differences compared to ordinary inflation. In particular, the potential energy is negative, which is of interest for supergravity and string theory where both negative potentials and the required scalar-tensor couplings are rather natural. A distinguishing feature of the model is that, for a large parameter range, it does not significantly amplify adiabatic scalar and tensor fluctuations, and in particular does not lead to eternal inflation and the associated infinities. We also show how density fluctuations in accord with current observations may be generated by adding a second scalar field to the model. Conflation may be viewed as complementary to the recently proposed anamorphic universe of Ijjas and Steinhardt.

  16. ACCELERATION OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths ≤50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are ∼150-460 km s–1, horizontally localized within ∼2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are ∼20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached ∼100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) × 1022 ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as ∼100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be ∼0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of ∼106 ergs cm–2 s–1 associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  17. Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae

    Nielsen, Jeppe Trøst; Sarkar, Subir

    2015-01-01

    The `standard' model of cosmology is founded on the basis that the expansion rate of the universe is accelerating at present --- as was inferred originally from the Hubble diagram of Type Ia supernovae. There exists now a much bigger database of supernovae so we can perform rigorous statistical tests to check whether these `standardisable candles' indeed indicate cosmic acceleration. Taking account of the empirical procedure by which corrections are made to their absolute magnitudes to allow for the varying shape of the light curve and extinction by dust, we find, rather surprisingly, that the data are still quite consistent with a constant rate of expansion.

  18. Low power RF measurements of travelling wave type linear accelerator

    RRCAT is engaged in the development of travelling wave (TW) type linear accelerator for irradiation of industrial and agricultural products. TW accelerator designed for 2π/3 mode to operate at frequency of 2856 MHz. It consists of input coupler, buncher cells, regular cells and output coupler. Low power measurement of this structure includes measurement of resonant frequency of the cells for different resonant modes and quality factor, tuning of input-output coupler and measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Steele's non-resonant perturbation technique has been used for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Kyhl's method has been used for the tuning of input-output coupler. Computer based automated bead pull set-up has been developed for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field profile in the structure. All the codes are written in Python for interfacing of Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) , stepper motor with computer. These codes also automate the measurement process. This paper describes the test set- up for measurement and results of measurement of travelling wave type linear accelerating structure. (author)

  19. An Accelerated Radioactive Decay (ARD) Model for Type Ia Supernovae

    Rust, Bert W.; Leventhal, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    In 1975, Leventhal and McCall [Nature, 255, 690-692] presented a radioactive decay model 56N i --> 56Co --> 56Fe for the post-peak luminosity decay of Type I supernovae light curves, in which the two decay rates are both accelerated by a common factor. In 1976, Rust, Leventhal and McCall [Nature, 262, 118-120] used sums of exponentials fitting to confirm the acceleration hypothesis, but their result was nevertheless rejected by the astronomical community. Here, we model Type Ia light curves with a system of ODEs (describing the nuclear decays) forced by a Ni-deposition pulse modelled by a 3-parameter Weibull pdf, with all of this occuring in the center of a pre-existing, optically thick, spherical shell which thermalizes the emitted gamma rays. Fitting this model to observed light curves routinely gives fits which account for 99.9+% of the total variance in the observed record. The accelerated decay rates are so stable, for such a long time, that they must occur in an almost unchanging environment -- not it a turbulent expanding atmosphere. The amplitude of the Ni-deposition pulse indicates that its source is the fusion of hydrogen. Carbon and oxygen could not supply the large energy/nucleon that is observed. The secondary peak in the infrared light curve can be easily modelled as a light echo from dust in the back side of the pre-existing shell, and the separation between the peaks indicates a radius of ≈15 light days for the shell. The long-term stability of the acceleration suggests that it is a kinematic effect arising because the nuclear reactions occur either on the surface of a very rapidly rotating condensed object, or in a very tight orbit around such an object, like the fusion pulse in a tokomak reactor.

  20. Cosmic ray acceleration at blast waves from type Ia supernovae

    Kang, H

    2007-01-01

    We have calculated the cosmic ray (CR) acceleration at young remnants from Type Ia supernovae expanding into a uniform interstellar medium (ISM). Adopting quasi-parallel magnetic fields, gasdynamic equations and the diffusion convection equation for the particle distribution function are solved in a comoving spherical grid which expands with the shock. Bohm-type diffusion due to self-excited Alfven waves, drift and dissipation of these waves in the precursor and thermal leakage injection were included. With magnetic fields amplified by the CR streaming instability, the particle energy can reach up to 10^{16}Z eV at young supernova remnants (SNRs) of several thousand years old. The fraction of the explosion energy transferred to the CR component asymptotes to 40-50 % by that time. For a typical SNR in a warm ISM, the accelerated CR energy spectrum should exhibit a concave curvature with the power-law slope flattening from 2 to 1.6 at E>0.1 TeV.

  1. A New Type of Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Driven by Magnetowaves

    Chen, Pisin(Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, 10617, Taipei, Taiwan); Chang, Feng-Yin; Lin, Guey-Lin; Noble, Robert J.; Sydora, Richard

    2008-01-01

    We present a new concept for a plasma wakefield accelerator driven by magnetowaves (MPWA). This concept was originally proposed as a viable mechanism for the "cosmic accelerator" that would accelerate cosmic particles to ultra high energies in the astrophysical setting. Unlike the more familiar Plasma Wakefield Accelerator (PWFA) and the Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) where the drivers, the charged-particle beam and the laser, are independently existing entities, MPWA invokes the high-fre...

  2. Biological dose volume histograms during conformal hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Radiobiological data suggest that prostate cancer has a low α/β ratio. Large radiotherapy fractions may, therefore, prove more efficacious than standard radiotherapy, while radiotherapy acceleration should further improve control rates. This study describes the radiobiology of a conformal hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy scheme for the treatment of high risk prostate cancer. Anteroposterior fields to the pelvis deliver a daily dose of 2.7 Gy, while lateral fields confined to the prostate and seminal vesicles deliver an additional daily dose of 0.7 Gy. Radiotherapy is accomplished within 19 days (15 fractions). Dose volume histograms, calculated for tissue specific α/β ratios and time factors, predict a high biological dose to the prostate and seminal vesicles (77-93 Gy). The biological dose to normal pelvic tissues is maintained at standard levels. Radiobiological dosimetry suggests that, using hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy, high biological radiation dose can be given to the prostate without overdosing normal tissues

  3. Supernova Acceleration Probe: Studying Dark Energy with Type Ia Supernovae

    Albert, J; Allam, S; Althouse, W E; Amanullah, R; Annis, J; Astier, Pierre; Aumeunier, M; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Barrelet, E; Basa, S; Bebek, C; Bergström, L; Bernstein, G; Bester, M; Besuner, B; Bigelow, B; Blandford, R; Bohlin, R; Bonissent, A; Bower, C; Brown, M; Campbell, M; Carithers, W; Cole, D; Commins, Eugene D; Craig, W; Davis, T; Dawson, K; Day, C; De Harveng, M; De Jongh, F; Deustua, S; Diehl, H; Dobson, T; Dodelson, S; Ealet, A; Ellis, R; Emmet, W; Figer, D; Fouchez, D; Frerking, M; Frieman, J A; Fruchter, A; Gerdes, D; Gladney, L; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Groom, D; Heetderks, H; Hoff, M; Holland, S; Huffer, M; Hui, L; Huterer, D; Jain, B; Jelinsky, P; Juramy, C; Karcher, A; Kent, S; Kahn, S; Kim, A; Kolbe, W; Krieger, B; Kushner, G; Kuznetsova, N; Lafever, R; Lamoureux, J; Lampton, M; Lefèvre, O; Lebrun, V; Levi, M; Limon, P; Lin, H; Linder, E; Loken, S; Lorenzon, W; Malina, R; Marian, L; Marriner, J P; Marshall, P; Massey, R; Mazure, A; McGinnis, B; McKay, T; McKee, S; Miquel, R; Mobasher, B; Morgan, N; Mortsell, E; Mostek, N; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nakajima, R; Nugent, P; Olus, H; Pain, R; Palaio, N; Pankow, D; Peoples, John; Perlmutter, S; Peterson, D; Prieto, E; Rabinowitz, D; Réfrégier, A; Rhodes, J; Roe, N; Rusin, D; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Seiffert, M; Sholl, M; Shukla, H; Smadja, G; Smith, R M; Smoot, George F; Snyder, J; Spadafora, A; Stabenau, F; Stebbins, A; Stoughton, C; Szymkowiak, A; Tarle, G; Taylor, K; Tilquin, A; Tomasch, A; Tucker, D; Vincent, D; Von der Lippe, H; Walder, J P; Wang, G; Weinstein, A; Wester, W; White, M

    2005-01-01

    The Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will use Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as distance indicators to measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion history of the Universe. (SNAP's weak-lensing program is described in a companion White Paper.) The experiment exploits supernova distance measurements up to their fundamental systematic limit; strict requirements on the monitoring of each supernova's properties lead to the need for a space-based mission. Results from pre-SNAP experiments, which characterize fundamental SN Ia properties, will be used to optimize the SNAP observing strategy to yield data, which minimize both systematic and statistical uncertainties. SNAP has achieved technological readiness and the collaboration is poised to begin construction.

  4. Aluminum-26 as a biological tracer using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Flarend, Richard Edward

    1997-06-01

    The development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has provided a practical method of detection for the only isotope of aluminum suitable as a tracer, 26Al. The use of 26Al as a tracer for aluminum has made possible the study of aluminum metabolism and the pharmacokinetics of aluminum-containing drugs at physiological levels. An overview of the various advantages of using 26Al as a tracer for aluminum and a general description of the AMS technique as applied to bio-medical applications is given. To illustrate the versatility of 26Al as a tracer for aluminum, 26Al studies of the past several years are discussed briefly. In addition, Two novel investigations dealing with 26Al-labeled drugs will be presented in more detail. In one of these studies, it was found that 26Al from aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvants appeared in the blood just one hour after intramuscular injection. This is a surprising result since the currently held theory of how adjuvants work assumes that adjuvants remain insoluble and hold the antigen at the injection site for a long period of time. In another project, 26Al-labeled antiperspirants are being characterized by combining AMS with traditional analytical and chromatographic techniques. Future directions for this and other possible studies are discussed.

  5. Accelerating cancer systems biology research through Semantic Web technology.

    Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute's caBIG, so users can interact with the DMR not only through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers' intellectual property. PMID:23188758

  6. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography, 1939--1973

    A bibliography of more than 1300 references on accelerator-produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine is presented. The information is arranged by subject and by specific nuclide. An author index is included. Appendices are provided of medical uses of specific elements and of radioisotopes not included in the main bibliography. (U.S.)

  7. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A. (eds.)

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  8. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980

  9. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  10. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  11. Installation of a tandem-type accelerator mass spectrometer

    Mizushima, Toshihiko; Togawa, Orihiko; Mizutani, Yoshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment; Kabuto, Shoji [Mutsu Marine Laboratory, Japan Marine Science Foundation, Mutsu, Aomori (Japan); Yamamoto, Tadatoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-02-01

    Tandem-type accelerator mass spectrometer (hereinafter referred to as Tandetron) was installed at the Ominato Facility of Mutsu Establishment, JAERI in April, 1997. The objective of its installation is to investigate the mechanism of the mixing and circulation of seawater in the ocean, by collecting seawater samples around Japan and analyzing the horizontal and vertical distributions of {sup 14}C contained in the samples. The Tandetron consists of two lines to measure isotopic ratios of carbon and those of heavier iodine. The adjustment for the carbon line was finished and the measurements of seawater samples were started. The iodine line, on the other hand, is on the final step of its adjustment and performance tests are being carried out with a TOF (Time of Flight) detector. The iodine line will be used to analyze {sup 129}I released from a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and other nuclear facilities. In this report, we summarize the status of installation of the carbon and iodine lines for the Tandetron. The report describes the situations of their adjustments until now, the outline of the Tandetron, tests of measurement performance, evaluation and inspection of shielding performance, problems and their solutions, and so on. (author)

  12. Biological soil crust community types differ in key ecological functions

    Pietrasiak, N; Regus, JU; Johansen, JR; LAM, D.; Sachs, JL; Santiago, LS

    2013-01-01

    Soil stability, nitrogen and carbon fixation were assessed for eight biological soil crust community types within a Mojave Desert wilderness site. Cyanolichen crust outperformed all other crusts in multi-functionality whereas incipient crust had the poorest performance. A finely divided classification of biological soil crust communities improves estimation of ecosystem function and strengthens the accuracy of landscape-scale assessments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Synthesis of Biologically Active Natural Component 4-Hydroxyderricin Through Water-Accelerated [3,3]-Sigmatropic Rearrangement

    Kim, Sijun; Lee, Jaejun; Yoon, Hyunho; Jun, Jonggab [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    We report herein the practical and effective total synthesis of biologically active 4-hydroxyderricin, a poly-phenolic chalcone compound containing m-prenyl group at ring A. The key steps of the synthesis are Claisen-Schmidt condensation of the the two phenolic units 17 and 18 to chalcone 19 and the water-accelerated [3,3]-sigma-tropic rearrangement of 1,1-dimethyl-2-propenyl aryl ether 20 to introduce the m-prenyl unit in 4-hydroxyderricin. Two types of polyphenolic chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin (1) and xanthoangelol (2), are especially rich in the plant, and the 4-hydroxyderricin exhibited the major responsibility for the various biological activities. Sugamoto reported the synthesis of 4-hydroxy-derricin via [1,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of chalcone ether using montmorillonite K10 which showed relatively low rearrangement yield (Scheme 1), and this is the only reported total synthesis of 1 as far as we know.

  14. The intense neutron generator and future factory type ion accelerators

    Lewis, W.B

    1968-07-01

    A neutron factory is likely to sell its product in the form of isotopes. To ay neutron factories are nuclear reactors. Ion accelerators may also produce isotopes by direct interaction and, at high enough energies, mesons and hyperons. The challenge of the electrical production of neutrons goes far beyond the isotope market. It challenges the two popular concepts for long term large scale energy, the fast breeder reactor and controlled thermonuclear fusion. For this use about 4% of nuclear generated power would be applied in a feedback loop generating extra neutrons. Competition rests on operating and processing costs. The Intense Neutron Generator proposal now cancelled would have been full scale for such a use, but much further advance in accelerator engineering is required and anticipated. Perhaps most promising is the application of the ion drag principle in which rings of fast electrons are accelerated along their axis dragging ions with them by electrostatic attraction. Due to the much larger mass of the ions they can acquire much higher energy than the electrons and the process could be efficient. Such accelerators have not yet been made but experimental and theoretical studies are promising. (author)

  15. The intense neutron generator and future factory type ion accelerators

    A neutron factory is likely to sell its product in the form of isotopes. To ay neutron factories are nuclear reactors. Ion accelerators may also produce isotopes by direct interaction and, at high enough energies, mesons and hyperons. The challenge of the electrical production of neutrons goes far beyond the isotope market. It challenges the two popular concepts for long term large scale energy, the fast breeder reactor and controlled thermonuclear fusion. For this use about 4% of nuclear generated power would be applied in a feedback loop generating extra neutrons. Competition rests on operating and processing costs. The Intense Neutron Generator proposal now cancelled would have been full scale for such a use, but much further advance in accelerator engineering is required and anticipated. Perhaps most promising is the application of the ion drag principle in which rings of fast electrons are accelerated along their axis dragging ions with them by electrostatic attraction. Due to the much larger mass of the ions they can acquire much higher energy than the electrons and the process could be efficient. Such accelerators have not yet been made but experimental and theoretical studies are promising. (author)

  16. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  17. Capitalization of multiple intelligence types during the biology disciplines

    Mariana DUMITRU; Stela-Gabriela JELEA

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on a sample of children at the Lăpuş School with classes I-VIII, using the teaching/learning process of the biology disciplines. A key element in applying the theory of Multiple Intelligence in a classroom is knowing the intelligence profile of children. Differentiated teaching approach was designed based on the predominant types of intelligences. For this purpose we used various methods: questionnaire, observation of children as they are given various tasks, interview...

  18. 2 MeV, 60 kW dual-beam type electron accelerator irradiation facility

    The specification of new irradiation facility which has been constructed from 1978 through 1981 as the replacement of 1st Accelerator of JAERI, TRCRE are described. The accelerator is the Cockcroft-Walton type and both vertical and horizontal accelerating tubes are arranged on a single high voltage generator. Transferring of the high voltage to the horizontal accelerating tube is performed with the high voltage changing system in the pressure vessel. The output ratings of the accelerator are 2 MV of acceleration voltage and 30 mA of beam current. By providing the dual beam system, two irradiation rooms, one for vertical and the other for horizontal beam, are independently operationable. Persons can enter the horizontal irradiation room for experimental setting even when the vertical irradiation room is in operation. The specification of the buildings, the exhaust air treatment system, the irradiation conveyor and the safety observation system are also described. (author)

  19. Study and characteristics of a VIVITRON type electrostatic accelerator

    The conception of the 2 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator ARAMIS, which is intended for research in solid state and astrophysics, benefits from certain technological advances of the VIVITRON. Our study has dealt with the shape and arrangement of the column electrodes for this machine. We have employed the program Poisson which performs two-dimensional calculations of the electrical constraint at the surface of the conductors. The maximum field strength on the constrained regions has a value of 11.5 MV/m. This completely acceptable result let one expect that the machine operation will be satisfactory. Certain limitations inherent in the bidimensional calculations have led us to consider programs treating three dimensions. Access to the finite element library MODULEF at the Centre de Calcul in Strasbourg has increased the computational possibilities. The case of an insulating post in the coaxial terminal-tank structure has thus been treated. This work has allowed the construction of the column electrodes to proceed. They will be ready the beginning 1987. The tandem ARAMIS being built should be operational by the end of 1987

  20. Research and development achievement report for fiscal 1998 on accelerated type biological function construction technologies. Development of new-type advanced-function enzyme creating technologies; 1998 nendo kasokugata seibutsu kino kochiku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shingata kokino koso sosei gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An artificial mutation/selection system was constructed in a laboratory based on molecular-level findings collected about the biological evolution mechanism, and biotechnology was studied for creating excellent biological functions. In the study of novel mutation generating technologies, selection is performed after the formation of numerous chimera enzymes by a family shuffling process using resistance to heat as the index. Then, a hybrid enzyme with its resistance to heat more than 10 times higher than that of the parent enzyme was obtained. In the study of establishing coordination between genotype and phenotype, a highly sensitive bacterial coordination technology was developed, and a highly sensitive detection method was constructed using a flow cytometer. As for technologies of highly efficient selection, a research was conducted about the selection of catalytic antibodies equipped with protease and esterase activity. In the study of technologies for enhancing adaptive walk in an evolution experimenting system, the usefulness is studied of a terrain survey based on the adaptive walk theory and a high-efficiency adaptive walk method using the mutation scrambling method. (NEDO)

  1. Macroscopic Quantum-Type Potentials in Theoretical Systems Biology

    Laurent Nottale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review in this paper the use of the theory of scale relativity and fractal space-time as a tool particularly well adapted to the possible development of a future genuine systems theoretical biology. We emphasize in particular the concept of quantum-type potentials, since, in many situations, the effect of the fractality of space—or of the underlying medium—can be reduced to the addition of such a potential energy to the classical equations of motion. Various equivalent representations—geodesic, quantum-like, fluid mechanical, stochastic—of these equations are given, as well as several forms of generalized quantum potentials. Examples of their possible intervention in high critical temperature superconductivity and in turbulence are also described, since some biological processes may be similar in some aspects to these physical phenomena. These potential extra energy contributions could have emerged in biology from the very fractal nature of the medium, or from an evolutive advantage, since they involve spontaneous properties of self-organization, morphogenesis, structuration and multi-scale integration. Finally, some examples of applications of the theory to actual biological-like processes and functions are also provided.

  2. Biological assessments for the low energy demonstration accelerator, 1996 and 1997

    Cross, S.

    1998-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plans to build, install, and operate a Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LMA) in Technical Area 53 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LEDA will demonstrate the accelerator technology necessary to produce tritium, but is not designed to produce tritium at LANL. USFWS reviewers of the Biological Assessment prepared for LEDA insisted that the main drainage be monitored to measure and document changes to vegetation, soils, wildlife, and habitats due to LEDA effluent discharges. The Biology Team of ESH-20 (LANL`s Ecology Group) has performed these monitoring activities during 1996 and 1997 to document baseline conditions before LEDA released significant effluent discharges. Quarterly monitoring of the outfall which will discharge LEDA blowdown effluent had one exceedance of permitted parameters, a high chlorine discharge that was quickly remedied. Samples from 12 soil pits in the drainage area contained no hydric indicators, such as organic matter in the upper layers, streaking, organic pans, and oxidized rhizospheres. Vegetation transacts in the meadows that LEDA discharges will flow through contained 44 species of herbaceous plants, all upland taxa. Surveys of resident birds, reptiles, and amphibians documented a fauna typical of local dry canyons. No threatened or endangered species inhabit the project area, but increased effluent releases may make the area more attractive to many wildlife species, an endangered raptor, and several other species of concern. Biological best management practices especially designed for LEDA are discussed, including protection of floodplains, erosion control measures, hazards posed by increased usage of the area by deer and elk and revegetation of disturbed areas.

  3. Capitalization of multiple intelligence types during the biology disciplines

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on a sample of children at the Lăpuş School with classes I-VIII, using the teaching/learning process of the biology disciplines. A key element in applying the theory of Multiple Intelligence in a classroom is knowing the intelligence profile of children. Differentiated teaching approach was designed based on the predominant types of intelligences. For this purpose we used various methods: questionnaire, observation of children as they are given various tasks, interview, development of projects, role play, the biographical method-personal history of child, analysis of activities' results (compositions, drawings, collages, portfolios, debates in pair-groups, and case studies. In child’s profile, (types of intelligences become qualities that we capitalize in training, designing different teaching approach depending on predominant types of intelligences. The results appeared without delay. After a school's year that we worked differently with the children, they have improved school performance and became more interested in the study of biological disciplines thus arousing their curiosity and respect towards life.

  4. On the Relativistic Correction of Particles Trajectory in Tandem Type Electrostatic Accelerator

    Minárik Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A constant potential is applied to the acceleration of the ion-beam in the tandem type electrostatic accelerator. However, not just one voltage is applied, but instead a number of applications can be made in succession by means of the tandem arrangement of high voltage tubes. This number of voltage applications, which is the number of so-called "stages" of a tandem accelerator, may be two, three, or four, depending on the chosen design. Electrostatic field with approximately constant intensity acts on ions in any stage.

  5. A scan of f(R) models admitting Rindler type acceleration

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Kerachian, Morteza; Halilsoy, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    As a manifestation of a large distance effect Grumiller modified Schwarzschild metric with an extraneous term reminiscent of Rindler acceleration. Such a term has the potential to explain the observed flat rotation curves in general relativity. The same idea has been extended herein to the larger arena of f(R) theory. With particular emphasis on weak energy conditions (WECs) for a fluid we present various classes of f(R) theories admitting a Rindler-type acceleration in the metric.

  6. Design and fabrication of an ion accelerator for TFTR-type neutral beam systems

    The design of the prototype 120-keV, 65-A, 0.5-sec ion accelerator for TFTR-type beam systems is described. Details of the manufacture of the constituent parts are given along with descriptions of the major components of the accelerator. Included are the molybdenum grid structures, molybdenum shields, stainless steel hats and the epoxy insulator. Specific manufacturing problems are discussed along with the results of tests to determine the voltage holding capabilities of the assembly

  7. Design and fabrication of an ion accelerator for TFTR-type neutral beam systems

    Paterson, J.A.; Duffy, T.J.; Haughian, J.M.; Biagi, L.A.; Yee, D.P.

    1977-10-01

    The design of the prototype 120-keV, 65-A, 0.5-sec ion accelerator for TFTR-type beam systems is described. Details of the manufacture of the constituent parts are given along with descriptions of the major components of the accelerator. Included are the molybdenum grid structures, molybdenum shields, stainless steel hats and the epoxy insulator. Specific manufacturing problems are discussed along with the results of tests to determine the voltage holding capabilities of the assembly.

  8. A scan of f(R) models admitting Rindler-type acceleration

    Mazharimousavi, S.H.; Kerachian, M.; Halilsoy, M. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, North Cyprus (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    As amanifestation of a large distance effect Grumiller modified Schwarzschild metric with an extraneous term reminiscent of Rindler acceleration. Such a term has the potential to explain the observed flat rotation curves in general relativity. The same idea has been extended herein to the larger arena of f(R) theory. With particular emphasis on weak energy conditions (WECs) for a fluid we present various classes of f(R) theories admitting a Rindler-type acceleration in the metric. (orig.)

  9. A scan of f(R) models admitting Rindler type acceleration

    Mazharimousavi, S Habib; Halilsoy, M

    2014-01-01

    As a manifestation of large distance effect Grumiller modified Schwarzschild metric with an extraneous term reminiscent of Rindler acceleration. Such a term has the potential to explain the observed flat rotation curves in general relativity. The same idea has been extended herein to the larger arena of f(R) theory. With particular emphasis on weak energy conditions (WECs) for a fluid we present various classes of f(R) theories admitting a Rindler-type acceleration in the metric.

  10. A scan of f(R) models admitting Rindler-type acceleration

    As amanifestation of a large distance effect Grumiller modified Schwarzschild metric with an extraneous term reminiscent of Rindler acceleration. Such a term has the potential to explain the observed flat rotation curves in general relativity. The same idea has been extended herein to the larger arena of f(R) theory. With particular emphasis on weak energy conditions (WECs) for a fluid we present various classes of f(R) theories admitting a Rindler-type acceleration in the metric. (orig.)

  11. A scan of f(R) models admitting Rindler-type acceleration

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Kerachian, M.; Halilsoy, M.

    2014-03-01

    As a manifestation of a large distance effect Grumiller modified Schwarzschild metric with an extraneous term reminiscent of Rindler acceleration. Such a term has the potential to explain the observed flat rotation curves in general relativity. The same idea has been extended herein to the larger arena of theory. With particular emphasis on weak energy conditions (WECs) for a fluid we present various classes of theories admitting a Rindler-type acceleration in the metric.

  12. High sensitivity 14C-label studies in biology using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Examples are provided of the use of a method to detect 14C-labelled biomolecules at ultratrace levels. The method is capable of 1% precision on samples of a few micrograms to milligrams that contain only the natural 14C content of the material examined. This precision corresponds to about 10-16 moles of 14C per mg of total carbon. The method is, therefore, several orders of magnitude more sensitive than traditional methods that depend on radioactive decay counting. This great sensitivity is based on using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to count and detect the 14C. A new laboratory has been set up to prepare biological samples for AMS measurement. Examples of initial results obtained include measurement of a neurotoxin in brain tissue, a plant hormone in a kiwifruit vine, a carcinogen in liver and a dietary mutagen in blood. The potential applications of the method are outlined. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig., 2 appendices

  13. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    Friedman, Douglas C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  14. Experimental stand for studying the impact of laser-accelerated protons on biological objects

    Burdonov, K. F.; Eremeev, A. A.; Ignatova, N. I.; Osmanov, R. R.; Sladkov, A. D.; Soloviev, A. A.; Starodubtsev, M. V.; Ginzburg, V. N.; Kuz'min, A. A.; Maslennikova, A. V.; Revet, G.; Sergeev, A. M.; Fuchs, J.; Khazanov, E. A.; Chen, S.; Shaykin, A. A.; Shaikin, I. A.; Yakovlev, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    An original experimental stand is presented, aimed at studying the impact of high-energy protons, produced by the laser-plasma interaction at a petawatt power level, on biological objects. In the course of pilot experiments with the energy of laser-accelerated protons up to 25 MeV, the possibility is demonstrated of transferring doses up to 10 Gy to the object of study in a single shot with the magnetic separation of protons from parasitic X-ray radiation and fast electrons. The technique of irradiating the cell culture HeLa Kyoto and measuring the fraction of survived cells is developed. The ways of optimising the parameters of proton beams and the suitable methods of their separation with respect to energy and transporting to the studied living objects are discussed. The construction of the stand is intended for the improvement of laser technologies for hadron therapy of malignant neoplasms.

  15. Biological Effects of Particles with Very High Energy Deposition on Mammalian Cells Utilizing the Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator

    Saha, Janapriya; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wang, Minli

    2013-01-01

    High LET radiation from GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) consisting mainly of high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei and secondary protons and neutrons, and secondaries from protons in SPE (Solar Particle Event) pose a major health risk to astronauts due to induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Experiments with high energy particles mimicking the space environment for estimation of radiation risk are being performed at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL. Experiments with low energy particles comparing to high energy particles of similar LET are of interest for investigation of the role of track structure on biological effects. For this purpose, we report results utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at BNL. The primary objective of our studies is to elucidate the influence of high vs low energy deposition on track structure, delta ray contribution and resulting biological responses. These low energy ions are of special relevance as these energies may occur following absorption through the spacecraft and shielding materials in human tissues and nuclear fragments produced in tissues by high energy protons and neutrons. This study will help to verify the efficiency of these low energy particles and better understand how various cell types respond to them.

  16. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1974--1977

    The Bevalac, a versatile high-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex, has been in operation for less than two years. A major purpose for which the Bevalac was constructed was to explore the possibility of heavy-ion teams for therapy for certain forms of cancer. Significant progress has been made in this direction. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the advantages that these and other accelerated particles offer, and heavy ions have been included in a long-term plan for particle therapy that will assess by means of controlled therapeutic tests the value of various modalities. Since accelerated heavy ions became available, the possibility of other contributions, not planned, became apparent. We are developig a new diagnostic method known as heavy-ion radiography that has greatly increased sensitivity for soft-tissue detail and that may become a powerful tool for localizing early tumors and metastases. We have discovered that radioactive beams are formed from fragmentation of stable deflected beams. Use of these autoradioactive beams is just beginning; however, we know that these beams will be helpful in localizing the region in the body where therapy is being delivered. In addition, it has been demonstrated that instant implantation of the radioactive beam allows direct measurements of blood perfusion rates in inaccessible parts of the body, and such a technique may become a new tool for the study of fast hot atom reactions in biochemistry, tracer biology and nuclear medicine. The Bevalac will also be useful for the continuation of previously developed methods for the control of acromegaly, Cushing's disease and, on a research basis, advanced diabetes mellitus with vascular disease. The ability to make small bloodless lesions in the brain and elsewhere with heavy-ion beams has great potential for nervous-system studies and perhaps later for radioneurosurgery

  17. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    Wu, Fengjun; Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen; Cui, Yuan; Yan, Hongbin; Zhang, Huajian; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply.

  18. On the Relativistic Correction of Particles Trajectory in Tandem Type Electrostatic Accelerator

    Minárik, Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    A constant potential is applied to the acceleration of the ion-beam in the tandem type electrostatic accelerator. However, not just one voltage is applied, but instead a number of applications can be made in succession by means of the tandem arrangement of high voltage tubes. This number of voltage applications, which is the number of so-called "stages" of a tandem accelerator, may be two, three, or four, depending on the chosen design. Electrostatic field with approximately constant intensity acts on ions in any stage. In general, non-relativistic dynamics is used for the description of the ion transport in tandem accelerator. Energies of accelerated ions are too low and relativistic effects cannot be commonly observed by standard experimental technique. Estimation of possible relativistic correction of ion trajectories is therefore only a matter of calculation. In this note, we briefly present such calculation. Our aim is to show how using the relativistic dynamics modifies the particles trajectory in tandem type accelerator and what parameters determine this modification.

  19. DMPD: Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 17502368 Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. de Wee...(.html) (.csml) Show Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. PubmedID 17502368 T...itle Type I interferon receptors: biochemistry and biological functions. Authors

  20. H+-type and OH--type biological protonic semiconductors and complementary devices

    Deng, Yingxin; Josberger, Erik; Jin, Jungho; Rousdari, Anita Fadavi; Helms, Brett A.; Zhong, Chao; Anantram, M. P.; Rolandi, Marco

    2013-10-01

    Proton conduction is essential in biological systems. Oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin, and uncoupling membrane potentials by the antibiotic Gramicidin are examples. In these systems, H+ hop along chains of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and hydrophilic residues - proton wires. These wires also support the transport of OH- as proton holes. Discriminating between H+ and OH- transport has been elusive. Here, H+ and OH- transport is achieved in polysaccharide- based proton wires and devices. A H+- OH- junction with rectifying behaviour and H+-type and OH--type complementary field effect transistors are demonstrated. We describe these devices with a model that relates H+ and OH- to electron and hole transport in semiconductors. In turn, the model developed for these devices may provide additional insights into proton conduction in biological systems.

  1. An accelerated framework for the classification of biological targets from solid-state micropore data.

    Hanif, Madiha; Hafeez, Abdul; Suleman, Yusuf; Mustafa Rafique, M; Butt, Ali R; Iqbal, Samir M

    2016-10-01

    Micro- and nanoscale systems have provided means to detect biological targets, such as DNA, proteins, and human cells, at ultrahigh sensitivity. However, these devices suffer from noise in the raw data, which continues to be significant as newer and devices that are more sensitive produce an increasing amount of data that needs to be analyzed. An important dimension that is often discounted in these systems is the ability to quickly process the measured data for an instant feedback. Realizing and developing algorithms for the accurate detection and classification of biological targets in realtime is vital. Toward this end, we describe a supervised machine-learning approach that records single cell events (pulses), computes useful pulse features, and classifies the future patterns into their respective types, such as cancerous/non-cancerous cells based on the training data. The approach detects cells with an accuracy of 70% from the raw data followed by an accurate classification when larger training sets are employed. The parallel implementation of the algorithm on graphics processing unit (GPU) demonstrates a speedup of three to four folds as compared to a serial implementation on an Intel Core i7 processor. This incredibly efficient GPU system is an effort to streamline the analysis of pulse data in an academic setting. This paper presents for the first time ever, a non-commercial technique using a GPU system for realtime analysis, paired with biological cluster targeting analysis. PMID:27480732

  2. ASPIRE: An automated sample positioning and irradiation system for radiation biology experiments at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    An automated irradiation setup for biology samples has been built at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. It can automatically load and unload 20 biology samples in a run of experiment. It takes about 20 min [2% of the cell doubling time] to irradiate all the 20 samples. Cell doubling time is the time taken by the cells (kept in the medium) to grow double in numbers. The cells in the samples keep growing during entire of the experiment. The fluence irradiated to the samples is measured with two silicon surface barrier detectors. Tests show that the uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions reaches to 2% at the sample area in diameter of 40 mm. The accuracy of mean fluence at the center of the target area is within 1%. The irradiation setup can be used to the studies of radiation therapy, radiation dosimetry and molecular biology at the heavy ion accelerator. - Highlights: • Automated positioning and irradiation setup for biology samples at IUAC is built. • Loading and unloading of 20 biology samples can be automatically carried out. • Biologicals cells keep growing during entire experiment. • Fluence and dose of heavy ions are measured by two silicon barrier detectors. • Uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions at sample position reaches to 2%

  3. Powerful industrial electron accelerators type ILU for energy up to 10 MeV

    The industrial electron accelerators type ILU are developed and produced by the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The ILU accelerators are working in many countries in the industrial lines as well as in some research establishments starting from the beginning of 70-s. These machines are the pulse RF type accelerators with relatively low working frequency - 120 MHz for ILU-6 and ILU-10 and 180 MHz for ILU-8. Their energy range is from 0.8 MeV (ILU-8) to 5 MeV (ILU-10), beam power is up to 50 kW. The ILU machines are working in various technological processes - radiation modification of polymer tubes and films, polymer pipes for hot water supply, wires, cables, sterilization of single use medical products (syringes, hospital and operation gowns, sets for operations, etc.), decontamination of the medicinal raw. The ILU accelerators are very compact machines because they do not need the big high pressure vessel filled with insulating gas. The height of the ILU-10 machine (with energy up to 5 MeV) is less than 3 meters. The ILU-8 machine with energy range 0.8 - 1 MeV can be installed inside the local shield with height of 3.24 m. The local shield can be placed in the ordinary industrial shops. The ILU accelerators are equipped with several beam extraction devices - linear scanner and scanners with 4 windows permitting to organize the irradiation of the long products (tubes, cables, wires, pipes) from 4 sides. The rewinding devices providing the twist-free transportation of the long products in the irradiation zone are also designed and produced by the Institute. The new ILU-14 machine for energy range 7.5 - 10 MeV is under development. This machine is very good for radiation sterilization. (author)

  4. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics.

  5. Genetic typing of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains with microsatellite markers.

    Xia, C; Higuchi, K; Shimizu, M; Matsushita, T; Kogishi, K; Wang, J; Chiba, T; Festing, M F; Hosokawa, M

    1999-03-01

    The Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) strains constitute a murine model of accelerated senescence originating from the ancestral AKR/J strains and consist of nine senescence-prone (SAMP) strains and four senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. The chromosomes (Chrs) of the SAM strains were typed with 581 microsatellite markers amplified by PCR, and the fundamental genetic information of the SAM strains was obtained. One-third of the examined markers displayed polymorphism among the strains, and only two alleles were detected in almost all loci among the SAM and AKR/J strains. However, in 12 loci (5.6% of total 215 polymorphic markers), the third allele was detected among the SAM strains. The genetic typing and developmental history suggested that the SAM strains were related inbred strains developed by the accidental crossing between the AKR/J strain and other unknown strain(s). Comparison of the distribution of the loci in the SAMP and the SAMR series revealed notable differences in the four regions on Chrs 4, 14, 16, and 17. This indicated that some of these chromosomal sites might contain the genes responsible for accelerated senescence in the SAMP series. PMID:10051317

  6. Relative biological effectiveness in canine osteosarcoma cells irradiated with accelerated charged particles

    Maeda, Junko; Cartwright, Ian M.; Haskins, Jeremy S.; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kitamura, Hisashi; Fujimori, Akira; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy ions, characterized by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, have advantages compared with low LET protons and photons in their biological effects. The application of heavy ions within veterinary clinics requires additional background information to determine heavy ion efficacy. In the present study, comparison of the cell-killing effects of photons, protons and heavy ions was investigated in canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells in vitro. A total of four canine OSA cell lines with various radiosensitivities were irradiated with 137Cs gamma-rays, monoenergetic proton beams, 50 keV/µm carbon ion spread out Bragg peak beams and 200 keV/µm iron ion monoenergetic beams. Clonogenic survival was examined using colony-forming as says, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values were calculated relative to gamma-rays using the D10 value, which is determined as the dose (Gy) resulting in 10% survival. For proton irradiation, the RBE values for all four cell lines were 1.0–1.1. For all four cell lines, exposure to carbon ions yielded a decreased cell survival compared with gamma-rays, with the RBE values ranging from 1.56–2.10. Iron ions yielded the lowest cell survival among tested radiation types, with RBE values ranging from 3.51–3.69 observed in the three radioresistant cell lines. The radiosensitive cell line investigated demonstrated similar cell survival for carbon and iron ion irradiation. The results of the present study suggest that heavy ions are more effective for killing radioresistant canine OSA cells when compared with gamma-rays and protons. This markedly increased efficiency of cell killing is an attractive reason for utilizing heavy ions for radioresistant canine OSA. PMID:27446477

  7. Design of rod-type high current proton radio frequency quadrupole accelerator for ANURIB project @ VECC

    A high current rod type RFQ accelerating protons to 1 MeV has been envisaged as the injector to 50 MeV proton driver for the ANURIB facility. This would be used to produce p-rich radioactive nuclei complementing the n-rich nuclei production via the photo fission route. Rod type structure has been chosen owing to ease of machining and well separated dangerous dipole modes appearing in vane type structures, This paper will describe the beam dynamics design of 5 mA proton beam through the RFQ, starting from efficient physical parameter optimization followed by corroborative studies using tracking codes. Preliminary RF structure of 80 MHz RFQ would also be presented. (author)

  8. Biological effects of several extreme space flight factors (acceleration, magnetically activated water) on mouse natural or modified radiosensitivity

    Irradiated and Adeturon-protected mice were used to assess biological effects of several static (magnetically-activated water - MW) and dynamic (acceleration) factors of space flight. The study shows that increased gravitation, 20 G, 5 min, generated by a small radius centrifuge, increases static ability to work, while the number of peripheral blood cells decreases. Continuous exposure of mice to MW induces a decrease in dynamic ability to work, in comparison with the physiological controls, without substantial changes in other indices. Extreme factors in space flight (acceleration MW, radiation, radiation protector), alone or in combination, decrease the animal's growth rate. After administration of 200 mg/kg Adeturone, mouse dynamic ability to work increases, while its capabilities for adaptation and training are lowered, and pronounced leucocytosis is observed. MW, acceleration, or Adeturone pre-treatment of mice increases their survival and dynamic ability to work, following exposure to 600 R, when compared to irradiated animals, but decreases their capabilities for adaptation and training. Acceleration and Adeturone protect peripheral blood from radiation injury, while MW alone intensifies radiation cytopenia. Irradiation does not significantly modify the static ability to work, upon preceding exposure to MW or acceleration. In this case, Adeturone exerts protective effect. ME and Adeturone combined action results in increased survival rate and mean duration of life of irradiated animals, as compared to their single administration. Acceleration reduces MW, Adeturone and MW + Adeturone effect on survival. Peripheral blood parameters do not correlate with survival rates. Combined pre-treatment with two or three of the factors studied increases dynamic ability to work following irradiation, and in many cases the static ability as well. The combination of Adeturone and MW was the only one with negative effect on the static ability to work. (A.B.)

  9. How Implementation of Systems Biology into Clinical Trials Accelerates Understanding of Diseases

    Bielekova, Bibiana; Vodovotz, Yoram; An, Gary; Hallenbeck, John

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology comprises a series of concepts and approaches that have been used successfully both to delineate novel biological mechanisms and to drive translational advances. The goal of systems biology is to re-integrate putatively critical elements extracted from multi-modality datasets in order to understand how interactions among multiple components form functional networks at the organism/patient-level, and how dysfunction of these networks underlies a particular disease. Due to the g...

  10. How implementation of systems biology into clinical trials accelerates understanding of diseases

    Bibiana eBielekova; Yoram eVodovotz; Gary eAn; John eHallenbeck

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology comprises a series of concepts and approaches that have been used successfully both to delineate novel biological mechanisms and to drive translational advances. The goal of systems biology is to re-integrate putatively critical elements extracted from multi-modality datasets in order to understand how interactions among multiple components form functional networks at the organism/patient-level, and how dysfunction of these networks underlies a particular disease. Due to the...

  11. Guarding the frontiers: the biology of type III interferons

    Wack, Andreas; Terczynska-Dyla, Ewa; Hartmann, Rune

    2015-01-01

    healthy mucosal surfaces through immune protection, without the significant immune-related pathogenic risk associated with type I IFN responses. Type III IFNs also target the human liver, with dual effects: they induce an antiviral state in hepatocytes, but specific IFN-λ4 action impairs the clearance of...

  12. Ultrasound monitoring of the influence of different accelerating admixtures and cement types for shotcrete on setting and hardening behaviour

    The possible use of ultrasound measurements for monitoring setting and hardening of mortar containing different accelerating admixtures for shotcrete was investigated. The sensitivity to accelerator type (alkaline aluminate or alkali-free) and dosage, and accelerator-cement compatibility were evaluated. Furthermore, a new automatic onset picking algorithm for ultrasound signals was tested. A stepwise increase of the accelerator dosage resulted in increasing values for the ultrasound pulse velocity at early ages. In the accelerated mortar no dormant period could be noticed before the pulse velocity started to increase sharply, indicating a quick change in solid phase connectivity. The alkaline accelerator had a larger effect than the alkali-free accelerator, especially at ages below 90 min. The effect of the alkali-free accelerator was at very early age more pronounced on mortar containing CEM I in comparison with CEM II, while the alkaline accelerator had a larger influence on mortar containing CEM II. The increase of ultrasound energy could be related to the setting phenomenon and the maximum energy was reached when the end of workability was approached. Only the alkaline accelerator caused a significant reduction in compressive strength and this for all the dosages tested

  13. A compact biological cell irradiation system with a Van de Graaff accelerator

    This report describes the development of a compact microcell irradiation system in the 3 MV KN Van de Graaff accelerator in the Accelerator Laboratory of National Tsing Hua University (NTHU). The main feature of this system is backscattering, a technique whereby a 100 nm gold scattering foil is placed in the center of a scattering chamber, instead of a 90° bending magnet. The incident particles produced by the accelerator bombard the scattering foil and scatter isotropically. A set of micro pinholes was installed above the scattering foil and directed the 90° scattering particles to irradiate the cell target. This innovation simplifies the system design and massively reduces the cost and space requirements for system construction

  14. 500 kW transistor two-phase frequency converter for supplying the industrial electron accelerators of the transformer type

    Experience of developing the specialized power frequency converters for supplying the industrial electron accelerators of the transformer type is generalized. Designs and main schematic solutions of the converter units at the power up to 150 kW, realized by means of half-bridge IJBT assemblies, are considered. Using the two-phase supplying for the ELW type electron accelerators with the aim of decreasing the beam energy pulsations is discussed. The design of the two-phase inverter at the frequency of 1000 Hz and power of 500 kW for supplying the ELW-12 accelerator is considered

  15. Biological Diversity of Prokaryotic Type IV Secretion Systems

    Alvarez-Martinez, Cristina E.; Christie, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) translocate DNA and protein substrates across prokaryotic cell envelopes generally by a mechanism requiring direct contact with a target cell. Three types of T4SS have been described: (i) conjugation systems, operationally defined as machines that translocate DNA substrates intercellularly by a contact-dependent process; (ii) effector translocator systems, functioning to deliver proteins or other macromolecules to eukaryotic target cells; and (iii) DNA release...

  16. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    Highlights: ► Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. ► Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. ► Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. ► Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. ► Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic β-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

  17. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    Zhao, Yan-Ying, E-mail: biozyy@163.com [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Xin-Yuan [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Chen, Zheng-Wang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic {beta}-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

  18. Heavy ion radiation biology research facility and ongoing activities at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    Heavy Ion Radiation Biology is an interdisciplinary science involving use of charged particle accelerator in the study of molecular biology. It is the study of the interaction of a beam of swift heavy ions with a biological system. In contrast to the sparsely ionizing photon or electron radiation, the high velocity charged heavy ions leave a track of densely populated ionization sites resulting in clustered DNA damage. The growing interest in this field encompasses the studies in gene expression, mechanisms of cell death, DNA damage and repair, signal transduction etc. induced because of this unique assault on the genetic material. IUAC radiation biology programme is focused on the in-vitro studies of different effects of heavy ion irradiation on eukaryotic cells. The facility provides a laboratory for pre and post irradiation treatment of samples. The irradiation system called ASPIRE (Automatic Sample Positioning for Irradiation in Radiation Biology Experiments) is installed at the dedicated Radiation Biology Beam line. It produces a nearly uniform flux distribution over a irradiation field of 40 mm diameter. The particle doses can be preselected and repeated within inherent statistical accuracy. The particle energy can also be measured. The facility is at present utilized by the University researchers of India. A few results obtained by the investigators would be presented. The outcome of the research in heavy ion radiation biology would be of immense use in augmenting the efficacy of Hadron therapy of cancer. The results would also contribute to the field of space radiation protection. It would also help in understanding the phenomena subsequent to complex DNA damage. (author)

  19. IPN Unit Bank Biology--A New Type of Biology Curriculum

    Schaefer, G.; Kattmann, U.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a biology curriculum being developed in West Germany, which utilizes units of 10 to 15 lessons that may be placed in different positions within the overall curriculum. Ten units have been published for grades 5 through 8. Units for grade 3 to 13 are in development. (SL)

  20. How implementation of systems biology into clinical trials accelerates understanding of diseases

    BibianaBielekova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology comprises a series of concepts and approaches that have been used successfully both to delineate novel biological mechanisms and to drive translational advances. The goal of systems biology is to re-integrate putatively critical elements extracted from multi-modality datasets in order to understand how interactions among multiple components form functional networks at the organism/patient-level, and how dysfunction of these networks underlies a particular disease. Due to the genetic and environmental diversity of human subjects, identification of critical elements related to a particular disease process from cross-sectional studies requires prohibitively large cohorts. Alternatively, implementation of systems biology principles to interventional clinical trials represents a unique opportunity to gain predictive understanding of complex diseases in comparatively small cohorts of patients. This paper reviews systems biology principles applicable to translational research, focusing on lessons from systems approaches to inflammation applied to multiple sclerosis (MS. We suggest that employing systems biology methods in the design and execution of biomarker-supported, proof-of-principle clinical trials provides a singular opportunity to merge therapeutic development with a basic understanding of disease processes. The ultimate goal is to develop predictive computational models of the disease, which will revolutionize diagnostic process and provide mechanistic understanding necessary for personalized therapeutic approaches. Added, biologically-meaningful information can be derived from diagnostic tests, if they are interpreted in functional relationships, rather than as independent measurements. Such systems-biology based diagnostics will transform disease taxonomies from phenotypical to molecular and will allow physicians to select optimal therapeutic regimens for individual patients.

  1. On the speed and acceleration of electron beams triggering interplanetary type III radio bursts

    Krupar, Vratislav; Soucek, Jan; Santolik, Ondrej; Maksimovic, Milan; Kruparova, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    Type III radio bursts are intense radio emissions triggered by beams of energetic electrons often associated with solar flares. These exciter beams propagate outwards from the Sun along an open magnetic field line in the corona and in the interplanetary (IP) medium. We performed a statistical survey of 29 simple and isolated IP type III bursts observed by STEREO/Waves instruments between January 2013 and September 2014. We investigated their time-frequency profiles in order to derive the speed and acceleration of exciter electron beams. We show these beams noticeably decelerate in the IP medium. Obtained speeds range from $\\sim$ 0.02c up to $\\sim$ 0.35c depending on initial assumptions. It corresponds to electron energies between tens of eV and hundreds of keV, and in order to explain the characteristic energies or speeds of type III electrons ($\\sim 0.1$c) observed simultaneously with Langmuir waves at 1 au, the emission of type III bursts near the peak should be predominately at double plasma frequency. Der...

  2. Performance Improvisation of Cantilever-type Silicon Micro AccelerationSensors Using Stress Concentration Regions Technique

    B.P. Joshi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Acceleration sensors find applications in missile and competent munitions subsystems.Cantilever-type sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth are dependant on material properties of  thecantilever and structure of proof mass. It is always desired to design a sensor as sensitive aspossible but also maintaining higher bandwidth. In piezoresistive (cantilever-type accelerometers,various techniques were employed by designers to enhance their sensitivity and bandwidth.Most of these techniques are usually focused on shape and size of either cantilever or proofmass. This paper presents a concept of creating stress concentration regions (SCRs on thecantilever for enhancing its sensitivity. Five types of structures were simulated to study thebehaviour of piezoresistive sensors with SCRs implementation. Use of SCRs results in substantialincrease in the sensitivity, which is of the order of 1.85 times the nominal sensitivity. It was aimedat maximising sensor's performance factor, which is the product of sensor bandwidth andsensitivity. This study gives new dimension to the ways of improving performance of cantilever-type inertial piezoresistive sensor.

  3. Accelerating policy decisions to adopt haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine: a global, multivariable analysis.

    Jessica C Shearer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adoption of new and underutilized vaccines by national immunization programs is an essential step towards reducing child mortality. Policy decisions to adopt new vaccines in high mortality countries often lag behind decisions in high-income countries. Using the case of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccine, this paper endeavors to explain these delays through the analysis of country-level economic, epidemiological, programmatic and policy-related factors, as well as the role of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI Alliance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data for 147 countries from 1990 to 2007 were analyzed in accelerated failure time models to identify factors that are associated with the time to decision to adopt Hib vaccine. In multivariable models that control for Gross National Income, region, and burden of Hib disease, the receipt of GAVI support speeded the time to decision by a factor of 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.76, or 63%. The presence of two or more neighboring country adopters accelerated decisions to adopt by a factor of 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.75. For each 1% increase in vaccine price, decisions to adopt are delayed by a factor of 1.02 (95% CI 1.00-1.04. Global recommendations and local studies were not associated with time to decision. CONCLUSIONS: This study substantiates previous findings related to vaccine price and presents new evidence to suggest that GAVI eligibility is associated with accelerated decisions to adopt Hib vaccine. The influence of neighboring country decisions was also highly significant, suggesting that approaches to support the adoption of new vaccines should consider supply- and demand-side factors.

  4. Successful High Power Acceleration of the HSC Type Injector for Cancer Therapy in IMP

    Lu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    A Hybrid single cavity (HSC) linac, which is formed by combining a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) structure and a drift tube (DT) structure into one interdigital-H (IH) cavity, is fabricated and assembled as a proof of principle (PoP) type injector for cancer therapy synchrotron according to the series researches. The injection method of the HSC linac adopt a direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), which is considered to be the only method for accelerating an intense current heavy ion beam produced by a laser ion source (LIS). The input beam current of the HSC was designed to be 20 milliampere (mA) C6+ ions. According to numerical simulations, the HSC linac could accelerate a 6-mA C6+ beam which meets requirement of the needed particle number for cancer therapy use (108~9 ions per pulse). The injection system adopted HSC injector with the method of DPIS can make the existing multi-turn injection system and the stripping system unnecessary, and also can make the beam pipe of the existing synchrotron magnets d...

  5. The Biological Effectiveness of Accelerated Particles for the Induction of Chromosome Damage: Track Structure Effects and Cytogenetic Signatures of High-LET Exposure

    George, K.; Hada, M.; Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2012-01-01

    Track structure models predict that at a fixed value of LET, particles with lower charge number, Z will have a higher biological effectiveness compared to particles with a higher Z. In this report we investigated how track structure effects induction of chromosomal aberration in human cells. Human lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro with various energies of accelerated iron, silicon, neon, or titanium ions and chromosome damage was assessed in using three color FISH chromosome painting in chemically induced PCC samples collected a first cell division post irradiation. The LET values for these ions ranged from 30 to 195 keV/micrometers. Of the particles studied, Neon ions have the highest biological effectiveness for induction of total chromosome damage, which is consistent with track structure model predictions. For complex-type exchanges 64 MeV/ u Neon and 450 MeV/u Iron were equally effective and induced the most complex damage. In addition we present data on chromosomes exchanges induced by six different energies of protons (5 MeV/u to 2.5 GeV/u). The linear dose response term was similar for all energies of protons suggesting that the effect of the higher LET at low proton energies is balanced by the production of nuclear secondaries from the high energy protons. All energies of protons have a much higher percentage of complex-type chromosome exchanges than gamma rays, signifying a cytogenetic signature for proton exposures.

  6. Cognitive and brain function in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus : is there evidence of accelerated ageing?

    Johnston, Harriet N.

    2013-01-01

    The physical complications of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have been understood as an accelerated ageing process (Morley, 2008). Do people with T1DM also experience accelerated cognitive and brain ageing? Using findings from research of the normal cognitive and brain ageing process and conceptualized in theories of the functional brain changes in cognitive ageing, a combination of cognitive testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques were used to evaluate evidence o...

  7. Two-beam type IH-RFQ linear accelerator for low-energy and high intensity heavy ion beam

    We developed a two-beam type IH-RFQ (Interdigital H type Radio Frequency Quadrupole) linac system to proof the principle of a multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac in Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors of Tokyo Institute of Technology. The multi-beam type RFQ linac has several beam channels in a cavity for accelerating high intensity and low energy heavy ion beams. The developed system consists of a two-beam type IH-RFQ cavity as a prototype of the multi-beam type cavity, a two-beam type laser ion source with DPIS (Direct Plasma Injection Scheme) and beam analyzers mainly. A a result of the beam acceleration test, the linac system accelerates carbon ions from 5 keV/u to 60 keV/u and generates about 108 mA (2x54 mA/channel) in the total output current. In this paper, we describe the development of the linac system and some results of the beam acceleration test. (author)

  8. Acceleration of Type 2 Spicules in the Solar Chromosphere - 2: Viscous Braking and Upper Bounds on Coronal Energy Input

    Goodman, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic model is used to determine conditions under which the Lorentz force accelerates plasma to type 2 spicule speeds in the chromosphere. The model generalizes a previous model to include a more realistic pre-spicule state, and the vertical viscous force. Two cases of acceleration under upper chromospheric conditions are considered. The magnetic field strength for these cases is ~ this energy. Compressive heating dominates during the early phase of acceleration. The maximum energy injected into the corona by type 2 spicules, defined as the energy flux in the upper chromosphere, may largely balance total coronal energy losses in quiet regions, possibly also in coronal holes, but not in active regions. It is proposed that magnetic flux emergence in inter-granular regions drives type 2 spicules.

  9. Interstrand and AC-loss measurements on Rutherford-type cables for accelerator magnet applications

    Otmani, R; Tixador, P

    2001-01-01

    One of the main issues for particle accelerator magnets is the control of interstrand resistances. Too low resistances result in large coupling currents during ramping, which distort field quality, while too large resistances may prevent current redistribution among cable strands, resulting in degraded quench performance. In this paper, we review a series of interstrand resistance and AC-loss measurements performed on four Rutherford-type cables. The four cables have the same number of strands and similar outer dimensions, corresponding to LHC quadrupole cable specifications. The first cable is made from NbTi strands, coated with silver-tin alloy, the second one is made from bare Nb/sub 3/Sn strands, the third one is made also from bare Nb/sub 3/Sn strands but includes a 25- mu m-thick stainless steel core between the strand layers, and the last one is made from Nb/sub 3/Sn strands plated with chromium. To cross-check the two measurement types and assess their consistency, we compare the coupling-current time...

  10. Accelerator-Based Biological Irradiation Facility Simulating Neutron Exposure from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Turner, Helen C; Marino, Stephen A; Geard, Charles R; Brenner, David J; Garty, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We describe here an accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility, intended to expose blood or small animals to neutron fields mimicking those from an improvised nuclear device at relevant distances from the epicenter. Neutrons are generated by a mixed proton/deuteron beam on a thick beryllium target, generating a broad spectrum of neutron energies that match those estimated for the Hiroshima bomb at 1.5 km from ground zero. This spectrum, dominated by neutron energies between 0.2 and 9 MeV, is significantly different from the standard reactor fission spectrum, as the initial bomb spectrum changes when the neutrons are transported through air. The neutron and gamma dose rates were measured using a custom tissue-equivalent gas ionization chamber and a compensated Geiger-Mueller dosimeter, respectively. Neutron spectra were evaluated by unfolding measurements using a proton-recoil proportional counter and a liquid scintillator detector. As an illustration of the potential use of this facility we present micronucleus yields in single divided, cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral lymphocytes up to 1.5 Gy demonstrating 3- to 5-fold enhancement over equivalent X-ray doses. This facility is currently in routine use, irradiating both mice and human blood samples for evaluation of neutron-specific biodosimetry assays. Future studies will focus on dose reconstruction in realistic mixed neutron/photon fields. PMID:26414507

  11. Molecular dynamics study of accelerated ion-induced shock waves in biological media

    de Vera, Pablo; Currell, Fred J; Solov'yov, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the effects of carbon- and iron-ion induced shock waves in DNA duplexes in liquid water. We use the CHARMM force field implemented within the MBN Explorer simulation package to optimize and equilibrate DNA duplexes in liquid water boxes of different sizes and shapes. The translational and vibrational degrees of freedom of water molecules are excited according to the energy deposited by the ions and the subsequent shock waves in liquid water are simulated. The pressure waves generated are studied and compared with an analytical hydrodynamics model which serves as a benchmark for evaluating the suitability of the simulation boxes. The energy deposition in the DNA backbone bonds is also monitored as an estimation of biological damage, something which lies beyond the possibilities of the analytical model.

  12. A type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase accelerates the triacylglycerol biosynthesis in heterokont oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    Li, Da-Wei; Cen, Shi-Ying; Liu, Yu-Hong; Balamurugan, Srinivasan; Zheng, Xin-Yan; Alimujiang, Adili; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye

    2016-07-10

    Oleaginous microalgae have received a considerable attention as potential biofuel feedstock. However, lack of industry-suitable strain with lipid rich biomass limits its commercial applications. Targeted engineering of lipogenic pathways represents a promising strategy to enhance the efficacy of microalgal oil production. In this study, a type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), a rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, was identified and overexpressed in heterokont oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica for the first time. Overexpression of DGAT2 in Nannochloropsis increased the relative transcript abundance by 3.48-fold in engineered microalgae cells. TAG biosynthesis was subsequently accelerated by DGAT2 overexpression and neutral lipid content was significantly elevated by 69% in engineered microalgae. The fatty acid profile determined by GC-MS revealed that fatty acid composition was altered in engineered microalgae. Saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were found to be increased whereas monounsaturated fatty acids content decreased. Furthermore, DGAT2 overexpression did not show negative impact on algal growth parameters. The present investigation showed that the identified DGAT2 would be a potential candidate for enhancing TAG biosynthesis and might facilitate the development of promising oleaginous strains with industrial potential. PMID:27164260

  13. Output characteristics of 2 MeV, 60 kW, dual beam type electron accelerator of TRCRE, JAERI

    The output characteristics of the dual beam type electron accelerator installed at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, JAERI in 1981 are described for the convenience of users. The accelerator has two accelerating tubes, for vertical and horizontal beams. The electron beam is independently generated in either direction by using the high voltage switching system. The output of the accelerator is controllable from 0.5 MeV to 2.0 MeV in the acceleration voltage and from 0.1 mA to 30.0 mA in the beam current. The maximum scanning width is 120 cm for vertical beam and 60 cm for horizontal beam. The beam current density distribution and depth-dose distribution for the vertical beam are mainly described as output characteristics of the accelerator. The surface dose distribution, the air dose rate distribution in horizontal beam irradiation room and the temperature rise in the irradiated material during a electron beam irradiation are also described. (author)

  14. Theoretical evaluation of the biological shielding sufficiency for the Pelletron NEC Particle Accelerator at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission

    Theoretical evaluation of the biological shielding sufficiency provided for 1.7MV Pelletron NEC Particle Accelerator yet to be installed at the Accelerator Research Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) has been done. Using the Beer Lambert law attenuation of radiation dose outside the walls of the facility was made for protons of energy 1.7MeV. Simulation of charged particle-matter interactions leading to bremsstrahlung radiation using Monte Carlo code (MCNP5) have been carried out. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has also been used to identify the composition of the concrete material used during the construction of the Accelerator Research Centre (ARC) building. The NAA analysis revealed that the elemental constituents of the ordinary concrete of density 2.3g/cm3 used for the construction of the walls included Na, Al, and Ca. Background radiation levels within and outside the facility was measured with the aid of a Sodium Iodide (NaI) identifinder and a Rados detector so as to have a practical reference datum. The weekly background radiation measurements yielded an average dose rate value of 0.05μSv/hr from recorded value range of 0.01μSv/hr to 0.07μSv/hr for an eight month period. Modeling and simulation of charged particle-matter interactions at different beam energies using Monte Carlo code (MCNP5) have yielded the dose rate of 1.58E-07μSv/hr, 1.98E-07μSv/h and 2.20E-05μSv/h outside the 22.86cm (9.0 inch) thick wall of the accelerator facility, for the beam energy range of 0.5-3.0MeV for Titanium, iron and Zirconium target samples respectively. From the Beer-Lambert law, the operational energy of 1.7MeV was used to evaluate theoretically the radiation dose rate of 1.178E-05μSv/hr, 2.656E-05μSv/hr and 4.787E-05μSv/hr outside the 22.86cm thick wall of the accelerator facility for Titanium, Iron and Zirconium targets respectively. At the operational energy energy of 3.0 MeV, the dose rate values obtained were 4.382E-05μSv/h, 9

  15. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography: January 1974--June 1976

    This bibliography (Volume II) follows the format of the first bibliography. Nuclides used therapeutically have not been included. References to medical application of the various nuclides of iodine, gallium, and indium have been excluded as being beyond the scope of this bibliography (and to keep its size to manageable proportions). For nuclides having fifteen or fewer references there is no breakdown into subcategories. For the others they have been subdivided as follows: (1) Production methods, (2) Compound syntheses, and (3) Medical uses. The first part of the bibliography contains references of general interest of various types. Where specific nuclides are involved, these references are also cross-indexed to each nuclide. The original reference number is always used for cross-indexing. The nuclide section is arranged in alphabetical order, and within each section alphabetically by first author. The author index lists each reference once for each author, with no indication of cross-referencing given

  16. Acceleration of type 2 spicules in the solar chromosphere. II. Viscous braking and upper bounds on coronal energy input

    A magnetohydrodynamic model is used to determine conditions under which the Lorentz force accelerates plasma to type 2 spicule speeds in the chromosphere. The model generalizes a previous model to include a more realistic pre-spicule state, and the vertical viscous force. Two cases of acceleration under upper chromospheric conditions are considered. The magnetic field strength for these cases is ≤12.5 and 25 G. Plasma is accelerated to terminal vertical speeds of 66 and 78 km s–1 in 100 s, compared with 124 and 397 km s–1 for the case of zero viscosity. The flows are localized within horizontal diameters ∼80 and 50 km. The total thermal energy generated by viscous dissipation is ∼10 times larger than that due to Joule dissipation, but the magnitude of the total cooling due to rarefaction is ≳ this energy. Compressive heating dominates during the early phase of acceleration. The maximum energy injected into the corona by type 2 spicules, defined as the energy flux in the upper chromosphere, may largely balance total coronal energy losses in quiet regions, possibly also in coronal holes, but not in active regions. It is proposed that magnetic flux emergence in intergranular regions drives type 2 spicules.

  17. Acceleration of type 2 spicules in the solar chromosphere. II. Viscous braking and upper bounds on coronal energy input

    Goodman, Michael L., E-mail: mgoodman@wvhtf.org [Advanced Technologies Group, West Virginia High Technology Consortium Foundation, 1000 Galliher Drive, Fairmont, WV 26554 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    A magnetohydrodynamic model is used to determine conditions under which the Lorentz force accelerates plasma to type 2 spicule speeds in the chromosphere. The model generalizes a previous model to include a more realistic pre-spicule state, and the vertical viscous force. Two cases of acceleration under upper chromospheric conditions are considered. The magnetic field strength for these cases is ≤12.5 and 25 G. Plasma is accelerated to terminal vertical speeds of 66 and 78 km s{sup –1} in 100 s, compared with 124 and 397 km s{sup –1} for the case of zero viscosity. The flows are localized within horizontal diameters ∼80 and 50 km. The total thermal energy generated by viscous dissipation is ∼10 times larger than that due to Joule dissipation, but the magnitude of the total cooling due to rarefaction is ≳ this energy. Compressive heating dominates during the early phase of acceleration. The maximum energy injected into the corona by type 2 spicules, defined as the energy flux in the upper chromosphere, may largely balance total coronal energy losses in quiet regions, possibly also in coronal holes, but not in active regions. It is proposed that magnetic flux emergence in intergranular regions drives type 2 spicules.

  18. Does “quorum sensing” imply a new type of biological information?

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2002-01-01

    When dealing with biological communication and information, unifying concepts are necessary in order to couple the different “codes” that are being inductively “cracked” and defined at different emergent and “de-emergent” levels of the biological hierarchy. In this paper I compare the type of...... biological information implied by genetic information with that implied in the concept of “quorum sensing” (which refers to a prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication system) in order to explore if such integration is being achieved. I use the Lux operon paradigm and the Vibrio fischeri – Euprymna scolopes...... symbiotic partnership to exemplify the emergence of informational contexts along the biological hierarchy (from molecules to ecologies). I suggest that the biosemiotic epistemological framework can play an integra¬tive role to overcome the limits of dyadic mechanistic descriptions when relating the...

  19. Oxidative Stress Biology and Cell Injury During Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Maiese, Kenneth; Morhan, Simona Daniela; Chong, Zhao Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects approximately 170 million individuals worldwide and is expected to alter the lives of at least 366 million individuals within a future span of 25 years. Of even greater concern is the premise that these projections are underestimated since they assume obesity levels will remain constant. Type 1 insulin-dependent DM accounts for only 5-10 percent of all diabetics but represents a highly significant health concern, since this disorder begins early in life and lead...

  20. Accelerated telomere shortening and replicative senescence in human fibroblasts overexpressing mutant and wild-type lamin A

    LMNA mutations are responsible for a variety of genetic disorders, including muscular dystrophy, lipodystrophy, and certain progeroid syndromes, notably Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria. Although a number of clinical features of these disorders are suggestive of accelerated aging, it is not known whether cells derived from these patients exhibit cellular phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. We examined a series of isogenic skin fibroblast lines transfected with LMNA constructs bearing known pathogenic point mutations or deletion mutations found in progeroid syndromes. Fibroblasts overexpressing mutant lamin A exhibited accelerated rates of loss of telomeres and shortened replicative lifespans, in addition to abnormal nuclear morphology. To our surprise, these abnormalities were also observed in lines overexpressing wild-type lamin A. Copy number variants are common in human populations; those involving LMNA, whether arising meiotically or mitotically, might lead to progeroid phenotypes. In an initial pilot study of 23 progeroid cases without detectable WRN or LMNA mutations, however, no cases of altered LMNA copy number were detected. Nevertheless, our findings raise a hypothesis that changes in lamina organization may cause accelerated telomere attrition, with different kinetics for overexpession of wild-type and mutant lamin A, which leads to rapid replicative senescence and progroid phenotypes

  1. Beta-catenin accelerates human papilloma virus type-16 mediated cervical carcinogenesis in transgenic mice.

    Gülay Bulut

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV is the principal etiological agent of cervical cancer in women, and its DNA is present in virtually all of these tumors. However, exposure to the high-risk HPV types alone is insufficient for tumor development. Identifying specific collaborating factors that will lead to cervical cancer remains an unanswered question, especially because millions of women are exposed to HPV. Our earlier work using an in vitro model indicated that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway in HPV-positive epithelial cells was sufficient to induce anchorage independent growth. We therefore hypothesized that constitutive activation of this pathway might function as the "second hit." To address this possibility, we developed two double-transgenic (DT mouse models, K14-E7/ΔN87βcat and K14-HPV16/ΔN87βcat that express either the proteins encoded by the E7 oncogene or the HPV16 early region along with constitutively active β-catenin, which was expressed by linking it to the keratin-14 (K14 promoter. We initiated tumor formation by treating all groups with estrogen for six months. Invasive cervical cancer was observed in 11% of the K14-ΔN87βcat mice, expressing activated β-catenin and in 50% of the animals expressing the HPV16 E7 oncogene. In double-transgenic mice, coexpression of β-catenin and HPV16 E7 induced invasive cervical cancer at about 7 months in 94% of the cases. We did not observe cervical cancer in any group unless the mice were treated with estrogen. In the second model, K14-HPV16 mice suffered cervical dysplasias, but this phenotype was not augmented in HPV16/ΔN87βcat mice. In summary, the phenotypes of the K14-E7/ΔN87βcat mice support the hypothesis that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in HPV-associated premalignant lesions plays a functional role in accelerating cervical carcinogenesis.

  2. Acceleration and holographic studies on different types of dynamization of external fixators of the bones

    Podbielska, Halina; Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Voloshin, Arkady S.; Pennig, Dietmar; von Bally, Gert

    1992-08-01

    The unilateral axially dynamic fixator (Orthofix) was mounted on a sheep tibial shaft. Three fixation modes: static, dynamic controlled, and dynamic free were examined by means of double exposure holographic interferometry. Simultaneously, the acceleration was measured by an accelerometer and displayed on the monitor together with loading characteristics. The first exposure was made before the acting force was applied to the tibia plateau. The second one after the moment when the acceleration wave started to propagate through the specimen. We stated that in the case of dynamization less torsion occurs at the fracture site. So far, we have not been able to determine any correlation between results of holographic and accelerometric measurements.

  3. Voltammetric and amperometric determination of biologically active organic compounds using various types of silver amalgam electrodes

    Barek, Jiří; Fischer, Jan; Moreira, Josino C.; Wang, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, possibilities of various types of silver amalgam electrodes for determination of micromolar and submicromolar concentrations of various electrochemically reducible biologically active organic compounds are reviewed. Attention is paid to the use of polished and mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrodes, silver amalgam paste electrodes both with and without pasting liquids, single crystal silver amalgam electrodes, composite silver amalgam electrodes, and porous s...

  4. Investigating of conceptions of learning biology with respect to gender, grade level and school type

    Sadi Özlem; Çevik Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the students’ conceptions of learning biology (COLB) and investigate students’ COLB with respect to gender, grade level and school type. COLB questionnaire was implemented in 1691 high school students. In general, this study recognized students preferred higher-level conceptions of learning (increasing knowledge, application, understanding and seeing in a new way) to lower-level conceptions (memorizing, preparing for exams and calculating and practicing)....

  5. Unleashing the potential of the root hair cell as a single plant cell type model in root systems biology

    Zhenzhen eQiao; Marc eLibault

    2013-01-01

    Plant root is an organ composed of multiple cell types with different functions. This multicellular complexity limits our understanding of root biology because –omics studies performed at the level of the entire root reflect the average responses of all cells composing the organ. To overcome this difficulty and allow a more comprehensive understanding of root cell biology, an approach is needed that would focus on one single cell type in the plant root. Because of its biological functions (i....

  6. Spectral and angular distributions of charged particles outside biological shielding of the 70 GeV Serpukhov accelerator

    Space, angular and energy distributions of the charged particle of radiation field outside the Serpukhov accelerator shielding at different protons beam energies obtained with the ΔE-E spectrometer are presented. The influence of the accelerating complex operation on the charged particles field shaping outside the concrete and heterogeneous steel-concrete shieldings has been analyzed. The ratios between neutrons and charged particles of the radiation field outside the 70 GeV accelerator shielding have been estimated

  7. Experimental induction of type 2 diabetes in aging-accelerated mice triggered Alzheimer-like pathology and memory deficits.

    Mehla, Jogender; Chauhan, Balwantsinh C; Chauhan, Neelima B

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease constituting ~95% of late-onset non-familial/sporadic AD, and only ~5% accounting for early-onset familial AD. Availability of a pertinent model representing sporadic AD is essential for testing candidate therapies. Emerging evidence indicates a causal link between diabetes and AD. People with diabetes are >1.5-fold more likely to develop AD. Senescence-accelerated mouse model (SAMP8) of accelerated aging displays many features occurring early in AD. Given the role played by diabetes in the pre-disposition of AD, and the utility of SAMP8 non-transgenic mouse model of accelerated aging, we examined if high fat diet-induced experimental type 2 diabetes in SAMP8 mice will trigger pathological aging of the brain. Results showed that compared to non-diabetic SAMP8 mice, diabetic SAMP8 mice exhibited increased cerebral amyloid-β, dysregulated tau-phosphorylating glycogen synthase kinase 3β, reduced synaptophysin immunoreactivity, and displayed memory deficits, indicating Alzheimer-like changes. High fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic SAMP8 mice may represent the metabolic model of AD. PMID:24121970

  8. Introduction to the New Type of Algorithms for Accelerating Convergence of Sequence

    Thukral, R.

    2005-01-01

    A collection of new algorithms for accelerating the convergence of sequence of functions was described. The definitions and connections of these new algorithms with the improved functional epsilon algorithms are given. The effectiveness of these new algorithms was examined, namely the α-algorithms, the β-algorithms, the γ-algorithms, the δ-algorithms and the improved functional epsilon algorithms, for approximating solutions of a given power series. The esti...

  9. Study of a spoke-type superconducting cavity for high power proton accelerators

    Since a few years, a lot of projects (especially dedicated to transmutation, radioactive beams production, spallation neutron sources or neutrinos factories) are based on high power proton linear accelerators. It has been demonstrated, thanks to their excellent RF performances, that superconducting elliptical cavities represent the best technological solution for the high energy part of these linacs (proton energy from typically 100 MeV). On the contrary, between 5 and 100 MeV, nothing is clearly settled and intensive studies on low-beta cavities are under progress. The main objective of this thesis is the study of a new low-beta cavity, called 'spoke', which could be used in the low energy part of European XADS (experimental accelerator driven system) and EURISOL (European isotope separation on-line) accelerators projects. A complete study of a beta 0.35 spoke cavity has been done: from its electromagnetic and mechanical optimization to warm and, above all, cold experimental tests: an accelerating field of 12.2 MV/m has been reached at T=4.2 K, that is to say one of the best value among the spoke cavities performances in the world. It has been shown that the specific ratio of a third, between the spoke bar diameter and the cavity length, led to optimize the surface electromagnetic fields. Moreover, spoke cavities can be used without any trouble, in the low energy part, due to their good rigidity. The experimental measurements performed on the cavity have confirmed the theoretical calculations, especially, concerning the expected frequency and mechanical behavior. Another study, performed on elliptical cavities, gave an explanation of the discrepancies between the measured and calculated frequencies thanks to a precise 3-dimensional geometrical control. (author)

  10. Core characteristics on a hybrid type fast reactor system combined with proton accelerator

    Kowata, Yasuki; Otsubo, Akira [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-06-01

    In our study on a hybrid fast reactor system, we have investigated it from the view point of transmutation ability of trans-uranium (TRU) nuclide making the most effective use of special features (controllability, hard neutron spectrum) of the system. It is proved that a proton beam is superior in generation of neutrons compared with an electron beam. Therefore a proton accelerator using spallation reaction with a target nucleus has an advantage to transmutation of TRU than an electron one. A fast reactor is expected to primarily have a merit that the reactor can be operated for a long term without employment of highly enriched plutonium fuel by using external neutron source such as the proton accelerator. Namely, the system has a desirable characteristic of being possible to self-sustained fissile plutonium. Consequently in the present report, core characteristics of the system were roughly studied by analyses using 2D-BURN code. The possibility of self-sustained fuel was investigated from the burnup and neutronic calculation in a cylindrical core with 300w/cc of power density without considering a target material region for the accelerator. For a reference core of which the height and the radius are both 100 cm, there is a fair prospect that a long term reactor operation is possible with subsequent refueling of natural uranium, if the medium enriched (around 10wt%) uranium or plutonium fuels are fully loaded in the initial core. More precise analyses will be planed in a later fiscal year. (author)

  11. Natural cures for type 1 diabetes: a review of phytochemicals, biological actions, and clinical potential.

    Chang, C L T; Chen, Yi-Ching; Chen, Hui-Ming; Yang, Ning-Sun; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are the third largest category of illness in the industrialized world, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Among them, type 1 diabetes, also named autoimmune diabetes, afflicts 10 million people worldwide. This disease is caused by autoimmunity-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells, leading to insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia and complications. Currently, there is no cure for type 1 diabetes. Insulin injection is the only medication; however, it accompanies serious medical complications. Current strategies to cure type 1 diabetes include immunotherapy, replacement therapy, and combination therapy. Despite recent advances in anti-diabetic strategies, no strategy is clinically successful. How to cure type 1 diabetes without undesirable side effects still remains a formidable challenge in drug research and development. Plants provide an extraordinary source of natural medicines for different diseases. Moreover, secondary metabolites of plant origin serve as an invaluable chemical library for drug discovery and current medicinal chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry. Over the past 25 years, 50% of prescription drugs have been developed from natural products and their derivatives. In this article, we review more than 20 plant compounds and extracts reported in the literature to prevent and treat type-1 diabetes. Emphasis is placed on their chemistry and biology in terms of regulation of immune cells and pancreatic β-cells. We summarize recent progress in understanding the biological actions, mechanisms and therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 1 diabetes. New views on phytocompound-based strategies for prevention and treatment of type 1 diabetes are also discussed. PMID:23210779

  12. Network-based analysis of affected biological processes in type 2 diabetes models.

    Manway Liu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder associated with multiple genetic, epigenetic, developmental, and environmental factors. Animal models of type 2 diabetes differ based on diet, drug treatment, and gene knockouts, and yet all display the clinical hallmarks of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in peripheral tissue. The recent advances in gene-expression microarray technologies present an unprecedented opportunity to study type 2 diabetes mellitus at a genome-wide scale and across different models. To date, a key challenge has been to identify the biological processes or signaling pathways that play significant roles in the disorder. Here, using a network-based analysis methodology, we identified two sets of genes, associated with insulin signaling and a network of nuclear receptors, which are recurrent in a statistically significant number of diabetes and insulin resistance models and transcriptionally altered across diverse tissue types. We additionally identified a network of protein-protein interactions between members from the two gene sets that may facilitate signaling between them. Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of integrating high-throughput microarray studies, together with protein-protein interaction networks, in elucidating the underlying biological processes associated with a complex disorder.

  13. Coronal Type II Radio Bursts Associated with Helmet Streamers and Electron Acceleration in a Streamer-Shock System

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-06-01

    Two solar type II radio bursts, separated by about 24 hours in time, are examined together. We find several common observational features of the two events. Firstly, both events are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupting from the same active region (NOAA 11176) beneath a well-observed helmet streamer. Secondly, the radio-emitting heights obtained by fitting the type II dynamic spectra are in agreement with those measured from the CME fronts. Thirdly, the type II emissions ended once the CME/shock fronts passed the white-light streamer tip, which is presumably the magnetic cusp of the streamer. These observations lead us to propose that the closed magnetic arcades of the streamer play an important role in electron acceleration and type II excitation at coronal shocks. To examine such a scenario, we conduct a test-particle simulation for electron dynamics within a large-scale partially-closed streamer magnetic configuration swept by a coronal shock. We find that electrons can be trapped within the magnetic arcades and gain energy multiple times at the shock. Low energy electrons with an initial energy of 300 eV can be accelerated to tens of keV, energetic enough to excite Langmuir waves and radio bursts. The results suggest that the scenario may be important to the generation of metric type IIs considering the fact that most solar eruptions originate from closed field regions. This scenario also provides an explanation to the long-standing issue of the disconnection between metric and interplanetary type II bursts.

  14. The mass-discrepancy acceleration relation in early-type galaxies: extended mass profiles and the phantom menace to MOND

    Janz, Joachim; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Ciotti, Luca; Alabi, Adebusola; Forbes, Duncan A

    2016-01-01

    The dark matter (DM) haloes around spiral galaxies appear to conspire with their baryonic content: empirically, significant amounts of DM are inferred only below a universal characteristic acceleration scale. Moreover, the discrepancy between the baryonic and dynamical mass, which is usually interpreted as the presence of DM, follows a very tight mass discrepancy acceleration (MDA) relation. Its universality, and its tightness in spiral galaxies, poses a challenge for the DM interpretation and was used to argue in favour of MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Here, we test whether or not this applies to early-type galaxies. We use the dynamical models of fast-rotator early-type galaxies by Cappellari et al. based on ATLAS$^{3D}$ and SLUGGS data, which was the first homogenous study of this kind, reaching ~4 $R_e$, where DM begins to dominate the total mass budget. We find the early-type galaxies to follow a MDA relation similar to spiral galaxies, but systematically offset. Also, while the slopes of the mass ...

  15. Study on the Method for Obtaining Acceleration Waveform Records from Velocity Type Seismograms of the Digital Seismograph Network

    Yao Lanyu; Nie Yongan; Zhao Jinghua; Bian Zhenfu

    2004-01-01

    The authors proposed a method for obtaining high-quality acceleration seismograms from velocity type seismograms of digital Seismographic network, and took as an example the analysis and processing of the seismograms of a same earthquake that was simultaneously recorded by velocity seismograph CTS1-EDAS24 and strong motion seismograph EST-Q4128installed in Jixian Station, Tianjin. The calculation steps and the processing method have been discussed in detail. From the analysis and the comparison of the obtained results, it is concluded that the proposed method is simple and effective, and it broadens the application of digital seismographic network.

  16. Biologic

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  17. Melanogenesis inhibitory and fibroblast proliferation accelerating effects of noroleanane- and oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides from the flower buds of Camellia japonica.

    Nakamura, Seikou; Moriura, Toshitsugu; Park, Sunmi; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Ohta, Tomoe; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2012-08-24

    A 28-noroleanane-type triterpene oligoglycoside, camellioside E (4), an oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycoside, camellioside F (5), and the known compounds camelliosides A (1) and D (3) were isolated from a 50% EtOH extract of Camellia japonica flower buds from Korea. The principal constituents (1 and 5) significantly inhibited melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. Camellioside B (2), a major constituent of C. japonica grown in Japan, showed potent inhibition of melanogenesis [95.0 ± 1.0% (p < 0.01) at 20 μM]. The inhibitory effects of 1, 2, and 5 were stronger than that of the reference compound, arbutin. We believe the melanogenesis inhibitory effects of 2 and 5 are partly related to the proliferation inhibitory effects in B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. Conversely, camelliosides tended to enhance proliferation in normal human neonatal skin fibroblasts. Interestingly, camellioside B (2) significantly accelerated fibroblast proliferation. This biological selectivity could make camellioside B useful for treating skin disorders. Herein, we report the first scientific investigation of a triterpene that displays an inhibitory effect on melanogenesis, but that also has an enhancing effect on fibroblast proliferation. PMID:22834923

  18. The Type Ia Supernova Pipeline for the Javalambre Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS)

    Siffert, B. B.; Reis, R. R. R.; Calvão, M. O.

    2014-10-01

    The Javalambre Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is an astronomical facility being built in Sierra de Javalambre, Spain. The main goal is to study the expansion of the Universe through different cosmological observables such as baryonic acoustic oscillations, type Ia supernovae and galaxy clusters. The main instrument will be a 2.5 m telescope equipped with a system of 56 narrow band filters in the optical. Here we present a sketch of the pipeline we are developing to detect type Ia supernovae with J-PAS. First we describe each individual step of the pipeline, such as image subtraction and source selection. Then we show some results we obtained when applying our pipeline to images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the ALHAMBRA survey, which had a set of narrow band filters similar to the ones that will be used by J-PAS.

  19. Islet biology, the CDKN2A/B locus and type 2 diabetes risk.

    Kong, Yahui; Sharma, Rohit B; Nwosu, Benjamin U; Alonso, Laura C

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes, fuelled by the obesity epidemic, is an escalating worldwide cause of personal hardship and public cost. Diabetes incidence increases with age, and many studies link the classic senescence and ageing protein p16(INK4A) to diabetes pathophysiology via pancreatic islet biology. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have unequivocally linked the CDKN2A/B locus, which encodes p16 inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (p16(INK4A)) and three other gene products, p14 alternate reading frame (p14(ARF)), p15(INK4B) and antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL), with human diabetes risk. However, the mechanism by which the CDKN2A/B locus influences diabetes risk remains uncertain. Here, we weigh the evidence that CDKN2A/B polymorphisms impact metabolic health via islet biology vs effects in other tissues. Structured in a bedside-to-bench-to-bedside approach, we begin with a summary of the evidence that the CDKN2A/B locus impacts diabetes risk and a brief review of the basic biology of CDKN2A/B gene products. The main emphasis of this work is an in-depth look at the nuanced roles that CDKN2A/B gene products and related proteins play in the regulation of beta cell mass, proliferation and insulin secretory function, as well as roles in other metabolic tissues. We finish with a synthesis of basic biology and clinical observations, incorporating human physiology data. We conclude that it is likely that the CDKN2A/B locus influences diabetes risk through both islet and non-islet mechanisms. PMID:27155872

  20. High power acceleration of an HSC type injector for cancer therapy

    Lu, Liang; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Zhao, Huan-Yu; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Sun, Lie-Peng; Jin, Qian-Yu; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Sun, Liang-Ting; He, Yuan; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2016-07-01

    A hybrid single cavity (HSC) linac, which is formed by combining a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a drift tube (DT) structure into one interdigital-H (IH) cavity, is fabricated and assembled as a proof of principle injector for cancer therapy synchrotron, based on the culmination of several years of research. The HSC linac adopts a direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), which can inject a high intensity heavy ion beam produced by a laser ion source (LIS). The input beam current of the HSC is designed to be 20 mA C6+ ions. According to numerical simulations, the HSC linac can accelerate a 6-mA C6+beam, which meets the requirement of the needed particle number for cancer therapy (108–9 ions/pulse). The HSC injector with the DPIS method makes the existing multi-turn injection system and stripping system unnecessary, and can also bring down the size of the beam pipe in existing synchrotron magnets, which could reduce the whole cost of synchrotron. The radio frequency (rf) measurements show excellent rf properties for the resonator, with a measured Q equal to 91% of the simulated value. A C6+ ion beam extracted from the LIS was used for the HSC commissioning. In beam testing, we found the measured beam parameters agreed with simulations. More details of the measurements and the results of the high power test are reported in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China and One Hundred Person Project of CAS

  1. Accelerated age-related olfactory decline among type 1 Usher patients.

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Oliveiros, Bárbara; Pereira, Paulo; António, Natália; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António; Silva, Eduardo D

    2016-01-01

    Usher Syndrome (USH) is a rare disease with hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and, sometimes, vestibular dysfunction. A phenotype heterogeneity is reported. Recent evidence indicates that USH is likely to belong to an emerging class of sensory ciliopathies. Olfaction has recently been implicated in ciliopathies, but the scarce literature about olfaction in USH show conflicting results. We aim to evaluate olfactory impairment as a possible clinical manifestation of USH. Prospective clinical study that included 65 patients with USH and 65 normal age-gender-smoking-habits pair matched subjects. A cross culturally validated version of the Sniffin' Sticks olfaction test was used. Young patients with USH have significantly better olfactory scores than healthy controls. We observe that USH type 1 have a faster ageing olfactory decrease than what happens in healthy subjects, leading to significantly lower olfactory scores in older USH1 patients. Moreover, USH type 1 patients showed significantly higher olfactory scores than USH type 2, what can help distinguishing them. Olfaction represents an attractive tool for USH type classification and pre diagnostic screening due to the low cost and non-invasive nature of the testing. Olfactory dysfunction should be considered among the spectrum of clinical manifestations of Usher syndrome. PMID:27329700

  2. Negative correlation between the conversion of thyrotropin receptor-bound blocking type thyrotropin receptor antibody to the stimulating type by anti-human IgG antibodies and the biological activity of blocking type thyrotropin receptor antibody.

    Cho, B. Y.; Shong, M. H.; Chung, J. H.; Lee, H. K.; Koh, C S; Min, H. K.

    1993-01-01

    It has been reported that receptor-bound blocking type TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) can be converted to the stimulating type by anti-human IgG antibodies. To evaluate the relationship between the conversion of receptor-bound blocking type TRAb to the stimulating type and the biological activity of blocking type TRAb, we compared converting activities of blocking type TRAb from 10 patients with primary nongoitrous hypothyroidism with both the doses of blocking type TRAb which show 50% inhibiti...

  3. Development of a New Type of Alkali-Free Liquid Accelerator for Wet Shotcrete in Coal Mine and Its Engineering Application

    Gang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address issues such as large rebound rate, high dust concentration, and low compressive strength of shotcrete when adding liquid accelerator during wet spraying, the factors influencing the efficiency of liquid accelerator were experimentally analyzed. The single-admixture, combination, and orthogonal tests were conducted on the five fundamental raw materials required to develop the new liquid accelerator. The WT-1 type liquid accelerator, which had better adaptability to different kinds of cement, was developed with the mass concentration ratio of 55% aluminum sulfate octadecahydrate, 4% sodium fluoride, 2.5% triethanolamine, 0.5% polyacrylamide, 5% bentonite, and 33% water. Experimental investigation showed that the initial setting time of the reference cement with 6% mass content of this liquid accelerator was 2 minutes and 15 seconds, and the final setting time was 7 minutes and 5 seconds. The compressive strength after 1 day of curing was 13.6 MPa and the strength ratio after 28 days of curing was 94.8%, which met the first grade product requirements of the China National Standard. Compared with the conventional type liquid accelerator, the proposed type WT-1 accelerator is capable of effectively reducing the rebound rate and dust concentration while significantly increasing the compressive strength of the shotcrete.

  4. Consensus Recommendations for Current Treatments and Accelerating Clinical Trials for Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2

    Blakeley, Jaishri O.; Evans, D Gareth; Adler, John; Brackmann, Derald; Chen, Ruihong; Ferner, Rosalie E.; Hanemann, C. Oliver; Harris, Gordon; Huson, Susan M; Jacob, Abraham; Kalamarides, Michel; Karajannis, Matthias A.; Korf, Bruce R.; Mautner, Victor-Felix; McClatchey, Andrea I

    2011-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a tumor suppressor syndrome characterized by bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) which often result in deafness despite aggressive management. Meningiomas, ependymomas and other cranial nerve and peripheral schwannomas are also commonly found in NF2 and collectively lead to major neurologic morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, the overall survival rate in patients with NF2 is estimated to be 38% at 20 years from diagnosis. Hence, there is a desperate nee...

  5. A Western-Type Diet Accelerates Tumor Progression in an Autochthonous Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer

    Llaverias, Gemma; Danilo, Christiane; Wang, Yu; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Daumer, Kristin; Lisanti, Michael P; Frank, Philippe G

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided evidence suggesting an important role for diet and obesity in the development of cancer. Specifically, lipid nutrients of the diet have been identified as important regulators of tumor development and progression. In the present study, we have examined the role of dietary fat and cholesterol in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer using the well-characterized TRAMP mouse model. Consumption of a Western-type diet—that is, enriched in both fat ...

  6. Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) as an animal model of senile dementia: pharmacological, neurochemical and molecular biological approach.

    Okuma, Y; Nomura, Y

    1998-12-01

    To elucidate the fundamental mechanism of age-related deficiencies of learning and to develop effective drugs for intervention in age-related diseases such as learning dysfunctions, pertinent animal models that have characteristics closely similar to human dysfunctions should be established. SAM (senescence-accelerated mouse) has been established as a murine model of the SAM strains, groups of related inbred strains including nine strains of accelerated senescence-prone, short-lived mice (SAMP) and three strains of accelerated senescence-resistant, long-lived mice (SAMR). SAMP-strain mice show relatively strain-specific age-associated phenotypic pathologies such as shortened life span and early manifestation of senescence. Among the SAMP-strain mice, SAMP8 mice show an age-related deterioration in learning ability. Here, the neuropathological, neurochemical and pharmacological features of SAM are reported, especially for SAMP8. Moreover, the effects of several drugs on the biochemical and behavioral alterations in SAMP8 and the etiologic manifestation of accelerated senescence are also discussed. PMID:9920195

  7. A simple, digitally controlled, automatic, hysteresis free, high precision energy scanning system for Van de Graaff type accelerators. Pt. 1

    A digitally controlled energy scanning system is described which may be coupled in a simple and inexpensive way to any accelerator which is high voltage stabilized by a beam position sensing 'slit control' system like all single ended or tandem Van de Graaff type machines. The basic idea is to 'fool' the existing stabilization system by deflecting the beam at two well chosen points through small angles using electrostatic deflection plates biased to variable voltages U. It is shown that the ensuing terminal potential variation δV is linearly related to U, the system acting as a U -> δV closed loop feedback amplifier with a gain G0 set only by the beam trajectory in the analyzing magnet and between the plates. G0 is hence independent of acceleration potential, beam particle mass or charge state, the long term stability of G0 being set only by mechanical components. The calibration can thus be made once and for all. The system is strictly hysteresis free and provides means of varying the bombarding energy in small precisely equal steps in a fast and reproducible way. (orig./WL)

  8. Purification and biological effects of a C-type lectin isolated from Bothrops moojeni

    PSF Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom proteins from the C-type lectin family have very distinct biological activities despite their highly conserved primary structure, which is homologous to the carbohydrate recognition region of true C-type lectins. We purified a lectin-like protein (BmLec from Bothrops moojeni venom and investigated its effect on platelet aggregation, insulin secretion, antibacterial activity, and isolated kidney cells. The BmLec was purified using two chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. BmLec showed a dose-dependent platelet aggregation and significantly decreased the bacterial growth rate in approximately 15%. During scanning electron microscopy, the profile of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. passiflorae treated with lectin disclosed a high vesiculation and membrane rupture. BmLec induced a strong and significant increase in insulin secretion at 2.8 and 16.7 mM glucose concentrations, and this effect was seen in the presence of EGTA in both experiments. BmLec (10 µg/mL increased the perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance and urinary flow. The glomerular filtration rate and percentages of sodium, potassium and chloride tubular transport were reduced at 60 minutes of perfusion. Renal alterations caused by BmLec were completely inhibited by indomethacin in all evaluated parameters. In conclusion, the C-type lectin isolated from Bothrops moojeni affected platelet aggregation, insulin secretion, antibacterial activity and isolated kidney function.

  9. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    Daniel Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biological control (CBC is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina and the olive moth (Prays oleae. Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems.

  10. A Biology Laboratory Exercise Using Macromolecule Assays to Distinguish Four Types of Milk

    Charlotte W. Pratt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the drawbacks of cookbook-style laboratory exercises for General Biology courses is that students are not challenged to develop skills in scientific reasoning, such as formulating hypotheses and designing and carrying out experiments. Several traditional laboratory curricula include exercises involving semi-quantitative colorimetric assays to detect proteins (biuret test, reducing sugars (Benedict’s test, starch (Lugol’s test, and lipids (Sudan red test in a variety of easily prepared solutions (glucose, albumin, glycine, etc. and familiar food items (lemon juice, cornstarch, egg white, etc.. An extension of this lab exercise was developed to allow students to use their knowledge of the macromolecule assays to design an experiment to distinguish four types of “milk”: whole milk, skim milk, cream, and soy milk (rice milk or almond milk could also be included.

  11. The effects of question types in textual reading upon retention of biology concepts

    Leonard, William H.; Lowery, Lawrence F.

    recall and factual questions (Watts & Anderson, 1971; Falker, 1974; Rickards, 1974, 1976). The effect of placing questions directly within textual narrative has been much less researched than the issue of placing questions before or after the reading passage. The effect of this interspersed questioning strategy as part of science textbooks is apparently unresearched to date. The purpose of the research reported here was to determine the relative effects of certain question types when these questions were interspersed throughout the reading passage in textual materials for students in university introductory biology. It was hypothesized for experimental purposes that students reading a passage in biology concepts with specific types of interspersed questions would comprehend and retain no more of that passge than students reading the same passage without interspersed questions.

  12. Couplers - absorbers of higher wave types for superconducting accelerating sections of linear electron-positron collider

    One studied rectangular waveguide base devices designed for removing and absorption of the wave higher types (WHT) from the superstructure of Tesla linear electron and positron collider. These devices called couplers are located between the superstructure subresonators and on its end points. WHT-couplers connected to flying tubes via the slots oriented along the tube axis (longitudinal slots), perpendicular to their axis (azimuth slots) and at a certain angle were studied. Two rectangular waveguides were used for damping of WHT of both polarities for every coupler. Paper presents the results of calculations and of experimental investigation into two copper subresonators of the superstructure. The investigations were carried out using models at room temperature and under 3 GHz frequency

  13. Accelerator technology for the mankind

    Full text: Particle accelerators technology is one of the generic technologies which is locomotive of the development in almost all fields of science and technology. According to the U. S. Department of Energy: Accelerators underpin every activity of the Office of Science and, increasingly, of the entire scientific enterprise. From biology to medicine, from materials to metallurgy, from elementary particles to the cosmos, accelerators provide the microscopic information that forms the basis for scientific understanding and applications. The combination of ground and satellite based observatories and particle accelerators will advance our understanding of our world, our galaxy, our universe, and ourselves. Because of this, accelerator technology should become widespread all over the world. Existing situation shows that a large portion of the world, namely the South and Mid-East, is poor on the accelerator technology. UNESCO has recognized this deficit and started SESAME project in Mid-East, namely Jordan. Turkic Accelerator Complex (TAC) project is more comprehensive and ambitious project, from the point of view of it includes light sources, particle physics experiments and proton and secondary beam applications. At this stage, TAC project includes: Linac-ring type charm factory; Synchrotron light source based on positron ring; Free electron laser based on electron linac; GeV scale proton accelerator; TAC-Test Facility

  14. Biological activity, membrane-targeting modification, and crystallization of soluble human decay accelerating factor expressed in E. coli

    White, Jennifer; Lukacik, Petra; Esser, Dirk; Steward, Michael; Giddings, Naomi; Bright, Jeremy R.; Fritchley, Sarah J.; Morgan, B. Paul; Lea, Susan M.; Smith, Geoffrey P.; Smith, Richard A. G.

    2004-01-01

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) is a glycophosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein that regulates the activity of C3 and C5 convertases. In addition to understanding the mechanism of complement inhibition by DAF through structural studies, there is also an interest in the possible therapeutic potential of the molecule. In this report we describe the cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, isolation and membrane-targeting modification of the four short consensus repeat domains of sol...

  15. Probing the isotropy of cosmic acceleration traced by Type Ia supernovae

    Javanmardi, Behnam; Kroupa, Pavel; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to test the isotropy of the magnitude-redshift relation of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and single out the most discrepant direction (in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio) with respect to the all-sky data. Our technique accounts for possible directional variations of the corrections for SNe Ia and yields all-sky maps of the best-fit cosmological parameters with arbitrary angular resolution. To show its potential, we apply our method to the recent Union2.1 compilation, building maps with three different angular resolutions. We use a Monte Carlo method to estimate the statistical significance with which we could reject the null hypothesis that the magnitude-redshift relation is isotropic based on the properties of the observed most discrepant directions. We find that, based on pure signal-to-noise arguments, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected at any meaningful confidence level. However, if we also consider that the strongest deviations in the Union2.1 sample closely align with the dipole...

  16. Accelerated light-induced degradation for detecting copper contamination in p-type silicon

    Copper is a harmful metal impurity that significantly impacts the performance of silicon-based devices if present in active regions. In this contribution, we propose a fast method consisting of simultaneous illumination and annealing for the detection of copper contamination in p-type silicon. Our results show that, within minutes, such method is capable of producing a significant reduction of the minority carrier lifetime. A spatial distribution map of copper contamination can then be obtained through the lifetime values measured before and after degradation. In order to separate the effect of the light-activated copper defects from the other metastable complexes in low resistivity Cz-silicon, we carried out a dark anneal at 200 °C, which is known to fully recover the boron-oxygen defect. Similar to the boron-oxygen behavior, we show that the dark anneal also recovers the copper defects. However, the recovery is only partial and it can be used to identify the possible presence of copper contamination

  17. Biological properties of different type carbon particles in vitro study on primary culture of endothelial cells.

    Czerniak-Reczulska, M; Niedzielski, P; Balcerczyk, A; Bartosz, G; Karowicz-Bilińska, A; Mitura, K

    2010-02-01

    Carbon powders have extended surface of carbon layers, which is of significant biomedical importance since the powders are employed to cover implants material. Carbon Powder Particles are produced by different methods: by a detonation method, by RF PACVD (Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition) or MW/RF PCVD (Microwave/Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition) and others. Our previous data showed that Carbon Powder Particles may act as antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory factor. However the mechanism of such behavior has been not fully understood. The aim of the work was tested influence carbon powders manufactured by Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition RFPACVD method and detonation method on selected parameters of human endothelial cells, which play a crucial role in the regulation of the circulation and vascular wall homeostasis. Graphite powder was used as a control substance. Endothelial cells are actively involved in a wide variety of processes e.g., inflammatory responses to a different type of stimuli (ILs, TNF-alpha) or regulating vasomotor tone via production of vasorelaxants and vasocontrictors. Biological activation is dependent on the type and quantity of chemical bonds on the surface of the powders. The effect of powders on the proliferation of HUVECs (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) was determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction assay. We found decreased cell proliferation after 72 h treatment with graphite as well as Carbon Powder Particles. PMID:20352757

  18. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: III. Biological efficiency.

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    Methods were developed and incorporated into a previously published computer model to predict ME intake and calculate biological efficiencies in terms of grams of empty BW (EBW) and fat-free matter (FFM) gained/megacalorie of ME consumed from weaning to slaughter. Efficiencies were calculated for steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG, and slaughtered at 300 kg carcass weight, small or greater degree of marbling, and 28% carcass fat. Backgrounding systems were high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, and low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d, and 0 d backgrounding. The high ADG finishing system was more biologically efficient than the low ADG finishing system, and generally backgrounding systems were less biologically efficient than direct finishing after weaning (0 d backgrounding). Large-framed breeds were more efficient at the constant carcass weight and carcass fatness end point, and breeds that achieved the marbling end point at low levels of carcass fatness were more efficient at this end point. Some small-framed breeds gained EBW more efficiently but gained FFM less efficiently than some of the large-framed breeds. Variation in efficiency between genotypes was greatest with 0 d backgrounding and decreased in the other backgrounding systems. PMID:7608001

  19. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  20. Acceleration of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration through Asymmetrically Porous Nerve Guide Conduit Applied with Biological/Physical Stimulation

    Kim, Jin Rae; Oh, Se Heang; Kwon, Gu Birm; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lee, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient functional restoration of damaged peripheral nerves is a big clinical challenge. In this study, a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with selective permeability was prepared by rolling an asymmetrically porous polycaprolactone/Pluronic F127 membrane fabricated using a novel immersion precipitation method. Dual stimulation (nerve growth factor [NGF] as a biological stimulus and low-intensity pulse ultrasound [US] as a physical stimulus) was adapted to enhance nerve regeneration through an NG...

  1. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in- dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im- proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo- some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  2. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved curcian carp

    WANG Jing; LIU Yun; QIN QinBo; CHEN Song; LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; LIU JinHui; ZHANG Chun; LUO KaiKun; XIAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in-dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im-proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo-some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  3. Attomolar detection of botulinum toxin type A in complex biological matrices.

    Karine Bagramyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A highly sensitive, rapid and cost efficient method that can detect active botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT in complex biological samples such as foods or serum is desired in order to 1 counter the potential bioterrorist threat 2 enhance food safety 3 enable future pharmacokinetic studies in medical applications that utilize BoNTs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a botulinum neurotoxin serotype A assay with a large immuno-sorbent surface area (BoNT/A ALISSA that captures a low number of toxin molecules and measures their intrinsic metalloprotease activity with a fluorogenic substrate. In direct comparison with the "gold standard" mouse bioassay, the ALISSA is four to five orders of magnitudes more sensitive and considerably faster. Our method reaches attomolar sensitivities in serum, milk, carrot juice, and in the diluent fluid used in the mouse assay. ALISSA has high specificity for the targeted type A toxin when tested against alternative proteases including other BoNT serotypes and trypsin, and it detects the holotoxin as well as the multi-protein complex form of BoNT/A. The assay was optimized for temperature, substrate concentration, size and volume proportions of the immuno-sorbent matrix, enrichment and reaction times. Finally, a kinetic model is presented that is consistent with the observed improvement in sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The sensitivity, specificity, speed and simplicity of the BoNT ALISSA should make this method attractive for diagnostic, biodefense and pharmacological applications.

  4. Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function.

    Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Gorski, Mathias; Chu, Audrey Y; Li, Man; Mijatovic, Vladan; Garnaas, Maija; Tin, Adrienne; Sorice, Rossella; Li, Yong; Taliun, Daniel; Olden, Matthias; Foster, Meredith; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ming-Huei; Pers, Tune H; Johnson, Andrew D; Ko, Yi-An; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tayo, Bamidele; Nalls, Michael; Feitosa, Mary F; Isaacs, Aaron; Dehghan, Abbas; d'Adamo, Pio; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Zonderman, Alan B; Nolte, Ilja M; van der Most, Peter J; Wright, Alan F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Morrison, Alanna C; Hofman, Albert; Smith, Albert V; Dreisbach, Albert W; Franke, Andre; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Metspalu, Andres; Tonjes, Anke; Lupo, Antonio; Robino, Antonietta; Johansson, Åsa; Demirkan, Ayse; Kollerits, Barbara; Freedman, Barry I; Ponte, Belen; Oostra, Ben A; Paulweber, Bernhard; Krämer, Bernhard K; Mitchell, Braxton D; Buckley, Brendan M; Peralta, Carmen A; Hayward, Caroline; Helmer, Catherine; Rotimi, Charles N; Shaffer, Christian M; Müller, Christian; Sala, Cinzia; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Ackermann, Daniel; Shriner, Daniel; Ruggiero, Daniela; Toniolo, Daniela; Lu, Yingchang; Cusi, Daniele; Czamara, Darina; Ellinghaus, David; Siscovick, David S; Ruderfer, Douglas; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Rochtchina, Elena; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Boerwinkle, Eric; Salvi, Erika; Bottinger, Erwin P; Murgia, Federico; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ernst, Florian; Kronenberg, Florian; Hu, Frank B; Navis, Gerjan J; Curhan, Gary C; Ehret, George B; Homuth, Georg; Coassin, Stefan; Thun, Gian-Andri; Pistis, Giorgio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Malerba, Giovanni; Montgomery, Grant W; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jacobs, Gunnar; Li, Guo; Wichmann, H-Erich; Campbell, Harry; Schmidt, Helena; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Brenner, Hermann; Kroemer, Heyo K; Kramer, Holly; Lin, Honghuang; Leach, I Mateo; Ford, Ian; Guessous, Idris; Rudan, Igor; Prokopenko, Inga; Borecki, Ingrid; Heid, Iris M; Kolcic, Ivana; Persico, Ivana; Jukema, J Wouter; Wilson, James F; Felix, Janine F; Divers, Jasmin; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Stafford, Jeanette M; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Smith, Jennifer A; Faul, Jessica D; Wang, Jie Jin; Ding, Jingzhong; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Attia, John; Whitfield, John B; Chalmers, John; Viikari, Jorma; Coresh, Josef; Denny, Joshua C; Karjalainen, Juha; Fernandes, Jyotika K; Endlich, Karlhans; Butterbach, Katja; Keene, Keith L; Lohman, Kurt; Portas, Laura; Launer, Lenore J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Yengo, Loic; Franke, Lude; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rose, Lynda M; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Rao, Madhumathi; Struchalin, Maksim; Kleber, Marcus E; Cavalieri, Margherita; Haun, Margot; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Ciullo, Marina; Pirastu, Mario; de Andrade, Mariza; McEvoy, Mark A; Woodward, Mark; Adam, Martin; Cocca, Massimiliano; Nauck, Matthias; Imboden, Medea; Waldenberger, Melanie; Pruijm, Menno; Metzger, Marie; Stumvoll, Michael; Evans, Michele K; Sale, Michele M; Kähönen, Mika; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Rheinberger, Myriam; Verweij, Niek; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Martin, Nicholas G; Hastie, Nick; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Soranzo, Nicole; Devuyst, Olivier; Raitakari, Olli; Gottesman, Omri; Franco, Oscar H; Polasek, Ozren; Gasparini, Paolo; Munroe, Patricia B; Ridker, Paul M; Mitchell, Paul; Muntner, Paul; Meisinger, Christa; Smit, Johannes H; Kovacs, Peter; Wild, Philipp S; Froguel, Philippe; Rettig, Rainer; Mägi, Reedik; Biffar, Reiner; Schmidt, Reinhold; Middelberg, Rita P S; Carroll, Robert J; Penninx, Brenda W; Scott, Rodney J; Katz, Ronit; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Wild, Sarah H; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ulivi, Sheila; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Enroth, Stefan; Kloiber, Stefan; Trompet, Stella; Stengel, Benedicte; Hancock, Stephen J; Turner, Stephen T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Stracke, Sylvia; Harris, Tamara B; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Lehtimäki, Terho; Illig, Thomas; Aspelund, Thor; Nikopensius, Tiit; Esko, Tonu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Gyllensten, Ulf; Völker, Uwe; Emilsson, Valur; Vitart, Veronique; Aalto, Ville; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chouraki, Vincent; Chen, Wei-Min; Igl, Wilmar; März, Winfried; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Loos, Ruth J F; Liu, Yongmei; Snieder, Harold; Pramstaller, Peter P; Parsa, Afshin; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Susztak, Katalin; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; de Boer, Ian H; Böger, Carsten A; Goessling, Wolfram; Chasman, Daniel I; Köttgen, Anna; Kao, W H Linda; Fox, Caroline S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, 19 associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show that identified genes at eGFR loci are enriched for expression in kidney tissues and in pathways relevant for kidney development and transmembrane transporter activity, kidney structure, and regulation of glucose metabolism. Chromatin state mapping and DNase I hypersensitivity analyses across adult tissues demonstrate preferential mapping of associated variants to regulatory regions in kidney but not extra-renal tissues. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of eGFR are mediated largely through direct effects within the kidney and highlight important cell types and biological pathways. PMID:26831199

  5. Significant Deregulated Pathways in Diabetes Type II Complications Identified through Expression Based Network Biology

    Ukil, Sanchaita; Sinha, Meenakshee; Varshney, Lavneesh; Agrawal, Shipra

    Type 2 Diabetes is a complex multifactorial disease, which alters several signaling cascades giving rise to serious complications. It is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The present research work describes an integrated functional network biology approach to identify pathways that get transcriptionally altered and lead to complex complications thereby amplifying the phenotypic effect of the impaired disease state. We have identified two sub-network modules, which could be activated under abnormal circumstances in diabetes. Present work describes key proteins such as P85A and SRC serving as important nodes to mediate alternate signaling routes during diseased condition. P85A has been shown to be an important link between stress responsive MAPK and CVD markers involved in fibrosis. MAPK8 has been shown to interact with P85A and further activate CTGF through VEGF signaling. We have traced a novel and unique route correlating inflammation and fibrosis by considering P85A as a key mediator of signals. The next sub-network module shows SRC as a junction for various signaling processes, which results in interaction between NF-kB and beta catenin to cause cell death. The powerful interaction between these important genes in response to transcriptionally altered lipid metabolism and impaired inflammatory response via SRC causes apoptosis of cells. The crosstalk between inflammation, lipid homeostasis and stress, and their serious effects downstream have been explained in the present analyses.

  6. Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function

    Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Gorski, Mathias; Chu, Audrey Y.; Li, Man; Mijatovic, Vladan; Garnaas, Maija; Tin, Adrienne; Sorice, Rossella; Li, Yong; Taliun, Daniel; Olden, Matthias; Foster, Meredith; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ming-Huei; Pers, Tune H.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Ko, Yi-An; Fuchsberger, Christian; Tayo, Bamidele; Nalls, Michael; Feitosa, Mary F.; Isaacs, Aaron; Dehghan, Abbas; d'Adamo, Pio; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Zonderman, Alan B.; Nolte, Ilja M.; van der Most, Peter J.; Wright, Alan F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hofman, Albert; Smith, Albert V.; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Franke, Andre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Metspalu, Andres; Tonjes, Anke; Lupo, Antonio; Robino, Antonietta; Johansson, Åsa; Demirkan, Ayse; Kollerits, Barbara; Freedman, Barry I.; Ponte, Belen; Oostra, Ben A.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Hayward, Caroline; Helmer, Catherine; Rotimi, Charles N.; Shaffer, Christian M.; Müller, Christian; Sala, Cinzia; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Ackermann, Daniel; Shriner, Daniel; Ruggiero, Daniela; Toniolo, Daniela; Lu, Yingchang; Cusi, Daniele; Czamara, Darina; Ellinghaus, David; Siscovick, David S.; Ruderfer, Douglas; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Rochtchina, Elena; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Salvi, Erika; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Murgia, Federico; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ernst, Florian; Kronenberg, Florian; Hu, Frank B.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Curhan, Gary C.; Ehret, George B.; Homuth, Georg; Coassin, Stefan; Thun, Gian-Andri; Pistis, Giorgio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Malerba, Giovanni; Montgomery, Grant W.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jacobs, Gunnar; Li, Guo; Wichmann, H-Erich; Campbell, Harry; Schmidt, Helena; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Brenner, Hermann; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Kramer, Holly; Lin, Honghuang; Leach, I. Mateo; Ford, Ian; Guessous, Idris; Rudan, Igor; Prokopenko, Inga; Borecki, Ingrid; Heid, Iris M.; Kolcic, Ivana; Persico, Ivana; Jukema, J. Wouter; Wilson, James F.; Felix, Janine F.; Divers, Jasmin; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Wang, Jie Jin; Ding, Jingzhong; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Attia, John; Whitfield, John B.; Chalmers, John; Viikari, Jorma; Coresh, Josef; Denny, Joshua C.; Karjalainen, Juha; Fernandes, Jyotika K.; Endlich, Karlhans; Butterbach, Katja; Keene, Keith L.; Lohman, Kurt; Portas, Laura; Launer, Lenore J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Yengo, Loic; Franke, Lude; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rose, Lynda M.; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Rao, Madhumathi; Struchalin, Maksim; Kleber, Marcus E.; Cavalieri, Margherita; Haun, Margot; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Ciullo, Marina; Pirastu, Mario; de Andrade, Mariza; McEvoy, Mark A.; Woodward, Mark; Adam, Martin; Cocca, Massimiliano; Nauck, Matthias; Imboden, Medea; Waldenberger, Melanie; Pruijm, Menno; Metzger, Marie; Stumvoll, Michael; Evans, Michele K.; Sale, Michele M.; Kähönen, Mika; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Rheinberger, Myriam; Verweij, Niek; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hastie, Nick; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Soranzo, Nicole; Devuyst, Olivier; Raitakari, Olli; Gottesman, Omri; Franco, Oscar H.; Polasek, Ozren; Gasparini, Paolo; Munroe, Patricia B.; Ridker, Paul M.; Mitchell, Paul; Muntner, Paul; Meisinger, Christa; Smit, Johannes H.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adair, Linda S.; Alexander, Myriam; Altshuler, David; Amin, Najaf; Arking, Dan E.; Arora, Pankaj; Aulchenko, Yurii; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barroso, Ines; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John P.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Bis, Joshua C.; Boehnke, Michael; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bots, Michiel L.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva; Braund, Peter S.; Brown, Morris J.; Burton, Paul R.; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Chaturvedi, Nish; Shin Cho, Yoon; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Francis S.; Collins, Rory; Connell, John M.; Cooper, Jackie A.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Dörr, Marcus; Dahgam, Santosh; Danesh, John; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian N. M.; Deloukas, Panos; Denniff, Matthew; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Dong, Yanbin; Doumatey, Ayo; Elliott, Paul; Elosua, Roberto; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eyheramendy, Susana; Farrall, Martin; Fava, Cristiano; Forrester, Terrence; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Fox, Ervin R.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Galan, Pilar; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Garcia, Melissa; Gaunt, Tom R.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Go, Min Jin; Goel, Anuj; Grässler, Jürgen; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Groop, Leif; Guarrera, Simonetta; Guo, Xiuqing; Hadley, David; Hamsten, Anders; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hardy, Rebecca; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heath, Simon; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hedblad, Bo; Hercberg, Serge; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hilton, Gina; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Howard, Philip; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Ikram, M. Arfan; Islam, Muhammad; Iwai, Naoharu; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jackson, Anne U.; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Johnson, Toby; Kathiresan, Sekar; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kinra, Sanjay; Kita, Yoshikuni; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kumar, M. J. Kranthi; Kuh, Diana; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Laakso, Markku; Laan, Maris; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Larson, Martin G.; Lathrop, Mark; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Nanette R.; Levy, Daniel; Li, Yali; Longstreth, Will T.; Luan, Jian'an; Lucas, Gavin; Ludwig, Barbara; Mangino, Massimo; Mani, K. Radha; Marmot, Michael G.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Matullo, Giuseppe; McArdle, Wendy L.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meitinger, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Meneton, Pierre; Meschia, James F.; Miki, Tetsuro; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohlke, Karen L.; Mooser, Vincent; Morken, Mario A.; Morris, Richard W.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Najjar, Samer; Narisu, Narisu; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Nilsson, Peter; Nyberg, Fredrik; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ong, RickTwee-Hee; Ongen, Halit; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Org, Elin; Orru, Marco; Palmas, Walter; Palmen, Jutta; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Parker, Alex N.; Peden, John F.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Pihur, Vasyl; Platou, Carl G. P.; Plump, Andrew; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Psaty, Bruce M.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Rasheed, Asif; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rosengren, Annika; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudock, Megan E.; Sõber, Siim; Salako, Tunde; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schwartz, Steven M.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Scott, Laura J.; Scott, James; Scuteri, Angelo; Sehmi, Joban S.; Seielstad, Mark; Seshadri, Sudha; Sharma, Pankaj; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Shi, Gang; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Sim, Xueling; Singleton, Andrew; Sjögren, Marketa; Smith, Nicholas L.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stancakova, Alena; Steinle, Nanette I.; Strachan, David P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Sun, Yan V.; Swift, Amy J.; Tabara, Yasuharu; Tai, E-Shyong; Talmud, Philippa J.; Taylor, Andrew; Terzic, Janos; Thelle, Dag S.; Tobin, Martin D.; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tripathy, Vikal; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Uda, Manuela; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Umemura, Satoshi; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Veldre, Gudrun; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Viigimaa, Margus; Vinay, D. G.; Vineis, Paolo; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wain, Louise V.; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Thomas J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weder, Alan B.; Whincup, Peter H.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Yao, Jie; Young, J. H.; Zelenika, Diana; Zhai, Guangju; Zhang, Weihua; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Haidong; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zitting, Paavo; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Okada, Yukinori; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Gu, Dongfeng; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Maeda, Shiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Chen, Peng; Lim, Su-Chi; Wong, Tien-Yin; Liu, Jianjun; Young, Terri L.; Aung, Tin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kim, Young Jin; Kang, Daehee; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chang, Li-Ching; Fann, S. -J. Cathy; Mei, Hao; Hixson, James E.; Chen, Shufeng; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Isono, Masato; Albrecht, Eva; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Kato, Norihiro; He, Jiang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Reilly, Muredach P; Schunkert, Heribert; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Hall, Alistair; Hengstenberg, Christian; König, Inke R.; Laaksonen, Reijo; McPherson, Ruth; Thompson, John R.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Ziegler, Andreas; Absher, Devin; Chen, Li; Cupples13, L. Adrienne; Halperin, Eran; Li, Mingyao; Musunuru, Kiran; Preuss, Michael; Schillert, Arne; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wells, George A.; Holm, Hilma; Roberts, Robert; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Fortmann, Stephen; Go, Alan; Hlatky, Mark; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua; Myers, Richard; Quertermous, Thomas; Sidney, Steven; Risch, Neil; Tang, Hua; Blankenberg, Stefan; Schnabel, Renate; Sinning, Christoph; Lackner, Karl J.; Tiret, Laurence; Nicaud, Viviane; Cambien, Francois; Bickel, Christoph; Rupprecht, Hans J.; Perret, Claire; Proust, Carole; Münzel, Thomas F.; Barbalic, Maja; Chen, Ida Yii-Der; Demissie-Banjaw, Serkalem; Folsom, Aaron; Lumley, Thomas; Marciante, Kristin; Taylor, Kent D.; Volcik, Kelly; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Andersen, Karl; Fischer, Marcus; Grosshennig, Anika; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Stark, Klaus; Schreiber, Stefan; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Bruse, Petra; Doering, Angela; Klopp, Norman; Diemert, Patrick; Loley, Christina; Medack, Anja; Nahrstedt, Janja; Peters, Annette; Wagner, Arnika K.; Willenborg, Christina; Böhm, Bernhard O.; Dobnig, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Meinitzer, Andreas; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Pilz, Stefan; Renner, Wilfried; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Winkler, Karl; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noel; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Dandona, Sonny; Jarinova, Olga; Qu, Liming; Wilensky, Robert; Matthai, William; Hakonarson, Hakon H.; Devaney, Joe; Burnett, Mary Susan; Pichard, Augusto D.; Kent, Kenneth M.; Satler, Lowell; Lindsay, Joseph M.; Waksman, Ron; Knouff, Christopher W.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Walker, Max C.; Epstein, Stephen E.; Rader, Daniel J.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Wright, Benjamin J.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Ball, Stephen G.; Loehr, Laura R.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Benjamin, Emelia; Haritunians, Talin; Couper, David; Murabito, Joanne; Wang, Ying A.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Chang, Patricia P.; Willerson, James T.; Felix, Stephan B.; Watzinger, Norbert; Aragam, Jayashri; Zweiker, Robert; Lind, Lars; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Greiser, Karin Halina; Deckers, Jaap W.; Stritzke, Jan; Ingelsson, Erik; Kullo, Iftikhar; Haerting, Johannes; Reffelmann, Thorsten; Redfield, Margaret M.; Werdan, Karl; Mitchell, Gary F.; Arnett, Donna K.; Gottdiener, John S.; Blettner, Maria; Friedrich, Nele; Kovacs, Peter; Wild, Philipp S.; Froguel, Philippe; Rettig, Rainer; Mägi, Reedik; Biffar, Reiner; Schmidt, Reinhold; Middelberg, Rita P. S.; Carroll, Robert J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Scott, Rodney J.; Katz, Ronit; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Wild, Sarah H.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Ulivi, Sheila; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Enroth, Stefan; Kloiber, Stefan; Trompet, Stella; Stengel, Benedicte; Hancock, Stephen J.; Turner, Stephen T.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Stracke, Sylvia; Harris, Tamara B.; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Lehtimäki, Terho; Illig, Thomas; Aspelund, Thor; Nikopensius, Tiit; Esko, Tonu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Gyllensten, Ulf; Völker, Uwe; Emilsson, Valur; Vitart, Veronique; Aalto, Ville; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chouraki, Vincent; Chen, Wei-Min; Igl, Wilmar; März, Winfried; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Liu, Yongmei; Snieder, Harold; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Parsa, Afshin; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Susztak, Katalin; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; de Boer, Ian H.; Böger, Carsten A.; Goessling, Wolfram; Chasman, Daniel I.; Köttgen, Anna; Kao, W. H. Linda; Fox, Caroline S.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, 19 associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show that identified genes at eGFR loci are enriched for expression in kidney tissues and in pathways relevant for kidney development and transmembrane transporter activity, kidney structure, and regulation of glucose metabolism. Chromatin state mapping and DNase I hypersensitivity analyses across adult tissues demonstrate preferential mapping of associated variants to regulatory regions in kidney but not extra-renal tissues. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of eGFR are mediated largely through direct effects within the kidney and highlight important cell types and biological pathways. PMID:26831199

  7. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (p<0.05) occurred when 0.5 mm veneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness. PMID:27007354

  8. Cure and physical properties of natural rubber and epoxidized natural rubber compounds using various types of accelerators

    Klinpituksa, P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cure characteristics and tear properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-33 and natural rubber were studied. Three types of accelerators, namely 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT, 2-morpholinothiobenzothiazole (MBS and N-tert-butyl-2-benzothiazyl sulphenamide (TBBS were used in this work. The conventional valcanization (CV system was used. Cure characteristics were determined using a Monsanto Oscillating Disk Rheometer (ODR 2000 at 150ºC. Also, a systematic study of tear strength was carried out before and after ageing at 70ºC for 72 h. A Hounsfield tensometer (Model H10KS operating at 500 mm/min was used to determine the tear strength using standard angle test pieces. The results indicated that scorch time and cure time of natural rubber are greater than those of ENR-33 compounds. However, the contrary was observed for the minimum and maximum torques and the torque differences. The observation is attributed to the activation of a double bond by the adjacent epoxide group in ENR-33. Furthermore, we found that the change in tear strength of aged ENR sample was greater than that of NR vulcanizates.

  9. Constraining cosmic deceleration-acceleration transition with type Ia supernova, BAO/CMB and H(z) data

    Santos, Marcelo Vargas dos; Waga, Ioav

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the kink-like parametrization of the deceleration parameter ($q(z)$) \\cite{ishida08}, which considers a transition, at redshift $z_t$, from cosmic deceleration to acceleration. In this parametrization the initial ($z \\gg z_t$) value of the q-parameter is $q_i$, its final ($z=-1$) value is $q_f$ and the duration of the transition is parametrized by $\\tau$. We obtain constraints on the free parameters of the model using recent data from type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the Hubble parameter (H(z)). The use of H(z) data introduces an explicit dependence of the combined likelihood on the present value of the Hubble parameter ($H_0$), allowing us to explore the influence of different priors when marginalizing over this parameter. We also study the importance of the CMB information in the results by considering data from WMAP7, WMAP9 (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe - 7 and 9 years) and the Planck satellite. Assuming a flat space ge...

  10. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1974--1977. [Planning for use for radiotherapy and as radiation source for diagnostic radiography

    Elam, S. (ed.)

    1977-04-01

    The Bevalac, a versatile high-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex, has been in operation for less than two years. A major purpose for which the Bevalac was constructed was to explore the possibility of heavy-ion teams for therapy for certain forms of cancer. Significant progress has been made in this direction. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the advantages that these and other accelerated particles offer, and heavy ions have been included in a long-term plan for particle therapy that will assess by means of controlled therapeutic tests the value of various modalities. Since accelerated heavy ions became available, the possibility of other contributions, not planned, became apparent. We are developig a new diagnostic method known as heavy-ion radiography that has greatly increased sensitivity for soft-tissue detail and that may become a powerful tool for localizing early tumors and metastases. We have discovered that radioactive beams are formed from fragmentation of stable deflected beams. Use of these autoradioactive beams is just beginning; however, we know that these beams will be helpful in localizing the region in the body where therapy is being delivered. In addition, it has been demonstrated that instant implantation of the radioactive beam allows direct measurements of blood perfusion rates in inaccessible parts of the body, and such a technique may become a new tool for the study of fast hot atom reactions in biochemistry, tracer biology and nuclear medicine. The Bevalac will also be useful for the continuation of previously developed methods for the control of acromegaly, Cushing's disease and, on a research basis, advanced diabetes mellitus with vascular disease. The ability to make small bloodless lesions in the brain and elsewhere with heavy-ion beams has great potential for nervous-system studies and perhaps later for radioneurosurgery.

  11. Acute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II Diabetes

    Abstract for Society of Toxicology, March 22-25, 2015, San Diego, CAAcute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II DiabetesS.J. Snow1,3, D. Miller2, V. Bass2, M. Schladweiler3, A. Ledbetter3, J. Richards3, C...

  12. Low-dose neutron dose response of zebrafish embryos obtained from the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility

    The dose response of embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, irradiated at 5 h post fertilization (hpf) by 2-MeV neutrons with ≤100 mGy was determined. The neutron irradiations were made at the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. A total of 10 neutron doses ranging from 0.6 to 100 mGy were employed (with a gamma-ray contribution of 14% to the total dose), and the biological effects were studied through quantification of apoptosis at 25 hpf. The responses for neutron doses of 10, 20, 25, and 50 mGy approximately fitted on a straight line, while those for neutron doses of 0.6, 1 and 2.5 mGy exhibited neutron hormetic effects. As such, hormetic responses were generically developed by different kinds of ionizing radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) values. The responses for neutron doses of 70 and 100 mGy were significantly below the lower 95% confidence band of the best-fit line, which strongly suggested the presence of gamma-ray hormesis. - Highlights: • Neutron dose response was determined for embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. • Neutron doses of 0.6, 1 and 2.5 mGy led to neutron hormetic effects. • Neutron doses of 70 and 100 mGy accompanied by gamma rays led to gamma-ray hormesis

  13. High intensity hadron accelerators

    In this paper we give an introductory discussion of high intensity hadron accelerators with special emphasis on the high intensity feature. The topics selected for this discussion are: Types of acclerator - The principal actions of an accelerator are to confine and to accelerate a particle beam. Focusing - This is a discussion of the confinement of single particles. Intensity limitations - These are related to confinement of intense beams of particles. Power economics - Considerations related to acceleration of intense beams of particles. Heavy ion kinematics - The adaptation of accelerators to accelerate all types of heavy ions

  14. Comparison of biological activities of human antithrombins with high-mannose or complex-type nonfucosylated N-linked oligosaccharides.

    Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Kanda, Yutaka; Takayama, Makoto; Hashimoto, Akitoshi; Sugihara, Tsutomu; Satoh-Kubota, Ai; Suzuki-Takanami, Eri; Yano, Keiichi; Iida, Shigeru; Satoh, Mitsuo

    2016-05-01

    The structure of the N-linked oligosaccharides attached to antithrombin (AT) has been shown to affect its anticoagulant activity and pharmacokinetics. Human AT has biantennary complex-type oligosaccharides with the unique feature of lacking a core fucose, which affects its biological activities by changing its heparin-binding affinity. In human plasma, AT circulates as a mixture of the α-form bearing four oligosaccharides and the β-form lacking an oligosaccharide at Asn135. However, it remains unclear how the immature high-mannose-type oligosaccharides produced by mammalian cells affect biological activities of AT. Here, we succeeded in directly comparing the activities between the high-mannose and complex types. Interestingly, although there were no substantial differences in thrombin inhibitory activity, the high-mannose type showed higher heparin-binding affinity. The anticoagulant activities were increased by heparin and correlated with the heparin-binding affinity, resulting in the strongest anticoagulant activity being displayed in the β-form with the high-mannose type. In pharmacokinetic profiling, the high-mannose type showed a much shorter plasma half-life than the complex type. The β-form was found to have a prolonged plasma half-life compared with the α-form for the high-mannose type; conversely, the α-form showed a longer half-life than the β-form for the complex-type. The present study highlights that AT physiological activities are strictly controlled not only by a core fucose at the reducing end but also by the high-mannose-type structures at the nonreducing end. The β-form with the immature high-mannose type appears to function as a more potent anticoagulant than the AT typically found in human plasma, once it emerges in the blood. PMID:26747427

  15. The Influence of Shielding on the Biological Effectiveness of Accelerated Particles for the Induction of Chromosome Damage

    Goeorge, Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Chromosome damage was assessed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes after in vitro exposure to the either Si-28 (490 or 600 MeV/n), Ti-48 (1000 MeV/n), or Fe-56 (600, 1000, or 5000 MeV/n). LET values for these ions ranged from 51 to 184 keV/micron and doses ranged from 10 to 200 cGy. The effect of either aluminum or polyethylene shielding on the induction of chromosome aberrations was investigated for each ion. Chromosome exchanges were measured using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome probes in cells collected at G2 and mitosis in first division post irradiation after chromosomes were prematurely condensed using calyculin-A. The yield of chromosomal aberrations increased linearly with dose and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the primary beams, estimated from the initial slope of the dose response curve for total chromosomal exchanges with respect to gamma-rays, ranged from 9 to 35. The RBE values increased with LET, reaching a maximum for the 600 MeV/n Fe ions with LET of 184 keV/micron. When the LET of the primary beam was below approximately 100 keV/micron, the addition of shielding material increased the effectiveness per unit dose. Whereas shielding decreased the effectiveness per unit dose when the LET of primary beams was higher than 100 keV/micron. The yield of aberrations correlated with the dose-average LET of the beam after traversal through the shielding.

  16. Constraining the cosmic deceleration-acceleration transition with type Ia supernova, BAO/CMB and H(z) data

    Vargas dos Santos, M.; Reis, R. R. R.; Waga, I.

    2016-02-01

    We revisit the kink-like parametrization of the deceleration parameter q(z) [1], which considers a transition, at redshift zt, from cosmic deceleration to acceleration. In this parametrization the initial, at z gg zt, value of the q-parameter is qi, its final, z=-1, value is qf and the duration of the transition is parametrized by τ. By assuming a flat space geometry we obtain constraints on the free parameters of the model using recent data from type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the Hubble parameter H(z). The use of H(z) data introduces an explicit dependence of the combined likelihood on the present value of the Hubble parameter H0, allowing us to explore the influence of different priors when marginalizing over this parameter. We also study the importance of the CMB information in the results by considering data from WMAP7, WMAP9 (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe—7 and 9 years) and Planck 2015. We show that the contours and best fit do not depend much on the different CMB data used and that the considered new BAO data is responsible for most of the improvement in the results. Assuming a flat space geometry, qi=1/2 and expressing the present value of the deceleration parameter q0 as a function of the other three free parameters, we obtain zt=0.67+0.10-0.08, τ=0.26+0.14-0.10 and q0=-0.48+0.11-0.13, at 68% of confidence level, with an uniform prior over H0. If in addition we fix qf=-1, as in flat ΛCDM, DGP and Chaplygin quartessence that are special models described by our parametrization, we get zt=0.66+0.03-0.04, τ=0.33+0.04-0.04 and q0=-0.54+0.05-0.07, in excellent agreement with flat ΛCDM for which τ=1/3. We also obtain for flat wCDM, another dark energy model described by our parametrization, the constraint on the equation of state parameter -1.22 confidence level.

  17. Mimic-biology research on self-recovering mechanism of cavity-type crack

    袁朝龙; 钟约先; 马庆贤; 曹起骧

    2002-01-01

    Modeling method was used to research the recovering law of inner cavity-type cracks during the processes of high-temperature plastic deformation. It was found that the self-recovering of cavity-type fault was similar to the self-healing of wound of skin and fracture. The self-recovering process of cavity-type fault was investigated according to the rule of self-healing of wound in human body. The recrystallization mechanism of self-recovering of cavity-type fault was discovered. A new method is presented to study the self-recovering mechanism of cavity-type cracks.

  18. Activated type I TGFbeta receptor (Alk5) kinase confers enhancedsurvival to mammary epithelial cells and accelerates mammary tumorprogression

    Muraoka-Cook, Rebecca S.; Shin, Incheol; Yi, Jae Youn; Easterly,Evangeline; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Yingling, Jonathan M.; Zent, Roy; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2005-01-02

    The transforming growth factor-betas (TGF{beta}s) are members of a large superfamily of pleiotropic cytokines that also includes the activins and the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Members of the TGF{beta} family regulate complex physiological processes such cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, motility, and cell death, among others (Massague, 1998). Dysregulation of TGF{beta} signaling contributes to several pathological processes including cancer, fibrosis, and auto-immune disorders (Massague et al., 2000). The TGF{beta}s elicit their biological effects by binding to type II and type I transmembrane receptor serine-threonine kinases (T{beta}RII and T{beta}RI) which, in turn, phosphorylated Smad 2 and Smad 3. Phosphorylated Smad 2/3 associate with Smad 4 and, as a heteromeric complex, translocate to the nucleus where they regulate gene transcription. The inhibitory Smad7 down regulates TGF{beta} signaling by binding to activated T{beta}RI and interfering with its ability to phosphorylate Smad 2/3 (Derynck and Zhang, 2003; Shi and Massague, 2003). Signaling is also regulated by Smad proteolysis. TGF{beta} receptor-mediated activation results in multi-ubiquitination of Smad 2 in the nucleus and subsequent degradation of Smad 2 by the proteasome (Lo and Massague, 1999). Activation of TGF{beta} receptors also induces mobilization of a Smad 7-Smurf complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; this complex recognizes the activated receptors and mediates their ubiquitination and internalization via caveolin-rich vesicles, leading to termination of TGF{beta} signaling (Di Guglielmo et al., 2003). Other signal transducers/pathways have been implicated in TGF{beta} actions. These include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein phosphatase PP2A, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and the family of Rho GTPases [reviewed in

  19. Boolean network model for GPR142 against Type 2 diabetes and relative dynamic change ratio analysis using systems and biological circuits approach

    Kaushik, Aman Chandra; Sahi, Shakti

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology addresses challenges in the analysis of genomics data, especially for complex genes and protein interactions using Meta data approach on various signaling pathways. In this paper, we report systems biology and biological circuits approach to construct pathway and identify early gene and protein interactions for predicting GPR142 responses in Type 2 diabetes. The information regarding genes, proteins and other molecules involved in Type 2 diabetes were retrieved from literature...

  20. Which Type of Inquiry Project Do High School Biology Students Prefer: Open or Guided?

    Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal

    2012-01-01

    In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant…

  1. Hemispherical Brillouin zone imaging of a diamond-type biological photonic crystal

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The brilliant structural body colours of many animals are created by three-dimensional biological photonic crystals that act as wavelength-specific reflectors. Here, we report a study on the vividly coloured scales of the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis. Electron microscopy identified the chitin

  2. An Introductory Biology Lab that Uses Enzyme Histochemistry to Teach Students about Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types

    Sweeney, Lauren J.; Brodfuehrer, Peter D.; Raughley, Beth L.

    2004-01-01

    One important goal of introductory biology laboratory experiences is to engage students directly in all steps in the process of scientific discovery. Even when laboratory experiences are built on principles discussed in the classroom, students often do not adequately apply this background to interpretation of results they obtain in lab. This…

  3. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: I. Estimation of model parameters.

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    Breed parameters for a computer model that simulated differences in the composition of empty-body gain of beef cattle, resulting from differences in postweaning level of nutrition that are not associated with empty BW, were estimated for 17 biological types of cattle (steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds [Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise] mated to Hereford and Angus dams). One value for the maximum fractional growth rate of fat-free matter (KMAX) was estimated and used across all breed types. Mature fat-free matter (FFMmat) was estimated from data on mature cows for each of the 17 breed types. Breed type values for a fattening parameter (THETA) were estimated from growth and composition data at slaughter on steers of the 17 breed types, using the previously estimated constant KMAX and breed values for FFMmat. For each breed type, THETA values were unique for given values of KMAX, FFMmat, and composition at slaughter. The results showed that THETA was most sensitive to KMAX and had similar sensitivity to FFMmat and composition at slaughter. Values for THETA were most sensitive for breed types with large THETA values (Chianina, Charolais, and Limousin crossbred steers) and least sensitive for breed types with small THETA values (purebred Angus, crossbred Jersey, and Red Poll steers).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7607999

  4. Hemispherical Brillouin zone imaging of a diamond-type biological photonic crystal

    Wilts, Bodo D; MICHIELSEN, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2011-01-01

    The brilliant structural body colours of many animals are created by three-dimensional biological photonic crystals that act as wavelength-specific reflectors. Here, we report a study on the vividly coloured scales of the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis. Electron microscopy identified the chitin and air assemblies inside the scales as domains of a single-network diamond (Fd3m) photonic crystal. We visualized the topology of the first Brillouin zone (FBZ) by imaging scatterometry, and we re...

  5. Grades and Withdrawal Rates in Cell Biology and Genetics Based upon Institution Type for General Biology and Implications for Transfer Articulation Agreements

    Regier, Kimberly Fayette

    2016-01-01

    General biology courses (for majors) are often transferred from one institution to another. These courses must prepare students for upper division courses in biology. In Colorado, a Biology Transfer Articulation Agreement that includes general biology has been created across the state. An evaluation was conducted of course grades in two upper…

  6. The Significance of Pneumococcal Type Transformation in the History of Molecular Biology and Genetics.

    Baxby, Derrick

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a brief review of the historical importance and knowledge of pneumonia which emphasizes the importance of type transformation. The results of a survey of textbook coverage of this topic are given. The significance of type transformations are discussed. (CW)

  7. A new type of power energy for accelerating chemical reactions: the nature of a microwave-driving force for accelerating chemical reactions.

    Zhou, Jicheng; Xu, Wentao; You, Zhimin; Wang, Zhe; Luo, Yushang; Gao, Lingfei; Yin, Cheng; Peng, Renjie; Lan, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    The use of microwave (MW) irradiation to increase the rate of chemical reactions has attracted much attention recently in nearly all fields of chemistry due to substantial enhancements in reaction rates. However, the intrinsic nature of the effects of MW irradiation on chemical reactions remains unclear. Herein, the highly effective conversion of NO and decomposition of H2S via MW catalysis were investigated. The temperature was decreased by several hundred degrees centigrade. Moreover, the apparent activation energy (Ea') decreased substantially under MW irradiation. Importantly, for the first time, a model of the interactions between microwave electromagnetic waves and molecules is proposed to elucidate the intrinsic reason for the reduction in the Ea' under MW irradiation, and a formula for the quantitative estimation of the decrease in the Ea' was determined. MW irradiation energy was partially transformed to reduce the Ea', and MW irradiation is a new type of power energy for speeding up chemical reactions. The effect of MW irradiation on chemical reactions was determined. Our findings challenge both the classical view of MW irradiation as only a heating method and the controversial MW non-thermal effect and open a promising avenue for the development of novel MW catalytic reaction technology. PMID:27118640

  8. A new type of power energy for accelerating chemical reactions: the nature of a microwave-driving force for accelerating chemical reactions

    Zhou, Jicheng; Xu, Wentao; You, Zhimin; Wang, Zhe; Luo, Yushang; Gao, Lingfei; Yin, Cheng; Peng, Renjie; Lan, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    The use of microwave (MW) irradiation to increase the rate of chemical reactions has attracted much attention recently in nearly all fields of chemistry due to substantial enhancements in reaction rates. However, the intrinsic nature of the effects of MW irradiation on chemical reactions remains unclear. Herein, the highly effective conversion of NO and decomposition of H2S via MW catalysis were investigated. The temperature was decreased by several hundred degrees centigrade. Moreover, the apparent activation energy (Ea’) decreased substantially under MW irradiation. Importantly, for the first time, a model of the interactions between microwave electromagnetic waves and molecules is proposed to elucidate the intrinsic reason for the reduction in the Ea’ under MW irradiation, and a formula for the quantitative estimation of the decrease in the Ea’ was determined. MW irradiation energy was partially transformed to reduce the Ea’, and MW irradiation is a new type of power energy for speeding up chemical reactions. The effect of MW irradiation on chemical reactions was determined. Our findings challenge both the classical view of MW irradiation as only a heating method and the controversial MW non-thermal effect and open a promising avenue for the development of novel MW catalytic reaction technology. PMID:27118640

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-α-accelerated degradation of type I collagen in human skin is associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 ex vivo

    Ågren, Magnus S; Schnabel, Reinhild; Christensen, Lise H;

    2015-01-01

    absence or presence of the nonselective MMP inhibitor GM6001 for 8 days. The basal culture conditions promoted type I collagen catabolism that was accelerated by TNF-α (p<0.005) and accomplished by MMPs (p<0.005). Levels of the collagenases MMP-8 and MMP-13 were insignificant and neither MMP-2 nor MMP-14...... activator MMP-3. Type I collagen degradation correlated with MMP-3 tissue levels (rs=0.68, p<0.05) and was attenuated with selective MMP-3 inhibitor. Type I collagen formation was down-regulated in cultured compared with native skin explants but was not reduced further by TNF-α. TNF-α had no significant...... effect on epidermal apoptosis. Our data indicate that TNF-α augments collagenolytic activity of MMP-1, possibly through up-regulation of MMP-3 leading to gradual loss of type I collagen in human skin....

  10. Biological characteristics and mating type distribution of Phytophthora capsici from China.

    Du, Y; Gong, Z-H; Liu, G-Z; Chai, G-X; Li, C

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici from seven provinces of China were investigated for their mating type, hyphal growth, zoospore production, and virulence. All of the morphological characteristics and the results of polymerase chain reaction confirmed that these isolates were indeed Phytophthora capsici. The test of mating type showed that the mating types of 19 representative isolates from China varied. The hyphal growth and the amount of zoospores produced from these isolates differed and there was no evident relationship between them, which indicated the existence of genetic diversity among the isolates in China. Also, the isolates that were more virulent on the pepper cultivars that we checked produced more zoospores than other isolates. PMID:24535866

  11. Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine experience

    Hajjeh, Rana

    2011-01-01

    Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the intr...

  12. Systems Biology of Skeletal Muscle: Fiber Type as an Organizing Principle

    Greising, Sarah M.; Heather M Gransee; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle force generation and contraction are fundamental to countless aspects of human life. The complexity of skeletal muscle physiology is simplified by fiber type classification where differences are observed from neuromuscular transmission to release of intracellular Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the resulting recruitment and cycling of cross-bridges. This review uses fiber type classification as an organizing and simplifying principle to explore the complex interaction...

  13. Melanins: Skin Pigments and Much More—Types, Structural Models, Biological Functions, and Formation Routes

    Solano, F.

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a general view of all types of melanin in all types of organisms. Melanin is frequently considered just an animal cutaneous pigment and is treated separately from similar fungal or bacterial pigments. Similarities concerning the phenol precursors and common patterns in the formation routes are discussed. All melanins are formed in a first enzymatically-controlled phase, generally a phenolase, and a second phase characterized by an uncontrolled polymerization of the oxidiz...

  14. Reviews of accelerator science and technology

    Chou, Weiren

    2008-01-01

    Particle accelerators are a major invention of the 20th century. In the last eight decades, they have evolved enormously and have fundamentally changed the way we live, think and work. Accelerators are the most powerful microscopes for viewing the tiniest inner structure of cells, genes, molecules, atoms and their constituents such as protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and quarks. This opens up a whole new world for materials science, chemistry and molecular biology.Accelerators with megawatt beam power may ultimately solve a critical problem faced by our society, namely, the treatment of nuclear waste and the supply of an alternative type of energy. There are also tens of thousands of small accelerators all over the world. They are used every day for medical imaging, cancer therapy, radioisotope production, high-density chip-making, mass spectrometry, cargo x-ray/gamma-ray imaging, detection of explosives and illicit drugs, and weapons. This volume provides a comprehensive review of this driving and fas...

  15. Effects of ractopamine supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers differing in biological type.

    Gruber, S L; Tatum, J D; Engle, T E; Mitchell, M A; Laudert, S B; Schroeder, A L; Platter, W J

    2007-07-01

    Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers differing in biological type were investigated using British, Continental crossbred, and Brahman crossbred calf-fed steers (n = 420). Steers of each type were weighed at reimplantation [British, mean BW = 375 kg (SD = 38 kg); Continental crossbred, mean BW = 379 kg (SD = 42 kg); Brahman crossbred, mean BW = 340 (SD = 32 kg)] and sorted into 7 BW blocks, each block consisting of 2 pens (10 steers per pen) per type. Pens within a block x type subclass were randomly assigned to RAC treatments (0 or 200 mg x steer(-1) x d(-1) fed during the final 28 d of the finishing period). The type x RAC interaction did not affect (P > 0.05) any of the traits evaluated in this study. Feeding RAC improved (P = 0.001) ADG (1.50 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.09 kg) and G:F (0.145 vs. 0.170 +/- 0.005), but did not affect (P = 0.48) DMI of steers. Dressing percentage, adjusted fat thickness, KPH percentage, and yield grade were not affected by RAC supplementation. Carcasses of steers fed RAC had heavier (P = 0.01) HCW (359 vs. 365 +/- 4.9 kg), larger (P = 0.046) LM areas (81.7 vs. 84.0 +/- 1.1 cm(2)), and tended (P = 0.07) to have lower mean marbling scores (487 vs. 477 +/- 5.2; Slight = 400, Small = 500) than did carcasses of control steers. Among the 3 biological types, Brahman crossbred steers had the lowest DMI and produced the lightest-weight carcasses that had the lowest mean marbling score (P Brahman crossbred steers, British steers produced carcasses with the greatest (P = 0.001) mean marbling scores. Continental crossbred steers had the heaviest BW and greatest dressing percentages and produced the heaviest carcasses with the largest LM areas (P Brahman crossbred steers. In the present study, 28 d of supplementation with RAC at a dosage rate of 200 mg x steer(-1) x d(-1) elicited consistent responses in growth performance and carcass traits among 3 diverse biological

  16. Particle acceleration

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  17. Accelerator design

    The feasibility of constructing a TeV region electron-positron linear collider in Japan is discussed. The design target of the collider is given as follows: Energy, 1 TeV + 1 TeV; luminosity, 1032-1033/cm2/s; total length, 25km; electric power, 250MW; energy dispersion, 1%-10%; the start of the first experiment, early 1990s. For realizing the above target, the following research and developmental works are necessary. (a) Development of an acceleration tube with short filling time and high shunt resistance. (b) Short pulse microwave source with high peak power. (c) High current, single bunch linac. (d) Beam dynamics. As for the acceleration tube, some possibility is considered: For example, the use of DAW (Disk and Washer) which is being developed for TRISTAN as a traveling-wave tube; and the Jungle Gym-type acceleration tube. As a promising candidate for the microwave source, the Lasertron has been studied. The total cost of the collider construction is estimated to be about 310 billion yen, of which 120 billion yen is for the tunnel and buildings, and 190 billion yen for the accelerator facilities. The operation cost is estimated to be about 3 billion yen per month. (Aoki, K.)

  18. Obesity and type 2 diabetes : a systems biology perspective of a molecular mechanism

    Ciapaite, J.

    2007-01-01

    People who have excess body weight have a higher risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, because fat interferes with the body's ability to make and use insulin. Insulin, a hormone released by pancreatic beta-cells, is needed to move diet-derived glucose from blood into fat and muscle cells

  19. New Insight on Human Type 1 Diabetes Biology: nPOD and nPOD-Transplantation

    Pugliese, Alberto; Vendrame, Francesco; Reijonen, Helena; Atkinson, Mark A.; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Burke, George W

    2014-01-01

    The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (JDRF nPOD) was established to obtain human pancreata and other tissues from organ donors with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in support of research focused on disease pathogenesis. Since 2007, nPOD has recovered tissues from over 100 T1D donors and distributed specimens to approximately 130 projects led by investigators worldwide. More recently, nPOD established a programmatic expansion that further lin...

  20. Biological and molecular variability of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 isolates from The Gambia.

    Schulz, T F; Whitby, D; Hoad, J G; Corrah, T; Whittle, H.; Weiss, R A

    1990-01-01

    Seven new human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) isolates (CBL-20 to CBL-26) from The Gambia were characterized. Their cytopathogenicity and growth in vitro correlated with the severity of clinical disease. CBL-22 was highly sensitive to neutralization by HIV-2 sera and was cross-neutralized by some HIV-1 sera. These findings, the differing sizes of envelope glycoproteins of individual isolates, and the sequence analysis of amplified regions of the viral DNAs show that these HIV-2 isolat...

  1. Biology of Beige Adipocyte and Possible Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity.

    Lizcano, Fernando; Vargas, Diana

    2016-01-01

    All mammals own two main forms of fat. The classical white adipose tissue builds up energy in the form of triglycerides and is useful for preventing fatigue during periods of low caloric intake and the brown adipose tissue instead of inducing fat accumulation can produce energy as heat. Since adult humans possess significant amounts of active brown fat depots and their mass inversely correlates with adiposity, brown fat might play an important role in human obesity and energy homeostasis. New evidence suggests two types of thermogenic adipocytes with distinct developmental and anatomical features: classical brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes. Beige adipocyte has recently attracted special interest because of its ability to dissipate energy and the possible ability to differentiate itself from white adipocytes. Importantly, adult human brown adipocyte appears to be mainly composed of beige-like adipocytes, making this cell type an attractive therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related diseases. Because many epigenetic changes can affect beige adipocyte differentiation, the knowledge of the circumstances that affect the development of beige adipocyte cells may be important for therapeutic strategies. In this review we discuss some recent observations arising from the great physiological capacity of these cells and their possible role as ways to treat obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:27528872

  2. Lewis acid-base interactions between platinum(ii) diaryl complexes and bis(perfluorophenyl)zinc: strongly accelerated reductive elimination induced by a Z-type ligand.

    Liberman-Martin, Allegra L; Levine, Daniel S; Ziegler, Micah S; Bergman, Robert G; Tilley, T Don

    2016-05-19

    Z-type interactions between bis(perfluorophenyl)zinc and platinum(ii) diaryl complexes supported by 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), and bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (dmpe) ligands are reported. In the solid state, the nature of the Pt-Zn interaction depends on the bidentate ligand; the phen-supported complex exhibits an unsupported Pt-Zn bond, while the dmpe derivative features additional bridging aryl interactions. A strongly accelerated rate of reductive elimination is observed for phen- and bpy-supported complexes, while aryl exchange between Pt and Zn is observed for the dmpe complex. PMID:27161155

  3. An improved lectin-based method for the detection of mucin-type O-glycans in biological samples.

    Lee, Cheng-Siang; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Bhavanandan, Veer P; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2013-06-21

    Mucins and mucin-type glycoproteins, collectively referred to as mucin-type O-glycans, are implicated in many important biological functions and pathological conditions, including malignancy. Presently, there is no reliable method to measure the total mucin-type O-glycans of a sample, which may contain one or more of these macromolecules of unknown structures. We report the development of an improved microassay that is based on the binding of lectins to the unique and constant GalNAc-Ser/Thr structural feature of mucin-type O-glycans. Since the sugar-amino acid linkage in the mucin-type O-glycans is invariably cryptic, we first chemically removed the heterogeneous peripheral and core saccharides of model glycoconjugates before examining for their interactions using an enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA). Desialylation of the model glycoconjugates led to maximal binding of the lectins but additional treatments such as Smith degradation did not result in increased binding. Of the lectins tested for their ability to probe the desialylated O-glycans, jacalin showed the highest sensitivity followed by champedak galactose binding (CGB) lectin and Vicia villosa agglutinin. Further improvement in the sensitivity of ELLA was achieved by using microtiter plates that were pre-coated with the CGB lectin, which increased the specificity of the assay to mucin-type O-glycans. Finally, the applicability of the developed sandwich ELLA to crude samples was demonstrated by estimating trace quantities of the mucin-type O-glycans in the human serum. PMID:23665615

  4. Which Type of Inquiry Project Do High School Biology Students Prefer: Open or Guided?

    Sadeh, Irit; Zion, Michal

    2012-10-01

    In teaching inquiry to high school students, educators differ on which method of teaching inquiry is more effective: Guided or open inquiry? This paper examines the influence of these two different inquiry learning approaches on the attitudes of Israeli high school biology students toward their inquiry project. The results showed significant differences between the two groups: Open inquiry students were more satisfied and felt they gained benefits from implementing the project to a greater extent than guided inquiry students. On the other hand, regarding documentation throughout the project, guided inquiry students believed that they conducted more documentation, as compared to their open inquiry peers. No significant differences were found regarding `the investment of time', but significant differences were found in the time invested and difficulties which arose concerning the different stages of the inquiry process: Open inquiry students believed they spent more time in the first stages of the project, while guided inquiry students believed they spent more time in writing the final paper. In addition, other differences were found: Open inquiry students felt more involved in their project, and felt a greater sense of cooperation with others, in comparison to guided inquiry students. These findings may help teachers who hesitate to teach open inquiry to implement this method of inquiry; or at least provide their students with the opportunity to be more involved in inquiry projects, and ultimately provide their students with more autonomy, high-order thinking, and a deeper understanding in performing science.

  5. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  6. Floristic composition and diversity of three forest types at Caparu, Vaupus Biological Station

    The Amazon forests are among the most diverse ecosystems in the planet. Although some countries of the Amazon Basin have a fairly complete record of their plants, in Colombia much effort is still needed to have a good idea of the plant diversity patterns and floristic composition. Three one-hectare vegetation-land plots (DBH? 10 cm) were established in Vaupes, Colombia, regarding three types of forest: Colina, Terraza (Terra Firme forests) and Igapo (periodically flooded). Plant diversity was estimated and floristic composition was described classifying the most important families and species. The highest diversity was found in Colina (Fisher's ? = 160.3), followed by Terraza (? = 78.4) and Igapo (? = 44.7). Fabaceae s.l. was the most important family of all plots, but in Terraza forest the importance of Arecaceae was similar to that of Fabaceae. Floristic composition was also remarkably different amongst the three forest types, especially Igapo, which was the most dissimilar. However, both Terra Firme forests showed strong floristic differences, which may be caused by differences in abiotic factors (i.e. soils). High plant diversity reported in this study agrees with the hypothesis that central and western Amazon forests are the most diverse of the Amazon Basin.

  7. Biological evaluation and molecular modelling study of thiosemicarbazide derivatives as bacterial type IIA topoisomerases inhibitors.

    Paneth, Agata; Stączek, Paweł; Plech, Tomasz; Strzelczyk, Aleksandra; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Wujec, Monika; Kuśmierz, Edyta; Kosikowska, Urszula; Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Paneth, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In the present article, we describe the inhibitory potency of nine thiosemicarbazide derivatives against bacterial type IIA topoisomerases, their antibacterial profile and molecular modelling evaluation. We found that one of the tested compounds, compound 7, significantly inhibits activity of Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase with an IC(50) below 15 μM. Besides, this compound displays antibacterial activity on reference Staphylococuss spp. and Enterococcus faecalis strains as well as clinical S. aureus isolates at non-cytotoxic concentrations in mammalian cells with MIC values ranging from 16 to 32 μg/mL thereby indicating, in some cases, equipotent or even more effective action than standard drugs such as vancomycin, ampicillin and nitrofurantoin. The computational studies showed that both molecular geometry and the electron density distribution have a great impact on antibacterial activity of thiosemicarbazide derivatives. PMID:25792505

  8. Perspectives of different type biological life support systems (BLSS) usage in space missions

    Bartsev, S. I.; Gitelson, J. I.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Mezhevikin, V. V.; Okhonin, V. A.

    1996-10-01

    In the paper an attempt is made to combine three important criteria of LSS comparison: minimum mass, maximum safety and maximum quality of life. Well-known types of BLSS were considered: with higher plant, higher plants and mushrooms, microalgae, and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. These BLSSs were compared in terms of "integrated" mass for the case of a vegetarian diet and a "normal" one (with animal proteins and fats). It was shown that the BLSS with higher plants and incineration of wastes becomes the best when the exploitation period is more than 1 yr. The dependence of higher plants' LSS structure on operation time was found. Comparison of BLSSs in terms of integral reliability (this criterion includes mass and quality of life criteria) for a lunar base scenario showed that BLSSs with higher plants are advantageous in reliability and comfort. This comparison was made for achieved level of technology of closing and for perspective one.

  9. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  10. Advanced Accelerator Applications in Medicine

    besides the original purpose on development of particle acceleratora as research tools in nuclear and high-energy physics, there are large variety of accelerators used in various fileds from fundamental research to industrial usesand applications chemistry, biology and medicine. Pratical accelators used in various field of medical applications since serveral decades. Even through, a large fraction of applications is emphasized on cancer therappy, the number of accelerators used in midicine for other diagnostics and treatments has increased steady over the years. Several types of accelerated particles are used including electron, proton, neutron and ions. Presently, relativistic electron beams and radiation from linear accelerators (linas) are widely used. A combination of positron emission tomography (PRT) and radiotherapy is an example of excellent invention early detection and treat of cancer tumors. The most developments for proton and heavy ion therapy as well as a modern boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are also great incoming effective systems. This talk will focus on developments of the accelrator systems as well as overview on biophysical properties and medical aspects of the diacnostics and treatments.

  11. RIKEN accelerator progress report, supplement

    The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, generally known as RIKEN, is originated from the direct ancestor of RIKEN founded in 1917. The first cyclotron in Japan was built in 1937, and used for the pioneering studies on nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry and radiation biology. A large cyclotron was added in 1944, but those were destroyed after the World War II. RIKEN was reorganized in 1958 as a nonprofit research institute. The cyclotron was completed in 1966 by the cooperation of RIKEN and Toshiba, and the first beam of 8 MeV protons was obtained on October 4, 1966. The cyclotron was shut down at the end of April, 1990, after 23 years of stable operation, having accomplished its glorious mission. The RIKEN 160 cm cyclotron as the first heavy ion accelerator in Japan was of a weak focusing type, and was designed to accelerate the ions from hydrogen to neon in a wide range of energy. The achievement in nuclear physics, the works as the pioneer facility for accelerator science in Japan and others are reported. A heavy ion accelerator 'RILAC' was completed in 1980, and has been in operation. (K.I.)

  12. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Thiophene-Based Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Radiotracers for PET Imaging

    Haider, Ahmed; Müller Herde, Adrienne; Slavik, Roger; Weber, Markus; Mugnaini, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Schibli, Roger; Mu, Linjing; Mensah Ametamey, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, our understanding of the endocannabinoid system has greatly improved due to the wealth of results obtained from exploratory studies. Currently, two cannabinoid receptor subtypes have been well-characterized. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) is widely expressed in the central nervous system, while the levels of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) in the brain and spinal cord of healthy individuals are relatively low. However, recent studies demonstrated a CB2 upregulation on activated microglia upon neuroinflammation, an indicator of neurodegeneration. Our research group aims to develop a suitable positron emission tomography (PET) tracer to visualize the CB2 receptor in patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. Herein we report two novel thiophene-based 11C-labeled PET ligands designated [11C]AAT-015 and [11C]AAT-778. The reference compounds were synthesized using Gewald reaction conditions to obtain the aminothiophene intermediates, followed by amide formation. Saponification of the esters provided their corresponding precursors. Binding affinity studies revealed Ki-values of 3.3 ± 0.5 nM (CB2) and 1.0 ± 0.2 μM (CB1) for AAT-015. AAT-778 showed similar Ki-values of 4.3 ± 0.7 nM (CB2) and 1.1 ± 0.1 μM (CB1). Radiosynthesis was carried out under basic conditions using [11C]iodomethane as methylating agent. After semi-preparative HPLC purification both radiolabeled compounds were obtained in 99% radiochemical purity and the radiochemical yields ranged from 12 to 37%. Specific activity was between 96 and 449 GBq/μmol for both tracers. In order to demonstrate CB2 specificity of [11C]AAT-015 and [11C]AAT-778, we carried out autoradiography studies using CB2-positive mouse/rat spleen tissues. The obtained results revealed unspecific binding in spleen tissue that was not blocked by an excess of CB2-specific ligand GW402833. For in vivo analysis, [11C]AAT-015 was administered to healthy rats via tail-vein injection

  13. Plasma accelerators

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  14. Synthesis, Biological Activity, and Apoptotic Properties of NO-Donor/Enmein-Type ent-Kauranoid Hybrids

    Li, Dahong; Hu, Xu; Han, Tong; Xu, Shengtao; Zhou, Tingting; Wang, Zhenzhong; Cheng, Keguang; Li, Zhanlin; Hua, Huiming; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we reported on a series of synthetic nitric oxide-releasing enmein-type diterpenoid hybrids (9a–i). All the target compounds showed potent antibacterial activity against selected Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and B. subtilis. The antiproliferative activity against human tumor K562, MGC-803, CaEs-17 and Bel-7402 cells, and human normal liver cells L-02 was tested and the structure activity relationships (SARs) were also concluded. Compounds 9b and 9d showed the best activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis with the same minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 4 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. The derivative 9f displayed IC50 values of 1.68, 1.11, 3.60 and 0.72 μM against the four cancer cell lines above and 18.80 μM against normal liver cells L-02; meanwhile, 9f also released a high level of NO at the time point of 60 min of 22.24 μmol/L. Furthermore, it was also found that 9f induced apoptosis via the mitochondria-related pathway and arrested cell cycle of Bel-7402 cells at S phase. These findings might be important to explore new chemical entities for the main causes of in-hospital mortality of S. aureus infection, combined with a solid tumor. PMID:27231893

  15. Investigation of the effect of culture type on biological hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes

    The bio-hydrogen generation potential of sugar industry wastes was investigated. In the first part of the study, acidogenic anaerobic culture was enriched from the mixed anaerobic culture (MAC) through acidification of glucose. In the second part of the study, glucose acclimated acidogenic seed was used, along with the indigenous microorganisms, MAC, 2-bromoethanesulfonate treated MAC and heat treated MAC. Two different COD levels (4.5 and 30 g/L COD) were investigated for each culture type. Reactors with initial COD concentration of 4.5 g/L had higher H2 yields (20.3-87.7 mL H2/g COD) than the reactors with initial COD concentration of 30 g/L (0.9-16.6 mL H2/g COD). The 2-bromoethanesulfonate and heat treatment of MAC inhibited the methanogenic activity, but did not increase the H2 production yield. The maximum H2 production (87.7 mL H2/g COD) and minimum methanogenic activity were observed in the unseeded reactor with 4.5 g/L of initial COD.

  16. Energy behaviour of neutrons generated by Witch-type distributed axi-symmetrical deuteron beams accelerated onto plane tritium targets

    This paper is an analytical study of the spatial dependency of the d-T neutron energy in the vicinity of a homogeneous tritium-occluded plane target. Close to the target, and along the path of incidence of axially symmetric deuteron beams, the transverse density of accelerated deuterons is assumed to be governed by a law approximated by the 'Witch' function. In particular circumstances, the elementary neutron emission process in non-dispersive media can be considered to be omni-directional (due consideration being paid to collision kinetics, depending upon mass and kinetic energy of particles involved in the nuclear collision, nuclear reaction energy, etc.). Consequently, analytical expressions can be considerably simplified. By applying the classical kinetic energy and momentum conservation laws to nuclear processes, a theoretical description is obtained, taking into account the exoergic character of d-T fusion reaction. A number of expressions for energetic prediction of the fast neutron field are proposed. The associated relations, involving elementary functions, can be investigated using a desk-top computer. Computationally tractable tools are of importance in the study of diverse situations such as induced reactions and activation analysis using 14 MeV neutron generators, investigations in health-physics, radiation dose measurements, nuclear medicine, damage effects, and simulation studies

  17. Sika Deer Antler Collagen Type I-Accelerated Osteogenesis in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells via the Smad Pathway

    Na Li; Min Zhang; Gregor P. C. Drummen; Yu Zhao; Yin Fen Tan; Su Luo; Xiao Bo Qu

    2016-01-01

    Deer antler preparations have been used to strengthen bones for centuries. It is particularly rich in collagen type I. This study aimed to unravel part of the purported bioremedial effect of Sika deer antler collagen type I (SDA-Col I) on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that SDA-Col I might be used to promote and regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. SDA-Col I might potentially provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of bone...

  18. The foxhole accelerating structure

    This report examines some properties of a new type of open accelerating structure. It consists of a series of rectangular cavities, which we call foxholes, joined by a beam channel. The power for accelerating the particles comes from an external radiation source and enters the cavities through their open upper surfaces. Analytic and computer calculations are presented showing that the foxhole is a suitable structure for accelerating relativistic electrons

  19. Sika Deer Antler Collagen Type I-Accelerated Osteogenesis in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells via the Smad Pathway.

    Li, Na; Zhang, Min; Drummen, Gregor P C; Zhao, Yu; Tan, Yin Fen; Luo, Su; Qu, Xiao Bo

    2016-01-01

    Deer antler preparations have been used to strengthen bones for centuries. It is particularly rich in collagen type I. This study aimed to unravel part of the purported bioremedial effect of Sika deer antler collagen type I (SDA-Col I) on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that SDA-Col I might be used to promote and regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. SDA-Col I might potentially provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of bone injury and/or in scaffolds for bone replacement strategies. Finally, isolation of SDA-Col I from deer antler represents a renewable, green, and uncomplicated way to obtain a biomedically valuable therapeutic. PMID:27066099

  20. Boolean network model for GPR142 against Type 2 diabetes and relative dynamic change ratio analysis using systems and biological circuits approach.

    Kaushik, Aman Chandra; Sahi, Shakti

    2015-06-01

    Systems biology addresses challenges in the analysis of genomics data, especially for complex genes and protein interactions using Meta data approach on various signaling pathways. In this paper, we report systems biology and biological circuits approach to construct pathway and identify early gene and protein interactions for predicting GPR142 responses in Type 2 diabetes. The information regarding genes, proteins and other molecules involved in Type 2 diabetes were retrieved from literature and kinetic simulation of GPR142 was carried out in order to determine the dynamic interactions. The major objective of this work was to design a GPR142 biochemical pathway using both systems biology as well as biological circuits synthetically. The term 'synthetically' refers to building biological circuits for cell signaling pathway especially for hormonal pathway disease. The focus of the paper is on logical components and logical circuits whereby using these applications users can create complex virtual circuits. Logic gates process represents only true or false and investigates whether biological regulatory circuits are active or inactive. The basic gates used are AND, NAND, OR, XOR and NOT gates and Integrated circuit composition of many such basic gates and some derived gates. Biological circuits may have a futuristic application in biomedical sciences which may involve placing a micro chip in human cells to modulate the down or up regulation of hormonal disease. PMID:25972988

  1. Mutant SOD1 in cell types other than motor neurons and oligodendrocytes accelerates onset of disease in ALS mice

    Yamanaka, Koji; Boillee, Severine; Roberts, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Michael L.; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Mikse, Oliver R.; Cleveland, Don W.; Lawrence S B Goldstein

    2008-01-01

    Dominant mutations in ubiquitously expressed superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause familial ALS by provoking premature death of adult motor neurons. To test whether mutant damage to cell types beyond motor neurons is required for the onset of motor neuron disease, we generated chimeric mice in which all motor neurons and oligodendrocytes expressed mutant SOD1 at a level sufficient to cause fatal, early-onset motor neuron disease when expressed ubiquitously, but did so in a cellular environment co...

  2. Clonal structure of Trypanosoma cruzi Colombian strain (biodeme Type III: biological, isoenzymic and histopathological analysis of seven isolated clones

    Camandaroba Edson Luiz Paes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The clonal structure of the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, biodeme Type III and zymodeme 1, was analyzed in order to characterize its populations and to establish its homogeneity or heterogeneity. Seven isolated clones presented the basic characteristics of Biodeme Type III, with the same patterns of parasitemic curves, tissue tropism to skeletal muscle and myocardium, high pathogenicity with extensive necrotic-inflammatory lesions from the 20th to 30th day of infection. The parental strain and its clones C1, C3, C4 and C6, determined the higher levels of parasitemia, 20 to 30 days of infection, with high mortality rate up to 30 days (79 to 100%; clones C2, C5 and C7 presented lower levels of parasitemia, with low mortality rates (7.6 to 23%. Isoenzymic patterns, characteristic of zymodeme 1, (Z1 were similar for the parental strain and its seven clones. Results point to a phenotypic homogeneity of the clones isolated from the Colombian strain and suggest the predominance of a principal clone, responsible for the biological behavior of the parental strain and clones.

  3. Racetrack linear accelerators

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  4. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Isakson, K.; Vessell, A.L.

    1994-07-01

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ``best alternatives``: Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases.

  5. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ''best alternatives'': Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases

  6. P13.26LINEAR ACCELERATOR RADIOSURGERY FOR THE TREATMENT OF NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE 2 RELATED VESTIBULAR SCHWANNOMAS

    Zemskova, O.; Chuvashova, O.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approaches in management of neurofibromatosis type 2 related vestibular schwannomas (VS-NF2) are still controversial. All modern treatment options are less effective in controlling VS-NF2 than sporadic VS. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can be an alternative to surgery for VS-NF2. We analyzed the efficacy and side effects of SRS in treatment of patients with VS-NF2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 till 2013 SRS was applied in twelve patients with 15 VS-NF2. Two patients were pre...

  7. US Particle Accelerators at Age 50.

    Wilson, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the development of accelerators over the past 50 years. Topics include: types of accelerators, including cyclotrons; sociology of accelerators (motivation, financing, construction, and use); impact of war; national laboratories; funding; applications; future projects; foreign projects; and international collaborations. (JN)

  8. Prediction for steatosis in type-2 diabetes: clinico-biological markers versus {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy

    Guiu, Boris; Krause, Denis; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Radiology, 2 boulevard Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Crevisy-Girod, Elodie [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolic Diseases, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Binquet, Christine [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Duvillard, Laurence [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); Masson, David [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Biochemistry, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Lepage, Come; Hamza, Samia; Minello, Anne; Hillon, Patrick [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Hepatology, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Verges, Bruno; Petit, Jean-Michel [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolic Diseases, BP 77908, Dijon (France)

    2012-04-15

    The SteatoTest, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) are clinico-biological scores of steatosis validated in general or selected populations. Serum adiponectin (s-adiponectin) and retinol binding protein 4 (s-RBP4) are adipokines that could predict liver steatosis. We investigated whether the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin and s-RBP4 could be valid predictors of liver steatosis in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. We enrolled 220 consecutive T2D patients. Reference standard was 3.0 T {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy (corrected for T1 and T2 decays). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Kappa statistic measures of agreement, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Median liver fat content was 91 mg triglyceride/g liver tissue (range: 0-392). ICCs among the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 and spectroscopy were low: 0.384, 0.281, 0.087, -0.297 and 0.048. Agreement between scores and spectroscopy was poor (Kappa range: 0.042-0.281). The areas under the ROC curves were low: 0.674, 0.647, 0.637, 0.616 and 0.540. S-adiponectin and s-RBP4 levels were strongly related to the presence of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.0037 and P = 0.004; Mann-Whitney). The SteatoTest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 are not valid predictors of steatosis in T2D patients. Clino-biological markers cannot replace {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy for the assessment of liver fat in this population. (orig.)

  9. Prediction for steatosis in type-2 diabetes: clinico-biological markers versus 1H-MR spectroscopy

    The SteatoTest, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) are clinico-biological scores of steatosis validated in general or selected populations. Serum adiponectin (s-adiponectin) and retinol binding protein 4 (s-RBP4) are adipokines that could predict liver steatosis. We investigated whether the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin and s-RBP4 could be valid predictors of liver steatosis in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. We enrolled 220 consecutive T2D patients. Reference standard was 3.0 T 1H-MR spectroscopy (corrected for T1 and T2 decays). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Kappa statistic measures of agreement, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Median liver fat content was 91 mg triglyceride/g liver tissue (range: 0-392). ICCs among the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 and spectroscopy were low: 0.384, 0.281, 0.087, -0.297 and 0.048. Agreement between scores and spectroscopy was poor (Kappa range: 0.042-0.281). The areas under the ROC curves were low: 0.674, 0.647, 0.637, 0.616 and 0.540. S-adiponectin and s-RBP4 levels were strongly related to the presence of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.0037 and P = 0.004; Mann-Whitney). The SteatoTest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 are not valid predictors of steatosis in T2D patients. Clino-biological markers cannot replace 1H-MR spectroscopy for the assessment of liver fat in this population. (orig.)

  10. Characterization Study of Accelerator for Application in Biotechnology

    The characterization of accelerator for application in biotechnology was studied. Accelerator is a machine to produce ion beam particles. Accelerator can be used for biotechnology experiments. Ion beam particles irradiation on the biological material will produced variabilities of genetics and induced mutations. In general, new varieties were found by hybridization method or mutation breeding method by gamma rays irradiation. Ion beam particles can be used for biological material irradiation to find variabilities of genetics and induced mutations. The high percentage of mutation rate and LET value by ion beam particles irradiation was found higher than by gamma rays irradiation. Ion beam particle irradiation can also be controlled and foewed to target in biological material. The characterization of accelerator needed for biotechnology experiments are types of accelerator (Tandem Van de Graff, AVF Cyclotron, Synchrotron, Rilac), types of ion particles (C, He, electron, Ar, Ne, Ni, Al, Xe and Au), range of energy (5 - 2.090 MeV), range of dose irradiation (10 - 250 Gy), range of ion current (0.02 - 20 nA), range of ion beam particles diameter (10 - 100 μm), range of LET value (300 - 1.800 keV/μm ) and irradiation time (5 - 30 seconds/samples). (author)

  11. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    Shah, Kushal; Rom-Kedar, Vered; Turaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  12. "small ACCELERATORS" 24 May - 2 June 2005

    2005-01-01

    CERN Accelerator School and Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) Groningen, the Netherlands announce a course on "Small Accelerators", Hotel Golden Tulip Drenthe, Zeegse, the Netherlands, 24 May - 2 June 2005. This specialised course is dedicated to the physics and the main applications of small accelerators. The course will review the different accelerator types as well as their specificities in terms of accelerator physics.

  13. KEK digital accelerator

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  14. A kinetic study of biological Cr(VI) reduction in trickling filters with different filter media types

    Two pilot-scale trickling filters were used in order to estimate Cr(VI) reduction through biological mechanisms in biofilm reactors operated in SBR mode with recirculation using different filter media types, i.e. plastic media and calcitic gravel. The feed concentrations of Cr(VI) examined were about 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 mg/l, while the concentration of the organic carbon was constant at 400 mg/l, in order to avoid carbon limitations in the bulk liquid. Maximum reduction rates of 4.8 and 4.7 g Cr(VI)/d were observed for feed Cr(VI) concentration of about 5 mg Cr(VI)/l, for the filters with the plastic support material and the gravel media, respectively. The reduction rates were significantly affected by the feed Cr(VI) concentration in both bioreactors. A dual-enzyme kinetic model was used in order to describe Cr(VI) reduction by aerobically grown mixed cultures. Model predictions were found to correspond very closely to experimental quantitative observations of Cr(VI) reduction at both pilot-scale trickling filters used

  15. Intracellular route and biological activity of exogenously delivered Rep proteins from the adeno-associated virus type 2

    The two large Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, from the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) are required for AAV-2 DNA replication, site-specific integration, and for the regulation of viral gene expression. The study of their activities is dependent on the ability to deliver these proteins to the cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. We evaluated the ability of a protein transduction domain (PTD) derived from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) TAT protein to drive the cellular internalization of exogenously delivered PTD-fused Rep68 proteins. This analysis unexpectedly revealed that recombinant Rep68 alone, in the absence of any PTD, could be endocytosed by the cells. Rep68 as the chimeric TAT-Rep68 proteins were internalized through endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles and retained in late endosomes/lysosomes with no detectable nuclear localization. In the presence of adenovirus, the Rep proteins could translocate into the nucleus where they displayed a biological activity. These findings support recent reports on the mechanism of entry of TAT-fused proteins and also revealed a new property of Rep68

  16. Future accelerators (?)

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made

  17. Future accelerators (?)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  18. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...

  19. The Bevalac accelerator

    Presented are the characteristics of the Bevatron and SuperHilac heavy ion accelerators in a very general manner. Some aspects of their application in the field of biological medicine and some of the interesting results obtained in experiments on nuclear physics are mentioned. (Author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Accelerator-based BNCT

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the 9Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. - Highlights: • The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. • Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. • The present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. • Topics cover intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams and beam diagnostics, among others

  1. Catalogue of the Type Specimens of Amphibians and Reptiles in the Herpetological Museum of the Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences:IV. Lizards (Reptilia, Sauria)

    Bo WANG; Ke JIANG; Jiatang LI; Yuezhao WANG; Daode YANG

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we report the six type specimens and two paratypes of eight lizard species in the Herpetological Museum of the Chengdu Institute of Biology (CIB), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Each entry provides the information of the original description, the catalog number of the holotype, sex, type locality, and information of allotype and paratype (if any), number and distribution of deposited specimens, and comments. Additionally, two invalid species and one invalid subspecies are discussed.

  2. Effect of biological type of cattle on the incidence of the dark, firm, and dry condition in the longissimus muscle.

    Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Dikeman, M E

    1994-02-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to characterize longissimus muscle color, texture, and firmness for beef carcasses of diverse biological types and to determine the genetic parameters of lean color, texture, and firmness. The carcasses (n = 3,641) used in this experiment were from steers produced by mating Angus, Brahman, Braunvieh, Charolais, Chianina, Galloway, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Longhorn, Maine Anjou, Nellore, Piedmontese, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, Sahiwal, Salers, Shorthorn, Simmental, South Devon, and Tarentaise sires to Hereford and Angus dams. Steers were fed a corn-corn silage diet from weaning until slaughter at 356 to 575 d of age. Steers were slaughtered at commercial packing plants and longissimus muscle color, texture, and firmness were scored by trained carcass evaluators. Sire line least squares means for lean color, texture, and firmness ranged approximately one unit on a 7-point scale. Chianina crosses had darker-colored lean than all breed groups except Tarentaise and Simmental crosses (P < .05). Moreover, a higher percentage (P < .05) of Chianina crosses than of all other breed groups had unacceptably dark-colored ("dark red" or darker) lean. Bos indicus sire lines were not different from Bos taurus sire lines in frequency of carcasses with unacceptably dark-colored lean. However, Bos indicus crosses were more likely to be scored "very light cherry-red." Lean color and texture were lowly heritable, whereas lean firmness was moderately heritable. Thus, this experiment demonstrated that there is genetic variation in the incidence of the DFD condition; however, genetic variation was small relative to environmental variation. PMID:8157518

  3. V-type nerve agents phosphonylate ubiquitin at biologically relevant lysine residues and induce intramolecular cyclization by an isopeptide bond.

    Schmidt, Christian; Breyer, Felicitas; Blum, Marc-Michael; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; John, Harald

    2014-08-01

    Toxic organophosphorus compounds (e.g., pesticides and nerve agents) are known to react with nucleophilic side chains of different amino acids (phosphylation), thus forming adducts with endogenous proteins. Most often binding to serine, tyrosine, or threonine residues is described as being of relevance for toxicological effects (e.g., acetylcholinesterase and neuropathy target esterase) or as biomarkers for post-exposure analysis (verification, e.g., albumin and butyrylcholinesterase). Accordingly, identification of novel protein targets might be beneficial for a better understanding of the toxicology of these compounds, revealing new bioanalytical verification tools, and improving knowledge on chemical reactivity. In the present study, we investigated the reaction of ubiquitin (Ub) with the V-type nerve agents Chinese VX, Russian VX, and VX in vitro. Ub is a ubiquitous protein with a mass of 8564.8 Da present in the extra- and intracellular space that plays an important physiological role in several essential processes (e.g., proteasomal degradation, DNA repair, protein turnover, and endocytosis). Reaction products were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight- mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and μ-high-performance liquid chromatography online coupled to UV-detection and electrospray ionization MS (μHPLC-UV/ESI MS). Our results originally document that a complex mixture of at least mono-, di, and triphosphonylated Ub adducts was produced. Surprisingly, peptide mass fingerprint analysis in combination with MALDI and ESI MS/MS revealed that phosphonylation occurred with high selectivity in at least 6 of 7 surface-exposed lysine residues that are essential for the biological function of Ub. These reaction products were found not to age. In addition, we herein report for the first time that phosphonylation induced intramolecular cyclization by formation of an isopeptide bond between the ε-amino group of a formerly phosphonylated

  4. Sensitive, Rapid, Quantitative and in Vitro Method for the Detection of Biologically Active Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type E.

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula; Hernlem, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial cause of clinical infections and foodborne illnesses through its production of a group of enterotoxins (SEs) which cause gastroenteritis and also function as superantigens to massively activate T cells. In the present study, we tested Staphylococcal enterotoxin type E (SEE), which was detected in 17 of the 38 suspected staphylococcal food poisoning incidents in a British study and was the causative agent in outbreaks in France, UK and USA. The current method for detection of enterotoxin activity is an in vivo monkey or kitten bioassay; however, this expensive procedure has low sensitivity and poor reproducibility, requires many animals, is impractical to test on a large number of samples, and raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. The purpose of this study is to develop rapid sensitive and quantitative bioassays for detection of active SEE. We apply a genetically engineered T cell-line expressing the luciferase reporter gene under the regulation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells response element (NFAT-RE), combined with a Raji B-cell line that presents the SEE-MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II to the engineered T cell line. Exposure of the above mixed culture to SEE induces differential expression of the luciferase gene and bioluminescence is read out in a dose dependent manner over a 6-log range. The limit of detection of biologically active SEE is 1 fg/mL which is 10⁸ times more sensitive than the monkey and kitten bioassay. PMID:27187474

  5. Expression-based network biology identifies alteration in key regulatory pathways of type 2 diabetes and associated risk/complications.

    Urmi Sengupta

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is a multifactorial and genetically heterogeneous disease which leads to impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance. The advanced form of disease causes acute cardiovascular, renal, neurological and microvascular complications. Thus there is a constant need to discover new and efficient treatment against the disease by seeking to uncover various novel alternate signalling mechanisms that can lead to diabetes and its associated complications. The present study allows detection of molecular targets by unravelling their role in altered biological pathways during diabetes and its associated risk factors and complications. We have used an integrated functional networks concept by merging co-expression network and interaction network to detect the transcriptionally altered pathways and regulations involved in the disease. Our analysis reports four novel significant networks which could lead to the development of diabetes and other associated dysfunctions. (a The first network illustrates the up regulation of TGFBRII facilitating oxidative stress and causing the expression of early transcription genes via MAPK pathway leading to cardiovascular and kidney related complications. (b The second network demonstrates novel interactions between GAPDH and inflammatory and proliferation candidate genes i.e., SUMO4 and EGFR indicating a new link between obesity and diabetes. (c The third network portrays unique interactions PTPN1 with EGFR and CAV1 which could lead to an impaired vascular function in diabetic nephropathy condition. (d Lastly, from our fourth network we have inferred that the interaction of beta-catenin with CDH5 and TGFBR1 through Smad molecules could contribute to endothelial dysfunction. A probability of emergence of kidney complication might be suggested in T2D condition. An experimental investigation on this aspect may further provide more decisive observation in drug target identification and better

  6. Overview of accelerators in medicine

    Accelerators used for medicine include synchrotrons, cyclotrons, betatrons, microtrons, and electron, proton, and light ion linacs. Some accelerators which were formerly found only at physics laboratories are now being considered for use in hospital-based treatment and diagnostic facilities. This paper presents typical operating parameters for medical accelerators and gives specific examples of clinical applications for each type of accelerator, with emphasis on recent developments in the field

  7. Discovery, linkage disequilibrium and association analyses of polymorphisms of the immune complement inhibitor, decay-accelerating factor gene (DAF/CD55 in type 1 diabetes

    Smink Luc J

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 1 diabetes (T1D is a common autoimmune disease resulting from T-cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein, is a candidate for autoimmune disease susceptibility based on its role in restricting complement activation and evidence that DAF expression modulates the phenotype of mice models for autoimmune disease. In this study, we adopt a linkage disequilibrium (LD mapping approach to test for an association between the DAF gene and T1D. Results Initially, we used HapMap II genotype data to examine LD across the DAF region. Additional resequencing was required, identifying 16 novel polymorphisms. Combining both datasets, a LD mapping approach was adopted to test for association with T1D. Seven tag SNPs were selected and genotyped in case-control (3,523 cases and 3,817 controls and family (725 families collections. Conclusion We obtained no evidence of association between T1D and the DAF region in two independent collections. In addition, we assessed the impact of using only HapMap II genotypes for the selection of tag SNPs and, based on this study, found that HapMap II genotypes may require additional SNP discovery for comprehensive LD mapping of some genes in common disease.

  8. Lattice imaging at an accelerating voltage of 30kV using an in-lens type cold field-emission scanning electron microscope.

    Konno, Mitsuru; Ogashiwa, Takeshi; Sunaoshi, Takeshi; Orai, Yoshihisa; Sato, Mitsugu

    2014-10-01

    We reported investigation of lattice resolution imaging using a Hitachi SU9000 conventional in-lens type cold field emission scanning electron microscope without an aberration corrector at an accelerating voltage of 30kV and discuss the electron optics and optimization of observation conditions for obtaining lattice resolution. It is possible to visualize lattice spacings that are much smaller than the diameter of the incident electron beam through the influence of the superior coherent performance of the cold field emission electron source. The defocus difference between STEM imaging and lattice imaging is found to increase with spherical aberration but it is possible to reduce the spherical aberration by reducing the focal length (f) of the objective lens combined with an experimental sample stage enabling a shorter distance between the objective lens pre-field and the sample. We demonstrate that it is possible to observe the STEM image and crystalline lattice simultaneously. STEM and Fourier transform images are detected for Si{222} lattice fringes and reflection spots, corresponding to 0.157nm. These results reveal the potential and possibility for a measuring technique with excellent precision as a theoretically exact dimension and established the ability to perform high precision measurements of crystal lattices for the structural characterization of semiconductor materials with minimal radiation beam damage. PMID:24290787

  9. Automated extraction of DNA from reference samples from various types of biological materials on the Qiagen BioRobot EZ1 Workstation

    Stangegaard, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads; Hansen, Anders Johannes;

    2009-01-01

    We have validated and implemented a protocol for DNA extraction from various types of biological materials using a Qiagen BioRobot EZ1 Workstation. The sample materials included whole blood, blood from deceased, buccal cells on Omni swabs and FTA Cards, blood on FTA Cards and cotton swabs, and...... muscle biopsies. The DNA extraction was validated according to EN/ISO 17025 for the STR kits AmpFlSTR« Identifiler« and AmpFlSTR« Yfiler« (Applied Biosystems). Of 298 samples extracted, 11 (4%) did not yield acceptable results. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that extraction of DNA from various types...... of biological material can be performed quickly and without the use of hazardous chemicals, and that the DNA may be successfully STR typed according to the requirements of forensic genetic investigations accredited according to EN/ISO 17025...

  10. COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND OBSERVED SEISMIC ACCELERATIONS IN COMPOSITE-TYPE ROCK-FILL DAM OF THE DNESTROVSKAYA HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT DURING EXPERIMENTAL EXPLOSIONS

    A. A. Matvienko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for determination of seismic accelerations in earth dams has been developed within the framework of seismic resistance wave theory. In this case we take into account an influence of the dam foundation and seismic wave emission into it. The methodology is based on numerical solution of the dynamic problem while using a finite difference method. A software program SGD “Determination of seismic acceleration in the earth dam” has been prepared on the basis of the developed methodology. The program allows to evaluate ordinates of calculation orthographic representations for acceleration throughout the dam height for all time moments. Thus, it is possible to obtain the most dangerous acceleration orthographic representations at direct and reverse seismic actions. The papers presents verification (compliance test of calculated and observed seismic accelerations for the rock-fill dam of the Dnestrovskaya Hydro-Electric Power Plant No 1. The observed seismic accelerations have been obtained during experimental explosions. The calculated seismic accelerations have been obtained in accordance with the proposed methodology for determination of seismic accelerations in the earth dams. A comparative analysis of calculation results with the data of field observations has demonstrated that a maximum difference between extreme accelerations obtained by calculation, and during field observations, do not exceed 10.11 % for the dam crest, and 6.56 % for its bottom. The obtained results permit to recommend the developed program for engineering calculations of seismic accelerations in the earth dams. The program application will make it possible to determine seismic acceleration in the earth dam with sufficient reliability.

  11. Laser accelerator

    Vigil, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1979,W. B. Colson and S. K. Ride proposed a new kind of electron accelerator using a uniform magnetic field in combination with a circularly-polarized laser field. A key concept is to couple the oscillating electric field to the electron’s motion so that acceleration is sustained. This dissertation investigates the performance of the proposed laser accelerator using modern high powered lasers and mag-netic fields that are significan...

  12. Comparison of Modules of Wild Type and Mutant Huntingtin and TP53 Protein Interaction Networks: Implications in Biological Processes and Functions

    Basu, Mahashweta; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P.; Mohanty, Pradeep K.

    2013-01-01

    Disease-causing mutations usually change the interacting partners of mutant proteins. In this article, we propose that the biological consequences of mutation are directly related to the alteration of corresponding protein protein interaction networks (PPIN). Mutation of Huntingtin (HTT) which causes Huntington's disease (HD) and mutations to TP53 which is associated with different cancers are studied as two example cases. We construct the PPIN of wild type and mutant proteins separately and identify the structural modules of each of the networks. The functional role of these modules are then assessed by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis for biological processes (BPs). We find that a large number of significantly enriched () GO terms in mutant PPIN were absent in the wild type PPIN indicating the gain of BPs due to mutation. Similarly some of the GO terms enriched in wild type PPIN cease to exist in the modules of mutant PPIN, representing the loss. GO terms common in modules of mutant and wild type networks indicate both loss and gain of BPs. We further assign relevant biological function(s) to each module by classifying the enriched GO terms associated with it. It turns out that most of these biological functions in HTT networks are already known to be altered in HD and those of TP53 networks are altered in cancers. We argue that gain of BPs, and the corresponding biological functions, are due to new interacting partners acquired by mutant proteins. The methodology we adopt here could be applied to genetic diseases where mutations alter the ability of the protein to interact with other proteins. PMID:23741403

  13. Hadron accelerators in medicine

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadron-therapy Project is then described in some detail, with reference ro both the National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy and the design of different types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large umber of hospitals. (author)

  14. The particle accelerator

    As the Palais de la Decouverte (in Paris) is the sole scientific vulgarization establishment in the world to operate an actual particle accelerator able to provoke different types of nuclear reactions, the author recalls some historical aspects of the concerned department since the creation of the 'Radioactivity - Atom synthesis' department in 1937. He recalls the experiments which were then performed, the installation of the particle accelerator in 1964 and its renewal. He describes what's going on in this accelerator. He gives an overview of the difficulties faced after it has been decided to move it, of the works which had to be performed, and of radiation protection measures

  15. DC Electron Accelerators - a perspective on 3 MeV DC accelerator at EBC

    Electron beam accelerators are finding wide ranging applications like surface curing of coatings, cross-linking polymeric materials, sterilization of medical products, coloration of diamonds, disinfection and preservation of food products, purification of industrial and biological waste etc. Electron beam energy and dose rate for different application differs widely depending upon the type of product and the desired modification. The beam energy and dose rate requirement for these types of applications ranges between 0.15 MeV to 10 MeV and few kilowatt to hundreds of kilowatts. Electrostatic accelerators (direct current type) are suitable option for large throughput, high electrical efficiency for the above applications. In view of the growing needs we have taken up indigenous development of industrial accelerators at APPD, BARC. A machine rated for 3 MeV, 30 kW beam power is in the trial operations at Electron Beam Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. The 3 MV DC supply for this based on a parallel fed voltage multiplier scheme considering power efficiency, energy stability and reliability. The accelerator is designed to operate with beam energies from 1 MeV to 3 MeV with beam current of 0-10 mA

  16. LIBO accelerates

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  17. Induction accelerators

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  18. Vacancy-related defects in n-type Si implanted with a rarefied microbeam of accelerated heavy ions in the MeV range

    Capan, I.; Pastuović, Ž.; Siegele, R.; Jaćimović, R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to study vacancy-related defects formed in bulk n-type Czochralski-grown silicon after implantation of accelerated heavy ions: 6.5 MeV O, 10.5 MeV Si, 10.5 MeV Ge, and 11 MeV Er in the single ion regime with fluences from 109 cm-2 to 1010 cm-2 and a direct comparison made with defects formed in the same material irradiated with 0.7 MeV fast neutron fluences up to 1012 cm-2. A scanning ion microprobe was used as the ion implantation tool of n-Cz:Si samples prepared as Schottky diodes, while the ion beam induced current (IBIC) technique was utilized for direct ion counting. The single acceptor state of the divacancy V2(-/0) is the most prominent defect state observed in DLTS spectra of n-CZ:Si samples implanted by selected ions and the sample irradiated by neutrons. The complete suppression of the DLTS signal related to the double acceptor state of divacancy, V2(=/-) has been observed in all samples irradiated by ions and neutrons. Moreover, the DLTS peak associated with formation of the vacancy-oxygen complex VO in the neutron irradiated sample was also completely suppressed in DLTS spectra of samples implanted with the raster scanned ion microbeam. The reason for such behaviour is twofold, (i) the local depletion of the carrier concentration in the highly disordered regions, and (ii) the effect of the microprobe-assisted single ion implantation. The activation energy for electron emission for states assigned to the V2(-/0) defect formed in samples implanted by single ions follows the Meyer-Neldel rule. An increase of the activation energy is strongly correlated with increasing ion mass.

  19. Lattice imaging at an accelerating voltage of 30 kV using an in-lens type cold field-emission scanning electron microscope

    We reported investigation of lattice resolution imaging using a Hitachi SU9000 conventional in-lens type cold field emission scanning electron microscope without an aberration corrector at an accelerating voltage of 30 kV and discuss the electron optics and optimization of observation conditions for obtaining lattice resolution. It is possible to visualize lattice spacings that are much smaller than the diameter of the incident electron beam through the influence of the superior coherent performance of the cold field emission electron source. The defocus difference between STEM imaging and lattice imaging is found to increase with spherical aberration but it is possible to reduce the spherical aberration by reducing the focal length (f) of the objective lens combined with an experimental sample stage enabling a shorter distance between the objective lens pre-field and the sample. We demonstrate that it is possible to observe the STEM image and crystalline lattice simultaneously. STEM and Fourier transform images are detected for Si{222} lattice fringes and reflection spots, corresponding to 0.157 nm. These results reveal the potential and possibility for a measuring technique with excellent precision as a theoretically exact dimension and established the ability to perform high precision measurements of crystal lattices for the structural characterization of semiconductor materials with minimal radiation beam damage. - Highlights: • We investigated the lattice resolution imaging using a conventional in-lens FE-SEM. • STEM images at 30 kV are detected for Si222 lattice fringe, corresponding to 0.157 nm. • These results demonstrate the ability to perform high precision measurements

  20. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  1. The Use of Mock NSF-type Grant Proposals and Blind Peer Review as the Capstone Assignment in Upper-Level Neurobiology and Cell Biology Courses

    Itagaki, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of grant proposals and blind peer review are standard in the natural sciences, their use as a pedagogical tool is rarely mentioned in the literature. As a consequence of dissatisfaction with term papers and literature reviews as the capstone writing experience in 300-level undergraduate biology courses, I have been experimenting with mock NSF-type grant proposals followed by blind peer review as the major assignment in my junior/senior-level classes. The improvement in educat...

  2. Comparison of Calculated and Observed Seismic Accelerations in Composite-Type Rock-Fill Dam of the Dnestrovskaya Hydro-Electric Power Plant during Experimental Explosions

    A. A. Matvienko

    2016-01-01

    A methodology for determination of seismic accelerations in earth dams has been developed within the framework of seismic resistance wave theory. In this case we take into account an influence of the dam foundation and seismic wave emission into it. The methodology is based on numerical solution of the dynamic problem while using a finite difference method. A software program SGD “Determination of seismic acceleration in the earth dam” has been prepared on the basis of the developed methodolo...

  3. Accelerator Technology for the Mankind

    Sultansoy, S

    2006-01-01

    Particle accelerators technology is one of the generic technologies which is locomotive of the development in almost all fields of science and technology. According to the U.S. Department of Energy: "Accelerators underpin every activity of the Office of Science and, increasingly, of the entire scientific enterprise. From biology to medicine, from materials to metallurgy, from elementary particles to the cosmos, accelerators provide the microscopic information that forms the basis for scientific understanding and applications. The combination of ground and satellite based observatories and particle accelerators will advance our understanding of our world, our galaxy, our universe, and ourselves." Because of this, accelerator technology should become widespread all over the world. Existing situation shows that a large portion of the world, namely the South and Mid-East, is poor on the accelerator technology. UNESCO has recognized this deficit and started SESAME project in Mid-East, namely Jordan. Turkic Acceler...

  4. Accelerator programme at CAT

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  5. Research on a new type of accelerated TMD and its seismic control effectiveness%新型可加速TMD及其地震控制效果的研究

    秦丽; 曹林涛; 谢向东

    2012-01-01

    提出一种新型可加速TMD,加速装置基于直线电机原理而设计.根据TMD的工作原理,制订了所设计TMD的加速策略,并采用VB编制了相应的程序.以单自由度结构的地震响应控制为例,采用数值模拟的方法,通过与被动TMD的比较,分析了新型可加速TMD的地震控制效果.以一个钢塔为例,讨论了加速装置应用于实际工程的可行性.结果表明:不同的地震波对被动TMD的控制效果有很大的影响,而所设计新型TMD在常见地震波的作用下,控制效果都明显好于被动TMD.%A new type of accelerated TMD is presented. Accelerating devices is designed based on linear motors. According to the working mechanism of TMD, accelerating rules are established. The analysis program is developed in VB platform. Seismic response of SDOF structures with passive TMD and accelerated TMD are analyzed. A steel tower is taken as an example to demonstrate the feasibility of accelerating device applying to real projects. From the analysis results,it can be concluded that (1) the control effect of normal passive TMD is greatly depended on the characteristics of ground motion and structures and sometimes not so good; (2) the control effectiveness of the proposed accelerated TMD is much better than normal TMD under typical earthquake acceleration recordings.

  6. EM Structure Based and Vacuum Acceleration

    Colby, E.R.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The importance of particle acceleration may be judged from the number of applications which require some sort of accelerated beam. In addition to accelerator-based high energy physics research, non-academic applications include medical imaging and treatment, structural biology by x-ray diffraction, pulse radiography, cargo inspection, material processing, food and medical instrument sterilization, and so on. Many of these applications are already well served by existing technologies and will profit only marginally from developments in accelerator technology. Other applications are poorly served, such as structural biology, which is conducted at synchrotron radiation facilities, and medical treatment using proton accelerators, the machines for which are rare because they are complex and costly. Developments in very compact, high brightness and high gradient accelerators will change how accelerators are used for such applications, and potentially enable new ones. Physical and technical issues governing structure-based and vacuum acceleration of charged particles are reviewed, with emphasis on practical aspects.

  7. A 3 MV tandem accelerator at Seville. The first IBA facility in Spain

    The first Spanish tandem accelerator, of the Pelletron type, has recently been installed at the University of Seville. The laboratory has been created with the aim to fulfill the increasing demand for ion beam analysis existing in Spain. The facility mainly consists of a 3 MV accelerator with two ion sources and a capacity of seven beam lines, which will be used for interdisciplinary studies such as material research and modification, arts, archaeology, biology, medicine, environmental sciences and so on. The laboratory and the first tests of the accelerator performance are described. (author)

  8. The Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA)

    LIBRA is a concept to place a light-ion, charged-particle facility in a hospital environment, and to dedicate it to applications in biology and medicine. There are two aspects of the program envisaged for LIBRA: a basic research effort coupled with a program in clinical applications of accelerated charged particles. The operational environment to be provided for LIBRA is one in which both of these components can coexist and flourish, and one that will promote the transfer of technology and knowledge from one to the other. In order to further investigate the prospects for a Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA), discussions are underway with the Merritt Peralta Medical Center (MPMC) in Oakland, California, and the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF). In this paper, a brief discussion of the technical requirements for such a facility is given, together with an outline of the accelerator technology required. While still in a preliminary stage, it is possible nevertheless to develop an adequate working description of the type, size, performance and cost of the accelerator facilities required to meet the preliminary goals for LIBRA

  9. Skeletal muscle fiber type: using insights from muscle developmental biology to dissect targets for susceptibility and resistance to muscle disease.

    Talbot, Jared; Maves, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers are classified into fiber types, in particular, slow twitch versus fast twitch. Muscle fiber types are generally defined by the particular myosin heavy chain isoforms that they express, but many other components contribute to a fiber's physiological characteristics. Skeletal muscle fiber type can have a profound impact on muscle diseases, including certain muscular dystrophies and sarcopenia, the aging-induced loss of muscle mass and strength. These findings suggest that some muscle diseases may be treated by shifting fiber type characteristics either from slow to fast, or fast to slow phenotypes, depending on the disease. Recent studies have begun to address which components of muscle fiber types mediate their susceptibility or resistance to muscle disease. However, for many diseases it remains largely unclear why certain fiber types are affected. A substantial body of work has revealed molecular pathways that regulate muscle fiber type plasticity and early developmental muscle fiber identity. For instance, recent studies have revealed many factors that regulate muscle fiber type through modulating the activity of the muscle regulatory transcription factor MYOD1. Future studies of muscle fiber type development in animal models will continue to enhance our understanding of factors and pathways that may provide therapeutic targets to treat muscle diseases. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:518-534. doi: 10.1002/wdev.230 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27199166

  10. Application of biological markers for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments: Alluvial formation of the Danube river, Oil refinery Pančevo

    Rašović Aleksandar S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to examine to which extent the abundance and distribution of certain biological markers may be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments and ground waters. The samples were taken from the area of the Oil Refinery Pančevo (alluvial formation of the Danube River. The organic matter of the investigated samples was isolated using an extraction method with chloroform. The group composition and usual biological markers were analyzed in the obtained extracts. n-Alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids, pristane and phytane were analyzed using gas chromatographie (GC analysis of saturated hydrocarbons. Polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and terpane type were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, i.e. by analyzing the carbamide non-adduct of the total alkane fraction (Single Ion Monitoring SIM-technique. The obtained results indicate that n-alkanes can be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants (for example, if the oil-pollutant is biodegraded or present in very low concentrations, and steranes and triterpanes can be used as very reliable indicators of oil-type pollution in recent sediments and ground waters.

  11. Asynchronous accelerator with RFQ injection for active longitudinal compression of accelerated bunches

    Tumanyan, A. R.; Martirosyan, Yu. L.; Nikhogosyan, V. C.; Akopov, N. Z.; Guiragossian, Z. G.; Martirosov, R. M.; Akopov, Z. N.

    2000-01-01

    An asynchronous accelerator is described, in which the principle of its operation permits the active longitudinal bunch compression of accelerated proton beams, to overcome the space charge limitation effects of intense bunches. It is shown that accelerated bunches from an RFQ linac can be adapted for Asynchronac injection for a multiple of choices in the acceleration frequencies of the RFQ and the Asynchronac. The offered new type of accelerator system is especially suitable to accelerate pr...

  12. Accelerators for therapy

    In the past decades circular and linear electron accelerators have been developed for clinical use in radiation therapy of tumors with the aim of achieving a high radiation dose in the tumor and as low as possible dose in the adjacent normal tissues. Today about one thousand accelerators are in medical use throughout the world and many hundred thousand patients are treated every day with accelerator-produced radiation. There exists, however, a large number of patients who cannot be treated satisfactorily in this way. New types of radiations such as neutrons, negative pions, protons and heavy ions were therefore tested recently. The clinical experience with these radiations and with new types of treatment procedures indicate that in future the use of a scanning beam of high energy protons might be optimal for the treatment of tumors. (orig.)

  13. Deletion of angiotensin II type 2 receptor accelerates adipogenesis in murine mesenchymal stem cells via Wnt10b/beta-catenin signaling.

    Matsushita, Kenichi; Wu, Yaojiong; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has a vital role in adipocyte biology and the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Obesity is the main culprit of metabolic syndrome; and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been forwarded as a major source of adipocyte generation. Previously, we reported that MSCs have a local RAS and that pharmacological blockade of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) promotes adipogenesis in human MSCs. However, the definitive roles of AT2R and how AT2R functions in adipogenesis remains unknown. To this end, we employed AT2R-null murine MSCs to characterize how AT2R affects the differentiation of MSCs into adipocytes. Murine MSCs were isolated from AT2R-null mice and wild-type littermates, grown to confluency, and then differentiated into adipocytes. Adipogenesis was quantitated by assessing the lipid droplet accumulation. Using the lipophilic fluorescent dye, the AT2R-null cells showed significantly increased total fluorescence (261.6±49.6% vs littermate) on day 7. Oil red O staining followed by extraction of the absorbed dye and measurement of the absorbance on day 14 also exhibited significantly increased lipid droplet accumulation in the AT2R-null cells (202.7±14.1% vs littermate). We also examined the expression of adipogenic marker genes by quantitative RT-PCR. The AT2R-null group exhibited significantly increased expression of PPAR-gamma, fatty acid synthase, and adiponectin (vs littermate). We further examined the role of Wnt10b/beta-catenin signaling, which reportedly has an important inhibitory role in adipogenesis. The AT2R-null group exhibited significantly decreased Wnt10b expression accompanied by decreased beta-catenin (vs littermate). Our results thus revealed that the AT2R inhibits adipogenic differentiation in murine MSCs. Moreover, this inhibitory effect is associated with Wnt10b/beta-catenin signaling. These results provide important insights into the pathophysiology of obesity and obesity

  14. Frontier applications of electrostatic accelerators

    Liu, Ke-Xin; Wang, Yu-Gang; Fan, Tie-Shuan; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Chen, Jia-Er

    2013-10-01

    Electrostatic accelerator is a powerful tool in many research fields, such as nuclear physics, radiation biology, material science, archaeology and earth sciences. Two electrostatic accelerators, one is the single stage Van de Graaff with terminal voltage of 4.5 MV and another one is the EN tandem with terminal voltage of 6 MV, were installed in 1980s and had been put into operation since the early 1990s at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics. Many applications have been carried out since then. These two accelerators are described and summaries of the most important applications on neutron physics and technology, radiation biology and material science, as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are presented.

  15. The Use of Mock NSF-type Grant Proposals and Blind Peer Review as the Capstone Assignment in Upper-Level Neurobiology and Cell Biology Courses.

    Itagaki, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of grant proposals and blind peer review are standard in the natural sciences, their use as a pedagogical tool is rarely mentioned in the literature. As a consequence of dissatisfaction with term papers and literature reviews as the capstone writing experience in 300-level undergraduate biology courses, I have been experimenting with mock NSF-type grant proposals followed by blind peer review as the major assignment in my junior/senior-level classes. The improvement in educational outcomes and competencies due to this assignment appears to be substantial and worth the additional effort on both the students' and instructor's parts. Here, I outline the mechanics of this assignment and its advantages and disadvantages as well as the type of curriculum that is required to support this type of capstone assignment. PMID:24319395

  16. Accelerating Universe and Event Horizon

    He, Xiao-Gang(INPAC, SKLPPC and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China)

    2001-01-01

    It has been argued in the literature that if a universe is expanding with an accelerating rate indefinitely, it presents a challenge to string theories due to the existence of event horizons. We study the fate of a currently accelerating universe. We show that the universe will continue to accelerate indefinitely if the parameter $\\omega = p/\\rho$ of the equation of state is a constant, no matter how many different types of energy (matter, radiation, quintessence, cosmological constant and et...

  17. 纤维素生物活性材料的种类及应用%The types and application of cellulosic Materials with biological activity

    柳春; 宁玉娟; 史磊; 蓝丽; 陈专; 吕旷

    2013-01-01

    纤维素的功能化一直是人们研究的热点,近年来又涌现出一批以纤维素为基准的具有生物性的活性材料。文章主要论述了以纤维素为基准的细菌纤维素、复合材料、纤维素硫酸钠材料等具有生物活性材料的种类与应用。%Cellulose functional materials has been a challenge for researchers, this year has emerged a group of cellulose as the biological function of the substrate material. This paper summarizes the types and application of the bacterial cellulose, cellulose-based, composite materials, and sodium cellulose with biological materials.

  18. Acclimation, adaptation, traits and trade-offs in plankton functional type models: reconciling terminology for biology and modelling

    Flynn, Kevin J.; St. John, Michael; Raven, John A.;

    2015-01-01

    ideally only be considered for describing intra-generational interactions; in applications between generations, and certainly between unrelated species, such concepts should be avoided. We suggest that systems biology approaches, through to complex adaptive/acclimative systems modelling, with explicit......We propose definitions in terminology to enhance ongoing collaborations between biologists and modellers on plankton ecology. Organism “functional type” should refer to commonality in ecology not biogeochemistry; the latter is largely an emergent property of the former, while alignment with ecology...

  19. Vacuum distribution in the Vivitron accelerating tube

    Outgassing and conductance performances of HVEC type accelerating tube sections are calculated, measured and discussed. Based on the proposed Vivitron terminal stripping arrangement and tube pumping system, the vacuum pressure distribution along the accelerating tube has been determined

  20. Tandem accelerators

    After the installation of Ti-acceleration tubes and substantial modifications and additions to the EN tandem accelerator the performance of the machine has stabilized. The voltage behaviour of the tubes obviously improves as conditioning times necessary to run up to 6 MV decrease. A gridded lens has been added at the entrance of the first acceleration tube, and a second foil stripper is now installed in the short dead section between the high-energy tubes. The MP tandem also has been running stably during most of the year. However, beam instabilities originating from the last tube section and wear problems at the low-energy set of pelletron-chains caused some loss of beam time. During the fall, one set of pelletron charging chains has to be replaced after 49,000 hours of operation. In the course of the year, the MP and the EN tandem accelerators finished their 100,000th and 150,000th hours of operations, respectively. Preparations for the installation of the 3 MV negative heavy ion injector for the MP are progressing steadily. External beam transport, terminal ion optics, and data acquisition and control systems are to a major extent completed; the integration of the terminal power supplies has started. After the final assembly of the accelerator column structure, first voltage runs can be performed. (orig.)

  1. High intensity proton accelerator program

    Industrial applications of proton accelerators to the incineration of the long-lived nuclides contained in the spent fuels have long been investigated. Department of Reactor Engineering of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has formulated the Accelerator Program through the investigations on the required performances of the accelerator and its development strategies and also the research plan using the accelerator. Outline of the Program is described in the present report. The target of the Program is the construction of the Engineering Test Accelerators (ETA) of the type of a linear accelerator with the energy 1.5 GeV and the proton current ∼10 mA. It is decided that the construction of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA) is necessary as an intermediate step, aiming at obtaining the required technical basis and human resources. The Basic Technology Accelerator with the energy of 10 MeV and with the current of ∼10 mA is composed of the ion source, RFQ and DTL, of which system forms the mock-up of the injector of ETA. Development of the high-β structure which constitutes the main acceleration part of ETA is also scheduled. This report covers the basic parameters of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA), development steps of the element and system technologies of the high current accelerators and rough sketch of ETA which can be prospected at present. (J.P.N.)

  2. Particle acceleration in space and laboratory plasmas

    The general principle of charged particle acceleration in space and laboratory plasmas is illustrated by a discussion of particular types of acceleration mechanisms which can be classified as either deterministic processes or stochastic processes. Acceleration by parallel electric fields, produced in double layers is an example of a deterministic process. Fermi acceleration and acceleration by turbulent wave fields are examples of stochastic processes. The physical acceleration mechanism involved in each type of process is discussed and examples given for space and laboratory plasmas. (author)

  3. Computational and experimental single cell biology techniques for the definition of cell type heterogeneity, interplay and intracellular dynamics.

    de Vargas Roditi, Laura; Claassen, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    Novel technological developments enable single cell population profiling with respect to their spatial and molecular setup. These include single cell sequencing, flow cytometry and multiparametric imaging approaches and open unprecedented possibilities to learn about the heterogeneity, dynamics and interplay of the different cell types which constitute tissues and multicellular organisms. Statistical and dynamic systems theory approaches have been applied to quantitatively describe a variety of cellular processes, such as transcription and cell signaling. Machine learning approaches have been developed to define cell types, their mutual relationships, and differentiation hierarchies shaping heterogeneous cell populations, yielding insights into topics such as, for example, immune cell differentiation and tumor cell type composition. This combination of experimental and computational advances has opened perspectives towards learning predictive multi-scale models of heterogeneous cell populations. PMID:25461506

  4. Nitrated type III collagen as a biological marker of nitric oxide-mediated synovial tissue metabolism in osteoarthritis

    Richardot, P; Charni-Ben Tabassi, N; Toh, L;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Nitric oxide (NO) is a major mediator of joint tissue inflammation and damage in osteoarthritis (OA) and mediates the nitration of tyrosine (Y*) residues in proteins. We investigated the nitration of type III collagen, a major constituent of synovial membrane, in knee OA. METHODS: A...... polyclonal antibody directed against the nitrated QY*DSY*DVKSG sequence from type III collagen N-telopeptide was generated. Synovial tissues from patients with knee OA (n=4) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=4) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for IIINys. Serum IIINys levels were measured by enzyme......-linked immunosorbent assay in 87 patients with painful knee OA (mean age: 63.0+/-8.0 years, Kellgren-Lawrence score II-III) and in 40 sex and age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Competition experiments using various nitrated and un-nitrated type III collagen and derived sequences, showed that the antibody was...

  5. Spectroscopic Studies of Abiotic and Biological Nanomaterials: Silver Nanoparticles, Rhodamine 6G Adsorbed on Graphene, and c-Type Cytochromes and Type IV Pili in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Thrall, Elizabeth S.

    This thesis describes spectroscopic studies of three different systems: silver nanoparticles, the dye molecule rhodamine 6G adsorbed on graphene, and the type IV pili and c-type cytochromes produced by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. Although these systems are quite different in some ways, they can all be considered examples of nanomaterials. A nanomaterial is generally defined as having at least one dimension below 100 nm in size. Silver nanoparticles, with sub-100 nm size in all dimensions, are examples of zero-dimensional nanomaterials. Graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon atoms, is the paradigmatic two-dimensional nanomaterial. And although bacterial cells are on the order of 1 μm in size, the type IV pili and multiheme c-type cytochromes produced by G. sulfurreducens can be considered to be one- and zero-dimensional nanomaterials respectively. A further connection between these systems is their strong interaction with visible light, allowing us to study them using similar spectroscopic tools. The first chapter of this thesis describes research on the plasmon-mediated photochemistry of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles support coherent electron oscillations, known as localized surface plasmons, at resonance frequencies that depend on the particle size and shape and the local dielectric environment. Nanoparticle absorption and scattering cross-sections are maximized at surface plasmon resonance frequencies, and the electromagnetic field is amplified near the particle surface. Plasmonic effects can enhance the photochemistry of silver particles alone or in conjunction with semiconductors according to several mechanisms. We study the photooxidation of citrate by silver nanoparticles in a photoelectrochemical cell, focusing on the wavelength-dependence of the reaction rate and the role of the semiconductor substrate. We find that the citrate photooxidation rate does not track the plasmon resonance of the silver

  6. Novel Bis-β-diketone-type Ligand and Its Copper and Zinc Complexes for Two-photon Biological Imaging

    ZHOU Shuang-sheng; XUE Xuan; WEI Dong; JIANG Bo; WANG Jia-feng; LU Cheng-hua

    2012-01-01

    A curcumin derivative ligand,1,7-bis(3-methoxyl-4-oxyethylacetate)phenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diketone (diethyl acetatecurcumin,abbreviated as HL),and its Cu(Ⅱ) and Zn(Ⅱ) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses,infrared(IR),1H NMR and molar conductivity.The experimental results show that the resulting complexes bear strong two-photon excited fluorescence(TPEF) in N,N-dimethyformamide solvent,which has been proven to be potentially useful for two-photon microscopy imaging in living cells.In addition,cytotoxicity tests show that the low-micromolar concentrations of metal-ligand complex(ML2) did not cause significant reduction in cell viability over a pcriod of,at least,24 h and should be safe for further biological studies.

  7. Accelerators for research and applications

    The newest particle accelerators are almost always built for extending the frontiers of research, at the cutting edge of science and technology. Once these machines are operating and these technologies mature, new applications are always found, many of which touch our lives in profound ways. The evolution of accelerator technologies will be discussed, with descriptions of accelerator types and characteristics. The wide range of applications of accelerators will be discussed, in fields such as nuclear science, medicine, astrophysics and space-sciences, power generation, airport security, materials processing and microcircuit fabrication. 13 figs

  8. Accelerator operations

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  9. Personal safety system of the GSI and the planned FAIR accelerators

    Full text: GSI (facility for the research with heavy ions) operates heavy ion accelerators for the research in nuclear physics, atomic physics, material research, radiation biology and carbon ion cancer treatment. The accelerators consist of a linear accelerator (Unilac=Universal Linear Accelerator), a heavy ion synchrotron (SIS) and an experimental storage ring (ESR). At GSI, it is possible to prepare ions of all types of ion beams, up to and including uranium in any state of electric charge. The facility can also be used to create and accelerate beams of radioactive nuclei. The energy range of the ions are about 5 to 14 MeV per nucleon at the Unilac and 1 to 2 GeV per nucleon at the SIS and for the experimental areas. Due to beam depositions in the experiments and unavoidable beam losses during the acceleration and transport process of the ions, substantial amount of radiation is produced near the accelerator. Therefore big efforts for the shielding of the produced radiation are necessary. Furthermore for the safe operation of the accelerators and for the maintenance work at the accelerators during shutdown periods personal safety systems are running. The personal safety systems comprise personal access systems for the accelerators and for the experimental areas. During the accelerator operation interlock systems for the beam interruption are activated when humans would be in danger. In this work the concept of the personal safety systems including the interlock system is presented as well as descriptions on the technical solutions of the concept, like the booth access to radiological areas, components in the beam lines as e.g. beam-plugs, Faraday cups, HF interruption, control for the septa or the controls for dipoles. An outlook will be presented for the safety system of the new international accelerator project FAIR (Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research), which will be operated by means of the GSI accelerators as injectors. (author)

  10. Advanced accelerators

    This report discusses the suitability of four novel particle acceleration technologies for multi-TeV particle physics machines: laser driven linear accelerators (linac), plasma beat-wave devices, plasma wakefield devices, and switched power and cavity wakefield linacs. The report begins with the derivation of beam parameters practical for multi-TeV devices. Electromagnetic field breakdown of materials is reviewed. The two-beam accelerator scheme for using a free electron laser as the driver is discussed. The options recommended and the conclusions reached reflect the importance of cost. We recommend that more effort be invested in achieving a self-consistent range of TeV accelerator design parameters. Beat-wave devices have promise for 1-100 GeV applications and, while not directly scalable to TeV designs, the current generation of ideas are encouraging for the TeV regime. In particular, surfatrons, finite-angle optical mixing devices, plasma grating accelerator, and the Raman forward cascade schemes all deserve more complete analysis. The exploitation of standard linac geometry operated in an unconventional mode is in a phase of rapid evolution. While conceptual projects abound, there are no complete designs. We recommend that a fraction of sponsored research be devoted to this approach. Wakefield devices offer a great deal of potential; trades among their benefits and constraints are derived and discussed herein. The study of field limitation processes has received inadequate attention; this limits experiment designers. The costs of future experiments are such that investment in understanding these processes is prudent. 34 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Reduced postprandial concentrations of intact biologically active glucagon-like peptide 1 in type 2 diabetic patients

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Krarup, T; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Madsbad, S; Holst, Jens Møller

    2001-01-01

    -like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), we measured plasma concentrations after a mixed breakfast meal (566 kcal) in 12 type 2 diabetic patients (age 57 years [range 49-67], BMI 31 kg/m2 [27-38], and HbA1c 9.2% [7.0-12.5]) and 12 matched healthy subjects. The patients had...

  12. Biological Activities of Chinese Propolis and Brazilian Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Wei Zhu; Minli Chen; Qiyang Shou; Yinghua Li; Fuliang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Propolis is a bee-collected natural product and has been proven to have various bioactivities. This study tested the effects of Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis on streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis significantly inhibited body weight loss and blood glucose increase in diabetic rats. In addition, Chinese propolis-treated rats showed an 8.4% reduction of glycated hemoglobin levels compar...

  13. Technology of superconducting accelerator dipoles

    We discuss accelerator dipoles and their characteristics. Other types of magnets, in particular bubble chamber magnets have been quite successful. Their performance is based on cryogenic stability which is addressed only briefly in this chapter. This type of stability is not available to the accelerator designer because of the large quantities of copper or other stabilizer that would reduce the current density in the windings to an unacceptably low value

  14. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic and pharmacological properties

    Dimitra Papaefthimiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native of the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria. Traditionally, a number of Cistus specie have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing, digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Furthermore, total leaf aqueous extracts possess anti-influenza virus activity. All these properties have been attributed to phytochemicals such as terpenoids, including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes, phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and ellagitannins, several groups of alkaloids and other types of secondary metabolites. In the past 20 years, research on Cistus involved chemical, biological and phylogenetic analysis but recent investigations have involved genomic and molecular approaches. Our lab is exploring the biosynthetic machinery that generates terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, with a goal to harness their numerous properties that have applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical and aromatic industries. This review focuses on the systematics, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, chemical analyses, biological function and biosynthesis of major compounds, as well as genomic analyses and biotechnological approaches of the main Cistus species found in the Mediterranean basin, namely C. albidus, C. creticus, C. crispus, C. parviflorus, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. salviifolius, C. ladanifer, C. laurifolius and C. clusii.

  15. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic and pharmacological properties

    Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Falara, Vasiliki; Givanoudi, Stella; Kostas, Stefanos; Kanellis, Angelos

    2014-06-01

    The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales) consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native of the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria). Traditionally, a number of Cistus specie have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing, digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Furthermore, total leaf aqueous extracts possess anti-influenza virus activity. All these properties have been attributed to phytochemicals such as terpenoids, including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes, phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and ellagitannins, several groups of alkaloids and other types of secondary metabolites. In the past 20 years, research on Cistus involved chemical, biological and phylogenetic analysis but recent investigations have involved genomic and molecular approaches. Our lab is exploring the biosynthetic machinery that generates terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, with a goal to harness their numerous properties that have applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical and aromatic industries. This review focuses on the systematics, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, chemical analyses, biological function and biosynthesis of major compounds, as well as genomic analyses and biotechnological approaches of the main Cistus species found in the Mediterranean basin, namely C. albidus, C. creticus, C. crispus, C. parviflorus, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. salviifolius, C. ladanifer, C. laurifolius and C. clusii.

  16. Putative resolution of the EEEE selectivity paradox in L-type Ca2+ and bacterial Na+ biological ion channels

    Kaufman, I. Kh; Luchinsky, D. G.; Gibby, W. A. T.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Eisenberg, R. S.

    2016-05-01

    The highly selective permeation of ions through biological ion channels can be described and explained in terms of fluctuational dynamics under the influence of powerful electrostatic forces. Hence valence selectivity, e.g. between Ca2+ and Na+ in calcium and sodium channels, can be described in terms of ionic Coulomb blockade, which gives rise to distinct conduction bands and stop-bands as the fixed negative charge Q f at the selectivity filter of the channel is varied. This picture accounts successfully for a wide range of conduction phenomena in a diversity of ion channels. A disturbing anomaly, however, is that what appears to be the same electrostatic charge and structure (the so-called EEEE motif) seems to select Na+ conduction in bacterial channels but Ca2+ conduction in mammalian channels. As a possible resolution of this paradox it is hypothesised that an additional charged protein residue on the permeation path of the mammalian channel increases |{{Q}f}| by e, thereby altering the selectivity from Na+ to Ca2+. Experiments are proposed that will enable the hypothesis to be tested.

  17. Developments and Applications of Particle Accelerators

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in many fields of applications as scientific researches, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing and agriculture, biology, chemistry etc. The physics and technology of accelerators involve many branches of science. These include electromagnetism, solid state properties of matter, atomic physics, plasma physics and quantum physics. In this article, a history of particle accelerators will be discussed. Also, the important milestones in the accelerators development up to the present day are given. Finally, a various applications of accelerators have also discussed

  18. Hadron accelerators in cancer therapy

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadrontherapy Project (the largest project of this type in Europe) is then described, with reference to both the National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy and the design of two types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large number of hospitals. Finally, the radiation protection requirements are discussed. (author)

  19. Human procollagen type I surface-modified PHB-based non-woven textile scaffolds for cell growth: preparation and short-term biological tests

    3D fine porous structures obtained by electrospinning a poly[(R,S)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (aPHB)/ poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) (85/15 w/w) blend were successfully modified with human procollagen type I by simple immersion of the polyester scaffold in an aqueous solution of the protein. Effective modification of the scaffold with human procollagen I was confirmed by an immunodetection test, which revealed the presence of the procollagen type I as an outer layer even on inner structures of the porous matrixes. Biological tests of 3D fabrics made of the PHB blend provide support for the adhesion and proliferation of human fibroblasts, while their modification with procollagen type I increased the biocompatibility of the final scaffolds significantly, as shown by the notable increase in the number of attached cells during the early hours of their incubation. Based on these findings, human procollagen type I surface-modified aPHB/PHB scaffolds should be considered a promising material in regenerative medicine. (paper)

  20. MUON ACCELERATION

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  1. KEKB accelerator

    KEKB, the B-Factory at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) recently achieved the luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1. This luminosity is two orders higher than the world's level at 1990 when the design of KEKB started. This unprecedented result was made possible by KEKB's innovative design and technology in three aspects - beam focusing optics, high current storage, and beam - beam interaction. Now KEKB is leading the luminosity frontier of the colliders in the world. (author)

  2. Accelerating networks

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  3. Biological Experiment and Clinical Tests on Mammotropic Action Of Muyingle — A New Type of Healthfood Prepared from Marine Organisms

    Li, Ba-fan; Hao, Lin-hua; Liu, Xiang-dong

    1996-12-01

    Muyingle is a new type of health food prepared from marine organisms. The mammotropic action of Muyingle was investigated by studying its effect on mammary glands and pituitary glands of lactating mice and the survival rate of suckling mice. The results showed that the mammotropic action of Muyingle was very effective. The survival rates of suckling mice were 92.90% for the treated group and 0 for the control group ( pmammary glands from the treated group were at the secreting stages, while those from the control group were at the resting stages. Clinical tests also demonstrated that Muyingle was highly effective in promoting lactation and improving the quality of the puerpera's milk. The efficiency was up to 86.7%.

  4. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 5-fluorouracil-derived benzimidazoles as novel type of potential antimicrobial agents.

    Fang, Xue-Jie; Jeyakkumar, Ponmani; Avula, Srinivasa Rao; Zhou, Qian; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-06-01

    A series of 5-fluorouracil benzimidazoles as novel type of potential antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized for the first time. Bioactive assay manifested that some of the prepared compounds exhibited good or even stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains in comparison with reference drugs norfloxacin, chloromycin and fluconazole. Noticeably, 3-fluorobenzyl benzimidazole derivative 5c gave remarkable antimicrobial activities against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MRSA and Bacillus proteus with MIC values of 1, 2 and 4μg/mL, respectively. Experimental research revealed that compound 5c could effectively intercalate into calf thymus DNA to form compound 5c-DNA complex which might block DNA replication and thus exert antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking indicated that compound 5c should bind with DNA topoisomerase IA through three hydrogen bonds by the use of fluorine atom and oxygen atoms in 5-fluorouracil with the residue Lys 423. PMID:27117429

  5. Crystal structure of the TSP-1 type 1 repeats : a novel layered fold and its biological implication.

    Tan, K.; Duquette, M.; Liu, J.; Dong, Y.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Lawler, J.; Wang, J.; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Harvard Medical School

    2002-10-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) contains three type 1 repeats (TSRs), which mediate cell attachment, glycosaminoglycan binding, inhibition of angiogenesis, activation of TGF{beta}, and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases. The crystal structure of the TSRs reported in this article reveals a novel, antiparallel, three-stranded fold that consists of alternating stacked layers of tryptophan and arginine residues from respective strands, capped by disulfide bonds on each end. The front face of the TSR contains a right-handed spiral, positively charged groove that might be the 'recognition' face, mediating interactions with various ligands. This is the first high-resolution crystal structure of a TSR domain that provides a prototypic architecture for structural and functional exploration of the diverse members of the TSR superfamily.

  6. IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 2: biological function and putative role in type 2 diabetes

    Christiansen, J.; Kolte, A.M.; Hansen, T.O.; Nielsen, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies of type 2 diabetes (T2D) have implicated IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IMP2/IGF2BP2) as one of the several factors in the etiology of late onset diabetes. IMP2 belongs to a family of oncofetal mRNA-binding proteins implicated in RNA localization......, stability, and translation that are essential for normal embryonic growth and development. This review provides a background to the IMP protein family with an emphasis on human IMP2, followed by a closer look at the GWA studies to evaluate the significance, if any, of the proposed correlation between IMP2...... and T2D Udgivelsesdato: 2009/11...

  7. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  8. Biological Activities of Chinese Propolis and Brazilian Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Minli; Shou, Qiyang; Li, Yinghua; Hu, Fuliang

    2011-01-01

    Propolis is a bee-collected natural product and has been proven to have various bioactivities. This study tested the effects of Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis on streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis significantly inhibited body weight loss and blood glucose increase in diabetic rats. In addition, Chinese propolis-treated rats showed an 8.4% reduction of glycated hemoglobin levels compared with untreated diabetic rats. Measurement of blood lipid metabolism showed dyslipidemia in diabetic rats and Chinese propolis helped to reduce total cholesterol level by 16.6%. Moreover, oxidative stress in blood, liver and kidney was improved to various degrees by both Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis. An apparent reduction in levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and urine microalbuminuria-excretion rate demonstrated the beneficial effects of propolis in hepatorenal function. All these results suggested that Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis can alleviate symptoms of diabetes mellitus in rats and these effects may partially be due to their antioxidant ability. PMID:21785625

  9. Biological Activities of Chinese Propolis and Brazilian Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Wei Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a bee-collected natural product and has been proven to have various bioactivities. This study tested the effects of Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis on streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis significantly inhibited body weight loss and blood glucose increase in diabetic rats. In addition, Chinese propolis-treated rats showed an 8.4% reduction of glycated hemoglobin levels compared with untreated diabetic rats. Measurement of blood lipid metabolism showed dyslipidemia in diabetic rats and Chinese propolis helped to reduce total cholesterol level by 16.6%. Moreover, oxidative stress in blood, liver and kidney was improved to various degrees by both Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis. An apparent reduction in levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and urine microalbuminuria-excretion rate demonstrated the beneficial effects of propolis in hepatorenal function. All these results suggested that Chinese propolis and Brazilian propolis can alleviate symptoms of diabetes mellitus in rats and these effects may partially be due to their antioxidant ability.

  10. Calculation of the structural shielding of the radiotherapy treatment room equipped with a linear accelerator type Tomo therapy Hi-Art in the Oncology Center of Chihuahua, Mexico

    The helicoid tomo therapy is an external radiotherapy system of modulated intensity, guided by image, in which the radiation is imparted to the patient using a narrow radiation beam in helicoid form, in a similar way to the scanning process with a computerized tomography. The tomo therapy equipment (Tomo Therapy Hi-Art) consists in an electrons linear accelerator with acceleration voltages of 6 MV for treatment and 3.5 MV for image, coupled to a ring that turn around the patient as this is transferred through this ring in perpendicular sense to the radiation beam. The radiation beam is narrow because has the maximum size of 5 x 40 cm2 in the isocenter. The intensity modulation of the beam is carried out with a binary dynamic collimator of 64 crisscross sheets, and the guide by image though a system of megavoltage computerized tomography. Opposed to the radiation beam, also coupled to the rotational ring, a group of lead plates exists with a total thickness of 13 cm that acts as barrier of the primary radiation beam. The special configuration of the tomography equipment makes to have the following characteristics: 1) the presence of the lead barrier of the equipment reduces the intensity of the primary beam that reaches the bunker walls in considerable way, 2) the disperse and leakage radiations are increased with regard to a conventional accelerator due to the increase in the necessary irradiation time to produce modulated intensity fields by means of the narrow radiation beam. These special characteristics of the tomo therapy equipment make that particularities exist in the application of the formulations for structural shielding calculations that appears in the NCRP reports 49, NCRP 151 and IAEA-SRS-47. For this reason, several researches have development analytic models based on geometric considerations of continuous rotation of the equipment ring to determine the shielding requirements for the primary beam, the dispersed and leakage radiation in tomo therapy

  11. Novel glycolipid TLR2 ligands of the type Pam2Cys-α-Gal: synthesis and biological properties.

    Thomann, Jean-Sébastien; Monneaux, Fanny; Creusat, Gaëlle; Spanedda, Maria Vittoria; Heurtault, Béatrice; Habermacher, Chloé; Schuber, Francis; Bourel-Bonnet, Line; Frisch, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    A more complete understanding of the mechanism of action of TLR agonists has fueled the investigation of new synthetic immunoadjuvants. In this context, we designed and synthesized glycolipids of the type Pam(2)Cys-α-Galactose as novel immunoadjuvants. Their synthesis required modifying a hydrophobic tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety, i.e. the minimal structure required for TLR2 agonist activity, by addition of a hydrophilic head, either an α-Galactosylpyranose or an α-Galactosylfuranose to gain respectively Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf. While preparing a carbohydrate building block, an unexpected stereoselectivity was observed during a halide ion-catalytic process on a protected galactofuranose: the alpha anomer was obtained with surprisingly high selectivity (α/β ratio>9) and with good isolated yield (51%). The TLR2 binding properties of Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were then fully evaluated. Their efficiency in triggering the proliferation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes was also compared to that of Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG, two well-established ligands of TLRs. Moreover, the maturation state of murine dendritic cells previously incubated with either Pam(2)CGalp or Pam(2)CGalf was monitored by flow cytometry and compared to that induced by lipopolysaccharide. Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were found to be equivalent TLR2 agonists, and induced splenocyte proliferation and DC maturation. With very similar activity, Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were also 10-fold to 100-fold better than Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG at inducing B cell proliferation. This represents the first time a glucidic head has been added to the tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety whilst maintaining the immunomodulating activity. This should greatly enrich the data available on Pam(2)C structure/activity relationships. PMID:22483966

  12. Temporal dynamics of spectral bioindicators evidence biological and ecological differences among functional types in a cork oak open woodland.

    Cerasoli, Sofia; Costa E Silva, Filipe; Silva, João M N

    2016-06-01

    The application of spectral vegetation indices for the purpose of vegetation monitoring and modeling increased largely in recent years. Nonetheless, the interpretation of biophysical properties of vegetation through their spectral signature is still a challenging task. This is particularly true in Mediterranean oak forest characterized by a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In this study, the temporal dynamics of vegetation indices expected to be related with green biomass and photosynthetic efficiency were compared for the canopy of trees, the herbaceous layer, and two shrub species: cistus (Cistus salviifolius) and ulex (Ulex airensis). coexisting in a cork oak woodland. All indices were calculated from in situ measurements with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder, USA). Large differences emerged in the temporal trends and in the correlation between climate and vegetation indices. The relationship between spectral indices and temperature, radiation, and vapor pressure deficit for cork oak was opposite to that observed for the herbaceous layer and cistus. No correlation was observed between rainfall and vegetation indices in cork oak and ulex, but in the herbaceous layer and in the cistus, significant correlations were found. The analysis of spectral vegetation indices with fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) and quantum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence (ΔF/Fm') evidenced strongest relationships with the indices Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)512, respectively. Our results, while confirms the ability of spectral vegetation indices to represent temporal dynamics of biophysical properties of vegetation, evidence the importance to consider ecosystem composition for a correct ecological interpretation of results when the spatial resolution of observations includes different plant functional types. PMID:26449349

  13. Temporal dynamics of spectral bioindicators evidence biological and ecological differences among functional types in a cork oak open woodland

    Cerasoli, Sofia; Costa e Silva, Filipe; Silva, João M. N.

    2016-06-01

    The application of spectral vegetation indices for the purpose of vegetation monitoring and modeling increased largely in recent years. Nonetheless, the interpretation of biophysical properties of vegetation through their spectral signature is still a challenging task. This is particularly true in Mediterranean oak forest characterized by a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In this study, the temporal dynamics of vegetation indices expected to be related with green biomass and photosynthetic efficiency were compared for the canopy of trees, the herbaceous layer, and two shrub species: cistus ( Cistus salviifolius) and ulex ( Ulex airensis). coexisting in a cork oak woodland. All indices were calculated from in situ measurements with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder, USA). Large differences emerged in the temporal trends and in the correlation between climate and vegetation indices. The relationship between spectral indices and temperature, radiation, and vapor pressure deficit for cork oak was opposite to that observed for the herbaceous layer and cistus. No correlation was observed between rainfall and vegetation indices in cork oak and ulex, but in the herbaceous layer and in the cistus, significant correlations were found. The analysis of spectral vegetation indices with fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) and quantum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence ( ΔF/ Fm') evidenced strongest relationships with the indices Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)512, respectively. Our results, while confirms the ability of spectral vegetation indices to represent temporal dynamics of biophysical properties of vegetation, evidence the importance to consider ecosystem composition for a correct ecological interpretation of results when the spatial resolution of observations includes different plant functional types.

  14. accelerating cavity

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  15. Phospholipase C Produced by Clostridium botulinum Types C and D:Comparison of Gene, Enzymatic, and Biological Activities with Those of Clostridium perfringens Alpha-toxin

    Sakurai,Jun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C. botulinum PLCs (Cb-PLCs, the cb-plc genes from 8 strains were sequenced, and 1 representative gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. The enzymatic and hemolytic activities of the recombinant Cb-PLC were measured and compared with those of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Each of the eight cb-plc genes encoded a 399 amino acid residue protein preceded by a 27 residue signal peptide. The protein consists of 2 domains, the N- and C-domains, and the overall amino acid sequence identity between Cb-PLC and alpha-toxin was greater than 50%, suggesting that Cb-PLC is homologous to the alpha-toxin. The key residues in the N-domain were conserved, whereas those in the C-domain which are important in membrane interaction were different than in the alpha-toxin. As expected, Cb-PLC could hydrolyze egg yolk phospholipid, p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin, and also exhibited hemolytic activity;however, its activities were about 4- to over 200-fold lower than those of alpha-toxin. Although Cb-PLC showed weak enzymatic and biological activities, it is speculated that Cb-PLC might play a role in the pathogenicity of botulism or for bacterial survival.

  16. INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL ALONG WITH YIELD AND QUALITY OF THE PULSE CROP-BLACKGRAM

    K. Parthasarathi, M. Balamurugan, L. S. Ranganathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during 2002-2003 on clay loam, sandy loam and red loam soil at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils and on the yield and nutrient content of blackgram - Vigna mungo, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium. Vermicompost had increased the pore space, reduced particle and bulk density, increased water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, reduced pH and electrical conductivity, increased organic carbon content, available nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and microbial population and activity in all the soil types, particularly clay loam. The yield and quality (protein and sugar content in seed of blackgram was enhanced in soils, particularly clay loam soil. On the contrary, the application of inorganic fertilizers has resulted in reduced porosity, compaction of soil, reduced carbon and reduced microbial activity.

  17. Chemical and biological differentiation of three human breast cancer cell types using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)

    Kulp, K S; Berman, E F; Knize, M G; Shattuck, D L; Nelson, E J; Wu, L; Montgomery, J L; Felton, J S; Wu, K J

    2006-01-09

    We use Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to image and classify individual cells based on their characteristic mass spectra. Using statistical data reduction on the large data sets generated during TOF-SIMS analysis, similar biological materials can be differentiated based on a combination of small changes in protein expression, metabolic activity and cell structure. We apply this powerful technique to image and differentiate three carcinoma-derived human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231). In homogenized cells, we show the ability to differentiate the cell types as well as cellular compartments (cytosol, nuclear and membrane). These studies illustrate the capacity of TOF-SIMS to characterize individual cells by chemical composition, which could ultimately be applied to detect and identify single aberrant cells within a normal cell population. Ultimately, we anticipate characterizing rare chemical changes that may provide clues to single cell progression within carcinogenic and metastatic pathways.

  18. Determination of mercury levels in biological samples using the incomplete cubane-type sulfur-bridged nitrilotriacetato molybdenum complex by a spectrophotometer.

    Aikoh, H; Yamate, M; Takahashi, M; Shibahara, T

    1997-01-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of mercury levels in biological samples was investigated using incomplete cubane-type sulfur-bridged molybdenum complex, K2[Mo3S4(Hnta)3] 9H2O, ("NTA" complex; H3nta = nitrilotri acetic acid). The urine or organs of mice, which were either exposed to metallic mercury vapor or injected intraperitoneally with mercuric ion, were decomposed from four to twelve hours with a mixed solution of potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid. After the pretreatment, mercury in the urine and organs of mice was captured by the "NTA" complex. Absorbance of the resultant solution in the urine or organs of mice was also measured by a spectrophotometer under conditions similar to that of the exhalation. PMID:9353959

  19. Nonresonant Grain Acceleration in MHD Turbulence

    Yan, Huirong

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a new type of dust acceleration mechanism that acts in a turbulent magnetized medium. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence can accelerate grains through resonant as well as nonresonant interactions. We show that the magnetic compression provides higher velocities for super-Alfvenic turbulence and can accelerate an extended range of grains in warm media compared to gyroresonance. While fast modes dominate the acceleration for the large grains, slow modes can be important for sub...

  20. Optimizing accelerator technology

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research and training network, oPAC, is bringing together 22 universities, research centres and industry partners to optimize particle accelerator technology. CERN is one of the network’s main partners and will host 5 early-stage researchers in the BE department.   A diamond detector that will be used for novel beam diagnostics applications in the oPAC project based at CIVIDEC. (Image courtesy of CIVIDEC.) As one of the largest Marie Curie Initial Training Networks ever funded by the EU – to the tune of €6 million – oPAC extends well beyond the particle physics community. “Accelerator physics has become integral to research in almost every scientific discipline – be it biology and life science, medicine, geology and material science, or fundamental physics,” explains Carsten P. Welsch, oPAC co-ordinator based at the University of Liverpool. “By optimizing the operation of accelerators, all of these...

  1. Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2: clinical, biological and genotype/phenotype correlation study of a cohort of 90 patients.

    Anheim, M

    2009-10-01

    Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is an autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in the senataxin gene, causing progressive cerebellar ataxia with peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar atrophy, occasional oculomotor apraxia and elevated alpha-feto-protein (AFP) serum level. We compiled a series of 67 previously reported and 58 novel ataxic patients who underwent senataxin gene sequencing because of suspected AOA2. An AOA2 diagnosis was established for 90 patients, originating from 15 countries worldwide, and 25 new senataxin gene mutations were found. In patients with AOA2, median AFP serum level was 31.0 microg\\/l at diagnosis, which was higher than the median AFP level of AOA2 negative patients: 13.8 microg\\/l, P = 0.0004; itself higher than the normal level (3.4 microg\\/l, range from 0.5 to 17.2 microg\\/l) because elevated AFP was one of the possible selection criteria. Polyneuropathy was found in 97.5% of AOA2 patients, cerebellar atrophy in 96%, occasional oculomotor apraxia in 51%, pyramidal signs in 20.5%, head tremor in 14%, dystonia in 13.5%, strabismus in 12.3% and chorea in 9.5%. No patient was lacking both peripheral neuropathy and cerebellar atrophy. The age at onset and presence of occasional oculomotor apraxia were negatively correlated to the progression rate of the disease (P = 0.03 and P = 0.009, respectively), whereas strabismus was positively correlated to the progression rate (P = 0.03). An increased AFP level as well as cerebellar atrophy seem to be stable in the course of the disease and to occur mostly at or before the onset of the disease. One of the two patients with a normal AFP level at diagnosis had high AFP levels 4 years later, while the other had borderline levels. The probability of missing AOA2 diagnosis, in case of sequencing senataxin gene only in non-Friedreich ataxia non-ataxia-telangiectasia ataxic patients with AFP level > or =7 microg\\/l, is 0.23% and the probability for a non-Friedreich ataxia non

  2. Ion sources for electrostatic accelerators

    Maybe the most important part of an electrostatic accelerator system, and also often the most tricky part is the ion source. There has been a rapid growth in activity in ion-source research and development during the last two to three decades. Some of these developments have also been of benefit to electrostatic accelerator users. In this report some of the different types of ion sources used in electrostatic accelerators are described. The list is not complete but more an overview of some of the more commonly used sources. The description is divided into two groups; positive ion sources for single stage electrostatic accelerators and negative ion sources for two stages (i.e. tandem) accelerators

  3. Electron Accelerator Facilities

    Lecture presents main aspects of progress in development of industrial accelerators: adaptation of accelerators primary built for scientific experiments, electron energy and beam power increase in certain accelerator constructions, computer control system managing accelerator start-up, routine operation and technological process, maintenance (diagnostics), accelerator technology perfection (electrical efficiency, operation cost), compact and more efficient accelerator constructions, reliability improvement according to industrial standards, accelerators for MW power levels and accelerators tailored for specific use

  4. Application of linear induction accelerator for environmental applications

    Growing interest in the usage of power beams in industrial applications governs the design and development of various kinds of latest accelerators of high voltage, high energy, low current or high voltage high current but low average power accelerators. Conventional accelerators can be of electrostatic accelerators (Van-de-Graaff), high voltage multiplier column based accelerators (Cockcroft Walton/dynamatron type) or Microwave frequency based accelerators (R.F.LINAC) and Pulsed accelerators (Marx generator and PFL type). Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is linear in voltage acceleration configuration and beam gets coupled to the input pulse power by induction. It is compact and mobile compared to other accelerators of similar power regime. A unique feature of the induction accelerator is that peak voltage appears only at the output. This paper illustrates the principle and applications of linear Induction accelerator, global scenario and BARC status in this thrust area. (author)

  5. Noise in Biology

    Tsimring, Lev S

    2014-01-01

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms, and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evol...

  6. Prototype of industrial electrons accelerator

    The interest and the necessity of Mexico's industry in the use of irradiation process has been increased in the last years. As examples are the irradiation of combustion gases (elimination of NOx and SO2) and the polymer cross-linking between others. At present time at least twelve enterprises require immediately of them which have been contacted by electron accelerators suppliers of foreign countries. The first project step consisted in to identify the electrons accelerator type that in can be constructed in Mexico with the major number of possible equipment, instruments, components and acquisition materials local and useful for the major number of users. the characteristics of the accelerator prototype are: accelerator type transformer with multiple secondary insulated and rectifier circuits with a potential of 0.8 MV of voltage, the second step it consisted in an economic study that permitted to demonstrate the economic feasibility of its construction. (Author)

  7. Reduced activity of SKC a and Na-K ATPase underlies the accelerated impairment of EDH-type relaxations in mesenteric arteries of aging spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Kong, Billy W C; Man, Ricky Y K; Gao, Yuansheng; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-06-01

    Aging is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction due to reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and/or reduced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations (EDH). This study examines the hypothesis that hypertension aggravates the impairment of EDH-type relaxation due to aging. EDH-type relaxations were studied in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats of 12, 36, 60, and 72 weeks of age. EDH-type relaxations in WKY were reduced with aging, and this was associated with an impairment of the function of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SKC a) and sodium-potassium ATPase (Na-K ATPase). EDH-type relaxation in SHR was smaller than that in WKY arteries, and further reduction occurred with aging. Pharmacological experiments suggested a reduced involvement of SKC a and Na-K ATPase and activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and silent information regulator T1 (sirtuin-1; SIRT1) in mesenteric arteries of 12-week-old SHR. These pharmacological findings suggest that in superior mesenteric arteries of the rat, the reduction in EDH-type relaxation occurs with aging and that such a reduction is exacerbated in hypertension. The latter exacerbation appears to involve proteins associated with the process of cellular senescence and is related to impaired function of SKC a and Na-K ATPase, a phenomenon that is also observed in mesenteric arteries of older normotensive rats. PMID:26171229

  8. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  9. Teleportation with Multiple Accelerated Partners

    Sagheer, A.; Hamdoun, H.; Metwally, N.

    2015-09-01

    As the current revolution in communication is underway, quantum teleportation can increase the level of security in quantum communication applications. In this paper, we present a quantum teleportation procedure that capable to teleport either accelerated or non-accelerated information through different quantum channels. These quantum channels are based on accelerated multi-qubit states, where each qubit of each of these channels represents a partner. Namely, these states are the W state, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, and the GHZ-like state. Here, we show that the fidelity of teleporting accelerated information is higher than the fidelity of teleporting non-accelerated information, both through a quantum channel that is based on accelerated state. Also, the comparison among the performance of these three channels shows that the degree of fidelity depends on type of the used channel, type of the measurement, and value of the acceleration. The result of comparison concludes that teleporting information through channel that is based on the GHZ state is more robust than teleporting information through channels that are based on the other two states. For future work, the proposed procedure can be generalized later to achieve communication through a wider quantum network.

  10. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed. (author)

  11. High-voltage electron accelerators

    Ways for improving technical and economic factors of high-voltage electron accelerators intended for radiation technology are discussed. It is shown that basic components effecting radiation energy costs are the following: depreciation, costs of routine repair, energy expenses and attendant payments. Outlined is an improvement program for the Aurora and the Electron type accelerators of up to 100 kW power having high-voltage generator connected with emitters by 750 kV high-voltage cable

  12. Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient Accelerators

    Sheehy, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    These notes provide an overview of Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for medical applications. We begin with a review of the basic principles of this type of accelerator, including the scaling and non-scaling types, highlighting beam dynamics issues that are of relevance to hadron ac- celerators. The potential of FFAG accelerators in the field of hadron therapy is discussed in detail, including an overview of existing medical FFAG designs. The options for FFAG treatment gan...

  13. Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient Accelerators

    Sheehy, S L

    2016-01-01

    These notes provide an overview of Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for medical applications. We begin with a review of the basic principles of this type of accelerator, including the scaling and non-scaling types, highlighting beam dynamics issues that are of relevance to hadron ac- celerators. The potential of FFAG accelerators in the field of hadron therapy is discussed in detail, including an overview of existing medical FFAG designs. The options for FFAG treatment gantries are also considered.

  14. Some problems on a local shield calculation of technological installations with electron accelerators

    Calculation results are presented of biological protection of radiation units with electron accelerators. The calculation has been performed with competitive line method for a linear isotron source of braking radiation. Ferrum with atomic number 26 has been used as a target material. For this type of accelerator the following calculation technique has been adopted: protection thickness has been selected with respect to some particular material. Then a spacing has been calculated between the source and the external side for which a braking radiation dosage rate upon the protection surface has been maximum permissible

  15. The X-ray fluorescence method for elementary analysis of substances by means of accelerated ions

    The modern state of the elementary analysis of substances by their characteristic X radiation (CXR), excited by accelerated ions is considered. The dependence of the analysis sensitivity on the type of accelerated ions and on their energy is discussed. The sources of background radiation are considered, and their effect on the analysis sensitivity in various energy ranges of the CXR is discussed. Compared are analytical possibilities of the method of analysis during the CXR excitation by electron and γ-quanta beams. The technique is considered in brief and the fields of the practical application in medicine, biology, in the investigation of environmental contamination are considered

  16. TL Dosimetry on the Tandetron Ion Accelerator area of the ININ

    For the fulfilment of the operation tests of the Positive Ions type Tandetron 4120 MC, 2 MV, it was obtained the permission consented by the National Commission of Nuclear safety and safeguards (CNSNS). During the stage of tests were arranged Tl dosemeters in the Tandetron Accelerator area, as well as toward to the beam exit. In this work, it was presented the results obtained of the measurement of radiation levels, as much in the area as in the beam exit. This Accelerator is useful in different fields of science such as: biology, radiochemistry, materials, solid state physics, archaeology and environmental sciences between others. (Author)

  17. Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil

  18. Biological responses of Raw 264.7 macrophage exposed to two strains of Stachybotrys chartarum spores grown on four different wallboard types.

    Kim, J H; Harvey, L A; Evans, A L; Byfield, G E; Betancourt, D A; Dean, T R

    2016-06-01

    The many benefits of building "green" have motivated the use of sustainable products in the design and execution of the built environment. However, the use of these natural or recycled materials, some of which have been treated with antimicrobials, provides a growth opportunity for microorganisms with the potential to elicit adverse health effects especially in the presence of an antimicrobial. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of Stachybotrys chartarum (strains Houston and 51-11) grown under different conditions on a macrophage cell line (Raw 264.7) using endpoints, including cytotoxicity, and those associated with immunity specifically inflammation and MHC class II expression. The fungi were grown on four different gypsum products, and macrophages were exposed to whole spores of both strains and fragmented spores of strain 51-11. Whole spores of the Houston strain elicited no cytotoxicity with some level of inflammation, while exposure to whole spores of 51-11 caused variable responses depending on the wallboard type supporting the fungal growth. High concentrations of fragmented 51-11 spores primarily resulted in the apoptosis of macrophage with no inflammation. None of the fungal strains caused elevated levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression on the surface of Raw cells. Mycotoxin levels of 51-11 spores from all of the wallboard types measured  >250 ng/μL of T2 equivalent toxin based on activity. Collectively, the data demonstrated that all of the wallboard types supported growth of fungi with the ability to elicit harmful biological responses with the potential to negatively impact human health. PMID:27097835

  19. Genome-edited human stem cell-derived beta cells: a powerful tool for drilling down on type 2 diabetes GWAS biology

    Beer, Nicola L.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of pandemic proportions, one defined by a complex aetiological mix of genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors. Whilst the last decade of T2D genetic research has identified more than 100 loci showing strong statistical association with disease susceptibility, our inability to capitalise upon these signals reflects, in part, a lack of appropriate human cell models for study. This review discusses the impact of two complementary, state-of-the-art technologies on T2D genetic research: the generation of stem cell-derived, endocrine pancreas-lineage cells and the editing of their genomes. Such models facilitate investigation of diabetes-associated genomic perturbations in a physiologically representative cell context and allow the role of both developmental and adult islet dysfunction in T2D pathogenesis to be investigated. Accordingly, we interrogate the role that patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell models are playing in understanding cellular dysfunction in monogenic diabetes, and how site-specific nucleases such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system are helping to confirm genes crucial to human endocrine pancreas development. We also highlight the novel biology gleaned in the absence of patient lines, including an ability to model the whole phenotypic spectrum of diabetes phenotypes occurring both in utero and in adult cells, interrogating the non-coding ‘islet regulome’ for disease-causing perturbations, and understanding the role of other islet cell types in aberrant glycaemia. This article aims to reinforce the importance of investigating T2D signals in cell models reflecting appropriate species, genomic context, developmental time point, and tissue type. PMID:27508066

  20. Genome-edited human stem cell-derived beta cells: a powerful tool for drilling down on type 2 diabetes GWAS biology [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Nicola L. Beer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a disease of pandemic proportions, one defined by a complex aetiological mix of genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors. Whilst the last decade of T2D genetic research has identified more than 100 loci showing strong statistical association with disease susceptibility, our inability to capitalise upon these signals reflects, in part, a lack of appropriate human cell models for study. This review discusses the impact of two complementary, state-of-the-art technologies on T2D genetic research: the generation of stem cell-derived, endocrine pancreas-lineage cells and the editing of their genomes. Such models facilitate investigation of diabetes-associated genomic perturbations in a physiologically representative cell context and allow the role of both developmental and adult islet dysfunction in T2D pathogenesis to be investigated. Accordingly, we interrogate the role that patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell models are playing in understanding cellular dysfunction in monogenic diabetes, and how site-specific nucleases such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas9 system are helping to confirm genes crucial to human endocrine pancreas development. We also highlight the novel biology gleaned in the absence of patient lines, including an ability to model the whole phenotypic spectrum of diabetes phenotypes occurring both in utero and in adult cells, interrogating the non-coding ‘islet regulome’ for disease-causing perturbations, and understanding the role of other islet cell types in aberrant glycaemia. This article aims to reinforce the importance of investigating T2D signals in cell models reflecting appropriate species, genomic context, developmental time point, and tissue type.

  1. Beam dynamics in high energy particle accelerators

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Particle accelerators are essential tools for scientific research in fields as diverse as high energy physics, materials science and structural biology. They are also widely used in industry and medicine. Producing the optimum design and achieving the best performance for an accelerator depends on a detailed understanding of many (often complex and sometimes subtle) effects that determine the properties and behavior of the particle beam. Beam Dynamics in High Energy Particle Accelerators provides an introduction to the concepts underlying accelerator beam line design and analysis, taking an approach that emphasizes the elegance of the subject and leads into the development of a range of powerful techniques for understanding and modeling charged particle beams.

  2. Study on Construction of Accelerating Ulcer Concrescence Cell/Hydrogel Compound and Its Biological Character%促溃疡愈合细胞/水凝胶三维复合物的初步构建及表征

    董荣娜; 毋中明; 于德民

    2012-01-01

      目的:应用壳聚糖衍生物水凝胶负载表达人血小板衍化生长因子-BB 的 CHO 细胞系,初步构建促溃疡愈合复合物。方法:选择壳聚糖经 N-乙酰-L-半胱氨酸修饰后合成含巯基的双硫键壳聚糖,加水合成水凝胶,用 MTT 法检测生物相容性并负载转基因 CHO 细胞,构建促溃疡愈合复合物并进行表征。结果:该水凝胶材料与转基因 CHO 细胞系生物相容性良好。水凝胶呈网格结构,孔径一致、细胞黏附生长,负载转基因 CHO 细胞构成三维复合物。结论:CHO-rhPDGF-BB 细胞具有新的生物学功能,水凝胶与该细胞相容性良好,为研究糖尿病溃疡创面愈合提供了实验基础。%  Objective :Use natural macromolecule hydrogel material to compose 3D cell scaffolds loading transgenic cell that could stably express platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) to construct accelerating ulcer concrescence compound.Method:Choosed chitosan and modified it by NAC to synthesize disulfide bond chitosan with sulfydryl,dissolved the compound into deionized water generating hydrogel,tested it’s cytotoxicity by MTT;used it loading transgenic CHO as 3D cell scaffolds to construct cell/scaffold composition,scaned it’s structure.Result:The hydrogel has good biocompatibility.The compound has network structure,aperture well-distributed,cells stuck well.Conclusion:The CHO cell line had new biological character,and successfully constructed the cell/scaffold composition,which can afford experiment base and theory foundation to study ulcer concrescence.

  3. Accelerating Compact Object Mergers in Triple Systems with the Kozai Resonance: A Mechanism for "Prompt" Type Ia Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Other Exotica

    Thompson, Todd A.

    2011-11-01

    White dwarf-white dwarf (WD-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) mergers may produce Type Ia supernovae and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), respectively. A general problem is how to produce binaries with semi-major axes small enough to merge in significantly less than the Hubble time (t H), and thus accommodate the observation that these events closely follow episodes of star formation. I explore the possibility that such systems are not binaries at all, but actually coeval, or dynamical formed, triple systems. The tertiary induces Kozai oscillations in the inner binary, driving it to high eccentricity, and reducing its gravitational wave (GW) merger timescale. This effect significantly increases the allowed range of binary period P such that the merger time is t merge tertiary at high enough inclination. For retrograde tertiaries, the maximum P such that t merge tertiary. I discuss implications of these findings for the production of transients formed via compact object binary mergers. Based on the statistics of solar-type binaries, I argue that many such binaries should be in triple systems affected by the Kozai resonance. If true, expectations for the mHz GW signal from individual sources, the diffuse background, and the foreground for GW experiments like LISA are modified. This work motivates future studies of triples systems of A, B, and O stars, and new types of searches for WD-WD binaries in triple systems.

  4. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, University of Tsukuba

    The 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated for seven years without serious trouble since the first beam was obtained in February, 1976. In the last year, the tank was opened five times for minor repair, but the operation of 3977 hours has been attained. The construction of a heavy ion post accelerator with interdigital-H type structure has been continued. The research works described in this report were carried out mainly using the beam from a Lamb-shift type polarized ion source or a sputtering ion source. To the Lamb-shift type polarized ion source, a fast spin-reversal system was newly added, and successfully tested. In the sputtering ion source, the beam intensity was increased. A combination of an ionization chamber and a position-sensitive solid state detector was tested to be used for the study on heavy ion nuclear reaction. The characteristics of avalanche along the anode wire in a gas counter were studied. The accelerator and experimental facilities, the development of experimental equipment, and the researches on nuclear physics, atomic and solid state physics, and biological and medical science are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. High gradient experiments on NLCTA accelerator structures

    This paper presents new results of high-gradient studies performed on a 1.8 m traveling-wave accelerator section with detuned high-order deflecting modes. This structure was designed initially for studies of detuned structures and will be installed in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA). The paper describes the test set-up in the Accelerator Structure Test Area (ASTA) including electron gun, prebuncher, pre-accelerator, spectrometer, Faraday cups, 200 MW SLED-II power compression system, Magic-T type phase shifters and attenuators. Rf processing, detailed dark current analysis, radiation problems, and beam acceleration measurements are discussed

  6. Mice With Hepatocyte-Specific Deficiency of Type 3 Deiodinase Have Intact Liver Regeneration and Accelerated Recovery From Nonthyroidal Illness After Toxin-Induced Hepatonecrosis

    Castroneves, Luciana A.; Jugo, Rebecca H.; Maynard, Michelle A.; Lee, Jennifer S.; Wassner, Ari J.; Dorfman, David; Bronson, Roderick T.; Ukomadu, Chinweike; Agoston, Agoston T.; Ding, Lai; Luongo, Cristina; Guo, Cuicui; Song, Huaidong; Demchev, Valeriy; Lee, Nicholas Y.

    2014-01-01

    Type 3 deiodinase (D3), the physiologic inactivator of thyroid hormones, is induced during tissue injury and regeneration. This has led to the hypotheses that D3 impacts injury tolerance by reducing local T3 signaling and contributes to the fall in serum triiodothyronine (T3) observed in up to 75% of sick patients (termed the low T3 syndrome). Here we show that a novel mutant mouse with hepatocyte-specific D3 deficiency has normal local responses to toxin-induced hepatonecrosis, including nor...

  7. Statistical Analysis of Constant Stress Accelerated Life Testing with Exponential Distribution under Progressive Type-Ⅱ Censoring%逐步增加Ⅱ型截尾下指数分布恒加试验的统计分析

    武东; 毕然; 汤银才

    2012-01-01

    本文对逐步增加Ⅱ型截尾下指数分布场合恒定应力加速寿命试验进行了统计分析,得到参数的最大似然估计存在唯一的充要条件。最后通过模拟例子表明最大似然估计是有效的。%In this paper, we obtain the necessary and sufficient condition of the existence and unique- ness of maximum likelihood estimation for the constant stress accelerated life tests for the exponential distributions under progressive Type-Ⅱ censoring. We demonstrate through an simulation example that the maximum likelihood estimation is efficient

  8. Explanation of New Astronomical Distance Data Resulted From Measurements of Type Ia Supernovae Lies Not In Cosmological Constant and Accelerating Expansion; Rather, It Is Another Aspect/Effect of the General Exponential Decay Universe

    Ellman, R

    2000-01-01

    Recently it has become possible to determine the distance to Type Ia supernovae by redshift-independent means. Those new distance determinations exceed the Hubble distance by 10 - 15%. The explanation others propose is that an "antigravity effect" is accelerating the universe' expansion, which had hitherto been thought to be slowing down because of gravitation. That has led to their proposing reinstatement of Einstein's "cosmological constant", a term in his equations introduced to account for gravitation not promptly collapsing the universe and which he disavowed upon Hubble's discovery of the expansion of the universe. And that has further led to their proposing some form of the Ancients' fifth essence, quintessence [the first four being earth, air, fire and water], to account for the "antigravity effect". Any "antigravity effect", regardless of its cause, would have the effect of counteracting ordinary gravitation. Inasmuch as one of the major current problems in cosmology is to identify more gravitation t...

  9. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10-10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  10. ADAPT-NMR 3.0: utilization of BEST-type triple-resonance NMR experiments to accelerate the process of data collection and assignment

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) is a software package whose Bayesian core uses on-the-fly chemical shift assignments to guide data acquisition by non-uniform sampling from a panel of through-bond NMR experiments. The new version of ADAPT-NMR (ADAPT-NMR v3.0) has the option of utilizing 2D tilted-plane versions of 3D fast spectral acquisition with BEST-type pulse sequences, while also retaining the capability of acquiring and processing data from tilted-plane versions of conventional sensitivity-enhanced experiments. The use of BEST experiments significantly reduces data collection times and leads to enhanced performance by ADAPT-NMR

  11. Biological Threats

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  12. Sequencer for n accelerator facilities

    Operation of machines like telescopes and accelerators requires the efficient and reproducible execution of many different types of procedures. These machines consist of different sub-systems whose operation entail the execution of many tasks with strict compulsion on the order and duration of the execution. To improve operational reliability and efficiency, automated execution of procedures is required. Creation of a single robust sequencing application permits the streamlining of this process and offers many benefits. At the same time, a drive for greater efficiency, a tendency for more complex accelerator operations and a need to reduce the risk of 'operator error' have rendered these tools essential. This paper presents the design of Sequencer tool for Indian Accelerator facility. It sites an examples of such tools used at different international accelerator facilities. The features considered desirable in a good sequencer and a description of the tools created to aid in sequence construction and diagnosis are discussed. (author)

  13. Medical Proton Accelerator Project

    A project for a medical proton accelerator for cancer treatment is outlined. The project is motivated by the need for a precise modality for cancer curing especially in children. Proton therapy is known by its superior radiation and biological effectiveness as compared to photon or electron therapy. With 26 proton and 3 heavy-ion therapy complexes operating worldwide only one (p) exists in South Africa, and none in south Asia and the Middle East. The accelerator of choice should provide protons with energy 75 MeV for eye treatment and 250 MeV for body treatment. Four treatment rooms are suggested: two with isocentric gantries, one with fixed beams and one for development. Passive scanning is recommended. The project can serve Middle East and North Africa with ∼ 400 million populations. The annual capacity of the project is estimated as 1,100 to be compared with expected radiation cases eligible for proton cancer treatment of not less than 200,000

  14. Pulsed DC accelerator for laser wakefield accelerator

    For the acceleration of ultra-short, high-brightness electron bunches, a pulsed DC accelerator was constructed. The pulser produced megavolt pulses of 1 ns duration in a vacuum diode. Results are presented from field emission of electrons in the diode. The results indicate that the accelerating gradient in the diode is approximately 1.5 GV/m

  15. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Linear Accelerator A linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays to ... ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used ...

  16. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    structurally suitable for ovigerity. Species with Pseudocalanus-type gonads are present from polar seas to the tropics, some of them being key species. The Acartia-type was scarce, found in only one species, Acartia clausi. Here all oocyte developmental stages are present, including intermediate stages, but only a few oocytes mature synchronously and are released together. High spawning frequency compensates for the small clutches, and hence egg production rate may be as high as in Calanus-type gonads. In the Aetidius-type gonad, the total number of oocytes in the diverticula is low as is the number of oocytes maturing synchronously. Less is known about the reproductive biology of species with Aetidius-type gonads; however, their distribution and feeding patterns suggest that this type is common in species inhabiting environments of low food availability. The differences in gonad structures also lead to differences in the egg size:female size ratio, as the space available for each mature oocyte depends on the total number of oocytes. Independent from gonad-type, the eggs are relatively large in species in which the gonads contain only few oocytes, whereas small eggs are produced by species with gonads filled with many oocytes. Since all species carrying their eggs in external sacs until hatching (ovigerous species) have Pseudocalanus-type gonads, the scatter in their egg size:female size ratio is low. The broadcast spawning species are of all gonad-types, and consequently the scatter among them is high. A major factor affecting the timing and magnitude of spawning of calanoid copepods is the energy supply for gonad development. Therefore, part of the review elucidates the role of internal and external resources in fuelling egg production. In many species, freshly assimilated food is transferred into egg material within a short period of time, and clutch size and spawning frequency are the two parameters that allow adjustment of egg production to food availability and

  17. Accelerating Compact Object Mergers in Triple Systems with the Kozai Resonance: A Mechanism for "Prompt'' Type Ia Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Other Exotica

    Thompson, Todd A

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of Type Ia supernovae and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is unknown, but a subset of both may be due to white dwarf-white dwarf (WD-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) mergers, respectively. A general problem with this picture is the production of binaries with semi-major axes small enough to merge via gravitational wave (GW) emission in significantly less than the Hubble time (t_H), and thus accommodate the observation that these events closely follow episodes of star formation in time. I explore the possibility that such systems are not binaries at all, but actually coeval, or dynamical formed, hierarchical triple systems. The tertiary induces Kozai oscillations in the inner binary, driving it to high eccentricity, and dramatically reducing its GW merger timescale. This effect significantly increases the allowed range of binary period P such that the merger time is t_merge < t_H. I find that Chandrasehkar mass binaries with P as large as ~300 days can in fact merge in < t_H if they contai...

  18. An Air-Stripping Packed Bed Combined with a Biofilm-Type Biological Process for Treating BTEX and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Groudwater

    Hong, U.; Park, S.; Lim, J.; Lee, W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we examined the removal efficiency of a volatile compound (e.g. toluene) and a less volatile compound [e.g. total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)] using an air stripping packed bed combined with a biofilm-type biological process. We hypothesized that this system might be effective and economical to simultaneously remove both volatile and less volatile compounds. The gas-tight reactor has 5.9-inch-diameter and 48.8-inch-height. A spray nozzle was installed at the top cover to distribute the liquid evenly through reactor. The reactor was filled with polypropylene packing media for the increase of volatilization surface area and the growth of TPH degrading facultative aerobic bacteria on the surface of the packing media. In air stripping experiments, 45.6%, 71.7%, 72.0%, and 75.4% of toluene was removed at air injection rates of 0 L/min, 2.5 L/min, 4 L/min, and 6 L/min, respectively. Through the result, we confirmed that toluene removal efficiency increased by injecting higher amounts of air. TPH removal by stripping was minimal. To remove a less volatile TPH by commercial TPH degrading culture (BIO-ZYME B-52), 15-times diluted culture was circulated through the reactor for 2-3 days to build up a biofilm on the surface of packing media with 1 mg-soluble nitrogen source /L-water per 1 ppm of TPH. Experiments evaluating the degree of TPH biodegradation in this system are carrying out.

  19. Modeling biological systems with Answer Set Programming

    Thiele, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Biology has made great progress in identifying and measuring the building blocks of life. The availability of high-throughput methods in molecular biology has dramatically accelerated the growth of biological knowledge for various organisms. The advancements in genomic, proteomic and metabolomic technologies allow for constructing complex models of biological systems. An increasing number of biological repositories is available on the web, incorporating thousands of biochemical reactions and ...

  20. Acceleration mechanisms flares, magnetic reconnection and shock waves

    Several mechanisms are briefly discussed for the acceleration of particles in the astrophysical environment. Included are hydrodynamic acceleration, spherically convergent shocks, shock and a density gradient, coherent electromagnetic acceleration, the flux tube origin, symmetries and instabilities, reconnection, galactic flares, intergalactic acceleration, stochastic acceleration, and astrophysical shocks. It is noted that the supernova shock wave models still depend critically on the presupernova star structure and the assumption of highly compact presupernova models for type I supernovae. 37 references

  1. Magnetosphere of an Accelerated Pulsar

    Brennan, T Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We report on a remarkable class of exact solutions to force-free electrodynamics that has four-current along the light cones of an arbitrary timelike worldline in flat spacetime. No symmetry is assumed, and the solutions are given in terms of a free function of three variables. The field configuration should describe the outer magnetosphere of a pulsar moving on the worldline. The power radiated is the sum of an acceleration (Larmor-type) term and a pulsar-type term.

  2. Acceleration without Horizons

    Doria, Alaric; Munoz, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} < c$. The motion of the accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  3. Glycobiology Current Molecular Biology

    Sabire KARAÇALI

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate chemistry evolved into carbohydrate biochemistry and gradually into the biology of carbohydrates, or glycobiology, at the end of the last century. Glycobiology is the new research area of modern molecular biology, and it investigates the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of glycans. The numbers, linkage types (a or b), positions, binding points and functional group differences of monosaccharides create microheterogeneity. Thus, numerous glycoforms with precise stru...

  4. New ideas for accelerating particles

    Many different schemes can be devised for accelerating particles. In recent years several concepts radically different from those in common use have been suggested. Many of these have failed to live up to the hopes of their inventors. Now that we seem near the end of the road for large conventional machines, there is a renewed interest in alternatives, especially those involving lasers. Afte After a brief historical introduction and a discussion on how to classify different types of accelerator, some of these alternative concepts will be reviewed. (author)

  5. JAERI accelerator driven system project

    In Japan a national program called OMEGA was started in 1988 for research and development of new technologies for partitioning and transmutation of nuclear waste. Under this program JAERI is carrying out research and development for proton accelerator-driven transmutation, together with transmutation with fast burner reactor and advanced partitioning technology. Two types of accelerator driven transmutation systems are proposed: a solid system and a molten-salt system. An outline of the OMEGA program and the partitioning and transmutation studies at JAERI are presented in this report

  6. A review of analytical methods for the determination of four new phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in biological samples and pharmaceutical preparations

    Cristiane Franco Codevilla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy in 1998 revolutionized the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is the most common sexual problem in men. It often has a profound effect on intimate relationships and quality of life. The analysis of pharmaceuticals is an important part of the drug development process as well as for routine analysis and quality control of commercial formulations. Whereas the determination of sildenafil citrate, vardenafil and tadalafil are well documented by a variety of methods, there are few publications about the determination of udenafil, lodenafil carbonate, mirodenafil and avanafil. The paper presents a brief review of the action mechanism, adverse effects, pharmacokinetics and the most recent analytical methods that can determine drug concentration in biological matrices and pharmaceutical formulations of these four drugs.A introdução da terapia oral com inibidores da fosfodiesterase tipo 5, em 1998, revolucionou o tratamento da disfunção erétil. A disfunção erétil é o problema sexual mais comum em homens. Muitas vezes tem um efeito profundo nas relações íntimas e na qualidade de vida. A análise de produtos farmacêuticos é uma parte importante do processo de desenvolvimento de fármacos, bem como para a análise de rotina e controle de qualidade das formulações comerciais. Enquanto a determinação do citrato de sildenafila, vardenafila e tadalafila está bem documentada por uma variedade de métodos, existem poucas publicações sobre a determinação de udenafila, carbonato de lodenafila, mirodenafila e avanafila. O artigo apresenta uma breve revisão do mecanismo de ação, efeitos adversos, farmacocinética e os mais recentes métodos analíticos, que podem determinar a concentração do fármaco em matrizes biológicas e formulações farmacêuticas destes quatro fármacos.

  7. Elements in biological AMS

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  8. Hardware Accelerated Sequence Alignment with Traceback

    Scott Lloyd; Snell, Quinn O

    2009-01-01

    Biological sequence alignment is an essential tool used in molecular biology and biomedical applications. The growing volume of genetic data and the complexity of sequence alignment present a challenge in obtaining alignment results in a timely manner. Known methods to accelerate alignment on reconfigurable hardware only address sequence comparison, limit the sequence length, or exhibit memory and I/O bottlenecks. A space-efficient, global sequence alignment algorithm and architecture is pres...

  9. History of the electrostatic accelerator in Japan

    Modern Van de Graaff accelerator was first built at Wisconsin University in 1934. After the World War II, High Voltage Engineering Corp. (HVEC) was established and manufactured many Van de Graaff accelerators. The HVEC succeeded in fabricating a Van de Graaff accelerator of tandem type, by which the proton bean with an energy of 20 MeV became available. In 1965 Pelletron was put into practical use. In Japan, development of Van de Graaff accelerator was initiated in 1940's at IPCR, the University of Tokyo, Osaka University, Kyoto University and Kyushu University. After the War, many Van de Graaff accelerators have been supplied mainly from industries. Physicists at Kyushu University developed the accelerator by their own way. (K.Y.)

  10. Weapon plutonium in accelerator driven power system

    Accelerator Driven Systems are planned to be developed for the use (or destruction) of dozens of tons of weapon-grade Plutonium (W-Pu) resulted from the reducing of nuclear weapons. In the paper are compared the parameters of various types of accelerators, the physical properties of various types of targets and blankets, and the results of fuel cycle simulation. Some economical aspects are also discussed

  11. The direction of acceleration

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  12. Industrial applications of electron accelerators

    Cleland, M R

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the industrial applications of electron accelerators for modifying the physical, chemical or biological properties of materials and commercial products by treatment with ionizing radiation. Many beneficial effects can be obtained with these methods, which are known as radiation processing. The earliest practical applications occurred during the 1950s, and the business of radiation processing has been expanding since that time. The most prevalent applications are the modification of many different plastic and rubber products and the sterilization of single-use medical devices. Emerging applications are the pasteurization and preservation of foods and the treatment of toxic industrial wastes. Industrial accelerators can now provide electron energies greater than 10 MeV and average beam powers as high as 700 kW. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron beams is stimulating interest in the use of X-rays (bremsstrahlung) as an alternative to gamma rays from radioactive nuclides.

  13. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  14. Chitosan Nanoparticles-Mediated Wild-Type p53 Gene Delivery for Cancer Gene Therapy: Improvement in Pharmaceutical & Biological Properties (Enhance in Loading, Release, Expression and Stability of P53 Plasmid and Induction of Apoptosis in Carcinoma Cell Line

    Mehrdad Hamidi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient non-viral vectors for gene delivery based on chitosan polymer is dependent on a variety of factors, e.g. loading and lelease capacity, stability in biological system and complex size. This system may have low loading, release and stability capacity. Biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles formulated using a chitosan polymer has the potential for sustained and controlled gene delivery. Our hypothesis is that nanoparticles-mediated wild-type p53 gene delivery would result in sustained gene expression, and hence better efficacy with a therapeutic gene. In this study, we have determined the pharmaceutical and biological characterization of Chitosan nanoparticles containing wild-type p53. Nanoparticles containing plasmid were formulated using a microemulsion reverse micellar and ionic gelation techniques. In conclusion, chitosan nanoparticles- p53 complex gene delivery results in sustained and better antiproliferative activity, which could be therapeutically beneficial in cancer treatment.

  15. Biological and serological characterization of the C-type RNA viruses isolated from the C57BL/Ka strain of mice; 2. Induction and propagation of the isolates

    Several classes of C-type RNA viruses have been isolated from the tissues of C57BL/Ka mice. Normal lymphocytes and haemopoietic tissues, lymphoid tumors induced by X-rays or virus inoculation, and embryo fibroblast cultures have yielded an array of virus preparations with distinct biological and serological characteristics. The type of virus isolated depends on the cell of origin and on the procedures used for viral induction, isolation, and propagation. Parallel studies in vivo and in vitro indicate that some isolates are thymotropic and leukemogenic (TL+), while others which replicate well on fibroblastic cells in vitro (fibrotropism) lack TL activity in vivo. The thymotropic, leukemogenic isolates lose their TL activity, partially or totally, when passaged in fibroblastic cells, and the emerging virus has significantly different characteristics. This report describes the procedures of induction, isolation, and propagation which yield these two distinctively different classes of virus isolates, and characterizes their biological activities in vivo and in vitro

  16. A variable acceleration calibration system

    Johnson, Thomas H.

    2011-12-01

    A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

  17. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  18. Dielectric Laser Acceleration

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Wu, Ziran; Qi, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    We describe recent advances in the study of particle acceleration using dielectric near-field structures driven by infrared lasers, which we refer to as Dielectric Laser Accelerators. Implications for high energy physics and other applications are discussed.

  19. Standing wave linear accelerator

    Consideration is being given to standing wave linear accelerator containing generator, phase shifter, two accelerating resonator sections, charged particle injector and waveguide bridge. Its first arm is oined up with generator via the phase shifter, the second and the third ones-with accelerating sections and the fourth one - with HF-power absorber. HF-power absorber represents a section of circular diaphragmatic wavequide with transformer with input wave and intrawaveguide output load located between injector and the first accelerating section. The section possesses holes in side walls lying on accelerator axis. The distances between centers of the last cell of the fast accelerating section and the first cell of the second accelerating sectiOn equal (2n+3)lambda/4, where n=1, 2, 3..., lambda - wave length of generator. The suggested system enables to improve by one order spectral characteristics of accelerators as compared to the prototype in which magnetrons are used as generator

  20. Improved plasma accelerator

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  1. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  2. Petawatt pulsed-power accelerator

    Stygar, William A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cuneo, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Headley, Daniel I. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, legal representative; Berry Cottrell (Albuquerque, NM); Leeper, Ramon J. (Albuquerque, NM); Mazarakis, Michael G. (Albuquerque, NM); Olson, Craig L. (Albuquerque, NM); Porter, John L. (Sandia Park, NM); Wagoner; Tim C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-03-16

    A petawatt pulsed-power accelerator can be driven by various types of electrical-pulse generators, including conventional Marx generators and linear-transformer drivers. The pulsed-power accelerator can be configured to drive an electrical load from one- or two-sides. Various types of loads can be driven; for example, the accelerator can be used to drive a high-current z-pinch load. When driven by slow-pulse generators (e.g., conventional Marx generators), the accelerator comprises an oil section comprising at least one pulse-generator level having a plurality of pulse generators; a water section comprising a pulse-forming circuit for each pulse generator and a level of monolithic triplate radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, that have variable impedance profiles, for each pulse-generator level; and a vacuum section comprising triplate magnetically insulated transmission lines that feed an electrical load. When driven by LTD generators or other fast-pulse generators, the need for the pulse-forming circuits in the water section can be eliminated.

  3. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    Page, Don N.

    1997-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruenc...

  4. Accelerators at school

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required

  5. A Solid state accelerator

    We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 105 TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed

  6. Superconducting accelerator technology

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  7. Applications of particle accelerators

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  8. Accelerator development in BARC

    Charged particle accelerators have played crucial role in the field of both basic and applied sciences. This has been possible because the accelerators have been extensively utilized from unraveling the secrets of nature to diverse applications such as implantation, material modification, medical diagnostics and therapy, nuclear energy and clean air and water. The development of accelerators in BARC can be categorized in two broad categories namely proton and heavy ion based accelerators and electron based accelerators. The heavy ion accelerators with sufficiently high energies are currently being used for conducting frontline nuclear and allied research whereas the electron accelerators are being routinely used for various industrial applications. Recently, there is a strong interest for developing the high energy and high intensity accelerators due to their possibility of effective utilization towards concept of energy amplification (Accelerator Driven System), incineration nuclear waste and transmutation. This talk will discuss details of the accelerator development program in BARC with particular emphasis on the recent development at Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) Facility in Ion Accelerator Development Division, BARC. (author)

  9. Far field acceleration

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail

  10. The CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  11. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  12. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  13. Acceleration-induced nonlocality: kinetic memory versus dynamic memory

    Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the memory of accelerated motion in Minkowski spacetime are discussed within the framework of the nonlocal theory of accelerated observers. Two types of memory are distinguished: kinetic and dynamic. We show that only kinetic memory is acceptable, since dynamic memory leads to divergences for nonuniform accelerated motion.

  14. Heavy ion accelerator and associated developments in India

    G K Mehta

    2002-11-01

    Developments of ion accelerator and associated facilities in India are presented. Various types of accelerator facilities which are systematically built in the country through sustained development and research programs at various research centres and institutions are highlighted. Impact of accelerator in different interdisciplinary fields of research are highlighted.

  15. Noise in biology

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evolution, providing selective advantage in dynamic environments, enhancing intracellular transport of biomolecules and increasing information capacity of signaling pathways. This short review covers the recent progress in understanding mechanisms and effects of fluctuations in biological systems of different scales and the basic approaches to their mathematical modeling. (review article)

  16. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  17. Direct Laser Acceleration in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    Shaw, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, the direct laser acceleration (DLA) of ionization-injected electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) operating in the quasi-blowout regime has been investigated through experiment and simulation. In the blowout regime of LWFA, the radiation pressure of an intense laser pulse can push a majority of the plasma electrons out and around the main body of the pulse. The expelled plasma electrons feel the electrostatic field of the relatively-stationary ions and are t...

  18. From storage ion trap of an 'in-flight capture' type for precise mass measurement of radioactive nuclei to mass selector of weight amounts of stable isotopes and to effective accumulator-collider of accelerated fusion hydrogen nuclei

    Full text: Data on nuclear masses provide a basis for creating and testing various nuclear models. A tandem system comprised of the U-400M cyclotron, the COMBAS magnetic separator and the mass spectrometric ion trap of a 'in-flight capture' type is considered as a complex for producing of the short -lived nuclei by heavy ions in fragmentation reactions and for precise mass measurement of this nuclei. In-flight transportation of the recoiled nuclei to the magnetic solenoid of the ionic trap and transformation their longitudinal kinetic energy into an azimuth rotation arc produced by the fringing magnetic field according to Bush's theorem at the off axial input. Confinement and accumulation of the rotating ions in the trap are produced by using their reflecting by the electrostatic field of the final end cap electrode of the volume quadrupole and their repelling by a magnetic valve located at the entrance. The development of mass spectroscopic ion traps of a new tape resulted in a efficient method for selecting stable isotopes of non volatile chemical elements in the weight amounts analogously needed for physical and technical aims. The system uses ionic-cyclotron resonance in homogenous magnetic and volume quadrupole electric fields. In our case there are used general rotating excitation of the accelerated ions by the off axial input in the solenoid and their high frequency electric resonance cooling. There are axial transparency volume electric quadrupole with axial GZR >0 gradients (in the Penning trap GZ>0 and GR2 H+3H=4He+n having a very large resonance cross section at very low energy (63.0 keV in the centre-of-mass frame) in the merging collisions

  19. THE TWENTIETH CENTURY DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BACTERIAL, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND THE PRESENT CAPABILITIES OF NATO AND THE WARSAW PACT IN THIS RESPECT

    A.L.S. Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Over the last twenty years increased attention has been focused on the military uses of Bacterial, Biological and Chemical agents (BBC weapons). This phenomenon can be attributed to a number of reasons. Firstly, BBC weapons are comparatively cheap and simple to produce, they are easy to use as conventional weapons and their effects are short-lived. The mutual deterrence effect of nuclear weapons, furthermore, has necessitated the exploration of other fields of warfare of which - BBC warfare i...

  20. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  1. Ion sources for high-power hadron accelerators

    Faircloth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Ion sources are a critical component of all particle accelerators. They create the initial beam that is accelerated by the rest of the machine. This paper will introduce the many methods of creating a beam for high-power hadron accelerators. A brief introduction to some of the relevant concepts of plasma physics and beam formation is given. The different types of ion source used in accelerators today are examined. Positive ion sources for producing H+ ions and multiply charged heavy ions are ...

  2. The future of particle accelerators

    Plasma-based accelerators are developing as credible, and compact, accelerators for the future. We review the status and prospects for electron and proton accelerators using laser Wakefield acceleration. (author)

  3. Hybrid Laser-Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    The concept of driving a driver/witness-type plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) with quasimonoenergetic double electron bunches from a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) is studied. In the quasimonoenergetic LWFA/SMLWFA (self-modulated LWFA) regime, it is possible to generate multiple quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with durations of only a few fs and distances of only a few tens of fs with a comparably simple experimental setup. In a subsequent high-density plasma afterburner stage the witness bunch energy can be boosted in the plasma wakefield generated by the driver. Such a hybrid system can increase the maximum energy output of a laser wakefield accelerator and is well suited to study driver/witness plasma accelerator phenomena and can be used as a cost-effective test-bed for future high-energy plasma-based accelerators.

  4. Ion Beam Energy Calibration Method for Accelerator

    Ion beam energy calibration methods, i e : nuclear reaction method, magnetic field method and calorimeter method were elaborated and studied from its advantage and disadvantage in this paper. Ion beam energy calibration method for accelerator using the method of magnetic field on 3 MV Tandem Accelerator have been carried out at Tiara, JAERI, Japan. The result showed that the energy of ion beam current is 43.56 keV. The result of study conclude that nuclear reaction method generally used to calibrate ion beam energy at the accelerator of energy larger than 2 MeV, calorimetric method for the accelerator electron including linac, magnetic field method for all particle type of accelerator. (author)

  5. A new relativistic kinematics of accelerated systems

    We consider transformations between uniformly accelerated systems, assuming that the clock hypothesis is false. We use the proper velocity-time description of events rather than the usual space-time description in order to obtain linear transformations. Based on the generalized principle of relativity and the ensuing symmetry, we obtain transformations of Lorentz type. We predict the existence of a maximal acceleration and time dilation due to acceleration. We also predict a Doppler shift due to acceleration of the source in addition to the shift due to the source's velocity. Based on our results, we explain the Kuendig experiment (Kuendig 1963 Phys. Rev. 129 2371), as reanalyzed by Kholmetski et al (2008 Phys. Scr. 77 035302), and obtain an estimate of the maximal acceleration.

  6. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  7. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration

  8. Sp-brane accelerating cosmologies

    We investigate time dependent solutions (S-brane solutions) for product manifolds consisting of factor spaces where only one of them is non-Ricci-flat. Our model contains a minimally coupled free scalar field as a matter source. We discuss a possibility of generating late-time acceleration of the Universe. The analysis is performed in conformally related Brans-Dicke and Einstein frames. Dynamical behavior of our Universe is described by its scale factor. Since the scale factors of our Universe are described by different variables in both frames, they can have different dynamics. Indeed, we show that with our S-brane ansatz in the Brans-Dicke frame the stages of accelerating expansion exist for all types of the external space (flat, spherical, and hyperbolic). However, applying the same ansatz for the metric in the Einstein frame, we find that a model with flat external space and hyperbolic compactification of the internal space is the only one with the stage of the accelerating expansion. A scalar field can prevent this acceleration. It is shown that the case of hyperbolic external space in the Brans-Dicke frame is the only model which can satisfy experimental bounds for the fine-structure constant variations. We obtain a class of models where a pair of dynamical internal spaces have fixed total volume. This results in a fixed fine-structure constant. However, these models are unstable and external space is nonaccelerating

  9. THE TWENTIETH CENTURY DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BACTERIAL, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND THE PRESENT CAPABILITIES OF NATO AND THE WARSAW PACT IN THIS RESPECT

    A.L.S. Hudson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years increased attention has been focused on the military uses of Bacterial, Biological and Chemical agents (BBC weapons. This phenomenon can be attributed to a number of reasons. Firstly, BBC weapons are comparatively cheap and simple to produce, they are easy to use as conventional weapons and their effects are short-lived. The mutual deterrence effect of nuclear weapons, furthermore, has necessitated the exploration of other fields of warfare of which - BBC warfare is a field. Another reason for this interest is the employment, on a limited scale, of such weapons in certain conflicts over this period.

  10. Accelerator mass spectrometry of ultra-small samples with applications in the biosciences

    Salehpour, Mehran, E-mail: mehran.salehpour@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, PO Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Hakansson, Karl; Possnert, Goeran [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, PO Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    An overview is presented covering the biological accelerator mass spectrometry activities at Uppsala University. The research utilizes the Uppsala University Tandem laboratory facilities, including a 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator and two stable isotope ratio mass spectrometers. In addition, a dedicated sample preparation laboratory for biological samples with natural activity is in use, as well as another laboratory specifically for {sup 14}C-labeled samples. A variety of ongoing projects are described and presented. Examples are: (1) Ultra-small sample AMS. We routinely analyze samples with masses in the 5-10 {mu}g C range. Data is presented regarding the sample preparation method, (2) bomb peak biological dating of ultra-small samples. A long term project is presented where purified and cell-specific DNA from various part of the human body including the heart and the brain are analyzed with the aim of extracting regeneration rate of the various human cells, (3) biological dating of various human biopsies, including atherosclerosis related plaques is presented. The average built up time of the surgically removed human carotid plaques have been measured and correlated to various data including the level of insulin in the human blood, and (4) In addition to standard microdosing type measurements using small pharmaceutical drugs, pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data from a macromolecular drug candidate are discussed.

  11. Accelerator and radiation physics

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  12. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  13. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    This paper describes many of the nuclear physics heavy-ion accelerator facilities in the US and the research programs being conducted. The accelerators described are: Argonne National Laboratory--ATLAS; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (Proposed); Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Bevalac; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--88-Inch Cyclotron; Los Alamos National Laboratory--Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF); Massachusetts Institute of Technology--Bates Linear Accelerator Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center--Nuclear Physics Injector; Texas AandM University--Texas AandM Cyclotron; Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL); University of Washington--Tandem/Superconducting Booster; and Yale University--Tandem Van de Graaff

  14. Accelerator reliability workshop

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  15. Switched Matrix Accelerator

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm-wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We provide also an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392. GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high-power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium

  16. Biological and serological characterization of C-type RNA viruses isolated from the C57BL/Ka strain of mice; 3. Characterization of the isolates and their interactions

    Of the several classes of C-type RNA viruses isolated from the C57BL/Ka strain, only RadLV and RadLV-LTC are thymotropic and leukemogenic (lymphomagenic) and can therefore be properly designated as murine leukemia viruses. Both preparations are distinct from the previously recognized classes of endogenous murine ecotropic and xenotropic C-type viruses which are capable of replication on fibroblasts in vitro (fibrotropic), but are neither thymotropic nor leukemogenic in vivo. Recent studies have demonstrated the serological and biological differences between these various isolates and indicate that some preparations are mixtures of particles with different biological attributes. Experiments designed to assess the in vitro and in vivo interactions between the thymotropic-leukemogenic (TL) viruses and the non-thymotropic isolates have confirmed the TL competence of RadLV and RadLV-LTC and revealed the presence of defective TL virions in some of the virus preparations passaged in vitro. These experiments indicated that RadLV and RadLV-LTC are autonomous MuLV preparations and are not mixtures of the non-thymotropic C-type RNA viruses endogenous in the C57BL/Ka strain of mice. The present report summarizes the available data concerning the serological characteristics of the various isolates from C57BL/Ka mouse strains and their in vivo and in vitro interactions

  17. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: RF for Accelerators

    2012-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twenty-fourth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held in Ebeltoft, Denmark, from 8-17 June, 2010 in collaboration with Aarhus University, with the topic 'RF for Accelerators' While this topic has been covered by CAS previously, early in the 1990s and again in 2000, it was recognized that recent advances in the field warranted an updated course. Following introductory courses covering the background physics, the course attempted to cover all aspects of RF for accelerators; from RF power generation and transport, through cavity and coupler design, electronics and low level control, to beam diagnostics and RF gymnastics. The lectures were supplemented with several sessions of exercises, which were completed by discussion sessions on the solutions.

  18. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author)

  19. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T. [and others

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author).

  20. Japan Accelerator Conference

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  1. [Biological therapy for osteoporosis].

    Nakamura, Shinya; Tanaka, Sakae

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bone formation and resorption balance. Advances in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of bone formation and resorption led to promising therapeutic targets for osteoporosis. In the novel biological drugs, denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) has been clinically applied by positive effect on bone mineral density, negative effect on bone resorption, preventive effect on fragility fractures and safety. Odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor is drawing attention as an antiresorptive drug which has lower bone resorption potency than bisphosphoneate. On the other hand, BHQ-880, an anti-Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) antibody and romosozumab (AMG-785) , an anti-sclerostin antibody which activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway are drawing attention as bone formation accelerators with no bone resorption acceleration. Clinical studies of these drugs are now ongoing and their clinical applications are expected. PMID:24870844

  2. Transient cosmic acceleration from interacting fluids

    Recent investigations seem to favor a cosmological dynamics according to which the accelerated expansion of the Universe may have already peaked and is now slowing down again. As a consequence, the cosmic acceleration may be a transient phenomenon. We investigate a toy model that reproduces such a background behavior as the result of a time-dependent coupling in the dark sector which implies a cancelation of the ''bare'' cosmological constant. With the help of a statistical analysis of Supernova Type Ia (SNIa) data we demonstrate that for a certain parameter combination a transient accelerating phase emerges as a pure interaction effect

  3. Accelerator modeling system for the future

    Many computer programs and a variety of models exist for the design of accelerator lattices and the correction of errors. Many physicists contributed to this work by developing codes to suit a variety of machines. At present, we are integrating some of these codes into a unified framework to design and control any type of machine. We will refer to this system of interactive accelerator design, control, and analysis codes as the All-In-One Modeling system (AIM). This paper will explore the utilities of AIM for future accelerator modeling and control. As an example, we will describe a procedure to produce both a linear and a nonlinear model for SPEAR

  4. Acceleration of Runge-Kutta integration schemes

    Udwadia, Firdaus E.; Phailaung Phohomsiri

    2004-01-01

    A simple accelerated third-order Runge-Kutta-type, fixed time step, integration scheme that uses just two function evaluations per step is developed. Because of the lower number of function evaluations, the scheme proposed herein has a lower computational cost than the standard third-order Runge-Kutta scheme while maintaining the same order of local accuracy. Numerical examples illustrating the computational efficiency and accuracy are presented and the actual speedup when the accelerated alg...

  5. Mechanical Design of Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    Toral, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the mechanical design of superconducting accelerator magnets. First, we give a brief review of the basic concepts and terms. In the following sections, we describe the particularities of the mechanical design of different types of superconducting accelerator magnets: solenoids, cos-theta, superferric, and toroids. Special attention is given to the pre-stress principle, which aims to avoid the appearance of tensile stresses in the superconducting coils. A case study on a co...

  6. Superconducting accelerator magnets

    In the near future, a large number of high quality superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets will be required for construction of the next generation multi-TeV high energy hadron accelerator-colliders. To establish the construction technology of such accelerator- colliders, extensive and world-wide R and D programs are now carrying out at several laboratories. In this paper the important issues in superconducting accelerator magnets such as cables, design, fabrication, testing and cryogenic system are discussed together with some details on coil cross- sectional current configurations, quality control of materials, quench protections, radiation heating and etc. The key technology in superconducting accelerator magnets is summarized

  7. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  8. High-intensity accelerators

    The design of high-intensity accelerators is described, using examples of machines being built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The major design problem with these accelerators is associated with control of beam loss when accelerator intensity is increased. Beam dynamics, beam loss, and the radio-frequency quadrupole structure are discussed in the first part of the chapter followed by an explanation of plans to achieve high-intensity operation in three projects: the Fusion Material Irradiation Tests (a joint effort with the Hanford Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington), the Proton Storage Ring (an addition to the LAMPF accelerator), and the Racetrack Microtron Project

  9. No Time To Kill: Entrainment and Accelerating Courseware Development.

    Millington, Paula Crnkovich

    This paper examines the concept of time in multimedia, World Wide Web-based courseware development. The biological concept of entrainment (the alignment of rhythms within and between systems) to accelerate courseware development is explored. The discussion begins with the foundational concepts of entrainment from biological systems and social…

  10. TL Dosimetry on the Tandetron Ion Accelerator area of the ININ; Dosimetria TL en el area del Acelerador de iones Tandetron del ININ

    Valdovinos A, M.A.; Gonzalez M, P.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    For the fulfilment of the operation tests of the Positive Ions type Tandetron 4120 MC, 2 MV, it was obtained the permission consented by the National Commission of Nuclear safety and safeguards (CNSNS). During the stage of tests were arranged Tl dosemeters in the Tandetron Accelerator area, as well as toward to the beam exit. In this work, it was presented the results obtained of the measurement of radiation levels, as much in the area as in the beam exit. This Accelerator is useful in different fields of science such as: biology, radiochemistry, materials, solid state physics, archaeology and environmental sciences between others. (Author)

  11. Application of Chicory Residue as a New Type of Biological Feed Additive in the Production of Laying Hens%菊苣残渣生物饲料添加剂在蛋鸡生产中的应用

    王宁宁; 王勇; 周霖; 闫从阳

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研制1种新型的生物饲料添加剂,并探讨其对蛋鸡养殖的实际功效.[方法]选用枯草芽孢杆菌、嗜酸乳杆菌、保加利亚乳杆菌、地衣芽孢杆菌作为试验菌株,以菊苣残渣为发酵原料,研制1种新型的生物饲料添加剂,并探讨其对蛋鸡生产性能和鸡蛋品质的影响.[结果]在饲料中添加新型的生物饲料添加剂后,蛋鸡产蛋率提高2.3%,料蛋比降低13.9%,平均蛋重提高1.4%,蛋黄黄度明显提高15.5%.当该新型的生物饲料添加剂的添加量为1%时,蛋黄的粗蛋白含量也有显著提高.[结论]用菊苣研制成的新型生物饲料添加剂可用于蛋鸡生产中.%[Objective] The purpose of the research was to develop a new type of biological feed additive and discuss its actual efficiency on the culture of laying hens. [Method] Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Bacillus licheniformis were used as test strains and chicory residue was used as fermentation material to develop a new type of biological feed additive. And its effects on the production performance of laying hens and egg quality were studied. [Result] After adding new type of biological feed additive in the feed, the egg production rate increased 2.3% , feed-egg ratio decreased 13.9% , average egg weight increased by 1.4% , the egg yolk yellow significantly improved 15.5%. [Conclusion] The new type of biological feed additive produced with chicory residue could be used in the production of laying hens.

  12. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    The heavy ion accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research were used to study the regularities and mechanisms of formation of different types of mutations in prokaryote cells. The induction of direct (lac-, ton B-, col B) mutations for Esherichia coli cells and reverse his- → His+ mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis cells under the action of radiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) was studied. The regularities of formation of gene and structural (tonB trp-) mutations for Esherichia coli bacteria under the action of accelerated heavy ions were studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of gene mutations as a function of the dose under the action of Γ rays and accelerated heavy ions is described by linear-quadratic functions. For structural mutations, linear "dose-effect" dependences are typical. The quadratic character of mutagenesis dose curves is determined by the "interaction" of two independent "hitting" events in the course of SOS repair of genetic structures. The conclusion made was that gene mutations under the action of accelerated heavy ions are induced by δ electron regions of charged particle tracks. The methods of SOS chromotest, SOS lux test, and λ prophage induction were used to study the regularities of SOS response of cells under the action of radiations in a wide LET range. The following proposition was substantiated: the molecular basis for formation of gene mutations are cluster single-strand DNA breaks, and that for structural mutations, double-strand DNA breaks. It was found out that the LET dependence of the relative biological efficiency of accelerated ions is described by curves with a local maximum. It was demonstrated that the biological efficiency of ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics on cells with different genotype, estimated by the lethal action, induction of gene and deletion mutations, precision excision of transposons, is determined by the specific

  13. Modeling Ion Acceleration Using LSP

    McMahon, Matthew

    This thesis presents the development of simulations modeling ion acceleration using the particle-in-cell code LSP. A new technique was developed to model the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. Multiple simulations are performed, each optimized for a certain part of the TNSA process with appropriate information being passed from one to the next. The technique allows for tradeoffs between accuracy and speed. Physical length and timescales are met when necessary and different physical models are employed as needed. This TNSA modeling technique is used to perform a study on the effect front-surface structures have on the resulting ion acceleration. The front-surface structures tested have been shown to either modify the electron kinetic energy spectrum by increasing the maximum energy obtained or by increasing the overall coupling of laser energy to electron energy. Both of these types of front-surface structures are tested for their potential benefits for the accelerated ions. It is shown that optimizing the coupling of laser energy to electron energy is more important than producing extremely energetic electrons in the case of the TNSA ions. Simulations modeling the interaction of an intense laser with very thin (<100 nm thick) liquid crystal targets, modeled for the first time, are presented. Modeling this interaction is difficult and the effect of different simulation design choices is explored in depth. In particular, it is shown that the initial electron temperature used in the simulation has a significant effect on the resulting ion acceleration and light transmitted through the target. This behavior is explored through numerous 1D simulations.

  14. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  15. Physics of particle accelerators and ion optics. With 149 illustrations, calculated examples, and 99 exercise problems with complete solutions

    Accelerator types, accelerator components, ion optics with magnets and electrostatic lenses, transverse orbit dynamics in cyclic accelerators, disturbing fields and resonances, longitudinal orbit dynamics, injection and extraction, phase-space density and beam cooling

  16. Use of semiconductor detector c-Si microstrip type in obtaining the digital radiographic imaging of phantoms and biological samples of mammary glands

    The present work synthesizes the experimental results obtained in the characterization of 64 micro strips crystalline silicon detector designed for experiments in high energies physics, with the objective of studying its possible application in advanced medical radiography, specifically in digital mammography and angiography. The research includes the acquisition of two-dimensional radiography of a mammography phantom using the scanning method, and its comparison with similar images simulated mathematically for different X rays sources. The paper also shows the experimental radiography of two biological samples taken from biopsies of mammas, where it is possible to identify the presence of possible pathological lesions. The results reached in this work point positively toward the effective possibility of satisfactorily introducing those advanced detectors in medical digital imaging applications. (Author)

  17. Self accelerating electron Airy beams

    Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Lilach, Yigal; Gover, Avraham; Arie, Ady

    2013-01-01

    We report the first experimental generation and observation of Airy beams of free electrons. The electron Airy beams are generated by diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram, that imprints a cubic phase modulation on the beams' transverse plane. We observed the spatial evolution dynamics of an arc-shaped, self accelerating and shape preserving electron Airy beams. We directly observed the ability of electrons to self-heal, restoring their original shape after passing an obstacle. This electromagnetic method opens up new avenues for steering electrons, like their photonic counterparts, since their wave packets can be imprinted with arbitrary shapes or trajectories. Furthermore, these beams can be easily manipulated using magnetic or electric potentials. It is also possible to efficiently self mix narrow beams having opposite signs of acceleration, hence obtaining a new type of electron interferometer.

  18. The US Muon Accelerator Program

    Torun, Y.; /IIT, Chicago; Kirk, H.; /Brookhaven; Bross, A.; Geer, Steve; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab; Zisman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-05-01

    An accelerator complex that can produce ultra-intense beams of muons presents many opportunities to explore new physics. A facility of this type is unique in that, in a relatively straightforward way, it can present a physics program that can be staged and thus move forward incrementally, addressing exciting new physics at each step. At the request of the US Department of Energy's Office of High Energy Physics, the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC) and the Fermilab Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) have recently submitted a proposal to create a Muon Accelerator Program that will have, as a primary goal, to deliver a Design Feasibility Study for an energy-frontier Muon Collider by the end of a 7 year R&D program. This paper presents a description of a Muon Collider facility and gives an overview of the proposal.

  19. Observational Probes of Cosmic Acceleration

    Weinberg, David H; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Hirata, Christopher; Riess, Adam G; Rozo, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The accelerating expansion of the universe is the most surprising cosmological discovery in many decades, implying that the universe is dominated by some form of "dark energy" with exotic physical properties, or that Einstein's theory of gravity breaks down on cosmological scales. The profound implications of cosmic acceleration have inspired ambitious experimental efforts to measure the history of expansion and growth of structure with percent-level precision or higher. We review in detail the four most well established methods for making such measurements: Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), weak gravitational lensing, and galaxy clusters. We pay particular attention to the systematic uncertainties in these techniques and to strategies for controlling them at the level needed to exploit "Stage IV" dark energy facilities such as BigBOSS, LSST, Euclid, and WFIRST. We briefly review a number of other approaches including redshift-space distortions, the Alcock-Paczynski test, and direct meas...

  20. Biological activity and safety of adenoviral vector-expressed wild-type p53 after intratumoral injection in melanoma and breast cancer patients with p53-overexpressing tumors

    Dummer, R; Bergh, J; Karlsson, Y; Horovitz, JA; Mulder, NH; Huinin, DT; Burg, G; Hofbauer, G; Osanto, S

    2000-01-01

    p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in human cancer. Gene transfer of a wild-type (wt) p53 gene reverses the loss of normal p53 function in vitro and in vivo. A phase I dose escalation study of single intratumoral (i.t.) injection of a replication-defective adenoviral expression vector cont

  1. Accelerator Modeling with MATLAB Accelerator Toolbox

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model storage rings and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. The objective is to illustrate the flexibility and efficiency of the AT-MATLAB framework. The paper discusses three examples of problems that are analyzed frequently in connection with ring-based synchrotron light sources

  2. Status of JAERI tandem accelerator

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Kanda, Susumu; Takeuchi, Suehiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2001-02-01

    JAERI Tandem Accelerator had been operated approximately 230 days in fiscal year of 1999. Meanwhile, we had three times of maintenance period with vent. Total operation-times were 5273 hours. We could not carry out the experiment using rare gas, due to malfunction of the RF power supply for the ECR ion source. The type of the RF power supply is peculiar and it is impossible to get spare parts for repair. We are now investigating the backup RF power supply. The power supply for the magnet became unstable due to degradation of insulation in the shunt resistance, which is used for feedback stabilization. Stability was recovered after cleaning. The acrylic resin shaft was cracked. This cracks have a potential for severe accidents. So far bearing of the shaft has no problem. The reason of cracks may be self-destruction by charge accumulation in the shaft. JAERI Tandem Accelerator is approximately 20 years old. There appear requirements on the higher ion currents for additional ion species. Therefore, authors are investigating cost effective improvement plans of RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadra-pole) and IH type accelerator based on KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) R and D. As a whole, maintenance services for the control system are increasing due to some changes of computer programs. There are some difficulties to keep skilled personnel for facilities operation. Authors are gradually increasing hired personnel with contract from 1993. However, loads for JAERI permanent staffs are still heavy. It takes much longer time to educate skilled persons especially for safety. (Y. Tanaka)

  3. Brazing techniques for side-coupled electron accelerator structures

    The collaboration between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), started in 1979, has led to the development of an advanced c-w microtron accelerator design. The four 2380-MHz NBS accelerating structures, containing a total of 184 accelerating cavities, have been fabricated and delivered. New fabrication methods, coupled with refinements of hydrogen-furnace brazing techniques described in this paper, allow efficient production of side-coupled structures. Success with the NBS RTM led to Los Alamos efforts on similar 2450-MHz accelerators for the microtron accelerator operated by the Nuclear Physics Department of the University of Illinois. Two accelerators (each with 17 cavities) have been fabricated; in 1986, a 45-cavity accelerator is being fabricated by private industry with some assistance from Los Alamos. Further private industry experience and refinement of the described fabrication techniques may allow future accelerators of this type to be completely fabricated by private industry

  4. COLLECTIVE-FIELD ACCELERATION

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1969-07-04

    Diverse methods proposed for the acceleration of particles by means of collective fields are reviewed. A survey is made of the various currently active experimental programs devoted to investigating collective acceleration, and the present status of the research is briefly noted.

  5. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval

  6. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  7. Accelerators for energy production

    A tremendous progress of accelerators for these several decades, has been motivated mainly by the research on subnuclear physics. The culmination in high energy accelerators might be SSC, 20 TeV collider in USA, probably the ultimate accelerator being built with the conventional principle. The technology cultivated and integrated for the accelerator development, can now stably offer the high power beam which could be used for the energy problems. The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with high current, 10 kA and short pulse, 20 ns heavy ion beam (HIB) of mass number ∼200, would be the most promising application of accelerators for energy production. In this scenario, the fuel containing D-T mixture, will be compressed to the high temperature, ∼10 keV and to the high density state, ∼1000 times the solid density with the pressure of ablative plasma or thermal X ray produced by bombarding of high power HIB. The efficiency, beam power/electric power for accelerator, and the repetition rate of HIB accelerators could be most suitable for the energy production. In the present paper, the outline of HIB ICF (HIF) is presented emphasizing the key issues of high current heavy ion accelerator system. (author)

  8. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  9. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program

  10. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  11. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    Page, D N

    1998-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruences are defined completely locally, unlike the case of Zero Angular Momentum Observers (ZAMOs), which requires knowledge around a symmetry axis. The SCALE subcase of a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Maximally (SCAM) is made up of stationary worldlines that may be considered to be locally most nearly at rest in a stationary axisymmetric gravitational field. Formulas for the angular velocity and other properties of the SCALEs are given explicitly on a generalization of an equatorial plane, infinitesimally near a symmetry...

  12. Collinear wake field acceleration

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs

  13. Plasma based accelerators

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.

  14. Controllable Laser Ion Acceleration

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Wang, W. M.; Limpouch, J.; Andreev, A.; Bulanov, S. V.; Sheng, Z. M.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a future laser ion accelerator is discussed to make the laser-based ion accelerator compact and controllable. Especially a collimation device is focused in this paper. The future laser ion accelerator should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers, and ion post acceleration devices [Laser Therapy 22, 103(2013)]: the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled to meet requirements for a future compact laser ion accelerator for ion cancer therapy or for other purposes. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching would be successfully realized by a multistage laser-target interaction.

  15. Linear induction accelerator

    This paper examines a new layout for the injector and accelerating sectins of a linear induction accelerator. The sections are combined in a single housing: an induction system with a current-pulse generator based on double strip shaping lines laid over ferromagnetic cores; a multichannel spark discharger with forced current division among channels; and a system for core demagnetization and electron-beam formation and transport. The results of formation of an electron beam in the injector system and its acceleration in the first accelerating section of the accelerator for injection of beams with energies of 0.2-0.4 MeV, currents of 1-2 kA, and pulse durations of 60 nsec are given

  16. Evolution of organic matter in a eutrophic lake: transition from biological material to kerogen and implications for origin of lacustrine type 1 oils

    Hollander, D.J.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Behar, F.H.; McKenzie, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    A detailed study of the optically determined amorphous organic matter (type 1) in the water column and the sediments from eutrophic Lake Greifen provide a model for determining the pathway by which lacustrine algae are incorporated into sediments and later transformed into type 1 kerogens. Mass balancing of organic fractions (fulvic acids, humic acids, and stable residues (proto-kerogen)) in combination with infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatographic studies of these fractions suggest that two processes in the formation of kerogens are proceeding simultaneously: (1) selective decomposition of the structurally and functionally unique fulvic acids and (2) polycondensation/polymerization of structurally and functionally related fractions in the lacustrine algae leading to the formation of complex humic acids and finally to the stable residue phase.

  17. From biomarkers to a clue of biology: a computation-aided perspective of immune gene expression profiles in human type 1 diabetes

    Han, Dongmei; Cai, Xiaodong; Wen, Ji; Kenyon, Norma S.; Chen, Zhibin

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated expression of key immune genes may cause breakdown of immunological tolerance and development of autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). General immune insufficiencies have also been implicated as a trigger of autoimmunity, due to their potential impact on immune homeostasis. Recent studies have detected evidence of systemic reduction in immune gene expression in long-term diabetic patients but the changes were not present before or at T1D onset. The changes could not...

  18. Control problems in very large accelerators

    There is no fundamental difference of kind in the control requirements between a small and a large accelerator since they are built of the same types of components, which individually have the same types of control inputs and outputs. The main difference is one of scale; the large machine has many more components of each type, and the distances involved are much greater. It is the purpose of this paper to look at the special control problems of large accelerators, which the author shall arbitrarily define as those with a length or circumference in excess of 10 km, and point out where special developments, or the adoption of developments from outside the accelerator control field, can be of assistance in minimizing the cost of the control system

  19. A Bacterial Component to Alzheimer's-Type Dementia Seen via a Systems Biology Approach that Links Iron Dysregulation and Inflammagen Shedding to Disease.

    Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B

    2016-06-18

    The progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by a great many observable changes, both molecular and physiological. These include oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and (more proximal to cognitive decline) the death of neuronal and other cells. A systems biology approach seeks to organize these observed variables into pathways that discriminate those that are highly involved (i.e., causative) from those that are more usefully recognized as bystander effects. We review the evidence that iron dysregulation is one of the central causative pathway elements here, as this can cause each of the above effects. In addition, we review the evidence that dormant, non-growing bacteria are a crucial feature of AD, that their growth in vivo is normally limited by a lack of free iron, and that it is this iron dysregulation that is an important factor in their resuscitation. Indeed, bacterial cells can be observed by ultrastructural microscopy in the blood of AD patients. A consequence of this is that the growing cells can shed highly inflammatory components such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). These too are known to be able to induce (apoptotic and pyroptotic) neuronal cell death. There is also evidence that these systems interact with elements of vitamin D metabolism. This integrative systems approach has strong predictive power, indicating (as has indeed been shown) that both natural and pharmaceutical iron chelators might have useful protective roles in arresting cognitive decline, and that a further assessment of the role of microbes in AD development is more than highly warranted. PMID:27340854

  20. Biology of infantile hemangioma.

    Itinteang, Tinte; Withers, Aaron H J; Davis, Paul F; Tan, Swee T

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by an initial proliferation during infancy followed by spontaneous involution over the next 5-10 years, often leaving a fibro-fatty residuum. IH is traditionally considered a tumor of the microvasculature. However, recent data show the critical role of stem cells in the biology of IH with emerging evidence suggesting an embryonic developmental anomaly due to aberrant proliferation and differentiation of a hemogenic endothelium with a neural crest phenotype that possesses the capacity for endothelial, hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neuronal differentiation. Current evidence suggests a putative placental chorionic mesenchymal core cell embolic origin of IH during the first trimester. This review outlines the emerging role of stem cells and their interplay with the cytokine niche that promotes a post-natal environment conducive for vasculogenesis involving VEGFR-2 and its ligand VEGF-A and the IGF-2 ligand in promoting cellular proliferation, and the TRAIL-OPG anti-apoptotic pathway in preventing cellular apoptosis in IH. The discovery of the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the biology of IH provides a plausible explanation for the programed biologic behavior and the β-blocker-induced accelerated involution of this enigmatic condition. This crucially involves the vasoactive peptide, angiotensin II, that promotes cellular proliferation in IH predominantly via its action on the ATIIR2 isoform. The role of the RAS in the biology of IH is further supported by the effect of captopril, an ACE inhibitor, in inducing accelerated involution of IH. The discovery of the critical role of RAS in IH represents a novel and fascinating paradigm shift in the understanding of human development, IH, and other tumors in general. PMID:25593962

  1. Accelerators for Driving Intense spallation Neutron Sources

    A worldwide trend to replace aging research reactors with accelerator driven neutron sources is currently underway. The ''SARAF'' program at Soreq NRC is a notable example. Setting the background to this trend, a review of the history of accelerator based spallation neutron sources is presented. We follow the evolution of ideas and projects for intense spallation neutron sources. The survey is mainly focused on the properties of the accelerators chosen as drivers throughout the evolution of spallation neutron sources. Since the late 1940s, high-energy proton and deuteron accelerators were developed in view of producing intense neutron sources for various applications related to the nuclear industry, i.e. breeding fissile isotopes, driving nuclear reactors using alternative fuels (like the 'Energy Amplifier') and nuclear waste incineration. However, these projects never progressed beyond the R and D stage. In recent years there is a trend to replace aging reactor-based strong cw neutron sources by pulsed intense spallation sources. Their main applications are in the fields of physics research, material sciences, biology and medicine. Prominent examples of successful projects are ISIS at RAL in Great Britain and SINQ at PSI in Switzerland. Other successful projects are noted in Japan and the US. The clear success of these spallation sources prompted the development of a new generation of more intense spallation neutron sources, notably in Europe (ESS), US (SNS) and Japan (JAERI). Generally, the pulsed spallation neutron sources are based on high-energy proton accelerators. Initially, the proton accelerators were room temperature linacs. In view of the progress relating to properties of RF superconducting resonators and the excellent accumulated experience with cryogenic accelerators, future accelerators for spallation sources will be mostly cryogenic linacs

  2. Biology Notes.

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  3. Survey of teaching experiments with small accelerators

    Accelerator facilities are being used to provide an educational experience to undergraduate students, both science and non-science majors, and to graduate students. Nuclear physics, accelerator physics, atomic physics, chemistry, materials science, and some nuclear techniques applied to biology, medicine and energy/environmental problems are components of various courses. Previously published experiments are the ones most frequently used, but societal needs have caused some recent, interesting experiments to be adopted. A brief outline of a number of conventional and interesting experiments, and a tabulation of reference materials pertinent to such experiments is given. Experimental science can be presented to students in a dramatic and an exciting manner with an accelerator and readily available, but quite inexpensive, ancillary equipment. Lectures, discussions, demonstrations, and the collection and analysis of data provide a well-rounded educational experience

  4. Unique Ligand Binding Sites on CXCR4 Probed by a Chemical Biology Approach: Implications for the Design of Selective Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Inhibitors

    Choi, Won-Tak; Tian, Shaomin; Dong, Chang-Zhi; Kumar, Santosh; Liu, Dongxiang; Madani, Navid; An, Jing; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Huang, Ziwei

    2005-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an important role as the receptor for the normal physiological function of stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) and the coreceptor for the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into the cell. In a recent work (S. Tian et al., J. Virol. 79:12667-12673, 2005), we found that many residues throughout CXCR4 transmembrane (TM) and extracellular loop 2 domains are specifically involved in interaction with HIV-1 gp120, as most of these sites did no...

  5. The miniature accelerator

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  6. Collective ion acceleration

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed

  7. Collective ion acceleration

    Godfrey, B.B.; Faehl, R.J.; Newberger, B.S.; Shanahan, W.R.; Thode, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed.

  8. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  9. Operational aspects of experimental accelerator physics

    During the normal course of high energy storage ring operations, it is customary for blocks of time to be allotted to something called ''machine studies,'' or more simply, just ''studies.'' It is during these periods of time that observations and measurement of accelerator behavior are actually performed. Almost invariably these studies are performed in support of normal machine operations. The machine physicist is either attempting to improve machine performance, or more often trying to recover previously attained ''good'' operation, for example after an extended machine down period. For the latter activity, a good portion of machine studies time is usually devoted to ''beam tuning'' activities: those standard measurements and adjustments required to recover good operations. Before continuing, please note that this paper is not intended to be comprehensive. It is intended solely to reflect one accelerator physicist's impressions as to what goes on in an accelerator control room. Many topics are discussed, some in more detail than others, and it is not the intention that the techniques described herein be applied verbatim to any existing accelerator. It is hoped,, however, that by reading through the various sections, scientists, including accelerator physicists, engineers, and accelerator beam users, will come to appreciate the types of operations that are required to make an accelerator work

  10. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate...... evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. Lineages with such an ability are more likely to persist through multiple extinctions. Lending...... computational support for this hypothesis, this paper shows how increased evolvability will result from simulated extinction events in two computational models of evolved behavior. The conclusion is that although they are destructive in the short term, extinction events may make evolution more prolific in the...

  11. Accelerator as a repairable system

    An accelerator is a prime example of a repairable system which is the type of device that can be restored to a fully operational condition via a process of repair other than replacement of the entire system. Since repairable systems can fail two or more times, the analysis of their reliability focuses on predicting the trends in the pattern of failures and repairs rather than the time to first failure. Thus, it needs to focus on the underlying random processes rather than the probability distribution function of the component failures. This paper summarises the analysis methods available today and proposes an approach to development of a simulation. (author)

  12. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  13. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  14. RF linear accelerators

    Wangler, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  15. Entropic accelerating universe

    Easson, Damien A., E-mail: easson@asu.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Frampton, Paul H., E-mail: frampton@physics.unc.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Smoot, George F., E-mail: gfsmoot@lbl.go [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University and Advanced Academy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chaire Blaise Pascale, Universite Paris Denis Diderot, Paris (France)

    2011-01-31

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic force naturally arising from the information storage on the horizon surface screen. We consider an additional quantitative approach inspired by surface terms in general relativity and show that this leads to the entropic accelerating universe.

  16. Entropic accelerating universe

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic force naturally arising from the information storage on the horizon surface screen. We consider an additional quantitative approach inspired by surface terms in general relativity and show that this leads to the entropic accelerating universe.

  17. ACCELERATORS: School prizes

    Dedicated to its goal of encouraging scientists and students to work in the field of particle accelerators, the US Particle Accelerator School (operating since 1981) has switched to a new format. Starting this year, it will offer in alternate years basic accelerator physics plus advanced subjects in both university and symposium styles over four weeks. Expanding the school from two to four weeks gives additional flexibility, and undergraduate participation should be encouraged by university credits being offered for particular courses. In the intervening years, the school will organize six-day topical courses

  18. FMIT accelerator vacuum system

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility accelerator is being designed to continuously accelerate 100-mA deuterons to 25 MeV. High vacuum pumping of the accelerator structure and beam lines will be done by ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. The design of the roughing system includes a Roots blower/mechanical pump package. For economy the size of the system has been designed to operate at 10-6 torr, where beam particle scattering on residual gases is negligible. For minimum maintenance in this neutron factory, the FMIT vacuum system is designed from the point of view of simplicity and reliability

  19. The auroral electron accelerator

    A model of the auroral electron acceleration process is presented in which the electrons are accelerated resonantly by lower-hybrid waves. The essentially stochastic acceleration process is approximated for the purposes of computation by a deterministic model involving an empirically derived energy transfer function. The empirical function, which is consistent with all that is known of electron energization by lower-hybrid waves, allows many, possibly all, observed features of the electron distribution to be reproduced. It is suggested that the process occurs widely in both space and laboratory plasmas. (author)

  20. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2016-05-01

    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  1. Auroral electron acceleration

    Two theories of auroral electron acceleration are discussed. Part 1 examines the currently widely held view that the acceleration is an ordered process in a quasi-static electric field. It is suggested that, although there are many factors seeming to support this theory, the major qualifications and uncertainties that have been identified combine to cast serious doubt over its validity. Part 2 is devoted to a relatively new interpretation in terms of stochastic acceleration in turbulent electric fields. This second theory, which appears to account readily for most known features of the electron distribution function, is considered to provide a more promising approach to this central question in magnetospheric plasma physics. (author)

  2. Accelerated simulated tempering

    We propose a new stochastic global optimization method by accelerating the simulated tempering scheme with random walks executed on a temperature ladder with various transition step sizes. By suitably choosing the length of the transition steps, the accelerated scheme enables the search process to execute large jumps and escape entrapment in local minima, while retaining the capability to explore local details, whenever warranted. Our simulations confirm the expected improvements and show that the accelerated simulated tempering scheme has a much faster convergence to the target distribution than Geyer and Thompson's simulated tempering algorithm and exhibits accuracy comparable to the simulated annealing method

  3. Accelerated simulated tempering

    Li, Yaohang; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Gorin, Andrey

    2004-08-01

    We propose a new stochastic global optimization method by accelerating the simulated tempering scheme with random walks executed on a temperature ladder with various transition step sizes. By suitably choosing the length of the transition steps, the accelerated scheme enables the search process to execute large jumps and escape entrapment in local minima, while retaining the capability to explore local details, whenever warranted. Our simulations confirm the expected improvements and show that the accelerated simulated tempering scheme has a much faster convergence to the target distribution than Geyer and Thompson's simulated tempering algorithm and exhibits accuracy comparable to the simulated annealing method.

  4. Accelerator Toolbox for MATLAB

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model particle accelerators and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. At SSRL, it has become the modeling code of choice for the ongoing design and future operation of the SPEAR 3 synchrotron light source. AT was designed to take advantage of power and simplicity of MATLAB--commercially developed environment for technical computing and visualization. Many examples in this paper illustrate the advantages of the AT approach and contrast it with existing accelerator code frameworks

  5. Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators

    Silari, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next. shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy. (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). (51 refs).

  6. Quantum Biology

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  7. Derivatives of (phenylsulfonamido-methyl)nicotine and (phenylsulfonamido-methyl)thiazole as novel 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors: synthesis and biological activities in vitro

    Xu ZHANG; Yang ZHOU; Yu SHEN; Li-li DU; Jun-hua CHEN; Ying LENG; Jian-hua SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To design and synthese a novel class of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitors, featuring the (phenylsul-fonamido-methyl)pyridine and (phenyisulfonamido-methyl)thiazole framework. Methods: Our initial lead 4-(phenylsulfonamido-methyl)benzamides were modified. Inhibition of human and mouse 11β-HSD1 enzy-matic activities by the new compounds was determined by a scintillation proximity assay (SPA) using microsomes containing 11β-HSD1.Results: Sixteen new compounds (6a-6h, 7a-7h) were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. In dose-response studies, several com-pounds showed strong inhibitory activities with IC_(50) values at nanomolar or low nanomolar concentrations. Structure-activity relation-ships are also discussed with respect to molecular docking results. Conclusion: This study provides two promising new templates for 11β-HSD1 inhibitors.

  8. Study of a spoke-type superconducting cavity for high power proton accelerators; Etude d'une cavite acceleratrice supraconductrice Spoke pour les accelerateurs de protons de forte intensite

    Olry, G

    2003-04-01

    Since a few years, a lot of projects (especially dedicated to transmutation, radioactive beams production, spallation neutron sources or neutrinos factories) are based on high power proton linear accelerators. It has been demonstrated, thanks to their excellent RF performances, that superconducting elliptical cavities represent the best technological solution for the high energy part of these linacs (proton energy from typically 100 MeV). On the contrary, between 5 and 100 MeV, nothing is clearly settled and intensive studies on low-beta cavities are under progress. The main objective of this thesis is the study of a new low-beta cavity, called 'spoke', which could be used in the low energy part of European XADS (experimental accelerator driven system) and EURISOL (European isotope separation on-line) accelerators projects. A complete study of a beta 0.35 spoke cavity has been done: from its electromagnetic and mechanical optimization to warm and, above all, cold experimental tests: an accelerating field of 12.2 MV/m has been reached at T=4.2 K, that is to say one of the best value among the spoke cavities performances in the world. It has been shown that the specific ratio of a third, between the spoke bar diameter and the cavity length, led to optimize the surface electromagnetic fields. Moreover, spoke cavities can be used without any trouble, in the low energy part, due to their good rigidity. The experimental measurements performed on the cavity have confirmed the theoretical calculations, especially, concerning the expected frequency and mechanical behavior. Another study, performed on elliptical cavities, gave an explanation of the discrepancies between the measured and calculated frequencies thanks to a precise 3-dimensional geometrical control. (author)

  9. Water pollution biology

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. SPS accelerating cavity

    1983-01-01

    See photo 8202397: View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  11. SPS accelerating cavity

    1983-01-01

    View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  12. Applicatons of accelerators

    The great diversity of possible applications of accelerators has been demonstrated in the past few years. Apart from the more familiar uses of accelerators for fundamental particle, nuclear, and solid state physics research, the applications range from microscopic trace analysis through cancer therapy to nuclear power and large volume radiation processing. Accelerators are also being used for applied research in proton radiography, radiation damage studies, laser excitation and materials analysis. The required beam properties vary from an extremely low emittance with very low beam current to megawatt beam power with a low level of beam spill. At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories developments are underway on applications of accelerators to nuclear fuel breeding and to cancer therapy. (author)

  13. Non-accelerator experiments

    This report discusses several topics which can be investigated without the use of accelerators. Topics covered are: (1) proton decay, (2) atmospheric neutrinos, (3) neutrino detection, (4) muons from Cygnus X-3, and (5) the double-beta decay

  14. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  15. Rejuvenating CERN's Accelerators

    2004-01-01

    In the coming years and especially in 2005, CERN's accelerators are going to receive an extensive renovation programme to ensure they will perform reliably and effectively when the LHC comes into service.

  16. Vibration control in accelerators

    Montag, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.

  17. Acceleration of Logarithmic Convergence

    Gaskin, J. G.; Ford, W. F.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we shall give a characterization of all monotonically decreasing sequence of positive terms, whose sum converge and then introduce a Transformation which can be used to accelerate the convergence of a large class of logarithmically convergent series.

  18. JAERI tandem-accelerator and tandem-booster

    Yoshida, Tadashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In 1982, aiming at the new development of atomic energy research, the tandem accelerator of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was installed. In fiscal year 1993, the superconducting boosters which can increase the ion energy by up to 4 times were added, and the research in the region below 1000 MeV became possible. Those are electrostatic type accelerators which are easy to be used especially in basic research field, and are useful for future research. The tandem accelerator has been operated while maintaining the first class performance as the accelerator for various kinds of heavy ion beam. It has the special shape among electrostatic type accelerators, and is excellent in the easiness of control and stability. The main particulars of the tandem accelerator are shown. As for the ion sources of the tandem accelerator, three cesium sputter type ion sources are installed on two high voltage stands. The kinds of the ions which can be accelerated are mainly negative ions. As the improvement, electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are expected to be adopted. As for the tandem boosters, the 1/4 wavelength type resonance hollow cylinder was adopted. The constitution of the tandem boosters is explained. The way of utilizing the tandem accelerator system and the aim for hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  20. ATTITUDES OF BIOLOGY TEACHERS ON TEACHING EVOLUTION OF BIOLOGICAL

    Q. R. Almeida; Alexandre, M.; G. S. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the attitudes of teachers and high school biology in public schools in Cuiabá about the theory of biological evolution, characterizing its proximity to biological evolution and its opposite perspective to the presence of this theory in science curriculum. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire-type Likert scale of 4 points, descriptive analyzes were made, represented by absolute data, with the aid of Excel 2010. The results show that the theory ...

  1. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    Igenbergs, E. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Raumfahrttechnik, Richard-Wagner-Strasse 18, 8000 Muenchen 2 (DE))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator.

  2. Entropic Accelerating Universe

    Easson, Damien A.; Frampton, Paul H.; Smoot, George F.

    2010-01-01

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic...

  3. Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests

    Prošek T.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated corrosion testing is indispensable for material selection, quality control and both initial and residual life time prediction for bare and painted metallic, polymeric, adhesive and other materials in atmospheric exposure conditions. The best known Neutral Salt Spray (NSS) test provides unrealistic conditions and poor correlation to exposures in atmosphere. Modern cyclic accelerated corrosion tests include intermittent salt spray, wet and dry phases and eventually other technical p...

  4. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  5. Designing reliability into accelerators

    Future accelerators will have to provide a high degree of reliability. Quality must be designed in right from the beginning and must remain a central theme throughout the project. The problem is similar to the problems facing US industry today, and examples of the successful application of quality engineering will be given. Different aspects of an accelerator project will be addressed: Concept, Design, Motivation, Management Techniques, and Fault Diagnosis. The importance of creating and maintaining a coherent team will be stressed

  6. Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    This conference proceedings represent the results of theThird Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held in PortJefferson, New York. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S.Department of Energy, the Office of Navel Research and BrookhavenNational Laboratory. The purpose was to assess new techniques forproduction of ultra-high gradient acceleration and to addressengineering issues in achieving this goal. There are eighty-onepapers collected in the proceedings and all have been abstractedfor the database

  7. Quantum Biology

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  8. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    Brief descriptions are given of DOE and Nuclear Physics program operated and sponsored accelerator facilities. Specific facilities covered are the Argonne Tandem/Linac Accelerator System, the Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the proposed Continuous Beam Accelerator at Newport News, Virginia, the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory at Duke University, the Bevalac and the SuperHILAC at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Bates Linear Accelerator Center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Nuclear Physics Injector at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the Texas A and M Cyclotrons, the Tandem/Superconducting Booster Accelerator at the University of Washington and the Tandem Van de Graaff at the A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory of Yale University. Included are acquisition cost, research programs, program accomplishments, future directions, and operating parameters of each facility

  9. Multimegawatt cyclotron autoresonance accelerator

    Means are discussed for generation of high-quality multimegawatt gyrating electron beams using rf gyroresonant acceleration. TE111-mode cylindrical cavities in a uniform axial magnetic field have been employed for beam acceleration since 1968; such beams have more recently been employed for generation of radiation at harmonics of the gyration frequency. Use of a TE11-mode waveguide for acceleration, rather than a cavity, is discussed. It is shown that the applied magnetic field and group velocity axial tapers allow resonance to be maintained along a waveguide, but that this is impractical in a cavity. In consequence, a waveguide cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) can operate with near-100% efficiency in power transfer from rf source to beam, while cavity accelerators will, in practice, have efficiency values limited to about 40%. CARA experiments are described in which an injected beam of up to 25 A, 95 kV has had up to 7.2 MW of rf power added, with efficiencies of up to 96%. Such levels of efficiency are higher than observed previously in any fast-wave interaction, and are competitive with efficiency values in industrial linear accelerators. Scaling arguments suggest that good quality gyrating megavolt beams with peak and average powers of 100 MW and 100 kW can be produced using an advanced CARA, with applications in the generation of high-power microwaves and for possible remediation of flue gas pollutants. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Accelerators for America's Future

    Bai, Mei

    2016-03-01

    Particle accelerator, a powerful tool to energize beams of charged particles to a desired speed and energy, has been the working horse for investigating the fundamental structure of matter and fundermental laws of nature. Most known examples are the 2-mile long Stanford Linear Accelerator at SLAC, the high energy proton and anti-proton collider Tevatron at FermiLab, and Large Hadron Collider that is currently under operation at CERN. During the less than a century development of accelerator science and technology that led to a dazzling list of discoveries, particle accelerators have also found various applications beyond particle and nuclear physics research, and become an indispensible part of the economy. Today, one can find a particle accelerator at almost every corner of our lives, ranging from the x-ray machine at the airport security to radiation diagnostic and therapy in hospitals. This presentation will give a brief introduction of the applications of this powerful tool in fundermental research as well as in industry. Challenges in accelerator science and technology will also be briefly presented

  11. APT accelerator technology

    The proposed accelerator production of tritium (APT) project requires an accelerator that provides a cw proton beam of 100 m A at 1300 MeV. Since the majority of the technical risk of a high-current cw (continuous-wave, 100% DF) accelerator resides in the low-energy section, Los Alamos is building a 20 MeV duplicate of the accelerator front end to confirm design codes, beam performance, and demonstrate operational reliability. We report on design details of this low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) and discuss the integrated design of the full accelerator for the APT plant. LEDA's proton injector is under test and has produced more than 130 mA at 75 keV. Fabrication is proceeding on a 6.7- MeV, 8-meter-long RFQ, and detailed design is underway on coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) structures. In addition, detailed design and technology experiments are underway on medium-beta superconducting cavities to assess the feasibility of replacing the conventional (room-temperature copper) high-energy linac with a linac made of niobium superconducting RF cavities. (author)

  12. Preparation and preliminary biological evaluation of radiogallium-labeled DTPA-amlodipine complex for possible L-type calcium channel imaging

    Firuzyar, Tahereh; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Khalaj, Ali [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Pharmacy; Jalilian, Amir R.; Fazaeli, Yousef; Aboudzadeh, Mohammad Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiopharmacy Research Group

    2014-07-01

    A DTPA-conjugated amlodipine analog (DTPA-AMLO) 3, was prepared for possible voltage gated calcium channel imaging after radiolabeling with Ga-67. [{sup 67}Ga]-DTPA-AMLO complex was prepared starting [{sup 67}Ga]gallium chloride and DTPA-AMLO in 60-90 min at 50-60 C in phosphate buffer. The partition co-efficient and stability of the tracer was determined in final solution (25 C) and presence of human serum (37 C) up to 24 h. The biodistribution of the labeled compound in wild-type rats were determined up to 72 h using organ counting and SPECT. The radiolabled complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (>96%, RTLC and >98% HPLC) and significant specific activity (7-10 GBq/mmol). The log P for the complex was calculated as -0.594, consistent with a water soluble complex. The tracer is mostly washed out through kidneys which were in full compliance with the amlodipine metabolism and imaging studies demonstrated the same behavior. The tracer uptake in organs with smooth muscles was observed in stomach, colon as well as intestine.

  13. Preparation and preliminary biological evaluation of radiogallium-labeled DTPA-amlodipine complex for possible L-type calcium channel imaging

    A DTPA-conjugated amlodipine analog (DTPA-AMLO) 3, was prepared for possible voltage gated calcium channel imaging after radiolabeling with Ga-67. [67Ga]-DTPA-AMLO complex was prepared starting [67Ga]gallium chloride and DTPA-AMLO in 60-90 min at 50-60 C in phosphate buffer. The partition co-efficient and stability of the tracer was determined in final solution (25 C) and presence of human serum (37 C) up to 24 h. The biodistribution of the labeled compound in wild-type rats were determined up to 72 h using organ counting and SPECT. The radiolabled complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (>96%, RTLC and >98% HPLC) and significant specific activity (7-10 GBq/mmol). The log P for the complex was calculated as -0.594, consistent with a water soluble complex. The tracer is mostly washed out through kidneys which were in full compliance with the amlodipine metabolism and imaging studies demonstrated the same behavior. The tracer uptake in organs with smooth muscles was observed in stomach, colon as well as intestine.

  14. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro evaluation of the biological activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) of Cedrus libani A. Rich.

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Saab, Antoine; Tundis, Rosa; Statti, Giancarlo A; Lampronti, Ilaria; Menichini, Francesco; Gambari, Roberto; Cinatl, Jindrich; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Cedrus libani are widely used as traditional medicine in Lebanon for treatment of different infection diseases. In the present study we reported the phytochemical composition analyzed by GC-MS of wood essential oil and cones and leaves ethanol extracts. The main components of wood essential oil were himachalol (22.50%), beta-himachalene (21.90%), and alpha-himachalene (10.50%). Leaves ethanol extract was characterized by a high content of germacrene d (29.40%). The same extract obtained from cones essentially contained alpha-pinene (51.0%) and beta-myrcene (13.0%). Moreover, we investigated extracts, essential oil, and identified compounds for their in vitro antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay in Vero cells. Cones and leaves ethanol extracts exhibited an interesting activity with IC50 of 0.50 and 0.66 mg/ml, respectively, at non-cytotoxic concentration. A comparable activity was found when essential oil was tested (IC50 of 0.44 mg/ml). PMID:17482448

  15. Recent developments of low-emittance electron gun for accelerator

    Recent developments of low-emittance electron guns for accelerator are reviewed. In the accelerator field, DC biased triode thermionic gun (Pierce type gun) has been widely used and is still conventional. On the other hand, because of strong demands on the high brightness electron beam by FEL and other advanced accelerator concepts based on linear accelerator, the low emittance beam generation becomes one of the most important issue in the accelerator science. The R and D effort is 'accelerated' by two technological innovations, photo-cathode and RF gun. They made a large improvement on the beam emittance. After the explanations on the technical and physical aspects of the low emittance electron beam generation, advanced electron sources for accelerators are reviewed. (author)

  16. Collection and acceleration of muons for the neutrino factory project

    The neutrino factory project is an international cooperation project of a complex of accelerators aimed at the production of an intense flow of neutrinos from the decay of a muon beam. After an introduction to this project and a general presentation of the accelerator complex, this research thesis reports transmission investigations performed on a quadric-polar muon collecting canal, recalls the concepts of dynamic beam in a circular accelerator, and describes and comments the different types of Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerators considered for the acceleration of muons. It discusses the development of the Zgoubi's corpuscular optics code in terms of trajectory tracing method for FFAG accelerators. Finally, it reports and comments results of a numerical simulation of beam dynamics performed on muon FFAG accelerators

  17. Asynchronous accelerator with RFQ injection for active longitudinal compression of accelerated bunches

    Tumanyan, A R; Nikhogosyan, V C; Akopov, N Z; Guiragossian, Z G T; Martirosov, R M; Martirosyan, Yu.L.

    2000-01-01

    An asynchronous accelerator is described, in which the principle of itsoperation permits the active longitudinal bunch compression of acceleratedproton beams, to overcome the space charge limitation effects of intensebunches. It is shown that accelerated bunches from an RFQ linac can be adaptedfor Asynchronac injection for a multiple of choices in the accelerationfrequencies of the RFQ and the Asynchronac. The offered new type of acceleratorsystem is especially suitable to accelerate proton beams for up to 100MeVenergy and hundreds of mA average current.

  18. Hawking Radiation of an Arbitrarily Accelerating Kinnersley Black Hole: Spin-Acceleration Coupling Effect

    吴双清; 闫沐霖

    2003-01-01

    The Hawking radiation of Weyl neutrinos in an arbitrarily accelerating Kinnersley black hole is investigated using a method of the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation.Both the location and temperature of the event horizon depend on the time and on the angles.They are in agreement with the previous results,but thethermal radiation spectrum of massless spinor particles displays a type of spin-acceleration coupling effect.

  19. Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Reconnection Acceleration Processes

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Li, Gang; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O.; Cummings, A.; Stone, E.; Decker, R.

    2015-12-01

    Shock waves, as shown by simulations and observations, can generate high levels of downstream vortical turbulence, including magnetic islands. We consider a combination of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and downstream magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes as an energization mechanism for charged particles. Observations of electron and ion distributions downstream of interplanetary shocks and the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) are frequently inconsistent with the predictions of classical DSA. We utilize a recently developed transport theory for charged particles propagating diffusively in a turbulent region filled with contracting and reconnecting plasmoids and small-scale current sheets. Particle energization associated with the anti-reconnection electric field, a consequence of magnetic island merging, and magnetic island contraction, are considered. For the former only, we find that (i) the spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed, and (ii) the downstream solution is constant. For downstream plasmoid contraction only, (i) the accelerated spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed; (ii) the particle intensity for a given energy peaks downstream of the shock, and the distance to the peak location increases with increasing particle energy, and (iii) the particle intensity amplification for a particular particle energy, f(x,c/{c}0)/f(0,c/{c}0), is not 1, as predicted by DSA, but increases with increasing particle energy. The general solution combines both the reconnection-induced electric field and plasmoid contraction. The observed energetic particle intensity profile observed by Voyager 2 downstream of the HTS appears to support a particle acceleration mechanism that combines both DSA and magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes.

  20. New advance in the study of the molecular biological identification and typing of Prototheca%无绿藻分子生物学鉴定与分型研究新进展

    李文静; 刘锦燕; 史册; 王影; 孙景勇; 项明洁

    2015-01-01

    以基因序列为鉴定基础的分子生物学方法以其客观、可重复性好等优点,被认为是分子鉴定无绿藻的“金标准”。该文对近年来应用在无绿藻鉴定和分型方面的实时定量 PCR (Real⁃Time Quantitative PCR,RT⁃PCR)技术、单链构象多态性(Single Stranded Conformation Polymophism,SSCP)分析、限制性片段长度多态性(Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, RFLP)分析、高分辨率熔解曲线(High Resolution Melting,HRM)分析、质谱(Mass Spectrometry,MS)分析等分子生物学新技术和新方法进行综述。%The molecular biology method based on gene sequencing which is objective,highly reproducible and so on,is consid⁃ered the " gold standard " of Prototheca 's molecular identification.To summarize the new molecular biology methods and techniques applied to Prototheca's identification and typing,such as real⁃time quantitative PCR (RT⁃PCR) technology,single strand conforma⁃tion polymorphism ( SSCP ) analysis, PCR⁃restriction fragment length polymorphism ( RFLP ) analysis, high resolution melting (HRM) analysis,mass spectrometry(MS) analysis.