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Sample records for accelerated solvent extraction

  1. Accelerated solvent extraction for natural products isolation.

    Mottaleb, Mohammad A; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(®)), first introduced in 1995, is an automated rapid extraction technique that utilizes common solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, and thereby increases the efficiency of extraction of organic compounds from solid and semisolid matrices. ASE(®) allows extractions for sample sizes 1-100 g in minutes, reduces solvent uses dramatically, and can be applied to a wide range of matrices, including natural products. PMID:22367894

  2. Sequential accelerated solvent extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different solvents: performance and implication.

    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Chen, Diyun

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted by Soxhlet extraction (S-PAHs) with dichloromethane and routine accelerated solvent extraction (A-PAHs) with 1:1 toluene/methanol, respectively, were investigated in 24 soil samples from two cities in the center of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methylphenanthrene and perylene, in two soils, two sediments, and an immature oil shale were also sequentially extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. The A-PAHs' concentrations are 2.41 times the S-PAHs' concentrations. For sequential three ASEs, PAHs in the first extract account for 56 to 67% of their total concentrations in the sequential three extractions and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four solvents. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs in Soxhlet extraction, routine ASE, and sequential ASE with each solvent for a given sample are very similar, suggesting their identical petrogenic and pyrogenic sources in the soils and sediments. But the PAH ratios for the shale have an obvious petrogenic origin. The perylene/5-ring PAH ratios indicate a diagenetic source, especially in the shale and sediments. The correlation analysis shows that A-PAHs/S-PAHs is better associated with the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) than those of black carbon (BC). The above results indicate the significant petrogenic origin of PAHs and the important effect of organic matter on their extraction and distribution in the investigated field soils/sediments. PMID:21284305

  3. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  4. [Extraction characteristics of sequential accelerated solvent extraction for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental mediums].

    Ma, Xiao-xuan; Ran, Yong

    2009-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two soils, two sediments and an shale from the Pearl River Delta were extracted by sequential accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. PAHs in the first extract accounts for more than half of their total contents, and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four employed solvents. For a given sample the source diagnostic ratios of PAHs in sequential ASE with each solvent are very similar, suggesting the validity of those ratios in source judgement by different extraction methods. PMID:20187409

  5. AN ACCELERATED RATE CALORIMETRY STUDY OF CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITHOUT EXTRACTANT

    This study found that 4 - 48 part per thousand (ppth) of Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent without extractant in caustic salt solution at evaporator-relevant temperatures result in no process-significant energetic events. However, the data suggest a chemical reaction (possible decomposition) in the CSSX solvent near 140 C. This concentration of entrained solvent is believed to markedly exceed the amount of solvent that will pass from the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Unit (MCU) through the downstream Defense Waste Processing Facility and enter the evaporator through routine tank farm operations. The rate of pressure rise at 140 C differs appreciably - i.e., is reduced - for salt solution containing the organic from that of the same solution without solvent. This behavior is due to a reaction between the CSSX components and the salt solution simulant

  6. Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides in Sediments Using Soxhlet, Ultrasonic and Accelerated Solvent Extraction Techniques

    LANG Yinhai; CAO Zhengmei; NIE Xinhua

    2005-01-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 μg g-1 to 0.004 μg g-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (> 80.7%). With a mass selective detector,better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1: 1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  7. Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques

    Lang, Yinhai; Cao, Zhengmei; Nie, Xinhua

    2005-04-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p‧-DDT, p, p‧-DDT and p, p‧-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 µgg-1 to 0.004 µgg-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (>80.7%). With a mass selective detector, better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1:1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  8. EXTRACTION AND DETECTION OF ARSENICALS IN SEAWEED VIA ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND ICP-MS DETECTION

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means of extracting arsenicals from ribbon kelp. Objective was to investigate effect of experimentally controllable ASE parameters (pressure, temperature, static time and solvent composition) on extr...

  9. Effects of cyclohexane/acetone ratio on bixin extraction yield by accelerated solvent extraction method

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Mouloungui, Zephirin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied to the quantitative extraction of bixin. The effects of cyclohexane/ acetone ratios on bixin extraction yield were evaluated. Acetone was used in the process of pigment extraction and also played a major role in its analysis by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Pure cis-bixin isolated by flash chromatography and characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry was used as a bixin standard for qualitative and quantitative analysi...

  10. Simultaneous extraction, derivatization and clean-up of sterols from soil using accelerated solvent extraction

    A one-step extraction, derivatization and clean-up technique for the determination of sterols in soil by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is presented. In this method, in situ derivatization of sterols using 99 % N, O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) + 1 % trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) was carried out inside the extraction cell. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MSD) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The effects of solvent, sorbent and temperature on the in situ derivatization of sterols were investigated using Ottawa sand fortified at 50 ppm sterol mixture (cholestrol, stigmasterol and stigmastanol). The extraction performed using dichloromethane at extraction pressure of 1500 p.s.i, temperature 60 degree Celsius and static extraction time of 15 min gave recoveries from 87 to 96 %. The effect of several types of sorbents as on-line clean-up by inclusion of sorbents in the extraction cell on the extraction efficiencies were investigated using spiked soil sample. Increase in static extraction time significantly improved the recoveries of the analytes. The utilization of integrated extraction, derivatization and clean-up strategy simplify and shorten the sample preparation step in an analysis. (author)

  11. Selective accelerated solvent extraction for the analysis of soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sterols

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has been successfully used in the analysis of a wide range of chemicals from many sample matrices. However, the main problem with accelerated solvent extraction is low selectivity towards the analyte because during the extraction process, many interfering components are co-extracted together with target analytes and thus requires post-extraction clean-up processes. In this study, a selective accelerated solvent extraction with clean-up step incorporated inside the extraction cell was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sterols in soil. PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene, pyrene) and sterols (coprostanol, cholestrol, stigmasterol, stigmastanol) were extracted separately using two elution steps. The selectivity and efficiency of this approach were evaluated using several sorbents and proper choice of solvents. Using polar sorbents, PAHs were recovered in the first extraction using n-hexane while sterols were recovered in the second extraction using a more polar solvent such as methanol, isopropanol, acetone and mixture of DCM: MeOH (40:60, v/ v). Recoveries for PAHs ranged from 76.5-99.2 % and sterols from 83.7-91.4 % using silica as the sorbent, n-hexane as the first eluent, and methanol as the second eluent. (author)

  12. Accelerated solvent extraction of alkylresorcinols in food products containing uncooked and cooked wheat.

    Holt, Monte D; Moreau, Robert A; DerMarderosian, Ara; McKeown, Nicola; Jacques, Paul F

    2012-05-16

    This research focuses on the overall extraction process of alkylresorcinols (ARs) from uncooked grains and baked products that have been processed with wheat, corn, rice, and white flour. Previously established extraction methods developed by Ross and colleagues, as well as a semiautomated method involving accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), were applied to extract ARs within freshly ground samples. For extraction of alkylresorcinols, nonpolar solvents such as ethyl acetate have been recommended for the extraction of uncooked foods, and polar solvents such as 1-propanol:water (3:1 v/v) have been recommended for the extraction of baked foods that contain rye, wheat, or other starch-rich grains. A comparison of AR extraction methods has been investigated with the application of gas chromatography and a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to quantify the AR content. The goal of this research was to compare the rapid accelerated solvent extraction of the alkylresorcinols (ASE-AR) method to the previous manual AR extraction methods. Results for this study as well as the investigation of the overall efficiency of ASE-AR extraction with the use of a spiking study indicated that it can be comparable to current extraction methods but with less time required. Furthermore, the extraction time for ASE (approximately 40 min) is much more convenient and less tedious and time-consuming than previously established methods, which range from 5 h for processed foods to 24 h for raw grains. PMID:22530555

  13. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) - a fast and automated technique with low solvent consumption for the extraction of solid samples (T12)

    Full text: Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is a modern extraction technique that significantly streamlines sample preparation. A common organic solvent as well as water is used as extraction solvent at elevated temperature and pressure to increase extraction speed and efficiency. The entire extraction process is fully automated and performed within 15 minutes with a solvent consumption of 18 ml for a 10 g sample. For many matrices and for a variety of solutes, ASE has proven to be equivalent or superior to sonication, Soxhlet, and reflux extraction techniques while requiring less time, solvent and labor. First ASE has been applied for the extraction of environmental hazards from solid matrices. Within a very short time ASE was approved by the U.S. EPA for the extraction of BNAs, PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, herbicides, TPH, and dioxins from solid samples in method 3545. Especially for the extraction of dioxins the extraction time with ASE is reduced to 20 minutes in comparison to 18 h using Soxhlet. In food analysis ASE is used for the extraction of pesticide and mycotoxin residues from fruits and vegetables, the fat determination and extraction of vitamins. Time consuming and solvent intensive methods for the extraction of additives from polymers as well as for the extraction of marker compounds from herbal supplements can be performed with higher efficiencies using ASE. For the analysis of chemical weapons the extraction process and sample clean-up including derivatization can be automated and combined with GC-MS using an online ASE-APEC-GC system. (author)

  14. Response Surface Modeling and Optimization of Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Four Lignans from Fructus Schisandrae

    Jian Liang; Qian-Li Tang; Wei Li; Geng-Liang Yang; Xin Deng; Ying He; Li-Chun Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A new method based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) modeling and optimization has been developed for the extraction of four lignans in Fructus Schisandrae (the fruits of Schisandra chinensis Baill). The RSM method, based on a three level and three variable Box-Behnken design (BBD), was employed to obtain the optimal combination of extraction condition. In brief, the lignans schizandrin, schisandrol B, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B w...

  15. Optimal extraction and fingerprinting of carotenoids by accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh; Kundu, Aditi; Sharma, Khushbu; Paul, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-06-15

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is applied for the extraction of carotenoids from orange carrot and the extraction parameters were optimized. Two carotenoids, lutein and β-carotene, are selected as the validation process. Hildebrand solubility parameters and dielectric constant of solvents were taken into consideration in selecting solvent mixture. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as temperature, static time, drying agent etc., on the ASE extraction efficiency are investigated systematically. Interactions among the variables were also studied. Furthermore, two carotenoids were analyzed and characterized by LC-ESI MS. The study concluded that Hildebrand solubility parameter approach may be applicable for less polar bioactive molecules like carotenoids. The properties of solvent and extraction temperature are found to be the most important parameters affecting the ASE extraction efficiency of thermolabile natural compounds. PMID:25660899

  16. Conventional, ultrasound-assisted, and accelerated-solvent extractions of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes.

    Cai, Zhan; Qu, Ziqian; Lan, Yu; Zhao, Shujuan; Ma, Xiaohua; Wan, Qiang; Jing, Pu; Li, Pingfan

    2016-04-15

    Purple sweet potatoes (PSPs) are rich in anthocyanins. In this study, we investigated the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins from PSPs using conventional extraction (CE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and accelerated-solvent extraction (ASE). Additionally, the effects of these extraction methods on antioxidant activity and anthocyanin composition of PSP extracts were evaluated. In order of decreasing extraction efficiency, the extraction methods were ASE>UAE>CE for anthocyanins (218-244 mg/100 g DW) and CE>UAE>ASE for total phenolics (631-955 mg/100 g DW) and flavonoids (28-40 mg/100 g DW). Antioxidant activities of PSP extracts were CE≈UAE>ASE for ORAC (766-1091 mg TE/100 g DW) and ASE>CE≈UAE for FRAP (1299-1705 mg TE/100 g DW). Twelve anthocyanins were identified. ASE extracts contained more diacyl anthocyanins and less nonacyl and monoacyl anthocyanins than CE and ASE extracts (P<0.05). PMID:26616949

  17. Catalytic acceleration of the process in extraction with a solvent with ''soft'' functional groups

    It is shown that the rate of reaching of equilibrium in extraction of a metal salt ''soft'' type from nitric acid solutions by a solvent with a ''soft'' functional group in the extraction of Pd(II) by dialkyl sulfide, can be increased substantially by the addition of an extraction reagent with functional groups including ''hard'' nucleophilic atoms, for example TBP, to the organic phase, even when this extraction reagent itself extracts the salt of the ''soft'' cation weakly. The type of catalytic acceleration of extraction found is probably of a general nature and may be observed in various systems where the salt of a ''soft'' cation is extracted by a ''soft'' extraction reagent in the presence of an addition of a ''hard'' extraction reagent

  18. Accelerated solvent extraction method with one-step clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil

    The application of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using hexane combined with neutral silica gel and sulfuric acid/ silica gel (SA/ SG) to remove impurities prior to analysis by gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was studied. The efficiency of extraction was evaluated based on the three hydrocarbons; dodecane, tetradecane and pentadecane spiked to soil sample. The effect of ASE operating conditions (extraction temperature, extraction pressure, static time) was evaluated and the optimized condition obtained from the study was extraction temperature of 160 degree Celsius, extraction pressure of 2000 psi with 5 minutes static extraction time. The developed ASE with one-step clean-up method was applied in the extraction of hydrocarbons from spiked soil and the amount extracted was comparable to ASE extraction without clean-up step with the advantage of obtaining cleaner extract with reduced interferences. Therefore in the developed method, extraction and clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil can be achieved rapidly and efficiently with reduced solvent usage. (author)

  19. Response Surface Modeling and Optimization of Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Four Lignans from Fructus Schisandrae

    Jian Liang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new method based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE combined with response surface methodology (RSM modeling and optimization has been developed for the extraction of four lignans in Fructus Schisandrae (the fruits of Schisandra chinensis Baill. The RSM method, based on a three level and three variable Box-Behnken design (BBD, was employed to obtain the optimal combination of extraction condition. In brief, the lignans schizandrin, schisandrol B, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B were optimally extracted with 87% ethanol as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 160 °C, static extraction time of 10 min, extraction pressure of 1,500 psi, flush volume of 60% and one extraction cycle. The 3D response surface plot and the contour plot derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. Under the above conditions, the experimental value of four lignans was 14.72 mg/g, which is in close agreement with the value predicted by the model.

  20. Optimization by response surface methodology of lutein recovery from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Suna; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions for recovering lutein from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The lutein content was quantitatively analyzed using a UPLC equipped with a BEH C18 column. A central composite design (CCD) was employed for experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature (°C), static time (min), and solvent (EtOH, %). The experimental data obtained from a twenty sample set were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the lutein extraction model was 0.9518, and the probability value (p=0.0000) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions for lutein were temperature: 93.26°C, static time: 5 min, and solvent: 79.63% EtOH. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield of lutein was 232.60 μg/g. PMID:27006224

  1. Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor

    Vinayak Upadhya; Pai, Sandeep R.; Sharma, Ajay K.; Hegde, Harsha V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT) from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and ...

  2. Simultaneous determination of 50 residual pesticides in Flos Chrysanthemi using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography.

    Huang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Xinghui; Lu, Xiaotong; Tian, Huaiping; Xu, Ajing; Liu, Yan; Jian, Zhang

    2014-09-15

    A gas chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of 50 organochlorine (OCP) and pyrethroid (PP) pesticides in Flos Chrysanthemi was established. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique was used to extract the target compounds, cleaned with alumina neutral-florisil column, and eluted by mixed solvents of ethyl acetate and hexane (15:85, v/v). Selected pesticides were identified using HP-5 and DB1701 capillary dual column and detected by electron-capture detector. Quantitative analysis was performed using an external standard by HP-5 capillary column. Results showed that recoveries were 73.4-120.1%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.6-12.4%. The limits of detection of the method were 0.0021-0.0069 mg/kg, and the limits of quantity were 0.0064-0.0210 mg/kg. PMID:25062509

  3. Cardioprotective potential of Irish macroalgae: generation of glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate containing extracts by accelerated solvent extraction.

    Valverde, Juan; Hayes, Maria; McLoughlin, Pádraig; Rai, Dilip K; Soler-Vila, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE®) was used to generate 18 macroalgal extracts from Irish seaweeds. The glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopriopionate content of the generated ASE® extracts were estimated using (1)H-NMR and confirmed for selected extracts using ultra performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Dimethylsulfoniopriopionate was only identified in the ASE® extract generated from Codium fragile ISCG0029. Glycine betaine was identified in the ASE® extract generated from Ulva intestinalis ISCG0356 using (1)H-NMR. Mass spectrometry analysis found that the seaweed species Cytoseira nodicaulis ISCG0070, Cytoseira tamariscofolia ISCG0283, and Polysiphonia lanosa ISCG0462 also had a glycine betaine content that ranged from 1.39 ng/ml to 105.11 ng/ml. Generated ASE® macroalgal extracts have potential for use as functional food ingredients in food products. PMID:26018918

  4. Determination of pharmaceuticals in biosolids using accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Ding, Yunjie; Zhang, Weihao; Gu, Cheng; Xagoraraki, Irene; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method was developed to quantitatively determine pharmaceuticals in biosolid (treated sewage sludge) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The collected biosolid samples were initially freeze dried, and grounded to obtain relatively homogenized powders. Pharmaceuticals were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) under the optimized conditions. The optimal operation parameters, including extraction solvent, temperature, pressure, extraction time and cycles, were identified to be acetonitrile/water mixture (v/v 7:3) as extraction solvent with 3 extraction cycles (15 min for each cycle) at 100 °C and 100 bars. The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction followed by determination by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. For the 15 target pharmaceuticals commonly found in the environment, the overall method recoveries ranged from 49% to 68% for tetracyclines, 64% to 95% for sulfonamides, and 77% to 88% for other pharmaceuticals (i.e. acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, erythromycin, lincomycin and tylosin). The developed method was successfully validated and applied to the biosolid samples collected from WWTPs located in six cities in Michigan. Among the 15 target pharmaceuticals, 14 pharmaceuticals were detected in the collected biosolid samples. The average concentrations ranged from 2.6 μg/kg for lincomycin to 743.6 μg/kg for oxytetracycline. These results indicated that pharmaceuticals could survive wastewater treatment processes, and accumulate in sewage sludge and biosolids. Subsequent land application of the contaminated biosolids could lead to the dissemination of pharmaceuticals in soil and water environment, which poses potential threats to at-risk populations in the receiving ecosystems. PMID:21112593

  5. Screening for gestagens in kidney fat using accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Hooijerink, H.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2003-01-01

    A screening method has been developed for the determination of various anabolic steroids in kidney fat. Fat samples are extracted and steroids are trapped "on-line" during accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Following this initial extraction samples are further purified with C18 solid-phase extrac

  6. Accelerated solvent extraction for GC-based tobacco fingerprinting and its comparison with simultaneous distillation and extraction.

    Li, Yong; Pang, Tao; Guo, Ziming; Li, Yanli; Wang, Xiaolin; Deng, Jianhua; Zhong, Kejun; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2010-04-15

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure has been developed as a pretreatment method for chemical fingerprinting of volatile and semi-volatile components in cut tobacco. The ASE extraction conditions including temperature, operation pressure and extraction cycles were optimized to maximize extraction yield. The method was validated with repeatability, recovery and linearity. Compared with simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), ASE provides higher extraction yields, less extraction time, lower solvent consumption and less labor time, and is more suitable for tobacco sample preparation. A typical ASE extract was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A total of 305 components with signal-to-noise ratio higher than 100 were tentatively identified by NIST05 and Wiley database. Finally, 36 cigarette samples from six cigarette brands were analyzed using the developed chemical fingerprinting method. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis shows good discrimination of different cigarette brands. The results indicate that ASE method can serve as high-throughput sample preparation technique for cigarette chemical fingerprint analysis. PMID:20188977

  7. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants.

    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R; Theobald, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %). PMID:26289330

  8. Aqueous accelerated solvent extraction of native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from carbonaceous river floodplain soils

    In this study, three river floodplain soils with different compositions of carbonaceous materials and a reference coal sample were extracted with water using the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method. The desorption enthalpy values for 2-ring PAHs were highest in the coal sample, with values in the soil samples decreasing with decrease in coal content. The values for the higher condensed PAHs showed that the highest desorption enthalpies were from the samples with the largest amount of coal-derived particles. Elevated desorption enthalpies indicated a strong bonding between PAHs and geosorbents. Moreover, with the application of ASE this study was able to conclude that the PAHs in the samples were preferentially adsorbed to carbonaceous materials with high surface areas. - Native PAHs in river floodplain soils were preferentially bound to coal and coal-derived particles with a strong sorption affinity.

  9. Aqueous accelerated solvent extraction of native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from carbonaceous river floodplain soils.

    Yang, Yi; Hofmann, Thilo

    2009-10-01

    In this study, three river floodplain soils with different compositions of carbonaceous materials and a reference coal sample were extracted with water using the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method. The desorption enthalpy values for 2-ring PAHs were highest in the coal sample, with values in the soil samples decreasing with decrease in coal content. The values for the higher condensed PAHs showed that the highest desorption enthalpies were from the samples with the largest amount of coal-derived particles. Elevated desorption enthalpies indicated a strong bonding between PAHs and geosorbents. Moreover, with the application of ASE this study was able to conclude that the PAHs in the samples were preferentially adsorbed to carbonaceous materials with high surface areas. PMID:19524343

  10. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%. PMID:25053094

  11. Accelerated solvent extraction for gas chromatographic analysis of nicotine and cotinine in meconium samples.

    Sant'anna, Simone Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues; Diniz, Edna Maria de Albuquerque; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Adverse effects associated with smoking during pregnancy are well documented. Although self-report surveys on drug consumption during pregnancy have been improved with new interviewing techniques, underreporting is still a concern. Therefore, a series of biological markers and specimens to diagnose fetal exposure to tobacco have been studied. In the present study, an analytical method was developed to detect nicotine and cotinine (the main nicotine metabolite) in meconium samples. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) were used as sample preparation techniques. The analytes were detected by gas-chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The limits of detection were 3.0 and 30 ng/g for cotinine and nicotine, respectively. The method showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.98) in the concentration range studied (LOQ-500 ng/g). The intraday precision, given by the RSD of the method, was less than 15% for cotinine and nicotine. The method proved to be fast, practical, and sensitive. Smaller volumes of organic solvents are necessary compared to other chromatographic methods published in the scientific literature. This is the first report in which ASE was used as sample preparation technique in methods to detect xenobiotics in meconium. PMID:22290748

  12. Evaluation of Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and fish samples

    Three commonly applied extraction techniques for persistent organic chemicals, Soxhlet extraction (SE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), were applied on soil and fish samples in order to evaluate their performances. For both PCBs and PBDEs, the two more recent developed techniques (ASE and MAE) were in general capable of producing comparable extraction results as the classical SE, and even higher extraction recoveries were obtained for some PCB congeners with large octanol-water partitioning coefficients (Kow). This relatively uniform extraction results from ASE and MAE indicated that elevated temperature and pressure are favorable to the efficient extraction of PCBs from the solid matrices. For PBDEs, difference between the results from MAE and ASE (or SE) suggests that the MAE extraction condition needs to be carefully optimized according to the characteristics of the matrix and analyte to avoid degradation of higher brominated BDE congeners and improve the extraction yields.

  13. Evaluation of Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and fish samples

    Wang Pu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Qinghua, E-mail: qhzhang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Yawei; Wang Thanh; Li Xiaomin; Ding Lei; Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-03-17

    Three commonly applied extraction techniques for persistent organic chemicals, Soxhlet extraction (SE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), were applied on soil and fish samples in order to evaluate their performances. For both PCBs and PBDEs, the two more recent developed techniques (ASE and MAE) were in general capable of producing comparable extraction results as the classical SE, and even higher extraction recoveries were obtained for some PCB congeners with large octanol-water partitioning coefficients (K{sub ow}). This relatively uniform extraction results from ASE and MAE indicated that elevated temperature and pressure are favorable to the efficient extraction of PCBs from the solid matrices. For PBDEs, difference between the results from MAE and ASE (or SE) suggests that the MAE extraction condition needs to be carefully optimized according to the characteristics of the matrix and analyte to avoid degradation of higher brominated BDE congeners and improve the extraction yields.

  14. AN EVALUATION OF SAMPLE DISPERSION MEDIAS USED WITH ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION FOR THE EXTRACTION AND RECOVERY OF ARSENICALS FROM LFB AND DORM-2

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means for extracting arsenicals from quality control (QC) samples and DORM-2 [standard reference material (SRM)]. Unlike conventional extraction procedures, the ASE requires that the sample be dispe...

  15. Determination of 129I in seawater by accelerator mass spectrometry with solvent extraction method

    Considering increasing importance of analyzing seawater for 129I, we developed a practical method for determination of 129I in seawater using accelerator mass spectrometry by pre-treatment with solvent extraction. In this method, total inorganic iodine in 1 liter of seawater is extracted by hexane after iodate ions were reduced to iodide ions by ascorbic acid and iodide ions were oxidized by sodium nitrite. Recovery of total iodine was determined by ion chromatography. Accuracy and precision were examined by analyzing seawater samples of known concentrations and seawater added with the diluted NIST SRM 3230 Level I solutions. Repeatability of AMS measurement was checked using the seawater sample and AgI prepared from AgNO3 and KI. As a result of analyzing seawater samples of known concentrations, accuracy and precision were found to be quite satisfactory. Overall repeatability of the analysis by the present method including pre-treatment was approximately 10%(R.S.D.). It was concluded that 129I concentration levels from 106 to 107 atoms L-1 or over in seawater can be determined by this method with sufficient accuracy and precision. (author)

  16. Accelerated solvent extraction of vitamin K1 in medical foods in conjunction with matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    Chase, G W; Thompson, B

    2000-01-01

    An extraction technique is described for vitamin K1 in medical foods, using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) in conjunction with matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD). The medical food sample is treated as it would be with MSPD extraction, followed by ASE for a hands-free automated extraction. The vitamin K1 in the ASE extract is then quantitated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The chromatography specifications are identical to those in previous work that used MSPD only, with a limit of detection of 6.6 pg and a limit of quantitation of 22 pg on column. Recoveries, which were determined for an analyte-fortified zero control reference material for medical foods, averaged 97.6% (n = 25) for vitamin K1. The method provides a rapid, automatic, specific, and easily controlled assay for vitamin K1 in fortified medical foods with minimal solvent usage. PMID:10772179

  17. Catalytic acceleration of extraction process with solvent containing soft functional groups

    It is shown that a rate of equilibrium attainment in the extraction of salt of a ''soft'' type metal from nitric acid solutions by a solvent with ''soft'' functional group, for example in Pdsup((2)) extraction by dialkyl sulfide, may be essentially increased by the addition of extracting agent with functional groups including ''hard'' nucleophilic atoms, for example TBP, even in the case, when this extracting agent extracts ''soft'' cation salt rather weakly. The observed catalytic effect may be explained by the fact that, as opposed to molecules with ''soft'' functional groups, TBP molecules and molecules of other nucleophilic extracting agents with ''hard'' donor atoms are concentrated on the phase interface and therefore they react quicker with ''soft'' cation salts during phase contact converting them to the organic phase volume in a solvate form, where the latter reacts quickly with a ''soft'' extracting agent forming thermodynamically stable complex

  18. Comparison of microwave, ultrasound and accelerated-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of polyphenols from Citrus sinensis peels.

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Dahmoune, Farid; Moussi, Kamal; Remini, Hocine; Dairi, Sofiane; Aoun, Omar; Khodir, Madani

    2015-11-15

    Peel of Citrus sinensis contains significant amounts of bioactive polyphenols that could be used as ingredients for a number of value-added products with health benefits. Extraction of polyphenols from the peels was performed using a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The effects of aqueous acetone concentration, microwave power, extraction time and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) (using DPPH and ORAC-values) and individual phenolic acids (IPA) were investigated using a response surface method. The TPC, TAA and IPA of peel extracts using MAE was compared with conventional, ultrasound-assisted and accelerated solvent extraction. The maximum predicted TPC under the optimal MAE conditions (51% acetone concentration in water (v/v), 500 W microwave power, 122 s extraction time and 25 mL g(-1) solvent to solid ratio), was 12.20 mg GAE g(-1) DW. The TPC and TAA in MAE extracts were higher than the other three extracts. PMID:25977057

  19. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    Rajha, Hiba N.; Walter Ziegler; Nicolas Louka; Zeina Hobaika; Eugene Vorobiev; Boechzelt, Herbert G.; Maroun, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g ...

  20. Predispersed solvent extraction

    Rodarte, Alma Isabel Marín

    1988-01-01

    A new solvent extraction method has been developed for the extraction of metal and organic ions from very dilute aqueous solutions. The new method, which has been named Predispersed Solvent Extraction (POSE), is based on the principle that 1 there is no need to comminute both phases. All that is necessary is to comminute the solvent phase prior to contacting it with the feed. This is done by converting the solvent into aphrons, which are micron-sized globules encapsulated in a ...

  1. Optimization of in-cell accelerated solvent extraction technique for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in river sediments.

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with adverse impacts on aquatic biota, wildlife and human health even at low concentrations. However, conventional methods for their determination in river sediments are resource intensive. This paper presents an approach that is rapid and also reliable for the detection of OCPs. Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) with in-cell silica gel clean-up followed by Triple Quadrupole Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry (GCMS/MS) was used to recover OCPs from sediment samples. Variables such as temperature, solvent ratio, adsorbent mass and extraction cycle were evaluated and optimized for the extraction. With the exception of Aldrin, which was unaffected by any of the variables evaluated, the recovery of OCPs from sediment samples was largely influenced by solvent ratio and adsorbent mass and, to some extent, the number of cycles and temperature. The optimized conditions for OCPs extraction in sediment with good recoveries were determined to be 4 cycles, 4.5 g of silica gel, 105 °C, and 4:3 v/v DCM: hexane mixture. With the exception of two compounds (α-BHC and Aldrin) whose recoveries were low (59.73 and 47.66% respectively), the recovery of the other pesticides were in the range 85.35-117.97% with precision solvent used, matrix interference, and is highly sensitive and selective. PMID:26838409

  2. Analysis of coenzyme Q10 in bee pollen using online cleanup by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Lanzhen; Zhou, Jinhui; Yue, Bing; Li, Yi; Wu, Liming; Liu, Fengmao

    2012-07-15

    A method for the determination of coenzyme Q10 in bee pollen has been developed applying an online cleanup of accelerated solvent extraction and using environmentally acceptable organic solvents. The extracted samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The optimised method employed 10 mL extraction cells, 1g sample size, absolute ethanol as extraction solvent, 80°C of extraction temperature, one extraction cycle, 5 min of static time, Cleanert Alumina-N as sorbent and 60% flush volume. The method was validated by means of an evaluation of the matrix effects, linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), trueness, precision and stability. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.25-200mg/L and the LOD and LOQ were 0.16 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries were above 90%. The inter- and intra-day precision was below 6.3%. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of bee pollen samples. For 20 bee pollen products, the coenzyme Q10 content varied from not detectable to 192.8 mg/kg. PMID:25683435

  3. Evaluating the performances of accelerated-solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for determining PCBs, HCHs and DDTs in sediments

    ZHANG Peng; GE Linke; ZHOU Chuanguang; YAOZiwei

    2011-01-01

    Three extraction techniques have been recently used for the quantitative extraction of semi-volatile organic pollutants in sediments,i.e.accelerated solvent extraction (ASE),microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE).However,their extraction efficiencies have rarely been quantitatively compared using rigorous mathematical methods.In this paper,one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to evaluate the performance of ASE,MAE and UAE in the overall extraction of PCBs,DDTs and HCHs by analysis of their recoveries from the Standard Reference Material IAEA-417,a sediment sample certified by many international laboratories.Conclusions were drawn at a significance level of P≤0.05.No significant differences were found among the mean values for method recoveries using ASE,MAE and UAE.The mean values for real recoveries using ASE and MAE were nearly identical,but the real recovery using UAE was much lower.The concentrations of all PCBs,DDTs and HCHs except for CB52 and o,p'-DDT using UAE were the lowest.Comparing the results obtained using ASE with MAE,the concentrations of CB28,CB52,CB138,α-HCH,β-HCH,p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were nearly identical,while the concentrations of other compounds were significantly different.Based on the low recoveries,it was concluded that UAE is a relatively inefficient extraction method,while ASE and MAE are equivalent methods.Taking into consideration the relative standard deviation (RSD)values,solvent volume,extraction time,and purchasing costs of the apparatus,MAE was considered superior to ASE for extraction of PCBs,DDTs and HCHs.

  4. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. PMID:25872435

  5. Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor.

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Pai, Sandeep R; Sharma, Ajay K; Hegde, Harsha V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT) from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and efficient UFLC-PDA (245 and 343 nm) method. Temperature increased efficiency of extraction to yield higher amount of CPT, whereas temperature had diminutive effect on yield of piperine. Maximum yield for CPT was achieved at 80°C and for piperine at 40°C. Thus, the study determines compound specific extraction of CPT from N. nimmoniana and piperine from P. nigrum using ASE method. The present study indicates the use of this method for simple, fast, and accurate extraction of the compound of interest. PMID:24527258

  6. Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor

    Vinayak Upadhya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah. Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE. Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and efficient UFLC-PDA (245 and 343 nm method. Temperature increased efficiency of extraction to yield higher amount of CPT, whereas temperature had diminutive effect on yield of piperine. Maximum yield for CPT was achieved at 80∘C and for piperine at 40∘C. Thus, the study determines compound specific extraction of CPT from N. nimmoniana and piperine from P. nigrum using ASE method. The present study indicates the use of this method for simple, fast, and accurate extraction of the compound of interest.

  7. Determination of persistent organic pollutants in solid environmental samples using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. Exhaustive extraction and sorption/desorption studies of PCBs

    Bjoerklund, E.

    1998-10-01

    Human activity is constantly causing environmental problems due to production and release of numerous chemicals. A group of compounds of special concern is persistent organic pollutants (POP). These toxic, lipophilic chemicals have a high chemical and biological stability, and tend to accumulate in the lipid phase of living organisms. A major sink for POPs are sediments, and consequently these are important for the distribution of POPs in the aquatic environment. Traditionally, determination of POPs relay on exhaustive extraction using liquid extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet extraction developed in the late 19th century) followed by gas chromatographic analysis. Since liquid-solid extraction normally requires large volumes of organic solvents in combination with long extraction times and extract clean-up, there has been an increasing demand for improved technology. This should result in reduced organic solvent consumption and sample preparation time, at the same time improving the environment and cutting costs for POP monitoring. In this thesis two modern techniques with capability of fulfilling at least one of these goals have been investigated: (1) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), and (2) Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were chosen as model compounds in all experiments performed on environmental matrices, since they cover a relatively large range of physiochemical parameters. Important parameters influencing the overall extraction efficiency in ASE and SFE, are discussed and illustrated for a large number of sediments. It was demonstrated that, by careful consideration of the experimental parameters, both techniques are capable of replacing old methods such as Soxhlet extraction. ASE is somewhat faster than SFE, but the extracts generated in SFE are much cleaner and can be analyzed without sample clean-up. Consequently the overall sample preparation time may be substantially lower using SFE. However, ASE is important

  8. Influence of processing procedure on the quality of Radix Scrophulariae: a quantitative evaluation of the main compounds obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Cao, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Zhu, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with accelerated solvent extraction method was used to simultaneously determine six compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae samples. Accelerated solvent extraction parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, number of cycles, and analysis procedure were systematically optimized. The results indicated that compared with crude Radix Scrophulariae samples, the processed samples had lower contents of harpagide and harpagoside but higher contents of catalpol, acteoside, angoroside C, and cinnamic acid. The established method was sufficiently rapid and reliable for the global quality evaluation of crude and processed herbal medicines. PMID:25431110

  9. Influence of Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction on the Anthocyanin Profile of Different Vaccinium Species in the Context of Statistical Models for Authentication.

    Heffels, Peter; Weber, Fabian; Schieber, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Anthocyanins are frequently discussed as marker compounds for fruit product authenticity. Proper analysis including sample preparation for the determination of anthocyanin concentrations is crucial for the comparability of authenticity data. The present study determined the influence of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using two different solvent compositions on the anthocyanin profile of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), and American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Besides differences in total anthocyanin concentrations in the extracts, significant deviations (p ≤ 0.05) in the individual anthocyanin concentration were observed, resulting in differing anthocyanin proportions. Linear discriminant analysis comparing the differences caused by the extraction method to the natural differences within a set of 26 bilberry and lowbush blueberry samples of different origins was conducted. It revealed that profile variations induced by the extraction methods are in a similar scale to profile variations as a result of geographic and climatic differences. PMID:26330254

  10. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  11. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    Hiba N. Rajha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12% than the wet extract (39.8%. The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

  12. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  14. Accelerated solvent extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the sensitive determination of phenols in soil samples.

    Xing, Han-Zhu; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-05-01

    A method combining accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the first time as a sample pretreatment for the rapid analysis of phenols (including phenol, m-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) in soil samples. In the accelerated solvent extraction procedure, water was used as an extraction solvent, and phenols were extracted from soil samples into water. The dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique was then performed on the obtained aqueous solution. Important accelerated solvent extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction parameters were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the new method provided wide linearity (6.1-3080 ng/g), low limits of detection (0.06-1.83 ng/g), and excellent reproducibility (accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a sample pretreatment procedure coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is an excellent method for the rapid analysis of trace levels of phenols in environmental soil samples. PMID:25676868

  15. [Determination of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool by accelerated solvent extraction technique and high performance liquid chromatography].

    Fan, Yuanmu; Huang, Shaotang; Yu, Xuejun; Gu, Xiaojun; Qiu, Yajun; Chen, Shubing; Fang, Keteng; Chen, Jun

    2009-07-01

    A method for the determination of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool was developed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues were extracted with acetonitrile saturated with n-hexane at 80 degrees C and 10.34 MPa. The extract was pretreated by a series of procedures such as freezing-lipid filtration, concentration and purification by solid-phase extraction prior to the determination with HPLC. The target analytes were separated on a Waters Atlants dC18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), gradiently eluted with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phases and detected by a photodiode array detector (DAD) at 254 nm. The linear ranges were 0.1 - 10.0 mg/L. There were good linearity between the peak areas and concentrations in the linear range for the analytes, and the correlation coefficients of diflubenzuron and triflumuron were higher than 0.9999. The limits of quantification for diflubenzuron and triflumuron were 0.05 and 0.04 mg/kg (S/N > or = 10), respectively. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for preliminary screening of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool. PMID:19938504

  16. Development and practical application of accelerated solvent extraction for the isolation of cocaine/crack biomarkers in meconium samples.

    Mantovani, Cínthia de Carvalho; Lima, Marcela Bittar; Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de; Menck, Rafael de Almeida; Diniz, Edna Maria de Albuquerque; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2014-04-15

    A method using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the isolation of cocaine/crack biomarkers in meconium samples, followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and the simultaneous quantification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and validated. Initially, meconium samples were submitted to an ASE procedure, which was followed by SPE with Bond Elut Certify I cartridges. The analytes were derivatizated with PFP/PFPA and analyzed by GC-MS. The limits of detection (LOD) were between 11 and 17ng/g for all analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 30ng/g for anhydroecgonine methyl ester, and 20ng/g for cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester and cocaethylene. Linearity ranged from the LOQ to 1500ng/g for all analytes, with a coefficients of determination greater than 0.991, except for m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, which was only qualitatively detected. Precision and accuracy were evaluated at three concentration levels. For all analytes, inter-assay precision ranged from 3.2 to 18.1%, and intra-assay precision did not exceed 12.7%. The accuracy results were between 84.5 and 114.2% and the average recovery ranged from 17 to 84%. The method was applied to 342 meconium samples randomly collected in the University Hospital-University of São Paulo (HU-USP), Brazil. Cocaine biomarkers were detected in 19 samples, which represent 5.6% of exposure prevalence. Significantly lower birth weight, length and head circumference were found for the exposed newborns compared with the non-exposed group. This is the first report in which ASE was used as a sample preparation technique to extract cocaine biomarkers from a complex biological matrix such as meconium samples. The advantages of the developed method are the smaller demand for organic solvents and the minor sample handling, which allows a faster and accurate procedure, appropriate to confirm fetal exposure to cocaine/crack. PMID:24657406

  17. Comparison of accelerated solvent extraction and quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for extraction and determination of pharmaceuticals in vegetables.

    Chuang, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Wei; Boyd, Stephen A; Li, Hui

    2015-07-24

    Land application of biosolids and irrigation with reclaimed water in agricultural production could result in accumulation of pharmaceuticals in vegetable produce. To better assess the potential human health impact from long-term consumption of pharmaceutical-contaminated vegetables, it is important to accurately quantify the amount of pharmaceuticals accumulated in vegetables. In this study, a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was developed and optimized to extract multiple classes of pharmaceuticals from vegetables, which were subsequently quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. For the eleven target pharmaceuticals in celery and lettuce, the extraction recovery of the QuEChERS method ranged from 70.1 to 118.6% with relative standard deviation accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method for extraction of pharmaceuticals from plants. The two optimized extraction methods were applied to quantify the uptake of pharmaceuticals by celery and lettuce growing hydroponically. The results showed that all the eleven target pharmaceuticals could be absorbed by the vegetables from water. Compared to the ASE method, the QuEChERS method offers the advantages of short time and reduced costs of sample preparation, and less amount of organic solvents used. The established QuEChERS method could be used to determine the accumulation of multiple classes of pharmaceutical residues in vegetables and other plants, which is needed to evaluate the quality and safety of agricultural produce consumed by humans. PMID:26065569

  18. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  19. Accelerated solvent extraction of alkylresorcinols in food products containing uncooked and cooked wheat

    This research focuses on the overall extraction process of alkylresorcinols (ARs) from uncooked grains and baked products that have been processed with wheat, corn, rice, and white flour. Previously established extraction methods developed by Ross and colleagues, as well as a semi-automated method ...

  20. Accelerated solvent extraction of alkylresorcinols in food products containing uncooked and cooked wheat

    This research focuses on the overall extraction process of alkylresorcinols (ARs) from uncooked grains and baked products that have been processed with wheat, corn, rice, and white flour. Previously established extraction methods developed by Ross and colleagues, as well as a semiautomated method in...

  1. Solvent extraction columns

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  2. Simultaneous chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis of Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Dai, Weiquan; Zhao, Weiquan; Gao, Fangyuan; Shen, Jingjing; Lv, Diya; Qi, Yunpeng; Fan, Guorong

    2015-05-01

    Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae (RSG) is a well-known herbal medicine with the homology of medicine and food. In this study, simultaneous chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis of the bioactive flavonoid components of RSG were developed using accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. The operational parameters of accelerated solvent extraction including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, static extraction time, solid-to-liquid ratio, and extraction cycles were optimized. Hierarchical cluster analysis, similarity analysis, and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the similarity and variation of the samples collected from several provinces in China. Subsequently, high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints were established for the discrimination of 16 batches of RSG samples, and the major six flavonoids, namely, toxifolin, neoastilbin, astilbin, neoisoastilbin, isoastilbin, and engeletin were then quantitatively determined. The calibration curves for all the six analytes showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.999), and the limits of detection and quantification were less than 0.10 and 0.27 μg·mL(-1) , respectively. Therefore, the proposed extraction and determination methods were proved to be robust and reliable for the quality control of RSG. PMID:25678068

  3. Ultrasonic or accelerated solvent extraction followed by U-HPLC-high mass accuracy MS for screening of pharmaceuticals and fungicides in soil and plant samples.

    Chitescu, Carmen Lidia; Oosterink, Efraim; de Jong, Jacob; Stolker, Alida Adriana Maria Linda

    2012-01-15

    Different veterinary pharmaceuticals are used in agricultural livestock becoming a source of environment contamination. Furthermore, no regulation exists for the concentration limits of pharmaceuticals in soil or water. Monitoring programs for environment contamination with pharmaceuticals are needed, requiring new sensitive and selective screening methods. The present study focuses on developing a method for the simultaneous scanning of forty-two compounds (pharmaceuticals, azole biocides and fungicides) in soil and plant material samples. For extraction purposes the use of ultrasonic assisted and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were compared. The extract was purified and concentrated by applying a solid phase extraction step followed by ultra-high-performance-chromatographic separation and accurate-mass spectrometric detection using Exacte Orbitrap technology (FWHM 50,000). The effects of the different extraction solvents and conditions on the extraction efficiency were tested. Although both extraction approaches are applicable the optimal extraction efficiency was obtained by applying accelerated solvent extraction using solvent mixtures containing acetone for soil and methanol for plant samples. An ASE process has been validated for the determination of selected pharmaceuticals and fungicides in soil and in plant material. The recoveries from soil samples were >70% for more than 68% of the compounds. The levels of detection were ≤10 μg kg(-1) for 93% of the compounds tested. The recoveries from plant material were >70% for 64% of the compounds tested. The levels of detection were ≤10 μg kg(-1) for 66% of the compounds. The developed method was used to screen soil and plant material collected throughout the Netherlands and oxytetracycline residues were detected. PMID:22265554

  4. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants

    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R.; Theobald, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive...

  5. High-throughput GC-ECD analysis of PCBs in food by accelerated solvent extraction. Method validation

    Piersanti, A.; Fioroni, L.; Paoloni, A.; Tavoloni, T.; Pecorelli, I.; Galarini, R. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Umbria e delle Marche, Perugia (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    In the year 2000 the determination of the PCBs in food commodities was introduced in the Italian national residue control plan in which government labs were requested to estimate the total PCB content as sum of seven more representative congeners. Later on, in 2001, it was decided that a more appropriate estimation of the total PCBs was possible through analysis of eighteen rather than seven congeners. Therefore the need for simple and validated analytical methods arose. In this work a method for the analysis of the PCBs 18-congeners (T{sub 3}CB-28, T{sub 4}CB-52, P{sub 5}CB-95, P{sub 5}CB-99, P{sub 5}CB-101, P{sub 5}CB-105, P{sub 5}CB-110, P{sub 5}CB-118, H{sub 6}CB-138, H{sub 6}CB-146, H{sub 6}CB-149, H{sub 6}CB-151, H{sub 6}CB-153, H{sub 7}CB-170, H{sub 7}CB-177, H{sub 7}CB-180, H{sub 7}CB-183, H{sub 7}CB-187) is reported. This has been set up taking in account the advantages of the automated and high efficient Accelerated Solvent Extraction together with good purification achieved by a one-step acidic-extrelut/silica chromatography. The instrumental analysis is performed by capillary-GC equipped with an ECD detector. An in-house validation study has been made on swine muscle assessing the method performances in terms of limit of detection, response linearity range, trueness and precision.

  6. Accelerated solvent extraction and pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatographic purification of yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom.

    Shu, Xi-Kai; Li, Jia; Liu, Feng; Lin, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Xiao; Song, Chun-Xia

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to seek an efficient method to extract and purify yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom. by accelerated solvent extraction combined with pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The major extraction parameters for accelerated solvent extraction were optimized by an orthogonal test design L9 (3)(4). Then a separation and purification method was established using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:5:2:8, v/v) with 10 mM triethylamine in the upper phase and 10 mM HCl in the lower phase. From 2 g crude extract, 224 mg of 8-deacetylyunaconitine (I) and 841 mg of yunaconitine (II) were obtained with a purity of over 98.0%. The chemical structures were identified by ESI-MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:23784883

  7. Optimization of an accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the separation and determination of essential oil from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Yang, Guang; Sun, Qiushi; Hu, Zhiyan; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, an accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was established and employed for the extraction, concentration and analysis of essential oil constituents from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Response surface methodology was performed to optimize the key parameters in accelerated solvent extraction on the extraction efficiency, and key parameters in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were discussed as well. Two representative constituents in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, (Z)-ligustilide and n-butylphthalide, were quantitatively analyzed. It was shown that the qualitative result of the accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction approach was in good agreement with that of hydro-distillation, whereas the proposed approach took far less extraction time (30 min), consumed less plant material (usually solvent (extraction and analysis of essential oil. PMID:26304788

  8. A consecutive preparation method based upon accelerated solvent extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography for isolation of aesculin from Cortex fraxinus.

    Tong, Xing; Zhou, Ting; Xiao, Xiaohua; Li, Gongke

    2012-12-01

    A consecutive preparation method based upon accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was presented and aesculin was obtained from Cortex fraxinus. The extraction condition of ASE was optimized with response surface methodology; some significant parameters such as the solvent system and its stability, the amount of loading sample in HSCCC were also investigated. The original sample was first extracted with methanol at 105°C and 104 bar for 7 min using ASE, then the extracts were consecutively introduced into the HSCCC system and separated and purified with the same ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (7:3:10, v/v/v) solvent system for five times without further exchange and equilibrium. About 3.1 ± 0.2 mg/g in each time and total of 15.4 mg/g aesculin with purity over 95% was isolated from Cortex fraxinus. The results demonstrated that the consecutive preparation method was time and solvent saving and high throughput, it was suitable for isolation of aesculin from Cortex fraxinus, and also has good potential on the separation and purification of effective compounds from natural product. PMID:23225725

  9. Occupational exposure to complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in ambient air: desorption from activated charcoal using accelerated solvent extraction can replace carbon disulfide?

    Fabrizi, Giovanni; Fioretti, Marzia; Rocca, Lucia Mainero

    2013-01-01

    A desorption study of 57 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been conducted by use of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Different solvents were tested to extract activated charcoal tubes with the objective of replacing carbon disulfide, used in official methods, because of its highly toxic health and environmental effects. Extraction conditions, for example temperature and number of cycles, were investigated and optimized. The definitive extraction procedure selected was use of acetone at 150 °C and two consecutive extraction cycles at a pressure of 1,500 psi. Considering a sample volume of 0.005 Nm(3), corresponding to a sampling time of 8 h at a flow rate of 0.01 L min(-1), the method was validated over the concentration range 65-26,300 μg Nm(-3). The lowest limit of quantification was 6 μg Nm(-3), and recovery for the 93 % of analytes ranged from 65 to 102 %. For most of the compounds, relative standard deviations were less than 15 % for inter and intra-day precision. Uncertainty of measurement was also determined: the relative expanded uncertainty was always below 29.6 %, except for dichlorodifluoromethane. This work shows that use of friendlier solvent, for example acetone, coupled with use of ASE, can replace use of CS(2) for chemical removal of VOCs from activated charcoal. ASE has several advantages over traditional solvent-extraction methods, including shorter extraction time, minimum sample manipulation, high reproducibility, and less extraction discrimination. No loss of sensitivity occurs and there is also a salutary effect on bench workers' health and on the smell of laboratory air. PMID:22968683

  10. Fission product solvent extraction

    Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF)

  11. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  12. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish: optimisation and validation of a method based on accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Ottonello, Giuliana; Ferrari, Angelo; Magi, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    A simple and robust method for the determination of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish was developed and validated. A mixture of acetone/n-hexane (1:1, v/v) was selected for accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). After the digestion of fat, the clean-up was carried out using solid phase extraction silica cartridges. Samples were analysed by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) using three fragment ions for each congener (one quantifier and two qualifiers). PCB 155 and PCB 198 were employed as internal standards. The lowest limit of detection was observed for PCB 28 (0.4ng/g lipid weight). The accuracy of the method was verified by means of the Certified Reference Material EDF-2525 and good results in terms of linearity (R(2)>0.994) and recoveries (80-110%) were also achieved. Precision was evaluated by spiking blank samples at 4, 8 and 12ng/g. Relative standard deviation values for repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 8% and 16%, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of PCBs in 80 samples belonging to four Mediterranean fish species. The proposed procedure is particularly effective because it provides good recoveries with lowered extraction time and solvent consumption; in fact, the total time of extraction is about 12min per sample and, for the clean-up step, a total solvent volume of 13ml is required. PMID:24001849

  13. [Rapid determination of pesticide multiresidues in vegetables and fruits by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with online gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Ouyang, Yunfu; Tang, Hongbing; Wu, Ying; Li, Guiying

    2012-07-01

    A novel method was developed for the rapid determination of 22 representative pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with online gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GPC-GC-MS). The sample was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with dichloromethane-acetone (1:1, v/v) and purified with a carbon/NH2 column, evaporated to dryness by nitrogen, then dissolved in cyclohexane-acetone (7:3, v/v), and finally identified and quantified by GPC-GC-MS system in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The results showed that the linearities of the 22 pesticides were good in their linear ranges. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.3-1.8 microg/kg. The limits of quantification (S/N = 10) ranged from 1-6 microg/kg. The recoveries for all at three spiked levels in Chinese cabbages and apples ranged from 70.5% to 107.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.1%-8.7%. The proposed method is accurate, sensitive and highly efficient in the extraction, and can be used for the quick determination of the pesticide multiresidues in vegetables and fruits. PMID:23189658

  14. Rapid determination of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter using accelerated solvent extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Xu, Tianci

    2016-05-01

    A method has been developed for the trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are known as persistent organic pollutants and ubiquitous constituents of fine particulate matter that causes growing airborne pollution. The method, which was especially for samples of airborne particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, utilized accelerated solvent extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. Four principal parameters of accelerated solvent extraction were optimized to obtain maximum extraction efficiency. Using the established synergetic programs of gradient elution and fluorescence wavelength switching, a rapid separation was achieved in 6.56 min with good linearity for 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (coefficient of determination above 0.999). The limits of detection ranged from 0.833 to 10.0 pg/m(3) . The precision of the method expressed as inter-day relative standard deviation ranged from 0.2 to 1%, which was calculated from nine repetitive measurements of 8.00 μg/L analytes. Average spiked recoveries ranged from 71.6 to 97.7%, with the exception of naphthalene. The rapid, sensitive, and accurate method can meet the pressing needs of health risk assessment and increasingly heavy daily tasks of air quality monitoring. PMID:26991966

  15. Development of an accelerated solvent extraction, ultrasonic derivatisation LC-MS/MS method for the determination of the marker residues of nitrofurans in freshwater fish.

    Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Wei, Huimin; Yuanhu, Pan; Liu, Zhenli; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Yulian; Xie, Shuyu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and ultrasound enhanced derivatisation has been developed for the quantitative determination of metabolites of nitrofurans, namely 3-amino-2-oxalidinone (AOZ), 5-morpholinomethyl-3-amino-2-oxalidinone (AMOZ), 1-amino-hydantoin (AHD) and semicarbazide (SEM), in muscle and skin of carp and finless eel. The target analytes were extracted using ASE, ultrasonic derivatisation for 1 h and then purified by solid phase extraction. Averaged decision limits (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) of the method were in the range of 0.07-0.13 and 0.31-0.49 µg kg⁻¹ in carp and finless eel, respectively. The accuracy in terms of recovery was in the range 77.2-97.4%. The simplified and traditional methods were compared with incurred residue samples. The simplified method reduced the derivatisation time and has been applied to the determination of nitrofurans residues in fish. PMID:22320705

  16. Comparison of hot Soxhlet and accelerated solvent extractions with microwave and supercritical fluid extractions for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated derivatives strongly adsorbed on soot collected inside a diesel particulate filter.

    Oukebdane, K; Portet-Koltalo, F; Machour, N; Dionnet, F; Desbène, P L

    2010-06-30

    Several methods of extraction were optimized to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their nitrated derivatives and heavy n-alkanes from a highly adsorptive particulate matter resulting from the combustion of diesel fuel in a diesel engine. This particular carbonaceous particulate matter, collected at high temperatures in cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF), which are optimized for removing diesel particles from diesel engine exhaust emissions, appeared extremely refractory to extractions using the classical extracting conditions for these pollutants. In particular, the method of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is described in detail here. Optimization was performed through experimental design to understand the impact of each factor studied and the factors' possible interactions on the recovery yields. The conventional extraction technique, i.e., Soxhlet extraction, was also carried out, but the lack of quantitative extractions led us to use a more effective approach: hot Soxhlet. It appeared that the extraction of the heaviest PAHs and nitroPAHs by either the optimized ASE or hot Soxhlet processes was far from complete. To enhance recovery yields, we tested original solvent mixtures of aromatic and heteroaromatic solvents. Thereafter, these two extraction techniques were compared to microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). In every case, the only solvent mixture that permitted quantitative extraction of the heaviest PAHs from the diesel soot was composed of pyridine and diethylamine, which has a strong electron-donor character. Conversely, the extraction of the nitrated PAHs was significantly improved by the use of an electron-acceptor solvent or by introducing a small amount of acetic acid into the pyridine. It was demonstrated that, for many desirable features, no single extraction technique stound out as the best: ASE, MAE or SFE could all challenge hot Soxhlet for favourable extractions

  17. Simultaneous determination of fluoroquinolones in foods of animal origin by a high performance liquid chromatography and a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    Yu, Huan; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Dai, Menghong; Peng, Dapeng; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-02-15

    A confirmatory and quantitative method based on a high performance liquid chromatography UV detector (HPLC-UV) and a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with an extraction procedure of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has been developed for simultaneous determination of 15 kinds of fluoroquinolones in various animal origin food samples. The sample preparation procedures consist of an extraction step with acetonitrile and a cleaning-up step with Oasis HLB cartridge. Parameters for extraction pressure and temperature, cycle of ASE, clean-up, and analysis procedure have been optimized systematically. The recoveries of FQNs spiked in the tissues as the muscle, liver, kidney of swine, bovine, chicken and fish at a concentration range of 10-800μg/kg were found between 70.6% and 111.1% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 15% in HPLC. The LOD and LOQ of the HPLC for the 15 FQNs were 3μg/kg and 10μg/kg, respectively, and those of the LC-MS/MS were 0.3 and 1μg/kg, respectively. These rapid and reliable methods can be used to efficiently separate, characterize and quantify the residues of 15 FQNs (Marbofloxacin, Enoxacin, Fleroxacin, Ofloxacin, Pefloxacin, Lomefloxacin, Danofloxacin, Enrofloxacin, Orbifloxacin, Cinoxacin, Gatifloxacin, Sarafloxacin, Difloxacin, Nalidixic Acid, Flumequine) in food of animal origin. PMID:22230742

  18. [Determination of eight defoliant residues in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Wu, Gang; Dong, Suozhuai; Pan, Lulu; Zhao, Shanhong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Fanglong; Li, Dan

    2013-07-01

    A novel method has been developed for the rapid extraction and determination of eight defoliants including thidiazuron, butiphos, methabenzthiazuron, abscisic acid, carfentra-zone-ethyl, diuron, paraquat, and pyrithiobac-sodium in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The defoliants in cotton were extracted by ASE and the extracts were dried by a rotavapor, then redissolved in the solvents of acetonitrile and water (1:9, v/v). The chromatographic analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (50 mmx 2. 1 mm, 1. 8 microm) by a gradient elution employing of acetonitrile and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phases. The analytes were detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Good linearities (r >0.99) were observed between 0. 01 and 0. 3 mg/L for all the compounds. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were obtained by spiking untreated samples with the eight defoliants at 0. 1, 0. 5 and 1.0 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the eight defoliants were from (84. 18 +/- 8.04)% to (95.99 +/- 6.76)%. The precision values expressed as RSDs were from 7. 04% to 10. 60% (n = 6). The limits of detection were 0. 8 - 29 microg/kg and the limits of quantification were 2.5 - 96 1/4g/kg for the analytes. The results ahowed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the quantitative determination and confirmation of the eight defoliants in cotton. PMID:24164041

  19. Validation of an accelerated solvent extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for Pacific ciguatoxin-1 in fish flesh and comparison with the mouse neuroblastoma assay.

    Wu, Jia Jun; Mak, Yim Ling; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Chan, Wing Hei; Wang, Mingfu; Chan, Leo L; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a global foodborne illness caused by consumption of seafood containing ciguatoxins (CTXs) originating from dinoflagellates such as Gambierdiscus toxicus. P-CTX-1 has been suggested to be the most toxic CTX, causing ciguatera at 0.1 μg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. CTXs are structurally complex and difficult to quantify, but there is a need for analytical methods for CFP toxins in coral reef fishes to protect human health. In this paper, we describe a sensitive and rapid extraction method using accelerated solvent extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. By the use of a more sensitive MS system (5500 QTRAP), the validated method has a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 μg/kg, linearity correlation coefficients above 0.99 for both solvent- and matrix-based standard solutions as well as matrix spike recoveries ranging from 49% to 85% in 17 coral reef fish species. Compared with previous methods, this method has better overall recovery, extraction efficiency and LOQ. Fish flesh from 12 blue-spotted groupers (Cephalopholis argus) was assessed for the presence of CTXs using HPLC-MS/MS analysis and the commonly used mouse neuroblastoma assay, and the results of the two methods were strongly correlated. This method is capable of detecting low concentrations of P-CTX-1 in fish at levels that are relevant to human health, making it suitable for monitoring of suspected ciguateric fish both in the environment and in the marketplace. PMID:21505950

  20. Analysis of vitamin K1 in fruits and vegetables using accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Jakobsen, Jette

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific analytical method to study vitamin K1 in fruits and vegetables. Accelerated solvent extraction and solid phase extraction was used for sample preparation. Quantification was done by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in selected reaction monitoring mode with deuterium-labeled vitamin K1 as an internal standard. The precision was estimated as the pooled estimate of three replicates performed on three different days for spinach, peas, apples, banana, and beetroot. The repeatability was 5.2% and the internal reproducibility was 6.2%. Recovery was in the range 90-120%. No significant difference was observed between the results obtained by the present method and by a method using the same principle as the CEN-standard i.e. liquid-liquid extraction and post-column zinc reduction with fluorescence detection. Limit of quantification was estimated to 0.05 μg/100g fresh weight. PMID:26304366

  1. Rapid dioxin analysis using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), multi-column sample cleanup and Rtx-Dioxin2 gas chromatography column

    Robinson, C.; Blow, P. [Australian Laboratory Services, Brisbane (Australia); Dorman, F. [Restek Corporation, Bellefonte, PA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    One of the main aims of many dioxin analysis laboratories is to reduce sample turnaround times to the absolute minimum. Often shorter times between sample receipt and reporting of results can attract a premium price for the analysis. It is generally accepted that the GC-MS portion of dioxin/PCB analysis is not the rate determining step in the overall scheme. Therefore, sample extraction and clean up is the obvious step to investigate for time-saving purposes. The use of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and multi column cleanup has been investigated for soil, sediment, air sampling media (XAD-2 resin) and fly-ash samples. For water samples the ASE step is replaced with a liquid/liquid separatory funnel extraction. Environmental analyses regularly require the use of two GC-MS runs to produce dioxin results that may be relied upon. The use of the classical 5MS type column coupled with the more polar 2331 type to produce final results is typical. The innovative capillary GC column, Rtx-Dioxin2, has offered the possibility of performing a dioxin analysis in a single GC-MS run. The analysis of the WHO-12 PCB (PCBs 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169 and 189) congeners has also been investigated using this column.

  2. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  3. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future

  4. Accelerated solvent extraction -gas chromatography to the residue of pesticides measurement%加速溶剂萃取-气相色谱法对土壤中农药残留的测定

    孙志伟

    2015-01-01

    文章论述了加速溶剂萃取-气相色谱法对土壤中农药残留的测定方法.%This paper introduced the accelerated solvent extraction -gas chromatography to the residue of pesticides measurement.

  5. Validation and application of a multi-residue method, using accelerated solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography, for pesticides quantification in soil.

    Leyva-Morales, J B; Valdez-Torres, J B; Bastidas-Bastidas, P J; Betancourt-Lozano, M

    2015-01-01

    A multi-residue method was developed to determine different types of pesticides in soils. An extraction with pressure and temperature, through accelerated solvent extraction (dichloromethane:acetone, 50:50, v/v). The pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with several selective detectors: electron capture detector, pulsed flame photometric detector and thermionic specific detector. The following parameters were determined: limit of detection, limit of quantification, equipment linearity (working interval), method linearity as well as, method accuracy and precision. The average recoveries ranged between 76 and 106%, with the exception of chlorothalonil, which had an average recovery of 46%. Additionally, detection limits from 0.9 to 7.6ng g -: (1) and the quantification limits from 3.00 to 25.47ng g -: (1) were estimated. In terms of linearity and precision, the results obtained were in the ranges considered adequate (R(2) ≥ 0.98 and coefficient of variation (CV) ≤ 20%), with the exception of aldrin (R(2) = 0.946, CV = 35.79%), lindane (R(2) = 0.917, CV = 32.91%) and chlorothalonil (R(2) = 0.8184, CV = 81.35%). The proposed method was used to evaluate pesticides in real soil samples, detecting concentrations over 1000ng g -: (1) for some pesticides. The method was correctly validated and provided for the rapid determination of pesticides in soil. PMID:26041247

  6. Determination of Polymer Additives-Antioxidants, Ultraviolet Stabilizers, Plasticizers and Photoinitiators in Plastic Food Package by Accelerated Solvent Extraction Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Li, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Qin-Bao; Hu, Chang-Ying; Su, Qi-Zhi; Wu, Yu-Mei

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method for the quantitative determination of 4 antioxidants, 9 ultraviolet (UV) stabilizers, 12 phthalate plasticizers and 2 photoinitiators in plastic food package using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) has been developed. Parameters affecting the efficiency in the process such as extraction and chromatographic conditions were studied in order to determine operating conditions. The analytical method of ASE-HPLC showed good linearity with good correlation coefficients (R ≥ 0.9833). The limits of detection and quantification were between 0.03 and 0.30 µg mL(-1) and between 0.10 and 1.00 µg mL(-1) for 27 analytes. Average spiked recoveries for most analytes in samples were >70.4% at 10, 20 and 40 µg g(-1) spiked levels, except UV-9 and Irganox 1010 (58.6 and 64.0% spiked at 10 µg g(-1), respectively), the relative standard deviations were in the range from 0.4 to 15.4%. The methodology has been proposed for the analysis of 27 polymer additives in plastic food package. PMID:25472804

  7. [Determination of ten pesticides of pyrazoles and pyrroles in tea by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Xu, Dunming; Lu, Shengyu; Chen, Dajie; Lan, Jinchang; Zhang, Zhigang; Yang, Fang; Zhou, Yu

    2013-03-01

    An effective method was developed and applied to determine the residues of ten pesticides of pyrazoles and pyrroles in tea by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ASE-GC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate-hexane (1:1, v/v) for 5 min at 1.03 x 10(7) Pa and 100 degree C for one cycle. Then, they were purified by Envi-Carb/PSA column, and eluted by ethyl acetate-hexane (1:1, v/v). The analytes were determined by GC-MS/MS and quantified by external standard method. The limits of quantification were 0.003 mg/kg for fenpyroximate, 0.001 mg/kg for fipronil-sulfide, 0.002 mg/kg for fipronil, 0.005 mg/kg for fipronil-sulfone, 0.002 mg/kg for chlorfenapyr, 0.006 mg/kg for flusilazole, 0.001 mg/kg for difenzoquat, 0.001 mg/kg for pyraflufen-ethyl, 0.000 3 mg/kg for tebufenpyrad and 0.005 mg/kg for tolfenpyrad. The results show that the proposed method is sensitive and accurate for the determination of the ten pesticide residues. PMID:23785993

  8. Investigation of six bioactive anthraquinones in slimming tea by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance capillary electrophoresis with diode-array detection.

    Wang, Ning; Su, Ming; Liang, Shuxuan; Sun, Hanwen

    2016-05-15

    A rapid and effective method for effective separation and rapid simultaneous determination of six bioactive anthraquinones by capillary zone electrophoresis was developed. An accelerated solvent extraction procedure was used for the extraction of anthraquinones from slimming tea. Under the optimized conditions, the effective separation of six anthraquinones was achieved within 8 min. Good linearity was achieved, with a correlation coefficient (r) of ⩾ 0.999. The limit of detection ranged from 0.33 to 1.40 μg mL(-1). The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) of the six analytes was in the range of 2.3-3.9% and 3.2-4.9%, respectively. The average recovery of the six analytes from real tea samples was in the range of 86.15-98.30% with the RSD of 1.04-4.99%. The developed and validated method has speediness, high sensitivity, recovery and precision, and can be applied for the quality control of slimming tea. PMID:26775937

  9. Development of a method based on accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for determination of arylphenoxypropionic herbicides in soil.

    Marchese, S; Perret, D; Gentili, A; Curini, R; Marino, A

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical procedure for determining arylphenoxypropionic herbicides in soil samples, using Ionspray ionization (ISI) liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), is presented. Arylphenoxypropionic acids are a new class of herbicides used for selective removal of most grass species from any non-grass crop, commercialized as herbicide esters. Previous studies have shown that the esters undergo fast hydrolysis in the presence of vegetable tissues and soil bacteria, yelding the corresponding free acid. The feasibility of rapidly extracting arylphenoxypropionic herbicides from soil by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) techniques was evaluated. Four different soil samples were fortified with target compounds at levels of 5 and 20 ng/g by following a procedure able to mimic weathered soils. Herbicides were extracted by a methanol/water (80:20 v/v) solution (0.12 M) of NaCl at 90 degrees C. After clean-up using graphitized carbon black (GCB) as absorbent, the extract was analyzed by HPLC/ISI-MS. The effect of concentration of acid in the mobile phase on the response of ISI-MS was investigated. The effects of varying the orifice plate voltage on the production of diagnostic fragment ions, and on the response of the MS detector, were also investigated. The ISI-MS response was linearly related to the amounts of analytes injected between 1 and 200 ng. The limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of the method for the pesticides in soil samples was estimated to be less than 1 ng/g. PMID:11291116

  10. Determination of ultra-trace organic acids in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) by accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Wang, Shuiliang; Fan, China Q; Wang, Ping

    2015-02-15

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE)-solid-phase extraction (SPE)-liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ASE-SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) methodology was developed for the extraction, cleanup and quantification of ultra-trace organic acids in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) tissues. The separation was carried out on a Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H sulfonic column with an eluent containing 5 mmol L(-1) H₂SO₄ at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min(-1). A linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) source was operated in negative ion mode, and the six organic acids were eluted within 20 min. ASE extraction, SPE cleanup and LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis conditions were optimized to obtain reliable information about plant organic acid composition. Selective reaction monitoring (SRM) was employed for quantitative measurement. Intra-day precisions averaged 6.7%, and inter-day precisions were 2.1-10.7% for organic acid measurements in the pine samples. External standard calibration curves were linear over the range of 16.5-5000 ng L(-1), and detection limits based on a signal-to-noise ratio of three were at 0.5-5.0 ng L(-1). The results obtained showed the sensibility of the method was better than that of previously described HPLC methodology, and had no significant matrix effect. The proposed ASE-SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS method is sensitive and reliable for the determination of ultra-trace organic acids in plant samples, despite the presence of the particularly complex matrix. PMID:25594951

  11. ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ARSENICALS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MATRICES WITH ION CHROMATOGRAPHY SEPARATION AND ICP-MS DETECTION

    The two major sources of arsenic exposure used in an arsenic risk assessment are water and diet. The extraction, separation and quantification of individual arsenic species from dietary sources is considered an area of uncertainty within the arsenic risk assessment. The uncertain...

  12. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [E. Van Handel, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1(1985) 302] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo ...

  13. Determination of typical lipophilic marine toxins in marine sediments from three coastal bays of China using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after accelerated solvent extraction.

    Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Junhui; Li, Zhaoyong; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Qian; Cao, Wei; Zheng, Xiaoling; Sun, Chengjun; Wang, Xiaoru; Zheng, Li

    2015-12-30

    A method based on sample preparation by accelerated solvent extraction and analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated and used for determination of seven typical lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in marine sediment samples collected from three typical coastal bays in China. Satisfactory specificity, reproducibility (RSDs ≤ 14.76%), stability (RSDs ≤ 17.37%), recovery (78.0%-109.0%), and detection limit (3.440 pg/g-61.85 pg/g) of the developed method were achieved. The results obtained from the analysis of samples from Hangzhou Bay revealed okadaic acid as the predominant LMT with concentrations ranging from 186.0 to 280.7 pg/g. Pecenotoxin-2 was quantified in sediment samples from Laizhou Bay at the concentrations from 256.4 to 944.9 pg/g. These results suggested that the proposed method was reliable for determining the typical LMTs in marine sediments and that the sediments obtained from Hangzhou Bay, Laizhou Bay and Jiaozhou Bay were all contaminated by certain amounts of LMTs. PMID:26507511

  14. 加速溶剂萃取-气相色谱-质谱法分析土壤中多氯联苯%Analysis of PCBs in Soil by Accelerate Solvent Extraction Coupled With Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    汤桦; 陈大舟; 邵明武; 戴新华; 王覃

    2004-01-01

    An effective method for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soil by means of accelerate solvent extraction (ASE) followed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was studied. The reliability and efficiency of ASE for extracting PCBs from contaminated soil has been investigated by comparing with soxhlet extraction. The influence of extract parameters such as temperature, static cycle were discussed. RSD was 1.8%-9.3% .The detection limits is in the range of 0.33-1.33μg/kg. The result showed the method was rapid, sensitive and economic.

  15. A sensitive and validated HPLC method for the determination of cyromazine and melamine in herbal and edible plants using accelerated solvent extraction and cleanup with SPE.

    Ge, Xusheng; Wu, Xingqiang; Liang, Shuxuan; Sun, Hanwen

    2014-08-01

    A highly sensitive method was developed for the determination of the residues of cyromazine (CYR) and its metabolite, melamine (MEL), in herbal and edible plant samples by using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (RP-HPLC-DAD) with accelerated solvent extraction and solid phase extraction cleanup. The conditions of separation and detection were investigated and optimized. A Waters C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) was used for the RP-HPLC, with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid solution and methanol (85:15, v/v, pH 2.6). Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was achieved with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The limits of quantification of the method were 2.15 µg/kg for CYR and 2.51 µg/kg for MEL, which are maximum residue limits as low as three orders of magnitude. The recovery values at three spiked concentrations were in the range of 96.2-107.1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.1-5.7% for CYR, and 92.7-104.9% with RSDs of 1.7-6.1% for MEL. The proposed method allows detection at levels as low as µg/kg levels for CYR and MEL. The method was validated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and can be used for the routine determination of CYR and MEL in herbal and edible plant samples with the characteristics of speed, high sensitivity and accuracy, and low consumption of reagents. PMID:23845887

  16. Separation of coal tar fractions by solvent extraction - Extractant/solvent separation by secondary extraction

    Salim, C.; Saito, J.; Egashira, R. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Science & Engineering

    2005-01-15

    Solvent extraction was applied to the separation of tar light oil and absorption oil, and solvent recovery in the separation of these coal tar fractions by extraction with secondary oil solvent. The liquid-liquid equilibria were measured with various combinations of oil and aqueous methanol phases that occur throughout the whole extraction process. Based on the equilibrium results, a process separating absorption oil and tar light oil simultaneously with a single aqueous solvent is suggested, in which the two feed oils also act as secondary solvents for mutual separation. In the separation of feed oils by aqueous methanol solution as solvent, nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the absorption oil and the tar light oil were extracted preferentially to other compounds including homocyclic hydrocarbons and oxygen heterocyclic compounds. In the solvent recovery in the separation of absorption oil, the aqueous extract phase containing aqueous solvent and extractants was separated by tar light oil as secondary oil solvent. In the solvent recovery in the separation of tar light oil, the aqueous extract phase was separated by absorption oil as the secondary oil solvent. The distribution coefficients were not affected by the type of oil phase of coal tar fraction and by the presence of the extractants in the aqueous phase. The distribution coefficients in all cases of oil phases of absorption oil and tar light oil could be classified into three groups: monocyclic nitrogen compounds, bicyclic nitrogen compounds, and other compounds including hydrocarbons and oxygen compounds. By integrating the two separation processes of absorption oil and tar light oil into one process separating both coal tar fractions simultaneously with a single aqueous solvent, several extractors and solvents required in the two separate processes can be eliminated.

  17. Analysis of intracellular and extracellular microcystin variants in sediments and pore waters by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Highlights: • First analytical method for intracellular microcystins (MCs) in sediment. • Includes a suite of variants (LR, 7dmLR, RR, YR, WR, LA, LF, LY, LW) and nodularin. • Reports the first measurements of MCs in sediment pore waters. • MCs detected in >100 year old lake sediments suggesting long-term preservation. • Sediment-pore water distribution (Kd) differed between variants suggesting differences in environmental fate. - Abstract: The fate and persistence of microcystin cyanotoxins in aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood in part due to the lack of analytical methods for microcystins in sediments. Existing methods have been limited to the extraction of a few extracellular microcystins of similar chemistry. We developed a single analytical method, consisting of accelerated solvent extraction, hydrophilic–lipophilic balance solid phase extraction, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, suitable for the extraction and quantitation of both intracellular and extracellular cyanotoxins in sediments as well as pore waters. Recoveries of nine microcystins, representing the chemical diversity of microcystins, and nodularin (a marine analogue) ranged between 75 and 98% with one, microcystin-RR (MC-RR), at 50%. Chromatographic separation of these analytes was achieved within 7.5 min and the method detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.5 ng g−1 dry weight (dw). The robustness of the method was demonstrated on sediment cores collected from seven Canadian lakes of diverse geography and trophic states. Individual microcystin variants reached a maximum concentration of 829 ng g−1 dw on sediment particles and 132 ng mL−1 in pore waters and could be detected in sediments as deep as 41 cm (>100 years in age). MC-LR, -RR, and -LA were more often detected while MC-YR, -LY, -LF, and -LW were less common. The analytical method enabled us to estimate sediment-pore water distribution coefficients (Kd), MC

  18. Analysis of intracellular and extracellular microcystin variants in sediments and pore waters by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Zastepa, Arthur; Pick, Frances R; Blais, Jules M; Saleem, Ammar

    2015-05-01

    The fate and persistence of microcystin cyanotoxins in aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood in part due to the lack of analytical methods for microcystins in sediments. Existing methods have been limited to the extraction of a few extracellular microcystins of similar chemistry. We developed a single analytical method, consisting of accelerated solvent extraction, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid phase extraction, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, suitable for the extraction and quantitation of both intracellular and extracellular cyanotoxins in sediments as well as pore waters. Recoveries of nine microcystins, representing the chemical diversity of microcystins, and nodularin (a marine analogue) ranged between 75 and 98% with one, microcystin-RR (MC-RR), at 50%. Chromatographic separation of these analytes was achieved within 7.5 min and the method detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.5 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). The robustness of the method was demonstrated on sediment cores collected from seven Canadian lakes of diverse geography and trophic states. Individual microcystin variants reached a maximum concentration of 829 ng g(-1) dw on sediment particles and 132 ng mL(-1) in pore waters and could be detected in sediments as deep as 41 cm (>100 years in age). MC-LR, -RR, and -LA were more often detected while MC-YR, -LY, -LF, and -LW were less common. The analytical method enabled us to estimate sediment-pore water distribution coefficients (K(d)), MC-RR had the highest affinity for sediment particles (log K(d)=1.3) while MC-LA had the lowest affinity (log K(d)=-0.4), partitioning mainly into pore waters. Our findings confirm that sediments serve as a reservoir for microcystins but suggest that some variants may diffuse into overlying water thereby constituting a new route of exposure following the dissipation of toxic blooms. The method is well suited to determine the fate and persistence of different

  19. Analysis of intracellular and extracellular microcystin variants in sediments and pore waters by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Zastepa, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.zastepa@gmail.com; Pick, Frances R.; Blais, Jules M.; Saleem, Ammar

    2015-05-04

    Highlights: • First analytical method for intracellular microcystins (MCs) in sediment. • Includes a suite of variants (LR, {sup 7dm}LR, RR, YR, WR, LA, LF, LY, LW) and nodularin. • Reports the first measurements of MCs in sediment pore waters. • MCs detected in >100 year old lake sediments suggesting long-term preservation. • Sediment-pore water distribution (K{sub d}) differed between variants suggesting differences in environmental fate. - Abstract: The fate and persistence of microcystin cyanotoxins in aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood in part due to the lack of analytical methods for microcystins in sediments. Existing methods have been limited to the extraction of a few extracellular microcystins of similar chemistry. We developed a single analytical method, consisting of accelerated solvent extraction, hydrophilic–lipophilic balance solid phase extraction, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, suitable for the extraction and quantitation of both intracellular and extracellular cyanotoxins in sediments as well as pore waters. Recoveries of nine microcystins, representing the chemical diversity of microcystins, and nodularin (a marine analogue) ranged between 75 and 98% with one, microcystin-RR (MC-RR), at 50%. Chromatographic separation of these analytes was achieved within 7.5 min and the method detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.5 ng g{sup −1} dry weight (dw). The robustness of the method was demonstrated on sediment cores collected from seven Canadian lakes of diverse geography and trophic states. Individual microcystin variants reached a maximum concentration of 829 ng g{sup −1} dw on sediment particles and 132 ng mL{sup −1} in pore waters and could be detected in sediments as deep as 41 cm (>100 years in age). MC-LR, -RR, and -LA were more often detected while MC-YR, -LY, -LF, and -LW were less common. The analytical method enabled us to estimate sediment-pore water

  20. Comparison of Extraction Techniques with Different Solvents for DDT Analogues in Sediments

    LANG Yin-Hai; JIANG Xin; D. MARTENS; ZHAO Qi-Guo

    2005-01-01

    Four techniques, Soxhlet extraction (SOX), ultrasonic extraction (USE), fluidized-bed extraction (FBE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with different solvents (methanol, hexane/acetone and acetonitrile) were used for the extraction of DDT analogues in sediments. Results revealed that the four extraction techniques had high recoveries (>86.0%) with low standard deviations (< 12.0%) for most of DDT analogues, meaning that they could all successfully extract DDT analogues in sediments. Accelerated solvent extraction using methanol and hexane/acetone (1:1), fluidized-bed extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1) and the ultrasonic extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1) were comparable or better than Soxhlet extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1). Considering solvent- and time-consumption, level of automation,and environmental risk, accelerated solvent extraction with hexane/acetone (1:1) was better than the other extraction techniques.

  1. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  2. Comparison of GC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS for species-specific isotope dilution analysis of tributyltin in sediment after accelerated solvent extraction

    This study describes a direct comparison of GC and HPLC hyphenated to ICP-MS determination of tributyltin (TBT) in sediment by species-specific isotope dilution analysis (SS-IDMS). The certified reference sediment PACS-2 (NRC, Canada) and a candidate reference sediment (P-18/HIPA-1) were extracted using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure. For comparison of GC and LC methods an older bottle of PACS-2 was used, whilst a fresh bottle was taken for demonstration of the accuracy of the methods. The data obtained show good agreement between both methods for both the PACS-2 sediment (LC-ICP-IDMS 828±87 ng g-1 TBT as Sn, GC-ICP-IDMS 848±39 ng g-1 TBT as Sn) and the P-18/ HIPA-1 sediment (LC-ICP-IDMS 78.0±9.7 ng g-1 TBT as Sn, GC-ICP-IDMS 79.2±3.8 ng g-1 TBT as Sn). The analysis by GC-ICP-IDMS offers a greater signal-to-noise ratio and hence a superior detection limit of 0.03 pg TBT as Sn, in the sediment extracts compared to HPLC-ICP-IDMS (3 pg TBT as Sn). A comparison of the uncertainties associated with both methods indicates superior precision of the GC approach. This is related to the better reproducibility of the peak integration, which affects the isotope ratio measurements used for IDMS. The accuracy of the ASE method combined with HPLC-ICP-IDMS was demonstrated during the international interlaboratory comparison P-18 organised by the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere (CCQM). The results obtained by GC-ICP-IDMS for a newly opened bottle of PACS-2 were 1087±77 ng g-1 Sn for DBT and 876±51 ng g-1 Sn for TBT (expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2), which are in good agreement with the certified values of 1090±150 ng g-1 Sn and 980±130 ng g-1 Sn, respectively. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of GC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS for species-specific isotope dilution analysis of tributyltin in sediment after accelerated solvent extraction

    Wahlen, Raimund; Wolff-Briche, Celine [LGC Limited, Queens Road, TW11 0LY, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-01

    This study describes a direct comparison of GC and HPLC hyphenated to ICP-MS determination of tributyltin (TBT) in sediment by species-specific isotope dilution analysis (SS-IDMS). The certified reference sediment PACS-2 (NRC, Canada) and a candidate reference sediment (P-18/HIPA-1) were extracted using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure. For comparison of GC and LC methods an older bottle of PACS-2 was used, whilst a fresh bottle was taken for demonstration of the accuracy of the methods. The data obtained show good agreement between both methods for both the PACS-2 sediment (LC-ICP-IDMS 828{+-}87 ng g{sup -1} TBT as Sn, GC-ICP-IDMS 848{+-}39 ng g{sup -1} TBT as Sn) and the P-18/ HIPA-1 sediment (LC-ICP-IDMS 78.0{+-}9.7 ng g{sup -1} TBT as Sn, GC-ICP-IDMS 79.2{+-}3.8 ng g{sup -1} TBT as Sn). The analysis by GC-ICP-IDMS offers a greater signal-to-noise ratio and hence a superior detection limit of 0.03 pg TBT as Sn, in the sediment extracts compared to HPLC-ICP-IDMS (3 pg TBT as Sn). A comparison of the uncertainties associated with both methods indicates superior precision of the GC approach. This is related to the better reproducibility of the peak integration, which affects the isotope ratio measurements used for IDMS. The accuracy of the ASE method combined with HPLC-ICP-IDMS was demonstrated during the international interlaboratory comparison P-18 organised by the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere (CCQM). The results obtained by GC-ICP-IDMS for a newly opened bottle of PACS-2 were 1087{+-}77 ng g{sup -1} Sn for DBT and 876{+-}51 ng g{sup -1} Sn for TBT (expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2), which are in good agreement with the certified values of 1090{+-}150 ng g{sup -1} Sn and 980{+-}130 ng g{sup -1} Sn, respectively. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of GC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS for species-specific isotope dilution analysis of tributyltin in sediment after accelerated solvent extraction.

    Wahlen, Raimund; Wolff-Briche, Céline

    2003-09-01

    This study describes a direct comparison of GC and HPLC hyphenated to ICP-MS determination of tributyltin (TBT) in sediment by species-specific isotope dilution analysis (SS-IDMS). The certified reference sediment PACS-2 (NRC, Canada) and a candidate reference sediment (P-18/HIPA-1) were extracted using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure. For comparison of GC and LC methods an older bottle of PACS-2 was used, whilst a fresh bottle was taken for demonstration of the accuracy of the methods. The data obtained show good agreement between both methods for both the PACS-2 sediment (LC-ICP-IDMS 828+/-87 ng g(-1) TBT as Sn, GC-ICP-IDMS 848+/-39 ng g(-1) TBT as Sn) and the P-18/ HIPA-1 sediment (LC-ICP-IDMS 78.0+/-9.7 ng g(-1) TBT as Sn, GC-ICP-IDMS 79.2+/-3.8 ng g(-1) TBT as Sn). The analysis by GC-ICP-IDMS offers a greater signal-to-noise ratio and hence a superior detection limit of 0.03 pg TBT as Sn, in the sediment extracts compared to HPLC-ICP-IDMS (3 pg TBT as Sn). A comparison of the uncertainties associated with both methods indicates superior precision of the GC approach. This is related to the better reproducibility of the peak integration, which affects the isotope ratio measurements used for IDMS. The accuracy of the ASE method combined with HPLC-ICP-IDMS was demonstrated during the international interlaboratory comparison P-18 organised by the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). The results obtained by GC-ICP-IDMS for a newly opened bottle of PACS-2 were 1087+/-77 ng g(-1) Sn for DBT and 876+/-51 ng g(-1) Sn for TBT (expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2), which are in good agreement with the certified values of 1090+/-150 ng g(-1) Sn and 980+/-130 ng g(-1) Sn, respectively. PMID:12879193

  5. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography dual electron capture detection.

    Mokbel, Haifaa; Al Dine, Enaam Jamal; Elmoll, Ahmad; Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method associating accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) in immersion mode combined with gas chromatography dual electrons capture detectors (SPME-GC-2ECD) has been developed and studied for the simultaneous determination of 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air samples (active and XAD-2 passive samplers). Samples were extracted with ASE with acetonitrile using the following conditions: temperature, 150 °C; pressure, 1500 psi; static, 15 min; cycles, 3; purge, 300 s; flush, 100 %. Extracts were reduced to 1 mL, and 500 μL of this extract, filled with deionised water, was subject to SPME extraction. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method attained the best extraction efficiency under the optimised conditions: extraction of PCB-OCP mixture using 100-μm PDMS fibre at 80 °C for 40 min with no addition of salt. The performance of the proposed ASE-SPME-GC-2ECD methodology with respect to linearity, limit of quantification and detection was evaluated by spiking of XAD-2 resin with target compounds. The regression coefficient (R (2)) of most compounds was found to be high of 0.99. limits of detection (LODs) are between 0.02 and 4.90 ng m(-3), and limits of quantification (LOQs) are between 0.05 and 9.12 ng m(-3) and between 0.2 and 49 ng/sampler and 0.52 and 91 ng/sampler, respectively, for XAD-2 passive samplers. Finally, a developed procedure was applied to determine selected PCBs and OCPs in the atmosphere. PMID:26780048

  6. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  7. Analysis of organochlorine pesticides in coral (Porites evermanni) samples using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Wang, Dongli; Miao, Xiusheng; Li, Qing X

    2008-02-01

    A gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in coral samples, which were extracted with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and cleaned up on a sulfuric acid-modified silica gel column. The optimal ASE conditions were found to be 100 degrees C and 2000 psi, with a mixture of acetone and methylene chloride (1:1, v/v). The target analytes include hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs, specifically, alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-HCH isomers), heptachlor, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), o,p'-, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p'-, p,p'-DDT), o,p'-, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (o,p'-, p,p'-DDE), and o,p'-, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (o,p'-, p,p'-DDD). Standard sand samples were used as an alternative matrix spiked with OCP standards to determine the method precision and accuracy. Average recoveries of OCPs ranged from 82% to 102%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3%-6%, at a level of 10 ng/g and from 50% to 68%, with RSDs of 13%-19% at a level of 2 ng/g. The developed method was applied for analysis of OCPs in coral samples collected from Tern Island and Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. The concentrations of HCB were 7-26 pg/g dry weight in the samples from Bikini Atoll and 3-45 pg/g in those from Tern Island, and heptachlor concentrations were 208-2200 and 44-104 pg/g in the coral samples from Bikini Atoll and Tern Island, respectively. (summation operator)HCH (sum of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-HCH) were 8-82 pg/g in Bikini Atoll coral and 86-629 pg/g in Tern island coral, and (summation operator)DDT (sum of o,p'-, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-, p,p'-DDE, and o,p'- p,p'-DDT) were 80-212 pg/g in Bikini Atoll coral and 593-3165 pg/g in Tern Island coral. The results suggest that coral is a viable indicator species for pollution monitoring, which pollutants and their concentrations may be related to dated carbonate layers. PMID:17721673

  8. A new procedure combining GC-MS with accelerated solvent extraction for the analysis of phthalic acid esters in contaminated soils

    Tingting MA; Ying TENG; Peter CHRISTIE; Yongming LUO; Yongshan CHEN; Mao YE

    2013-01-01

    An optimized procedure based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is developed for the analysis of six phthalic acid esters (PAEs), which are priority soil pollutants nominated by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Quantification of PAEs in soil employs ultrasonic extraction (UE) (USEPA 3550) and ASE (USEPA 3545), followed by clean up procedures involving three different chromatography columns and two combined elution methods. GC-MS conditions under selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode are described and quality assurance and quality control (QA/ QC) criteria with high accuracy and sensitivity for target analytes were achieved. Method reliability is assured with the use of an isotopically labeled PAE, di-n-butyl phthalate-d4 (DnBP-D4), as a surrogate, and benzyl benzoate (BB) as an internal standard, and with the analysis of certified reference materials (CRM). QA/QC for the developed procedure was tested in four PAE-spiked soils and one PAE-contaminated soil. The four spiked soils were originated from typical Chinese agricultural fields and the contaminated soil was obtained from an electronic waste dismantling area. Instrument detection limits (IDLs) for the six PAEs ranged 0.10-0.31 μg·L-1 and method detection limits (MDLs) of the four spiked soils varied from a range of 20-70 μg· kg -1 to a range of 90-290 μg· kg-1. Lineal-iVy of response between 20 μg· L-1 and 2mg.L~ was also established and the correlation coefficients (R) were a11〉0.998. Spiked soil matrix showed relative recovery rates between 75 and 120% for the six target compounds and about 93% for the surrogate substance. The developed procedure is anticipated to be highly applicable for field surveys of soil PAE pollution in China.

  9. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  10. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  11. Online cleanup of accelerated solvent extractions for determination of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in royal jelly using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Xue, Xiaofeng; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Jinhui; Chen, Fang; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing

    2009-06-10

    Determination of the levels of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in royal jelly is important for the study of its pharmacological activities, health benefits, and adenosine phosphate degradation. In this study was developed a novel method to determine ATP, ADP, and AMP levels in royal jelly using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by online cleanup and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using an 11 mL ASE cell, ethanol/water (5:5 v/v) as the extraction solvent, 1500 psi, 80 degrees C, a 5 min static time, and a 60% flush volume. Optimum separation of the three compounds was achieved in extraction procedures developed here were compared with the classical adenosine phosphate extraction procedures (perchloric acid). The results indicate that the two techniques are similar in terms of recovery and reproducibility, but when other factors such as extraction time, environmental protection, and worker's health are considered, ASE is preferable to the classical extraction method. With this ASE-HPLC method, a minisurvey of ATP, ADP, and AMP levels in 15 samples of royal jelly of different origins was performed. Sample results indicated that the AMP concentration was 24.2-2214.4 mg kg(-1), whereas ATP and ADP were not detectable or present only at low levels. PMID:19435312

  12. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  13. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  14. Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and perfluorooctanoic acid in small household electronics appliances of "Prohibition on Certain Hazardous Substances in Consumer Products" instruction using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    Guo, Qiaozhen; Du, Zhenxia; Zhang, Yun; Lu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jinhua; Yu, Wenlian

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and perfluorooctanoic acid in small household electronics appliances by accelerated solvent extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established. Samples, heated for 5 min, were extracted by toluene/methanol (10:1, v/v) under the pressure 1500 psi at 100°C, and were extracted 3 static cycles with 20 min per cycle. And then 15 mL extractant solvent was used to wash the samples, and at last the sample was purged by nitrogen for 100 s. The partial extractant (10 mL) was concentrated by nitrogen and re-dissolved with 1 mL methanol/water (1:1, v/v). The three compounds were separated by BEH C18 column effectively in 3 min and detected by electrospray ionization mode mass spectrometry. The linear ranges for bisphenol A, perfluorooctanoic acid, and tetrabromobisphenol A were 1-100, 10-1000 ng/mL, and 0.1-10 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.996. The LOD and limit of quantitation for three compounds were 0.1, 10, 1 ng/mL, and 0.5, 50, 5 ng/mL, respectively. And the recoveries were 84-92, 76-82, and 72-74%, respectively, with RSD samples. The method and the result were confirmed by liquid chromatography-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. PMID:23341327

  15. Extraction of Scots Pine by Polar Solvent

    ZHOU, YUANLIN

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study, isolate, and analyze the extractives from pine chips, saw dust, root chips, and root barks by polar solvent such as water, acetone, and ethanol. The methods used in the extraction were boiling flask or rotation reactor. The different extraction time of 2 or 4 hour was also investigated. The obtained extraction solution were analyzed by gas chromatography. In order to understand the experimental work theoretically, the wood chemistry, especially, pheno...

  16. Solvent extraction of scandium from Wolframite residue

    The particular properties of scandium make it an attractive candidate for recovery by solvent extraction - one of the most important processes in hydrometallurgy for the separation, purification and concentration of metal ions. Toward this end, an acid leaching and solvent extraction system has been developed and optimized to extract scandium from wolframite residue. With the technique, the scandium oxide content in the resultant scandium hydroxide can reach 70 - 78 percent. Further, the concentration coefficient and total recovery of scandium oxide from the residue to the product has amounted to (1.9 - 3.9) x 10/sup 3/ and 76 -89 percent, respectively

  17. Combination of accelerated solvent extraction and vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of dimethyl fumarate in textiles and leathers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Lu, Yang; Zhu, Yan

    2014-02-01

    A simple and environmentally friendly sample preparation procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed to assay dimethyl fumarate in textiles and leathers. The sample preparation procedure involved an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using water as the extract solvent, followed by the extraction and concentration of dimethyl fumarate from the aqueous solution using vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME). The parameters affecting the ASE and VALLME were optimized to achieve the maximum extraction efficiency, and the performance of the developed method was evaluated. Good linearity was observed over the range assayed (0.01-1mg/kg) with a regression coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection and enrichment factor for the VALLME step were 0.001 mg/kg and 53, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision were below 8.9%, and the recovery was approximately 84-103%. The as-developed method was successfully applied to textiles and leather samples. PMID:24401436

  18. Full scale solvent extraction remedial results

    Sevenson Extraction Technology, Inc. has completed the development of the Soil Restoration Unit (initially developed by Terra-Kleen Corporation), a mobile, totally enclosed solvent extraction treatment facility for the removal of organic contaminated media is greater by a closed loop, counter current process that recycles all solvents. The solvents used are selected for the individual site dependant upon the contaminants, such as PCB's, oil, etc. and the soil conditions. A mixture of up to fourteen non-toxic solvents can be used for complicated sites. The full scale unit has been used to treat one superfund site, the Traband Site in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and is currently treating another superfund site, the Pinette's Salvage Yard Site in Washburn, Maine. The full scale Soil Restoration Unit has also been used at a non-superfund site, as part of a TSCA Research and Development permit. The results from these sites will be discussed in brief herein, and in more detail in the full paper

  19. An automatic system for multielement solvent extractions

    The automatic system described is suitable for multi-element separations by solvent extraction techniques with organic solvents heavier than water. The analysis is run automatically by a central control unit and includes steps such as pH regulation and reduction or oxidation. As an example, the separation of radioactive Hg2+, Cu2+, Mo6+, Cd2+, As5+, Sb5+, Fe3+, and Co3+ by means of diethyldithiocarbonate complexes is reported. (Auth.)

  20. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid. PMID:18962288

  1. Diluent effects in solvent extraction. The Effects of Diluents in Solvent Extraction - a literature study

    The fact that the choice of organic diluent is important for a solvent extraction process goes without saying. Several factors, such as e.g. price, flash point, viscosity, polarity etc. each have their place in the planning of a solvent extraction system. This high number of variables makes the lack of compilations concerning diluent effects to an interesting topic. Often the interest for the research concerning a specific extraction system focuses on the extractant used and the complexes built up during an extraction. The diluents used are often classical ones, even if it has been shown that choice of diluent can affect extraction as well as separation in an extraction system. An attempt to point out important steps in the understanding of diluent effects in solvent extraction is here presented. This large field is, of course, not summarized in this article, but an attempt is made to present important steps in the understanding of diluents effects in solvent extraction. Trying to make the information concerning diluent effects and applications more easily accessible this review offers a selected summarizing of literature concerning diluents effects in solvent extraction. (authors)

  2. Thermal extraction of bamboo with various solvents

    Kim, Junghee

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is to describe the potential of improvement by liquefaction with various solvents in pyrolysis in terms of conversion of bamboo to gas and liquid and quality of the bio-oils and residues produced. Fluidised sand bath and pressure gauge reactor were used for pyrolysis. The reactor was coupled with bamboo and a solvent and after 1 hour of pyrolysis and liquefaction at 410°C, the gas produced was collected in gas bag. To extract compounds uniformly from the chemically decomposed...

  3. Rapid Identification and Quantification of Natural Antioxidants in the Seeds of Rhubarb from Different Habitats in China Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn-DPPH Assay.

    Tan, Liang; Geng, Dan-dan; Hu, Feng-zu; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 10 accessions of rhubarb seeds from different habitats in China were investigated. Lipids were removed using petroleum ether, and the effective components were then separated using accelerated solvent extraction with 80% aqueous methanol. An off-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging method was used as the marker to evaluate the total antioxidant capability of extracts. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detectors-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)) and HPLC-DAD-DPPH assays were developed for rapid identification and quantification of individual free-radical scavengers in extracts of rhubarb seeds. Ten free-radical scavengers from methanolic extracts of the rhubarb seeds were screened, five of which were identified and quantitatively analyzed: epicatechin, myricetin, hyperoside, quercitrin and quercetin. All were identified in rhubarb seeds for the first time and can be regarded as the major potent antioxidants in rhubarb seeds due to representing most of the total free-radical scavenging activity. Preliminary analysis of structures was performed for another five antioxidants. Based on our validation results, the developed method can be used for rapid separation, convenient identification and quantification of the multiple antioxidative constituents in rhubarb seeds, featuring good quantification parameters, accuracy and precision. The results are important to clarify the material basis and therapeutic mechanism of rhubarb seeds. PMID:26206792

  4. Solvent induced track sensitization. Extraction of oligomers

    Apel, P.; Angert, N.; Brüchle, W.; Hermann, H.; Kampschulte, U.; Klein, P.; Kravets, L. I.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Remmert, G.; Spohr, R.; Steckenreiter, T.; Trautmann, C.; Vetter, J.

    1994-04-01

    Oligomer extraction from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) irradiated by xenon ions of 11.4 MeV/u is investigated using UV spectrophotometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The cyclic trimer is identified as the predominant diffusing species removed during extraction by dimethyl formamide (DMF). Extraction dynamics is modeled by a rapid (time constant ≈ 2 min) and a slow (time constant ≈ 100 min) diffusion process attributed to the latent ion tracks and to the virgin material, respectively. Thereby latent tracks act simultaneously as irrigation and drainage pipes for the transfer of the solvent into and the extraction of oligomers from the polymer matrix. Thus tracks help to release osmotic pressure differences and to avoid blistering of the unirradiated polymer during solvent exchange. The total extracted mass per track shows a characteristic decrease with increasing ion fluence interpreted as oxygen effect, due to the decreasing supply of oxygen in the sample during irradiation. The extractable mass corresponds to an equivalent track diameter of initially around 10 nm contracting with increasing ion fluence to an asymptotic value around 3 nm.

  5. Solvent extraction of scandium(III)

    Separation of scandium(III) from iron(III), molybdenum(VI), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), titanium(IV), bismuth(III), zirconium(IV), lanthanum(III), and thorium(IV) is achieved by solvent extraction with mesityl oxide from sodium sallcylate solution (0.1 M) adjusted to pH 4. Scandium from the organic phase is stripped with water and determined photometrically as its arsenazo complex at 570 nm. The extracted species is trisolvated, i.e., Sc(HOC6H4COO)33Me0. 1 figure, 1 table

  6. Separation of hafnium (IV) from tungsten (VI) solvent extraction using amines as extractants

    In order to measure 182Hf in some environmental samples by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a method for separation of hafnium (IV) from tungsten (VI) has been developed by solvent extraction using N1923 and TOA as extractants. The effects of different mineral acids, acid concentration, complexing agent concentration, extractant concentration and diluent on the extraction behavior of both elements were investigated. The recovery of hafnium (IV) is better than 90% and the decontamination factor for milligram amounts of tungsten (VI) is 4.4 x 107 using the present separation procedure. (authors)

  7. Separation of hafnium (IV) from tungsten (IV) by solvent extraction using amines as extractants

    A simple and efficient method for separation of hafnium from tungsten has been developed by solvent extraction using N1923 and TOA as extractants. The effects of different mineral acids, acid concentration, concentration of complexing agent, extractant concentration and diluent on the extraction behavior of hafnium and tungsten are investigated. The decontamination factor of 4.4 x 107 for milligram amounts of tungsten in the recovery of 94% of the hafnium can be achieved. This method might be used for sample preparation prior to 182Hf determination by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). (authors)

  8. Accelerating DSMC data extraction.

    Gallis, Michail A.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2006-10-01

    In many direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations, the majority of computation time is consumed after the flowfield reaches a steady state. This situation occurs when the desired output quantities are small compared to the background fluctuations. For example, gas flows in many microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have mean speeds more than two orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal speeds of the molecules themselves. The current solution to this problem is to collect sufficient samples to achieve the desired resolution. This can be an arduous process because the error is inversely proportional to the square root of the number of samples so we must, for example, quadruple the samples to cut the error in half. This work is intended to improve this situation by employing more advanced techniques, from fields other than solely statistics, for determining the output quantities. Our strategy centers on exploiting information neglected by current techniques, which collect moments in each cell without regard to one another, values in neighboring cells, nor their evolution in time. Unlike many previous acceleration techniques that modify the method itself, the techniques examined in this work strictly post-process so they may be applied to any DSMC code without affecting its fidelity or generality. Many potential methods are drawn from successful applications in a diverse range of areas, from ultrasound imaging to financial market analysis. The most promising methods exploit relationships between variables in space, which always exist in DSMC due to the absence of shocks. Disparate techniques were shown to produce similar error reductions, suggesting that the results shown in this report may be typical of what is possible using these methods. Sample count reduction factors of approximately three to five were found to be typical, although factors exceeding ten were shown on some variables under some techniques.

  9. Solvent extraction for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    This report presents the results of an initial assessment of the feasibility of solvent extraction for removing coal tar from the subsurface or for treating contaminated soil excavated at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. In situ solvent extraction would involve injection, recovery, and reclamation for reinjection of an environmentally-benign, water-miscible solvent. Accelerated dissolution and removal of coaltar from the subsurface might be desirable as a remedial approach if excavation is not practical (e.g., the site underlies facilities in current use), direct pumping of coal tar is ineffective, and bioremediation is not feasible because of the presence of high concentrations of coal tar. Both laboratory experiments and engineering evaluations were performed to provide a basis for the initial feasibility assessment. Laboratory work included identification and evaluation of promising solvents, measurement of fundamental properties of coal tar-solvent-water systems, and measurement of rates of dissolution of coal tar in porous media into flowing solvent-water solutions. Engineering evaluations involved identification of common hydrogeologic features and contaminant distributions at MGP sites, and identification and evaluation of possible injection-recovery well deployment schemes. A coupled flow-chemistry model was developed for simulation of the in situ process and evaluation of the well deployment schemes. Results indicate that in situsolvent extraction may be able to recover a significant amount of coal tar from the subsurface within a reasonable time frame (on the order of one year or so) provided that subsurface conditions are conducive to process implementation. Some important implementation issues remain to be addressed

  10. Method of accelerated solvent extraction of petroleum hydrocarbon in marine shellfish%加速溶剂萃取法提取海洋贝类体中石油烃的方法

    夏炳训; 宁璇璇; 姜军成; 曲琳; 吴翠翠

    2013-01-01

    An accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) method for the extraction of petroleum hydrocarbon in marine shellfish was developed. The main factors,which affect the extraction yield,such as extraction solvent,temperature,pressure,static time and cycle times etc. were discussed. The optimum parameters for petroleum hydrocarbon extraction from shellfish were:the petroleum ether as an ex-tractant,temperature of 125 ℃ ,pressure of 10. 34 MPa,static time of 5 minutes and 1 cycle. Under this condition,the satisfactory result was obtained with recovery rate of 92. 0% -101.3% and precision of 2. 1 % RSD( n = 6 ) . While using the pretreatment method in GB 17378. 6-2007 ,the recovery rate ranged from 88.0% to 95. 3% and the precision was 3. 7% RSD(n = 6). The Paired t-test proved that there was no significant difference between these two methods. Consequently, ASE method is fit for the extraction of petroleum hydrocarbon in marine shellfish.%建立了用加速溶剂萃取技术提取海洋贝类体中石油烃的方法.从萃取溶剂、温度、压力、静态时间、循环次数等方面对提取条件进行了优化:萃取剂为石油醚,萃取温度125℃,压力10.34 MPa,静态提取时间5 min,循环1次.在确定的条件下,对ASE方法的回收率和精密度进行了验证,并与国标GB17378.6-2007中的方法进行比较.结果显示,ASE法的回收率为92.0% ~ 101.3%,相对标准偏差为2.1%;国标法的回收率为88.0%~95.3%,相对标准偏差为3.7%.t-检验表明ASE法与国标法之间不存在显著性差异,ASE法适合于贝类体内石油烃的提取.

  11. [Determination of 19 antibiotic and 2 sulfonamide metabolite residues in wild fish muscle in mariculture areas of Laizhou Bay using accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Liu, Sisi; Du, Juan; Chen, Jingwen; Zhao, Hongxia

    2014-12-01

    A sample preparation and analytical method with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) was developed to detect 19 antibiotic (9 sulfonamides, 4 quinolones, 3 macrolides and 3 others) and 2 sulfonamide metabolite residues in fish muscle. The target compounds were extracted using ASE and purified simultaneously by a C18 resin in the extraction cell. The extracts were evaporated to dryness, and redissolved with the initial mobile phase for HPLC-MS/MS analysis after freezing centrifugation (10,000 r/min, -4 °C) to remove the fat and other matrix compounds further. The separation of the analytes was carried out on an Xterra MS C18 column with methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as mobile phase A and 0. 1% formic acid (containing 0. 1% ammonium formate) as mobile phase B. The spiked recoveries of the method were 55. 2%-113. 3%, with the relative standard deviations of 0. 1% - 17. 6% (n = 6). The limits of detection ranged from 0. 003 to 0. 6 ng/g. The method was applied to two fish (Synechogobius hasta and Liza haematocheilus) collected in mariculture areas of Laizhou Bay and six antibiotics were detected, in which the mass concentrations of norfloxacin were highest with mean values of 67. 01 and 27. 58 ng/g, respectively. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and useful in the study on exposure levels and environmental behavior of the antibiotics. PMID:25902638

  12. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticides in Morinda officinalis by GC-ECD with accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion and positive confirmation by GC-MS.

    Liu, Hongmei; Kong, Weijun; Gong, Bao; Miao, Qing; Qi, Yun; Yang, Meihua

    2015-01-01

    In this work, 33 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 9 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Morinda officinalis were effectively and selectively extracted and cleaned up by accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (ASE/MSPD) method, followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Carbophenothion was selected as the internal standard and added into the final extracts to improve the precision and accuracy of the method. Parameters for ASE/MSPD procedure including ratio of acetone to n-hexane, temperature and amount of Florisil were optimized to improve the performance of the method through orthogonal experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the average recoveries (six replicates) for all pesticides (spiked at 0.05, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) ranged from 69.3% to 112% with RSD less than 14.14%. A wide linear range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) was observed with r values of 0.9963-0.9999. Meanwhile, the method gave high selectivity and sensitivity (LODs<3 μg kg(-1) and LOQs<8.0 μg kg (-1)), good repeatability (RSD of 9.64%, on average) and precision (RSD of 5.48%, averagely) and excellent stability (RSD <9.47%). The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated by applying it for preconcentration and determination of OCPs and PYPs in 40 batches of real samples. Four kinds of pesticides (beta-endosulfan, tecnazene, hexachlorobenzene and alpha-BHC) were detected in three batches of samples, which were successfully confirmed by GC-MS. The results indicated that ASE/MSPD is a reliable and half-automated extraction and purification technique, with many advantages over traditional techniques. The combination of ASE/MSPD and GC-ECD could be especially useful for trace analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrices. PMID:25463199

  13. α-radiation effect on solvent extraction of minor actinide

    α-Radiation effect on the solvent extraction of 241Am using the solution of N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide was investigated by means of the external and internal irradiation systems. In contrast to the internal irradiation system using an actinide radionuclide as an α-particles emitter, the external irradiation with 4He2+ ions provided by an accelerator can be carried out in a reasonable timescale and without contamination with radionuclides. No significant decrease in distribution ratio was observed even after irradiation over 200 kGy in both systems. It was also confirmed that the external irradiation system could be a useful alternative to the internal irradiation. (author)

  14. Terpenes as Green Solvents for Extraction of Oil from Microalgae

    Celine Dejoye Tanzi; Maryline Abert Vian; Christian Ginies; Mohamed Elmaataoui; Farid Chemat

    2012-01-01

    Herein is described a green and original alternative procedure for the extraction of oil from microalgae. Extractions were carried out using terpenes obtained from renewable feedstocks as alternative solvents instead of hazardous petroleum solvents such as n-hexane. The described method is achieved in two steps using Soxhlet extraction followed by the elimination of the solvent from the medium using Clevenger distillation in the second step. Oils extracted from microalgae...

  15. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  16. Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction

    Hassan Ali Durrani; Muhammed Ibrahim Panhwar; Rafique Akthar Kazi

    2011-01-01

    Re-refining of waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the potential techniques. The advantages of solvent extraction technique practically offers from environmental and economic points of view have received due attention. In this paper selection of composite solvent and technique to upgrade the used lubricant oil into base oil has been made. The composite solvent 2-propanol, 1-butanol and butanone have two alcohols that make a binary system reasonably effective. ...

  17. Proceedings of ISEC 2008, International Solvent Extraction Conference - Solvent Extraction: Fundamentals to Industrial Applications

    The North American industry has employed major solvent-extraction processes to support a wide range of separations including but not limited to chemical, metallurgical, nuclear, biochemical, pharmaceutical, and petroleum applications. The knowledge enabling these separations has been obtained through fundamental studies in academe, government and industry. The International Solvent Extraction Conferences have been and continue to be a major gathering of scientists, engineers, operators, and vendors from around the world, who present new findings since the last meeting, exchange ideas, make business contacts, and conduct collegial discussions. The ISEC 2008 program emphasizes fundamentals to industrial applications of solvent extraction, particularly how this broad spectrum of activities is interconnected and has led to the implementation of novel processes. The oral and poster sessions have been organized into seven topics: Fundamentals; Novel Reagents, Materials and Techniques; Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing; Hydrometallurgy and Metals Extraction; Analytical and Preparative Applications; Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals, Life-Science Products, and Organic Products; and Process Chemistry and Engineering. Over 350 abstracts were received, resulting in more than 260 manuscripts published in these proceedings. Five outstanding plenary presentations have been identified, with five parallel sessions for oral presentations and posters. In recognition of the major role solvent extraction (SX) plays in the hydrometallurgical and nuclear industries, these proceedings begin with sections focusing on hydrometallurgy, process chemistry, and engineering. More fundamental topics follow, including sections on novel reagents, materials, and techniques, featuring novel applications in analytical and biotechnology areas. Despite the diversity of topics and ideas represented, however, the primary focus of the ISEC community continues to be metals extraction. Four papers from these

  18. Solvent Extraction and Characterization of Neutral Lipids in Oocystis sp.

    Anthony, Renil; Stuart, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a favorable feedstock for bioproducts and biofuels due to their high oil content, fast growth rates, and low resource demands. Solvent lipid extraction efficiency from microalgae is dependent on algal strain and the extraction solvent. Four non-polar extraction solvents were evaluated for the recovery of neutral cellular lipids from microalgae Oocystis sp. (University of Texas at Austin LB2396). Methylene chloride, hexane, diethyl ether, and cyclohexane were selected as the ext...

  19. Characterisation of steroids in wooden crates of veal calves by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-QqQ-MS-MS).

    Verheyden, K; Noppe, H; Vanden Bussche, J; Wille, K; Bekaert, K; De Boever, L; Van Acker, J; Janssen, C R; De Brabander, H F; Vanhaecke, L

    2010-05-01

    Illegal steroid administration to enhance growth performance in veal calves has long been, and still is, a serious issue facing regulatory agencies. Over the last years, stating undisputable markers of illegal treatment has become complex because of the endogenous origin of several anabolic steroids. Knowledge on the origin of an analyte is therefore of paramount importance. The present study shows the presence of steroid analytes in wooden crates used for housing veal calves. For this purpose, an analytical procedure using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(R)), solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-MS-MS) is developed for the characterisation of androstadienedione (ADD), boldenone (bBol), androstenedione (AED), beta-testosterone (bT), alpha-testosterone (aT), progesterone (P) and 17alpha-hydroxy-progesterone (OH-P) in wood samples. In samples of wooden crates used for housing veal calves, ADD, AED, aT and P could be identified. Using the standard addition approach concentrations of these analytes were determined ranging from 20 +/- 4 ppb to 32 +/- 4 ppb for ADD, from 19 +/- 5 ppb to 44 +/- 17 ppb for AED, from 11 +/- 6 ppb to 30 +/- 2 ppb for aT and from 14 +/- 1 ppb to 42 +/- 27 ppb for P, depending on the sample type. As exposure of veal calves to steroid hormones in their housing facilities might complicate decision-making on illegal hormone administration, inequitable slaughter of animals remains possible. Therefore, complete prohibition of wooden calf accommodation should be considered. PMID:20186540

  20. Solvent Extraction in Hydrometallurgy: Present and Future

    2006-01-01

    During the past 10 years, there have been incremental advances in the application of solvent extraction to process hydrometallurgy. The most cited areas in the literature include chemistry, chemical engineering, pilot plants, and plant operation. Within these areas, there were considerable interest in synergism,diluents, degradation, contactors, surfactants, hydrometallurgical applications, environmental and secondary applications, and health and safety. The summary to the present is followed by a prediction for the future in the above areas of interest. These include the use of speciation; improved understanding of the role of surfactants on the system; optimization through modelling, pilot plants, and contactor selection; improvements in plant operation; further new applications; and plant safety. The review has indicated that considerable knowledge is now available to optimize and improve on process design and plant applications.

  1. The effect of solvent choice on plutonium extraction with TTA

    This paper reports the relative plutonium extraction rate from 1M nitric acid with thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in several different solvents. The marked differences in extraction rate are discussed in terms of the extraction mechanism. Experiments with varied phase mixing conditions, and with varied TTA or nitrate concentrations, have been performed to help clarify the mechanisms and explain the differences in extraction rate. The results show that in several solvents, plutonium is extracted as a mixed nitrate-TTA complex. The suitability of the various solvents for differing applications was also examined. Methyl benzoate is an ideal solvent when preparing counting sources from the solvent phase. Chloroform is preferable as solvent when the plutonium is to be backwashed into nitric acid. (author)

  2. An analytical method coupling accelerated solvent extraction and HPLC-fluorescence for the quantification of particle-bound PAHs in indoor air sampled with a 3-stages cascade impactor.

    Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice; Le Calvé, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Most of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated to airborne particles and their health impact depends on the particle size where they are bound. This work aims to develop a high sensitive analytical technique to quantify particulate PAHs sampled with a 3-stages cascade impactor in order to derive simultaneously their individual concentration in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. Three key steps of the method were evaluated separately in order to avoid any PAHs loss during the global sample preparation procedure: (1) the accelerated solvent extraction of PAHs from the filter; (2) the primary concentration of the extract until 1 mL by means of a rotary evaporator at 45°C and 220 mbar and (3) the final concentration of the pre-concentrated extract to about 100-150 µL under a gentle nitrogen stream. Each recovery experiment was realized in triplicates. All these steps evaluated independently show that the overall PAHs loss, even for those with a low molecular weight, should not exceed more than a few percent. Extracts were then analyzed by using a HPLC coupled to fluorescence and Diode Array Detectors with the external standard method. The resulting calibration curves containing between 9 and 12 points were plotted in the concentration range of 0.05-45 µg L(-1) for most of the 16 US-EPA priority PAHs and were fully linear (R(2)>0.999). Limits Of Quantification were in the range 0.05-0.47 µg L(-1) corresponding to 0.75-7.05 pg m(-3) for 20 m(3) of pumped air. Finally, taking into account the average PAHs concentrations previously reported in typical European indoor environments, and considering the use of a 3-stages cascade impactor to collect simultaneously PM>10 µm, 2.5 µm

  3. Terpenes as Green Solvents for Extraction of Oil from Microalgae

    Celine Dejoye Tanzi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein is described a green and original alternative procedure for the extraction of oil from microalgae. Extractions were carried out using terpenes obtained from renewable feedstocks as alternative solvents instead of hazardous petroleum solvents such as n-hexane. The described method is achieved in two steps using Soxhlet extraction followed by the elimination of the solvent from the medium using Clevenger distillation in the second step. Oils extracted from microalgae were compared in terms of qualitative and quantitative determination. No significant difference was obtained between each extract, allowing us to conclude that the proposed method is green, clean and efficient.

  4. Regeneration of Spent Lubricant Refining Clays by Solvent Extraction

    Yan-zhen Wang; Hai-long Xu; Li Gao; Meng-meng Yan; Hong-ling Duan; Chun-min Song

    2015-01-01

    Step-by-step solvent extraction was used to regenerate spent clay by recovering the adsorbed oil in lubricating oil refining clay. Several polar and nonpolar solvents were tested, and petroleum ether (90–120°C) and ethanol (95 v%) were selected as the nonpolar and polar solvents, respectively. The spent clay was first extracted using petroleum ether (90–120°C) to obtain ideal oil and then extracted with a mixed solvent of petroleum ether (90–120°C) and ethanol (95 v%) two or three times to ob...

  5. Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents

    Nunez, Luis; Vandergrift, George F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents.

  6. Optimisation and application of accelerated solvent extraction and flash chromatography for quantification of PCBs in tree barks and XAD-2 passive samplers using GC-ECD with dual columns.

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Millet, Maurice

    2013-07-15

    An analytical method for the quantification of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in XAD-2 passive air samplers (PAS) and tree barks collected close to the Rhine River between France and Germany was developed. This method used Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) followed by a purification step by flash chromatography using a 4gr cartridge (3 g of silica gel and 1 g of 44% acidified silica) and analysis by GC-ECD with dual columns. Quantification (QL) and detection (DL) limits varied 0.5 from and 5.7 ng PAS(-1) and from 0.5 and 3.0 ng PAS(-1) respectively. For tree barks, quantification and detection limits were calculated for each congener on washed tree bark sample with a signal to noise ratio of 3:1 and 10:1 (corresponding to a LQ in the range of 1-4 ng per bark sample by congeners). Uncertainties on each congener concentration were calculated to be in the range of 3-20% XAD-2 passive samplers were field calibrated by using Hi-vol. Samplers. Sampling rates of 4.2, 11.5, 1.6, and 7.9 m(3) PAS(-1) d(-1) for tri-, tetra-, penta- hexa-PCBs, respectively were obtained and are comparable to those already obtained with PUF-PAS for gas phase only (gas/particle distribution was 90/10). Method was applied to real atmospheric samples collected by XAD-2 passive samplers and tree barks in the east of France. PMID:23622537

  7. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  8. Uranium extraction from colofanite via organic solvents

    This work describes the use of pure or combined extractants dissolved in organic solvents for quantitative uranium recovery from colofanite, a fluoroapatite ore, from Itataia, Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil. This ore contains the highest brazilian uranium reserve. The metal is associated to phosphate species. The ore is digested with sulfuric acid (wet process), producing phosphoric acid, which is used for manufacturing of fertilizers and animal food. >From the acid leaching, some systems for uranium recovery were tested. Among them, PC88A (2-ethyl-hexyl phosphonic acid, mono-2-ethyl-hexyl ester) 40% vol. and DEHPA (di(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid) 40% vol. in kerosene presented the highest values for the distribution coefficient (D) for uranium. When synergistic systems were employed, the best results were obtained for DEHPA 40%vol. + PC88A 40%vol. and DEHPA 40% vol. + TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) 5% vol. in kerosene. 15% wt/v sodium carbonate was the best medium for uranium stripping and separation from iron, the main interfering element. Uranium was precipitated as sodium diuranate by adding sodium hydroxide (5,0 mol L-1). Thorium in the raffinate was extracted by TOPO (0,1% vol.) in cyclohexane. The radioactivity level of the final aqueous waste is similar to natural background, according to CNEN-NE 6.05 Norm. After neutralization, the solid can be co-processed, according to the Directory 264 from the National Brazilian Environmental Council (CONAMA), whereas the treated effluent can be discarded according to the Directory 357 from CONAMA. (author)

  9. The use of environmentally sustainable bio-derived solvents in solvent extraction applications-A review

    Zheng Li; Kathryn H. Smith; Geoffrey W. Stevens

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by greener or more environmental y sustainable solvents is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing health and environmental concerns as wel as economic pressures associated with VOCs. Solvents that are derived from biomass, namely bio-derived solvents, are a type of green solvent that have attracted intensive investigations in recent years because of their advantages over con-ventional VOCs, such as low toxicity, biodegradability and renewability. This review aims to summarize the use of bio-derived solvents in solvent extraction applications, with special emphasis given to utilization of biodiesels and terpenes. Compared with the conventional VOCs, the overall performance of these bio-derived solvents is comparable in terms of extraction yields and selectivity for natural product extraction and no difference was found for metal extraction. To date most researchers have focused on laboratory scale thermodynamics studies. Future work is required to develop and test new bio-derived solvents and understand the kinetic performance as well as solvent extraction pilot plant studies.

  10. Solvent Extraction External Radiation Stability Testing

    Peterson, R.A.

    2001-01-05

    Personnel irradiated a number of samples of calixarene-based solvent. Analysis of these samples indicated that measurable loss of the calixarene occurred at very high doses (-16 Mrad). No measurable loss of the Cs-7SB modifier occurred at equivalent doses. The primary degradation product, 4-sec-butylphenol, observed during analysis of the samples came from degradation of the modifier. Also, TOA proved more susceptible to damage than the other components of the solvent. The total degradation of the solvent proved relatively minor. The consistent solvent performance, as indicated by the measured D Cs values, after exposure at high total doses serves as evidence of the relatively low degree of degradation of the solvent components. Additional tests employing internal irradiation of solvents with both simulants and SRS tank waste will be completed by the end of March 2001 to provide confirmation of the results presented herein.

  11. Solvent Extraction External Radiation Stability Testing

    Personnel irradiated a number of samples of calixarene-based solvent. Analysis of these samples indicated that measurable loss of the calixarene occurred at very high doses (-16 Mrad). No measurable loss of the Cs-7SB modifier occurred at equivalent doses. The primary degradation product, 4-sec-butylphenol, observed during analysis of the samples came from degradation of the modifier. Also, TOA proved more susceptible to damage than the other components of the solvent. The total degradation of the solvent proved relatively minor. The consistent solvent performance, as indicated by the measured D Cs values, after exposure at high total doses serves as evidence of the relatively low degree of degradation of the solvent components. Additional tests employing internal irradiation of solvents with both simulants and SRS tank waste will be completed by the end of March 2001 to provide confirmation of the results presented herein

  12. Separation of Quercentin by Pre-dispersed Solvent Extraction

    胡伟; 孙瑛; 叶汝强; 吴树森; 刘洪来

    2003-01-01

    Pre-dispersed solvent extraction (PDSE) was used to extract quercentin from its diluted solution. The influences of temperature, phase volume ratio (PVR), concentration of sodium Dodecyl benzene sulphonate and pH value etc. on the extraction efficiency were examined. It is found that, compared with traditional extraction techniques under the same condition, a higher extraction productivity can be obtained by PDSE. The stability of colloidal liquid aphrons plays an important role in this process. In a certain scope, the extraction efficiency increases with PVR. Excessive amount of solvent is not much helpful. A new analytical method by using ultraviolet spectrometer to determine the concentration of quercentin is established.

  13. Solid-liquid solvent extraction of metal ions

    Bo Peng; Haiyan Fan; Jinzhang Gao

    2003-01-01

    An overview of extraction of some trace metal ions using molten solvent (low melting substance) during last two decadesis presented. The development of this technique since its inception is briefly traced. The comparison of extraction efficiency, thermo-dynamics and kinetics mainly involving extraction of rare earth ions between molten solvent extraction at high temperature and usualliquid-liquid extraction at room temperature are discussed in detail. The various parameters obtained from the previous and presentstudies such as equilibrium extraction constant Kex, pH1/2, thermodynamic and kinetic data are displayed in tabular form. Finally, thecurrent demands, disadvantages and future prospects are also evaluated.

  14. Ultrasonic solvent extraction of organochlorine pesticides from soil

    Ultrasonic solvent extraction of the organochlorine pesticides (OCP) including α-, β-, γ- and Δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, o,p'-DDE, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, methoxychlor, mirex from soil is reported. The extraction procedure was optimized with regard to the solvent type, amount of solvent, duration of sonication and number of extraction steps. Determination of pesticides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detection (ECD). Twice ultrasonic extraction using 25 mL of a mixture of petroleum ether and acetone (1/1 v/v) for 20 min of sonication showed satisfactory extraction efficiency. Recoveries of pesticides from fortified soil samples are over 88% for three different fortification levels between 15 and 200 μg kg-1, and relative standard deviations of the recoveries are generally below 6%. Real soil samples were analyzed for OCP residues by optimized ultrasonic solvent extraction and shake-flask as well as soxhlet extraction technique. Investigated all extraction methods showed comparable extraction efficiencies. Optimized ultrasonic solvent extraction is the most rapid procedure because the use of time in ultrasonic extraction was considerably reduced compared to shake-flask and soxhlet extraction

  15. Improvement of Soybean Oil Solvent Extraction through Enzymatic Pretreatment

    Camusso, C. C.; F. V. Grasso; P. A. Montoya; B. G. Maroto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate multienzyme hydrolysis as a pretreatment option to improve soybean oil solvent extraction and its eventual adaptation to conventional processes. Enzymatic action causes the degradation of the cell structures that contain oil. Improvements in terms of extraction, yield, and extraction rate are expected to be achieved. Soybean flakes and collets were used as materials and hexane was used as a solvent. Temperature, pH, and incubation time were optimized a...

  16. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    Shahid Iqbal; Maznah Ismail; Noordin Mohd Yusri; Kim Wei Chan

    2012-01-01

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β...

  17. Construction of isotherms in solvent extraction of copper

    Cvetkovski Vladimir B.; Conić Vesna T.; Vuković Milovan V.; Stojanovski Goran P.; Cvetkovska Milena V.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is construction of equilibrium isotherms in solvent extraction. Technological parameters have been predicted for treatment of mine water by solvent extraction and electrowining. Two stages of extractions and one stage of stripping have been predicted for copper recovery by analyzing the equilibrium isotherms. The process was performed on mine water with 2,5 g/dm3 Cu2+, 3 g/dm Fe2+, pH 1,8, using 9 vol% LIX 984N in kerosene (organic solvent), with 95 and 98% stages efficie...

  18. Recycling of solvent used in a solvent extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil.

    Wu, Guozhong; Li, XinGang; Coulon, Frederic; LI Hong; Lian, Jingyan; Sui, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The application of water washing technology for recycling an organic composite solvent consisting of hexane and pentane (4:1; TU-A solvent) was investigated for extracting total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from contaminated soil. The effects of water volume, water temperature, washing time and initial concentration of solvent were evaluated using orthogonal experiments followed by single factor experiments. Our results showed that the water volume was a statistically signif...

  19. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  20. Removal of Phenol from Dilute Solutions by Predispersed Solvent Extraction

    2000-01-01

    Predispersed solvent extraction (PDSE) is a new method for separating solutes from aqueous solution by solvent extraction and one which has shown promise for extraction from extremely dilute solution very efficient and very quick. The use of colloidal liquid aphrons in predispersed solvent extraction may ameliorate the problems such as emulsion formation, reduction of interfacial mass transfer and low interfacial mass transfer areas in solvent extraction process. In present paper, colloidal liquid aphrons are successfully generated using kerosene as a solvent, tributyl phosphate(TBP) as an extractant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulphate(SDBS) as surfactant in aqueous phase and Tween-80 in oil phase. Extraction of phenol from dilute solution was studied by using colloidal liquid aphrons and colloidal gas aphrons in a semi-batch extraction column. It has been found that the PDSE process is more suitable for extraction of dilute solutions. It has also been discovered that the PDSE process has a great advantage over traditional single-stage extraction process.

  1. Process modifications of obtaining Tc-99m by solvent extraction

    This paper describes a modification in the process to obtaining Tc-99m by the extraction method of solvent from Mo-99 produced by irradiation. Tc-99m is considered an ideal radionuclide for medical and biological applications

  2. Solvent extraction process for partitioning actinides from HLLW

    A description and review of the solvent extraction process for partitioning actinides from HLLW is presented. TRUEX process, DIDPA process, DIAMEX process, TRPO process as well as related An (III)/Ln(III) separation process are briefly discussed

  3. Optimization of solvent extraction cycles to separate plutonium and neptunium

    This paper describes the steps taken to assess the potential of a solvent extraction process for separating plutonium from neptunium. The plutonium, namely 238Pu, is of importance because it is the isotope used in making radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heaters and is obtained by irradiating 237Np targets in a high neutron flux environment. After the neptunium targets have been irradiated, the targets could then be processed by solvent extraction methods

  4. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  5. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  6. Procedure for selective solvent extraction of superheavy elements 113+ and 1142+ by use of crown ethers

    Solvent extraction of Pb2+ and Ba2+ with 18-crown-6 ethers from a solution containing Ce3+, Zn2+ and UO22+ ions in the presence of sodium picrate was studied. The results allow to suggest the use of crown ethers as a selective reagent for the separation of elements having ionic radii near to those predicted for the superheavy elements 113+ and 1142+. This extraction may be also used for continuous chemical separations in accelerator experiments. (orig.)

  7. Affinity Solvents for Intensified Organics Extraction: Development Challenges and Prospects

    2006-01-01

    In most organics extraction processes, the commonly used solvents employ solely physical interactions. Therefore, for the recovery and purification of products from complex mixtures, the selectivity and/or capacity of classical solvents towards the desired solutes is usually insufficient, enforcing the need for complex and thus expensive separation schemes. Significant simplification and cost-reduction can be achieved when affinity solvents would be available that are able to recognize the solutes of interest by their molecular structure. The main development challenges to establish such affinity solvents are: Selection and incorporation of molecular recognition and complexation capabilities; Evaluation of extraction capabilities; Efficient recovery and recycling of the affinity solvents; Implementation in industrial extraction equipment. This paper presents how these development challenges are addressed at the University of Twente, going all the way from affinity solvent design and synthesis, via high throughput screening and characterization up to pilot plant evaluation. Essential in the successful development of affinity solvents are structural cooperations with molecular chemists and custom synthesis companies for their design and synthesis. The various aspects are illustrated by several examples where newly developed environmentally benign affinity solvents appeared able to create major breakthroughs. The applications addressed involve oxygenates, sugars, and pharmaceutical ingredients, such as optical isomers and biomolecules.

  8. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Abert Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm2 for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumptio...

  9. Solvent-extraction methods applied to the chemical analysis of uranium. III. Study of the extraction with inert solvents

    The extraction of uranium on the trace level is studied by using tributylphosphate as active agent under conditions aiming the attainment of quantitative extraction by means of a single step process using a number of salting-out agents and keeping inside the general lines as reported in two precedent papers. Two inert solvents were investigated, benzene and cyclohexane, which allowed to derive the corresponding empirical equations describing the extraction process and the results obtained were compared with those previously reported for solvents which, like ethyl acetate and methylisobuthylketone, favour to a more or less extend the extraction of uranium. (Author) 4 refs

  10. Antimicrobial potentials of different solvent extracted samples from Physalis ixocarpa.

    Khan, Wajid; Bakht, Jehan; Shafi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracted samples isolated from different parts of Physalis ixocarpa through disc diffusion assay using three different concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that different parts of the plant showed varying degree of inhibition against different bacteria at different concentrations. Different solvent extracted samples from the calyx showed inhibitory activity against most of the bacteria under study. Extracts from leaf and fruit samples showed activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae and extracts from the stem tissues were effective to control the growth of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Crude methanolic extract from the stem and n-butanol extracted samples from fruit exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae at highest concentrations. Antifungal activity was observed only in crude methanol extract from the leaf against Rhizopus stolinifer, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. PMID:27087074

  11. Compound forming extractants, solvating solvents and inert solvents IUPAC chemical data series

    Marcus, Y; Kertes, A S

    2013-01-01

    Equilibrium Constants of Liquid-Liquid Distribution Reactions, Part III: Compound Forming Extractants, Solvating Solvents, and Inert Solvents focuses on the compilation of equilibrium constants of various compounds, such as acids, ions, salts, and aqueous solutions. The manuscript presents tables that show the distribution reactions of carboxylic and sulfonic acid extractants and their dimerization and other reactions in the organic phase and extraction reactions of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The book also states that the inorganic anions in these solutions are irrelevant, since they d

  12. Solvent extraction of zinc(II) with sulphoxides

    This paper describes a theoretical method for analyzing the behaviour of 65Zn during solvent extraction from ammonium thiocyanate solutions with dialkyl sulphoxides. The influence of the metal concentration, temperature and the diluent on the extraction of Zn(II) was investigated. (author) 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Solvent-free extraction of food and natural products

    Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Vian, Maryline; Allaf, Tamara; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This review presents useful and green techniques of solvent-free extraction used in ancient times, such as extraction of olive oil and citrus essential oil, and innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric field, microwave, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, and extrusion. We discuss the devices, their applications, mechanisms, and parameters influencing sample preparation prior to analysis of natural products.

  14. Deacidification of Soybean Oil Combining Solvent Extraction and Membrane Technology

    M. L. Fornasero; Marenchino, R. N.; Pagliero, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the removal of free fatty acids (FFAs) from soybean oil, combining solvent extraction (liquid-liquid) for the separation of FFAs from the oil and membrane technology to recover the solvent through nanofiltration (NF). Degummed soybean oil containing 1.05 ± 0.10% w/w FFAs was deacidified by extraction with ethanol. Results obtained in the experiences of FFAs extraction from oil show that the optimal operating conditions are the following: 1.8 : 1 w : w ethanol...

  15. Solvent extraction of uranium and molybdenum in sulfuric media

    A Solvent extraction process for recovering the uranium and molibdenum from the sulfuric acid solution produced from Figueira ores was developed. The leach solution contains molibdenum with a mean ratio Mo/U = 35%. THe solvent used was a terciary amine-Alamine 336, modified with tridecanol in querosine. An investigation was made to evaluate the variables affecting the extraction and stripping of uranium and molibdenum. The Alamine 336 showed a significant extraction power for uranium and molibdenum. In the stripping step of uranium using acidified sodium cloride it was observed the presence of an insoluble amine-molibdenum-arsenic complex. (author)

  16. Mechanism of crud formation in copper solvent extraction

    柳建设; 蓝卓越; 邱冠周; 王淀佐

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the mechanism of crud formation in copper solvent extraction. It is indicated that pH value of solution and the phase ratio (O/A) are the main factors affecting crud formation in solvent extraction. The amount of crud extraction increases with aqueous pH value increase, and reduces with the increase of the phase ratio. Fe3+, Mg2+, fine air bubble and suspended particulates in leaching solution contribute to crud formation. One case is that a series of reactions of hydrolization and polymerization occurs for Fe3+, while pH>2.5, polyhydric complex or Fe-SO4 complex are formed. Then the complex-ions of FeOH2+, Fe2(OH)4+2 cause poly-reaction, which is likely to lead emulsion. The study on Zeta potential indicates the repulsion between electriferous droplets in solvent extraction prevents phase coalescence, which is one of the major reasons for emulsion.

  17. Development of novel contactor for nuclear solvent extraction

    For current designs of radiochemical plants, solvent-extraction contactors with no periodic maintenance like pulse column are the first choice. In addition, as costs of specialty solvents for nuclear extraction are quite high, there is a demand for operation at extreme phase ratios. Recently a novel mixer-settler was visualized and developed for this kind of service. The mixer of the novel contactor is based on rotated helical tubes and does not involve any mechanical moving part. Mass-transfer runs were carried out with aqueous nitric acid and 30% TBP solvent at A/O of 0.25-200 (in extraction) and A/O of 0.25-10 (in back-extraction mode). The developed contactor exhibited nearly 100% efficiency for all the cases. (authors)

  18. Comparative exergy analyses of Jatropha curcas oil extraction methods: Solvent and mechanical extraction processes

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis detects locations of resource degradation within a process. ► Solvent extraction is six times exergetically destructive than mechanical extraction. ► Mechanical extraction of jatropha oil is 95.93% exergetically efficient. ► Solvent extraction of jatropha oil is 79.35% exergetically efficient. ► Exergy analysis of oil extraction processes allow room for improvements. - Abstract: Vegetable oil extraction processes are found to be energy intensive. Thermodynamically, any energy intensive process is considered to degrade the most useful part of energy that is available to produce work. This study uses literature values to compare the efficiencies and degradation of the useful energy within Jatropha curcas oil during oil extraction taking into account solvent and mechanical extraction methods. According to this study, J. curcas seeds on processing into J. curcas oil is upgraded with mechanical extraction but degraded with solvent extraction processes. For mechanical extraction, the total internal exergy destroyed is 3006 MJ which is about six times less than that for solvent extraction (18,072 MJ) for 1 ton J. curcas oil produced. The pretreatment processes of the J. curcas seeds recorded a total internal exergy destructions of 5768 MJ accounting for 24% of the total internal exergy destroyed for solvent extraction processes and 66% for mechanical extraction. The exergetic efficiencies recorded are 79.35% and 95.93% for solvent and mechanical extraction processes of J. curcas oil respectively. Hence, mechanical oil extraction processes are exergetically efficient than solvent extraction processes. Possible improvement methods are also elaborated in this study.

  19. Mesoscopic aspects of phase transitions in a solvent extraction system.

    Ellis, Ross J; Audras, Matthieu; Antonio, Mark R

    2012-11-01

    In liquid-liquid extraction, organic phase splitting arises when high concentrations of polar solutes (acids/metal ions) are extracted. Herein, we investigate the mesoscopic roots that underpin phase splitting in alkane phases containing mixed amphiphiles, of contemporary interest in solvent extraction separation systems, by extracting various oxoacids. The oxoacids exhibited individual macroscopic (extractive and physical) behaviors, inducing phase splitting into heavy and light domains under markedly different conditions. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data analyzed using the generalized indirect Fourier transform (GIFT) method, we showed that, in all cases, acid extraction drove the self-assembly of reverse micelles into rods. These grew with increased acid extraction until reaching a critical length of 20 nm, at which point interactions produced interconnected cylinders or lamellar sheets that prelude phase splitting into heavy and light domains. In all cases, the heavy phase contained the same surfactant ratio-TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) and CMPO (octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide)-even though the concentrations of acid, water, and amphiphiles were markedly different. The remarkable similarities in structure and amphiphile stoichiometries underpinning phase splitting across the macroscopically different acid extraction series allude to the mesoscopic roots of organic phase behavior in solvent extraction. Our studies show that the structures underpinning phase splitting in solvent extraction systems are more complex than previously thought and are reminiscent of phase transitions in soft matter. PMID:23062174

  20. 加速溶剂萃取凝胶渗透色谱/固相萃取净化气相色谱质谱法测定咸鱼中有机磷农药残留%Determination of Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Salt Fish Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Gel Permeation Chromatography/Solid Phase Extraction with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    王耀; 刘少彬; 谢翠美; 张汉霞; 卢伟华

    2011-01-01

    建立了咸鱼中有机磷农药残留的分析方法.乙腈为溶剂,样品经ASE萃取,提取液用凝胶渗透色谱除去脂类、蛋白质和大部分的色素,再经Carb/PSA小柱净化.采用GC-MS定性分析,GC-FPD定量分析.加标水平为0.05~0.20mg/kg时,农药的回收率为64.5%~98.6%,相对标准偏差2.7%~14.7%.方法的检出限为0.6~9.0μg/kg(以3倍性噪比计).本方法具有提取效率高,净化效果好,回收率高,准确灵敏等优点,适用于咸鱼中农药残留检测实际工作的需要.%A novel method for the determination organophosphrous pesticides residues in salt fish was established. The target anslytes were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using acetonitrile as the extraction solvent. The gel permeation chromatography was used to remove the grease,protein and pigment and then, the small molecule compounds in the extracted solution were purified by the Carb/PSA solid phase extraction. The qualitative analysis were performed by using mass spectrometric detection GC-MSD(SIM) and quantitative analysis by GC-flame photometry detector(FPD) method. The average recoveries of organophosphrous pesticides were 64.5%-98.6%, spiked at 0.05 -0.20mg/kg levels. The relative standard deviations for all the compounds were 2.7%-14. 7%.The detection limit of the method varied between 0. 0006-0. 0090 mg/kg. The method is rapid, precise, sensitive, high efficient. It can be applied to the routine analysis for organophosphrous pesicide resdues in salt fish.

  1. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  2. Characterization of solvents containing CyMe4-BTPhen in selected cyclohexanone-based diluents after irradiation by accelerated electrons

    Distler, P.; Kondé, J.; John, J.; Hájková, Zuzana; Švehla, Jaroslav; Grüner, Bohumír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 885-891. ISSN 0029-5922 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 323282 - SACSESS Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : accelerated electrons * CyMe4-BTPhen * irradiation * radiation stability * solvent extraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2014

  3. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction.

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao

    2016-09-18

    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling. PMID:27294566

  4. Ionic liquids as a novel solvent for lanthanide extraction.

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Kubota, Fukiko; Maruyama, Tatsuo; Goto, Masahiro

    2003-08-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in an ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate, greatly enhances extractability and selectivity of lanthanide cations compared to that dissolved in conventional organic solvents; further, the recovery of lanthanides extracted into ionic liquids can be accomplished using several stripping solutions containing complexing agents. The possibility of utilizing ionic liquids as novel separation media in an industrial liquid-liquid extraction process was demonstrated. PMID:12945658

  5. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    Sudipta Das; Saikat Mazumder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol) extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis). Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm): ethanol (ml) of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were mode...

  6. Estimation of Extract Yield and Mass Transfer Coefficient in Solvent Extraction of Lubricating Oil

    Hussain K. Hussain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to suggest relations for estimating yield and properties of the improved light lubricating oil fraction produced from furfural extraction process by using specified regression.Mass transfer in mixer-settler has been studied. Mass transfer coefficient of continuous phase, mass transfer coefficient of dispersed phase and the overall mass transfer coefficient extraction of light lubes oil distillate fraction by furfural are calculated in addition to all physical properties of individual components and the extraction mixtures.The effect of extraction variables were studied such as extraction temperature which ranges from 70 to 110°C and solvent to oil ratio which ranges from 1:1 to 4:1 (wt/wt were studied.The results of this investigation show that the extract yield E decreased with decreasing solvent to oil ratio in extract layer and increased with increasing temperature. The fraction of total solvent in the raffinate phase decreased with increasing oil to solvent ratio in raffinate layer and increased with increasing temperature. Solvent to oil ratio in extract layer decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing solvent to charge oil ratio at constant temperature. Oil to solvent ratio in raffinate decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing solvent to charge oil ratio at constant temperature.Estimated functions are the best modeling function for prediction extraction data at various operating conditions. Mass transfer coefficient of continuous phase kc and mass transfer coefficient of dispersed phase kd are increased with increasing temperature and solvent charge to oil ratio at constant temperature. The over all mass transfer coefficient Kod is increased with increasing temperature and solvent to charge oil ratio; while Kod a is increased with temperature and decreased with solvent to charge oil ratio.

  7. Synergistic solvent extraction of Lutetium(III)

    Synergism in the extraction of Lu(III) from thiocyanate solutions has been investigated using mixtures of bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfoxide (B2EHSO) and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) or di-n-octyl sulfoxide (DOSO) or tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in benzene. For comparison, the synergistic extraction of Lu(III) from perchlorate solutions has also been investigated with a mixture of B2EHSO and HTTA. These extraction data have been analyzed theoretically with the aid of a computer by taking into account complexation of the metal in the aqueous phase by inorganic ligands and plausible complexation in the organic phase. The equilibrium constant of the various product species have been deduced by non-linear regression analysis. (author) 18 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy for online monitoring of extraction solvent degradation products

    In our research, we are exploring the potential of online monitoring of the organic solvents for the flowsheets relevant to the used nuclear fuel reprocessing and tributyl phosphate (TBP)- based extraction processes in particular. Utilization of vibrational spectroscopic techniques permits the discrimination of the degradation products from the primary constituents of the loaded extraction solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitates development of the regression models for their quantification in real time and potentially enables online implementation of a monitoring system. Raman and FTIR spectral databases were created and used to develop the regression partial least squares (PLS) chemometric models for the quantitative prediction of HDBP (dibutyl phosphoric acid) degradation product, TBP, and UO22+ extraction organic product phase. It was demonstrated that both these spectroscopic techniques are suitable for the quantification of the Purex solvent components in the presence of UO2(NO3)2. Developed PLS models successfully predicted HDBP and TBP organic concentrations in simulated Purex solutions

  9. Construction of isotherms in solvent extraction of copper

    Cvetkovski Vladimir B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is construction of equilibrium isotherms in solvent extraction. Technological parameters have been predicted for treatment of mine water by solvent extraction and electrowining. Two stages of extractions and one stage of stripping have been predicted for copper recovery by analyzing the equilibrium isotherms. The process was performed on mine water with 2,5 g/dm3 Cu2+, 3 g/dm Fe2+, pH 1,8, using 9 vol% LIX 984N in kerosene (organic solvent, with 95 and 98% stages efficiencies, respectively. This course produced an advanced electrolyte solution, suitable for electrowining and cathodic copper recovery, containing 51 g/dm3 Cu2+ and 160g/dm3 H2SO4 from a 30 g/dm3 Cu and 190 g/dm3 H2SO4.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION FOR URANIUM MOLYBDENUM ALLOY DISSOLUTION FLOWSHEET

    Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-06-07

    H-Canyon Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform two solvent extraction experiments using dissolved Super Kukla (SK) material. The SK material is an uranium (U)-molybdenum (Mo) alloy material of 90% U/10% Mo by weight with 20% 235U enrichment. The first series of solvent extraction tests involved a series of batch distribution coefficient measurements with 7.5 vol % tributylphosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin for extraction from 4-5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), using 4 M HNO{sub 3}-0.02 M ferrous sulfamate (Fe(SO3NH2)2) scrub, 0.01 M HNO3 strip steps with particular emphasis on the distribution of U and Mo in each step. The second set of solvent extraction tests determined whether the 2.5 wt % sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solvent wash change frequency would need to be modified for the processing of the SK material. The batch distribution coefficient measurements were performed using dissolved SK material diluted to 20 g/L (U + Mo) in 4 M HNO{sub 3} and 5 M HNO{sub 3}. In these experiments, U had a distribution coefficient greater than 2.5 while at least 99% of the nickel (Ni) and greater than 99.9% of the Mo remained in the aqueous phase. After extraction, scrub, and strip steps, the aqueous U product from the strip contains nominally 7.48 {micro}g Mo/g U, significantly less than the maximum allowable limit of 800 {micro}g Mo/g U. Solvent washing experiments were performed to expose a 2.5 wt % Na2CO3 solvent wash solution to the equivalent of 37 solvent wash cycles. The low Mo batch distribution coefficient in this solvent extraction system yields only 0.001-0.005 g/L Mo extracted to the organic. During the solvent washing experiments, the Mo appears to wash from the organic.

  11. The solvent extraction behavior of ruthenium I

    The distribution of equilibrium mixtures of ruthenium (III) nitrosyl species between nitric acid solutions and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-n-dodecane (NDD) solution has been studied. The influence of nitric acid concentration and the addition of various small anions (NO-3,HSO-3,Cl-,F-, and C2O24-) to the aqueous phase on this distribution was investigated. The amount of ruthenium nitrosyl extracted into the organic phases reaches a maximum near 1 M HNO3 in the absence of additional complexing or salting out reagents. Addition of a neutral nitrate salt (NaNO3) increases the distribution coefficient. Addition of the sodium salts of HSO-3, Cl-, and F- has little effect on the distribution, while the addition of oxalic acid substantially reduces the extraction of ruthenium nitrosyl into the organic phase. Di-n-butyl phosphate (DBP) exhibits a synergistic effect in combination with TBP, substantially increasing the ruthenium distribution coefficient. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of solvents containing CyMe4-BTPhen in selected cyclohexanone-based diluents after irradiation by accelerated electrons

    Distler Petr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation stability of CyMe4-BTPhen was examined in systems with three selected cyclohexanone-based diluents. Accelerated electrons were used as a source of ionizing radiation. The CyMe4-BTPhen radiation degradation identification and characterization of the degradation products were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Residual concentrations of tested ligand were determined. Moreover, extraction properties of the solvents irradiated at two different doses were compared with the extraction properties of non-irradiated solvents to estimate the influence of the presence of degradation products in the organic phase.

  13. A Fluorous Biphasic Solvent Extraction System for Lanthanides with a Fluorophilic β-Diketone Type Extractant.

    Nakamura, Etsuko; Hiruta, Yuki; Watanabe, Takafumi; Iwasawa, Naoko; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The properties of a fluorous solvent extraction system for trivalent lanthanide metal ions are reported. A fluorinated extractant, 4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,9-tridecafluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-nonanedione, and HFE-7200 (C4F9OC2H5) as the extraction solvent were chosen. With this fluorous extractant/solvent combination, higher extraction ratios and separation factors compared to a conventional organic solvent system (thenoyltrifluoroacetone in CHCl3) were achieved for 5 heavy lanthanide ions (Lu, Yb, Tm, Er and Ho). On the other hand, light lanthanide ions (Nd, Pr, Ce and La) are hardly extracted, therefore enabling the mutual separation of light lanthanides from middle or heavy lanthanide ions. PMID:26353959

  14. Deacidification of Soybean Oil Combining Solvent Extraction and Membrane Technology

    M. L. Fornasero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the removal of free fatty acids (FFAs from soybean oil, combining solvent extraction (liquid-liquid for the separation of FFAs from the oil and membrane technology to recover the solvent through nanofiltration (NF. Degummed soybean oil containing 1.05 ± 0.10% w/w FFAs was deacidified by extraction with ethanol. Results obtained in the experiences of FFAs extraction from oil show that the optimal operating conditions are the following: 1.8 : 1 w : w ethanol/oil ratio, 30 minutes extraction time and high speed of agitation and 30 minutes repose time after extraction at ambient temperature. As a result of these operations two phases are obtained: deacidified oil phase and ethanol phase (containing the FFAs. The oil from the first extraction is subjected to a second extraction under the same conditions, reducing the FFA concentration in oil to 0.09%. Solvent recovery from the ethanol phase is performed using nanofiltration technology with a commercially available polymeric NF membrane (NF-99-HF, Alfa Laval. From the analysis of the results we can conclude that the optimal operating conditions are pressure of 20 bar and temperature of 35°C, allowing better separation performance: permeate flux of 28.3 L/m2·h and FFA retention of 70%.

  15. Thorex solvent extraction studies with irradiated HTGR fuel: series I

    Lamb, C.E.; Mitchell, A.D.; Vaughen, V.C.A.; Shannon, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    A series of solvent extraction experiments to test the first-cycle fuel reprocessing flowsheet, proposed by the General Atomic Company for the Hot Engineering Test Facility, was completed. Using irradiated fuel, the experiments were designed to test the extraction, partition, partition-scrub, and strip operations. Each experiment utilized crosscurrent batch extractions and consecutive stages. Each stage was tested in duplicate. Experimental procedures were developed with synthetic feeds and then were used in a hot cell with radioactive solutions of dissolved irradiated fuel. The analytical measurements for thorium and acid compared favorably with the values predicted by the computer program for solvent extraction processes having interacting solutes (SEPHIS-MOD4). The SEPHIS-MOD4 program was valuable in interpreting this first set of experiments with irradiated fuels. Significant problems were experienced in the analysis for uranium in irradiated solutions. These problems emphasize the need for continued development of new or improved procedures for analyzing highly radioactive materials.

  16. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    Anne Elizabeth Harman-Ware

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β- pinene, camphene and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic and neoabietic acids.

  17. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    Pesic, B.

    1996-07-01

    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  18. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  19. Technology of extraction by solvent in pulsed columns

    Since its creation, the CEA (Commissariat a l'energie atomique) has produced several separation processes for natural or enriched uranium treatment and the treatment of spent fuels coming from nuclear reactors. Among these technologies, extraction by solvent is broadly used for separation and purification of nuclear matters. This technology can be used for other applications as hydrometallurgy, chemistry, pharmaceutics, depollution, agro-industry

  20. Dynamic materials accounting for solvent-extraction systems

    Methods for estimating nuclear materials inventories in solvent-extraction contactors are being developed. These methods employ chemical models and available process measurements. Comparisons of model calculations and experimental data for mixer-settlers and pulsed columns indicate that this approach should be adequate for effective near-real-time materials accounting in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

  1. Solvent extraction studies using tetracycline as complexing agent Pt. 8

    A study of the separation of uranium from Se, Br, Mo, Sb, Ba, Ta, W, Au and Hg is presented. Separations were carried out by solvent extraction technique using tetracycline as complexing agent and benzyl alcohol as organic phase. Masking agents (e.g. EDTA) were required for some of the separations: e.g. Hg, Ba. (T.I.)

  2. Regeneration of Spent Lubricant Refining Clays by Solvent Extraction

    Yan-zhen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Step-by-step solvent extraction was used to regenerate spent clay by recovering the adsorbed oil in lubricating oil refining clay. Several polar and nonpolar solvents were tested, and petroleum ether (90–120°C and ethanol (95 v% were selected as the nonpolar and polar solvents, respectively. The spent clay was first extracted using petroleum ether (90–120°C to obtain ideal oil and then extracted with a mixed solvent of petroleum ether (90–120°C and ethanol (95 v% two or three times to obtain nonideal oil before being extracted with ethanol and water. Finally, the clay was dried at 130°C to obtain regenerated clay. The total oil recovery can be more than 99 wt% of the adsorbed oil. The recovered ideal oil can be used as lubricating base oil. Shorter storage times for spent clay produce better regeneration results. The regenerated clay can be reused to refine the lubricating base oils.

  3. Pressurized solvent extraction of pure food grade starch

    A commercial pressurized solvent extractor was used to remove lipid and non-lipid material from cornstarch using n-propanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures. Yields and chemical composition of the extract fractions were determined. Cornstarch samples were characterized using pasting properties and...

  4. Stability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Solvent: Effect of High Nitrite on Solvent Nitration

    Bonnesen, P.V.

    2002-06-26

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether nitrated organic compounds could be formed during operation of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process, and whether such compounds would present a safety concern. The CSSX process was developed to remove cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). The solvent is composed of the cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis-(4-tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), a fluorinated alcohol phase modifier, tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and an isoparaffinic diluent (Iospar{reg_sign}). During the CSSX process, the solvent is expected to be exposed to high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in the alkaline waste feed. The solvent will also be exposed to dilute (50 mM) nitric acid solutions containing low concentrations of nitrite during scrubbing, followed by stripping with 1 mM nitric acid. The solvent is expected to last for one year of plant operation, and the temperatures the solvent may experience during the process could range from as low as 15 C to as high as 35 C. Excursions from standard process conditions could result in the solvent experiencing higher temperatures, as well as concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and most importantly nitric acid, that exceed normal operating conditions. Accordingly, conditions may exist where nitration reactions involving the solvent components, possibly leading to other chemical reactions stemming from nitration reactions, could occur. To model such nitration reactions, the solvent was exposed to the types of nitrate- and nitrite-containing solutions that might be expected to be encountered during the process (even under off-normal conditions), as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric acid. The experiments conducted as part of this report were designed to examine the more specific effect that high nitrite concentrations could have on forming nitrated

  5. Application of the phase transfer catalyst in rare earth solvent extraction

    In order to overcome the stripping difficulty and reduce the equilibrium time in heavy rare earth separation with acidic organophosphorous extractants, the phase transfer catalysis (PTC) technique was introduced to the solvent extraction process. It was especially applied to the stripping section, which was called phase transfer catalysis stripping (PTCS) process. In the PTCS process, an acidic phosphorous extractant was mixed with another extractant which could transfer hydrogen ion from aqueous phase to organic phase and almost did not extract rare earth ions, so that the stripping efficiency could be improved and the stripping extraction equilibrium be accelerated. The reaction mechanism of the PTCS and the requisite properties for a feasible PTCS catalyst in the rare earth extraction were studied. We selected D2EHPA as the extractant, Alamine 336 as the PTCS catalyst and mixed rare earth chlorides as the feed to test the PTCS phenomenon. Based on the experimental data, the possibility of applying the PTCS technique in rare earth solvent extraction was discussed. (authors)

  6. Influence of humic acids in solution on uranium solvent extraction

    The harmful influence of humic acids in solution on uranium solvent extraction is investigated in this paper. The influence appears to be the poor phase separation and forming stable emulsion when uranium is extracted or stripped, and decreasing the loaded uranium in organic phase. The extractions of organic matter and solvent extraction of uranium were carried out for three sedimentary uranium ores. The results show that the stable emulsions of w/o or o/w type are formed separately with organic solvent containing tertiary amine or D2EHPA when uranium from liquors containing humic acid is extracted. Several humic acids of different molecular weight were fractionated by means of fractional solution containing varicus volume ratio of ethanol-ethylacetate. The physical characters and chemical composition of the humic acids were determined. It is found that there is distinct difference in emulsion-causing character among the humic acids with different molecular weight. The removal methods of humic acid from aqueous and organic solutions are discussed briefly

  7. Development of Solvent Extraction Approach to Recycle Enriched Molybdenum Material

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Brown, M. Alex [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Sen, Sujat [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Bowers, Delbert L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Wardle, Kent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Pupek, Krzysztof Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Dzwiniel, Trevor L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Krumdick, Gregory K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, is developing a recycling process for a solution containing valuable Mo-100 or Mo-98 enriched material. Previously, Argonne had developed a recycle process using a precipitation technique. However, this process is labor intensive and can lead to production of large volumes of highly corrosive waste. This report discusses an alternative process to recover enriched Mo in the form of ammonium heptamolybdate by using solvent extraction. Small-scale experiments determined the optimal conditions for effective extraction of high Mo concentrations. Methods were developed for removal of ammonium chloride from the molybdenum product of the solvent extraction process. In large-scale experiments, very good purification from potassium and other elements was observed with very high recovery yields (~98%).

  8. Solvent extraction of niobium cations with products of nitrobenzene radiolysis

    Radiolysis of nitrobenzene solution of cobalt(III) dicarbollide, which is used for solvent extraction of cesium from fission products results in enhanced extraction of 95Nb. The isomeric nitrophenols, 2,4-dinitrophenol, p-nitrosophenol and m-aminophenol exhibit antergism towards extraction of niobium cations. Synergistic effect is exhibited by 2,5-dinitrophenol, o-and p-aminophenol, o-nitroaniline and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol which are among the products of two-phase systems with nitrobenzene radiolysis. Two competing processes, complexation of niobium and protonation of ligand, both depending on the ligand benzene ring substituents are discussed. (author) 15 refs.; 4 tabs

  9. Microfluidic Extraction of Biomarkers using Water as Solvent

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Manohara, Harish; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran

    2009-01-01

    A proposed device, denoted a miniature microfluidic biomarker extractor (mu-EX), would extract trace amounts of chemicals of interest from samples, such as soils and rocks. Traditionally, such extractions are performed on a large scale with hazardous organic solvents; each solvent capable of dissolving only those molecules lying within narrow ranges of specific chemical and physical characteristics that notably include volatility, electric charge, and polarity. In contrast, in the mu-EX, extractions could be performed by use of small amounts (typically between 0.1 and 100 L) of water as a universal solvent. As a rule of thumb, in order to enable solvation and extraction of molecules, it is necessary to use solvents that have polarity sufficiently close to the polarity of the target molecules. The mu-EX would make selection of specific organic solvents unnecessary, because mu-EX would exploit a unique property of liquid water: the possibility of tuning its polarity to match the polarity of organic solvents appropriate for extraction of molecules of interest. The change of the permittivity of water would be achieved by exploiting interactions between the translational states of water molecules and an imposed electromagnetic field in the frequency range of 300 to 600 GHz. On a molecular level, these interactions would result in disruption of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network among liquid-water molecules and subsequent solvation and hydrolysis of target molecules. The mu-EX is expected to be an efficient means of hydrolyzing chemical bonds in complex macromolecules as well and, thus, enabling analysis of the building blocks of these complex chemical systems. The mu-EX device would include a microfluidic channel, part of which would lie within a waveguide coupled to an electronically tuned source of broad-band electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from 300 to 600 GHz (see figure). The part of the microfluidic channel lying in the waveguide would

  10. Analysis of backmixing and mass transfer in solvent extraction columns

    Nazem, M.

    1979-01-01

    A critical survey of the published literature concerning modelling of liquid-liquid extraction columns, mass transfer studies in extraction towers and the influence of backmixing on concentration profiles, extraction efficiency and the number of transfer units has been made to determine the most accurate correlations for computing the true number of transfer units or the true overall mass transfer coefficients in backmixed solvent extraction columns. These parameters are of great significance and are very useful in the design and performance evaluation of solvent extraction columns. Several approximate correlations of these parameters as a function of column geometry, operating conditions, and physical properties of the liquid systems involved have been developed and it is possible to use mathematical models in the interpretation and analysis of experimental data to determine which correlations appear to be most accurate and easiest to use. The results of the data analysis, together with the best possible estimate of the extraction efficiency were applied to a differential backmixing model to obtain concentration profiles in an extraction column.

  11. Analysis of backmixing and mass transfer in solvent extraction columns

    A critical survey of the published literature concerning modelling of liquid-liquid extraction columns, mass transfer studies in extraction towers and the influence of backmixing on concentration profiles, extraction efficiency and the number of transfer units has been made to determine the most accurate correlations for computing the true number of transfer units or the true overall mass transfer coefficients in backmixed solvent extraction columns. These parameters are of great significance and are very useful in the design and performance evaluation of solvent extraction columns. Several approximate correlations of these parameters as a function of column geometry, operating conditions, and physical properties of the liquid systems involved have been developed and it is possible to use mathematical models in the interpretation and analysis of experimental data to determine which correlations appear to be most accurate and easiest to use. The results of the data analysis, together with the best possible estimate of the extraction efficiency were applied to a differential backmixing model to obtain concentration profiles in an extraction column

  12. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  13. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duncan, Nathan C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ensor, Dale [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Hill, Talon G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Denise L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rajbanshi, Arbin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roach, Benjamin D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Szczygiel, Patricia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sloop, Jr., Frederick V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stoner, Erica L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Neil J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  14. Screening Investigations of Novel Nitrogen Donor Ligands for Solvent Extraction

    It is important to have a concept on how to take care of spent nuclear fuel. Several options exist, such as the once-through cycle or reprocessing. Both these methods produce a residue that must be disposed of and isolated for a very long time. Transmutation of the spent nuclear fuel is a technique that may reduce the amount and the storage time of the spent nuclear fuel by converting the long lived radionuclides into short lived or stable nuclides. Successful transmutation must be accompanied with an effective separation, or partitioning, of the elements in the spent fuel since only a few elements are the target for transmutation. Solvent extraction is one of the preferred techniques for this partitioning. Special consideration is given to the separation of trivalent actinides and trivalent lanthanides in the waste since these groups of elements have similar chemical properties and hence may be difficult to separate. This work is focused on the separation of actinides from lanthanides using novel nitrogen containing extracting reagents for solvent extraction. These nitrogen bearing reagents has been investigated using mainly solvent extraction techniques to find chemical and extraction properties for these reagents and to optimize the system in order to use these reagents in a future process. Methods for making screening test of these ligands are discussed where certain properties of the reagents are investigated, such as solubility, radiolytic and hydrolytic stability and extraction capacity. The ligands were found to be able to specifically separate actinides from lanthanides. Further on, a model based on Hansen's solubility parameter concept, which can predict the outcome of an extraction experiment is presented. The model was found to work quite well

  15. Extraction of Phenol From Industrial Water Using Different Solvents

    Bushra Yaseen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and efficiency of phenol extraction from the industrial water using different solvents, were investigated. To our knowledge, the experimental information available in the literature for liquid-liquid equilibria of ternary mixtures containing the pair phenol-water is limited. Therefore the purpose of the present investigation is to generate the data for the water-phenol with different solvents to aid the correlation of liquid-liquid equilibria, including phase diagrams, distribution coefficients of phenol, tie-lines data and selectivity of the solvents for the aqueous phenol system.The ternary equilibrium diagrams and tie-lines data for systems containing Water-Phenol-Benzene, Water-Phenol-Chloroform, Water-Phenol-iso-Butyl Acetate, Water-Phenol-Butanol, Water-Phenol-Ethyl Methyl Keton and Water-Phenol-Toluene, were determined at 303 K and atmospheric pressure.The capacity and selectivity of these organic solvents in each of these systems were determined from the tie-lines data. The capacity of the isobutyle acetate was found to be the highest among the other solvents, and its selectivity was also the highest. Similar results also were obtained for the ethyl methyl keton but gave less capacity and selectivity as compared to the isobutyle acetate. It can be concluded that both isobutyle acetate and ethyl methyl keton are good solvents for extraction of phenol from industrial water.The liquid-liquid equilibrium data of ternary systems were correlated to the NRTL, UNIQUAC and UNIFAC models of activity coefficient to determine their adjustable parameters. The standard deviations from experimental compositions were calculated. Results show that the correlation may be greatly improved by applying the NRTL model with the regression criteria based on minimizing the experimental and calculating distribution coefficients SK to give an average value of the root mean square deviation about 1.436 % and in terms of the average errors in the

  16. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction. PMID:26920267

  17. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995`s successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium.

  18. Solvent extraction behavior and electrolytic redox reaction of tungsten under extremely low concentration

    Seaborgium (element 106, Sg), that is 6-group element, is homologous element of Tungsten (W). The redox reaction of Sg is expected to be observed because W has various oxidation states. For studying the chemical properties of Sg, it is important to examine chemical properties of homologous element, W. Tungsten forms polyoxometalate under high concentration, but Sg cannot form polyoxometalate because its production rate is one atom per several hours. So the chemical behavior of Sg will be different from that of W under high concentration. We investigated solvent extraction behavior and electrolytic redox reaction of Tungsten under extremely low concentration using short-lived radionuclides produced by an accelerator. From the results, it was revealed that the solvent extraction behavior of W under extremely low concentration is different from the one under high concentration. (author)

  19. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry. PMID:26964955

  20. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs

  1. CALmsu contactor for solvent extraction with integrated flowrate meters

    Mixer-settlers are widely used as contactors in solvent extraction processes. In the nuclear industry, solvent extraction techniques are used for the separation and purification of a range of materials. A major difficulty is faced in the nuclear industry due to the constraints on the design of the equipment and its operation by the presence of radioactive materials in process solutions. The development of CALmsu contactor was necessitated by the requirements of the operating environment in radiochemical plants. This contactor is a mixer-settler designed to use a CALMIX (combined air lifting and mixing device) static mixer. The CALMIX comprises two air lifts which raise the liquid phases to a highly turbulent mixing zone situated above the lifts. Its principle and construction are simple, and it is compact in size. It is a passive device and needs no maintenance. It has proved to be efficient during extensive testing. The simple and efficient CALmsu contactor internals are specially engineered for use of CALMIX mixer. It has been extensively tested in pilot plant for extraction and stripping of uranium, recovery of uranium from thorium by THOREX process and for treatment of degraded solvents. A model for the design of CALmsu contactors has been evolved and based on this model a software for engineering design of CALMIX and CALmsu contactors of throughput between 50 and 3000 lph has been developed. (author)

  2. Effect of solvent extraction on Tunisian esparto wax composition

    Saâd Inès

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of needs for renewable and vegetable based materials will help to drive the market growth of vegetable waxes. Because of their highly variable composition and physicochemical properties, plant waxes have found numerous applications in the: food, cosmetic, candle, coating, polish etc... The aim of this project is to determine the effect of solvent extraction (petroleum ether and ethanol on Tunisian esparto wax composition. The GC-MS was applied in order to determine the waxes compositions. Then, physicochemical parameters of these two samples of waxes: acid value, saponification value, iodine value and melting point were measured in order to deduct their properties and possible fields of uses. Results showed that esparto wax composition depended on the solvent extraction and that major components of the two samples of waxes were: alkanes, esters of fatty acids and phenols. Furthermore, esparto waxes were characterized by an antioxidant and antibacterial activities but the potential of these activities depended on the solvent of wax extraction.

  3. Supercritical water oxidation of spent extraction solvent simulants

    王帅; 秦强; 陈土方方; 夏晓彬; 马洪军; 乔延波; 何柳斌

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of nuclear technology has led to more liquid organic radioactive wastes. Different from the regular aqueous radioactive wastes, these liquids possess a higher hazard potential and cannot be disposed through the conventional methods due to their radioactivity and chemical nature. Spent extraction solvent is a kind of common liquid organic radioactive wastes. In this work, tri-butyl phosphate (TBP), which is more difficult to degrade in the spent extraction solvent, was used as the model compound. Influences of reaction conditions on total organic carbon (TOC) removal and the volume percentage of each gas component under supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) were studied. The SCWO behaviors of spent extraction solvent simulants were studied under the optimal conditions derived from the TBP experiment. The SCWO experiments were studied at 400–550◦C, oxidant stoichiometric ratio of 0–200%, feed concentration of 1.5%–4%and pressure of 25 MPa for 15–75 s. The results show that the TOC removal of the simulants was greater than 99.7%and CH4, H2 and CO were not detected at 550◦C, 25 MPa, oxidant stoichiometric ratio of 150%, feed concentration of 3%, and residence time of 30 s.

  4. A prototype study with solvent extraction on industrial scale

    The need for uranium purification has generated the study of different methods in order for purification to be achieved, having had excellent results in the laboratory with ionic exchange methods, extraction by means of solvents and chromatography. Pilot experiments of the ionic exchange method have been performed, using as experimentation equipment the columns of ionic exchange, attaining some results without concreting the objectives. Likewise several experiments in mixer-settlers have been performed for the purification of uranium by the solvent extraction method, where there were serious problems with the formation of a third incontrollable phase, and also, due to the later, low purification of the uranium when distributing from one phase to the other. Knowing these problems brought on by the performed experiments in mixer-setters by groups of researchers interested in this part of the nuclear fuel, the task of designing a prototype of extraction with solvents of the mixer-settler type was undertaken in the project 'Models and simulation of equipment and processes of the refinement and conversion department'. The purification of uranium as uranyl nitrate [UO2(NO3)2] was developed, establishing the conditions for the equipment operation, concluding that, with some relatively simple adjustements, it is possible to apply in different areas, taking note of the specific needs of mining, cosmetics, perfume and pharmaceutical areas. (Author)

  5. Solvent extraction for cleaning phosphoric acid in fertilizer production

    Phosphorites of sedimentary origin utilized in manufacturing of fertilizer contain uranium, thorium, products of their radioactive decay, as well as heals-endangering compounds of cadmium, arsenic, fluoride. Some part of them may transit into phosphoric acid, when breaking down the phosphorites with sulphuric acid, and then into fertilizer. The chief purpose of the phosphoric acid cleaning is its decontamination from uranium and thorium as well as the removal of toxic cadmium. The above task can be achieved by a world-recognized technology - solvent extraction. The report presents the investigation results on extraction of uranium and cadmium from phosphoric acid using polyalkyl phosphasene and trioctyl amine, respectively. The studies concerned the extraction kinetics, equilibrium distribution of uranium and cadmium within the phases, the effect extractants concentration and temperature of the process. The technological schemes for cleaning phosphoric acid from uranium and cadmium are given in the paper. (authors)

  6. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES WITH VARIOUS SOLVENTS TO DETERMINE EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    A. G. Patil et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs play an important role in health care dynamics especially in developing countries. The key step in isolation of biologically active compounds is extraction, which is expressed as total extractive yield, yields of metabolites of interest or intensity of biological activity. Extraction of phytoconstituents from plant materials has been of tremendous interest and potential. Extractive value of the crude drug also indicates the quality as well as purity of the drug. For most extractions, relatively simple techniques, such as percolation and maceration are effective and economical. Some specific applications however, require more sophisticated and costly extraction techniques using specialized equipments. It is often possible to select the specific solvent to maximize the yields on the basis of different techniques, varying in cost and level of complexity. Therefore the objective of the present study was to compare different extraction techniques with various solvents for determination of extractive values. The plants selected for the present research work were Averrrhoa carambola L. fruits (Oxalidaceae, Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. fruits (Cucurbitaceae and Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. rhizomes (Hypoxidaceae. The maximum percentage of extractive value for L. vulgaris Ser. fruit extract was found to be 76.26±0.46 in water using reflux for extraction, whereas A. carambola L. fruit extract and C. orchioides Gaertn. rhizome extract, the maximum percentage of extractive values were found to be 88.40±0.80 and 54.00±0.80 respectively in water using ultrasound extraction method.

  7. Solvent extraction studies with high-burnup Fast Flux Test Facility fuel in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility

    Benker, D.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Bond, W.D.; Chattin, F.R.; King, L.J.; Kitts, F.G.; Ross, R.G.; Stacy, R.G.

    1986-10-01

    A batch of high-burnup fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was processed in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) during Campaign 9. The fuel had a burnup of {similar_to}0 MWd/kg and a cooling time of {similar_to} year. Two runs were made with this fuel; in the first, the solvent contained 30% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and partitioning of the uranium and plutonium was effected by reducing the plutonium with hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN); in the second, the solvent contained 10% TBP and a low operating temperature was used in an attempt to partition without reducing the plutonium valence. The plutonium reoxidation problem, which was present in previous runs that used HAN, may have been solved by lowering the temperature and acidity in the partition contactor. An automatic control system was used to maintain high loadings of heavy metals in the coextraction-coscrub contactor in order to increase its efficiency while maintaining low losses of uranium and plutonium to the aqueous raffinate. An in-line photometer system was used to measure the plutonium concentration in an intermediate extraction stage; and based on this data, a computer algorithm determined the appropriate adjustments in the addition rate of the extractant. The control system was successfully demonstrated in a preliminary run with purified uranium. However, a variety of equipment and start up problems prevented an extended demonstration from being accomplished during the runs with the FFTF fuel.

  8. High Linear Energy Transfer Radiolysis of Solvent Extraction Ligands

    Pearson, Jeremy David

    The response to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation of a variety of aqueous systems such as biological systems and the Fricke dosimeter has frequently been studied in the literature. Linear energy transfer is a unique property of radiation which describes the special distribution with which energy from radiation is deposited and concentrated as it travels through matter and can have implications on degradation within the matter itself. The four types of ionizing radiation alpha, beta, gamma, and neutrons have different LET, classified from low for gamma and beta, to high for alpha. All types of ionizing radiation are encountered in used nuclear fuel. This radiation induces damage to solvent extraction processes designed to recycle used nuclear fuel which results in impaired selectivity and reduced process efficiencies. While the effects of low LET radiation on organic solutions have been widely studied, the effects of high LET radiation have not due to difficulties in studying this type of radiation such as short radiation path lengths on the order of 50 mum. This study investigates the effects of high LET radiation deposited in situ from fission products lithium and helium emitted in the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction. The reaction, studied previously in aqueous systems, is applied here to organic solvents containing ligands used in solvent extraction. Ligands studied were TBP, CMPO, and TODGA utilized in the PUREX and TRUEX processes. Results demonstrate that high LET radiation has the tendency to reduce degradation to the parent compound due to reactive products being consumed within the radiation track, while encouraging secondary degradation products to occur within the radiation track. Products of these secondary degradation reactions may be more detrimental to the solvent extraction process than primary degradation products and are therefore important to understand and monitor. Results also demonstrate the utility of using the 10B(n,alpha) 7Li reaction to

  9. A short review of headspace extraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction for honey volatiles fingerprinting

    Jerković, I.; Marijanović, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Honey volatiles exhibit a potential role in distinguishing honeys as a function of botanical origin, but heating of honey generates artefacts such as compounds of Strecker degradation and Maillard reaction products. This short review is focused on the most recently applied methods for honey volatiles fingerprinting (without generation of thermal artefacts): headspace extraction (dynamic headspace extraction (DHE), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)) and ultrasonic solvent extract...

  10. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products 90Sr, 99Tc, and 137Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover 90Sr, 99Tc, and 137Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste

  11. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    Horwitz, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste.

  12. Solvent extraction studies using tetracycline as complexing agent Pt.7

    Separation of uranium from rare-earth elements and scandium has been accomplished by a solvent extraction technique using tetracycline as a complexing agent and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as a masking agent for scandium and rare earths. Benzyl alcohol was used as the organic solvent and ionic strength in the aqueous phase was kept constant at 0.10M by addition of NaClO4. Radioisotopes (Sc-46, La-140, Eu-152-154, Tm-170) of the elements were obtained by the irradiation of oxides in a thermal neutron flux of 5x1012ncm-2sec-1 for 8 hours. Samples were counted using a well-type NaI(Tl) coupled to a single channel γ-ray analyser or a Ge-Li detector and a 4096-channel analyser. Concentration of uranium in both phases was determined by activation analysis with epithermal neutrons. (T.I.)

  13. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Hassan Ali Durrani; Muhammed Ibrahim Panhwar; Rafique Akthar Kazi

    2012-01-01

    Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone), 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, w...

  14. Next Generation Solvent Materials Compatibility With Polymer Components Within Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil(regsign), Tefzel(regsign) and Isolast(regsign)) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX(regsign)79) selectively affected Tefzel(regsign) (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel(regsign) and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel(regsign) is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel(regsign)) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel(regsign) in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel(regsign) seating material. PEEK, Grafoil(regsign) and Isolast(regsign) were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial

  15. Uranium concentrate obtained from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction using ammonium sulfate as extractant agent

    Results of uranium concentrate obtainment from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction followed by chemical precipitation techniques are presented. In the extraction process a tertiary amine as extractant agent and ammonium sulfate solution as stripping agent were used. Uranium was precipitated from the pregnant strip solution as ammonium diuranate by addition of ammonium hydroxide solution. Equilibrium pH and chloride content in the loaded solvent were the main interference on the uranium stripping stage. From a chloride-free uranium loaded organic phase a pregnant strip solution containing 33.2 g/L U3O8 and a stripped solvent with 0.006 g/L U3O8 using 5 stages of mixer-settlers were obtained. The chemical precipitation stage yielded a high purity ammonium diuranate precipitate with a recovery of 99.98%. After calcination, the product presented 99.7 % U3O8 content. (author)

  16. Application of neural nets to solvent extraction systems

    Frequently the equilibrium behaviour and hydrodynamics of complex solvent extraction systems are poorly understood, so that it is not always feasible to use a phenomenological approach to modelling and design. In such instances the alternative is usually an empirical modelling approach, which requires the specification of the functional forms used in a regression analysis on experimental data. Due to their non-parametric nature, artificial neural networks offer an attractive alternative to such parametric empirical modelling, and have been used successfully in a variety of process engineering applications. The principles of these nets are demonstrated in two case studies, i.e. (a) the efficiency of extraction of rare-earths from the HEH (EHP)-kerosene-HCI system, and (b) the correlation of variables in a study on drop coalescence in liquid/liquid dispersions by flow through glass fibre beds. It is shown that feature extraction from data can be used to cluster the behaviour of different solvents, and that the well known self-organising map (SOM) is not always the most efficient tool for this purpose. (authors)

  17. Final Report - Energy Reduction and Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Technology

    Reed, John; Fanselow, Dan; Abbas, Charles; Sammons, Rhea; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-08-06

    3M and Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a novel membrane solvent extraction (MSE) process that can substantially reduce energy and water consumption in ethanol production, and accelerate the fermentation process. A cross-flow membrane module was developed, using porous membrane manufactured by 3M. A pilot process was developed that integrates fermentation, MSE and vacuum distillation. Extended experiments of 48-72 hours each were conducted to develop the process, verify its performance and begin establishing commercial viability.

  18. Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Bushra Sultana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW, total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW; reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91, DPPH. scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%, and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%. Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  19. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker. PMID:19553890

  20. Critical exponents for solvent extraction resolved using SAXS.

    Ellis, Ross J

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction of an ionizable solute (H3PO4) from water into a water-in-oil microemulsion, and subsequent organic phase splitting (known as third phase formation), has been recast as a critical phenomenon by linking system structure to solute concentration via a critical exponent. The transuranic extraction (TRUEX) system was investigated by extracting increasing concentrations of H3PO4 into a microemulsion--consisting of two extractant amphiphiles (CMPO and TBP) and water in n-dodecane--and taking small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements from the resulting solutions. The H3PO4 concentration at which phase splitting occurred was defined as the critical concentration (XC), and this was related to the precritical concentrations (X) by the reduced parameter ε = (X(C) - X)/X(C). The scattering intensity at the zero angle I(0), relating to the interaction between reverse micellar aggregates, conformed to the relation I(0) = I0ε(-γ), with critical exponent γ = 2.20. To check γ, SAXS measurements were taken from the organic phase in situ with variable temperature through the point at which third phase formation initiates (the critical temperature), giving I(0) = I0t(-γ), where t = (T - T(C))/T(C) and T(C) and T are the critical and precritical temperatures, with critical exponent γ = 2.55. These γ values suggest third phase formation is a universal phenomenon manifest from a critical double point. Thus, solvent extraction is reduced to its fundamental physical roots where the system is not defined by detailed analysis of metrical properties but by linking the fundamental order to thermodynamic parameters via an exponent, working toward a more predictive understanding of third phase formation. PMID:24328275

  1. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali; Chin Ping Tan; Hamed Mirhosseini; Shadi Samaram

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (...

  2. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  3. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  4. Solvent extraction studies using tetracycline as complexing agent Pt. 9

    Separation of scandium from zinc is acomplished by solvent extraction technique using benzyl alcohol-tetracycline solution as organic phase. The radioisotopes Sc-46 and Zn-65 were obtained by irradiation of powdered metallic zinc and of Sc2O3. Extraction took place at 25 +- 0.5 deg C and the separatory funnels were mechanically shaken for 30 min at that temperature. Concentration of NaClO4 in the aqueous phase was equal to 0.10 M and of tetracycline in the organic phase, 0.01 M. Activities of Sc-46 and Zn-65 were measured in a well type NaI(Tl) detector coupled to a single channel analyser. (T.I.)

  5. The solvent extraction of Am(VI) using centrifugal contactors

    An engineering-scale centrifugal contactor test bed was built at Idaho National Laboratory to perform solvent extraction testing for the partitioning of hexavalent americium. The raffinate simulant feed was spiked with 243Am and 139Ce and treated with sodium bismuthate to oxidize americium to Am(VI), filtered and contacted with 1 M DAAP/dodecane using centrifugal contactors. Extraction efficiency comparable to batch contacts was obtained, indicating for the first time that Am(VI) can be maintained under process conditions. Contrary to expectations, stripping was not as effective as expected. However, this result may actually be advantageous to process design, since a scrub step, previously thought to be impossible due to rapid Am(VI) reduction, may now be considered for future flowsheet tests. (author)

  6. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    Sudipta Das

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis. Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm: ethanol (ml of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were modeled with seven different mathematical models, including Power law, Peleg, Weinbull’s equation, Pseudo 2nd order, Intraparticle diffusion, Logarithmic, Weinbull’s distribution and one RSM model developed in this study. Pseudo 2nd order model was best fitted model (R2 - 0.99, χ 2 - 0.0091, RMSE- 0.1566, MAE- 0.0115 to describe extraction kinetics of β-carotene from carrot. The extraction time has significant effect on extraction process at p<0.05 level.

  7. Synergistic solvent extraction of crown ether complexes with alkali metal picrates by neutral donor solvents

    Takeda, Y.

    1983-09-01

    The solvent extraction of rubidium and cesium picrates has been studied at 25/sup 0/C with mixtures of crown ether and tributyl phosphate (TBP) or trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in benzene, and the adduct-formation constants in the benzene solution have been calculated. The crown ethers used in this work were 12-crown-4 (12C4), 15-crown-5 (15C5), and benzo-15-crown-5 (B15C5). The stoichiometric composition of any extracted complex under the present experimental conditions is alkali metal ion : crown ether : TBP or TOPO : picrate ion = 1 : 1 : 1 : 1. The TOPO complex is more extractable than the corresponding TBP complex. The extractability of the Rb/sup +/ complex is larger than that of the corresponding Cs/sup +/ complex. For both TBP and TOPO, the adduct-formation constant value sequences of Rb/sup +/ and Cs/sup +/ are B15C5 > 12C4 > 15C5 and 12C4 > B15C5 > 15C5, respectively. 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Microwave accelerated solvent-free synthesis of flavanones

    Sagrera, Gabriel J. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: gseoane@fq.edu.uy; Seoane, Gustavo A. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    Microwave irradiation of chalcones under solvent-free conditions resulted in a 'green-chemistry' procedure for the preparation of flavanones in very good yields. Using an unmodified household microwave oven, different mineral supports and catalysts were tested. By irradiation of chalcones with 30% TFA over silica gel, eleven known flavanones and five new compounds were prepared in high yields. (author)

  9. Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

  10. Solvent-free cleaning using a centrifugal cryogenic pellet accelerator

    Haines, J.R.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    An advanced centrifuge that accelerates frozen CO{sub 2} pellets to high speeds for surface cleaning and paint removal is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The centrifuge-based accelerator was designed, fabricated, and tested under a program sponsored by the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air ``sandblast`` pellet accelerators, the centrifugal accelerator system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as energy efficient. Furthermore, the use of frozen CO{sub 2} pellets instead of conventional metal, plastic, sand, or other abrasive materials that remain solid at room temperature, minimizes the waste stream. This apparatus has been used to demonstrate cleaning of various surfaces, including removal of paint, oxide coatings, metal coatings, organic coatings, and oil and grease coatings from a variety of surfaces. The design and operation of the apparatus is discussed.

  11. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo03)

  12. Preliminary phytochemicals evaluation of different solvent extracts of Gynura procumbens

    Phytochemicals are natural bioactive compounds found in plants, such as vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, flowers, leaves and roots that work with nutrients and fibers to protect against various human diseases. Gynura procumbens or locally known as Sambung Nyawa is a plant species widely planted in many warmer regions. It is a perennial plant of the Asteraceae family, which may grow to 100 cm high with oval-shaped, leaves to 10 cm long and have a rather fleshy feel. Gynura procumbens has been used for the treatment of eruptive fevers, rash and kidney disease. The leaves of this plant continue to be used as folk medicine to control diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. The aim of this research was to evaluate the presence of phytochemicals constituents in different solvent extracts of Gynura procumbens leaves. Qualitative phytochemicals screening of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were carried out for the detection of terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, lipids, coumarin, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones. The phytochemicals screening showed positive results for terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, lipids, coumarin and anthraquinones in methanol and water extracts of Gynura procumbens. The diversity of phytochemicals present suggests that Gynura procumbens leaves could serve as a source of useful drugs. (author)

  13. Solvent Extraction of Alkaline Earth Metals with Alkylphosphorus Acids

    XUXin; ZHUTun

    2002-01-01

    Solvent extraction equiliria of four main alkaline earth metals (magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium) with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA), 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-(2-ethylhexyl) ester, di(2,4,4-tri-methylpentyl) phosphinic acid and IR spectra of the extracts have been studied. The selectivity order is dependent of the e/r value and hydration energy of the metal ions. The minor shift of the P→O in IR absorption of the alkaline earth metal extracts indicates that the interaction between the metal ions and P→O is much weaker for alkaline earth metals than for transitional metals. The distribution of the four alkaline earth elements between aqueous solutions and solutions of DEHPA and neutral organophosphorus compunds, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene have been determined at varying ratio of TBP or TOPO to DEHPA and the positive synergism is observed. The synergic effects is explained by using IR spectra of the loaded organic phase.

  14. Green extraction of grape skin phenolics by using deep eutectic solvents.

    Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Ćurko, Natka; Tomašević, Marina; Kovačević Ganić, Karin; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana

    2016-06-01

    Conventional extraction techniques for plant phenolics are usually associated with high organic solvent consumption and long extraction times. In order to establish an environmentally friendly extraction method for grape skin phenolics, deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a green alternative to conventional solvents coupled with highly efficient microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods (MAE and UAE, respectively) have been considered. Initially, screening of five different DES for proposed extraction was performed and choline chloride-based DES containing oxalic acid as a hydrogen bond donor with 25% of water was selected as the most promising one, resulting in more effective extraction of grape skin phenolic compounds compared to conventional solvents. Additionally, in our study, UAE proved to be the best extraction method with extraction efficiency superior to both MAE and conventional extraction method. The knowledge acquired in this study will contribute to further DES implementation in extraction of biologically active compounds from various plant sources. PMID:26830574

  15. Non-polar Solvent Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Constituents from Dried Zingiber Officinale Rosc.

    YU Yong; WANG Zi-Ming; WANG Yu-Tang; LI Tie-Chun; CHENG Jian-Hua; LIU Zhong-Ying; ZHANG Han-Qi

    2007-01-01

    A new method, non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (NPSMAE), was applied to the extraction of essential oil from Zingiber officinale Rosc. in closed-vessel system. By adding microwave absorption mediumcarbonyl iron powders (CIP) into extraction system, the essential oil was extracted by the non-polar solvent (ether)which can be heated by CIP. The constituents of essential oil obtained by NPSMAE were comparable with those obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) by GC-MS analysis, which indicates that NPSMAE is a feasible way to extract essential oil from dried plant materials. The NPSMAE took much less extraction time (5 min) than HD (180 min),and its extraction efficiency was much higher than that of conventional polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (PSMAE) and mixed solvent microwave-assisted extraction (MSMAE). It can be a good alternative for the extraction of volatile constituents from dried plant samples.

  16. Nuclear material inventory estimation in solvent extraction contractors II

    The effectiveness of near-real-time nuclear materials accounting in reprocessing facilities can be limited by inventory variations in the separations contactors. Investigations are described in three areas: (i) Improvements in the model that the authors have described previously for the steady state inventory estimation in mixer-settler contactors, (ii) extension for the model for steady state inventory estimation to transient inventory estimation for non-steady state conditions, and (iii) the development of a computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) for simulating the concentration profiles and nuclear material inventories in pulsed column contactors. Improvements in the steady state model that are described in this report are the simplification of the methods for evaluating model parameters and development of methods for reducing the equation which estimates the total inventory of the set of contactors directly. The pulsed column computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) was developed. Concentration profiles and inventories calculated from CUSEP are compared with measured data from pilot scale contactors containing uranium. Excellent agreement between measured and simulated data for both the concentration profile and inventories is obtained, demonstrating that the program correctly predicts the concentration dispersion caused by pulsing and the dispersed phase holdup within the contactor. Further research to investigate (i) correction of the MUF (Material Unaccounted For) and CUMUF (Cumulative Material Unaccounted For) tests for mixer-settler contactor inventory using the simplified model developed in this work, (ii) development of a simple inventory estimation model for pulsed column contactors similar to that developed for mixer-settler contactors using CUSEP to provide necessary database, and (iii) sources of bias appearing in the MUF and CUMUF tests using computer simulation techniques are planned. Refs

  17. Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction

    Glimm, James [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Almeida, Valmor de [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiao, Xiangmin [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Sims, Brett [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States). Borough of Manhattan Community College; Li, Xaiolin [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2013-01-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a specialized sharp interface tracking simulation capability for predicting interaction of micron-sized drops and bubbles in rotating flows relevant to optimized design of contactor devices used in solvent extraction processes of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The primary outcomes of this project include the capability to resolve drops and bubbles micro-hydrodynamics in solvent extraction contactors, determining from first principles continuum fluid mechanics how micro-drops and bubbles interact with each other and the surrounding shearing fluid for realistic flows. In the near term, this effort will play a central role in providing parameters and insight into the flow dynamics of models that average over coarser scales, say at the millimeter unit length. In the longer term, it will prove to be the platform to conduct full-device, detailed simulations as parallel computing power reaches the exaflop level. The team will develop an accurate simulation tool for flows containing interacting droplets and bubbles with sharp interfaces under conditions that mimic those found in realistic contactor operations. The main objective is to create an off-line simulation capability to model drop and bubble interactions in a domain representative of the averaged length scale. The technical approach is to combine robust interface tracking software, subgrid modeling, validation quality experiments, powerful computational hardware, and a team with simulation modeling, physical modeling and technology integration experience. Simulations will then fully resolve the microflow of drops and bubbles at the microsecond time scale. This approach is computationally intensive but very accurate in treating important coupled physical phenomena in the vicinity of interfaces. The method makes it possible to resolve spatial scales smaller than the typical distance between bubbles and to model some non-equilibrium thermodynamic features such as finite

  18. Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction

    The objective of this project is to develop a specialized sharp interface tracking simulation capability for predicting interaction of micron-sized drops and bubbles in rotating flows relevant to optimized design of contactor devices used in solvent extraction processes of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The primary outcomes of this project include the capability to resolve drops and bubbles micro-hydrodynamics in solvent extraction contactors, determining from first principles continuum fluid mechanics how micro-drops and bubbles interact with each other and the surrounding shearing fluid for realistic flows. In the near term, this effort will play a central role in providing parameters and insight into the flow dynamics of models that average over coarser scales, say at the millimeter unit length. In the longer term, it will prove to be the platform to conduct full-device, detailed simulations as parallel computing power reaches the exaflop level. The team will develop an accurate simulation tool for flows containing interacting droplets and bubbles with sharp interfaces under conditions that mimic those found in realistic contactor operations. The main objective is to create an off-line simulation capability to model drop and bubble interactions in a domain representative of the averaged length scale. The technical approach is to combine robust interface tracking software, subgrid modeling, validation quality experiments, powerful computational hardware, and a team with simulation modeling, physical modeling and technology integration experience. Simulations will then fully resolve the microflow of drops and bubbles at the microsecond time scale. This approach is computationally intensive but very accurate in treating important coupled physical phenomena in the vicinity of interfaces. The method makes it possible to resolve spatial scales smaller than the typical distance between bubbles and to model some non-equilibrium thermodynamic features such as finite

  19. Actinides recovery by solvent extraction in NEXT process

    Concerning the advanced aqueous reprocessing system named NEXT process, the behavior of actinide elements was investigated in main two extraction processes of NEXT process, i.e. the simplified PUREX process for U, Pu and Np recovery, and SETFICS process for Am and Cm recovery. For optimizing the simplified PUREX flowsheet, counter current experiments with centrifugal contactors were carried out under the condition with high HNO3 concentration in the feed solution or scrubbing solution. These experimental results showed the large contribution of HNO3 concentration at the extraction section to Np oxidation and extraction, and the effectiveness of high HNO3 concentration in the feed solution, which might bring the acceleration of the Np oxidation in the feed solution as well as at the extraction section in the centrifugal contactors. In the SETFICS process of a high-loading flowsheet, Am and Cm could be recovered as An(III) product solution. Although Cs was decontaminated well, the decontamination factor of Nd was less than that in the past experiment. (author)

  20. Determining an efficient solvent extraction parameters for re-refining of waste lubricating oils

    Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK ((Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone), 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio) and extraction temperatures. (author)

  1. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  2. Enhanced extraction of patchouli alcohol from Pogostemon cablin by microwave radiation-accelerated ionic liquid pretreatment.

    Fan, Ling; Jin, Ronghua; Liu, Yinghu; An, Min; Chen, Shi

    2011-11-15

    A microwave radiation-accelerated ionic liquid pretreatment (MRAILP) was developed to enhance extraction of patchouli alcohol from Pogostemon cablin. 1-N-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(4)mim]Cl) was selected as microwave absorbing and cellulose dissolution medium and microwave was applied to accelerate sample dissolution. The conditions of MRAILP including particle size, solvent, microwave pretreatment time and power and the ratio of ionic liquid (IL) to sample were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction yield of patchouli alcohol by the MRAILP was 1.94%, which has increased by 166% compared with microwave-assisted extraction. The recovery was in the range of 95.71-103.7% with relative standard deviation lower than 3.0%. It was a novel alternative extraction method for the fast extraction and determination of patchouli alcohol from Pogostemon cablin. PMID:21982506

  3. Solvent extraction of dibutylphosphate bearing alkaline wastes from purex process

    In the Purex process tributylphosphate undergoes chemical and radiolytic attack leading to the formation of acidic degradation products, mainly dibutylphosphate (DBP) and to a lesser extent monobutylphosphate (MBP). These alkylphosphoric compounds are extractants and may also give insoluble complexes with several cations of fission products. Thus their elimination from the organic phase by alkaline scrubbing of the solvent is necessary. The alkaline solution is generally made of carbonate, in order to keep uranium and plutonium, which can be present in small quantities, under a soluble form. The destination of this aqueous solution is usually the high or the medium activity wastes. Recycling actinide values from these effluent solutions in the process is to be considered to lower alpha-activity in the wastes. In this paper is studied the tri-iso-octylamine for extracting the disturbing organophosphorous compounds from neutral or alkaline solutions where they are under an anionic form. The actinides will stay in these aqueous solutions which can be concentrated and recycled without any risk of precipitation

  4. Nuclear material inventory estimation in solvent extraction contactors

    This report describes the development of simple nuclear material (uranium and plutonium) inventory relations for mixer-settler solvent extraction contactors used in reprocessing spent nuclear fuels. The relations are developed for light water reactor fuels where the organic phase is 30% tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) by volume. For reprocessing plants using mixer-settler contactors as much as 50% of the nuclear material within the contactors is contained in A type (aqueous to organic extraction) contactors. Another very significant portion of the contactor inventory is in the partitioning contactors. The stripping contactors contain a substantial uranium inventory but contain a very small plutonium inventory (about 5 to 10% of the total contactor inventory). The simplified inventory relations developed in this work for mixer-settler contactors reproduce the PUBG databases within about a 5% standard deviation. They can be formulated to explicitly show the dependence of the inventory on nuclear material concentrations in the aqueous feed streams. The dependence of the inventory on contactor volumes, phase volume ratios, and acid and TBP concentrations are implicitly contained in parameters that can be calculated for a particular reprocessing plant from nominal flow sheet data. The terms in the inventory relations that represent the larger portion of the inventory in A type and partitioning contactors can be extended to pulsed columns virtually without change

  5. A Comparative Study of Recycling of Used Engine Oil Using Extraction by Composite Solvent, Single Solvent, and Acid Treatment Methods

    Abro, Rashid; Chen, Xiaochun; Harijan, Khanji; Dhakan, Zulifqar A.; Ammar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Engine oils are made from crude oil and its derivatives by mixing of certain other chemicals (additives) for improving their certain properties. Lubricating oil is used to lubricate moving parts of engine, reducing friction, protecting against wear, and removing contaminants from the engine, act as a cleaning agent, and act as an anticorrosion and cooling agent. This research effort focuses on comparative study of re-refined engine oils by extraction of composite solvent, single solvent, and ...

  6. Automatic analysis of uranium-bearing extracts in amine solvent extraction plants processing sulfate leach liquors

    Instrumentation based on continuous segmented flow analysis is suggested for the control of uranium loading in the amine phase of solvent extraction processing sulfate leach liquors. It can be installed with relatively little capital outlay and operational costs are expected to be low. The uranium(VI) in up to 60 samples of extract (proportional 0.1 to 5 g l-1 U) per hour can be determined. Application of spectrophotometry to the analysis of various process streams is discussed and it is concluded that it compares favourably in several important respects with the use of alternative techniques. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil.

    Mahindrakar, A N; Chandra, S; Shinde, L P

    2014-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformer oil samples was evaluated using octadecyl (CI8)-bonded porous silica. The efficiency of SPE of these PCBs was compared with those obtained by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane. Average recoveries exceeding 95% for these PCBs were obtained via the SPE method using small cartridges containing 100mg of 40 pm CI8-bonded porous silica. The average recovery by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane exceeded 83%. It was concluded that the recoveries and precision for the solvent extraction of PCBs were poorer than those for the SPE. PMID:24083901

  8. Clean recovery of antioxidant flavonoids from onions: Optimising solvent free microwave extraction method

    Zill-e-Huma; Vian, Maryline; Maingonnat, Jean Francois; Chemat, Farid

    2009-01-01

     A solvent free microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity extraction (MHG) of flavonol content from onion (Allium cepa L.) was studied. Effectiveness of this innovative method in extraction of onion total phenolic content, total quercetin (TQ), quercetin aglycon (QA), quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside (QDG), quercetin-4′-monoglucoside (Q4G), quercetin-3-monoglucoside (Q3G), kaempferol (KMF) and myricetin (MRT) have been evaluated and compared with conventional solvent extraction. Microwave extraction off...

  9. Deep eutectic solvents as efficient solvent system for the extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Das, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-01-20

    Three different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) prepared by the complexation of choline chloride with urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol along with their hydrated counterparts were used for the selective extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Upon comparison of the quality of the polysaccharide with the one obtained using water as extraction media as well as the one extracted using widely practiced conventional method, it was found that, the physicochemical as well as rheological properties of κ-carrageenan obtained using DESs as solvents was at par to the one obtained using conventional method and was superior in quality when compared to κ-carrageenan obtained using water as solvent. Considering the tedious nature of the extraction method employed in conventional extraction process, the DESs can be considered as suitable alternative solvents for the facile extraction of the polysaccharide directly from the seaweed. However, among the hydrated and non-hydrated DESs, the hydrated ones were found to be more effective in comparison to their non-hydrated counterparts. PMID:26572431

  10. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets. PMID:26107531

  11. Modifications of the SEPHIS computer code for calculating the Purex solvent extraction system

    The SEPHIS computer program was developed to simulate the countercurrent solvent extraction. This report gives modifications in the program which result in improved fit to experimental data, a decrease in computer storage requirements, and a decrease in execution time. Methods for applying the computer program to practical solvent extraction problems are explained

  12. Solvent-free microwave extraction of bioactive compounds provides a tool for green analytical chemistry

    Ying LI; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview on solvent-free microwave-extraction techniques of bioactive compounds from natural products. This new technique is based on the concept of green analytical chemistry. It has proved to be an alternative to other techniques with the advantages of reducing extraction times, energy consumption, solvent use and CO2 emissions.

  13. Operation of a full cycle of solvent extraction under IMPUREX process conditions

    This work describes a series of experiences performed at the Solvent Extraction Laboratory of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Unity in Ezeiza Atomic Center. The experiences were mainly focused on the setup and operation of a full cycle of uranium solvent extraction, using IMPUREX process. (author)

  14. Radiation chemistry in solvent extraction: FY2010 Research

    Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program in the area of radiation chemistry during FY 2010. The tasks assigned during FY 2010 included: • Development of techniques to measure free radical reaction kinetics in the organic phase. • Initiation of an alpha-radiolysis program • Initiation of an effort to understand dose rate effects in radiation chemistry • Continued work to characterize TALSPEAK radiation chemistry Progress made on each of these tasks is reported here. Briefly, a method was developed and used to measure the kinetics of the reactions of the •NO3 radical with solvent extraction ligands in organic solution, and the method to measure •OH radical reactions under the same conditions has been designed. Rate constants for the CMPO and DMDOHEMA reaction with •NO3 radical in organic solution are reported. Alpha-radiolysis was initiated on samples of DMDOHEMA in alkane solution using He ion beam irradiation and 211At isotope irradiation. The samples are currently being analyzed for comparison to DMDOHEMA ?-irradiations using a custom-developed mass spectrometric method. Results are also reported for the radiolytic generation of nitrous acid, in ?-irradiated nitric acid. It is shown that the yield of nitrous acid is unaffected by an order-of-magnitude change in dose rate. Finally, recent results for TALSPEAK radiolysis are reported, summarizing the effects on solvent extraction efficiency due to HDEHP irradiation, and the stable products of lactic acid and DTPA irradiation. In addition, results representing increased scope are presented for the radiation chemistry program. These include an investigation of the effect of metal complexation on radical reaction kinetics using DTPA as an example, and the production of a manuscript reporting the mechanism of Cs-7SB radiolysis. The Cs-7SB work takes advantage of recent results from a current LDRD program to understand the fundamental chemistry

  15. The design of equipment for a solvent-extraction plant for the recovery of metal salts

    A brief account is given of the influence of sulphuric acid and chloride ions during the recovery of uranium by solvent extraction, followed by a discussion of the settling behaviour of dispersions and models to represent that behaviour. The paper ends with a description of various methods for the recovery of solvent, which is lost in the solvent-extraction process by entrainment and adsorption on solids and by dissolution

  16. Effect of condensed organic matter on solvent extraction and aqueous leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments

    The contents of nonhydrolyzable organic matter (NHC) and black carbon (BC) were measured in soils and sediments from the Pearl River Delta, South China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted respectively by Soxhlet and an accelerated solvent extraction device (ASE) using different solvents. In addition, sequential aqueous leaching at different temperatures was carried out. The PAH content extracted with the sequential three solvent ASE is two times higher than that using the Soxhlet extraction method. The relationship of the PAH content with the NHC content is very significant. The PAH concentrations measured at various temperature steps fit well to the Van't Hoff equation and the enthalpy was estimated. The investigation indicates that condensed organic matter such as kerogen carbon, aged organic matter, and BC is relevant for the extraction and distribution of native PAHs in the investigated field soils and sediments. - Kerogen carbon and aged organic matter is important for the extraction and distribution of native PAHs in the soils and sediments

  17. Safety confirmation study of TRUEX solvent by accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC)

    In order to confirm the engineering safety on the TRUEX solvent (mixed solvent of CMPO/TBP/n-dodecane) for separating the transuranics from high-level activity liquid waste in advanced nuclear fuel recycling technological R and D, thermal behavior and pressure behavior in heating PUREX solvent (mixed solvent of 30% TBP-n-dodecane), TRUEX solvent and in the exothermic reaction of TRUEX solvent etc. and nitric acid in sealed adiabatic system which was severer condition than actual plant were measured by using accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC). The Arrhenius parameters (activation energy and frequency factor) which are necessary for the evaluation of reaction rate was examined from the measurement data in ARC. Analytical method and analysis condition of reaction products were examined in order to clarify chemical form of reaction products in exothermic reaction between solvent and nitric acid in ARC, and the qualitative evaluation was carried out. Main results are shown in the following. 1) TBP, CMPO, n-dodecane and 10 M nitric acid hardly exothermed in the simple substance. 2) On the solvent phase after the solvent contacted with 10 M nitric acid and the equilibrium has been attained (single-phase sample), the heat quantity per unit sample weight of the TRUEX solvent tended to be bigger than that of the PUREX solvent when heat quantity was evaluated in ARC. However, on the mixed sample of solvent and 10 M nitric acid enclosed in a sample container simultaneously (two phase system sample), the heat quantity per unit solvent weight was almost equivalent for PUREX solvent and TRUEX solvent. 3) The kinetic analysis was carried out, and on the TBP-10 M nitric acid single-phase sample, the activation energy of the reaction was evaluated to be 118 kJ/mol. Its activation energy was approximately equal to 112 kJ/mol by Nichols. The reaction rate constant was calculated, and it was shown that reaction rate constants of PUREX solvent-10 M nitric acid single-phase sample and

  18. Liquid-liquid equilibrium extraction of ethanol with mixed solvent for bioethanol concentration

    Hiroaki Habaki; Haihao Hu; Ryuichi Egashira

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of ethanol with the solvents of aldehydes mixed with m-xylene was studied for the bioethanol concentration process. Furfural and benzaldehyde were selected as extraction solvents, with which the solubility of water is smal , expecting large distribution coefficient of ethanol. The liquid–liquid two-phase region was the largest with m-xylene solvent, followed by benzaldehyde and furfural. The region of two liquid–liquid phase be-came larger with the mixed solvent of m-xylene and furfural than that with furfural solvent. The NRTL model was applied to the ethanol–water–furfural–m-xylene system, and the model could well express the liquid–liquid equilibrium of the system. For any solvent used in this study, the separation selectivity of ethanol relative to water decreased as the distribution coefficient of ethanol increased. The separation selectivity with m-xylene was the largest among the employed solvents, but the distribution coefficient was the smal est. The solvent mix-ture of furfural and m-xylene showed relatively high distribution coefficient of ethanol and separation selectivity, even in the higher mass fraction of m-xylene in the solvent phase. The ethanol extraction with a countercurrent multistage extractor by a continuous operation was simulated to evaluate the extraction performance. The ethanol content could be concentrated in the extract phase with relatively small number of extraction stages but low yield of ethanol was obtained.

  19. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María Del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R.; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This is the accepted version of the following article: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94 (2014), which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6788 In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition...

  20. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies

  1. STUDY ON EXTRACTION PROCESS OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. DRY WASTES USING DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Olga Morarescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of known tetra- and pentacyclic diterpenoids in extracts of sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus L. dry wastes has been studied using different solvents for extraction. It was established that the largest extracted quantity of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid is obtained when ethanol and diethyl ether are used for extraction of the plant material.

  2. STUDY ON EXTRACTION PROCESS OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) DRY WASTES USING DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Olga Morarescu; Marina Grinco; Ion Dragalin; Veaceslav Kulciţki; Nicon Ungur

    2013-01-01

    The content of known tetra- and pentacyclic diterpenoids in extracts of sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus L.) dry wastes has been studied using different solvents for extraction. It was established that the largest extracted quantity of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid is obtained when ethanol and diethyl ether are used for extraction of the plant material.

  3. Design and screening of extractants for Zr4+-Hf4+ separation: synergistic approach using molecular modelling and solvent extraction

    The preferential selectivity of Zr4+ over Hf4+ ion towards mixed alkyl organophosphorus extractants is predicted using molecular modelling and solvent extraction studies. Density Functional theory successfully captures the higher complexation stability of mixed alkyl phosphine oxide (MAPO) over mixed alkyl substituted phosphine oxide (MSAPO) for both Zr4+ and Hf4+ ions as observed in the solvent extraction experiment. Further, the extraction energy for Zr4+ ion is higher than Hf4+ ion with MAPO over MSAPO. The calculated extraction energy follows the same order of distribution constant as predicted by the solvent extraction which shows that MAPO is the best extractant in terms of higher distribution constant and selectivity over MSAPO. (author)

  4. Water at Room Temperature as a Solvent for the Extraction of Apple Pomace Phenolic Compounds

    Reis, Sofia; Rai, Dilip; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2012-01-01

    A fractionation method was used for the extraction of phenolic compounds from apple pomace (AP) involving a first extraction with water and subsequent extractions of the same residue with two different organic solvents. The water extracts obtained presented high amounts of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity however, the second and third extractions of the same residue still extracted considerable amounts of remaining phenolic compounds with significant antioxidant capacities. L...

  5. Determination of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Chinese Herbal Tea Granule by Accelerated Solvent Extraction Combined with Gas Chromatography Negative Chemical Ionization- Mass Spectrometry%加速溶剂萃取/气相色谱-负化学电离质谱法对广东凉茶冲剂中有机氯杀虫剂残留的测定

    邓洁薇; 李娜; 杨运云

    2011-01-01

    建立了加速溶剂萃取/气相色谱-负化学电离质谱法( ASE/GC - NCI - MS)测定广东凉茶颗粒冲剂中有机氯杀虫剂(OcPs)含量的方法.采用ASE萃取冲剂中的OCPs,萃取溶剂为正己烷-二氯甲烷(1:1),萃取温度100℃,萃取压力10 MPa,萃取时间10 min×3.萃取液经SPE净化,浓缩定容后,经色谱柱DB-IMS(30 m×0.25 mm×0.1μm)分离,采用GC-NCI-MS测定其中OCPs的含量.25种OCPs的线性范围为1~500Pg,相关系数(r)均大于0.999,方法的检出限为1.0~34.4 pg/g,定量下限为3.4~114.6 pg/g,回收率为86%~105%.将该方法用于分析不同厂家和批次的凉茶颗粒冲剂样品,25种OCPs均未检出.该方法快速、灵敏,是广东凉茶中有机氯杀虫剂残留检测的有效手段.%A method was developed for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in Chinese herbal tea granule by accelerated solvent extraction combined with gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization - mass spectrometry ( ASE/GC - NCI - MS ). The samples were extracted with ASE for 10 min × 3 times using hexane - dichloromethane (1 : 1) as solvent at temperature of 100 ℃ and pressure of 10 Mpa. The extracts were purified by solid phase extraction using a SampliQ Silica column, concentrated with a gentle stream of nitrogen, and then separated on a DB-1MS column(30 m × 0. 25 mm × 0.1 μm). The quantitative analysis of 25 organochlorine pesticides was carried out by GC -NCI - MS under selected ion monitoring mode. The calibration curves of 25 organochlorine pesticides were linear in the range of 1 -500 pg, with correlation coefficients more than 0.999. The limits of detection and limits of quantitation were in the ranges of 1. 0 -34. 4 pg/g and 3.4 - 114. 6 pg/g, respectively. The spiked recoveries ranged from 86% to 105% . The method was applied in the determination of the Chinese herbal tea granule samples with different batches from different manufactures, and none of the 25 organochlorine

  6. Development of a rapid solvent extraction technique with flow injection analysis for superheavy element chemistry

    A rapid solvent extraction system with flow injection analysis based on microchip chemistry was developed to study chemical properties of superheavy elements. Using this system, solvent extraction experiments of 95gNb were performed as model experiments of element 105, dubnium. The extraction equilibrium of Nb was reached in approximately 2 s. For on-line liquid-liquid phase separation, a phase separator was also developed by use of a membrane filter. (author)

  7. Remediation of soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents

    Noordkamp, E.

    1999-01-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents is still in the initial stages of development. So far hardly any scientific research has been carried out into this approach. Therefore, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of several process parameters on the efficiency of the extraction step of a solvent extraction process for soils, sediments and sludges (generally indicated as solids) contaminated with polycycli...

  8. Extraction of Betulin, Trimyristin, Eugenol and Carnosic Acid Using Water-Organic Solvent Mixtures

    Lugemwa, Fulgentius N.

    2012-01-01

    A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano) and white oak chips. In addition, under reflux conditions, trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg using the same solvent system, and eugenol from olives was extracted using a mixture of salt water and ethyl acetate. The protocol demonstrates...

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban: Impact of Extraction Solvent Polarity

    Asiqur Rahaman; Shahdat Hossain; Taslima Nahar

    2013-01-01

    In vitro antioxidant activity of Centella asiatica (Linn.) and the impact of extraction solvent polarity on the antioxidant potential were investigated in the present study. 100% ethanol, 50% ethanol and water were chosen as extraction solvent due to arithmetic progression of their polarity. Total polyphenol, flavonoid, β-carotene, tannin and vitamin C content of three extracts were estimated while antioxidant potential was assayed by total reducing power assay and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydra...

  10. Metal ion extractant in microemulsions: where solvent extraction and surfactant science meet

    The presented work describes the supramolecular structure of mixtures of a hydrophilic surfactant n-octyl-beta-glucoside (C8G1), and the hydrophobic metal ion extractant tributylphosphate (TBP) in n-dodecane/water as well as in the presence of salts. In the first part, basic solvent extraction system, composed of water, oil and extractant, will be introduced. The focus, however, lies on the extraction of multivalent metal ions from the aqueous phase. During this extraction process and in the following thermodynamic equilibrium, aggregation and phase transition in supramolecular assemblies occur, which are already described in literature. Notably, these reports rest on individual studies and specific conclusions, while a general concept is still missing. We therefore suggest the use of generalized phase diagrams to present the physico-chemical behaviour of (amphiphilic) extractant systems. These phase diagrams facilitated the development of a thermodynamic model based on molecular geometry and packing of the extractant molecules in the oil phase. As a result, we are now in the position to predict size and water content of extractant aggregates and, thus, verify the experimental results by calculation.Consequently, the second part presents a systematic study of the aqueous and organic phase of water/C8G1 and water/oil/TBP mixtures. The focus lies on understanding the interaction between metal ions and both amphiphilic molecules by means of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. We confirmed the assumption that extraction of metal ions is driven by TBP, while C8G1 remains passive. In the third and last part, microemulsions of C8G1, TBP, water (and salt) and n-dodecane are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and chemical analytics (Karl Fischer, total organic carbon, ICP-OES,...). The co-surfactant behaviour of TBP was highlighted by comparison to the classical n-alcohol (4≤n≤8) co

  11. Separation of ionic solutes by transport extraction based on solvent sublation

    The solvent sublation technique is an option to ion-flotation, in which the surface active solute in water is adsorbed on the bubble surfaces of an ascending gas stream and then collected in an immiscible liquid layer placed on top of the water column. This can be viewed as a process of transport extraction. The transport extraction technique, as a non-equilibrium alternative to the normal solvent extraction technique in a liquid-liquid system, where mass-transfer is realized by means of a carrier gas employing the adsorption of the separated analytes on the immeasurably large surface of small bubbles formed in aqueous phase (with or without addition of surface active agents). The comparison of these two techniques was made on the basis of both theoretical considerations and the experimental studies. Supposing a Langmuir type isotherm for the adsorption of trace colligends in terms of an equilibrium adsorption, i.e., transport extraction constant, an equation has been derived for the calculation of the efficiency of the separation in transport extraction. By comparison of this equation with the equation for the separation efficiency of conventional solvent extraction under static (batch) conditions it is possible to evaluate the theoretical separation and/or preconcentration potentials of these two techniques. The theoretical principles of transport extraction have been revealed and the basic difference between these two extractive separations has been explained. The results showed that the non-equilibrium nature of the transport extraction gives distinctive advantages over equilibrium solvent extraction. The experimental possibilities of transport extraction and its intercomparison with conventional liquid-liquid solvent extraction, with regard to both the separation and preconcentration efficiency, have been verified in the separation of I-131. The advantages of transport extraction over conventional solvent extraction are the independence of extraction

  12. Time Motion Study for Modular Caustic Solvent Extraction Unit

    The Defense Waste Processing Facilities (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is used to process high-level radioactive waste from the Tank Farm into borosilicate glass to reduce the mobility of the radionuclides and has processed and vitrified nuclear wastes into canisters for long-term disposal since FY96. All wastes vitrified to date in DWPF are ''sludge only'' wastes. The old salt waste processing technology, ITP, was suspended in FY98 due to benzene build-up inside the tank. The new selected technologies for treating the salt waste are Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process (CSSX). The Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) is a cesium removal process that will be operated downstream of the ARP. The MCU is a short-term method for cesium removal, which uses the same technology as the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Once the SWPF becomes operational, the MCU will be shut down. The modeling request is from the MCU project to verify the validity of its Concept Design Package. The modeling task is not typical because there are five different facilities/projects/processes involved, i.e., Tank Farm, ARP, MCU, Saltstone, and DWPF. Each facility, project, and process has their own management team and organization, with its own fiscal responsibility and performance accountability. In addition, from a task cost perspective, MCU desires to minimize modeling not directly associated with their facility. The balancing of comprehensive analysis with limited granularity is challenging. The customer expectation is the model should be small and delivered within weeks. Modeling a stand-alone MCU will not yield overall meaningful results because it can be expected that most problems will occur at interfaces with other facilities. This paper discusses how we set out our modeling strategy, overcame obstacles, avoided touchy issues, and delivered the modeling result on time and on budget

  13. Determination of 15 isomers of chlorobenzoic acid in soil samples using accelerated sample extraction followed by liquid chromatography

    Křesinová, Zdena; Muzikář, Milan; Olšovská, Jana; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 4 (2011), s. 1141-1147. ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06156; GA ČR GA525/09/1058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Chlorobenzoic acid * hplc * Accelerated solvent extraction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2011

  14. Effects of Ultrasound Power, Temperature and Flow Rate of Solvent on Decontamination of Sensitive Equipment by Extraction

    Marek Andrle; František Opluštil; Josef Čáslavský

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process is regarded amongst other known methods to be applicable for decontamination of sensitive equipment components, especially in cases the components are contaminated in-depth with chemical warfare agents. Viability of the solvent extraction method was evaluated on coupons of butadiene rubber contaminated by sulphur mustard before decontamination by the solvent extraction. The contaminated coupons were extracted in a flow cell, which the solvent (ethoxynonafluorobu...

  15. Ultrasonication-Assisted Solvent Extraction of Quercetin Glycosides from ‘Idared’ Apple Peels

    Gwendolyn M. Huber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated ‘Idared’ apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v methanol in 1:50 (w:v solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact.

  16. Treatment of acidic INEEL waste using a countercurrent cobalt dicarbollide-based universal solvent extraction process

    A tertiary solvent containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and polyethylene glycol in different diluents was evaluated for the separation of cesium, strontium, actinides and rare earth elements from acidic liquid radioactive waste in countercurrent solvent extraction processes. This universal solvent extraction process has been demonstrated in 24-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plants, using simulated acidic tank waste, at the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), St. Petersburg, Russia, and at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Demonstration of the universal extraction process with actual tank waste is scheduled at the INEEL in 1998

  17. Basic research on solvent extraction of actinide cations with diamide compounds

    Newly synthesized 4 diamide compounds were tested for solvent extraction of actinide cations. It is obvious that N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dihexyl-3-oxapentanediamide (DMDHOPDA) can extract Eu(III), Th(IV), U(VI), Np(V), and Am(III) into organic solvent. Other 3 diamides hardly extract actinide ions, which is supposed that the reasons come from the difference of their chemical structures. In the synergistic extraction with a diamide and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA), all diamides work as a extractant. Furthermore, by examining extracted species, it was confirmed that there are 4 kinds of chemical species of actinides with diamide and TTA. Finally, the mutual separation method of actinide (III), (IV), (V) and (VI) ions by solvent extraction using DMDHOPDA and TTA were developed. (author). 147 refs

  18. Basic research on solvent extraction of actinide cations with diamide compounds

    Sasaki, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    Newly synthesized 4 diamide compounds were tested for solvent extraction of actinide cations. It is obvious that N,N`-dimethyl-N,N`-dihexyl-3-oxapentanediamide (DMDHOPDA) can extract Eu(III), Th(IV), U(VI), Np(V), and Am(III) into organic solvent. Other 3 diamides hardly extract actinide ions, which is supposed that the reasons come from the difference of their chemical structures. In the synergistic extraction with a diamide and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA), all diamides work as a extractant. Furthermore, by examining extracted species, it was confirmed that there are 4 kinds of chemical species of actinides with diamide and TTA. Finally, the mutual separation method of actinide (III), (IV), (V) and (VI) ions by solvent extraction using DMDHOPDA and TTA were developed. (author). 147 refs.

  19. Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.

    Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

    2015-04-01

    Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts. PMID:25442521

  20. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, et...

  1. Effect of solvents on scandium extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate

    Effect of solvents on scandium extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions by tri-n-butyl phosphate is studied. Analysis are presented of peculiarities of scandium distribution in two organic phases formed as a result of stratification when paraffin hydrocarbons are used as solvents. One--parameter correlations lgDSc with more then 80 parameters of solvents are considered. Correlations possessing the best statistical characteristics are selected

  2. Design of a solvent extraction process for PAH-contaminated sediments : The WAU-acetone process

    Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.; Hasselt, H.J. van; Rienks, J.; Veen, H.J. van; Terlingen, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Solvent extraction is one of the possibilities to clean-up polluted sediments. It is especially attractive when the sediment mainly consists of clay particles polluted with contaminants which are not, or not easily, biodegradable. Using acetone as extracting agent the extraction process has been inv

  3. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier;

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm) and mo...

  4. Solvent effects on focused microwave assisted extraction of polyphenolic acids from Eucommia ulmodies.

    Li, Hui; Chen, Bo; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2004-01-01

    An open microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid from Eucommia ulmodies. The effect of extraction variables, especially solvent, on the recoveries of these polyphenolic compounds was investigated using factorial design. As extracting solvent for these compounds, methanol produced a higher recovery than pure water. For straight chain alcohol solvents, the lower the carbon number, the higher the recoveries of the polyphenolic acids. The optimal ratio of methanol:water:glacial acetic acid in the solvent mixture used in microwave-assisted extraction was 2:8:0.3 (v/v) and this solvent could be directly used as the mobile phase in HPLC separation without additional intermittent treatment as reported in literature. The extraction under the condition of 50% microwave power and 30 s irradiation at a solvent:sample ratio of 10 (mL/g) was found to be the most advantageous. The repeatability test of extraction and chromatographic analysis was satisfactory for the analysis of these polyphenolic compounds. PMID:15508835

  5. Application of natural deep eutectic solvents to the extraction of anthocyanins from Catharanthus roseus with high extractability and stability replacing conventional organic solvents.

    Dai, Yuntao; Rozema, Evelien; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2016-02-19

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent times as promising green media. They are generally composed of neutral, acidic or basic compounds that form liquids of high viscosity when mixed in certain molar ratio. Despite their potential, viscosity and acid or basic nature of some ingredients may affect the extraction capacity and stabilizing ability of the target compounds. To investigate these effects, extraction with a series of NADES was employed for the analysis of anthocyanins in flower petals of Catharanthus roseus in combination with HPLC-DAD-based metabolic profiling. Along with the extraction yields of anthocyanins their stability in NADES was also studied. Multivariate data analysis indicates that the lactic acid-glucose (LGH), and 1,2-propanediol-choline chloride (PCH) NADES present a similar extraction power for anthocyanins as conventional organic solvents. Furthermore, among the NADES employed, LGH exhibits an at least three times higher stabilizing capacity for cyanidins than acidified ethanol, which facilitates their extraction and analysis process. Comparing NADES to the conventional organic solvents, in addition to their reduced environmental impact, they proved to provide higher stability for anthocyanins, and therefore have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health related areas such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. PMID:26822320

  6. Development of 99mTc extraction-recovery by solvent extraction method

    99mTc is used as a radiopharmaceutical in the medical field for the diagnosis, and manufactured from 99Mo, the parent nuclide. In this study, the solvent extraction with MEK was selected, and preliminary experiments were carried out using Re instead of 99mTc. Two tests were carried out in the experiments; the one is the Re extraction test with MEK from Re-Mo solution, the other is the Re recovery test from the Re-MEK. As to the Re extraction test, and it was clear that the Re extraction yield was more than 90%. Two kinds of Re recovery tests, which are an evaporation method using the evaporator and an adsorption/elution method using the alumina column, were carried out. As to the evaporation method, the Re concentration in the collected solution increased more than 150 times. As to the adsorption/elution method, the Re concentration increased in the eluted solution more than 20 times. (author)

  7. Solvent extractions applications to hydrometallurgy. Pt.III: Nickel, cobalt, manganese and ocean nodules

    The main applications of solvent extraction to the hydrometallurgy of nickel, cobalt, manganese and manganese rich ocean nodules, which also contain nickel, cooper and cobalt, are exposed. A short description of the processes with commercial applications is made. (author)

  8. Synergism and antagonism in extracting local anesthetics from aqueous media with mixtures of solvents

    Sukhanov, P. T.; Chibisova, T. V.; Korenman, Ya. I.

    2014-12-01

    The extraction of local anesthetics from aqueous media with mixtures of solvent is examined and its synergistic and antagonistic effects are determined. Synergism parameters, separation factors, constants for the formation of anesthetic complexes, and solvate numbers are calculated.

  9. Interfacial Phenomena in Solvent Extraction and Its Influence on Process Performance

    2006-01-01

    Solvent extraction is now finding applications in a broader range of fields than the past. Many of these applications require process equipment with shorter contact times, and in some cases to the point where the traditional equilibrium stage approach is not a good model for predicting performance. In addition,feed streams are becoming lower in concentration of the solute. This means greater feed to solvent flow ratios are being used and so loss of organics as entrainment in the feed is more of a concern both economically and environmentally. These trends mean that a greater emphasis is being placed on the kinetics of extraction and stripping in models to predict performance and on formation and coalescence of drops to control entrainment. This paper reviews recent advances in the tools for investigating kinetics and coalescence in solvent extraction processes and some of the insights that are being uncovered in these fundamental processes in solvent extraction technology.

  10. Separation of nickel, cobalt and copper by solvent extraction with P204

    2001-01-01

    Nickel, cobalt and copper were separated by solvent extraction with P204. The experimental results show that [Co(NH3)6]3+ is an inert complex in extraction kinetics, therefore cobalt can be separated from nickel and copper by non-equilibrium solvent extraction. Under the conditions of temperature 25℃, contact time of two phases 10 min, phase ratio 1:1, aqueous pH 10.10 and concentration of P204 20 %, [ Co(NH3 )6 3+ is hardly extracted by P204, while the percentage extractions of nickel and copper are 79.3 % and 93.9 % respectively. Nickel and copper are separated by equi librium solvent extraction with P204. Under the conditions of temperature 25 ℃, contact time of two phases 1 min, phase ratio 1:1, equilibrium pH 4.01 and concentration of P204 20%, the separation factor of copper and nickel is 216.

  11. Semiautomated solid-phase extraction manifold with a solvent-level sensor.

    Orlando, R M; Rath, S; Rohwedder, J J R

    2013-11-15

    A semiautomated solid-phase extraction manifold for multiple extractions is presented. The manifold utilizes commercial solid-phase syringe cartridges and automatically introduces and elutes all the solvents during the extraction, reducing the typical workload and stress of the analyst. The manifold consists of a peristaltic pump with solenoid valves in a flow circuit that contains transmissive photomicrosensors. The photomicrosensors were used to control the solvent dispenser and the solvent level inside the cartridge. As solvent-level sensors, the photomicrosensors determined the exact time the solvent reached the top frit to avoid sorbent drying and accurately perform the solvent exchange. The repeatability of the manifold to introduce a particular volume of solvent into the cartridges was measured, and the precisions were between 0.05 and 2.89% (RSD). To evaluate the manifold, the amount of two fluoroquinolones in a fortified blank milk sample was determined. The results of the intra- and inter-day precision of multiple extractions from the fortified milk samples resulted in precisions better than 9.0% (RSD) and confirmed that the arrangement of the semiautomated manifold could adequately be used in solid-phase extraction with commercial cartridges. PMID:24148370

  12. DBC solvent extraction of U(VI) from thiocyanate medium

    2000-01-01

    The extraction behavior of uranium(VI) from thiocyanate medium with dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DBC) in nitrobenzene and the effects of alkali cations on the extraction were investigated. The results showed that the uranium (VI) can be effectively extracted in the presence of potassium cation, uranium (VI) is extracted as complex anionic species UO2(SCN)-3, and the stoichiometry of the extracted complex is KUO2(SCN)32DBC(o).

  13. Ionic Liquid Technology in Metal Refining: Dissolution of Metal Oxides and Separation by Solvent Extraction

    Wellens, Sil

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids form a relatively new class of solvents entirely composed by ions that have specific properties such as low volatility, low flammability, large electrochemical window, broad liquidus range and a high thermal stability. These properties make ionic liquids very attractive for applications in a wide variety of fields. In the field of metal processing, ionic liquids have been used as extraction media in solvent extraction and promising results have already been reported. Nevertheles...

  14. Ultrasonication-Assisted Solvent Extraction of Quercetin Glycosides from ‘Idared’ Apple Peels

    Huber, Gwendolyn M.; H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe; Priya Kathirvel

    2011-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated ‘Idared’ apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min ...

  15. Temperature effect on the solvent extraction of some lanthanides with thenoyltrifluoroacetone

    The solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with thenoyltrifluoroacetone solutions in C6H6, CHCl3 and CCl4 at 288 K, 298 K, 308 K and 318 K has been investigated. The values of the equilibrium constant have been calculated as well as the values of the thermodynamic parameters ΛH, ΛS and ΛG. The temperature effect on the solvent extraction of lanthanides with thenoyltrifluoroacetone is discussed. (Author)

  16. Fractionation of commercial hexane and use of its fractions as extracting solvent of cottonseed oil

    Megahed, Ola A.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of producing off-graded cottonseed oil using locally produced commercial hexane as extracting solvent has explored this research. It was aimed in this work to investigate whether this problem can be solved by controlling the boiling range of the extracting solvent. Four different hexane fractions of different boiling ranges were prepared from commercial hexane. The boiling range of commercial hexane was 62-68ºC while the boiling ranges of the four fractions were 62- 64,...

  17. Effect of solvent and extraction time on the antioxidant properties of Citrus macroptera

    Partha Sarathi Gope; Alak Kanti Dutta; Sukh Makhnoon; Subrata Banik; Muhammad Ali Siddiquee; Yearul Kabir

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of solvents and different time intervals on the extractions of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of the pulp of the Citrus macroptera. The pulp of the fruit was extracted for one and two hours separately with four types of solvent namely- methanol, ethanol, acetone and water. Total phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ceucalteu method, while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl...

  18. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    Harman-Ware, Anne E; Sykes, Robert; Gary F. Peter; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and ...

  19. Thermal And Spectroscopic Analyses Of Next Generation Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Contacted With 3, 8, And 16 Molar Nitric Acid

    A new solvent system referred to as Next Generation Solvent or NGS, has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the removal of cesium from alkaline solutions in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process. NGS is proposed for deployment at MCU and at the Salt Waste Processing Facility. This work investigated the chemical compatibility between NGS and 16 M, 8 M, and 3 M nitric acid from contact that may occur in handling of analytical samples from MCU or, for 3 M acid, which may occur during contactor cleaning operations at MCU. This work shows that reactions occurred between NGS components and the high molarity nitric acid. In the case of 16 M and 8 M nitric acid, initially organo-nitrate groups are generated and attach to the modifier and that with time oxidation reactions convert the modifier into a tarry substance with gases (NOx and possibly CO) evolving. Calorimetric analysis of the organonitrate revealed the reaction products are not explosive nor will they deflagrate. NGS exposure to 3 M nitric acid resulted in much slower reaction kinetics and that the generated products were not energetic. We recommended conducting Accelerated Rate calorimetry on the materials generated in the 16 M and 8 M nitric acid test. Also, we recommend continue monitoring of the samples contacting NGS with 3 M nitric acid.

  20. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran

    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V. R.; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V.; Prince, M. V.; Raghavan, G.S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different cu...

  1. Solvent extraction of scandium from technical hydrochloric-acid solutions

    The process of scandium extraction from technical hydrochloric-acid solutions is studied using the method of mathematical planning of the experiment. The methematical models of linear regression equations for parameters of scandium extraction and coefficients of scandium-iron and scandium- aluminium separations, which describe adequately the process of scandium extraction with tributyl phosphate, are obtained. It is established that the acid concentration in the initial solution is of primary importance for the effects of scandium extraction and its separation from iron and aluminium during the extraction. The optimum conditions for scandium extraction are determined

  2. SOLVENT EFFECT ON EXTRACTION OF GALLIC ACID FROM AMALAKI CHURNA (EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. TO REDUCE MATRIX EFFECT USING HPTLC AND UV-SPECTROSCOPY WITH 12 DIFFERENT NATURE SOLVENTS

    Sukla V.J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardization of Ayurvedic formulations is an important aspect for research in Indian medicine. In this era every Pharma company prefer to use pure extract of component for production of best product in short period of time. The literature survey reveals that no work has been reported for solvent selection of extraction of Ayurvedic drugs. Amalaki is one of the most useable ayurveda drug. So, the present study was selected with an aim to select solvent for extraction of component of interest. Standard for evaluating quality of Amalaki churna by employing various physico-chemical parameters. For solvent selection 12 different nature solvents are selected for extraction. Polar solvent selected are Water, Di methylsulfoxide (DMSO, Ethylene glycol, Acetonitrile, Di methyl formeamide (DMF and Methanol. Non polar solvents are Acetone, Acetic acid, Ethyl acetate, Chloroform, Di ethylether and Toluene. Extraction was done by maceration method. Results are taken by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. In observation component was easily extracted with less interfering component in non polar solvent. Gallic acid is component of interest for Amalaki and it is well extracted in Di ethyl ether as per result of chromatography and spectroscopy. Conclusion is that selection of solvent for extraction as per their component of interest from material.

  3. Refining of thorium from monazite by solvent extraction

    The distribution of Th (IV) between aqueous H2SO4 solutions and organic phases of LA-2 has been described. The dependence of extraction on the aqueous acidity and the metal and extractant concentrations was investigated. The possible extraction mechanism is discussed on the basis of the results obtained. A flowsheet for production of high-grade thorium from monazite is suggested. (authors)

  4. Influence of organic matter and humic acids in solution on uranium solvent extraction process

    The harmful in fluence of humic acids in solution on uranium solvent extraction is investigated. The influence is poor phase separation and forming stable emulsion when uranium is extracted or stripped and decreasing uranium loading of organic phase. Extractions of organic matter and solvent extraction of uranium were carried out from three sedimentary uranium deposits. The results show that stable emulsions of W/O or O/W type were formed separately with organic solvent containing tertiary amine or D2EHPA to extract uranium from uranium liquors containing humic acid. Several humic acids of different molecular weight were fractionated by means of fractional solution containing various volume ratios of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The physical properties and chemical composition of the humic acid were determined. It was found that there was distinct difference in emulsion-causing between the humic acids having different molecular weight. The removal methods of humic acid from aqueous and organic solution were discussed briefly

  5. Extraction of Betulin, Trimyristin, Eugenol and Carnosic Acid Using Water-Organic Solvent Mixtures

    Fulgentius N. Lugemwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano and white oak chips. In addition, under reflux conditions, trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg using the same solvent system, and eugenol from olives was extracted using a mixture of salt water and ethyl acetate. The protocol demonstrates the use of water in organic solvents to extract natural products from plants. Measurement of the free-radical scavenging activity using by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH indicated that the extraction of plant material using ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water (4.5:4.5:1, v/v/v was exhaustive when carried out at room temperature for 96 h.

  6. Recovery of boric acid from wastewater by solvent extraction

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Kondo, Kazuo [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Hirata, Makoto; Kokubu, Shuzo; Hano, Tadashi [Oita Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    An extraction system for the recovery of boric acid using 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) as an extractant was studied. Loss of the extractant to the aqueous solution was lowered by using 2-ethylhexanol as a diluent. The extraction equilibrium of boric acid with BEPD was clarified, and the equilibrium constants for various diluents were determined. Furthermore, continuous operation for the recovery of boric acid using mixer-settlers for extraction and stripping was successfully conducted during 100 hours. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna

    E Christy Jeyaseelan; S Jenothiny; MK Pathmanathan; JP Jeyadevan

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals.Results:Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/ 100 μl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower.Conclusions:The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Centella asiatica (Linn. Urban: Impact of Extraction Solvent Polarity

    Asiqur Rahaman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro antioxidant activity of Centella asiatica (Linn. and the impact of extraction solvent polarity on the antioxidant potential were investigated in the present study. 100% ethanol, 50% ethanol and water were chosen as extraction solvent due to arithmetic progression of their polarity. Total polyphenol, flavonoid, β-carotene, tannin and vitamin C content of three extracts were estimated while antioxidant potential was assayed by total reducing power assay and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH-scavenging activity. 50% ethanol extract of C. asiatica contain significantly higher amount of polyphenol, flavonoid while moderate amount of carotene and tannin but lowest vitamin C compared to 100% ethanol and water extract. All the phytochemicals showed solvent polarity specific extraction pattern. Total reducing power and DPPH-radical scavenging activity of 50% ethanol extract were significantly higher compared to 100% ethanol and water extract. Significant variation of antioxidant potential of C. asiatica due to extraction solvent polarity difference was demonstrated from this study.

  9. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    Bordelon, N.; Huebner, H.; Washburn, K.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health.

  10. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health

  11. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting

    Highlights: • A strategy for the protein purification with a deep eutectic solvent(DES)-based aqueous two-phase system. • Choline chloride-glycerin DES was selected as the extraction solvent. • Bovine serum albumin and trypsin were used as the analytes. • Aggregation phenomenon was detected in the mechanism research. - Abstract: As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n = 3), 1.6057% (n = 3) and 1.6132% (n = 3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES–protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins

  12. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A strategy for the protein purification with a deep eutectic solvent(DES)-based aqueous two-phase system. • Choline chloride-glycerin DES was selected as the extraction solvent. • Bovine serum albumin and trypsin were used as the analytes. • Aggregation phenomenon was detected in the mechanism research. - Abstract: As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n = 3), 1.6057% (n = 3) and 1.6132% (n = 3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES–protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins.

  13. Some new developments in actinide solvent extraction systems

    Consideration is given to application of neutral and acid organophosphoric compounds, adsorbed on various natural and synthetic carriers, in extraction chromatography for separation and isolation of actinides. It is shown that trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) on a solid combustible carrier represents the promising material for plutonium extraction. It was established experimentally that polyurethane foam possessed the maximal capacity with respect to TOPO; extractant losses at that after passing of 50 column volumes of nitric acid don't exceed 2 %

  14. Phase Equilibria for extraction processes with designer solvents

    Lago García de Dios, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing concern about the effects of toxic chemicals in the environment. In response to this concern, there is a growing impetus to develop chemical manufacturing processes which can reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. Within this aspect of green chemistry, in this Thesis, Ionic Liquids (ILs) and Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) have been tested as greener alternatives in different chemical processes. In a ...

  15. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  16. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material

  17. Solvent extraction of hexavalent Mo and W using 4-isopropyltropolone (Hinokitiol) for Seaborgium (Sg) reduction experiment

    Solvent extraction of 93mMo and 176W using 4-isopropyltropolone (Hinokitiol, HT) was investigated. Extraction mechanism of Mo and W with HT was examined by slope analysis. The slopse of the distribution ratio of Mo and W vs. [HT] in logarihmic scale are 1.88 and 1.54, respectively. (author)

  18. Influence of solvents on extraction of U(Ⅵ) by N,N'-didecanoylpiperazine

    2002-01-01

    Extraction behavior of N, N'-didecanoylpiperazine (DDPEZ) for U(Ⅵ)in a series of solvents from aqueous nitric acid media was investigated for the first time.The dependence of distribution ratios on the concentration of aqueous nitric acid.extractant and temperature has been discussed. The increasing sequence of extractiveability of DDPEZ is given: chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, dimethylbenzene, toluene,benzene.``

  19. Growth and Decay: An Experiment Demonstrating Radioactivity Relationships and Chelate Solvent Extraction Separations.

    Downey, D. M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The separation of lead and bismuth by chelate solvent extraction is of interest because of the simplicity which the use of radiotracers allows in its demonstration. Theoretical background information, procedures, materials needed, and typical results are provided for an experiment involving the extraction. (JN)

  20. Chetoui olive leaf extracts: influence of the solvent type on the phenolics and antioxidant activities

    Abaza, L.; Ben Youssef, N.; Manai, H.; Haddada, F.M.; Methenni, K.; Zarrouk, M.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the solvent type on the extraction of phenolics and the antioxidant properties of the extracts obtained from Chetoui olive leaves. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: deionized water (ddH2O), 80% methanol (80% MeOH), 70% ethanol (70% EtOH), and 80% acetone. Total phenols and total flavonoids were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two scavenging activity methods, DPPH and ABTS. (Author).

  1. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants. PMID:21736535

  2. Solvent extraction of silver(I) from dilute cyanide solutions with 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone

    The solvent extraction of silver(I) was carried out in 0.5M nitric acid in the presence of cyanide by 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (DATS). Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent and quantitative recovery was possible with 12.5-fold excess of the reagent in a single extraction. In this medium silver(I) forms a 2:2 complex (metal:ligand) with DATS. The effect of diverse ions on the extraction of silver(I) was investigated. (author)

  3. Solvent extraction of silver(I) with 2,4-dihydroxy-acetophenone thiosemicarbazone

    The solvent extraction of silver(I) is carried out in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution at pH 5.0 by 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (DATS). Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent. It is found that single extraction is sufficient to remove silver(I) completely from the aqueous phase. Silver(I) forms 1:1 complex (metal:reagent) with DATS. The effect of diverse ions on the extraction of silver(I) was investigated. (author)

  4. Solvent extraction of silver(I) with 2,4-dihydroxy-acetophenone thiosemicarbazone

    Reddy, A.V.; Reddy, Y.K. (Sri Venkateswara Univ., Tirupati (India). Dept. of Chemistry); Reddy, G.S. (Sri Venkateswara Univ. Post-Graduate Centre, Cuddapah (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1985-03-01

    The solvent extraction of silver(I) is carried out in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution at pH 5.0 by 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (DATS). Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent. It is found that single extraction is sufficient to remove silver(I) completely from the aqueous phase. Silver(I) forms 1:1 complex (metal:reagent) with DATS. The effect of diverse ions on the extraction of silver(I) was investigated.

  5. Chetoui olive leaf extracts: influence of the solvent type on the phenolics and antioxidant activities

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the solvent type on the extraction of phenolics and the antioxidant properties of the extracts obtained from Chetoui olive leaves. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: deionized water (ddH2O), 80% methanol (80% MeOH), 70% ethanol (70% EtOH), and 80% acetone. Total phenols and total flavonoids were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two scavenging activity methods, DPPH and ABTS. (Author).

  6. Septum magnet for proton extraction system at the IHEP accelerator

    The paper gives a description of the suptum magnet SM for proton slow extraction from the IHEP synchrotron. The SM excitation coil and magnetic core are assembled outside the accelerator vacuum system. The SM is reliable in operation, can be adjusted with a high accuracy with respect to the accelerated beam, moreover it has a low outgassing in the vacuum under residual gas pressure Up to 1.35 10-8. The SM has operated 8 105 cycles

  7. Extraction of pesticides in soil using supercritical carbon dioxide co-solvents

    In this study, three organic solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol and acetone) were used as co solvent in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of a mixture of pesticides with different physical and chemical properties present in soil. These pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with electronic micro capture detector μECD and nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD), coupled in parallel. The extractions were performed on spiked soil samples using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 SC) as the extracting phase to 35 celsius degrade and 14 MPa, using 10 mL of each co solvent and it was found that methanol offers the greatest efficiency in the extraction process obtaining recovery values between 51.24 and 123.50%.

  8. Recovery of zinc from low-grade zinc oxide ores by solvent extraction

    覃文庆; 蓝卓越; 黎维中

    2003-01-01

    The recovery of zinc from low-grade zinc oxide ores with solvent extraction-electrowinning technique was investigated by using D2EHPA as extractant and 260# kerosene as diluent. The results show that it is possible to selectively leach zinc from the ores by heap leaching. The zinc concentration of leach solution in the first leaching cycle is 32.57 g/L, and in the sixteenth cycle the zinc concentration is 8.27g/L after solvent extraction. The leaching solution is subjected to solvent extraction, scrubbing and selective stripping for enrichment of zinc and removal of impurities. The pregnant zinc sulfate solution produced from the stripping cycle is suitable for zinc electrowinning.Extra-pure zinc metal was obtained in the electrowinning test under conventional conditions.

  9. Minimum amount of extracting solvent of AB/BC countercurrent extraction separation using organic feed

    程福祥; 吴声; 张玻; 刘艳; 王嵩龄; 廖春生; 严纯华

    2014-01-01

    For an AB/BC countercurrent extraction separation using organic feed, the conditions to have minimum amount of ex-tracting solvent (Smin) and minimum amount of scrubbing agent solution (Wmin) were discussed, and the formulae of bothSmin and Wmin were deduced. It was shown that only when the ratio of flowrate of central component B leaving aqueous outlet to that leaving organic outlet took a certain optimal value, the AB/BC separation could have Smin as well asWmin, and this optimal ratio was decided by the separation factors between the three components but independent of feed composition.Smin was only relative to the separation factor of A/C pair but regardless of the separation factors of other pairs as well as feed composition, whereasWmin was determined by the separation factors between the components together with feed composition. Meanwhile it was also found that the organic stream out of feed stage was same composition as the initial organic feed when the separation system was given by the two minimum amounts and its steady state was achieved. Finally the results above were used to design a LuYb/YbTm separation case and the stage-wise compositions of each component in both the organic and the aqueous phase at steady state were given by computer simulation.

  10. Operating experience in the refining of uranium by solvent extraction using mixer-settler

    Uranium Metal Plant is using mixer-settler for last 5 years for purification of uranyl nitrate solution. The process includes extraction with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in kerosene followed by scrubbing and stripping. Part of stripped solvent is processed by alkaline washing to separate degradation products of solvent. In addition, a separate extraction unit is used for processing feed solutions containing fluoride ions. Operating experience in these stages of processing is presented in this paper. Extraction performance is sensitive to presence of siliceous solids in the aqueous feed. The solids build up in the settler and can lead to emulsion formation and flooding. Control over feed clarity and periodic cleaning of unit is found essential. Stripping unit performacne is found to be sensitive to solvent quality, phase ratios, operating flows and initial acidity. Derating of capacity was found necessary with used solvent. Alkali washing of solvent has low rate of phase separation and effect of various variables has been examined in detail. Based on experience gained modifications in process equipment are in progress. Extraction from fluoride-containing solutions has been developed and adopted on a routine production bais. Salient results are presented and analysed. Entrainment of solvent in various streams is also discussed. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig

  11. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass.

    Martin, Gregory J O

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production. PMID:26802186

  12. The solvent extraction of dialkyldithiophosphates in analytical chemistry

    Extraction of Cd(2) by diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA) and dibutyldithiophosphoric acid (DBDTPA) is investigated. It is shown that the distribution of Cd depends on reagent and hydrogen ion concentration. A high excess of reagent is required for quantitative extraction of Cd. The optimal values of pH in case of extraction by DEDTPA are within 2-6, for DBDTPA-1-7. During Cd extraction in pH range 0-4 by DBDTPA extractant complex of the composition Cd(DBDTPA)2 is formed. On the basis of the studies two methods of Cd(2), Hg(2) and Zn(2) separation by DEDTPA are developed. 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Hyperspectral image feature extraction accelerated by GPU

    Qu, HaiCheng; Zhang, Ye; Lin, Zhouhan; Chen, Hao

    2012-10-01

    PCA (principal components analysis) algorithm is the most basic method of dimension reduction for high-dimensional data1, which plays a significant role in hyperspectral data compression, decorrelation, denoising and feature extraction. With the development of imaging technology, the number of spectral bands in a hyperspectral image is getting larger and larger, and the data cube becomes bigger in these years. As a consequence, operation of dimension reduction is more and more time-consuming nowadays. Fortunately, GPU-based high-performance computing has opened up a novel approach for hyperspectral data processing6. This paper is concerning on the two main processes in hyperspectral image feature extraction: (1) calculation of transformation matrix; (2) transformation in spectrum dimension. These two processes belong to computationally intensive and data-intensive data processing respectively. Through the introduction of GPU parallel computing technology, an algorithm containing PCA transformation based on eigenvalue decomposition 8(EVD) and feature matching identification is implemented, which is aimed to explore the characteristics of the GPU parallel computing and the prospects of GPU application in hyperspectral image processing by analysing thread invoking and speedup of the algorithm. At last, the result of the experiment shows that the algorithm has reached a 12x speedup in total, in which some certain step reaches higher speedups up to 270 times.

  14. Effectivity of Beta vulgaris L. Extract with various Solvent Fractions to Aedes aegypti Larval Mortality

    Mutiara Widawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue vector control is mostly done by using plant-based insecticides. Insecticides from the vegetable and fruit extracts of the leaves of plants that contain compounds alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, and polyphenols can be used as an alternative to naturally control Ae. aegypti. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the B. vulgaris L. extract larvacide against larvae of Ae. aegypti. The materials that been used was B. vulgaris L. fruit parts which was milled and dried to become a powder form. 800 g of dry powder was extracted by 70% methanol by percolation method with occasional stirring for 3 days. The extract was concentrated using an evaporator. 60 g remaining residue was dissolved in distilled water and re-extracted with diethyl ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. Each fraction extract was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and the solvent was distilled. The extract was tested qualitatively to determine the content of secondary metabolites. Larvacide test performed by dissolving each extracts in dimetilsulphoxide (DMSO at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1%. The larvae used was larval of Ae. aegypti age of seven days. Death larvae counted every day for seven days to determine the effect of the contact. Tests carried out at a temperature of 27±1°C by immersing 25 larvae at each concentration of the extract with 50 mL volume and three replications was performed. The data obtained were analyzed further with different test. The results showed that fruit extract contains flavonoids, alkoloid, sterols, triterpenes, saponins and tannins. Highest mortality happened which was 82.5% and the lowest mortality happened with a concentration of 0.1% diethyl ether extract fraction. The extracts that are dissolved in various solvent fractions have not been effective as a larvacide until the highest concentration which was 1%. Methanol and polar solvent extracts of the fruit has a larvacide potency a bit

  15. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  16. POLY(AMINOMETHYLENEPHOSPHONIC ACID FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METAL IONS

    M’hamed Kaid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diaminododecyltetramethylenetetraphosphonic acid (DADTMTPA has been investigated in liquid - liquid extraction of Zn (II and Cu (II in acetate media. The extraction of both cations was carried out in different media with the addition of CH3COONa, CH3COOH, HCl and H2SO4 at different pH values. The maximum extraction yield for copper is 70% after addition of 10 mg of sodium acetate and for zinc is 30% after addition of acetic acid at pHi = 5.5, in one step.

  17. Solvent extraction of Sb(III) with malachite green into chloroform

    A rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction of Sb(III) using malachite green (C. I. Basic green 4) has been described. Effect of different parameters affecting the extraction coefficient value of Sb(III) such as acidity, time of equilibration, KI concentration, solvents, anions, etc. has been studied. For various elements the separation factor has been evaluated. The stoichiometry of the extracted species has been determined by the method of substoichiometric extraction. The decontamination factor for some elements using substoichiometric quantities of the extracting agent has been evaluated. Radiotracers were employed for the extraction studies. The method elaborated has been employed for the quantitative determination of antimony in normal, benign and cancerous tissues of the human brain. (author)

  18. Solvent extraction of the lanthanide elements, scandium, uranium and thorium using tetracycline as complexing agent

    The scope of the work is to extend the study of the solvent extraction behaviour to all the 15 lanthanide elements as well as to uranium and thorium and to study the application of the system tetracycline-benzyl alcohol for the separation of the mentioned elements. pH dependence of the extraction have been determined. The effect of the presence of a supporting electrolyte (NaCl) on the extraction as well as the effect of ageing of the extractant solution on its extractant properties were studied. The variation of distribution ratio with metal concentration was examined in order to verify whether or not polynuclear complexes were present in the conditions under which the work was performed. In the first case discontinuous counter-current technique was used. In the second case a single step solvent extraction procedure was applied. (T.G.)

  19. Influence of solvents on the composition of condensed tannins in grape pomace seed extracts.

    Bosso, Antonella; Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio

    2016-09-15

    The extracting effectiveness of some solvents (water, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate), used as pure or in binary and ternary mixtures, was studied for the extraction of seeds from the fermented pomace of Nebbiolo cv. The aqueous mixtures of acetone provided the highest extraction yields in total polyphenols and total flavonoids. Polyphenolic extracts were also obtained with aqueous mixtures of ethanol or acetone at variable concentrations, and the condensed tannins were quantified with the phloroglucinolysis method. The aqueous mixtures of acetone were more effective than the corresponding aqueous mixtures of ethanol. The solvent influenced the extraction yield and the composition of the extracts: with the increase of the yield, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the condensed tannins increased. A significant correlation was noticed between mDP and the molar percentages of (+)-catechin as terminal unit (negative correlation), and of (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-3O-gallate as extension units (positive correlation). PMID:27080893

  20. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.

    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada

    2015-11-01

    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (p<0.05). Monosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides. PMID:26400737

  1. Substitution of carcinogenic solvent dichloromethane for the extraction of volatile compounds in a fat-free model food system.

    Cayot, Nathalie; Lafarge, Céline; Bou-Maroun, Elias; Cayot, Philippe

    2016-07-22

    Dichloromethane is known as a very efficient solvent, but, as other halogenated solvents, is recognized as a hazardous product (CMR substance). The objective of the present work is to propose substitution solvent for the extraction of volatile compounds. The most important physico-chemical parameters in the choice of an appropriate extraction solvent of volatile compounds are reviewed. Various solvents are selected on this basis and on their hazard characteristics. The selected solvents, safer than dichloromethane, are compared using the extraction efficiency of volatile compounds from a model food product able to interact with volatile compounds. Volatile compounds with different hydrophobicity are used. High extraction yields were positively correlated with high boiling points and high Log Kow values of volatile compounds. Mixtures of solvents such as azeotrope propan-2-one/cyclopentane, azeotrope ethyl acetate/ethanol, and mixture ethyl acetate/ethanol (3:1, v/v) gave higher extraction yields than those obtained with dichloromethane. PMID:27320380

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  3. Synergistic effect in the solvent extraction of some trivalent lanthanides

    The behaviour of Yb and La in extraction systems was studied, using as extractant binary mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA), di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and tributylphophate (TBP), by means of the radioactive tracers 140La and 169Yb. Different concentrations of nitric acid and NaNO3 as salting out were used in aqueous phase. Distribution coefficients obtained for the two elements, using a mixture of HTTA-TBP, were found to be much higher than those obtained with each of the extractants, showing synergistic effect. A small synergistic effect was seen to exist for La, but an antagonistic effect was observed for Yb, when a mixture of HTTA plus HDEHP was used in both cases. An antagonistic effect was also found for Yb by using a mixture of HDEHP and TBP, whereas the extraction of La was found to be independent of the TBP concentration when this mixture was employed. (Author)

  4. Next Generation Solvent - Materials Compatibility With Polymer Components Within Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (Final Report)

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX(regsign)79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX(regsign)79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX(regsign)79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX(regsign)79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX(regsign)79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited

  5. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  6. Solvent extraction of molybdophosphoric acid with high-molecular alkylamines

    Extraction of dodecamolibdophosphoric acid H3PMo12O40 by nitrates of some high molecular amines (di-(2-ethylene-hexyl)-amine, diponylamine, diisoamyloctylamine) dichlorthane solution has been studied. The composition of associates in the organic phase may be presented as (BH3)PMo12O40, where BH+ is the protonized form of the amine. The overall conventional equilibrium constant of complex formation and extraction equals (1.51+-0.35)x1011

  7. Solvent extraction of scandium by TBP from inorganic acid solutions

    Studied has been the distribution of scandium between the 100% TBP and the aqueous solutions of the nitric and hydrochloric acids with the various concentrations of scandium and acids. A relationship has been determined between the concentration constants of the scandium extraction from the solutions of the nitric, hydrochloric, sulfuric and chlorous acid solutions, the hydration energies of the extracting ions and the stability constants of the complexes, comprising scandium and anions

  8. Evaluation of alternative solvents for improvement of oil extraction from rapeseeds

    Li, Ying; Fine, Frédéric; Vian, Maryline; Carre, Patrick; Pages, Xavier; CHEMAT, Farid

    2014-01-01

    This present study was designed to evaluate the performances of five alternative solvents (alcohols: ethanol, isopropanol and terpenes:ρ-limonene, α-pinene, p-cymene) compared to η-hexane in rapeseed oil extraction. The extracted oils were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed to compare the solvents’ performances in terms of kinetics, fatty acid compositions, lipid yields, and classes. Moreover, micronutrients in extracted oils were also respectively quantified by high-performance liq...

  9. Chemical profiling of Centella asiatica under different extraction solvents and its antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

    Supawan Rattanakom; Patchanee Yasurin

    2015-01-01

    Centella asiatica (L) urban, synonym Hydrocotyle asiatica, is found almost all over the world. This plant is famous in Ayurvedic medicine and used in the management of central nervous system, skin and gastrointestinal disorder. Thus this research had been done to evaluate the effect of solvent extraction (Ethanol, Chloroform and Hexane) of C. asiatica on chemical profile, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity against some foodborne pathogens. The result showed that all solvents (et...

  10. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p extraction process were established as: sample weight of 30.04 g, solvent volume of 346.04 ml and extraction time of 40 min, which gave 66.90 % yield of SB. Furthermore, the result of the physico-chemical properties obtained for the shea butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil. PMID:26787993

  11. Effect of temperature on the solvent extraction studies of U(VI) by aliquat 336/RTIL

    The solvent extraction of U(VI) from aqueous hydrochloric acid into 1-hexyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis (trifluromethyl sulphonyl) imide Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (RTIL) by aliquat 336 (tricaprylyl methyl ammonium chloride) was carried out at four different temperatures (298K, 303K, 308K, 313K). The least square's analysis of the extraction data indicated that one extractant molecule takes part in the extraction reaction at all the four temperatures. The thermodynamic values indicated that negative ΔG, ΔH favour the extraction reaction while negative ΔS counteracts the reaction. (author)

  12. Solvent extraction of uranium(Ⅵ)and europium(Ⅲ)from nitrate media by picolinamide

    BAO Bo-Rong; CHENG Qian; CAO Wei-Guo; XIANG Qun; LI Yu; ZHAO Yu-Jia

    2005-01-01

    The solvent extraction of uranium(Ⅵ) and europium(Ⅲ) from nitric acid solution was studied with picolinamide dissolved in ethylene dichloride. The distribution ratios of U(Ⅵ) and Eu(Ⅲ) as a function of aqueous HNO3 concentration, extractant concentration in organic phase and temperature as well as the salting-out agent concentration have been measured. The experiment results show that picolinamide has higher extractability for U(Ⅵ1)than for Eu(Ⅲ). The composition of extracted species, equilibrium constants and enthalpies of extraction reaction have also been presented.

  13. Research and Application Progress in Countercurrent Solvent Extraction

    贾江涛; 吴声; 廖春生; 严纯华

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the recent progress made by Peking University is briefly introduced. Based on Theory of Countercurrent Extraction established by Prof. Guangxian Xu, the static equilibrium and dynamic process for two- and three-outlet countercurrent extractions, and designed the optimized parameters for the real cascades to separate different rare earth minerals, which can be scaled-up to the industrial process without any further experimental verification were systematically investigated. In order to stabilize the quality of products and improve the capability of automation for extraction process, we have also established an 241Am stimulated X-ray fluorescent energy dispersive method to detect the elemental composition in both organic and aqueous phases, which can be used as an on-line analysis method in practice. Furthermore, the expert system and the control software with open- and close-loop models have been set up. Combined with the detected data from on-line analysis, the flow-rates of extracting, feeding, scrubbing and stripping solutions can be controlled in an optimum status for the industrial cascades. In addition, we have developed a new multi-input and multi-output countercurrent extraction process for separating multi-component rare earth mixture with lower chemical cost and pollution.

  14. Studies related to the kinetics of solvent extraction of uranium

    Reprocessing of the burnt fuels generally carried out by the purex process. In this concern, U (Vi) and Pu (IV) are extracted by Tbp diluted wth kerosene from nitric acid medium containing other fission products radionuclides. The quality of the extracted U(Vi) and Pu(IV) is always a matter of concern and different approaches to solve this problem were considered. In this study kinetic approach to reduce the contamination of U(Vi)and Pu(IV) [U(Vi) used as Pu(IV) simulator] will be investigated in this respect, this thesis is directed to study the kinetics of extraction of U(Vi) by Tbp in Kerosene and U(Vi) by Tbp or TLA in kerosene from nitric acid medium using a stilled lewis cell. The effect of different parameters affecting the rate of extraction mechanisms are studied. The effect of ion interference of U(IV) and some fission product such as zirconium and molybdenum as well as reducing and stabilize agents found in the media on the kinetics of extraction of uranium (Vi) under the purex conditions are also investigated. 66 figs., 31 tabs., 126 refs

  15. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968

    Su Chern Foo; Fatimah Md Yusoff; Maznah Ismail; Mahiran Basri; Nicholas Mun Hoe Khong; Kim Wei Chan; Sook Kun Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare thein vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents. Methods:Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid, fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities (DPPH• andABTS•+ scavenging activity and iron chelating activity). Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight (DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher (P Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract fromC. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities ofC. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  16. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968简

    Su; Chern; Foo; Fatimah; Md.Yusoff; Maznah; Ismail; Mahiran; Basri; Nicholas; Mun; Hoe; Khong; Kim; Wei; Chan; Sook; Kun; Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the in vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans(C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents.Methods: Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid,fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities(DPPH and ABTS +scavenging activity and iron chelating activity).Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight(DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher(P < 0.05) scavenging(DPPH, ABTS +) and iron chelating activities.Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract from C. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities of C. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  19. Liquid extraction of polyhydric alcohols from water using [A336][SCN] as a solvent

    Highlights: • [A336][SCN] was studied as a solvent to extract polyhydric alcohols from water. • LLE data for ternary systems were determined at T = 303.2 K and atmospheric pressure. • The NRTL model was applied to fit the LLE data with a good accuracy. • Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were obtained and compared with literature. • [A336][SCN] was a promising solvent to separate polyhydric alcohols and water. - Abstract: This work demonstrated the possibility of hydrophobic ionic liquid tricaprylmethylammonium thiocyanate ([A336][SCN]) as a solvent in the separation by extraction of polyhydric alcohols from their mixtures with water. The knowledge of (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) of these mixtures is essential for the design of the extraction process. For this reason, the LLE data of the ternary systems {[A336][SCN] + water + glycerol, or ethylene glycol, or 1,2-propanediol, or 1,3-propanediol} were determined at T = 303.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The reliability of the tie-lines data was ascertained by applying the Othmer–Tobias equation, and the non-random two liquid (NRTL) model used to fit the experimental LLE data. The effectiveness of the extraction of polyhydric alcohols from water was evaluated using the solute distribution ratio and the selectivity. The extraction capability of [A336][SCN] was compared with that of other ILs. The results indicated that the [A336][SCN] was suitable for use as a solvent in (liquid + liquid) extraction of polyhydric alcohols from water

  20. The separation of niobium and zirconium by solvent extraction

    To recover valuable components from products of iron-titanium are processing by the method of chlorination the possibility of extractional separation and recovery of niobium and zirconium from chloride and sulfate solutions using amines and certain organophosphoric extractants is investigated. The composition of solutions in chloride medium corresponded to 13 g/l Zr and 4.9 g/l Nb; in sulfate one - 21.9 g/l Zr and 6.7 g/l Nb with impurities of titanium, iron, chromium. It is shown that separation factor in HCl solutions reaches the value of 20.7, in H2SO4 solutions - 31. The flowsheet of the process of separation and recovery of zirconium and hafnium from sulfuric acid media using the Primene JMT extractant is suggested. 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Solvent extraction using tetracycline as complexing agent Pt. 14

    The behaviour of tetracycline as an extracting agent for Sr, I, Ba, Mo, Tc, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ru, Te and U was studied and the influence of the acidity of the aqueous phase upon extraction of the elements mentioned was examined. Experiments were made to determine whether the species extracted into the organic phase is the complex formed between tetracycline and the elements considered and to determine the time of shaking necessary so that the equilibrium between the phases is attained. As a practical application, the possibility of using the tetracycline-benzyl alcohol system for separating the fission products sup(137)Cs, sup(140)La, sup(141)Ce, sup(103)Ru, sup(95)Nb from each other and from uranium is presented. The same study was made for sup(131)I, sup(99m)Tc, sup(99)Mo, sup(132)Te, sup(239)Np and uranium and the steps necassary for the separation of these elements are proposed. (author)

  2. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF3-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids’ ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF3 were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests

  3. Effects of solvent-extraction contactor selection on flowsheet and facility design

    The notion is developed that the selection of a solvent extraction contactor is part of a more general development of principles and philosophy guiding the overall plant design. Specifically, the requirements and constraints placed on the plant by the solvent extraction system must be consistent with those imposed by the other operations, which generally are more expensive and more complicated. Were a conservative philosophy employed throughout the plant, the choice of pulsed columns seem correct. Were the plant intended to employ modern techniques and state-of-the-art technology, particularly in remote maintenance and process control, the selection of centrifugal contactors seems appropriate. The process improvements attainable from employing more stages in a more tightly controlled solvent extraction system seem marginal at present when applied to conventional flowsheets, although the cost-benefit may be attractive in a modern plant. The potential for improvement through major flowsheet modification can not presently be assessed quantitatively

  4. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2,1-Katahira, 2-Chome, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819, Zabrze (Poland); Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2,1-Katahira, 2-Chome, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Eckert, Franck [COSMOlogic GmbH & Co KG, Imbacher Weg 46, 50379 Leverkusen (Germany)

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF{sub 3}-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids’ ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF{sub 3} were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  5. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Eckert, Franck; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF3-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids' ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF3 were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  6. Mechanism of gold solvent extraction from aurocyanide solution by quaternary amines: models of extracting species based on hydrogen bonding

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of gold solvent extraction from KAu(CN)2 solution was investigated by means of FTIR, EXAFS, ICP and radioactive tracer methods. Two extraction systems were studied, namely N263-tributyl phosphate(TBP)-n-dodecane and N263-iso-octanol-n-dodecane. High-reso- lution FT IR spectroscopy indicated that the CN stretching vibrations of the two extraction systems differred greatly. In order to interpret the significant difference in CN stretching vibrations, two extracting species models are proposed supramolecular structures based on the formation of hydrogen bonds between Au(CN)2- and modifiers such as TBP and iso-octanol.

  7. Water as a green solvent combined with different techniques for extraction of essential oil from lavender flowers

    Filly, Aurore; Louis, Céline; Fernandez, Xavier; CHEMAT, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Using water as a green solvent with a variable geometry makes use of physical and chemical phenomena that are fundamentally different from those applied in conventional extraction techniques such as hydro-distillation, steam distillation or solvent extraction. Advantages and drawbacks of using water as a solvent with different physical and chemical states have been compared. A total of ten extraction techniques: hydro-distillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbo-hydro-distillation (THD),...

  8. Modeling of aqueous and organic phase speciation for solvent extraction systems

    The TRUEX (TRansUranic EXtraction) solvent extraction process has the ability to remove, separate, and recover transuranic (TRU) elements from acidic nuclear waste solutions. A computer model of the TRUEX process is currently being developed for use in flowsheet design and process optimization. The correlations that are to be used in the model for generating extraction distribution ratios are based on chemical mass action principles and require calculation of aqueous and organic phase speciation. Aqueous phase activity coefficients are calculated using methods available in the literature, while the organic phase species are treated in terms of ideal associated solution theory. This approach is demonstrated for the extraction of HNO3, HTcO4, and americium nitrate by n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO)---the primary metal extractant in the TRUEX solvent. 23 refs., 5 figs

  9. Tailoring and recycling of deep eutectic solvents as sustainable and efficient extraction media.

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Lee, Min Sang; Nam, Min Woo; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kwon, Sung Won; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-12-11

    The present study demonstrates that deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with the highest extractability can be designed by combining effective DES components from screening diverse DESs. The extraction of polar ginseng saponins from white ginseng was used as a way to demonstrate the tuneability as well as recyclability of DESs. A newly designed ternary DES (GPS-5) composed of glycerol, l-proline, and sucrose at 9:4:1 was used as a sustainable and efficient extraction medium. Based on the anti-tumor activity on HCT-116 cancer cells, it was confirmed that GPS-5 was merely an extraction solvent with no influence of the bioactivity of the ginsenosides extracted. Excellent recovery of the extracted saponins was easily achieved through solid-phase extraction (SPE). Recycling of the DES was accomplished by simple freeze-drying of the washed solutions from the SPE. The extraction efficiencies of the DESs recycled once, twice, and thrice were 92%, 85%, and 83% of that of the freshly synthesized solvent. PMID:26585205

  10. FIELD EVALUATION OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT (SERB)

    Laboratory and pilot-scale studies have demonstrated that cosolvent-enhanced in situ extraction can remove residual and free-phase nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), but may leave levels of contaminants in the ground water and subsurface formations in excess of the regulatory requir...

  11. Mathematical Model for Pressurized Solvent Extraction from Leuzea carthamoides

    Machalová, Zdeňka

    Prague : Institute of Chemical Process Fundamental of the CAS, v. v. i, 2015 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 9-10 ISBN 978-80-86186-70-2. [Bažant Postgraduate Conference 2015. Prague (CZ)] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mathematical modelling * extraction * leuzea carthamoides Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  12. Conductivity, impurity profile, and cytotoxicity of solvent-extracted polyaniline

    Kašpárková, V.; Humpolíček, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Kopecká, J.; Kuceková, Z.; Moučka, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2016), s. 156-161. ISSN 1042-7147 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * Soxhlet extraction * purification Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.757, year: 2014

  13. Mathematical Model for Pressurized Solvent Extraction from Leuzea carthamoides

    Machalová, Zdeňka

    Prague: Institute of Chemical Process Fundamental of the CAS, v. v. i, 2015 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 9-10 ISBN 978-80-86186-70-2. [Bažant Postgraduate Conference 2015. Prague (CZ)] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mathematical modelling * extraction * leuzea carthamoides Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  14. Evaluation of the solvent extraction organic phase in a uranium extraction plant / Reinier Hendrik van der Ryst

    Van der Ryst, Reinier Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Using kerosene as an aromatic organic diluent in the liquid–liquid separation process for the extraction of uranium in the solvent extraction section of the AngloGold Ashanti South Uranium Plant near the town of Orkney in South Africa, incurs a multitude of safety, health and environmental problems. A possible solution may be to replace the currently used aromatic–based organic diluent with an aliphatic–based organic diluent. A range of aliphatic organic diluents were tested...

  15. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants

    Doppler, Maria; Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Schneider, Christina; Krska, Rudolf; Delcambre, Sylvie; Hiller, Karsten; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v) mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v)), with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem) and 57% (ear) of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone. PMID:27367667

  16. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants

    Maria Doppler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v, with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem and 57% (ear of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone.

  17. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as sol...

  18. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules

  19. Study on automatic control of high uranium concentration solvent extraction with pulse sieve-plate column

    The author mainly described the working condition of the automatic control system of high uranium concentration solvent extraction with pulse sieve-plate column on a large scale test. The use of the automatic instrument and meter, automatic control circuit, and the best feedback control point of the solvent extraction processing with pulse sieve-plate column are discussed in detail. The writers point out the success of this experiment on automation, also present some questions that should be cared for the automatic control, instruments and meters in production in the future

  20. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT PROGRAM REAL WASTE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  1. Sample Results From The Next Generation Solvent Program Real Waste Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  2. High-performance liquid chromatography comparison of supercritical-fluid extraction and solvent extraction of microbial fermentation products.

    Cocks, S; Wrigley, S K; Chicarelli-Robinson, M I; Smith, R M

    1995-04-21

    The use of supercritical fluids for the extraction of biologically active compounds from the biomass of microbial fermentations has been compared with extraction using the organic solvents methanol and dichloromethane. Compounds representing a range of structural types were selected for investigation. All the extracts obtained were examined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The extractability of metabolites using unmodified and methanol-modified supercritical-fluid carbon dioxide was examined in particular detail for six microbial metabolites: chaetoglobosin A, mycolutein, luteoreticulin, 7,8-dihydro-7,8-epoxy-1-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-xanthone-8-carboxyl ic acid methyl ester, sydowinin B and elaiophylin. The extraction strength of supercritical-fluid carbon dioxide alone appeared to be lower than that of dichloromethane. All the components of interest that were extractable with dichloromethane and methanol were also extractable with methanol-modified carbon dioxide. PMID:7780576

  3. Review on aggregation of acid extractants in solvent extraction of metal ions: remark on the general model

    2003-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of various acid extractants in the solvent extraction systems of metal ions is re-examined and explained according to knowledge obtained in recent work. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Complexes formed by the extractants and metal ions can form reversed micelles in organic diluents, depending on the microstructures of the complexes. The dimers of the acid extractant cannot percolate to the metal-extractant aggregates, and the acid-salt complexes are always formed in the aggregates. The reversed micelles or the W/O microemulsions formed by different species cannot be associated with each other to form a unified aggregate. (2) In solvent extraction systems, hydration of the extractants and metal ions can be considered as the driving force of forming reversed micelles. (3) Information of the first approach to the insight of the bicontinuous microemulsion of NaDEHP shows that various components in the aqueous phase behave confined and very similar to the typical AOT/n-heptane W/O microemulsions. (4) In the extraction of lanthanide ions by the W/O microemulsion of sodium naphthenate, the saponification is a process of forming reversed micelle or W/O microemulsion, while the extraction step is a process of destroying reversed micelles or W/O microemulsion droplets.

  4. Solvent Extraction of Oil from Soursop Oilseeds & its Quality Characterization

    T. F. Adepoju; Olawale, O; Ojediran, O. J; Olatunji, E. M

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on optimization of oil extraction from Soursop oilseeds using Box-Behnken design an allied of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), it also examine the physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of the oil. Based on the design, 17 experimental runs were conducted to investigate the effects of variables and their reciprocal interactions on the oil yield. A quadratic polynomial and the ANOVA test showed the model to be remarkably significant (p

  5. A theoretical study of plutonium diketone complexes for solvent extraction

    Gagliardi, Laura; Handy, Nicholas C.; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Willetts, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    We present a relativistic density functional study on some plutonium compounds with thenoyltrifluoroacetone and similar ligands which can be used in the extraction of plutonium. The method of effective core potentials is used on plutonium. The binding energies of the complexes of plutonium in the formal oxidation states II, IV and VI have been determined and the geometries of some of the complexes have been fully optimized. The stability of the compounds in the different oxidation states and ...

  6. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Oil Extraction from Jatropha curcas L. Using Ethanol as a Solvent

    Silmara Bispo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study the yield and kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the oil extraction process from Jatropha curcas L. using ethanol as a solvent were evaluated for different temperatures, moisture contents of the solid phase, and particle sizes. The extraction process yield increased with contact time of solid particles with the solvent until reaching equilibrium (saturation of the solvent, for all the temperatures, moisture contents, and average particle sizes. These parameters significantly influenced (95% confidence the extracted oil yield. A convective mass transfer model was used to simulate the extraction process and estimate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. For all conditions evaluated, values of oil yield in the liquid phase close to equilibrium were obtained in approximately 20 min. The variations of enthalpy and entropy were positive, indicating that the process is endothermic and irreversible. Values obtained for the variation in Gibbs free energy showed that the extraction process using ethanol as a solvent is spontaneous and thermodynamically favorable for the moisture content of 0%, where the smaller the average particle size the greater the spontaneity of the process.

  7. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed processed by two-phase solvent extraction

    In the present work, the preparation of biodiesel from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process of cottonseed showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL extraction solvent mixture and methanol/petroleum ether volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 30 deg. C, extraction time 30 min. Under the extraction conditions, the extraction rate of cottonseed oil could achieve 98.3%, the free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents of cottonseed oil were reduced to 0.20% and 0.037%, respectively, which met the requirement of alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The free gossypol (FG) content in cottonseed meal produced from two-phase solvent extraction could reduce to 0.014% which was far below the FAO standard. And the nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal protein feed resources. After the TSE process of cottonseed, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-petroleum ether solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide (CaO) as the solid base catalyst. The influences of weight ratio of petroleum ether to cottonseed oil, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, alkali catalyst amount and reaction time on cottonseed oil conversion were respectively investigated by mono-factor experiments. The conversion of cottonseed oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could achieve 98.6% with 3:1 petroleum ether/oil weight ratio, 65 deg. C reaction temperature, 9:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 4% (catalyst/oil weight ratio, w/w) solid base catalyst amount and 3 h reaction time. The properties of FAME product prepared from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel.

  8. Solvent extraction of uranium(VI) by a dipicolinamide using a room-temperature ionic liquid

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have recently received increasing attention as solvent alternatives for possible application in spent fuel reprocessing, particularly in the extraction of metal ions from high-level radioactive aqueous waste, due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Herein, the solvent extraction of the uranyl ions (UO22+) was performed using N,N'-diethyl-N,N'-di(para)tolyl-dipicolinamide (Et(p)TDPA) as the extractant in a commonly used ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4mim][PF6]). The effects of vortexing time, phase ratio and the concentration dependence of Et(p)TDPA, nitric acid and sodium nitrate on the extraction were studied in detail. The extraction mechanism was deduced based on the slope analysis and UV-vis measurement. The distribution ratio of U from 3 mol/L nitric acid by 0.3 mol/L EtTDPA/C4mimPF6 is found to be almost 100. Conventional log-log plot analysis of the extraction equilibrium data suggests that the ions are extracted as a complex in 2:3 ratio of UO22+ to extractant, and the extraction most likely occurs by a cation-exchange mode since the concentration of C4mim+ in the aqueous phase increases linearly with the percent extraction of UO22+ evidenced by UV-vis measurement. This work promises to provide new efficient media based on RTILs for separation of uranium from the radioactive aqueous waste. (orig.)

  9. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90Sr and 137Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  10. Comparative antibacterial effects of novel Pelargonium essential oils and solvent extracts.

    Lis-Balchin, M; Buchbauer, G; Ribisch, K; Wenger, M T

    1998-09-01

    The scented leaves of a number of Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species and cultivars were extracted using steam distillation, petroleum spirit and methanol. The extracts were assessed for their antibacterial activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus and Staph. epidermidis. The results indicated substantial antibacterial activity and suggested that Pelargonium essential oils could be used as novel antibacterial agents. The methanolic and petroleum spirit extracts were more potent antibacterial agents than the steam-distilled volatile samples. The results suggest that Pelargonium essential oils and solvent extracts could be used as novel food or cosmetic antimicrobial agents. PMID:9750316

  11. Solvent extraction of lanthanide ions with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP)

    The solvent extraction of Er(3), Yb(3) and Lu(3) by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5(HPMBP or HL) in carbon tetrachloride has been studied as a function of the pH of the aqueous phase and the concentration of the extractant in the organic phase. The equation for the extraction reaction has been suggested as: Ln3++3HL(0) rightleftdblarrow LnL3(0)+3H+(Ln3+ = Er, Yb, Lu). The extraction equilibrium constants (Kex) and two-phase stability constants (β3x) for the LnL3 complexes have been evaluated. (Author)

  12. A solvent proceed for the extraction of the irradiate uranium and plutonium in the reactor core

    Description of the conditions of plutonium, fission products and of uranium separation by selective extraction of the nitrates by organic solvent, containing a simultaneous extraction of plutonium and uranium, followed by a plutonium re-extraction after reduction, and an uranium re-extraction. The rates of decontamination being insufficient in this first stage, we also describes the processes of decontamination permitting separately to get the rates wanted for uranium and plutonium. Finally, we describes the beginning of the operation that consists in a nitric dissolution of the active uranium while capturing the products of gaseous fission, as well as the final concentration of the products of fission in a concentrated solution. (authors)

  13. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  14. Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies

    This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO3 acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D[IB]CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D[IB]CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables

  15. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested. PMID:21882663

  16. TBP determination in nitric acid solutions from solvent extraction process

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author)

  17. Can ionic liquids avoid third phase formation in solvent extraction?

    The undesirable third phase is generally encountered in molecular diluent systems at high metal loading concentrations. Since the ionic liquids comprise entirely of ions, the use of an ionic liquid as diluent could stabilize the polar metal-solvate in organic phase and thus could prevent the third phase formation. To confirm this the extraction behavior of Eu(III) from nitric acid medium was studied in a solution of tetra-N,N,N',N'-octyldiglycolamide (TODGA) dissolved in the ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide ((C8mim)(NTf2)). Our results confirmed that ionic liquids prevent undesirable third phase formation. (author)

  18. Solvent extraction equipment evaluation study. Part 3. Summary

    Browne, L.M.; Geier, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    This document reviews the available literature on the types of liquid-liquid extraction contactors used to perform radiochemical separations. Also included are comparisons between the types of contactors. The summarization of each of the approximately 130 papers reviewed contains a description of the equipment tested, the chemical system used to test it, and the results obtained. Conclusions drawn by the original authors have not been altered. A bibliography has been included which has been numbered to cross-reference the summaries to the proper references.

  19. Solvent Extraction of Phytosterols from Tall Soap by Hexane

    Rousková, Milena; Volaufová, Eva; Heyberger, Aleš; Tříska, Jan; Krtička, M.

    Bratislava : Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering, 2006 - (Štefuca, V.; Markoš, J.), s. 64 ISBN 80-227-2409-2. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /33./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 22.05.2006-26.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS400720504; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : tall oil/ soap * phytosterols * liquid-liquid extraction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  1. Metals separation using solvent extractants on magnetic microparticles

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation program was initially funded by DOE EM-50 to develop processes for the efficient separation of radionuclides and other hazardous metals. This process has simulated the partnership between industry and ANL for many applications related to hazardous metal problems in industry. In-tank or near-tank hazardous metals separation using magnetic particles promises simple, compact processing at very low costs and employs mature chemical separations technologies to remove and recover hazardous metals from aqueous solutions. The selective chemical extractants are attached to inexpensive magnetic carrier particles. Surfaces of small particles composed of rare earths or ferromagnetic materials are treated to retain chemical extractants (e.g., TBP, CMPO, quaternary amines, carboxylic acid). After selective partitioning of contaminants to the surface layer, magnets are used to collect the loaded particles from the tank. The particles can be regenerated by stripping the contaminants and the selective metals can be recovered and recycled from the strip solution. This process and its related equipment are simple enough to be used for recovery/recycling and waste minimization activities at many industrial sites. Both the development of the process for hazardous and radioactive waste and the transfer of the technology will be discussed

  2. Solvent extraction separation and spectrographic determination of palladium, rhodium and ruthenium in uranium

    The determination of Pd, Rh and Ru in uranium at low ppm level, using solvent extraction has been studied. BPHA, TNOA, TOPO and TBP have been tried as complexing agents; TBP In hexane and 5 M nitric acid medium provides a virtually quantitative extraction. The layer containing the impurities is collected Into graphite powder, and this powder is analysed spectro graphically using carrier destination method with % CuF2 as a carrier. (Author) 11 refs

  3. Solvent extraction as additional purification method for postconsumer plastic packaging waste

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; M. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    An existing solvent extraction process currently used to convert lightly polluted post-industrial packaging waste into high quality re-granulates was tested under laboratory conditions with highly polluted post-consumer packaging waste originating from municipal solid refuse waste. The objective was to study the technical feasibility of using this extraction technology and to study the quality of the produced cleaned plastic flakes. Two types of dirty plastic flakes from household waste were ...

  4. A comparison of five lipid extraction solvent systems for lipidomic studies of human LDL[S

    Reis, Ana; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Blackburn, Gavin J.; Fauzi, Norsyahida Mohd; Pitt, Andrew R.; Spickett, Corinne M.

    2013-01-01

    Lipidome profile of fluids and tissues is a growing field as the role of lipids as signaling molecules is increasingly understood, relying on an effective and representative extraction of the lipids present. A number of solvent systems suitable for lipid extraction are commonly in use, though no comprehensive investigation of their effectiveness across multiple lipid classes has been carried out. To address this, human LDL from normolipidemic volunteers was used to evaluate five different sol...

  5. Solvent extraction: SEPHIS III. A simulation code for the 'PUREX' process

    The general structure of a simulation program for the PUREX process (SEPHIS III) applicable to the evaluation of multicomponents extraction processes between aqueous solutions and organic solvents is presented in detail. Particular attention is given to the inclusion, in the mentioned code, of the concept of 'stage Hausen efficiency' (not included in the original version of the same), required for the evaluation of the obtained results in the extraction cycles tests program at the LPR (Radiochemical Processes Laboratory) plant. (Author)

  6. Solvent extraction of nickel, iron and calcium from magnesium containing acid solution

    Gabra, G.

    1987-02-01

    The extraction of magnesium hydrogen sulfite by a mixture of DEHP/Kelex 100/Kerosene has been investigated from aqueous solutions containing Fe, Ca and Ni. The best results were obtained with DEHP: Kelex 100: Kerosen in the ratio 5/1/94 or 5/2/93. Based on the McCabe - Thiele reprentation of data. A three stage solvent extraction process has been developed for separation and recovery of Mg salts from aqueous leach solution.

  7. Recombinant human proinsulin from transgenic corn endosperm: solvent screening and extraction studies

    C. S. Farinas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant pharmaceutical proteins are being produced in different systems such as bacteria and mammalian cell cultures. The use of transgenic plants as bioreactors has recently arisen as an alternative system offering many practical and economic advantages. However, finding an optimum strategy for the downstream processing (DSP of recombinant proteins from plants still remains a challenge. In this work, we studied the extraction of recombinant human proinsulin (rhProinsulin produced in the endosperm of transgenic corn seeds. An efficient extraction solvent was selected and the effects of temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio, time, and impeller rotational speed on the extraction were evaluated using an experimental design. After an extraction kinetics study, temperature was further evaluated to maximize rhProinsulin concentration in the extracts and to minimize the native corn components carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and proteins. A high efficiency condition for extracting rhProinsulin with the selected solvent - 50 mM sodium bicarbonate buffer pH 10.0 and 5 mM DTT - was an extraction time of 2 h at a solvent-to-solid ratio of 10:1 and 25º C. The maximum rhProinsulin concentration in the extracts at that condition was 18.87 mg l-1 or 0.42% of the total soluble protein. These values are within the range in which the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants can be competitive with other expression systems. The results presented provide information for the development of an additional production platform for the hormone insulin.

  8. Effect of Solvents on the Extractability of Phenolic Constituents and their Antioxidant Capacity from Irish Seaweed

    Rajauria, Gaurav; Jaiswal, Amit; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2012-01-01

    Seaweeds are being used for human consumption in the Orient and help them live longer with low levels of hypertension, cancer and other ailments. The study aimed at extraction of principle constituents using a wide range of solvents and their mixtures on the basis of polarity, from Irish brown seaweeds namely Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria saccharina and Laminaria digitata. All the extracts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC) and their potential antioxidant capacity, using 2, 2´-d...

  9. Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-11-01

    The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Mechanism of gold solvent extraction from aurocyanide solution by quaternary amines: models of extracting species based on hydrogen bonding

    马刚; 闫文飞; 陈景; 严纯华; 高宏成; 周维金; 施鼐; 吴谨光; 徐光宪; 黄昆; 余建民; 崔宁

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of gold solvent extraction from KAu(CN)2 solution was investigated by means of FTIR, EXAFS, ICP and radioactive tracer methods. Two extraction systems were studied, namely N263-tributyl phosphate(TBP)-n-dodecane and N263-iso-octanol-n-dodecane. High-resolution FT IR spectroscopy indicated that the CN stretching vibrations of the two extraction systems differred greatly. In order to interpret the significant difference in CN stretching vibrations, twoextracting species models are proposed——supramolecular structures based on the formation ofhydrogen bonds between Au(CN)2- and modifiers such as TBP and iso-octanol.

  11. Effects of Ultrasound Power, Temperature and Flow Rate of Solvent on Decontamination of Sensitive Equipment by Extraction

    Marek Andrle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The solvent extraction process is regarded amongst other known methods to be applicable for decontamination of sensitive equipment components, especially in cases the components are contaminated in-depth with chemical warfare agents. Viability of the solvent extraction method was evaluated on coupons of butadiene rubber contaminated by sulphur mustard before decontamination by the solvent extraction. The contaminated coupons were extracted in a flow cell, which the solvent (ethoxynonafluorobutane passed through. Three following specific operational factors, namely the temperature, the flow rate, and the power of ultrasound bath, were assessed for the extent of influencing upon the respective observed extraction efficiencies. The paper describes the results of the evaluation of the solvent extraction effectiveness.Defence Science Journal, 2014, 64(2, pp. 168-172. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.3887

  12. Analysis of continuous solvent extraction of nickel from spent electroless nickel plating baths by a mixer-settler

    It is urgent to develop an effective technique to treat the large amount of spent electroless nickel plating bath and recycle the high concentration nickel. In our previous study, high recycling efficiency of nickel from the model spent bath was obtained by continuous solvent extraction with 2-hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenone oxime (LIX84I) as the extractant and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) as the accelerator using a mixer-settler extractor. It was observed that the extraction efficiency was affected by the operation parameters such as the flow rates of the aqueous and organic phases and the total stage number. In the present study, the effects of the operation parameters on the extraction efficiency were quantitatively studied on the basis of the pseudo-first-order interfacial extraction rate equation together with the hydrodynamic properties in the mixer. The organic phase holdup, measured under varying conditions of the flow rates of both phases, was analyzed by the Takahashi-Takeuchi holdup model in order to estimate the specific interfacial area. The overall extraction rate coefficients defined by the product of the interfacial extraction rate constant and the specific interfacial area were evaluated using the experimental data and ranged from 3.5 x 10-3 to 6.7 x 10-3 s-1, which was close to the value of 3.4 x 10-3 s-1 obtained by batch extraction. Finally, an engineering simulation method was established for assessing the extraction efficiency of nickel during a multistage operation.

  13. Remediation of soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents

    Noordkamp, E.

    1999-01-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents is still in the initial stages of development. So far hardly any scientific research has been carried out into this approach. Therefore, the main objective of the present investigation was to study the effec

  14. Development of a micro-mixer-settler for nuclear solvent extraction

    Nuclear solvent extraction was traditionally performed with packed columns, pulse columns, mixer-settlers and centrifugal extractors. However for rapid separations at micro-flow level, micro mixer-settlers were desired and in the past, few of them were actually designed and operated in nuclear solvent extraction research. In the current era of micro-reactor and microchannel devices, there is a renewed interest for micro-mixer-settlers for costly solvents and specialty solutes where small flow-rate is not an issue. In this article, development of a simple but effective micro-mixer-settler for nuclear solvent extraction is reported. The developed unit was tested with 30% TBP/n-dodecane/nitric acid system and in both the regimes of mass transfer c → d (mass transfer from continuous phase to dispersed phase, also written as c → d) and d → c (mass transfer from dispersed phase to continuous phase, also written as d → c) nearly 100% efficiency was observed in extraction as well as stripping modes of operation. (author)

  15. Solvent extraction as additional purification method for postconsumer plastic packaging waste

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Jansen, M.

    2011-01-01

    An existing solvent extraction process currently used to convert lightly polluted post-industrial packaging waste into high quality re-granulates was tested under laboratory conditions with highly polluted post-consumer packaging waste originating from municipal solid refuse waste. The objective was

  16. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soot and sediment : solvent selection and implications for sorption mechanism

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Soot contains high levels of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Extraction of PAHs from soot for quantitative analysis is difficult because the compounds are extremely tightly bound to the sorbent matrix. This study was designed to investigate the effect of solvent type

  17. Solvent extraction studies on Y3+ and Sr2+ using KSM-17 and CMPO

    The present paper describes the solvent extraction behaviour of strontium and yttrium from aqueous media containing wide range of nitric acid to arrive at optimum conditions for their mutual separation using supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique employing KSM-17 and octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl- methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) as carriers

  18. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran.

    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-10-01

    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time. PMID:25328213

  19. The use of a solvent extraction technique for the analysis of trace metal pollutants in estuarine water samples

    A solvent extraction technique, based on metal carbamate complex formation is investigated for its usefulness in the analysis of estuarine water samples. Preliminary results indicate an extraction efficiency over 90% and a good precision. (author)

  20. Peculiarities of solvent extraction of rhenium by crystal violet

    Formation of ionic perrhenate associate with crystal violet (CV) in sulfate solutions at pH 1.0-4.0 is studied. The dependence of optical density on reagent and rhenium concentrations at constant value of one of them, as well as isomolar diagrams of the perrhenate-CV system indicate that there are two forms of ionic associates caused by formation of two-charge reagent form. The method of photometric determination of rhenium in waste tailings of formation with relatively low molybdenum content is developed. The determined concentration range is 1.0-60 μg Re in 10 ml of benzene extract. The relative standard deviation is 0.06. Comparable quantities of Mo, V, W and more than 50-fold quantities of Cu hinder determination

  1. Solvent extraction of carbonate complexes of rare earths

    Extraction of rare earth elements of yttrium subgroup from KHCO3 solutions with solutions of primary alkylamines (C10-C14) in CCl4 with the addition of propanole is investigated using holmium and ytterbium as an example. Using the methods of IR, PRM spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the saturated organic phase associates composition is studied. The simplest extarcted compounds can be presented with the formulas: n-C3H7OH x (C12H25NH3)7 [OH(CO3)5] and n-C3H7OH x bH2O(C12H25NH3)5 [Yb(CO3)4 x (Csub(3)Hsub(7)OH)sub(x)]. In holmium associate carbonatogroup is coordinated mainly according to bidentate type and in ytterbium associate - according to monodentate type. Moleculas of propyl alcohol are included in the coordination sphere of ytterbium associate

  2. Relationship Between Metabolites Composition and Biological Activities of Phyllanthus niruri Extracts Prepared by Different Drying Methods and Solvents Extraction.

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Khatib, Alfi; Tan, Chin Ping; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Shaari, Khozirah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, N H

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the changes in the metabolite, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus niruri after three drying treatments: air, freeze and oven dryings. Water extracts and extracts obtained using different solvent ratios of ethanol and methanol (50, 70, 80 and 100%) were compared. The relationships among the antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and metabolite levels of the extracts were evaluated using partial least-square analysis (PLS). The solvent selectivity was assessed based on the phytochemical constituents present in the extract and their concentrations quantitatively analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. The freeze-dried P. niruri samples that were extracted with the mixture of ethanol or methanol with low ratio of water showed higher biological activity values compared with the other extracts. The PLS results for the ethanolic with different ratio and water extracts demonstrated that phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid) and flavonoids were highly linked to strong α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. PMID:25800644

  3. Successive solvent extraction and free radical scavenging activity of Azadirachta indica A. juss

    Mohammed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant-based or plant-derived drugs occupied 30% of the modern system of medicine. Several trees possess a variety of biologically active compounds. Among them, Azadirachta indica, belonging to the family Meliaceae, plays a vital role as it acts as nature′s pharmacy from several centuries of time. In the path of searching for potential antioxidants from plant origin, different parts of Azadirachta indica have been selected. Aim: Successive solvent extracts of leaves, seeds and root barks of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem were studied for their free radical scavenging activity. Materials and Methods: Extraction capacity of different solvents based on their polarity order was compared and the extracts were subjected to 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Statistical Analysis: All values were expressed in mean±SEM and correlation coefficient (R 2 values obtained from dose response curves were expressed for antioxidant results. Results: The results showed that the highest yields was found with the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves, followed by the hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and methanolic extracts of leaves and seeds, respectively. Free radical scavenging activity of various extracts was determined by measuring 1, DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The results were expressed in terms of IC 50 values. The root bark methanol extract was found to exhibit the highest IC 50 of 14.82-μg/mL at the concentration of 25-μg/mL. Conclusion: It is concluded that hydroalcohol and methanol are the best solvents to extract the antioxidant compounds from Azadirachta indica. The root bark methanolic extract was found to have the highest free radical scavenging potential against DPPH radical.

  4. Flavonoid compositions and antioxidant activity of calamondin extracts prepared using different solvents

    Shyi-Neng Lou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Calamondin has been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant function and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, which might be attributed to its flavonoid compounds. To improve their application, the flavonoid compositions and antioxidant activity of calamondin extracts, prepared by different solvents, were investigated. The results showed that total phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts from peel of calamondin were higher than that from pulp, except the flavonoid content in hot water extract. The flavonoids found in extracts of calamondin were 3′,5′-di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin (DGPP, naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, and diosmin. DGPP exhibited the highest quantity, while naringin and hesperidin were the other two major flavonoids. The content of DGPP in hot water extract of peel was higher than in extracts of organic solvents, however, the contents of nobiletin and tangeretin were found only in extracts of organic solvents. The highest levels of total flavonoids and DGPP were obtained in hot water extract from peel at 90°C. The extracts of hot water and ethyl acetate showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging potency than that of ethanol and methanol. A positive relationship existed between total phenolic contents and DPPH scavenging potency (p < 0.01, while total flavonoid compositions also showed correlation (p < 0.05. Thus, DGPP, naringin, and hesperidin might contribute to antioxidant activity. Collectively, the hot water extract of calamondin peel might have potential for health food and cosmetic applications due to its good antioxidant activity and high level of DGPP.

  5. Influence of different solvents in extraction of phenolic compounds from vegetable residues and their evaluation as natural sources of antioxidants

    Babbar, Neha; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Sandhu, Simranjeet Kaur; Bhargav, Vinod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Dried residues from four different vegetables, viz. pea pod (pp), cauliflower waste (CW), potato peel (PP) and tomato peel (TP) were extracted using four solvents i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Among the four solvents, methanolic extracts showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) for all the four vegetable residues. Methanolic extracts were evaluated for antioxidant activities using diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay. Tomato peel extract showe...

  6. Quantitative description of effect of solvents on scandium extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate using multiparameter equations

    Multiparameter correlations lDSc with 10 systems of parameters of solvents are studied. Correlation possessing the best statistical characteristics are selected. It is shown that the comparison of the degree of effect of solvent parameters on chemical process characteristics is reasonably to conduct by means of analysis of regression equation in dimensionless scale. It is proposed to judge about degree of effect of solvent by values of corresponding acid-base parameters of extractant and vice versa. Triangle diagrams with marked lines of level of property characterizing equilibrium distribution of element extracted are used for description of extraction systems. Parameters of solvents are the tops of these diagrams

  7. The solvent extraction of cerium from sulphate solution - mini plant trials

    Full text: The Mt. Weld deposit in Western Australia has a complex rare earth mineralisation. The rare earth phosphate minerals, which include monazite, are amenable to conventional caustic cracking followed by hydrochloric acid dissolution of the trivalent rare earths. The presence of the mineral cerianite in the ore, which is unaffected by the alkali attack, results in rejection of a considerable proportion of the cerium to the acid leach residue. The recovery of cerium from a sulphate solution, resulting from the processing of such a residue, is the subject of the current paper. The liquor treated by solvent extraction contained 63 g L-1 rare earths and the cerium to total rare earth ratio was 75%. Other impurities, including Fe and Th, totalled 2000 ppm. A solvent mixture of commercially available extractants in a low aromatic content diluent was used to extract Ce4+ selectively over the trivalent rare earths. Partial co-extraction of Fe and Th occurred but it was found that these elements were not easily stripped and therefore selective back extraction of cerium was possible. The cerium was stripped from the organic phase by hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. In continuous counter-current trials two extraction stages and three strip stages were used. In order to produce two grades of strip liquor, stripping was divided into two circuits. The first strip circuit consisting of a single stage, contained proportionally more of the trivalent rare earths. The second strip circuit, consisting of two stages, removed the remaining cerium with proportionally less of the rare earths. A bleed solvent stream was treated for removal of impurities to prevent build-up in the solvent. In the continuous counter current trials, 95% Ce4+ extraction was achieved and the Ce to total rare earth ratio was upgraded to > 99%

  8. PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent

    This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60 degrees F but insoluble in water above 90 degrees F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL's Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination

  9. [Growth inhibition of the four species of red tide microalgae by extracts from Enteromorpha prolifera extracted with the five solvents].

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of extracts of Enteromorpha prolifera on the growth of the four species of red tide microalgae (Amphidinium hoefleri, Karenia mikimitoi, Alexandrium tamarense and Skeletonema costatum), the extracts were extracted with five solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether), respectively. Based on the observation of algal morphology and the measurement of algal density, cell size and the contents of physiological indicators (chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide), the results showed methanol extracts of E. prolifera had the strongest action. The inhibitory effects of A. hoefleri, K. mikimitoi, A. tamarense and S. costatum by the methanol extracts were 54.0%, 48.1%, 44.0% and 37.5% in day 10, respectively. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate caused cavities, pieces and pigment reduction in cells, and those with chloroform and petroleum ether caused goffers on cells. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with all the five solvents decreased athletic ability of the cells, among which those extracted with ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether decreased cell size of test microalgae. The further investigation found that the methanol extracts significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide in the cells of those microalgae. The inhibitory effect of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide contents of four species of microalgae by the methanol extracts was about 51%. On the basis of the above experiments, dry powder of E. prolifera were extracts with methanol, and extracts were obtained. The methanol extracts were partitioned to petroleum ether phase, ethyl acetate phase, n-butanol phase and distilled water phase by liquid-liquid fractionation, and those with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate significantly inhibited the growth of all test microalgae, and the inhibitory effect of four species of microalgae by those two extracts was above 25% in day

  10. Solvent extraction studies of lanthanide acetylacetonates. Part 3

    The complex formation of the heavier trivalent lanthanides (Ln) 65Tb, 67Ho, 69Tm and 71Lu with acetylacetone (HAa) has been studied at 25 ±0.1 deg. C by the liquid-liquid extraction technique in the system 0.02-3.5 M HAa in benzene/1.0 M Na(H)ClO4 using trace amounts of radioactive lanthanides. The stepwise formation constants, Kn=[LnAan][LnAan-1]-1[Aa-]-1 (n=2 to 4), the distribution constant of the neutral complex LnAa3 between the phases (P3), and the self-adduct formation of LnAa3 x HAa in the organic phase (Kadd1) have been evaluated. To obtain the necessary data for a precise evaluation of the lower formation constants, distribution values as low as 0.0001 had to be measured with high accuracy in the pH range 3-9. To make this possible the investigation was made by the recently developed AKUFVE-LISOL technique. A survey of the results on all the lanthanides studied in this series is also given. (author)

  11. Effects of Extraction Solvents on the Extraction Efficiencies of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Reference Materials

    KIGUCHI, Osamu; Kobayashi, Takashi; SAITOH, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the extraction efficiency of a couple of different extraction solvents for Certified Reference Materials of soil and sediment that include Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls using Soxhlet and Pressurized Liquid extraction (PLE). n-Hexane, toluene, acetone, acetone/n-hexane and acetone/toluene (1:1, v/v) as solvents were examined. Unsatisfactory results for Soxhlet extraction were obtained using n-hexane alone. For...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF TIME AND TYPE OF SOLVENT ON EFFICIENCY OF THE EXTRACTION OF POLYPHENOLS FROM GREEN TEA AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OBTAINED EXTRACTS

    Beata Drużyńska; Agnieszka Stępniewska; Rafał Wołosiak

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the type of solvent and time on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant properties extracts obtained from green tea. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: water and 80% ethanol, 80% methanol and 80% acetone (water solutions, v/v) at 15, 30 and 60 minutes. Extracts were analysed for contents of polyphenols and catechins. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two methods: scaven...

  13. Separation and preconcentration of ionic solutes by transport extraction based on solvent sublation

    The experimental capabilities of transport extraction were investigated by the help of a complex of molecular iodine with ionic surfactants. The extraction efficiency up to 95 % was obtained with a 400-fold preconcentration of iodide into benzene, using N-cetylpyridinium chloride. Moreover, anew method of sorbent-supported transport extraction by means of a resilient open-cell polyurethane foam has also been elaborated. The method was demonstrated in the separation of radioiodine from 4 dm3 of deionized, drinking or surface waters with N2 carrier gas in about 60-90 min. The intercomparison showed that the nonequilibrium transport extraction gives some distinctive advantages over equilibrium solvent extraction. The kinetics of the transport extraction has also been established, from which the mass-transfer rate constant of the process can be evaluated, and the separation efficiency can be predicted in dependence on time. (authors)

  14. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

  15. Solvent extraction of plutonium(IV) by sulphoxides from mixed aqueous-organic media

    Extraction behaviour of plutonium(IV) from nitric acid media by two long-chain aliphatic sulphoxides, namely, di-hexylsulphoxide and di-n-octylsulphoxide has been investigated in the presence of several water-miscible organic solvents to study their possible synergistic effect on metal ion extraction. Methanol, ethanol, n - and isopropanol, dioxane, acetone as well as acetonitrile were used as the organic components of the mixed (polar) phase. These additives affected the extraction to varying degrees. Thus, extractability of Pu increases 2-3 fold with increasing concentration (upto 20%) of acetonitrile, acetone, methanol and ethanol while it decreases with increasing concentration of n- and isopropanol. At high concentration of the former, the synergism changes into antagonism. Possible reasons for such behaviour are briefly discussed. Among these organic additives, maximum enhancement in the extraction of Pu(IV) was observed in the presence of acetonitrile. The relative increase in extraction was found to be more at lower sulphoxide concentrations. (author)

  16. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  17. Purification of rare earths nitrate solution yielded from Bangka's monazite ore processing using solvent extraction method

    Monazite Bangka ore processing has several steps i.e. ore preparation, decomposition, dissolution, purification, and drying. The experiment has done on residue dissolution of base decomposition of Bangka's monazite decomposition using nitric acid to produce rare earths nitrate with the solvent condition HNO3 14 N H2O2 20 cc/50 gram, time one hour, feed and solvent ratio = 1:1 (volume) and at room temperature. The experiment goal is to find optimal condition of rare earth nitrate purification from and Th using solvent extraction. The parameters are diluents feed (normal feed), ratio aqueous and organic (A/O), TBP/Kerosene content and extraction time. The results are the optimal extraction condition: feed extraction RE (NO3)3 7 N or none diluents, ratio A/O = 1:1, TBP / Kerosene content 40%, extraction time 5 minutes and at room temperature with U recovery = 93.13 %, h = 86.04 %, RE2O3 = 4.05 %, PO4 = can not be detected

  18. Solvent extraction of uranium from lean grade acidic sulfate leach liquor with alamine 336 reagent

    This paper describes the solvent extraction studies carried out on an acidic low assay uranium bearing leach liquor generated during sulfuric acid leaching of a refractory uranium ore using alamine 336-isodecenol-kerosene reagent combine. The leach liquor has a U3O8 content of about 270 mg/L, free acidity 2.4 N H2SO4 and total dissolved solids concentration of 260 g/L. Process parameteric variation studies indicated strong influence of free acidity of the leach liquor, alamine 336 concentration and aqueous to organic phase ratio on the extraction efficiency of uranium. An extraction efficiency of about 95% was achieved when the free acidity of leach liquor was 1 N H2SO4 or lower, using 2% (v/v) alamine 336 at ambient temperature with an aqueous to organic phase ratio of 1:1. The loading capacity under these conditions was 1.2 g/L of U3O8. About 98% of the uranium values could be stripped from the loaded organic using 1 N NaCl in 0.2 N H2SO4. The solvent extraction studies aided in developing a suitable process flowsheet for treating refractory uranium ores which need high acidity during leaching and relatively lower acidity for purification by solvent extraction. (author)

  19. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Chemical and Physical Properties Progress in FY 2000 and FY 2001.

    Moyer, BA

    2002-04-17

    The purpose of this work was to provide chemical- and physical-property data addressing the technical risks of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process as applied specifically to the removal of cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. As part of the overall Salt Processing Project, this effort supported decision-making in regards to selecting a preferred technology among three alternatives: (1) CSSX, (2) nonelutable ion-exchange with an inorganic silicotitanate material and (3) precipitation with tetraphenylborate. High risks, innate to CSSX, that needed specific attention included: (1) chemical stability of the solvent matrix, (2) radiolytic stability of the solvent matrix, (3) proof-of-concept performance of the proposed process flowsheet with simulated waste, and (4) performance of the CSSX flowsheet with actual SRS high-level waste. This body of work directly addressed the chemical-stability risk and additionally provided supporting information that served to plan, carry out, and evaluate experiments conducted by other CSSX investigators addressing the other high risks. Information on cesium distribution in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping served as input for flowsheet design, provided a baseline for evaluating solvent performance under numerous stresses, and contributed to a broad understanding of the effects of expected process variables. In parallel, other measurements were directed toward learning how other system components distribute in the flowsheet. Such components include the solvent components themselves, constituents of the waste, and solvent-degradation products. Upon understanding which components influence flowsheet performance, it was then possible to address in a rational fashion how to clean up the solvent and maintain its stable function.

  20. Removal of ionic dyes from water by solvent extraction using reverse micelles.

    Pandit, P; Basu, S

    2004-04-15

    Several methods (e.g., UV/H2O2 oxidation, adsorption, flocculation-precipitation) are normally employed to remove dye from water. A new technique based on liquid/liquid extraction using reverse micelles is proposed whereby recovery of solvent and reuse of dye is possible. Experiments were conducted by mixing a known quantity of dye in aqueous phase and solvent-containing surfactants in a simple mixer. The separation of solvent phase, containing encapsulated dye in reverse micelles, from aqueous phase due to gravity results in separation of dye from water. The removal of different ionic dyes (e.g., eosin yellow, methylene blue, malachite green, methyl orange, orange G) from aqueous phase in the presence of different cationic and anionic surfactants [e.g., sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and cetyl pyridinium chloride] in different solvents (e.g., amyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, methyl benzoate, and isooctane) were studied by conducting experiments. The percentage removal of dye from aqueous phase increases with the decrease in dye concentration or with the increase in surfactants concentration. Furthermore, the percentage COD removal of dye is increased with the increase in surfactant concentration. The nature of solvent has minimal effect on percentage removal of dye. The ratio of solventto aqueous phase volume required for the removal of dye decreases with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is possible to back-extract dye into aqueous phase and recover solvent by using counterionic surfactants. The separation of aqueous phase from the aqueous-phase solvent dispersion is faster for amyl alcohol as compared to benzyl alcohol and methyl benzoate. A theoretical model based on ion-exchange reaction between surfactants and dye is used to analyze the experimental data. PMID:15116851

  1. Efficient Extraction of Astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with Polar and Non-polar Solvents after Acid Washing

    YIN Chunhua; YANG Shuzhen; LIU Xiaolu; YAN Hai

    2013-01-01

    method of extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with various solvents after acid washing was investigated.The extraction efficiency was distinctly increased after acid washing of P.rhodozyma cells.When the concentration of HCl was 0.4 mol·L-,the highest extraction efficiency of astaxanthin was achieved which was about three times higher than the control.Acetone or benzene as single polar or non-polar solvent was the most effective solvent in our research.With a combination of isopropanol and n-hexane (volume ratio of 2 ∶ 1),the maximal extraction efficiency was achieved,approximately 60% higher than that obtained with a single solvent.The liquid-solid ratio and the extracting time were also optimized.Under the optimum extraction conditions,the extraction yield of astaxanthin exceeded 98%.

  2. Solvent extraction of alkaline earth elements by di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline mixtures

    Solvent extraction of alkaline earth elements including Sr by mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-O) in chloroform is investigated. pH constant value was kept using acetate buffer mixtures; content of the extracted element in the initial solution constituted 1·10-3mol/l. Investigation into dependence of distribution coefficients on (8-O) concentration demonstrated presence of synergism which is explained by formation of mixed complexes in the organic phase. It is shown, that increase of pH value of aqueous solution uncreases extraction of elements by organic phase

  3. Phase separation kinetic studies for uranium recovery from phosphoric acid by solvent extraction

    Wet process phosphoric acid (WPA) contains uranium in the range 80-120 mg/LU3O8 while in the Merchant Grade Acid (MGA) it is in the range 220-240 mg/L .Based on the experimental work, a two cycle solvent extraction process for uranium separation from phosphoric acid has been developed at REDS and patented. While the equilibrium extraction behaviour and reaction mechanisms have been studied, the kinetic aspect of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid with particular reference to rate of mass transfer and phase disengagement time has not been studied

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Organic Solvent Extracts of Three Marine Macroalgae From Chilika Lake, Orissa, India

    Patra, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro study of antibacterial activity of organic solvent extracts of three marine macroalgae viz., Chaetomorpha linum (Mell Kuetzing, Enteromorpha compressa (L Greville and Polysiphonia subtilissima Mont. showed specific activity in inhibiting the growth of three Gram-negative bacteria (Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli and two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus brevis. The results revealed that the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were active against most of the pathogens whereas methanol and ethanol extracts were active only against S. flexneri.

  5. Combining Solvent Extraction and Bioremediation for Removing Weathered Petroleum from Contaminated Soil

    WU Guo-Zhong; F.COULON; YANG Yue-Wei; LI Hong; SUI Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy,practicality and sustainability of a combined approach based on solvent extraction and biodegradation to remediate the soils contaminated with high levels of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons.The soils used in this study were obtained from the Shengli Oilfield in China,which had a long history of contamination with high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons.The contaminated soils were washed using a composite organic solvent consisting of hexane and pentane (4:1,v/v) and then bioremediated in microcosms which were bioaugmentated with Bacillus subtilis FQ06 strains and/or rhamnolipid.The optimal solvent extraction conditions were determined as extraction for 20 min at 25 ℃ with solvent-soil ratio of 6:1 (v/w).On this basis,total petroleum hydrocarbon was decreased from 140000 to 14000 mg kg-1,which was further reduced to < 4000 mg kg-1 by subsequent bioremediation for 132 d.Sustainability assessment of this integrated technology showed its good performance for both short-and long-term effectiveness.Overall the results encouraged its application for remediating contaminated sites especially with high concentration weathered hydrocarbons.

  6. Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava (Piper methysticum) roots.

    Xuan, Tran Dang; Fukuta, Masakazu; Wei, Ao Chang; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Khanh, Tran Dang; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2008-04-01

    The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol, 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 5,7-(OH)(2)-4'-one-6,8-dimethylflavanone, pinostrobin chalcone and 7-dimethoxyflavanone-5-hydroxy-4', were identified for the first time. Glutathione (26.3 mg/g) was found in the water extract. Dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain (DDK) was present at a higher level than methysticin and desmethoxyyagonin, indicating that DDK is also a major constituent of kava roots. Acetone was the most effective solvent in terms of maximum yield and types of kava lactones isolated, followed by water and chloroform, whereas hexane, methanol, and ethanol were less effective as solvents. Total phenolic and antioxidant activity varied among the extracting solvents, with acetone and chloroform producing the highest effects, followed by water, while methanol, ethanol and hexane were less effective. PMID:18404321

  7. Preliminary evaluation of solvent-extraction and/or ion-exchange process for meeting AAA program multi-tier systems recovery and purification goals

    Several potential processes are described and evaluated for their suitability in a multitier aqueous-based approach to processing dissolved spent nuclear fuel under the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) program. The evaluation is focused on solvent extraction and ion exchange technologies that have been demonstrated to varying degrees. The goals of the program are to separate uranium (U), technetium (Tc), and the transuranic (TRU) elements from the fission products that are to be vitrified for disposal as high-level waste (HLW). Uranium will be disposed as low-level waste (LLW); Tc and TRU will be transmuted in an accelerator. A number of processes have been examined. The focus was on liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes because of their relatively high state of development and their suitability for high-throughput-rate processing. Ion exchange processes were also examined. PUREX and UREX were evaluated as options for recovery of uranium; UREX is also an option for Tc recovery. Solvent extraction options examined for TRU recovery included TRUEX, DIAMEX, and TRPO, as well as some based on TBP extraction. Processes for trivalent actinide separation from lanthanides were also examined. The PUREX processes have been developed over many years, and have been refined to a significant degree. In the first cycle, U and plutonium (Pu) are co-extracted from dissolved spent fuel solutions by TBP in a diluent, selectively stripped, and purified in additional extraction/strip cycles. Neptunium (Np) can be extracted or driven into the raffinate by adjusting the oxidation state. Trivalent actinides and fission products remain predominantly in the raffinate, although a significant Tc fraction will co-extract with the U and Pu

  8. Combination pulsed electric field with ethanol solvent for Nannochloropsis sp. extraction

    Nafis, Ghazy Ammar; Mumpuni, Perwitasari Yekti; Indarto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, energy is one of human basic needs. As the human population increased, energy consumption also increased. This condition causes energy depletion. In case of the situation, alternative energy is needed to replace existing energy. Microalgae is chosen to become one of renewable energy resource, especially biodiesel, because it contains high amount of lipid instead of other feedstock which usually used. Fortunately, Indonesia has large area of water and high intensity of sunlight so microalgae cultivation becomes easier. Nannochloropsis sp., one of microalgae species, becomes the main focus because of its high lipid content. Many ways to break the cell wall of microalgae so the lipid content inside the microalgae will be released, for example conventional extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, pressing, and electrical method. The most effective way for extraction is electrical method such as pulsed electric field method (PEF). The principal work of this method is by draining the electrical current into parallel plate. Parallel plate will generate the electrical field to break microalgae cell wall and the lipid will be released. The aim of this work is to evaluate two-stage procedure for extraction of useful components from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. The first stage of this procedure includes pre-treatment of microalgae by ethanol solvent extraction and the second stage applies the PEF extraction using a binary mixture of water and ethanol solvent. Ethanol is chosen as solvent because it's safer to be used and easier to be handled than other solvent. Some variables that used to study the most effective operation conditions are frequency and duty cycle for microalgae. The optimum condition based on this research are at frequency 1 Hz and duty cycle 13%.

  9. Coprocessing solvent-extraction flowsheet studies for LWR and FBR fuels

    Coprocessing solvent extraction studies using irradiated LWR and FBR fuels have indicated the need for an efficient feed clarification. A potentially useful filtration method for fulfilling this need has been demonstrated. Conditions necessary for the satisfactory use of unstabilized hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) or nitrous acid as the reducing agent for Pu(IV) during reductive stripping operations have been defined. Both partial partitioning and total costripping operations have been demonstrated. In addition, solvent degradation product measurements have been made, and the effect of the presence of DBP during uranium-plutonium stripping operations has been determined

  10. On the influence of the nature of solvents on the extraction of scandium with tributyl phosphate

    Analysis of the data on separation of scandium by tributyl phosphate in organic solvents shows that the sufficient connection between distribution coefficients (D) and properties of the organic phase may be obtained only through multiparameter equations of linearity of free energies, during which the factors of basicity and density of cohesion energy decreasing D value, and the factors of polarizability increasing it are important. The studied solvents may be conditionally distributed into two groups by the extracting capability. Isoamyl alcohol resides in the first group, and acetophenon, 1,2-dichlorethane, aromatic hydrocarbons, unsaturated hydrocarbons are presented in the second one

  11. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein with deep eutectic solvent immobilized magnetic graphene oxide nanoparticles.

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Ding, Xueqin; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2016-02-01

    As a new type of green solvent, four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized, and then a core-shell structure magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4-NH2@GO) nanoparticles have been prepared and coated with the ChCl-based DESs. Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of proteins. The characteristic results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES. The concentrations of proteins in studies were determined by a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The advantages of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES in protein extraction were compared with Fe3O4-NH2@GO and Fe3O4-NH2, and Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. The influence factors of the extraction process such as the pH value, the temperature, the extraction time, the concentration of protein and the amount of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol were evaluated. Desorption experimental result showed 98.73% of BSA could be eluted from the solid extractant with 0.1 mol/L Na2HPO4 solution contained 1 mol/L NaCl. Besides, the conformation of BSA was not changed during the elution by the investigation of circular dichromism (CD) spectra. Furthermore, the analysis of real sample demonstrated that the prepared magnetic nanoparticles did have extraction ability on proteins in bovine whole blood. PMID:26653436

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of solvent extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum L., from Algeria

    Mohammed El Amine Dib

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, solvent extracts from aerial parts of Anacyclus pyrethrum L. were assessed for their total phenol content, antimicrobial and antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and ferric-ion reducing power activities. The amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids in the solvent extracts were determined spectrometrically. (310.78 mg GA/g extract and antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.056 mg/mL. Increasing the concentration of the extracts resulted in increased ferric reducing antioxidant power for both extracts tested. The methanolic extract exhibited the best antimicrobial activity against three gram-positive bacterium (Listeria monocytogenes: 100%, Bacillus. cereus: 69% and Staphylococcus aureus: 66%, as well as against Candida albicans (81%. Finally, a relationship was observed between the biological activities potential and total phenolic and flavonoid levels of the extract. The results of this study provided an alternative of utilising Anacyclus pyrethrumaerial parts as readily accessible source of natural antioxidant in food cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry

  13. Separation of uranium from thorium in monazite by alamine solvent extraction method

    The research of monazite processing have obtained the process to recover 62% of rare earth elements (REE) from following steps, such as decomposition, partial dissolution, precipitation at pH 6,3 and precipitation at pH 9,8. There was an increased efficiency of the process in 2009, when ion exchange is used in process development, and the REE recovery became 85%. Besides REE, monazite processing also produce uranium and thorium, but they not separated individually yet. The research of the U from Th separation from pH 6,3 precipitate dissolution by H2SO4, is carried out using solvent extraction method, which the extractant consist of Alamine-336, kerosene and isodecanol. This research is purposed to obtain the optimum condition of separation uranium from thorium with solvent extraction, where U separated from Th as best as it could. The research's parameters are feed pH, O/A ratio, and extraction time. And the result showed that the optimum condition were 1,5 of pH, 5 of O/A ratio, and 5 minutes of extraction time, and the percentage of U extracted was 100%, but 32,44% of Th also extracted. From the result, it has a conclusion that 67,56% of Th could be separated from U. (author)

  14. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents.

    Xu, B J; Chang, S K C

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how 6 commonly used solvent systems affected the yields of phenolic substances and the antioxidant capacity of extracts from 8 major classes of food legumes. Several antioxidant-related phytochemical compositions, namely, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and condensed tannins content (CTC), were investigated. In addition, antioxidant activities were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The results showed that the 50% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. Acidic 70% acetone (+0.5% acetic acid) extracts exhibited the highest TPC, TFC, and FRAP values for black bean, lentil, black soybean, and red kidney bean. The 80% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TFC, CTC, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. The 70% ethanol extracts exhibited the greatest ORAC value for all selected legumes. These results indicated that solvents with different polarity had significant effects on total phenolic contents, extracted components, and antioxidant activities. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of legume extracts were observed. The information is of interest to the nutraceutical food/ingredient industries since legumes are a rich source of antioxidants. PMID:17995858

  15. Study of the separation of zirconium and hafnium from nitric solutions by solvent extraction

    This paper describes the study of the separation of Zr and Hf in nitric and hydrochloric media by solvent extraction technique. As aqueous phase, solutions prepared from the Zr and Hf hydroxides and the liquor generated from the product of the alkaline fusion of the zircon were used. The content of Zr and Hf in these solutions were 15 g/L and 0.6 g/L Hf respectively, and its acidity was varied between 1.0 and 10 mol/L. The effect of the acid extractants (DEHPA, IONQUEST®801 and CYANEX®272), solvating extractants (TBP and CYANEX®923) and basic extractants (PRIMENE®JTM, ALAMINE®336 and ALIQUAT®336), all of them diluted in dodecane, was investigated. In the solutions of the basic extractants, 5.0% of tridecanol was added as a modifier agent. Among the extractants investigated, the TBP in a nitric medium showed the best performance in the separation of the Zr/Hf. For acid extractants a high extraction was observed, however, with low selectivity. With the basic extractants no metals extraction was observed under the conditions investigated. The best results were obtained with the liquor generated from the product of alkaline fusion of zircon at acidity 7.0 mol/L and nitrate concentration of 9.2 mol/L. Under these conditions an extraction percentage of 91.6% for Zr and of 12.1% for Hf and a separation factor of Zr/Hf of 79.3 was obtained. (author)

  16. Solvent extraction of copper and zinc from bioleaching solutions with LIX984 and D2EHPA

    LAN Zhuo-yue; HU Yue-hua; LIU Jian-she; WANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    The solvent extraction of copper and zinc from the bioleaching solutions of low-grade sulfide ores with LIX984 and D2EHPA was investigated. The influences of extractant content, aqueous pH value, phase ratio and equilibration time on metals extraction were studied. The results show that LIX984 has a higher selectivity for copper than for iron, zinc and other metals, and has the copper extraction rate above 97%,while the zinc and iron extraction rate is less than 1.6% respectively. Zinc extraction is carried out following the copper extraction from the raffinate. The zinc extraction with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid(D2EHPA) is low due to its poor cation exchange. A sodium salt of D2EHPA is used and the zinc extraction rate is enhanced to above 98%. Though iron (Ⅲ) is strongly extracted before the extraction of zinc by D2EHPA, it is difficult to strip iron from the organic phase by sulfuric acid. The zinc stripping rate is above 99% with 100 g/L sulfuric acid, while that of iron is 0.16%. Hence, the separation of zinc from iron can be achieved by the selective stripping.

  17. Synergistic solvent extraction of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with mixtures of various organophosphorus extractants

    Synergistic solvent extraction of Eu(III) and Tb(III) from thiocyanate solutions with mixtures of 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA) and di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (DEHPA) or tributyl phosphate (TBP) or trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or triphenylphosphine oxide (TPhPO) in benzene has been studied. The mechanism of extraction can be explained by a simple chemically based model. The equilibrium constants of the mixed-ligand species of the various neutral donors have been determined by non-linear regression analysis. (author) 13 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  19. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24688522

  20. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Maximillan Leite Santos; Chaiana Froés Magalhães; Marcelo Barcellos da Rosa; Daniel Assis Santos; Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro; Leandro Machado de Carvalho; Marcelo Barreto da Silva; Carlos Leomar Zani; Ezequias Pessoa de Siqueira; Rodrigo Loreto Peres; Anderson Assunção Andrade

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  1. Effect of solvent addition sequence on lycopene extraction efficiency from membrane neutralized caustic peeled tomato waste.

    Phinney, David M; Frelka, John C; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schwartz, Steven J; Heldman, Dennis R

    2017-01-15

    Lycopene is a high value nutraceutical and its isolation from waste streams is often desirable to maximize profits. This research investigated solvent addition order and composition on lycopene extraction efficiency from a commercial tomato waste stream (pH 12.5, solids ∼5%) that was neutralized using membrane filtration. Constant volume dilution (CVD) was used to desalinate the caustic salt to neutralize the waste. Acetone, ethanol and hexane were used as direct or blended additions. Extraction efficiency was defined as the amount of lycopene extracted divided by the total lycopene in the sample. The CVD operation reduced the active alkali of the waste from 0.66 to Extraction efficiency varied from 32.5% to 94.5%. This study demonstrates a lab scale feasibility to extract lycopene efficiently from tomato processing byproducts. PMID:27542486

  2. Highly efficient extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin using deep eutectic solvents as green and tunable media.

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Heo, Seong Rok; Han, Se Young; Yoo, Da Eun; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as tunable, environmentally benign, yet superior extraction media to enhance the extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin, which is usually discarded as waste. Ten DESs containing choline chloride as hydrogen bond acceptor combined with different hydrogen bond donors were screened for high extraction efficiencies based on the anthocyanin extraction yields. As a result, citric acid, D-(+)-maltose, and fructose were selected as the effective DES components, and the newly designed DES, CM-6 that is composed of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose at 4:1 molar ratio, exhibited significantly higher levels of anthocyanin extraction yields than conventional extraction solvents such as 80% aqueous methanol. The final extraction method was established based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction under conditions optimized using response surface methodology. Its extraction yields were double or even higher than those of conventional methods that are time-consuming and use volatile organic solvents. Our method is truly a green method for anthocyanin extraction with great extraction efficiency using a minimal amount of time and solvent. Moreover, this study suggested that grape skin, the by-products of grape juice processing, could serve as a valuable source for safe, natural colorants or antioxidants by use of the eco-friendly extraction solvent, CM-6. PMID:26534763

  3. Comparison of the free and bound phenolic profiles and cellular antioxidant activities of litchi pulp extracts from different solvents

    Su, Dongxiao; Zhang, Ruifen; Hou, Fangli; Zhang, Mingwei; Guo, Jinxin; Huang, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Zhencheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruits could be underestimated if the bound phenolic compounds are not considered. In the present study, the extraction efficiencies of various solvents were investigated in terms of the total content of the free and bound phenolic compounds, as well as the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the extracts. Methods Five different solvent mixtures were used to extract the free phenolic compounds from litchi pulp. Alkalin...

  4. Low-pressure solvent extraction of oil from macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) pulp: characterization of oil and defatted meal

    Caroline Portilho Trentini; Dalany Menezes Oliveira; Cristina Maria Zanette; Camila da Silva

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to extract the oil from macauba pulp using a low-pressure solvent extraction, as well as characterisation of the extracts and defatted meal obtained using different solvents (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and isopropanol). Results reported higher yields in oil, 27.43%, using isopropanol (P0.05) on the composition; however, in the quantification of free glycerol compounds, isopropanol showed higher levels, 104.15mg 100g-1, of these compounds (P

  5. Effect of solvent on the extraction of lanthanides with picrolonic acid

    Ali, A.; Saeed, M.M. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.; Rehman, H. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad (Pakistan). Central Analytical Facility Div.; Anwar, J. [Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    Extraction of Eu(III), Tb(III) and Lu(III), as representatives of lanthanides, has been studied with picrolonic acid [1-p-nitrophenyl-3-methyl-4-nitro-5-pyrazolone (HPA)] as extractant in various solvents such as acetylacetone (ACAC), 1-octanol (ONL), n-hexanol (HNL), 1-butanol (nBNL), 2-butanol (iBNL), cyclohexanone (CHN), n-butyl ether (BE), di(1,2-dichloroethyl)ether (DCEE), diisobutylketone (DIBK), benzene and toluene from aqueous solution of pH 1-2, having ionic strength of 0.01 mol dm{sup -3} (K{sup +}/H{sup +}, Cl{sup -}). The composition of the extracted adduct has been determined as M(PA){sub 3} except in DCEE where it is M(PA){sub 3}.(HPA). Extraction constants (log K{sub ex}) were calculated and on the basis of log K{sub ex}, the role of diluents in the extraction process has been discussed. The solvents with respect to their extractability of the rare earth metal ions can be arranged in the order ACAC > DIBK > BE> DCEE > ONL > HNL > CHN. (orig.)

  6. Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    García, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Juan, Elisa; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rios, José Julian; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are "green" solvents, applied in this study for the extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil (VOO). Different combinations of DES consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) in various mixing ratios with sugars, alcohols, organic acids, and urea, as well as a mixture of three sugars were used. The yields of the DES extractions were compared with those from conventional 80% (v/v) methanol/water. DES showed a good solubility of phenolic compounds with different polarities. The two most abundant secoiridoid derivatives in olive oil, oleacein and oleocanthal, extracted with ChCl/xylitol and ChCl/1,2-propanediol showed an increase of 20-33% and 67.9-68.3% with respect to conventional extraction, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time that phenolic compounds have been extracted from VOO oil using DES. Our results suggest that DES offers an efficient, safe, sustainable, and cost effective alternative to methanol for extraction of bioactive compounds from VOO. PMID:26616988

  7. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL; Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Ensor, Dale [Tennessee Technological University; Hill, Talon G [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Roach, Benjamin D [ORNL; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V [ORNL; Williams, Neil J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  8. Extraction of caffeine, chlorogenic acids and lipids from green coffee beans using supercritical carbon dioxide and co-solvents

    A. B. A.de Azevedo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on experimental data on the extraction of caffeine, coffee oil and chlorogenic acids from green coffee beans using pure supercritical CO2 and supercritical CO2 modified with ethanol (5% w/w and isopropyl alcohol (5% w/w at 50 and 60ºC and 15.2 24.8 e 35.2 MPa. In this study extraction kinetics were obtained for all assays i.e. samples were collected at several time intervals for each solvent and mixed solvent. When pure CO2 and CO2-ethanol mixed solvent were used, an increase in pressure resulted in an increase in the amount of oil extracted. When CO2 was modified with isopropyl alcohol, the amount of coffee oil extracted also increased with pressure. Caffeine extraction initially increased and subsequently decreased with pressure. Chlorogenic acids were only extracted when isopropyl alcohol was used as a co-solvent. An increase in extraction temperature resulted in a decrease of caffeine and oil extraction (retrograde condensation when only CO2 was used as solvent. With the use of co-solvent this retrograde behavior was no longer observed and the increase in temperature resulted in the increase in the extracted amounts of caffeine, coffee oil and chlorogenic acids.

  9. ICPSEF: a user's manual for the computer mathematical model of the ICPP purex solvent extraction system

    A computer-based mathematical program, ICPSEF, was developed for the first-cycle extraction system at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). At the ICPP, spent nuclear fuels are processed to recover unfissioned uranium. The uranium is recovered from aqueous solutions in a pulse column, solvent extraction system using tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent (purex process). A previously developed SEPHIS-MOD4 computer program was added to and modified to provide a model for the ICPP system. Major modifications included addition of: (1) partial theoretical stages to permit more accurate modeling of ICPP columns, (2) modeling ammonium hydroxide neutralization of nitric acid in a scrubbing column, and (3) equilibrium data for 5 to 10 vol % TBP. The model was verified by comparison with actual operating data. Detailed instructions for using the ICPSEF model and sample results of the model are included

  10. Influences of solid particles on the formation of the third phase crud during solvent extraction

    ZHENG Qi; RUAN Renman; WEN Jiankang; SONG Yongsheng; DONG Qinghai; WU Minglin; YAO Guocheng

    2007-01-01

    The influences of solid particles in leach solution on the formation of the third phase crud during solvent extraction of copper were studied.Analyzed from the point of view of pH value and surface tension,the study results showed that the solid particle is one of the most important contributors for the formation of the third phase crud. During solvent extraction,if the pH value was greater than 2.30,the number of solid particles in the mother solution increased,in which case the possibility of forming the third phase crud could also increase,and the interface tension value might grow in pace with the quantity of the third phase crud.

  11. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed

    Nushrat Yeasmen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC. The tested sample showed appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (51.45-71.68 mg GAE/gm of dry extract, DPPH scavenging capacity (61.18-71.17%, IC50 values (98.30-248.60, reducing power (0.6377-0.7702 and total antioxidant capacity (22.75-43.80 AAE/gm at different solvents and techniques. Current study data shown higher extract yields, phenolic contents, scavenging activity, reducing power and antioxidant activity using ethanol solvent compared to the respective acetone solvent. In addition, higher extract yields and other properties were obtained by hot extraction at 400C compared to the cold extraction at 260C. Present study suggests that ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique could be better to preserve the antioxidant properties of tamarind seed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 332-337

  12. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Abdullahi Dyadya Mohammed, Abubakar Garba Isah, Musa Umaru, Shehu Ahmed, Yababa Nma Abdullahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  13. Extraction of thymol from different varieties of thyme plants using green solvents

    Angelov, Ivan; Villanueva, D.; Stateva, R. P.; Reglero, Guillermo; Ibáñez, Elena; Fornari, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    Thyme is a Labiatae plant which essential oil has demonstrated antiseptic and antispasmodic, properties. Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol, isomeric with carvacrol, found in thyme essential oil. These compounds have shown antiinflamatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. In this work, the potential use of different green solvents, namely ethanol, limonene and ethyl lactate to extract thymol from thyme plants is studied. E...

  14. Radiochemical analysis of 90Sr in milk, soil and plant by solvent extraction

    A universal and fast method of 90Sr determination in environmental matrices (raw and dried milk, plants, soils) has been elaborated. Solvent extraction method of daughter 90Y by tributyl phosphate was used. The method of strontium determination is compared with determination of other transuranic elements (americium, plutonium) and there is no need to check the chemical yield of strontium. (author) 7 refs.; 3 tabs

  15. Apparent formation constants of actinide complexes with humic substances determined by solvent extraction

    Apparent formation constants of Pu(IV) with two kinds of humic substances (HSs) were determined in 0.1M NaClO4 at 25°C using a back-solvent extraction method. The effect of solution conditions, such as the pH, the initial metal and HS concentrations, and the ionic strength, on the formation constants was investigated. The obtained data were compared with the other actinide series. (author)

  16. Characterization of molybdenum interfacial crud in a uranium mill that employs tertiary-amine solvent extraction

    In the present work, samples of a molybdenum-caused green gummy interfacial crud from an operating western US uranium mill have been physically and chemically examined. Formaton of cruds of this description has been a long-standing problem in the use of tertiary amine solvent extraction for the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (Amex Process). The crud is essentially an organic-continuous dispersion containing about 10 wt % aqueous droplets and about 37 wt % greenish-yellow crystalline solids suspended in kerosene-amine process solvent. The greenish-yellow crystals were found to be a previously unknown double salt of tertiary amine molybdophosphate with three tertiary amine chlorides having the empirical formula (R3NH)3[PMo12O40].3(R3NH)Cl. To confirm the identification of the compound, a pure trioctylamine (TOA) analog was synthesized. In laboratory extraction experiments, it was demonstrated that organic-soluble amine molydophosphate forms slowly upon contact of TOA solvent with dilute sulfuric acid solutions containing low concentrations of molybdate and phosphate. If the organic solutions of amine molybdophosphate were then contacted with aqueous NaCl solutions, a greenish-yellow precipitate of (TOAH)3[PMo12O40].3(TOAH)Cl formed at the interface. The proposed mechanism for the formation of the crud under process conditions involves build up of molybdenum in the solvent, followed by reaction with extracted phosphate to give dissolved amine molybdophosphate. The amine molybdophosphate then co-crystallizes with amine chloride, formed during the stripping cycle, to give the insoluble double salt, which precipitates as a layer of small particles at the interface. The proposed solution to the problem is the use of branched-chain, instead of straight-chain, tertiary amine extractants under the expectation that branching would increase the solubility of the double salt. 2 figures, 5 tables

  17. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Abdullahi Dyadya Mohammed, Abubakar Garba Isah, Musa Umaru, Shehu Ahmed, Yababa Nma Abdullahi

    2012-01-01

    Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction me...

  18. Comparative bioactivity of dhaman grass root extracts in different polar solvents against plant and human pathogens

    Premlata Singariya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae is a very suitable and highly nutritive grass for environmental conditions of the desert; yet, no antimicrobial work has been done on this grass. Aim: To estimate in vitro the antibiotic activity of root extracts of C. ciliaris in various polar solvents to use the grass as a possible source for new antimicrobial compounds against important plant and human pathogens. Settings and Design: The antibiotic activity of C. ciliaris root extracts were evaluated against a few medically important pathogens including Gram-negative bacteria Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the fungi, Aspergillus niger. Materials and Methods: Dried, powdered, and weighted root material was successively extracted with different polar solvents [hexane, petroleum ether, toluene, benzene, isopropyl alcohol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, glacial acetic acid (GAA, and water] using a Soxhlet assembly. Antibiotic activity was performed by using disc diffusion assay followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations by broth dilution method, against sensitive bacteria (with good inhibition zone. Most of the extracts, at higher concentrations, showed varying degrees of inhibitory activity against selected bacteria. Statistical Analysis: Mean value and standard deviation were calculated for the test bacteria and fungi. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and P values were considered significant at P<0.05. Results and Conclusions: Results revealed that the highest antibiotic activity was exhibited by the water and GAA extracts against P. mirabilis, followed by isopropyl alcohol extract against K. pneumoniae and A. tumefaciens. Water extract was observed to be the most active extract with maximum zone of inhibition against A. tumefaciens (plant pathogen as compared to all other extracts.

  19. Extraction of oil from pequi fruit (Caryocar Brasiliense, Camb. using several solvents and their mixtures

    Antoniassi, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the oil extraction process from pequi pulp using different solvents (hexane, acetone and ethyl alcohol and their mixtures was investigated, using a simplex-centroid design. The extraction occurred at 50°C, under stirring (22 Hz, for 16 hours. The solid-liquid ratio used was 1:10 (w/w. Higher yield values were obtained for extractions with acetone and hexane, especially their mixtures with ethanol. Iodine value, saponification value and refractive index did not differ significantly among the treatments. A higher acid value was obtained for the extraction with ethyl alcohol. Higher carotenoid contents were obtained for the extraction with acetone and ethyl alcohol as pure solvents. The fatty acid profile in the oil fraction of the extracts did not vary among the different types of solvents and their mixtures.En este trabajo fue estudiado el proceso de extracción de aceite de la pulpa de pequi utilizando diferentes disolventes (n-hexano, acetona y etanol y sus mezclas, empleando diseño central simplex. Las extracciones fueron realizadas a 50°C, durante 16 horas de agitación (22 Hz. La proporción sólido:líquido empleada fue 1:10 (p/p. Los mayores rendimientos fueron obtenidos para las extracciones con acetona y con hexano, especialmente cuando fueron mezclados con etanol. El índice de yodo, el índice de saponificación y el índice de refracción no difirieron significativamente entre los tratamientos. Los mayores valores de acidez se obtuvieron en la extracción con etanol. Los mayores contenidos en carotenoides se obtuvieron en las extracciones con acetona y etanol como disolventes puros. El perfil de los ácidos grasos en las fracciones de aceite de los extractos no presentó variación entre los diferentes tipos de disolventes y sus mezclas.

  20. Suppression of brilliant green bromoindate solvent extraction in the presence of foreign metals

    Extraction of indium from H2SO4 and KBr solution in the form of bromoindate brilliant green diminishes in the presence of relatively large amounts of such metals being extracted as Fe(3), Tl(3), Zn, Hg(2) and Cd. Gallium has no effect on the extraction of indium. With the use of radioactive isotope sup114m in the influence of the medium acidity, of the concentration of metals and of the nature of organic solvent on the extent of indium extraction inhibition in the presence of macroelements has been studied. The character and extent of inhibition of indium extraction depend on the nature of the macroelement: the better the macroelement can be extracted in the form of an ion association, the stronger it inhibits the extraction of indium. Inhibition of the extraction is explained by dissociation of the ion associations extracted in the organic phase and, as a consequence of this dissociation, by the action of the common ion, vix., the dye cation