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Sample records for accelerated heavy ions

  1. Relativistic heavy ion accelerators

    There is a growing interest in the scientific community in the use of accelerators to produce relativistic heavy ion beams for a number of purposes. It now appears that relativistic heavy ion collisions may provide an opportunity to study nuclear matter far from equilibrium density, pressure, and temperature. Heavy ion beams can also be used as simulated cosmic rays for astrophysical research and in planning space probes. At present the only relativistic heavy ion accelerator is the Belvalac at LBL. It has been devoted to this use since 1974. The operating experience and capabilities of this machine are reviewed as well as present and planned experimental programs. Designs of accelerators for relativistic heavy ions are discussed. A number of considerations will cause a machine to differ from a proton machine if optimally designed for heavy ion acceleration. A possible set of parameters is presented for an accelerator to produce intense beams of mass 10 to 200 ions, at energies up to 10 GeV/amu

  2. Heavy ion accelerator GANIL

    This article presents GANIL, a large national heavy ion accelerator. The broad problems of nuclear physics, atomic physics, astrophysics and physics of condensed media which can be approached and studied with this machine are discussed first, after which the final construction project is described. The project comprises a circular injector, a separated sector cyclotron up beam stripper, and a second separated cyclotron downstream

  3. Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

    Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied

  4. Heavy ion accelerators at GSI

    The status of the Unilac heavy ion linear accelerator at GSI, Darmstadt is given. A schematic overall plan view of the Unilac is shown and its systems are described. List of isotopes and intensities accelerated at the Unilac is presented. The experimental possibilities at GSI should be considerably extended by a heavy ion synchrotron (SIS 18) in combination with an experimental storage ring (ESR). A prototype of the rf-accelerating system of the synchrotron has been built and tested. Prototypes for the quadrupole and dipole magnets for the ring are being constructed. The SIS 18 is desigmed for a maximum magnetic rigidity of 18Tm so that neon can be accelerated to 2 GeV/W and uranium to 1 GeV/u. The design allows also the acceleration of protons up to 4.5 GeV. The ESR permits to storage fully stripped uranium ions up to an energy of approximately R50 MeV/u

  5. Heavy ion medical accelerator options

    This paper briefly explores the accelerator technology available for heavy ion medical accelerators in the mass range of 1 to 40 (protons through argon). Machines that are designed to produce the required intensities of a particular design ion, such as silicon (mass 28), can satisfy the intensity requirements for all lighter ions, and can produce beams with higher mass, such as argon, at somewhat reduced, but still useful intensity levels. They can also provide beams of radioactive ions, such as carbon-11 and neon-19, which are useful in diagnostic imaging and for directly verifiable treatments. These accelerators are all based on proven technology, and can be built at predictable costs. It is the conclusion of several design studies that they can be operated reliably in a hospital-based environment. 8 refs., 22 figs

  6. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Certain special treatments of superficial melanoma, however, require that beam energies as low as 70 MeV/nucleon also be available. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. For most heavy ion treatments, this corresponds to 107-109 ions/second at the patient. Because this research is best conducted in a dedicated, hospital-based facility, and because of the clinical need for ultra-high reliability, the construction of new and dedicated facilities has been proposed. Heavy ion accelerators can provide a variety of ions and energies, permitting treatment plans that exploit the properties of the ion best suited to each individual treatment, and that employ radioactive beams (such as 11C and 19Ne) to precisely confirm the dose localization. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety. 3 refs., 8 figs

  7. heavy ion acceleration at shocks

    Shevchenko, V. I.; Galinsky, V.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical study of alpha particle acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock due to interaction with Alfven waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model [1]. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or dumped and hence particles will be pitch--angle scattered as well as the change of the wave energy due to instability or damping. It includes in consideration the total distribution function (the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no any assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. In previous studies heavy ions were treated as perfect test particles, they only experienced the Alfven turbulence excited by protons and didn’t contribute to turbulence generation. In contrast to this approach, we consider the ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves. It is important for alpha particles with their relatively large mass-loading parameter that defines efficiency of the wave excitation by alpha particles. The energy spectra of alpha particles is found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation. [1] Galinsky, V.L., and V.I. Shevchenko, Astrophys. J., 669, L109, 2007.

  8. Heavy ion toroidal collective accelerator

    Experiments on HIPAC at Maxwell Laboratories have shown that almost all of the confined electrons are trapped and do not go around the torus. A toroidal electric field produces a negligible toroidal electron current. An ion accelerator where electrons are magnetically contained and their space charge contains ions is considered. A toroidal electric field of suitable magnitude can be applied so that it accelerates all of the ions but does not accelerate most of the electrons. This is possible if the magnetic moment of electrons μsub(e) > μsub(i)/Z, where μsub(i) is the ion magnetic moment and Z is the charge of the ion. Ions would be contained by the electron space-charge electric field E, for energies up to ZeER/2 approximately 100 GeV where Z = 60, E = 107 V/cm and the major radius of the torus is R = 3.3 metres. (author)

  9. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density Cs+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac

  10. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1989

    This report discusses the following topics on heavy-ion fusion accelerator research: MBE-4: the induction-linac approach; transverse beam dynamics and current amplification; scaling up the results; through ILSE to a driver; ion-source and injector development; and accelerator component research and development

  11. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1991

    This report discusses the following topics: research with multiple- beam experiment MBE-4; induction linac systems experiments; and long- range research and development of heavy-ion fusion accelerators

  12. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  13. Heavy ion medical accelerator in chiba

    The HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) construction project has been promoted by NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences) as one of the projects of 'Comprehensive 10 year Strategy for Cancer Control' HIMAC is the first heavy-ion accelerator dedicated to medicine in the world, and its design parameters are based on the radiological requirements. It consists of two types of ion sources, an RFQ and an Alvarez linacs, dual synchrotron rings, high energy beam transport lines, and irradiation facilities for treatment and experiments. This report mainly describes the outline of the structure and performance of each HIMAC subsystem. (J.P.N.)

  14. Heavy Ion Acceleration in Impulsive Solar Flares

    王德焴

    2002-01-01

    The abundance enhancements of heavy ions Ne, Mg, Si and Fe in impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) eventsare explained by a plasma acceleration mechanism. In consideration of the fact that the coronal plasma is mainlycomposed of hydrogen and helium ions, we think that theion-ion hybrid wave and quasi-perpendicular wave can.be excited by the energetic electron beam in impulsive solar flares. These waves may resonantly be absorbed byheavy ions when the frequencies of these waves are close to the second-harmonic gyrofrequencies of these heavyions. This requires the coronal plasma temperature to be located in the range ofT ~ (5 - 9) × 106 K in impulsivesolar flares and makes the average ionic charge state of these heavy ions in impulsive SEP events higher than theaverage ionic charge state of these heavy ions in gradual SEP events. These pre-heated and enhanced heavy ionsin impulsive SEP events.

  15. Accelerators for heavy-ion fusion

    The author discusses accelerators for heavy-ion fusion rather than accelerators for strategic defense systems, focusing first on generic fusion issues. The author maintains that a sensible fusion system must satisfy three conditions: the total capital cost of the system must be acceptable; the cost of electricity must also be acceptable, and there must be a reasonable way to get from where we are today to where we want to be ultimately, i.e., there must be a sensible RandD path. The author believes that inertial confinement fusion (ICF) provides a reasonable RandD path and explains why. The results of the heavy-ion experiments performed have tested only transverse beam dynamics. The author believes that heavy-ion fusion is a promising fusion option and that multistage accelerators are capable of satisfying the engineering requirements of fusion power production

  16. Heavy ion acceleration at the AGS

    The Brookhaven AGS is alternating gradient synchrotron, 807 meters in circumference, which was originally designed for only protons. Using the 15 MV Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff as an injector, the AGS started to accelerate heavy ions of mass lighter than sulfur. Because of the relatively poor vacuum (∼10-8 Torr), the AGS is not able to accelerate heavier ions which could not be fully stripped of electrons at the Tandem energy. When the AGS Booster, which is under construction, is completed the operation will be extended to all species of heavy ions including gold and uranium. Because ultra-high vacuum (∼10-11 Torr) is planned, the Booster can accelerate partially stripped elements. The operational experience, the parameters, and scheme of heavy ion acceleration will be presented in detail from injection to extraction, as well as future injection into the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A future plan to improve intensity of the accelerator will also be presented. 5 figs., 4 tabs

  17. The projects of heavy ion accelerators

    Heavy ion beams are now applied to various research and application fields, and the accelerators for heavy ions are also diversified depending on their purposes, such as tandem van de Graaff, linac, cyclotron, ring-cyclotron, synchrotron, cooler-ring, collider and their superconducting ones. The present state in these fields is outlined. Concerning the medical application of heavy ions in Japan, the facility named HIMAC is under construction now at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The original idea of the HIMAC (heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba) Project was proposed at the High LET Radiotherapy Division in the US-Japan Cooperative Cancer Research Program in 1979 in Kyoto, Japan. In 1983, the Japanese government decided to promote the ten-year strategy for cancer initiative, and the HIMAC Project also has been advanced along it. It is expected to be completed and to start the first clinical trial in 1993. The radiological effects of heavy ions on organic cells are well suitable to the medical treatment of cancer. The PIG and ECR ion sources, the RFQ and Alvarez injector linacs, the synchrotron, the beam delivery system, the treatment devices and the building are described. (K.I.)

  18. Heavy ion acceleration using femtosecond laser pulses

    Petrov, G M; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K; Beg, F N

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from ultrathin (<200 nm) gold foils irradiated by a short pulse laser is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the time history of the laser bullet is examined in order to get insight into the laser energy deposition and ion acceleration process. For laser pulses with intensity , duration 32 fs, focal spot size 5 mkm and energy 27 Joules the calculated reflection, transmission and coupling coefficients from a 20 nm foil are 80 %, 5 % and 15 %, respectively. The conversion efficiency into gold ions is 8 %. Two highly collimated counter-propagating ion beams have been identified. The forward accelerated gold ions have average and maximum charge-to-mass ratio of 0.25 and 0.3, respectively, maximum normalized energy 25 MeV/nucleon and flux . Analytical model was used to determine a range of foil thicknesses suitable for acceleration of gold ions in the Radiation Pressure Acceleration regime and the onset of the Target Normal Sheath Acceleratio...

  19. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  20. New structure for accelerating heavy ions

    A new type of accelerating structure is described which is particular suited to heavy ions (high wavelength, high shunt impedance, small size). Its properties are analyzed and compared to those of other structures (more particularly the lines). It is shown that a mode of operation exists of which the shunt impedance in the station mode has 80 per cent of its value for the progressive mode. Finally results are given obtained with a small experimental apparatus which uses this structure. (author)

  1. Accelerator research for heavy ion inertial fusion

    It is now one decade since serious consideration was first given to the use of heavy ion accelerators for inertial confinement fusion. After an initial period of wide-ranging studies, the US program settled on an induction linac method proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The ion kinetic energy is modest (30-100 MeV/amu, 5-10 GeV total) but intense beam currents of order 1 kA per beam in 10-30 beams are required on target in a short pulse of order 10-20 ns. In this review the conceptual designs are described, together with recent theory and experiments on high-current beam transport and use of multiple beams. Parallel efforts in West Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union are mentioned, and a two-year US study of heavy ion fusion electric power plants is summarized. (orig.)

  2. Acceleration of heavy ions to very high energies

    The current interest of physicists in the collisions of heavy ions closes an interesting circle in the technology of accelerator building. The first cyclic accelerator, built by R. Wideroe, was a linear accelerator designed to accelerate potassium ions. Subsequent to Wideroe's achievement, much of the art of accelerator construction has been devoted to creating energetic beams of electrons and protons. Now we find ourselves returning to the heavy ions, and Wideroe's linear accelerator structure still plays an important role in many acceleration schemes. Fortunately, while the particle physics community has concentrated on the electron and proton machines, the nuclear physicists have kept alive the interest in heavy ions. Now a host of electrostatic machines, cyclotrons, and heavy ion linear accelerators provide beams of all species of ions at energies from about 100 MeV per nucleon for light isotopes to 10 MeV per nucleon for the heaviest isotopes in support of vigorous physics programs

  3. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2010-11-01

    A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007). The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density) that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  4. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    V. L. Galinsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail, so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  5. Heavy ion acceleration in the Breakout Afterburner regime

    Petrov, G M; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K; Beg, F N

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from an ultrathin (20 nm) gold foil irradiated by sub-picosecond lasers is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations we identified two highly efficient ion acceleration schemes. By varying the laser pulse duration we observed a transition from Radiation Pressure Acceleration to the Breakout Afterburner regime akin to light ions. The underlying physics and ion acceleration regimes are similar to that of light ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the acceleration of heavy ions more challenging. Two laser systems are studied in detail: the Texas Petawatt Laser and the Trident laser, the former having pulse duration 180 fs, intermediate between very short femtosecond pulses and picosecond pulses. Both laser systems generated directional gold ions beams (~10 degrees half-angle) with fluxes in excess of 1011 ion/sr and normalized energy >10 MeV/nucleon.

  6. High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) in China

    HIAF (High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility), a new facility planned in China for heavy ion related researches, consists of two ion sources, a high intensity Heavy Ion Superconducting Linac (HISCL), a 45 Tm Accumulation and Booster Ring (ABR-45) and a multifunction storage ring system. The key features of HIAF are unprecedented high pulse beam intensity and versatile operation mode. The HIAF project aims to expand nuclear and related researches into presently unreachable region and give scientists possibilities to conduct cutting-edge researches in these fields. The general description of the facility is given in this article with a focus on the accelerator design

  7. Laser-driven multicharged heavy ion beam acceleration

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Y.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2015-05-01

    Experimental demonstration of multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the interaction between the ultra-intense short pulse laser system and the metal target is presented. The laser pulse of stripped Fe ions accelerated up to 0.9 GeV are demonstrated. This is achieved by the high intensity laser field of ˜ 1021Wcm-2 interacting with the solid density target. The demonstrated iron ions with high charge to mass ratio (Q/M) is difficult to be achieved by the conventional heavy ion source technique in the accelerators.

  8. Effect of accelerated heavy ions on polycarbonate

    A study was made on radiation chemical processes in polycarbonate film, irradiated by nitrogen and xenon ions with ∼ 1 MeV/nucleon energy and γ-quanta of 137Cs at 0.41-0.51 Gy/s dose rate. It was established that process of destruction and cross-linking take place simultaneously in polycarbonate under irradiation; heavy ions in vacuum produce more destructive effect, than γ-quanta. Destruction prevails in the core of the track of several nanometers in diameter. Effects related with formation of cross linking bonds between macrochains are manifested at 5-30 nm distances from heavy ion trajectory. It was assumed that the mentioned spatial distribution of destruction and cross-linking acts could exist in other polymers

  9. Cryring - a small storage and acceleration ring for heavy ions

    Herrlander, C.J.; Bagge, L.; Barany, A.; Borg, S.; Danared, H.; Heikkinen, P.; Hultberg, S.; Liljeby, L.; Lindblad, Th.

    1985-10-01

    CRYRING is a facility for research in atomic, molecular and nuclear physics using a cryogenic electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, together with an RFQ linear accelerator as injector into a synchrotron ring, which can be used both for acceleration, deceleration and storage of very highly charged, heavy ions. (CRYRING stands for CRYsis-synchrotron-RING, RFQ for Radio Frequency Quadrupole and CRYSIS for CRYogenic Stockholm Ion Source.) A lay-out of CRYRING in an available laboratory area is In the ring itself experiments with a circulating heavy ion beam and merged or crossed beams of electrons, laser-photons, neutrals and ions will be possible. Crossed ion beams will be available from a 400 kV accelerator. Injectors for negative (hydrogen) ions and electrons (intended for cooling as well as experiments) are included in the project. Regarding the extraction of accelerated heavy ions for nuclear and atomic spectroscopy, it should be emphasized that the project aims at very heavy ions (Xe-U) which will be energetic enough to overcome the Coulomb barrier of heavy target nuclei. The different injectors can be separately used for experiments when not in operation for CRYRING. It should also be emphasized that since CRYSIS is a pulsed ion source, beam-sharing will be simplified, making it possible to run two or perhaps even three different experiments simultaneously.

  10. Inertial confinement fusion systems using heavy ion accelerators as drivers

    Heavy ion accelerators are the most recent entrants in the effort to identify a practical driver for inertial confinement fusion. They are of interest because of the expected efficient coupling of ion kinetic energy to the thermal energy needed to implode the pellet and because of the good electrical efficiency of high intensity particle accelerators. The beam intensities required, while formidable, lie within the range that can be studied by extensions of the theories and the technology of modern high energy accelerators

  11. Physics opportunities with relativistic heavy ion accelerators

    The physics motivation for a relativistic heavy ion collider with energies of 100 GeV/amu x 100 GeV/amu for nuclei of A-200 are (1) this will allow the production in the laboratory of a new state of matter - the quark gluon plasma, (2) the study of such interactions will provide an experimental test of statistical quantum chromodynamics (QCD), i.e., a look at the properties of the QCD vacuum at large distances, (3) such reactions will simulate the conditions of the early universe, and (4) such a collider will allow us to delve into the unknown. If history is any guide then it is clear that any time one can increase an important physics parameter by a factor of 10 (and in this case a factor of 100 over what is presently being done) then do it. At present the Bevalac at Berkeley is the premier facility for the study of heavy ions with a center of mass capability of 1 GeV/amu x 1 GeV/amu. In the near term this capability will be increased at the AGS at BNL (6 GeV/amu x 6 GeV/amu) and at the CERN SPS (10 GeV/amu x 10 GeV/amu). 5 figs

  12. Heavy ion physics at the VICKSI accelerator

    This report contains a selection of papers concerning work performed at VICKSI by external research groups together with the program of the scientific symposium occasionally to the opening of the tandem. The articles concern high-spin spectroscopy with OSIRIS, alpha and beta decay studies of neutron-deficient isotopes of tantalum and application for mass determination at the proton-drip line, rigid rotation versus shape coexistence in the N=Z=36 region, dissipation of linear momentum and energy in fusion-like reactions, orientation of the nuclear spin in heavy ion collisions at VICKSI energies, extreme cases of the local magnetism, and most deep implantations in semiconductor materials and structures. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  13. Acceleration test of heavy ion RFQ linac at TIT

    An 80 MHz heavy ion RFQ linac at Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT) has been constructed for research on inertial fusion and plasma experiments. Equipment for beam acceleration has been fabricated and assembled to confirm the performance with low currents of the RFQ. The linac successfully accelerated He+ and C2+ ion beams to their final energies of 219 keV/u. The obtained beam transmission was more than 89% with currents of a few tens μA. (orig.)

  14. Outline of heavy ion beam accelerator for inertial confinement fusion

    Heavy ion inertial fusion program has become more promising through the intense works on high energy, heavy ion accelerators during past four years. The heavy iron method is superior to the methods with other particle beam, because the peak current requirement is reduced drastically to several kA. The driver efficiency is expected to be 20% or more in the heavy ion method, and the absorption efficiency in the pellets is three times as high as that of laser fusion method. In Japan, Institute of Plasma Physics of Nagoya University and Institute of Laser Engineering of Osaka University participate mainly in the design of reactor and pellet systems, while National Laboratory for High Energy Physics and Institute for Nuclear Study of University of Tokyo have studied on heavy ion accelerators. In this paper, the outline of the accelerator system is described on the basis of the typical parameters of pellet design. The determination of beam parameters, the beam lines in reactors, current multiplication, the main parameters of the storage ring, the ion source and the linear accelerator are explained. In the present design concept, an RFQ linac is proposed in low velocity region. The focus action is independent of the beam velocity, and it has the capture efficiency as high as about 90%. (Kako, I.)

  15. Topical problems of accelerator and applied heavy ion physics

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named seminar. They deal with high-intensity linacs for heavy ions, the free-electron laser, applications of heavy-ion beams, MEQALAC, the ESR Schottky-diagnosis system, the analysis of GaAs by ion-beam methods, a light-ion synchrotron for cancer therapy, a device for the measurement of the momentum spread of ion beams, the European Hadron facility, the breakdown fields at electrons in high vacuum, a computer program for the calculation of electric quadrupoles, a focusing electrostatic mirror, storage and cooling of Ar beams, the visualization of heavy ion tracks in photographic films, the motion of ions in magnetic fields, the CERN heavy ion program, linear colliders, the beam injection from a linac into a storage ring, negative-ion sources, wake field acceleration, RFQ's, a dense electron target, the matching of a DC beam into the RFQ, electron emission and breakdown in vacuum, and 1-1.5 GeV 300 mA linear accelerator, the production of high-current positive-ion beams, high-current beam experiments at GSI, improvement of the Frankfurt EBIS, the physics of the violin, double layers, beam formation with coupled RFQ's, atomic nitrogen beam for material modification, compact superconducting synchrotron-radiation sources, industrial property rights, a RF ion source for thin film processes, beam-cavity interactions in the RFQ linac, atomic physics with crossed uranium beams, proton linacs, the interdigital H-type structure, injection of H- beams into a RFQ accelerator, the production of MOS devices by ion implantation, the application of RFQ's, the Frankfurt highly-charged ion facility, RF acceleration techniques for beam current drive in tokamaks, space-charge neutralized transport, and storage rings for synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. (HSI)

  16. Heavy ion accelerators for inertial fusion

    Particle accelerators are used for accelerating the elementary, stable and separable constituents of matters to relativistic speed. These beams are of fundamental interest in the study on the ultimate constituents of matters and their interaction. Particle accelerators are the most promising driver for the fusion power reactors based on inertial confinement. The principle of inertial confinement fusion, radiation driven indirect drive, the accelerator complex and so on are described. (K.I.)

  17. New heavy-ion accelerator facility at Oak Ridge

    Funds were obtained to establish a new national heavy-ion facility to be located at Oak Ridge. The principal component of this facility is a 25-MW tandem designed specifically for good heavy-ion acceleration, which will provide high quality beams of medium weight ions for nuclear research by itself. The tandem beams will also be injected into ORIC for additional energy gain, so that usable beams for nuclear physics research can be extended to about A = 160. A notable feature of the tandem is that it will be of the ''folded'' type, in which both the negative and positive accelerating tubes are contained in the same column. The accelerator system, the experimental lay-out, and the time schedule for the project are discussed

  18. Heavy ion accelerator and associated development activities at IUAC

    A vertical 15UD Pelletron electrostatic tandem accelerator having highest terminal voltage tested up to 16 MV has been in regular operation at Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC) for more than two decades. It has been providing consistently various ion beams in the energy range from a few tens of MeV to 270 MeV for scheduled experiments. A superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC) booster module having eight niobium quarter wave resonators has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. It is fully operational for scheduled experiments. The LINAC module has been tested and used to accelerate energetic heavy ion beams from 15 UD Pelletron. A new type of high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (HTS-ECRIS) has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. It has been in regular operation as future source of highly charged ions having higher beam current for the alternate high current injector (HCI) system for the superconducting LINAC. A radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is being developed to accelerate highly charged particles (A/Q ∼ 6) from HTS-ECRIS to energy of 180 keV/u. The beam will then be accelerated further by drift tube linacs (DTL) to the required velocity for injection of the ion beams in to the existing superconducting LINAC booster. A low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) having permanent magnet ECRIS on high voltage platform and a 1.7 MV Pelletron are being used for regular experiments. Details of various developmental activities related to the heavy ion accelerator and associated systems at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) are presented. (author)

  19. Long-pulse induction acceleration of heavy ions

    A long-pulse induction acceleration unit has been installed in the high-current Cs+ beam line at LBL and has accelerated heavy ions. A maximum energy gain of 250 keV for 1.5 μs is possible. The unit comprises 12 independent modules which may be used to synthesize a variety of waveforms by varying the triggering times of the low voltage trigger generators

  20. SIS: an accelerator installation for heavy ions of high energy

    The two major sections of the report cover the scientific experimental program and the accelerator installation. Topics covered in the first include: heavy ion physics in the medium energy region; nuclear physics at relativistic energies; atomic physics loss and capture cross sections for electrons; spectroscopy of few-electron systems; atomic collision processes; biological experiments; nuclear track techniques in biology; and experiments with protons and secondary radiation. The second includes: concept for the total installation; technical description of the SIS 12; technical description of the SIS 100; status of the UNILAC injector; development options for the SIS installations; properties of the heavy ion beam; and structural work and technical supply provisions. In this SIS project proposal, an accelerator installation based on two synchrotrons is described with which atomic nuclei up to uranium can be accelerated to energies of more than 10 GeV/μ. With the SIS 12, which is the name of the first stage, heavy ion physics at intermediate energies can be pursued up to 500 MeV/μ. The second stage, a larger synchrotron, the SIS 100, has a diameter of 250 m. With this device, it is proposed to open up the domain of relativistic heavy ion physics up to 14 GeV/μ (for intermediate mass particles) and 10 GeV/μ (for uranium)

  1. Pulse control in an accelerator for heavy-ion fusion

    In induction accelerators proposed for heavy-ion fusion, the ion beam is usually confined longitudinally by an axial electric field tailored to balance the space-charge field. Since generating such electric field 'ears' is costly and imprecise, it is important to know how frequently the ears must be applied and what errors in the waveform are tolerable. For practical parameters, cell breakdown is found to impose the principal limit on the spacing of the acceleration modules applying the ear field. Also, it is demonstrated that ear fields may be approximated in several ways by discrete field steps with little impairment of the longitudinal confinement. (Author) 4 figs., 2 refs

  2. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1988

    This report discusses the following topics: MBE-4: The Induction-Linac Approach; Current Amplification and Acceleration Schedules; Emittance and Current Amplification; Scaling Up the Results; Progress on the Carbon-Arc Source; Injector Development; Progress Towards an ILSE Design; Beam Combination; and Focusing-System Alignment Tolerances

  3. Acceleration test of heavy ion RFQ linac at TIT

    An 80 MHz heavy ion RFQ Linac at Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT) was constructed for researches on inertial fusion and plasma experiments. The first acceleration was accomplished with low intensity He+ ion beam in 1993. This four vane type RFQ accelerates particles with charge to mass ratio (q/A) of 1/16 from 5 keV/amu to 214 keV/amu. Two-dimensional (2D) machining was applied for cutting of the RFQ vane-tips. The vane parameters for the RFQ were optimized considering the effects of multipole components at inter-vane field. In order to increase the acceleration efficiency synchronous phase was gradually raised from -30 degrees to -20 degrees at the open-quotes accelerator sectionclose quotes. The beam transmission is expected to be 68.4% for the beam current of 10 mA. Details of the RFQ tuning and performance will be reported

  4. An RFQ linac for heavy ion acceleration

    Ueda, N.; Arai, S.; Nakanishi, T.; Hori, T.; Tokuda, N.; Yamada, S.; Fukushima, T.; Takanaka, M.; Noda, A.; Katayama, T.

    1982-02-01

    An rf characteristic was studied on a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) model cavity with two kinds of vanes, straight and modulated. The measured resonant frequency is 295.0 MHz for the TE210 mode and well agrees with the calculated value 296.5 MHz by SUPERFISH for the straight vane. The measured one is 293.5 MHz for the modulated vane which has the same cross section as the straight vane at its quadrupole symmetry plane. The measured electric field in the acceleration bore agrees with the calculated one within the statistical error. A sufficient mode separation and uniform field distribution were obtained with a single loop coupler which matches the cavity to the feeder line.

  5. Design study of an accelerator for heavy ion fusion

    Design of a demonstration accelerator for heavy ion fusion based on a synchrotron system is briefly described. The proposed complex system of injector linac, rapid cycling synchrotron and five accumulation rings can produce a peak current 1.6 kA, peak power 32 TW and total energy 0.3 MJ. Investigations of the intrabeam scattering give a lifetime of the beam longer than the fusion cycle time of 1 sec

  6. Design of a 300 kV heavy ion accelerator

    The design of a 300 kV heavy ion accelerator is described. Two design aspects are emphasized: the telemetry system and the voltage control system. Telemetry with the high voltage terminal is achieved by transmitting digital light signals along fiber optics to a microprocessor. Voltage is controlled by a microprocessor and a hybrid analog/digital system. The relative merits of a microprocessor based system are discussed

  7. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    Katrík, P.; Mustafin, E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pavlovič, M.; Strašík, I.

    2015-12-01

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u 238U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  8. Beam dynamics studies of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator injector

    A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K+) and low normalized emittance (< 1 π mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The fully 3-D PIC code WARP together with EGUN and POISSON were used to design the machine and analyze measurements of voltage, current and phase space distributions. A comparison between beam dynamics characteristics as measured for the injector and corresponding computer calculations will be presented

  9. Acceleration test of heavy-ion with TIT RFQ linac

    A heavy-ion acceleration system with the TIT-RFQ has been developed. The TIT-RFQ was designed to accelerate particles with a charge to mass ratio ε ≥ 1/16, as it was, the kind of particles was limited because of the insufficient withstanding voltage of the beam injection equipment. In order to solve this problem, the development of the new system was planed, and the work has been carried out since last year. By using this system, the first acceleration of N+ beam was observed in January this year; however, the beam intensity was insufficient. Some problems were pointed out, and the synchronous circuit of a RF pulse was constructed up to now. By using this circuit, the increase of the beam intensity was observed in the second acceleration test in this summer. (author)

  10. Status report of pelletron accelerator and ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator is completing twenty seven years of round-the-clock operation, serving diverse users from institutions within and outside DAE. Over the years, various developmental activities and application oriented programs have been initiated at Pelletron Accelerator Facility, resulting into enhanced utilization of the accelerator. We have also been pursuing an ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme under XIIth Plan, consisting of an 18 GHz superconducting ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source and a room temperature RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) followed by low and high beta superconducting niobium resonator cavities. This talk will provide the current status of Pelletron Accelerator and the progress made towards the ECR based heavy ion accelerator program at BARC. (author)

  11. Heavy-ion acceleration with a superconducting linac

    This year, 1988, is the tenth anniversary of the first use of RF superconductivity to accelerate heavy ions. In June 1978, the first two superconducting resonators of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) were used to boost the energy of a 19F beam from the tandem, and by September 1978 a 5-resonator linac provided an 16O beam for a nuclear-physics experiment. Since then, the superconducting linac has grown steadily in size and capability until now there are 42 accelerating structures and 4 bunchers. Throughout this period, the system was used routinely for physics research, and by now the total time with beam on target is 35,000 hours. Lessons learned from this long running experience and some key technical developments that made it possible are reviewed in this paper. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. On production and acceleration of polarized heavy ions at tandem electrostatic accelerator (TEA)

    The possibilities of polarized experiments with heavy ions on TEA at terminal voltage 7.5MV are discussed. The scheme of polarized ion source (PIS) of 14N and its injection into the accelerator is described. The data energies at accelerator output and target nucleus maximum charges for nuclear reactions of above Coulomb barrier were obtained. The optics of ion movement from PIS to the target and spin dynamics calculation results of 14N ions moving in the same channel on axial and the most remote side trajectory is analyzed. The most suitable variants of transportation and acceleration of polarized heavy ions for providing the measurement optimal conditions in target were determined. 12 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Heavy ion acceleration by nonlinear magnetosonic waves in a two-ion-species plasma

    The ion dynamics in perpendicular nonlinear magnetosonic waves in a plasma containing two ion species is studied through theory and simulation using a one dimension, electromagnetic particle code with full ion and electron dynamics; in the simulations the density of heavier ions was set to be 10% of that of lighter ions. As in a single-ion-species plasma, some of the light ions can be accelerated by the longitudinal electric field formed in a wave. It is found that the bulk of heavy ions are accelerated by the transverse electric field. For a large-amplitude wave, the maximum speed of heavy ions is about the wave propagation speed, which exceeds the Alfven speed. Theoretical estimates of maximum speeds are given for small- and large- amplitude waves. They are in good agreement with the simulation results. (author)

  14. Recirculating induction accelerators as drivers for heavy ion fusion

    A two-year study of recirculating induction heavy ion accelerators as low-cost driver for inertial-fusion energy applications was recently completed. The projected cost of a 4 MJ accelerator was estimated to be about $500 M (million) and the efficiency was estimated to be 35%. The principal technology issues include energy recovery of the ramped dipole magnets, which is achieved through use of ringing inductive/capacitive circuits, and high repetition rates of the induction cell pulsers, which is accomplished through arrays of field effect transistor (FET) switches. Principal physics issues identified include minimization of particle loss from interactions with the background gas, and more demanding emittance growth and centroid control requirements associated with the propagation of space-charge-dominated beams around bends and over large path lengths. In addition, instabilities such as the longitudinal resistive instability, beam-breakup instability and betatron-orbit instability were found to be controllable with careful design

  15. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    The heavy ion accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research were used to study the regularities and mechanisms of formation of different types of mutations in prokaryote cells. The induction of direct (lac-, ton B-, col B) mutations for Esherichia coli cells and reverse his- → His+ mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis cells under the action of radiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) was studied. The regularities of formation of gene and structural (tonB trp-) mutations for Esherichia coli bacteria under the action of accelerated heavy ions were studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of gene mutations as a function of the dose under the action of Γ rays and accelerated heavy ions is described by linear-quadratic functions. For structural mutations, linear "dose-effect" dependences are typical. The quadratic character of mutagenesis dose curves is determined by the "interaction" of two independent "hitting" events in the course of SOS repair of genetic structures. The conclusion made was that gene mutations under the action of accelerated heavy ions are induced by δ electron regions of charged particle tracks. The methods of SOS chromotest, SOS lux test, and λ prophage induction were used to study the regularities of SOS response of cells under the action of radiations in a wide LET range. The following proposition was substantiated: the molecular basis for formation of gene mutations are cluster single-strand DNA breaks, and that for structural mutations, double-strand DNA breaks. It was found out that the LET dependence of the relative biological efficiency of accelerated ions is described by curves with a local maximum. It was demonstrated that the biological efficiency of ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics on cells with different genotype, estimated by the lethal action, induction of gene and deletion mutations, precision excision of transposons, is determined by the specific

  16. Heavy ion acceleration strategies in the AGS accelerator complex -- 1994 Status report

    The strategies invoked to satisfy the injected beam specifications for the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) continue to evolve, in the context of the yearly AGS fixed target heavy ion physics runs. The primary challenge is simply producing the required intensity. The acceleration flexibility available particularly in the Booster main magnet power supply and rf accelerating systems, together with variations in the charge state delivered from the Tandem van de Graaff, and accommodation by the AGS main magnet and rf systems allow the possibility for a wide range of options. The yearly physics run provides the opportunity for exploration of these options with the resulting significant evolution in the acceleration plan. This was particularly true in 1994 with strategies involving three different charge states and low and high acceleration rates employed in the Booster. The present status of this work will be presented

  17. Accelerator system and final beam transport in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion

    Physical aspects of the fundamental components of accelerator system, beam and target for heavy ion inertial confinement fusion, are briefly reviewed. A particular emphasis is placed on the heavy ion transport in reactor vessel. The feasibility study at European research group on ignition by heavy ion driver is also presented. (author)

  18. Development of synchrotron control for Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerators

    Kadowaki, T., E-mail: kadowaki@aec-beam.co.jp [Accelerator Engineering Corporation (AEC), 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Iwata, Y., E-mail: y_iwata@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Noda, K., E-mail: noda_k@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takada, E., E-mail: takada@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shirai, T., E-mail: t_shirai@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Furukawa, T., E-mail: t_furu@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uchiyama, H., E-mail: aechebt@nirs.go.jp [Accelerator Engineering Corporation (AEC), 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Fujimoto, T., E-mail: t.fujimoto@aec-beam.co.jp [Accelerator Engineering Corporation (AEC), 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The power supplies for the main bending and quadrupole magnets of the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba are controlled by preset current and voltage patterns, which are created by a pattern-creation program. It has been observed that a deviation between the preset current and the actual one becomes very large when newly created patterns are applied to the power supplies. This deviation is attributed to the incorrect parameters used for calculations of the voltage pattern in the pattern-creation program. In order to reduce the deviation, we have analyzed the values of resistance and inductance using the actual data of the current and voltage patterns. As a result, more than 10% difference was found between the conventional and newly calculated parameters. By applying the new parameters to the pattern-creation program a reduction of the deviation was confirmed.

  19. Heavy ion medical accelerator project by Hyogo Prefectural Government

    A project to construct a heavy ion medical accelerator facility for cancer therapy in five years is expected to start from 1996 by Hyogo Prefectural Government. The site will be located near SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility in Harima Science Garden City, about 75 km northwest of Kobe city, Japan. Beam particles include proton, helium and carbon. Beam energy ranges are 70 - 230 MeV/u for proton and helium, and 70 - 320 MeV/u for carbon. The beam intensities are required to satisfy the dose rate of 5 Gy/min. for treatment volumes of 15 cmφ field size and of fully extended spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) over the maximum beam range. The facility will have a horizontal line, a vertical line and an oblique (45deg) line for proton, helium and carbon beams, and two isocentric gantry lines for proton beam. (author)

  20. Development of synchrotron control for Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerators

    The power supplies for the main bending and quadrupole magnets of the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba are controlled by preset current and voltage patterns, which are created by a pattern-creation program. It has been observed that a deviation between the preset current and the actual one becomes very large when newly created patterns are applied to the power supplies. This deviation is attributed to the incorrect parameters used for calculations of the voltage pattern in the pattern-creation program. In order to reduce the deviation, we have analyzed the values of resistance and inductance using the actual data of the current and voltage patterns. As a result, more than 10% difference was found between the conventional and newly calculated parameters. By applying the new parameters to the pattern-creation program a reduction of the deviation was confirmed.

  1. Heavy ion accelerator and associated developments in India

    G K Mehta

    2002-11-01

    Developments of ion accelerator and associated facilities in India are presented. Various types of accelerator facilities which are systematically built in the country through sustained development and research programs at various research centres and institutions are highlighted. Impact of accelerator in different interdisciplinary fields of research are highlighted.

  2. Final Progress Report - Heavy Ion Accelerator Theory and Simulation

    Haber, Irving

    2009-10-31

    The use of a beam of heavy ions to heat a target for the study of warm dense matter physics, high energy density physics, and ultimately to ignite an inertial fusion pellet, requires the achievement of beam intensities somewhat greater than have traditionally been obtained using conventional accelerator technology. The research program described here has substantially contributed to understanding the basic nonlinear intense-beam physics that is central to the attainment of the requisite intensities. Since it is very difficult to reverse intensity dilution, avoiding excessive dilution over the entire beam lifetime is necessary for achieving the required beam intensities on target. The central emphasis in this research has therefore been on understanding the nonlinear mechanisms that are responsible for intensity dilution and which generally occur when intense space-charge-dominated beams are not in detailed equilibrium with the external forces used to confine them. This is an important area of study because such lack of detailed equilibrium can be an unavoidable consequence of the beam manipulations such as acceleration, bunching, and focusing necessary to attain sufficient intensity on target. The primary tool employed in this effort has been the use of simulation, particularly the WARP code, in concert with experiment, to identify the nonlinear dynamical characteristics that are important in practical high intensity accelerators. This research has gradually made a transition from the study of idealized systems and comparisons with theory, to study the fundamental scaling of intensity dilution in intense beams, and more recently to explicit identification of the mechanisms relevant to actual experiments. This work consists of two categories; work in direct support beam physics directly applicable to NDCX and a larger effort to further the general understanding of space-charge-dominated beam physics.

  3. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    Kitagawa, A; Sekiguchi, M; Yamada, S; Jincho, K; Okada, T; Yamamoto, M; Hattori, T G; Biri, S; Baskaran, R; Sakata, T; Sawada, K; Uno, K

    2000-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C/sup 4+/ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e mu A for C/sup 4+/ and 1.1e mA for Ar/sup 8+/, respectively. (14 refs).

  4. VME control system for synchrotrons of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    Beam of accelerated ions such as carbon, neon, argon etc., is called heavy ion beam. When heavy ion beam irradiates a human body, its interaction with tissues becomes strong sharply at the certain depth which is determined by its energy. Heavy ion is expected to be very effective and suitable radiotherapy tool because it can hit a deep-seated cancer while a damage to normal organs along the path will be minimal. HIMAC(Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba), now under construction in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, is the first accelerator facility that is dedicated to heavy ion radiotherapy in the world. This paper describes about Timing System and Magnet Power Supply Control System of HIMAC synchrotron. These are among VME-based control systems, of which Hitachi Zosen Corp. is in charge, under subcontract through Hitachi Ltd. (author)

  5. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  6. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Bahng, Jungbae [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob, E-mail: bslee@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@korea.ac.kr [Department of Accelerator Science, Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong 339-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  7. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  8. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source

  9. Development of heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for inertially confined fusion

    The commercialization of inertial confinement fusion is discussed in terms of power costs. A chapter on heavy ion accelerators covers the prinicpal components, beam loss mechanisms, and theoretical considerations. Other tyopics discussed include the following: (1) heavy ion fusion implementation plan, (2) driver with accumulator rings fed by an rf LINAC, (3) single pass driver with an induction LINAC, and (4) implementation scenarios

  10. Proceedings of the Workshop on relativistic heavy ion physics at present and future accelerators

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Budapest Workshop on relativistic heavy ion physics at present and future accelerators. The topics includes experimental heavy ion physics, particle phenomenology, Bose-Einstein correlations, relativistic transport theory, quark-gluon plasma rehadronization, astronuclear physics, leptonpair production and intermittency. All contributions were indexed separately for the INIS database. (G.P.)

  11. Development of heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for inertially confined fusion

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-06-01

    The commercialization of inertial confinement fusion is discussed in terms of power costs. A chapter on heavy ion accelerators covers the prinicpal components, beam loss mechanisms, and theoretical considerations. Other tyopics discussed include the following: (1) heavy ion fusion implementation plan, (2) driver with accumulator rings fed by an rf LINAC, (3) single pass driver with an induction LINAC, and (4) implementation scenarios.

  12. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, induction acceleration, is being studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  13. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1985-September 30, 1985

    1985-10-01

    The heavy ion accelerator is profiled. Energy losses, currents, kinetic energy, beam optics, pulse models and mechanical tolerances are included in the discussion. In addition, computational efforts and an energy analyzer are described. 37 refs., 27 figs. (WRF)

  14. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1985-September 30, 1985

    The heavy ion accelerator is profiled. Energy losses, currents, kinetic energy, beam optics, pulse models and mechanical tolerances are included in the discussion. In addition, computational efforts and an energy analyzer are described. 37 refs., 27 figs

  15. Accelerating structures pre-stripping section the milac heavy ion linear Accelerator MILAC

    Researches on development of new variants of accelerating structures for acceleration of the ions with A/q=20 in pre-stripping section PSS-20 are carried out. On an initial part of acceleration of ions from 6 up to 150 keV/u high capture in process of acceleration of the injected ions is provided interdigital (IH) accelerating structure with Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) focusing. On the second part of acceleration of ions from 150 keV/u up to 1 MeV/u the highest rate of acceleration is created interdigital (IH) accelerating structure with drift tubes with the modified radio-frequency focusing.

  16. Studies on a two-stage design for a high energy heavy ion accelerator

    The most prominent feature of any high energy heavy ions facility is the need for a multi-stage concept. In the first stage ions are accelerated to energies that, after stripping, ensure an abundance of fully ionized particles even for the heaviest elements, in the second stage all kinds of ions can then be accelerated under optimal conditions to extremely high energies and can eventually be stored for experiments with colliding ion beams. (orig./WL)

  17. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1--September 30, 1988

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  18. Coulomb-driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser-plasma acceleration.

    Braenzel, J; Andreev, A A; Platonov, K; Klingsporn, M; Ehrentraut, L; Sandner, W; Schnürer, M

    2015-03-27

    An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultrathin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse at a peak intensity of 8×10^{19}  W/  cm^{2}. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to >200  MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using 1.3 J laser energy on target. 1D and 2D particle in cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ion's ionization leads to an enhancement of the accelerating electrical field. Our theoretical model considers a spatial distribution of the ionization inside the thin target, leading to a field enhancement for the heavy ions by Coulomb explosion. It is capable of explaining the energy boost of highly charged ions, enabling a higher efficiency for the laser-driven heavy ion acceleration. PMID:25860747

  19. Development of a low-energy beam transport system at KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Bahng, Jungbae; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Sato, Yoichi; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Choi, Seyong; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute has developed a heavy ion accelerator for fast neutron radiography [1]. To meet the requirements for fast neutron generation, we have developed an accelerator system that consists of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS), low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), medium-energy beam transport system, and drift tube linac. In this paper, we present the development of the LEBT system as a part of the heavy ion accelerator system, which operates from the ECR-IS to the RFQ entrance.

  20. High-performance control system for a heavy-ion medical accelerator

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species

  1. A high performance control system for a heavy ion medical accelerator

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species

  2. Preliminary design for a recirculating induction accelerator for heavy ion fusion

    Substantial savings in size and cost over a linear machine may be achieved in an induction accelerator in which a heavy ion beam makes many (∼50) passes through one or more circular accelerators. We examine a point design for such an accelerator, consisting of four rings. We discuss the consequences of this design on emittance growth, longitudinal instability growth, vacuum requirements, pulser requirements, pulsed-magnet requirements, acceleration schedule, and cost. 3 refs., 1 tab

  3. Simulation studies of acceleration of heavy ions and their elemental compositions

    By using a one-dimensional, electromagnetic particle simulation code with full ion and electron dynamics, we have studied the acceleration of heavy ions by a nonlinear magnetosonic wave in a multi-ion-species plasma. First, we describe the mechanism of heavy ion acceleration by magnetosonic waves. We then investigate this by particle simulations. The simulation plasma contains four ion species: H, He, O, and Fe. The number density of He is taken to be 10% of that of H, and those of O and Fe are much lower. Simulations confirm that, as in a single-ion-species plasma, some of the hydrogens can be accelerated by the longitudinal electric field formed in the wave. Furthermore, they show that magnetosonic waves can accelerate all the particles of all the heavy species (He, O, and Fe) by a different mechanism, i.e., by the transverse electric field. The maximum speeds of the heavy species are about the same, of the order of the wave propagation speed. These are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. These results indicate that, if high-energy ions are produced in the solar corona through these mechanisms, the elemental compositions of these heavy ions can be similar to that of the background plasma, i.e., the corona

  4. Generation of heavy ion beams using femtosecond laser pulses in the target normal sheath acceleration and radiation pressure acceleration regimes

    Petrov, G. M.; McGuffey, C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from sub-micron gold foils irradiated by a short pulse laser is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the time history of the laser pulse is examined in order to get insight into the laser energy deposition and ion acceleration process. For laser pulses with intensity 3 × 10 21 W / cm 2 , duration 32 fs, focal spot size 5 μm, and energy 27 J, the calculated reflection, transmission, and coupling coefficients from a 20 nm foil are 80%, 5%, and 15%, respectively. The conversion efficiency into gold ions is 8%. Two highly collimated counter-propagating ion beams have been identified. The forward accelerated gold ions have average and maximum charge-to-mass ratio of 0.25 and 0.3, respectively, maximum normalized energy 25 MeV/nucleon, and flux 2 × 10 11 ions / sr . An analytical model was used to determine a range of foil thicknesses suitable for acceleration of gold ions in the radiation pressure acceleration regime and the onset of the target normal sheath acceleration regime. The numerical simulations and analytical model point to at least four technical challenges hindering the heavy ion acceleration: low charge-to-mass ratio, limited number of ions amenable to acceleration, delayed acceleration, and high reflectivity of the plasma. Finally, a regime suitable for heavy ion acceleration has been identified in an alternative approach by analyzing the energy absorption and distribution among participating species and scaling of conversion efficiency, maximum energy, and flux with laser intensity.

  5. Cost reduction possibilities for a heavy-ion accelerator for inertial confinement fusion

    A design was produced for a single module in a cost-optimized accelerator appropriate for a commercial heavy-ion power plant. The goal of the study was to determine if the cost of the accelerator module could be reduced through design options, selection of materials, and manufacturing techniques. Independent cost estimates were obtained for the three main components of the module, and cost reductions of 20% from the cost calculated by the heavy-ion accelerator design/cost-minimization computer code LIACEP were identified. 3 refs., 23 figs

  6. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  7. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described

  8. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  9. A heavy ion superconducting linear post-accelerator called ALPI

    The superconducting Linac known as ALPI will consist of quarter wave resonators (93 in total) made of copper, lead plated on their inner surface, cooled down to 4.2 K and independently phased. Ions, from silicon to uranium, accelerated by the 16 MV XTU Tandem, already operating will be further stripped of electrons and injected into the Linac, to achieve an energy from 6 up to 20 MeV/amu. The final part of the construction will include the installation of a positive ion source of the type ECR followed by a superconducting RFQ system of the equivalent voltage of 9-12 MeV. (R.P.) 7 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Heavy ions acceleration in RF wells of 2-frequency electromagnetic field and in the inverted FEL

    Last results of the study of heavy ions acceleration by electrons trapped in moving 2-frequency 3-D RF wells are described. A linearized theoretical model of ions acceleration in a polarized spheroidal plasmoid is proposed. The equilibrium state of this plasmoid is described by the modified microcanonical distribution of the Courant-Snyder invariant (open-quotes quasienergyclose quotes of electrons). Some new results of computational simulation of the acceleration process are given. The method of computation takes into account the given cylindrical field E011(var-phi,r,z) and the self fields of electrons and ions. The results of the computation at relatively short time intervals confirm the idea and estimated parameters of acceleration. The heavy ion accelerator using this principle may be constructed with the use of compact cm band iris-loaded and biperiodical waveguides with double-sided 2-frequency RF feeding. It can accelerate heavy ions with a charge number Zi from small initial energies ∼ 50 keV/a.u. with the rate ∼ Zi · 10 MeV/m. Semirelativistic ions may be accelerated with similar rate also in the inverted FEL

  11. The steering and manipulation of ion beams for low-energy heavy ion accelerators

    Both electrostatic and magnetic fields are used in low-energy accelerators. Electrostatic fields are essential in the acceleration stages and they are commonly used for ion beam scanning and focussing. Magnetic fields are only infrequently used as lenses, but they are essential for mass analysis and are sometimes employed for beam steering. The electrostatic mirror is a versatile and compact lens which has hitherto received little attention for the controlled manipulation of heavy ions. In addition to energy analysis it can be used to steer, focus and scan such beams and its flexibility and usefulness can be further increased by shaping the electrostatic field in the mirror space. The use of a computer programme to model the focussing behaviour of a variety of lens shapes is described and it is shown that the focal properties of the mirror can be controlled to produce a parallel, convergent or divergent output beam. The use of mirrors for two-dimensional beam focusing is also outlined. To permit the use of the mirror system with heavy ions an apertured front plate, without field-defining gauzes, was utilized. In consequence an additional electrode was incorporated in the lens structure to prevent penetration of the positive electric field along the beam axes outside the mirror space. This factor and the compact design of the mirror, contributed to the minimisation of space-charge defocussing effects which normally militate against the use of such electrostatic lenses with high intensity ion beams. The results of experiments confirming the computer predictions are briefly described and, in conclusion some possible applications of electrostatic mirrors in electromagnetic isotope separators and low energy accelerators are outlined. (Auth.)

  12. Heavy ion de-acceleration with the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator

    The Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator system has been used to produce beams of 0.375 MeV/A 16O 8+ and 0.386 MeV/A 28Si 13+ and 28Si 14+ as a test of using the superconducting linac de-acceleration mode to provide highly stripped high charge state heavy-ion beams for use in atomic physics experimental programs. Such beams have been developed in the past at installations containing dual tandem electrostatic accelerators and the U. of Heidelberg tandem-linac facility. The beams in the tests reported in this communication were transmitted through the linac with an efficiency of 30 to 50% and can be delivered to a target location with a transmission efficiency of approximately 7%. These tests required the use of only 50 to 75% of the present linac. Energies down to 0.135 MeV/A should be possible using the entire linac but these lower energies will be accompanied by significant additional losses in transmission efficiency due to longitudinal and transverse emittance growth

  13. Performance of MBE-4: An experimental multiple beam induction linear accelerator for heavy ions

    An experimental induction linac, called MBE-4, has been constructed to demonstrate acceleration and current amplification of multiple heavy ion beams. This work is part of a program to study the use of such an accelerator as a driver for heavy ion inertial fusion. MBE-4 is 16m long and accelerates four space-charge-dominated beams of singly-charged cesium ions, in this case from 200 keV to 700 keV, amplifying the current in each beam from 10mA by a factor of nine. Construction of the experiment was completed late in 1987 and we present the results of detailed measurements of the longitudinal beam dynamics. Of particular interest is the contribution of acceleration errors to the growth of current fluctuations and to the longitudinal emittance. The effectiveness of the longitudinal focusing, accomplished by means of the controlled time dependence of the accelerating fields, is also discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Coulomb driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser plasma acceleration

    Braenzel, J; Platonov, K; Klingsporn, M; Ehrentraut, L; Sandner, W; Schnürer, M

    2014-01-01

    An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultra thin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultra short laser pulse at an intensity of $6\\times 10^{19}$ W/cm$^{2}$. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to $> 200$ MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using $1.3$ Joule laser energy on target. $1$D and $2$D Particle in Cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ions ionization leads to an enhancement of the accelerating electrical field. Our theoretical model considers a varying charge density along the target normal and is capable of explaining the energy boost of highly charged ions, leading to a higher efficiency in laser acceleration of heavy ions.

  15. Recommendation for a injector-cyclotron and ion sources for the acceleration of heavy ions and polarized protons and deuterons

    It was decided to accelerate both heavy and light ions with the open-sector cyclotron. The injector SPS1, was used for light ions and SPS2 for heavy ions. Provision was also made for the acceleration of polarized neutrons. To enable this, the injector must have an axial injection system. The working of a source of polarized ions and inflectors for an axial injection system is discussed. The limitations of the open-sector cyclotron on the acceleration of heavy ions are also dealt with. The following acceleration/ion source combinations are discussed: i) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=40 injector cyclotron with a Penning ion source, and a stripper between the injector and the open-sector cyclotron and also a source of polarized protons and deuterons; ii) The acceleration/ion source combination with the addition of electron beam ion sources; iii) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=11 injector cyclotron with a electron beam ion source and a source of polarized protons and deuterons

  16. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as open-quotes driversclose quotes for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a open-quotes taxonomyclose quotes of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area

  17. A new compact structure for a high intensity low-energy heavy-ion accelerator

    A new compact accelerating structure named Hybrid RFQ is proposed to accelerate a high-intensity low-energy heavy ion beam in HISCL (High Intensive heavy ion SuperConducting Linear accelerator), which is an injector of HIAF (Heavy Ion Advanced Research Facility). It is combined by an alternative series of acceleration gaps and RFQ sections. The proposed structure has a high accelerating ability compared with a conventional RFQ and is more compact than traditional DTLs. A Hybrid RFQ is designed to accelerate 238U34+ from 0.38 MeV/u to 1.33 MeV/u. The operation frequency is described to be 81.25 MHz at CW (continuous wave) mode. The design beam current is 1.0 mA. The results of beam dynamics and RF simulation of the Hybrid RFQ show that the structure has a good performance at the energy range for ion acceleration. The emittance growth is less than 5% in both directions and the RF power is less than 150 kW. In this paper, the results of beam dynamics and RF simulation of the Hybrid RFQ are presented. (authors)

  18. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    This report contains the following topics on heavy ion fusion: MBE-4 drifting beam quadrupole operating range; transverse emittance growth in MBE-4; an improved ion source for MBE-4; drifting beam studies on MBE-4; 2-MV injector; improvements in lifetime of the C+ source; injector control system; Maxwell spark gap test update; ILSE cosine 2θ quadrupole magnet development; electrostatic quadrupole prototype development activity; induction accelerator cell development; effect of a spread in beamlet currents on longitudinal stability; and heavy ion linac driver analysis

  19. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few μm. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials

  20. Review of heavy-ion induced desorption studies for particle accelerators

    Mahner, Edgar

    2008-10-01

    During high-intensity heavy-ion operation of several particle accelerators worldwide, large dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were caused by lost beam ions that impacted under grazing angle onto the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced desorption, observed, for example, at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion intensity, luminosity, and beam lifetime of the accelerator. For the heavy-ion program at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider collisions between beams of fully stripped lead (Pb82+208) ions with a beam energy of 2.76TeV/u and a nominal luminosity of 1027cm-2s-1 are foreseen. The GSI future project FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) aims at a beam intensity of 1012 uranium (U28+238) ions per second to be extracted from the synchrotron SIS18. Over the past years an experimental effort has been made to study the observed dynamic vacuum degradations, which are important to understand and overcome for present and future particle accelerators. The paper reviews the results obtained in several laboratories using dedicated test setups, the mitigation techniques found, and their implementation in accelerators.

  1. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A. (eds.)

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  2. System for measuring parameters of electron beams injected into collective heavy ion accelerator

    The description of automation system for measurement of the intensive nanosecond electron beam characteristics of a collective heavy ion accelerator at JINR is presented. The system includes a set of the collector sensors for registering electronics for all sensors. The range of beam measured currents reaches 1000 A at repetition frequency of cycles up to 50 Hz

  3. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980

  4. Development of high intensity linear accelerator for heavy ion inertial fusion driver

    In order to verify the direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), an acceleration test was carried out in 2001 using a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) heavy ion linear accelerator (linac) and a CO2-laser ion source (LIS) (Okamura et al., 2002) [1]. The accelerated carbon beam was observed successfully and the obtained current was 9.22 mA for C4+. To confirm the capability of the DPIS, we succeeded in accelerating 60 mA carbon ions with the DPIS in 2004 (Okamura et al., 2004; Kashiwagi and Hattori, 2004) [2,3]. We have studied a multi-beam type RFQ with an interdigital-H (IH) cavity that has a power-efficient structure in the low energy region. We designed and manufactured a two-beam type RFQ linac as a prototype for the multi-beam type linac; the beam acceleration test of carbon beams showed that it successfully accelerated from 5 keV/u up to 60 keV/u with an output current of 108 mA (2×54 mA/channel) (Ishibashi et al., 2011) [4]. We believe that the acceleration techniques of DPIS and the multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac are technical breakthroughs for heavy-ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF). The conceptual design of the RF linac with these techniques for HIF is studied. New accelerator-systems using these techniques for the HIF basic experiment are being designed to accelerate 400 mA carbon ions using four-beam type IH-RFQ linacs with DPIS. A model with a four-beam acceleration cavity was designed and manufactured to establish the proof of principle (PoP) of the accelerator

  5. Transverse beam dynamics in recirculating accelerators for heavy-ion fusion

    A conceptual design for a circular induction accelerator has been proposed as a driver for heavy-ion fusion. In such an accelerator, errors in dipole strength and quadrupole alignment affect the transverse motion of the beam centroid. Analytic and numerical estimates are made of the beam-centroid displacement due to these errors, and a steering algorithm to correct the transverse mismatch from these errors is described and tested numerically

  6. Operating experience with acceleration of high intensity heavy-ion beams in RIBF

    Since 2008, the accelerator complex of RIKEN RI-Beam Factory has provided heavy ion beams which nuclear physicists requested. To date, the ions which have been developed are deuteron (polarized, unpolarized), 4He, 14N, 18O, 48Ca, 70Zn, 86Kr, 124Xe, and 238U. Using the acceleration mode of variable energy, the energy range from 230 to 235 MeV/u has been achieved with 18O and their intensities were 1 pμA to the maximum. On the other hand the beam currents of very heavy ions like uranium did not respond to the intensities requested for the nucleosynthesis experiments at RIBF. In the last year the uranium beam with an intensity of 3.5 pnA has been successfully achieved owing to the new injector RILAC2 and 28 GHz SC-ECR ion source. (author)

  7. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  8. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1974--1977

    The Bevalac, a versatile high-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex, has been in operation for less than two years. A major purpose for which the Bevalac was constructed was to explore the possibility of heavy-ion teams for therapy for certain forms of cancer. Significant progress has been made in this direction. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the advantages that these and other accelerated particles offer, and heavy ions have been included in a long-term plan for particle therapy that will assess by means of controlled therapeutic tests the value of various modalities. Since accelerated heavy ions became available, the possibility of other contributions, not planned, became apparent. We are developig a new diagnostic method known as heavy-ion radiography that has greatly increased sensitivity for soft-tissue detail and that may become a powerful tool for localizing early tumors and metastases. We have discovered that radioactive beams are formed from fragmentation of stable deflected beams. Use of these autoradioactive beams is just beginning; however, we know that these beams will be helpful in localizing the region in the body where therapy is being delivered. In addition, it has been demonstrated that instant implantation of the radioactive beam allows direct measurements of blood perfusion rates in inaccessible parts of the body, and such a technique may become a new tool for the study of fast hot atom reactions in biochemistry, tracer biology and nuclear medicine. The Bevalac will also be useful for the continuation of previously developed methods for the control of acromegaly, Cushing's disease and, on a research basis, advanced diabetes mellitus with vascular disease. The ability to make small bloodless lesions in the brain and elsewhere with heavy-ion beams has great potential for nervous-system studies and perhaps later for radioneurosurgery

  9. New structure for accelerating heavy ions; Une nouvelle structure acceleratrice d'ions lourds

    Pottier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    A new type of accelerating structure is described which is particular suited to heavy ions (high wavelength, high shunt impedance, small size). Its properties are analyzed and compared to those of other structures (more particularly the lines). It is shown that a mode of operation exists of which the shunt impedance in the station mode has 80 per cent of its value for the progressive mode. Finally results are given obtained with a small experimental apparatus which uses this structure. (author) [French] On decrit un nouveau type de structure acceleratrice, particulierement appropriee aux ions lourds (grande longueur d'onde, forte impedance-shunt, faibles dimensions). Ses proprietes sont analysees et comparees a celles d'autres structures (plus particulierement les lignes). On met en evidence un mode de fonctionnement pour lequel l'impedance shunt en regime stationnaire vaut 80 pour cent de l'impedance shunt en regime progressif. Enfin on decrit les resultats obtenus a l'aide d'une petite machine experimentale mettant en oeuvre cette structure. (auteur)

  10. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited)

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex

  11. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited)

    Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Fukushima, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takasugi, W.; Biri, S.; Rácz, R.; Kato, Y.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.

    2016-02-01

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex.

  12. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited)

    Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fukushima, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takasugi, W. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba (Japan); Biri, S.; Rácz, R. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex.

  13. Multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the ultra-intense short pulse laser system interacting with the metal target

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Maeda, S.; Sagisaka, A.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Pikuz, T.; Faenov, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Matsukawa, K.; Kusumoto, T.; Tao, A.; Fukami, T.; Esirkepov, T.; Koga, J.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Shimomura, T.; Tanoue, M.; Nakai, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Sakai, S.; Tamura, J.; Nishio, K.; Sako, H.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.

    2014-02-01

    Experimental demonstration of multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the interaction between the ultra-intense short pulse laser system and the metal target is presented. Al ions are accelerated up to 12 MeV/u (324 MeV total energy). To our knowledge, this is far the highest energy ever reported for the case of acceleration of the heavy ions produced by the high intensity laser field of ˜1021 W cm-2, the accelerated ions are almost fully stripped, having high charge to mass ratio (Q/M).

  14. Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in high energy heavy ion accelerators

    Belousov, Anton

    2014-10-20

    Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research are becoming more and more significant with the increase of beam intensity due to upgrades. Moreover a new accelerator is being constructed on the basis of GSI within the project of facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR). Beam intensities will be increased by factor of 100 and energies by factor of 10. Radiation fields in the vicinity of beam lines will increase more than 2 orders of magnitude and so will the effects on semiconductor devices. It is necessary to carry out a study of radiation effects on semiconductor devices considering specific properties of radiation typical for high energy heavy ion accelerators. Radiation effects on electronics in accelerator environment may be divided into two categories: short-term temporary effects and long-term permanent degradation. Both may become critical for proper operation of some electronic devices. This study is focused on radiation damage to CCD cameras in radiation environment of heavy ion accelerator. Series of experiments with irradiation of devices under test (DUTs) by secondary particles produced during ion beam losses were done for this study. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to simulate the experiment conditions and conditions expected in future accelerator. Corresponding comparisons and conclusions were done. Another device typical for accelerator facilities - industrial Ethernet switch was tested in similar conditions during this study. Series of direct irradiations of CCD and MOS transistors with heavy ion beams were done as well. Typical energies of the primary ion beams were 0.5-1 GeV/u. Ion species: from Na to U. Intensities of the beam up to 10{sup 9} ions/spill with spill length of 200-300 ns. Criteria of reliability and lifetime of DUTs in specific radiation conditions were formulated, basing on experimental results of the study. Predictions of electronic device reliability and lifetime were

  15. Coulomb driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser plasma acceleration

    Braenzel, J.; Andreev, A. A.; Platonov, K.; Klingsporn, M.; Ehrentraut, L.; Sandner, W.; Schnürer, M

    2014-01-01

    An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultra thin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultra short laser pulse at an intensity of $6\\times 10^{19}$ W/cm$^{2}$. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to $> 200$ MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using $1.3$ Joule laser energy on target. $1$D and $2$D Particle in Cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ions ionization leads to an en...

  16. Acceleration and Utilization of Highly Stripped Charge State Heavy Ions at HI-13 Acceleration

    2002-01-01

    Even higher linear energy transfer (LET) values of the heavy ions are necessary as the investigationsof single event effects (SEE) of satellite devices are developing rapidly. For example, the researches aredeveloped from the single-event upset (SEU) which needs comparatively low LET values towards singleevent latch up (SEL) and single event burnout (SEB) which requires high LET values, namely LET’s arehigher than 80 MeV mg-1,cm-2 and range of the ions in the silicon should be large than 20 micrometers,

  17. Effects of accelerated heavy ions on the development of male rat gonads (I)

    Effects of exposure to accelerated heavy ion beam on the development of rats in late organogenesis were studied both in utero and in vitro, with a special focus to the response of male gonads. Either rat fetuses in utero or the cultured fetal testes in vitro were irradiated with carbon or Ne ion beams at a dose range from 0.1 Gy to 2.5 Gy. In addition to the linear energy transfer (LET) value of 13 keV/μm of carbon ion beams and of 30 keV/μm of Ne ion beams for the in utero irradiation, the LET values at 40, 60, and 80 keV/μm of carbon ion beams were also applied for the in vitro investigation. In the mean time, effects from X-irradiations estimated under the same biological endpoints were studied comparatively for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) estimation of the accelerated heavy ion irradiations. For the in utero studies, pups from dams received the accelerated heavy ion irradiations showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to that exposed to X-irradiations at the same doses. Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight including brain, heart, thymus, lung, liver, kidney and testis were also observed in the pups from dams received the accelerated heavy ion irradiations compared to those exposed to X-irradiations at the same doses at postnatal ages of 1, 2 and three months. In addition, testes obtained at these postnatal ages are being studied on testicular development including conditions of the seminiferous tubules, the numbers of germ cells and Sertoli cells. For the in vitro experiments, effects of prenatal irradiation of accelerated heavy ions on the cultured male gonad tissue of fetal rats were studied with the emphasis on cell death and its time course, and gene expression. Dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in gonocytes was observed with a pick at 8-12 h after irradiations

  18. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as open-quote open-quote drivers close-quote close-quote for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a open-quote open-quote taxonomy close-quote close-quote of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Formation of the Erevan synchrotron magnetic cycle in the mode of heavy ion acceleration

    presentiy in niiehp, and- epi investigations on reconstruction of power supply system of ehku-6 electron synchrotron are carried out to ensure acceleration regimes for both electrons with the maximum energy 4.5 gev and heavy ions with the energy up to 500 mev/nucleon and acceleration repetition rate 50 hz. an isochronous cyctotron of the u-200 type is interided to be used as a heavy ion injector. for the power supply system ehku-6 a circuit developed and manufactured for the regime of flat top formation for slow extraction of electrons is taken as a basis. it differs from the existing one in the introduction into circuit on initial winding of matching reactors, two thyristor keys, commutating capacitor and in electromagnet circuit in the presence of additional electric coil and keys. parameters of ehku-6 power supply system in the regime of flat-top formation for the beam slow extraction are presented

  20. Beam dynamics simulations of post low energy beam transport section in RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Jin, Hyunchang, E-mail: hcjin@ibs.re.kr; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Hong, In-Seok [Institute for Basic Science, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    RAON (Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness) heavy ion accelerator of the rare isotope science project in Daejeon, Korea, has been designed to accelerate multiple-charge-state beams to be used for various science programs. In the RAON accelerator, the rare isotope beams which are generated by an isotope separation on-line system with a wide range of nuclei and charges will be transported through the post Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to transport many kinds of rare isotope beams stably to the RFQ, the post LEBT should be devised to satisfy the requirement of the RFQ at the end of post LEBT, simultaneously with the twiss parameters small. We will present the recent lattice design of the post LEBT in the RAON accelerator and the results of the beam dynamics simulations from it. In addition, the error analysis and correction in the post LEBT will be also described.

  1. Testing of a low pressure multiwire avalanche counter with heavy ions from the Pelletron accelerator, Mumbai

    The motivation is to investigate eta-nucleus interaction for which the available experimental information is scarce. The new system consists of two multiwire avalanche counters (MWAC) to be operated at low pressure (10-20 mbar) followed by two layers of thin plastic scintillators. The MWACs will provide position information for track reconstruction. The chambers were tested with heavy ions from the pelletron accelerator, Mumbai. The test measurement is reported here

  2. Application of the Moyer Model to shielding design of high-energy heavy-ion accelerators

    Application of Moyer Model for evaluation of shielding design of high-energy heavy-ion accelerators is presented. Selection of Moyer parameters and calculations of shielding thickness in conditions of point and extended beam losses were described. Methods of determination of roof shielding thickness on the basis of sky shine dose are given. The calculations are compared with some results of analogue Monte Carlo calculations

  3. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1987-September 30, 1987

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to access the suitabilty of heavy ion accelerators as iginiters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accerelator techonolgy, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawerence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the vadidation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. The papers in this report that address these goals are: MBE-4 mechanical progress, alignment of MBE-4, a compact energy analyzer for MBE-4, Cs+ injector modeling with the EGUN code, an improved emittance scanning system for HIFAR, 2-MV injector, carbon arc source development, beam combining in ILSE, emittance growth due to transverse beam combining in ILSE - particle simulation results, achromatic beam combiner for ILSE, additional elements for beam merging, quadrupole magnet design for ILSE, and waveforms and longitudinal beam-parameters for ILSE

  4. Heavy-Ion Beam Acceleration of Two-Charge States from an Ecr Ion Source

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Shepard, K. W.; Aseev, V. N.; Kolomiets, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a design for the front end of a superconducting (SC) ion linac which can accept and simultaneously accelerate two charge states of uranium from an ECR ion source. This mode of operation increases the beam current available for the heaviest ions by a factor of two. We discuss the 12 MeV/u prestripper section of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac including the LEBT, RFQ, MEBT and SC sections, with a total voltage of 112 MV. The LEBT consists of two bunchers and...

  5. Review of Heavy-ion Induced Desorption Studies for Particle Accelerators

    Mahner, E

    2008-01-01

    During high-intensity heavy-ion operation of several particle accelerators worldwide, large dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were caused by lost beam ions that impacted under grazing angle onto the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced desorption, observed, for example, at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion intensity, luminosity, and beam lifetime of the accelerator. For the heavyion program at CERN's Large Hadron Collider collisions between beams of fully stripped lead (208Pb82+) ions with a beam energy of 2.76 TeV/u and a nominal luminosity of 10**27 cm**-2 s**-1 are foreseen. The GSI future project FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) aims at a beam intensity of 10**12 uranium (238U28+) ions per second to be extracted from the synchrotron SIS18. Over the past years an experimental effort has been made to study the observed dynamic vacuum degradations, which are important to understand and overcome for present and future particle accelerators. The paper reviews the resu...

  6. Carbon ion and high intensity acceleration test of TIT heavy ion RFQ linac

    The RFQ Linac at Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT-RFQ) was constructed and acceleration test of ion beams 4He+ and 12C2+ was performed. The linac was designed to accelerate particles with charge to mass ratio(q/A) of 1-1/16 injected at 5 keV/u up to 214 keV/u. As the result of acceleration test, beam transmission was 89% for a low beam current. It is nearly design data 91% and the acceleration characteristic agrees well with a computer simulation. (author)

  7. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR), to be implemented upstream of each FRIB cryomodule, as part of the direct loss monitoring system to fulfill the needs of machine protection. - Highlights: • Traditional BLM is not effective for beam loss monitoring at FRIB low energy linac segments. • We developed LMR to intercept a small portion of beam loss and output voltage signals. • We made a prototype LMR and demonstrated its functionality to monitor small beam losses. • The LMR is very sensitive for small beam losses and is independent of beam current. • The LMR is especially useful for loss monitoring at low energy ion/proton accelerators

  8. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    Liu, Zhengzheng, E-mail: liuz@frib.msu.edu; Crisp, Jenna; Russo, Tom; Webber, Robert; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-11

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR), to be implemented upstream of each FRIB cryomodule, as part of the direct loss monitoring system to fulfill the needs of machine protection. - Highlights: • Traditional BLM is not effective for beam loss monitoring at FRIB low energy linac segments. • We developed LMR to intercept a small portion of beam loss and output voltage signals. • We made a prototype LMR and demonstrated its functionality to monitor small beam losses. • The LMR is very sensitive for small beam losses and is independent of beam current. • The LMR is especially useful for loss monitoring at low energy ion/proton accelerators.

  9. AMS of heavy elements with an ECR ion source and the ATLAS linear accelerator

    Paul, M; Ahmad, I; Borasi, F; Caggiano, J; Davids, C N; Greene, J P; Harss, B; Heinz, A; Henderson, D J; Henning, W F; Jiang, C L; Pardo, R C; Rehm, K E; Rejoub, R; Seweryniak, D; Sonzogni, A; Uusitalo, J; Vondrasek, R C

    2000-01-01

    Detection of heavy elements by accelerator mass spectrometry with the electron cyclotron resonance ion source, Argonne linear accelerator and fragment mass analyzer (ECRIS-ATLAS-FMA) system has been developed. The use of the ECR-ATLAS system for AMS of heavy elements has two interesting features: (i) the efficient production of high-charge state ions in the ECR source ensures the elimination of molecular ions at the source stage, a highly attractive feature for any mass-spectrometric use not exploited so far; (ii) the linear acceleration based on velocity matching and the beam transport system act as a powerful mass filter for background suppression. We have shown that our system reaches an abundance sensitivity of 1x10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 for Pb isotopes. The sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U detection sensitivity is sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U/U > or approx. 1x10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 , limited mainly by the ion source output.

  10. Concept for simultaneous acceleration/deceleration of heavy ions in a single rf linac

    This paper outlines a concept for obtaining highly-stripped low- velocity heavy ions by accelerating an ion beam with an rf linac and then, after stripping, using the same linac to reversibly decelerate the beam back to the injection energy. The synchronous-phase requirement and the matching relationship in longitudinal phase space are stated, and a realistic example of these relationships is given for a 58Ni beam. The probable performance characteristics of the ATLAS superconducting linac operated in this new accel/decel mode are discussed. 11 refs., 2 figs

  11. Some considerations concerning: the physics of nuclear matter under extreme conditions and an accelerator for relativistic heavy ions

    The possibilities for studying the physics of nuclear matter at high density and temperature are discussed. Topics presented include: the present situation and the future of heavy ion research; research objectives; accelerator design; and experimental facilities

  12. Study of the mechanisms of heavy-ion induced desorption on accelerator-relevant materials

    The ion beam loss induced desorption is a performance limitation for low charge state heavy ion accelerators. If charge exchanged projectile ions get lost onto the beam pipe, desorption of gas is stimulated resulting in a pressure increase inside of the synchrotron and thus, a dramatically reduction of the beam life time. To minimize the amount of desorbed gas an experimental program has been started to measure the desorption yields (released gas molecules per incident ion) of various materials and different projectile ions. The present work is a contribution to the understanding of the physical processes behind the ion beam loss induced desorption. The yield measurements by the pressure rise method have been combined for the rst time with in situ ion beam analysis technologies such as ERDA and RBS. With this unique method the desorption behavior of a sample can be correlated to its surface and bulk properties. The performed experiments with 1,4 MeV/u Xenon-Ions show that the ion induced desorption is mainly a surface effect. Sputtered oxide layers or impurities do not contribute to the desorbed gas significantly. Nevertheless bulk properties play an important role in the desorption strength. Pure metallic samples desorb less gas than isolating materials under swift heavy ion irradiation. From the experimental results it was possible to estimate the desorption yields of various materials under ion bombardment by means of an extended inelastic thermal-spike-model. The extension is the combination of the thermal-spike's temperature map with thermal desorption. Within this model the ion induced desorption can be regarded as the release of adsorbates from a transient overheated spot on the samples surface around the ion impact. Finally a copper substrate with a gold coated surface was developed and proposed as a suitable material for a beam loss collimator with minimum desorption to ensure the performance of GSI's SIS18 in high current beam operation. (orig.)

  13. New Beam Line Design of TRIAC as a Stable Heavy-Ion Accelerator at KAERI

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Chang, Dae Sik; Oh, Byung Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Chang Seog; Yun, Chong Cheoul [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Sun Chan [dHigh Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba-shi (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) TRIAC (Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex) was a radioactive isotope accelerator which can provide beams of uranium fission fragments with the maximum energy of 1.1 MeV/nucleon produced by protons of 30 MeV and 1 {mu}A (30 W in beam power, actually deposited in the production target) from the JAEA Tandem Accelerator. Because of the critical limitations in the reaccelerated energy and intensity of available RIBs (Radioactive ion beams), TRIAC considered an upgrade program seriously, but it was canceled. Finally the complex had been closed at the end of 2010, and it was transferred to KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) after being disassembled to promote a new availability in Korea. KAERI team has a plan to reassemble this device as a stable ion beam accelerator with a minimized change for the low energy beam line including the ion source and the target system. The new stable ion accelerator will be used not only for the basic research but also for the application of heavy ion beams. Before the reassembling of TRIAC at KAERI, new layout of the beam line should be designed, and checked by beam optics simulation. The operation conditions and beam optics characteristics of the new beam line components can be understood with this simulation. The works that should be done before reassembling as a new machine have been done in this study. The beam optics calculations were preferentially carried out with arbitrary order beam physics code COSY INFINITY (COSY) or beam envelope code TRANSPORT

  14. New Beam Line Design of TRIAC as a Stable Heavy-Ion Accelerator at KAERI

    KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) TRIAC (Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex) was a radioactive isotope accelerator which can provide beams of uranium fission fragments with the maximum energy of 1.1 MeV/nucleon produced by protons of 30 MeV and 1 μA (30 W in beam power, actually deposited in the production target) from the JAEA Tandem Accelerator. Because of the critical limitations in the reaccelerated energy and intensity of available RIBs (Radioactive ion beams), TRIAC considered an upgrade program seriously, but it was canceled. Finally the complex had been closed at the end of 2010, and it was transferred to KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) after being disassembled to promote a new availability in Korea. KAERI team has a plan to reassemble this device as a stable ion beam accelerator with a minimized change for the low energy beam line including the ion source and the target system. The new stable ion accelerator will be used not only for the basic research but also for the application of heavy ion beams. Before the reassembling of TRIAC at KAERI, new layout of the beam line should be designed, and checked by beam optics simulation. The operation conditions and beam optics characteristics of the new beam line components can be understood with this simulation. The works that should be done before reassembling as a new machine have been done in this study. The beam optics calculations were preferentially carried out with arbitrary order beam physics code COSY INFINITY (COSY) or beam envelope code TRANSPORT

  15. Design of high-speed data transmission system for Lanzhou heavy ion therapy accelerator

    In order to satisfy the transmission requirements of partial synchronization data and process data for the heavy ion therapy accelerator, a high-speed, error-correction, long-distance, and real-time data transmission system was proposed and achieved. It can improve the efficiency and reliability of the accelerator control and synchronization. The system optimizes the hardware configuration and layout of the traditional system. FPGA, gigabit fiber module, PXI and SDRAM are the main parts of the system. It replaces the low-speed, short-distance, and poor anti-interference of the traditional data path and the data processing chips. Through the programming in the two FPGA chips, the PXI and DMA transmission mode was used to exchange data with the server of the accelerator. The front-end of the system achieves a real-time, long-distance, and high-speed serial frame transmission with 800 MHz carrier and 100 MHz base band signal. The real-time -data like synchronous event signal, power waveform data of the heavy ion therapy accelerator can be transmitted efficiently between the server and the remote controller through the system. (authors)

  16. Toshiba's accelerator technology and approach toward higher performance and downsizing for heavy-ion radiotherapy

    Toshiba has developed various systems and components for particle beam accelerators, and delivered a number of accelerator systems including for SPring-8, which is the world's largest-class synchrotron radiation facility, as well as for the Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Facility (provisional name). Combining our proprietary technologies cultivated through our experience in the development of particle beam accelerators, we are promoting the development of an accelerator for heavy-ion radiotherapy. Toward the higher performance and downsizing of its accelerator, we are also focusing on the research and development of both an ion source applying laser beam technologies, and a superconducting deflecting magnet for accelerators. (author)

  17. On-line control system for KUTI-20 heavy ion collective accelerator

    The structure and design peculiarities of the control system for the first part of the KUTI-20 heavy ion collective accelerator comprising the SILUND-20 linear induction accelerator and Adhesator-20 charged toroide adiabatic generator are considered; electron ring shaping and their loading with ions is realized in the generator. The control system has centralized hierarchial structure with autonomous subsystems. The system includes the SM-4 minicomputer equipped with a set of external devices; the SM-4 is interfaced with two the ''Electronika-60'' and one the KM001 microcomputers by means of the KI021 series interframe communication units. The ''Elektronika-60'' microcomputers are equipped with memory units and interfaces for connection of CAMAC equipment

  18. Acceleration of heavy ions with a new RF system at HIMAC synchrotron

    Fujimoto, T.; Kanazawa, M.; Shirai, T.; Iwata, Y.; Uchiyama, H.; Noda, K.

    2011-12-01

    A fast three-dimensional scanning irradiation method is under development at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) as the next stage of heavy ion cancer therapy. This method requires highly accurate control of the beam size, energy, and intensity. To improve the accelerated beam's quality, a new scheme for the synchrotron RF system has been developed. The new system adopts a periodic time clock system (T-clock) instead of an ordinary B-clock system. The new T-clock system is synchronized with a power line frequency of 50 Hz for synchronization with the synchrotron power supply. An ordinary B-clock system results in error pulses owing to the small analog signal of the magnetic field of the main dipole magnet, and the errors cause dipole oscillation of the beam in the RF bucket. Using the new T-clock generator at 192 kHz, we have observed an improvement in the acceleration efficiency and bunch shape compared to the B-clock generator.

  19. Acceleration of heavy ions with a new RF system at HIMAC synchrotron

    A fast three-dimensional scanning irradiation method is under development at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) as the next stage of heavy ion cancer therapy. This method requires highly accurate control of the beam size, energy, and intensity. To improve the accelerated beam’s quality, a new scheme for the synchrotron RF system has been developed. The new system adopts a periodic time clock system (T-clock) instead of an ordinary B-clock system. The new T-clock system is synchronized with a power line frequency of 50 Hz for synchronization with the synchrotron power supply. An ordinary B-clock system results in error pulses owing to the small analog signal of the magnetic field of the main dipole magnet, and the errors cause dipole oscillation of the beam in the RF bucket. Using the new T-clock generator at 192 kHz, we have observed an improvement in the acceleration efficiency and bunch shape compared to the B-clock generator.

  20. Acceleration technology and power plant design for fast ignition heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    Full text: This talk gives an update on the progress in Heavy Ion Beam IFE experimental and theoretical activities conducted under the auspices of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation under contract No. 6.25.19.19.03/996. The considerations of heavy ion fusion power plant concept are based on the fast ignition principle for fusion targets. The cylindrical target is irradiated subsequently by a hollow beam in compression phase and by powerful ignition beam for initiation of the burning phase. The ignition is provided by the high energy 100 GeV Pt ions of different masses accelerated in RF-linac. The efficiency of the driver is taken ∼25%. The main beam delivers ∼5 MJ energy and the ignition beam ∼0.4 MJ to the target. Cylindrical DT filled target provides ∼600 MJ fusion yield, of which 180 MJ appears in X-rays and ionized debris and 420 MJ in neutrons. The repetition rate is taken as 2 Hz per reactor chamber. The first wall of the reactor chamber employs 'liquid wall' approach, particularly the wetted porous design. The lithium-lead eutectic is used as a coolant, with initial surface temperature of 550 deg. C. Computation of neutronics results in blanket energy deposition with maximum density of the order of 10E8 J/m3. The heat conversion system consisting of three coolant loops provides the net efficiency of the power plant of ∼35%. The Heavy Ion IFE experimental program is focused on a major upgrade of the ITEP accelerator complex for acceleration and accumulation of high current beams - the TeraWatt Accumulator project (ITEP-TWAC). Commissioning of the whole acceleration/accumulation beam gymnastic scheme with stacking of ∼10E10 C6+ and fast extraction to the experimental area has been done in 2003. The ion bunch is being compressed from 1 mks to ∼ 170 ns and focused down to a spot ∼ 1 mm. Current experiment efforts are aiming at measurements of ionization degree, charge state distribution, conductivity, plasma pressure, ion and

  1. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    Nitschke, J.M. (ed.)

    1984-04-01

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor.

  2. Study of recirculating induction accelerator as drivers for heavy ion fusion

    Two years ago, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a study of the viability and relative utility of recirculating induction accelerators as drivers for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF). The final draft of the report detailing the results in 284 pages was completed in September, 1991. As well as broadly involving the collaboration of many researchers from several groups at LLNL, it also benefited from contributions from several individuals in the HIF program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and from others in the HIF community nationwide. This presentation summarizes the key findings given in that report

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor

  4. Optics measurement and correction during beam acceleration in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-09-09

    To minimize operational complexities, setup of collisions in high energy circular colliders typically involves acceleration with near constant β-functions followed by application of strong focusing quadrupoles at the interaction points (IPs) for the final beta-squeeze. At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam acceleration and optics squeeze are performed simultaneously. In the past, beam optics correction at RHIC has taken place at injection and at final energy with some interpolation of corrections into the acceleration cycle. Recent measurements of the beam optics during acceleration and squeeze have evidenced significant beta-beats which if corrected could minimize undesirable emittance dilutions and maximize the spin polarization of polarized proton beams by avoidance of higher-order multipole fields sampled by particles within the bunch. In this report the methodology now operational at RHIC for beam optics corrections during acceleration with simultaneous beta-squeeze will be presented together with measurements which conclusively demonstrate the superior beam control. As a valuable by-product, the corrections have minimized the beta-beat at the profile monitors so reducing the dominant error in and providing more precise measurements of the evolution of the beam emittances during acceleration.

  5. Accelerating Solutions of Perfect Fluid Hydrodynamics for Initial Energy Density and Life-Time Measurements in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Csörgö, T; Csanad, M

    2007-01-01

    A new class of accelerating, exact, explicit and simple solutions of relativistic hydrodynamics is presented. Since these new solutions yield a finite rapidity distribution, they lead to an advanced estimate of the initial energy density and life-time of high energy heavy ion reactions. Accelerating solutions are also given for spherical expansions in arbitrary number of spatial dimensions.

  6. Heavy ion physics

    The international school-seminar on heavy ion physics had been organized in Dubna in may of 1993. The scientific program of reports covers the following main topics: synthesis and properties of heavy nuclei; synthesis and investigation of properties of exotic nuclei; experiments with radioactive nuclear beams; interaction between complex nuclei at low and intermediate energies. It also includes reports on laser spectroscopy and exotic nuclear beams, on some application of heavy ion beams for the problems of solid state physics, on construction of multidetector facilities and on developing of heavy ion accelerator complexes. Short communication

  7. Utilization and health physics of the GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National a Ions Lourds) (large national heavy ion accelerator)

    The Large National Heavy Ion Accelerator will enable all the sufficiently stable nuclei to be accelerated from the lightest to uranium at energies and with beam qualities not yet reached by any other accelerator. After recalling the characteristics of GANIL the new prospects opening for nuclear physics are indicated, principally its possible uses for atomic physics and astrophysics studies and its advantage for condensed media physics. The various health physics problems examined so far are then dealt with: - calculation of shield thicknesses (physical hypotheses relative to the spectra of neutrons produced, mean free attenuation path of neutrons, fluence-dose equivalent conversion factors), - assessment of the radioactive risks connected with activation of the air, - assessment of the radioactive risks connected to the activation of structural materials

  8. Status and Control Requirements of the Planned Heavy Ion Tumor Therapy Accelerator Facility HICAT

    Baer, R C; Haberer, T; Baer, Ralph C.; Eickhoff, Hartmut; Haberer, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The HICAT project is a Heavy Ion accelerator for light ion Cancer Treatment to be built for the clinics in Heidelberg, Germany. It consists of a 7 MeV/u linac, a compact synchrotron and three treatment places, one of them equipped with a 360 degree gantry beam-line. The facility will implement the intensity controlled raster-scanning technique that was developed and successfully demonstrated at GSI with over 100 patients at present. In order to produce the beams with the characteristics requested by the treatment sequencer, the accelerator must operate on a pulse-to-pulse basis with different settings. This concept imposes strict and challenging demands on the operation of the accelerators and hence the control system of the facility. The control system should be developed, installed and maintained by and under the complete responsibility of an industrial system provider, using a state-of-the-art system and wide-spread industrial components wherever possible. The presentation covers the status of the project ...

  9. Development of heavy ion beam probe and 3 MeV tandem accelerator

    Taking into account the plasma parameters of LHD (Large Helical Device), the heavy ion beam of mass number about 200 (Au+ or Tl+) is necessary for measuring plasma potential profiles and its fluctuations in the LHD plasma under the beam energy of 6 MeV. Authors had started the construction of the tandem accelerator of 3 MeV on 1998. Now Authors are the position to get the safety license for operation. Meanwhile, Authors had met many time consuming troubles as follows. The most time consuming troubles were the blocking of feedback stabilization circuits of the high voltage, mainly caused by noises from conditioning. In this case, we need high voltage stability of 10-5 to measure small electric fluctuations of plasma. The second was the leak and out flow of cooling gas of SF6 in accelerator tubes and or gas circulation pipes. The third was leaks of SF6 from feed-through sealing terminals located at the high voltage tank. We made many modifications in the ion source to get stable long-time steady-state operation. Authors measured charge-numbers of Au as a function of charge-exchange Ar gas pressure by the electro-static charge-number separator and also estimated geometrical characteristics of the Au+ beam. The results are useful for system optimization. We will be able to measure the plasma characteristics by the HIBP in near future after getting the safety license. (Y. Tanaka)

  10. ATLAS: a proposal for a precision heavy ion accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory

    The objective of the proposed Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is to provide precision beams of heavy ions for nuclear physics research in the region of projectile energies comparable to nuclear binding energies (5-25 MeV/A). By using the demonstrated potential of superconducting rf technology, beams of exceptional quality and flexibility can be obtained. The system is designed to provide beams with tandem-like energy resolution and ease of energy variation, the energy range is comparable to that of a approx. 50 MV tandem and, in addition, the beam will be bunched into very short (approx. 50 psec) pulses, permitting fast-timing measurements that can open up major new experimental approaches

  11. ATLAS: a proposal for a precision heavy ion accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory

    None

    1978-02-01

    The objective of the proposed Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is to provide precision beams of heavy ions for nuclear physics research in the region of projectile energies comparable to nuclear binding energies (5-25 MeV/A). By using the demonstrated potential of superconducting rf technology, beams of exceptional quality and flexibility can be obtained. The system is designed to provide beams with tandem-like energy resolution and ease of energy variation, the energy range is comparable to that of a approx. 50 MV tandem and, in addition, the beam will be bunched into very short (approx. 50 psec) pulses, permitting fast-timing measurements that can open up major new experimental approaches.

  12. Size of lethality target in mouse immature oocytes determined with accelerated heavy ions.

    Straume, T; Dobson, R L; Kwan, T C

    1989-01-01

    Mouse immature oocytes were irradiated in vivo with highly charged, heavy ions from the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The particles used were 670-MeV/nucleon Si14+, 570-MeV/nucleon Ar18+, and 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+. The cross-sectional area of the lethality target in these extremely radiosensitive cells was determined from fluence-response curves and information on energy deposition by delta rays. Results indicate a target cross-section larger than that of the nucleus, one which closely approximates the cross-sectional area of the entire oocyte. For 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+ particles, the predicted target cross-sectional area is 120 +/- 16 microns2, comparing well with the microscopically determined cross-sectional area of 111 +/- 12 microns2 for these cells. The present results are in agreement with our previous target studies which implicate the oocyte plasma membrane. PMID:2657842

  13. Addendum to a proposal for ATLAS: a precision heavy-ion accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory

    This revised proposal for the construction of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is in all essentials the same as the proposal originally presented to NUSAC in March 1978. The only differences worth mentioning are the plan to expand the experimental area somewhat more than was originally proposed and an increased cost, brought about principally by inflation. The outline presented is the same as in the original document, reproduced for the convenience of the reader. The objective of the proposed Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is to provide precision beams of heavy ions for nuclear physics research in the region of projectile energies comparable to nuclear binding energies (5 to 25 MeV/A). By using the demonstrated potential of superconducting rf technology, beams of exceptional quality and flexibility can be obtained. The proposed system is designed to provide beams with tandem-like energy resolution and ease of energy variation, and the energy range is comparable to that of a approx. 50 MV tandem. In addition, the beam will be bunched into very short (approx. 50 psec) pulses, permitting fast-timing measurements that can open up major new experimental approaches

  14. Waste management of radioactive residual material at a research center operating a heavy ion accelerator

    Since the 70th GSI in Darmstadt succesfully operates a large heavy ion accelerator. Limited amounts of Radioactive residual material and waste is produced in addition to great and numerous research results. These residual materials have to be measured, described and declared in order to safely reuse these materials or to dispose them in a controlled way. This is a challenge for the radioactive waste management group. The application areas at the research facility are divided in groups with similar radioactive inventory: - The ion sources with depleted uranium; - The beam line an the surrounding areas with mainly activation nuclides; - The caves for the experiments with activation products as well as contaminations from target material or open sources in rare occasions; - the radiochemical laboratories where all nuclides especially transuranium targets are handled. These nuclides are partially difficult to detect. One of the problems for radioactive waste management is the determination of nuclides and their activities. Another one is the chemical composition of the waste material. Materials with different properties must be strictly separated and described. In this paper the specific problems for all 4 groups are discussed and the characteristic solutions presented. In the future with the new facility FAIR higher beam energies and intensities will require an efficient radioactive waste management for optimised waste reduction and effective handling methods. (orig.)

  15. Response of sensitive human ataxia and resistant T-1 cell lines to accelerated heavy ions

    The radiation dose responses of fibroblast from a patient with Ataxia telangiectasis (AT-2SF) and an established line of human T-1 cells were studied. Nearly monoenergetic accelerated neon and argon ions were used at the Berkeley Bevalac with various residual range values. The LET of the particles varied from 30 keV/μm to over 1000 keV/μm. All Ataxia survival curves were exponential functions of the dose. Their radiosensitivity reached peak values at 100 to 200 keV/μm. Human T-1 cells have effective sublethal damage repair as has been evidenced by split dose experiments, and they are much more resistant to low LET than to high LET radiation. The repair-misrepair model has been used to interpret these results. We have obtained mathematical expressions that describe the cross sections and inactivation coefficients for both human cell lines as a function of the LET and the type of particle used. The results suggest either that high-LET particles induce a greater number of radiolesions per track or that heavy-ions at high LET induce lesions that kill cells more effectively and that are different from those produced at low LET. We assume that the lesions induced in T-1 and Ataxia cells are qualitatively similar and that each cell line attempts to repair these lesions. The result in most irradiated Ataxia cells, however, is either lethal misrepair or incomplete repair leading to cell death. 63 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  16. Development of heavy ion beam probe and 3 MeV tandem accelerator

    Nishizawa, Akimitsu; Hamada, Yasuji; Kawasumi, Yoshiaki [National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Taking into account the plasma parameters of LHD (Large Helical Device), the heavy ion beam of mass number about 200 (Au{sup +} or Tl{sup +}) is necessary for measuring plasma potential profiles and its fluctuations in the LHD plasma under the beam energy of 6 MeV. Authors had started the construction of the tandem accelerator of 3 MeV on 1998. Now Authors are the position to get the safety license for operation. Meanwhile, Authors had met many time consuming troubles as follows. The most time consuming troubles were the blocking of feedback stabilization circuits of the high voltage, mainly caused by noises from conditioning. In this case, we need high voltage stability of 10{sup -5} to measure small electric fluctuations of plasma. The second was the leak and out flow of cooling gas of SF{sub 6} in accelerator tubes and or gas circulation pipes. The third was leaks of SF{sub 6} from feed-through sealing terminals located at the high voltage tank. We made many modifications in the ion source to get stable long-time steady-state operation. Authors measured charge-numbers of Au as a function of charge-exchange Ar gas pressure by the electro-static charge-number separator and also estimated geometrical characteristics of the Au{sup +} beam. The results are useful for system optimization. We will be able to measure the plasma characteristics by the HIBP in near future after getting the safety license. (Y. Tanaka)

  17. Evaluation of onion root tip cell surviving fraction by measuring growing speed irradiated by accelerated heavy ions

    Average growth of germinating onion seed roots irradiated with accelerated heavy ions decreased with increase of absorbed dose, and the ratio to the non-irradiated seeds approached asymptotically to about 40% with increasing of the dose and almost converged at 10 Gy. The converged ratio was about 20% for green sorgo seeds and about 80% for alphalfa seeds. Irradiation of the heavy ions and γ-ray larger than 2 Gy delayed appearance of micronuclei in the onion root tip cells. The delay increased with the increase of linear energy transfer (LET) and absorbed dose. (author)

  18. Highly charged ion production in ECRH plasma sources for heavy-ion accelerators and other applications

    The design and status of three ECRH ion sources under development at NSCL are briefly discussed. The RT-ECR ion source, with two minimum B plasma stages and ECRH heating at 6.4 GHz, produces useable intensities of fully stripped light ions up to oxygen; for heavier species, charges such as Argon 14+, Krypton 20+, Iodine 25+ and Tantalum 29+ have been measured. The 6.4 GHz CP-ECR, just beginning operation, has a high temperature metal vapor oven replacing the first plasma stage, and will be used for metal ion production. Initial results for Lithium ions are presented. The SC-ECR, now in the design stage, has a superconducting magnet structure to allow first harmonic ECRH heating at 30--35 GHz. With a higher cutoff density, it is hoped that A≅200 ions with Q>50+ will be realized

  19. Characteristics of pulsed heavy ion beam generated in bipolar pulse accelerator

    We have developed a new type of a pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator' for improvement of the purity of the intense pulsed ion beam. The system utilizes a magnetically insulated accelerate on gap and was operated with the bipolar pulse. A coaxial gas puff plasma gun was used as an ion source, which was placed inside of the grounded anode. Source plasma (nitrogen) of current density of ≈30 A/cm2 and pulse duration of ≈1.0 μs was injected into the acceleration gap. When the bipolar pulse of -114 kV, 70 ns (1st pulse) and 85 kV, 62 ns (2nd pulse) was applied to the drift tube, the ions were successfully accelerated from the grounded anode to the drift tube in the 1st gap by the negative pulse of the bipolar pulse. The pulsed ion beam with current density of 60 A/cm2 and pulse duration of ≈50 ns was obtained at 48 mm downstream from the anode surface. The energy spectrum of the ion beam was evaluated by a magnetic energy spectrometer. The ion energy was in reasonable good agreement with the acceleration voltage, i.e., 1st pulse (negative pulse) voltage of the bipolar pulse. (author)

  20. Heavy-ion Acceleration and Self-generated Waves in Coronal Shocks

    Battarbee, Markus; Vainio, Rami; 10.1051/0004-6361/201117507

    2013-01-01

    Context: Acceleration in coronal mass ejection driven shocks is currently considered the primary source of large solar energetic particle events. Aims: The solar wind, which feeds shock-accelerated particles, includes numerous ion populations, which offer much insight into acceleration processes. We present first simulations of shock-accelerated minor ions, in order to explore trapping dynamics and acceleration timescales in detail. Methods: We have simulated diffusive shock acceleration of minor ions (3He2+, 4He2+, 16O6+ and 56Fe14+) and protons using a Monte Carlo method, where self-generated Alfv\\'enic turbulence allows for repeated shock crossings and acceleration to high energies. Results: We present the effect of minor ions on wave generation, especially at low wavenumbers, and show that it is significant. We find that maximum ion energy is determined by the competing effects of particle escape due to focusing in an expanding flux tube and trapping due to the amplified turbulence. We show the dependence...

  1. BNL heavy ion fusion program

    A principal attraction of heavy ion fusion is that existing accelerator technology and theory are sufficiently advanced to allow one to commence the design of a machine capable of igniting thermonuclear explosions. There are, however, a number of features which are not found in existing accelerators built for other purposes. The main thrust of the BNL Heavy Ion Fusion program has been to explore these features. Longitudinal beam bunching, very low velocity acceleration, and space charge neutralization are briefly discussed

  2. The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report

    Monsler, M.J.

    1987-02-25

    This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility.

  3. The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report

    This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility

  4. Preliminary report on the MBE-4, an experimental multiple-beam induction linear accelerator for heavy ions

    A small-scale experimental accelerator called MBE-4 has been constructed to demonstrate the principle of a current-amplifying induction linac for multiple beams of heavy ions. Four beams of Cs1+, initially at 200 keV and each with a current of 10 mA have been accelerated and amplified to a kinetic energy of 700 keV and currents of 90 mA apiece. Transverse focusing is achieved by means of electrostatic quadrupoles; longitudinally the current is amplified and the beam bunch is held together against the space charge forces by special time-dependent accelerating fields. We report on the methods developed for designing and implementing the accelerating pulses and on measurements of the transverse and longitudinal emittance of the accelerated beams. Current fluctuations and the longitudinal emittance are initially almost zero and increase as acceleration errors are accumulated. We discuss the final longitudinal emittance and the current fluctuations in the experiment in terms of their acceptability for a large heavy-ion-fusion driver. 17 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Particle Acceleration in Solar Flares and Enrichment of 3He and Heavy Ions

    Petrosian, Vahe

    2008-01-01

    We discuss possible mechanisms of acceleration of particles in solar flares and show that turbulence plays an important role in all the mechanism. It is also argued that stochastic particle acceleration by turbulent plasma waves is the most likely mechanism for production of the high energy electrons and ions responsible for observed radiative signatures of solar flares and for solar energetic particle or SEPs, and that the predictions of this model agrees well with many past and recent high ...

  6. Generation of high-energy monoenergetic heavy ion beams by radiation pressure acceleration of ultra-intense laser pulses

    Wu, Dong; Qiao, B.; X. T. He; McGuffey, C.; Beg, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    A novel radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) regime of heavy ion beams from laser-irradiated ultrathin foils is proposed by self-consistently taking into account the ionization dynamics. In this regime, the laser intensity is required to match with the large ionization energy gap when the successive ionization of high-Z atoms passing the noble gas configurations [such as removing an electron from the helium-like charge state $(\\text{Z}-2)^+$ to $(\\text{Z}-1)^+$]. While the target ions in the...

  7. Heavy ion fusion

    With controlled thermonuclear fusion holding out the possibility of a prolific and clean new source of energy, the goal remains elusive after many years of continual effort. While the conventional Tokamak route with magnetic confinement continues to hit the headlines, other alternatives are now becoming competitive. One possible solution is to confine the thermonuclear fuel pellet by high power beams. Current research and perspectives for future work in such inertial confinement was the subject of the 'Prospects for Heavy Ion Fusion' European Research Conference held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, last year. Its main focus was on the potential of heavy ion accelerators as well as recent advances in target physics with high power lasers and light ion beams. Carlo Rubbia declared that high energy accelerators, with their high efficiency, are the most promising approach to economical fusion energy production. However the need for cost saving in the driver accelerator requires new ideas in target design tailored to the particularities of heavy ion beams, which need to be pushed to the limits of high current and phase space density at the same time

  8. Shielding benchmark experiments through concrete and iron with high-energy proton and heavy ion accelerators

    The deep penetration of neutrons through thick shield has become a very serious problem in the shielding design of high-energy, high-intensity accelerator facility. In the design calculation, the Monte Carlo transport calculation through thick shields has large statistical errors and the basic nuclear data and model used in the existing Monte Carlo codes are not well evaluated because of very few experimental data. It is therefore strongly needed to do the deep penetration experiment as shielding benchmark for investigating the calculation accuracy. Under this circumference, we performed the following two shielding experiments through concrete and iron, one with a 800 MeV proton accelerator of the rutherford appleton laboratory (RAL), England and the other with a high energy heavy iron accelerator of the national institute of radiological sciences (NIRS), Japan. Here these two shielding benchmark experiments are outlined. (orig.)

  9. Shielding benchmark experiments through concrete and iron with high-energy proton and heavy ion accelerators

    Nakamura, T.; Sasaki, M.; Nunomiya, T.; Iwase, H. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering; Nakao, N.; Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki (Japan); Kim, E. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (JAERI), Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Establishment; Kurosawa, T. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Inst. (JASRI), Hyogo (Japan); Taniguchi, S. [Electrotechnical Lab. (ETL), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uwamino, Y.; Ito, S. [The Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Saitama (Japan); Fukumura, A. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Perry, D.R.; Wright, P. [Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL), Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom). Health and Safety Group

    2001-07-01

    The deep penetration of neutrons through thick shield has become a very serious problem in the shielding design of high-energy, high-intensity accelerator facility. In the design calculation, the Monte Carlo transport calculation through thick shields has large statistical errors and the basic nuclear data and model used in the existing Monte Carlo codes are not well evaluated because of very few experimental data. It is therefore strongly needed to do the deep penetration experiment as shielding benchmark for investigating the calculation accuracy. Under this circumference, we performed the following two shielding experiments through concrete and iron, one with a 800 MeV proton accelerator of the rutherford appleton laboratory (RAL), England and the other with a high energy heavy iron accelerator of the national institute of radiological sciences (NIRS), Japan. Here these two shielding benchmark experiments are outlined. (orig.)

  10. Heavy ion fusion III

    This report updates Heavy Ion Fusion, JSR-82-302, dated January, 1983. During the last four years, program management and direction has been changed and the overall Inertial Confinement Program has been reviewed. This report therefore concentrates on accelerator physics issues, how the program has addressed those issues during the last four years, and how it will be addressing them in the future. 8 refs., 3 figs

  11. Accelerator-colliders for relativistic heavy ions or in search of luminosity

    Some issues pertinent to the design of collider rings for relativistic heavy ions are presented. Experiments at such facilities are felt to offer the best chance for creating in the laboratory a new phase of subatomic matter, the quark-gluon plasma. It appears possible to design a machine with sufficient luminosity, even for the heaviest nuclei in nature, to allow a thorough exploration of the production conditions and decay characteristics of quark-gluon plasma

  12. Difference in the LET-RBE and -OER response to heavy-ions revealed by accelerated ions and cell strains

    There is some possibility of different radiobiological effectiveness according to the types of accelerated ions but using the same LET (linear energy transfer) beam. We determined the difference in terms of the RBE (relative biological effectiveness) and OER (oxygen enhancement ratio) using 3He, 12C and 20Ne ion-beams upon HSG cells at the same LET. The D10 values at the same LET were largest for the 3He ion-beam, middle for the 12C ion-beam and smallest for the 20Ne ion beam in the lower LET region (3He ion-beam the OER values rapidly decreased compared with the other ion-beams. The LET-RBE curves for 3He and 20Ne ion-beams upon HSG cells were shifted to a lower LET region compared with V79 cells. (author)

  13. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered

  14. Heavy ion radiation biology research facility and ongoing activities at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    Heavy Ion Radiation Biology is an interdisciplinary science involving use of charged particle accelerator in the study of molecular biology. It is the study of the interaction of a beam of swift heavy ions with a biological system. In contrast to the sparsely ionizing photon or electron radiation, the high velocity charged heavy ions leave a track of densely populated ionization sites resulting in clustered DNA damage. The growing interest in this field encompasses the studies in gene expression, mechanisms of cell death, DNA damage and repair, signal transduction etc. induced because of this unique assault on the genetic material. IUAC radiation biology programme is focused on the in-vitro studies of different effects of heavy ion irradiation on eukaryotic cells. The facility provides a laboratory for pre and post irradiation treatment of samples. The irradiation system called ASPIRE (Automatic Sample Positioning for Irradiation in Radiation Biology Experiments) is installed at the dedicated Radiation Biology Beam line. It produces a nearly uniform flux distribution over a irradiation field of 40 mm diameter. The particle doses can be preselected and repeated within inherent statistical accuracy. The particle energy can also be measured. The facility is at present utilized by the University researchers of India. A few results obtained by the investigators would be presented. The outcome of the research in heavy ion radiation biology would be of immense use in augmenting the efficacy of Hadron therapy of cancer. The results would also contribute to the field of space radiation protection. It would also help in understanding the phenomena subsequent to complex DNA damage. (author)

  15. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  16. Heavy ion acceleration using drift-tube structures with optimized focusing

    For the proposed lead ion accelerating facility at CERN various options for accelerating ions with q/A < 1/8 (relative to protons) from 0.25 MeV/u to 4.2 MeV/u, have been studied. At the preferred frequency of 202.56 MHz, the βλ drift-tube linac requires excessive quadrupole field gradients. However, starting with a 2βλ structure as reference, it is shown that a hybrid 2βλ/βλ structure with quadrupole lenses separated by 4βλ or more has acceptable focusing characteristics. In addition, this approach leads to a significant reduction in the number of quadrupoles and in the RF power, and yet retains well-behaved longitudinal and transverse acceptances. 4 refs., 2 figs

  17. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project

    Hong, In-Seok, E-mail: ishong@ibs.re.kr; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  18. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project

    Hong, In-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  19. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation

  20. Cellular and molecular effects of accelerated heavy ions on cultivated mammalian cells

    In the study described here the capacity of mammalian cells to recover from irradiation with heavy ions was determined from the survival rates observed following irradiation and incubation during damage repair. While the number of surviving cells was seen to increase considerably during the first four hours after X-irradiation, no such signs of recovery were detectable following exposure to heavy ions. Two experiments even pointed to a drastic loss of cells in the initial hours after exposure. In order to assess the degree of molecular damage, total strand breaks and double strand breaks of the DNA were measured. Taking account also of findings revealed in other studies on the induction of DNA strand breaks, it was found that the efficiency curves for the different particles vary according to LET (range investigated between 300 and 16000 kev./μm), which is an observation also made in connection with other endpoints. Notably, DNA double-strand breaks measured for Ne ions (between 300 and 400 kev./μm) pointed to a relative biological effectiveness of greater than One. The nature of DNA damage inflicted was ascertained on the basis of the ratio between double-strand breaks and single-strand breaks. Like the findings on strand break induction, the dependence of the DSB-SSB ratio on the LET was seen to be largely consistent with intracellular measurements in mammalian DNA and with values determined for virus or phage DNA in solutions containing radical scavengers. This congruence appears to be suggestive of radioprotective effects of the cellular matrix. There was no evidence in confirmation of the theory that the high ionisation densities occurring in the path of heavy ions primarily lead to complex damage. (orig./MG)

  1. Two-beam type IH-RFQ linear accelerator for low-energy and high intensity heavy ion beam

    We developed a two-beam type IH-RFQ (Interdigital H type Radio Frequency Quadrupole) linac system to proof the principle of a multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac in Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors of Tokyo Institute of Technology. The multi-beam type RFQ linac has several beam channels in a cavity for accelerating high intensity and low energy heavy ion beams. The developed system consists of a two-beam type IH-RFQ cavity as a prototype of the multi-beam type cavity, a two-beam type laser ion source with DPIS (Direct Plasma Injection Scheme) and beam analyzers mainly. A a result of the beam acceleration test, the linac system accelerates carbon ions from 5 keV/u to 60 keV/u and generates about 108 mA (2x54 mA/channel) in the total output current. In this paper, we describe the development of the linac system and some results of the beam acceleration test. (author)

  2. Workshop of the JAEA-Tokai tandem accelerator 'heavy ion science in tandem energy region'

    The facility of the JAEA-Tokai tandem accelerator has been contributing toward advancing heavy ion science researches in the fields of nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, production of RI for nuclear medicine, atomic physics, radiation effects, and so on. Due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and all that, situation revolving around the JAEA-Tokai tandem accelerator was greatly-changed. For active discussions of this situation among scientists in the different fields, the workshop 'Heavy Ion Science in Tandem Energy Region' was held although there has been no such workshop for many years. The users of the JAEA-Tokai tandem accelerators made presentations of their research achievements in the last few years and reviewed the recent research trend of each fields. This workshop was held at Research building No. 1 in Nuclear Research Institute on July 2nd and 3rd in 2013, having 20 oral presentations and 28 posters, and successfully carried out with as many as 60 participants and a lot of serious discussions. This review is the collection of slides of oral presentations. (author)

  3. Start-to-end simulations for beam dynamics in the RISP heavy-ion accelerator

    Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Deagu (Korea, Republic of); Bahng, JungBae [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Deagu (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ji-Gwang [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Dong-O [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-11

    RAON has been designed as a rare isotope accelerator facility for the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP). The main accelerator for the in-flight system accelerates uranium and proton beams to 200 MeV/u and 660 MeV, respectively, with a beam power of 400 kW. The front-end system consists of two 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (10 keV/u), a low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line with two 90° bends, a multi-harmonic buncher with three different rf frequencies, a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a medium-energy beam transport line (MEBT) with three rebunchers and eight quadrupoles. A driver linac system consisting of Linac-1 and Linac-2 has been designed to optimize the beam and accelerator parameters so as to meet the required design goals. A charge stripper section is located between Linac-1 and Linac-2. To optimize these designs, we performed start-to-end simulations with the beams from the LEBT to Linac-2 using 1 million macroparticles. We present the resulting beam dynamics to evaluate the performance of the accelerator. Our simulation results predict that the transmission rate of the uranium beam is 85.8% from the LEBT to Linac-2. The designed facility is expected to achieve the required beam loss condition of less than 1 W/m. The RAON driver linac lattice design was developed and an overview of the beam dynamics is presented.

  4. Development of dual-beam system using an electrostatic accelerator for in-situ observation of swift heavy ion irradiation effects on materials

    Matsuda, M.; Asozu, T.; Sataka, M.; Iwase, A.

    2013-11-01

    We have developed the dual beam system which accelerates two kinds of ion beams simultaneously especially for real-time ion beam analysis. We have also developed the alternating beam system which can efficiently change beam species in a short time in order to realize efficient ion beam analysis in a limited beam time. The acceleration of the dual beam is performed by the 20 UR Pelletron™ tandem accelerator in which an ECR ion source is mounted at the high voltage terminal [1,2]. The multi-charged ions of two or more elements can be simultaneously generated from the ECR ion source, so dual-beam irradiation is achieved by accelerating ions with the same charge to mass ratio (for example, 132Xe11+ and 12C+). It enables us to make a real-time beam analysis such as Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) method, while a target is irradiated with swift heavy ions. For the quick change of the accelerating ion beam, the program of automatic setting of the optical parameter of the accelerator has been developed. The switchover time for changing the ion beam is about 5 min. These developments have been applied to the study on the ion beam mixing caused by high-density electronic excitation induced by swift heavy ions.

  5. Generation of high-energy monoenergetic heavy ion beams by radiation pressure acceleration of ultra-intense laser pulses

    Wu, Dong; He, X T; McGuffey, C; Beg, F N

    2014-01-01

    A novel radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) regime of heavy ion beams from laser-irradiated ultrathin foils is proposed by self-consistently taking into account the ionization dynamics. In this regime, the laser intensity is required to match with the large ionization energy gap when the successive ionization of high-Z atoms passing the noble gas configurations [such as removing an electron from the helium-like charge state $(\\text{Z}-2)^+$ to $(\\text{Z}-1)^+$]. While the target ions in the laser wing region are ionized to low charge states and undergo rapid dispersions due to instabilities, a self-organized, stable RPA of highly-charged heavy ion beam near the laser axis is achieved. It is also found that a large supplement of electrons produced from ionization helps preserving stable acceleration. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that a monoenergetic $\\text{Al}^{13+}$ beam with peak energy $1\\ \\text{GeV}$ and energy spread of $5\\%$ is obtained by lasers at intensity $7\\times10^{20}\\ \\text...

  6. Evaluation of onion root tip cell surviving fraction by measuring growing speed irradiated by accelerated heavy ions

    Irradiation of accelerated heavy ions to germinated onion seeds reduced the root growth. The extent of the root shortening increased with the increase of the absorbed dose and with the increase of linear energy transfer (LET). The growing curve looks like converging to a limited curve with increase of the dose and the growing did not stop even at highest dose of 100 Gy. Germinated seeds of green sorgo and alphalfa were investigated for comparison and they showed different dose responses from onion. Growth of green sorgo germs almost stopped at high doses. Growth of alphalfa germs was unaffected by radiations. (author)

  7. Computer-controlled back scattering and sputtering-experiment using a heavy-ion-accelerator

    Control and data acquisition of a PDP 11/40 computer and CAMAC instrumentation are reported for an experiment that has been developed to measure sputtering in yields and energy losses for heavy 100 - 300 keV ions in thin metal foils. Besides a quadrupole mass filter or a bending magnet, a multichannel analyser is coupled to the computer, so that also pulse height analysis can be performed under computer control. CAMAC instrumentation and measuring programs are built in a modular form to enable an easy application to other experimental problems. (orig.) 891 KBE/orig. 892 BRE

  8. Synchronization method of digital pulse power supply for heavy ions accelerator in Lanzhou

    The performance of the synchrotron depends on its synchronization. A kind of synchronization method of digital pulse power supply in Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR) was presented in detail, which is a kind of system on a programmable chip (SOPC) based on optical fiber and optical-custom component. The test of the digital power supply was performed and the current wave forms of pulse mode were given. The results show that all targets can meet the design requirements. (authors)

  9. Annual report of joint research for using heavy ion accelerator for cancer therapy of the fiscal year 1996

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The heavy ion project consisted of 2 parts; clinical studies using HIMAC and joint basic researches using it. The clinical studies have been satisfactorily progressed and the number of patients treated by HIMAC reached 230 in total by the end of the fiscal year 1996. In Japan, HIMAC is the only apparatus for heavy ion acceleration. Thus, a lot of concerns from not only the medical and biological fields, but also other fundamental fields are paid to HIMAC. Further, the beam of HIMAC has been attracting international concerns, especially in the fields such as simulation of cosmic environment by heavy ion beam, dose determination using the beam, international comparison of its biological effects, etc. The operating times of HIMAC in 1996 was ca. 4800 hours in total and of those ca. 2700 hours were used for joint researches. This annual report include 12 reports of clinical research group, 4 of diagnosis one 64 of biology one and 42 of physical and engineering one. (M.N.)

  10. Annual report of joint research for using heavy ion accelerator for cancer therapy of the fiscal year 1996

    The heavy ion project consisted of 2 parts; clinical studies using HIMAC and joint basic researches using it. The clinical studies have been satisfactorily progressed and the number of patients treated by HIMAC reached 230 in total by the end of the fiscal year 1996. In Japan, HIMAC is the only apparatus for heavy ion acceleration. Thus, a lot of concerns from not only the medical and biological fields, but also other fundamental fields are paid to HIMAC. Further, the beam of HIMAC has been attracting international concerns, especially in the fields such as simulation of cosmic environment by heavy ion beam, dose determination using the beam, international comparison of its biological effects, etc. The operating times of HIMAC in 1996 was ca. 4800 hours in total and of those ca. 2700 hours were used for joint researches. This annual report include 12 reports of clinical research group, 4 of diagnosis one 64 of biology one and 42 of physical and engineering one. (M.N.)

  11. Mechanical design of recirculating accelerator experiments for heavy-ion fusion

    Recirculating induction accelerators have been studied as a potential low cost driver for inertial fusion energy. At LLNL, we are developing a small (4.5-m diameter), scaled, experimental machine which will demonstrate many of the engineering solutions of a full scale driver. The small recirculator will accelerate singly ionized potassium ions from 80 to 320 keV and 2 to 8 mA, using electric dipoles for bending and permanent magnet quadrupoles for focusing in a compact periodic lattice. While very compact, and low cost, this design allows the investigation of most of the critical physics issues associated with space-charge-dominated beams in future IFE power plant drivers. This report describes the recirculator, its mechanical design, its vacuum design, and the process for aligning it. Additionally, a straight magnetic transport experiment is being carried out to test diagnostics and magnetic transport in preparation for the recirculator

  12. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1986-September 30, 1986

    Activities are reported on MBE-4, the four-beam proof-of-principle ion induction linear accelerator with the capability of beam-current amplification. Mechanical aspects of MBE-4, quadrupole insulator performance, and pulsers are discussed. The computer code, SLID, has been used to help understand the longitudinal beam dynamics in MBE-4. A computer-controlled emittance scanning system is in use in MBE-4. A systematic effort is under way to discover and correct all the defects peculiar to the low energy part of the linac design code

  13. Induction of the Tn10 Precise Excision in E. coli Cells after Accelerated Heavy Ions Irradiation

    Zhuravel, D V

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the irradiation of different kinds on the indication of the structural mutations in the bacteria Escherichia coli is considered. The regularities of the Tn10 precise excision after accelerated ^{4}He and ^{12}C ions irradiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) were investigated. Dose dependences of the survival and relative frequency of the Tn10 precise excision were obtained. It was shown, that the relative frequency of the Tn10 precise excision is the exponential function from the irradiation dose. Relative biological efficiency (RBE), and relative genetic efficiency (RGE) were calculated, and were treated as the function of the LET.

  14. Accelerated heavy ions as a basis for creation of the unique protective signs against forgery

    The problem of product protection and identification is urgent in all areas of human activity and concerns all the states of the world. This problem is of particular importance in pharmaceutics (counterfeit of drugs), in machinery (counterfeit of spare parts, including parts for airplanes), in financial and banking areas (forgery of banknotes, securities), in the state and international security areas (forgery of passports and ID). Especially manufacturers of consumer goods suffer big damage caused by counterfeit. Nowadays counterfeiters rather easily master modern protective technologies, which makes it difficult and sometimes impossible to reveal their products. The use of swift heavy ions in combating falsification of products may radically change the levels of protection and its signs. (authors)

  15. Controllable Laser Ion Acceleration

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Wang, W. M.; Limpouch, J.; Andreev, A.; Bulanov, S. V.; Sheng, Z. M.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a future laser ion accelerator is discussed to make the laser-based ion accelerator compact and controllable. Especially a collimation device is focused in this paper. The future laser ion accelerator should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers, and ion post acceleration devices [Laser Therapy 22, 103(2013)]: the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled to meet requirements for a future compact laser ion accelerator for ion cancer therapy or for other purposes. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching would be successfully realized by a multistage laser-target interaction.

  16. Heavy ions light flashes and brain functions: recent observations at accelerators and in spaceflight

    Narici, L [Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, and INFN Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: livio.narici@roma2.infn.it

    2008-07-15

    Interactions between ionizing radiation in space and brain functions, and the related risk assessments, are among the major concerns when programming long permanence in space, especially when outside the protective shield of the Earth's magnetosphere. The light flashes (LF) observed by astronauts in space, mostly when dark adapted, are an example of these interactions; investigations in space and on the ground showed that these effects can originate with the action of ionizing radiation in the eye. Recent findings from ALTEA, an interdisciplinary and multiapproach program devoted to the study of different aspects of the radiation-brain functions interaction, are presented in this paper. These include: (i) study of radiation passing through the astronauts' eyes in the International Space Station ({approx}20 ions min{sup -1}, excluding H and fast and very slow He), measured in conjunction with reporting of the perception of LF; (ii) preliminary electrophysiological evidence of these events in astronauts and in patients during heavy ion therapy; and (iii) in vitro results showing the radiation driven activation of rhodopsin at the start of the phototransduction cascade in the process of vision. These results are in agreement with our previous work on mice. A brief but complete summary of the earlier works is also reported to permit a discussion of the results.

  17. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for low-energetic heavy ions and their application in accelerator mass spectrometry

    The energy-sensitive detection of heavy ions with calorimetric low temperature detectors was investigated in the energy range of E=0.1-1 MeV/amu, commonly used for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The detectors used consist of sapphire absorbers and superconducting aluminum transition edge thermometers operated at T∼1.5 K. They were irradiated with various ion beams (13C,197Au,238U) provided by the VERA tandem accelerator in Vienna, Austria. The relative energy resolution obtained was ΔE/E=(5-9)x10-3, even for the heaviest ions such as 238U. In addition, no evidence for a pulse height defect was observed. This performance allowed for the first time to apply a calorimetric low temperature detector in an AMS experiment. The aim was to precisely determine the isotope ratio of 236U/238U for several samples of natural uranium, 236U being known as a sensitive monitor for neutron fluxes. Replacing a conventionally used detection system at VERA by the calorimetric detector enabled to substantially reduce background from neighboring isotopes and to increase the detection efficiency. Due to the high sensitivity achieved, a value of 236U/238U=6.1x10-12 could be obtained, representing the smallest 236U/238U ratio measured at the time. In addition, we contributed to establishing an improved material standard of 236U/238U, which can be used as a reference for future AMS measurements.

  18. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists

  19. Verification of Monte Carlo transport codes FLUKA, GEANT4 and SHIELD for radiation protection purposes at relativistic heavy ion accelerators

    The crucial problem for radiation shielding design at heavy ion accelerator facilities with beam energies of several GeV/n is the source term problem. Experimental data on double differential neutron yields from thick targets irradiated with high-energy uranium nuclei are lacking. At present there are not many Monte Carlo multipurpose codes that can work with primary high-energy uranium nuclei. These codes use different physical models for simulating nucleus-nucleus reactions. Therefore, verification of the codes with available experimental data is very important for selection of the most reliable code for practical tasks. This paper presents comparisons of the FLUKA, GEANT4 and SHIELD code simulations with experimental data on neutron production at 1 GeV/n 238U beam interaction with a thick Fe target

  20. Response of sensitive human ataxia and resistant T-1 cell lines to accelerated heavy ions

    The radiosensitivity of Ataxia and T-1 cells was compared, using aerobic and hypoxic 225 kVp x-ray survival curves as controls to nearly monoenergetic accelerated neon and argon ions, LET of the particles varied from 30 keV μm-1 to over 1,000 keV μm-1. All Ataxia survival curves were exponential functions of the dose, radiosensitivity reaching peak values at 100-200 keV μm-1. Human T-1 cells have effective sublethal damage repair, evidenced by split dose experiments, being much more resistant to low than high LET, when their radiosensitivity approached that of Ataxia cells. According to te repair-misrepair model, molecular repair processes culminate either in eurepair or misrepair. Mathematical expressions were obtained describing the cross sections and inactivation coefficients for both human cell lines as a function of the LET and type of particle used, assuming the lesions induced in T-1 and Ataxia cells to be qualitatively similar and that each line attempts to repair these lesions. The result in most irradiated Ataxia cells, however, is either lethal misrepair or incomplete repair leading to cell death. The model suggests that at high LET, T-1 cells can still efficiently repair individual lesions, but as lesions become closely spaced along the tracks, probability of misrepair increases. (U.K.)

  1. Target input requirements for heavy ion fusion

    This paper summarizes the requirements a heavy ion accelerator must meet in order to initiate practical thermonuclear microexplosions. Particular emphasis is given to the question of maximum allowable ion energy

  2. PREVENTING POLLUTION USING ISO 14001 AT A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER PROJECT

    In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations

  3. Evidence for a Common Acceleration Mechanism for Enrichments of 3He and Heavy Ions in Impulsive SEP Events

    Mason, Glenn M.; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.; Innes, Davina E.

    2016-06-01

    We have surveyed the period 1997–2015 for a rare type of 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) event, with enormously enhanced values of the S/O ratio, that differs from the majority of 3He-rich events, which show enhancements of heavy ions increasing smoothly with mass. Sixteen events were found, most of them small but with solar source characteristics similar to other 3He-rich SEP events. A single event on 2014 May 16 had higher intensities than the others, and curved Si and S spectra that crossed the O spectrum above ∼200 keV nucleon‑1. Such crossings of heavy-ion spectra have never previously been reported. The dual enhancement of Si and S suggests that element Q/M ratio is critical to the enhancement since this pair of elements uniquely has very similar Q/M ratios over a wide range of temperatures. Besides 3He, Si, and S, in this same event the C, N, and Fe spectra also showed curved shape and enhanced abundances compared to O. The spectral similarities suggest that all have been produced from the same mechanism that enhances 3He. The enhancements are large only in the high-energy portion of the spectrum, and so affect only a small fraction of the ions. The observations suggest that the accelerated plasma was initially cool (∼0.4 MK) and was then heated to a few million kelvin to generate the preferred Q/M ratio in the range C–Fe. The temperature profile may be the distinct feature of these events that produces the unusual abundance signature.

  4. A new 14 GHz electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the heavy ion accelerator facility ATLAS

    A new 14 GHz ECRIS has been designed and built over the last two years. The source design incorporates the latest results from ECR developments to produce intense beams of highly charged ions. An improved magnetic electron confinement is achieved from a large mirror ratio and strong hexapole field. The aluminum plasma chamber and extraction electrode as well as a biased disk on axis at the microwave injection side donate additional electrons to the plasma, making use of the large secondary electron yields from aluminum oxide. The source will be capable of ECR plasma heating using two different frequencies simultaneously to increase the electron energy gain. To be able to deliver usable intensities of the heaviest ion beams the design will also allow axial access for metal evaporation ovens and solid material. The main design goal is to produce several eμA of at least 238U34+ in order to accelerate the beam to coulomb-barrier energies without further stripping. First charge state distributions for 16O and 40Ar have been measured

  5. Relativistic heavy ion research

    This report discusses the following topics: antiproton production; Bose-Einstein correlations; high-transverse momentum spectra; strangeness enhancement in heavy ion collisions; search for rare negative secondaries of antiprotons and antinuclei produced in heavy ion collisions; quark matter; and time-of-flight systems test at Brookhaven AGS. (LSP)

  6. Highly ionized, decelerated heavy ions

    The Acceleration-Stripping-Deceleration Method to produce highly-charged, heavy ions at moderate velocities is described. A brief survey of the method and experiments already done is given. For 3.6 MeV/u few-electron Xe projectiles (up to N-like ions) colliding with Xe atoms we describe one example for quasimolecular L-K vacancy transfer and one for distant capture processes. (orig.)

  7. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1974--1977. [Planning for use for radiotherapy and as radiation source for diagnostic radiography

    Elam, S. (ed.)

    1977-04-01

    The Bevalac, a versatile high-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex, has been in operation for less than two years. A major purpose for which the Bevalac was constructed was to explore the possibility of heavy-ion teams for therapy for certain forms of cancer. Significant progress has been made in this direction. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the advantages that these and other accelerated particles offer, and heavy ions have been included in a long-term plan for particle therapy that will assess by means of controlled therapeutic tests the value of various modalities. Since accelerated heavy ions became available, the possibility of other contributions, not planned, became apparent. We are developig a new diagnostic method known as heavy-ion radiography that has greatly increased sensitivity for soft-tissue detail and that may become a powerful tool for localizing early tumors and metastases. We have discovered that radioactive beams are formed from fragmentation of stable deflected beams. Use of these autoradioactive beams is just beginning; however, we know that these beams will be helpful in localizing the region in the body where therapy is being delivered. In addition, it has been demonstrated that instant implantation of the radioactive beam allows direct measurements of blood perfusion rates in inaccessible parts of the body, and such a technique may become a new tool for the study of fast hot atom reactions in biochemistry, tracer biology and nuclear medicine. The Bevalac will also be useful for the continuation of previously developed methods for the control of acromegaly, Cushing's disease and, on a research basis, advanced diabetes mellitus with vascular disease. The ability to make small bloodless lesions in the brain and elsewhere with heavy-ion beams has great potential for nervous-system studies and perhaps later for radioneurosurgery.

  8. Ion sources for RFQ accelerators and for cyclotrons

    Ion sources used in conjunction with low energy accelerators, either RF quadrupole linacs or small cyclotrons, are reviewed. The topics covered include low energy accelerators used as injectors to larger accelerators, ion sources for low and medium currents of heavy ions, high-current heavy ion sources, ion sources for pulsed high currents of light ions, and new developments in ion sources such as beams of radioactive ions

  9. Argonne heavy ion fusion program

    The experimental part of Argonne's heavy ion fusion program is directed toward demonstrating the first, and in many ways most difficult, section of a viable accelerator facility for heavy ion fusion. this includes a high current, high brightness, singly charged xenon source, a dc preaccelerator at the highest practical voltage, and a low beta linac of special design. The latter would demonstrate rf capture with its attendant inefficiencies and accelerate ions to a velocity acceptable to more conventional rf linac structures such as the π-3π Wideroe. The initial goals of this program are for a source current of 100 mA of Xe+1, a preaccelerator voltage of 1.5 MV, and less than 50% loss in rf capture into the low beta linac. A linear accelerator is proposed with a voltage gain up to 200 MV as a minimum which would form the initial stage of an operational heavy ion fusion facility irrespective of what type of acceleration to high energies were employed beyond this point

  10. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1989--March 31, 1990

    This report discusses the following topics: Transverse Emittance Studies on MBE-4; MBE-4 Simulations; Beam Centroid Motion and Misalignments in MBE-4; Survey and Alignment of MBE-4; Energy Analysis of the 5mA MBE-4 Beam; An Improved 10 mA Ion Source for MBE-4; Emittance Degradation via a Wire Grid; Ion Source Development; 2 MV Injector; Electrostatic Quadrupole Prototype Development Activity; Magnetic Induction Core Studies; A Preliminary Consideration of Beam Splitting in Momentum Space; and Status of the Optimization Code HILDA

  11. Directions of heavy ion physics

    Recent progress and directions of heavy ion physics in various fields of nuclear atomic physics are presented. The progress in the acceleration technique in producing high energy high phase space density heavy ion beams in cooler storage rings is discussed. Studies of nuclei under extreme conditions address topics like the structure of nuclei at the border of nuclear stability including high spin states. Nuclear dynamics studies from the Coulomb-barrier to relativistic energies will be presented with a focus on the production of dense, heated and excited nuclear matter including the study of the properties of hadrons in such a medium particularly with respect to chiral symmetry restoration. Some atomic physics experiments with heavy ions will be addressed with emphasis on quasiatom and e+e- pair production. (orig.)

  12. AMS of heavy elements with an ECR ion source and the ATLAS linear accelerator

    Understanding the fate of heavy-metal contaminants in the environment is of fundamental importance in the development and evaluation of effective remediation and sequestration strategies. Among the factors influencing the transport of these contaminants are their chemical speciation and the chemical and physical attributes of the surrounding medium. Bacteria and the extracellular material associated with them are thought to play a key role in determining a contaminant's speciation and thus its mobility in the environment. In addition, the microenvironment at and adjacent to actively metabolizing cell surfaces can be significantly different from the bulk environment. Thus, the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of contaminants and elements that are key to biological processes must be characterized at micron and submicron resolution in order to understand the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that determine a contaminant's macroscopic fate. Hard x-ray microimaging is a powerful technique for the element-specific investigation of complex environmental samples at the needed micron and submicron resolution. An important advantage of this technique results from the large penetration depth of hard X-rays in water. This advantage minimizes the requirements for sample preparation and allows the detailed study of hydrated samples. This paper presents results of studies of the spatial distribution of naturally occurring metals and a heavy-metal contaminant (Cr) in and near hydrated bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) in the early stages of biofilm development performed at the Advanced Photon Source Sector 2 X-ray microscopy beamline

  13. Study of recirculating induction accelerators as drivers for heavy ion fusion

    This report presents point designs for a recirculating induction accelerator that will function as the driver for an inertial confinement fusion reactor power plant that produces about 1 GW of electric power for a lifetime of about 30 years. The idea of a recirculator has been previously proposed but no integrated driver system has ever been conceptually designed or evaluated. Our goal is to present design examples that meet the requirements set by target and reactor physics while minimizing the cost and maximizing efficiency. We wish to evaluate the feasibility of such an accelerator by performing a preliminary analysis of the major physics and engineering issues. A further goal is to compare the cost and efficiency of this point design with that of a linear accelerator, similarly designed using the same costing algorithms. During the preparation of this report, new issues continually arose and appropriate solutions were devised. At times, different weights were given to the often conflicting goals of low cost, high efficiency, high confidence of achieving high beam quality at the target, and high confidence in technological achievability. We have therefore arrived at many point designs, three of which are the subject of this report: Today's Technology Design. This design is the primary focus of the report, and it consists entirely of technology that could be built today or soon. The Low Cost/Advanced Technology Design. This design uses more advanced or alternative technologies to implement the recirculator concept. The Low Physics Risk Design. In this design, the driver system consists of several independent single-beam recirculators, rather than allowing several beams to share an induction core

  14. Application of the rf quadrupole in linear accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    The rf quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure is proposed as an alternative to a system composed of a buncher and independently phased cavities in the low-velocity acceleration section. Beam dynamics simulation studies have demonstrated that with the RFQ (1) high transmission and low beam loss are possible, (2) it is possible to use a low voltage 0.25 MV dc injector and still obtain high output beam currents, (3) the current required from the injector is reduced because of the high transmission of the RFQ, and (4) the output emittance appears to be at least comparable to that expected from a buncher and independently phased cavities

  15. Interpretation of Mutation Induction by Accelerated Very Heavy Ions in Bacteria

    We propose a simple approach for the calculation of the frequency of mutation induction in bacteria. The approach is based on the calculation of the fraction of energy deposited by accelerated particles in indirect hits, e.i. events in which the particle does not pass through the cell, however, the cell is hit by δ-electrons. This descriptor of the radiation field has been evaluated for different values of the particle energy and different radii of sensitive structure. Four models of the track structure have been used for calculations. The results have been compared with experimental data on mutation induction in bacteria. Two different modes of particle mutagenic action can be distinguished. Available experimental data agree reasonably well with the results of the presented theory if appropriate track structure is taken. Very good results have been obtained with the track structure models of Kudryashov, 1973 and Chatterjee and Magee, 1973. 23 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  16. Research and design of pulsed switching power supply for deep tumor therapy facility with heavy ions accelerator in Lanzhou

    The pulsed switching power supply was developed for deep tumor therapy facility with heavy ions in cooler-storage-ring of the heavy ions research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR). The control principle of the dual closed-loop scheme was described and the open-loop Bode diagrams were given. The results of simulation and prototype experiment show that the current error gets much smaller than that of the single closed-loop pulsed switching power supply. Moreover, the simulation and test results were analyzed, and the circuit configuration and dual closed-loop strategy selected are practicable. (authors)

  17. Research and design of scanning power supply for deep tumor therapy facility with heavy ions accelerator in Lanzhou

    This paper describes the technique targets and operation principle of the scanning power supply for the deep tumor therapy facility with heavy ions in Cooler-Storage-Ring of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR). To ensure the specified accuracy of the current, the hysteresis loop control strategy was adopted, and tracking error was constrained in the specified tolerance. One prototype was designed and installed. And the simulation results and test results were listed in the paper. The results show that all the targets can meet the design requirements, and that the circuit configuration and hysteresis loop control strategy selected are practicable. (authors)

  18. Scientific issues in future induction linac accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    Achievement of atomic-resolution electron-beam tomography will allow determination of the three-dimensional structure of nanoparticles (and other suitable specimens) at atomic resolution. Three-dimensional reconstructions will yield ''section'' images that resolve atoms overlapped in normal electron microscope images (projections), resolving lighter atoms such as oxygen in the presence of heavier atoms, and atoms that lie on non-lattice sites such as those in non-periodic defect structures. Our first demonstrations of 3-D reconstruction to atomic resolution used five zone-axis images from test specimens of staurolite consisting of a mix of light and heavy atoms. We propose combining ultra-high (sub-Angstrom) resolution zone-axis images with off-zone images by first using linear reconstruction of the off-zone images while excluding images obtained within a small range of tilts (of the order of 60 milliradian) of any zone-axis orientation, since it has been shown that dynamical effects can be mitigated by slight off-axis tilt of the specimen. The (partial) reconstruction would then be used as a model for forward calculation by image simulation in zone-axis directions and the structure refined iteratively to achieve satisfactory fits with the experimental zone-axis data. Another path to atomic-resolution tomography would combine ''zone-axis tomography'' with high-resolution dark-field hollow-cone (DFHC) imaging. Electron diffraction theory indicates that dynamic (multiple) scattering is much reduced under highly-convergent illumination. DFHC TEM is the analog of HAADF STEM, and imaging theory shows that image resolution can be enhanced under these conditions. Images obtained in this mode could provide the initial reconstruction, with zone-axis images used for refinement

  19. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) half-year report: October 1, 1986-March 31, 1987

    For this report we have collected the papers presented by the HIFAR group at the IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference held in Washington, DC, on March 16-19, 1987, which essentially coincides with the end of the reporting period. In addition, we report on research to determine the cause of the failures of Re-X insulator that are used as the high-voltage feed-through for the electrostatic quadrupoles on MBE-4. This report contains papers on the following topics: LBL multiple beam experiments, pulsers for the induction linac experiment (MBE-4), HIF insulator failure, experimental measurement of emittance growth in mismatched space-charge dominated beams, the effect of nonlinear forces on coherently oscillating space-charge dominated beams, space-charge effects in a bending magnet system, transverse combining of nonrelativistic beams in a multiple beam induction linac, comparison of electric and magnetic quadrupole focusing for the low energy end of an induction-linac-ICF driver. Eight individual papers have been indexed separately

  20. Generation of high-energy mono-energetic heavy ion beams by radiation pressure acceleration of ultra-intense laser pulses

    Generation of high-energy mono-energetic heavy ion beams by radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of intense laser pulses is investigated. Different from previously studied RPA of protons or light ions, the dynamic ionization of high-Z atoms can stabilize the heavy ion acceleration. A self-organized, stable RPA scheme specifically for heavy ion beams is proposed, where the laser peak intensity is required to match with the large ionization energy gap when the successive ionization state passes the noble gas configurations [such as removing an electron from the helium-like charge state (Z−2)+ to (Z−1)+]. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that a mono-energetic Al13+ beam with peak energy 1.0 GeV and energy spread of only 5% can be obtained at intensity of 7×1020 W/cm2 through the proposed scheme. A heavier, mono-energetic, ion beam (Fe26+) can attain a peak energy of 17 GeV by increasing the intensity to 1022 W/cm2

  1. Design and construction of superconducting helix cavities for heavy-ion acceleration

    In a first step we shall investigate the grounds which led us to define the characteristic values of beam energy and spread for the tandem Van de Graaf Booster. We have very accurately measured by the perturbation method the electromagnetic field distribution for the fundamental mode inside the cavity. We have been obliged to use an experimental method because the lack of axial symmetry does not allow us to compute the field distribution with a good accuracy. Characteristic parameters as: shunt impedance, geometrical factor. Q value have been measured. From these measurements we have optimized the helix geometry and estimated the energy gain per charge. The liquid helium temperature properties of the cavity have been measured. The main parameter is then the Q value. We measured it at different field levels, and we used second sound wave propagation in superfluid helium to determine the spot position where the increase of temperature leads to quench. The variations of the eigen-frequency of the resonators have been investigated. We have also estimated the RF losses due to the trapped magnetic flux (Meissner Effect). To realize construction prototype cavities we have investigated the resonance frequency dependence upon the geometrical parameters. We have also tested the slow tuning system which tunes the cavity by mechanical deformation of the helix. The prototype cavity with an ion beam has been tested, we have checked the behaviour of the transit time factor and studied the optic along the beam trasport line

  2. Report of the joint seminar on heavy-ion nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry in the energy region of tandem accelerators (II)

    A meeting of the second joint seminar on Heavy-Ion Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Chemistry in the Energy Region of Tandem Accelerators was held after an interval of two years at the Tokai Research Establishment of the JAERI, for three days from January 9 to 11, 1986. In the seminar, about 70 nuclear physicists and nuclear chemists of JAERI and other Institutes participated, and 38 papers were presented. These include general reviews and topical subjects which have been developed intensively in recent years, as well as the new results obtained by using the JAERI tandem accelerator. This report is a collection of the papers presented to the seminar. (author)

  3. SU-E-J-137: Image Registration Tool for Patient Setup in Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Center

    Kim, M; Suh, T [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, W [Borame Medical Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, W [Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A potential validation tool for compensating patient positioning error was developed using 2D/3D and 3D/3D image registration. Methods: For 2D/3D registration, digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images were applied. The ray-casting algorithm is the most straightforward method for generating DRR. We adopted the traditional ray-casting method, which finds the intersections of a ray with all objects, voxels of the 3D-CT volume in the scene. The similarity between the extracted DRR and orthogonal image was measured by using a normalized mutual information method. Two orthogonal images were acquired from a Cyber-Knife system from the anterior-posterior (AP) and right lateral (RL) views. The 3D-CT and two orthogonal images of an anthropomorphic phantom and head and neck cancer patient were used in this study. For 3D/3D registration, planning CT and in-room CT image were applied. After registration, the translation and rotation factors were calculated to position a couch to be movable in six dimensions. Results: Registration accuracies and average errors of 2.12 mm ± 0.50 mm for transformations and 1.23° ± 0.40° for rotations were acquired by 2D/3D registration using an anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom. In addition, registration accuracies and average errors of 0.90 mm ± 0.30 mm for transformations and 1.00° ± 0.2° for rotations were acquired using CT image sets. Conclusion: We demonstrated that this validation tool could compensate for patient positioning error. In addition, this research could be the fundamental step for compensating patient positioning error at the first Korea heavy-ion medical accelerator treatment center.

  4. SU-E-J-137: Image Registration Tool for Patient Setup in Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Center

    Purpose: A potential validation tool for compensating patient positioning error was developed using 2D/3D and 3D/3D image registration. Methods: For 2D/3D registration, digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images were applied. The ray-casting algorithm is the most straightforward method for generating DRR. We adopted the traditional ray-casting method, which finds the intersections of a ray with all objects, voxels of the 3D-CT volume in the scene. The similarity between the extracted DRR and orthogonal image was measured by using a normalized mutual information method. Two orthogonal images were acquired from a Cyber-Knife system from the anterior-posterior (AP) and right lateral (RL) views. The 3D-CT and two orthogonal images of an anthropomorphic phantom and head and neck cancer patient were used in this study. For 3D/3D registration, planning CT and in-room CT image were applied. After registration, the translation and rotation factors were calculated to position a couch to be movable in six dimensions. Results: Registration accuracies and average errors of 2.12 mm ± 0.50 mm for transformations and 1.23° ± 0.40° for rotations were acquired by 2D/3D registration using an anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom. In addition, registration accuracies and average errors of 0.90 mm ± 0.30 mm for transformations and 1.00° ± 0.2° for rotations were acquired using CT image sets. Conclusion: We demonstrated that this validation tool could compensate for patient positioning error. In addition, this research could be the fundamental step for compensating patient positioning error at the first Korea heavy-ion medical accelerator treatment center

  5. Development of a patient positioning error compensation tool for Korea Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator Treatment Center

    Kim, Min-Joo; Suh, Tae-Suk; Cho, Woong; Jung, Won-Gyun

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a potential validation tool for compensating for the patient positioning error was developed by using 2D/3D and 3D/3D image registration. For 2D/3D registration, digitallyreconstructed radiography (DRR) and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images were applied. The ray-casting algorithm is the most straightforward method for generating DRR, so we adopted the traditional ray-casting method, which finds the intersections of a ray with all objects, voxels of the 3D-CT volume in the scene. The similarity between the extracted DRR and the orthogonal image was measured by using a normalized mutual information method. Two orthogonal images were acquired from a Cyber-knife system from the anterior-posterior (AP) and right lateral (RL) views. The 3D-CT and the two orthogonal images of an anthropomorphic phantom and of the head and neck of a cancer patient were used in this study. For 3D/3D registration, planning CT and in-room CT images were applied. After registration, the translation and the rotation factors were calculated to position a couch to be movable in six dimensions. Registration accuracies and average errors of 2.12 mm ± 0.50 mm for transformations and 1.23 ° ± 0.40 ° for rotations were acquired by using 2D/3D registration with the anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom. In addition, registration accuracies and average errors of 0.90 mm ± 0.30 mm for transformations and 1.00 ° ± 0.2 ° for rotations were acquired by using CT image sets. We demonstrated that this validation tool could compensate for patient positioning errors. In addition, this research could be a fundamental step in compensating for patient positioning errors at the Korea Heavy-ion Medical Accelerator Treatment Center.

  6. Ionization and acceleration of heavy ions in high-Z solid target irradiated by high intensity laser

    Kawahito, D.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In the interaction between high intensity laser and solid film, an ionization dynamics inside the solid is dominated by fast time scale convective propagation of the internal sheath field and the slow one by impact ionization due to heated high energy electrons coupled with nonlocal heat transport. Furthermore, ionization and acceleration due to the localized external sheath field which co- propagates with Al ions constituting the high energy front in the vacuum region. Through this process, the maximum charge state and then q/A increase in the rear side, so that ions near the front are further accelerated to high energy.

  7. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  8. Study of the mechanisms of heavy-ion induced desorption on accelerator-relevant materials; Untersuchung der Mechanismen schwerioneninduzierter Desorption an beschleunigerrelevanten Materialien

    Bender, Markus

    2008-02-22

    The ion beam loss induced desorption is a performance limitation for low charge state heavy ion accelerators. If charge exchanged projectile ions get lost onto the beam pipe, desorption of gas is stimulated resulting in a pressure increase inside of the synchrotron and thus, a dramatically reduction of the beam life time. To minimize the amount of desorbed gas an experimental program has been started to measure the desorption yields (released gas molecules per incident ion) of various materials and different projectile ions. The present work is a contribution to the understanding of the physical processes behind the ion beam loss induced desorption. The yield measurements by the pressure rise method have been combined for the rst time with in situ ion beam analysis technologies such as ERDA and RBS. With this unique method the desorption behavior of a sample can be correlated to its surface and bulk properties. The performed experiments with 1,4 MeV/u Xenon-Ions show that the ion induced desorption is mainly a surface effect. Sputtered oxide layers or impurities do not contribute to the desorbed gas significantly. Nevertheless bulk properties play an important role in the desorption strength. Pure metallic samples desorb less gas than isolating materials under swift heavy ion irradiation. From the experimental results it was possible to estimate the desorption yields of various materials under ion bombardment by means of an extended inelastic thermal-spike-model. The extension is the combination of the thermal-spike's temperature map with thermal desorption. Within this model the ion induced desorption can be regarded as the release of adsorbates from a transient overheated spot on the samples surface around the ion impact. Finally a copper substrate with a gold coated surface was developed and proposed as a suitable material for a beam loss collimator with minimum desorption to ensure the performance of GSI's SIS18 in high current beam operation. (orig.)

  9. [Relativistic heavy ion research

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, participation in the E802 Experiment, which is the first major heavy-ion experiment at the BNL-AGS, was the main focus of the group during the past four years. The emphases of the E802 experiment were on (a) accurate particle identification and measurements of spectra over a wide kinematical domain (5 degree LAB < 55 degree, p < 20 GeV/c); and (b) measurements of small-angle two-particle correlations, with event characterization tools: multiplicity array, forward and large-angle calorimeters. This experiment and other heavy ion collision experiments are discussed in this report

  10. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  11. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Group at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; (c) Development of elliptic beam theory; and (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX)

  12. Future dedicated medical ion accelerator

    Current biomedical studies and clinical trials with charged particles rely on accelerators that were designed for physics research. In contrast, the design and construction of particle accelerators designed specifically to meet medical requirements would result in cost-effective and highly reliable accelerators suitable for routine, hospital-based, clinical service with modest operations and maintenance crews. The experience of the LBL 184-Inch Synchrocyclotron, which is dedicated for medical use, indicates that extremely high facility availability can be readily achieved when operational standards are optimized for reliability. Therefore, we are in the process of submitting to the National Cancer Institute a three-year design proposal (for fiscal years 1981 to 1983) to perform the requisite research and development and to generate plans and realistic cost estimates for a dedicated heavy-ion medical accelerator suitable for a hospital-based environment

  13. Inertial confinement fusion driven by heavy ion beams

    Heavy ion inertial confinement fusion is reviewed with emphasis on the physics of fusion targets for direct and indirect drive, on radio-frequency and induction linear accelerators as the major options for reactor drivers, and on accelerator and plasma target experiments for heavy ion fusion, now starting at the SIS/ESR accelerator in Darmstadt. (author)

  14. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  15. Implement of Synchronous Timing Trigger System in Heavy Ion Accelerator%重离子加速器同步定时触发系统的实现

    赵江; 陈又新; 黄玉珍; 张华剑; 吴凤军; 闫怀海; 周忠祖; 高大庆

    2014-01-01

    同步定时触发系统是重离子同步加速器的控制核心,控制磁场电源对带电离子束进行同步加速,其对可靠性和定时精度要求高。在重离子治癌、材料辐照等领域的发展中,为了满足这些领域对重离子同步加速器小型化的需求,本文以NIOSII为核心处理器,结合FPGA上的可编程片上系统(SOPC),实现了一种基于可编程硬件的同步定时触发系统。该系统可控制延时精度,且使用灵活、可靠,易升级,向小型化的同步加速器及重离子治癌等应用工程提供了切实可行的方案。%The synchronous timing trigger system is the control core of a heavy ion syn-chrotron and controls magnetic field power supply to accelerate charged ion beam .The high reliability and high timing precision are required for the system .With the develop-ment of some domains ,such as the heavy-ion cancer therapy and the material irradia-tion ,a synchronous timing trigger system in synchrotron was presented in order to meet the requirement of miniaturizing accelerator .This system was implemented based on the processor NIOSII and combined with the SOPC on FPGA .It is flexible ,reliable ,easy to upgrade ,and has controllable delay precision .The system ,as a feasible scheme ,can be suitable for the miniaturized accelerator and any application engineering like heavy-ion cancer therapy .

  16. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Relativistic heavy ion reactions are reviewed in terms of our present understanding of some selected experimental results from the LBL Bevalac and the CERN ISR. The Lund Model for nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented and its power of predictivity is illustrated. (authors)

  17. Collective ion acceleration

    Godfrey, B.B.; Faehl, R.J.; Newberger, B.S.; Shanahan, W.R.; Thode, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed.

  18. Collective ion acceleration

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed

  19. Radiation therapy using high-energy heavy-ion

    The clinical trial of the heavy-ion radiotherapy was started at June 1994 after pre-clinical experiments using 290 MeV/u carbon beam. In this paper, an irradiation system for the heavy-ion radiotherapy installed at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) and the physical characteristics of the therapeutic beam were discussed. (author)

  20. CERN Heavy-Ion Facility design report

    The design of the CERN Heavy-Ion Facility is described. This facility will be based on a new ion linear accelerator (Linac 3), together with improvements to the other accelerators of the CERN complex to allow them to cope with heavy ions, i.e. to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). For this reference design, the pure isotope of lead, 208Pb, is considered. The bulk of the report describes Linac 3, a purpose-built heavy-ion linac mainly designed and constructed in collaboration with several CERN member state laboratories, but also with contributions from non-member states. Modifications and improvements to existing CERN accelerators essentially concern the RF acceleration, beam control and beam monitoring (all machines), beam kickers and septa at the input and output of the PSB, and major vacuum improvements, aiming to reduce the pressure by factors of at least seven and three in the PSB and PS respectively. After injection from the Electron Cyclotron Resonance source at 2.5 keV/u the partially stripped heavy-ion beam is accelerated successively by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole and an Interdigital-H linac to 4.2 MeV/u. After stripping to 208Pb53+, the beam is again accelerated, firstly in the PSB (to 98.5 MeV/u), then in the PS (to 4.25 GeV/u). The final stage of acceleration in the SPS takes the fully stripped 208Pb82+ ions to 177 GeV/u, delivering a beam of 4.108 ions per SPS supercycle (15.2 s) to the experiments. The first physics run with lead ions is scheduled for the end of 1994. Finally, some requirements for carrying out heavy-ion physics at the Large Hadron Collider are mentioned. (orig.)

  1. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper

  2. Ion sources for high-power hadron accelerators

    Faircloth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Ion sources are a critical component of all particle accelerators. They create the initial beam that is accelerated by the rest of the machine. This paper will introduce the many methods of creating a beam for high-power hadron accelerators. A brief introduction to some of the relevant concepts of plasma physics and beam formation is given. The different types of ion source used in accelerators today are examined. Positive ion sources for producing H+ ions and multiply charged heavy ions are ...

  3. Vacancy-related defects in n-type Si implanted with a rarefied microbeam of accelerated heavy ions in the MeV range

    Capan, I.; Pastuović, Ž.; Siegele, R.; Jaćimović, R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to study vacancy-related defects formed in bulk n-type Czochralski-grown silicon after implantation of accelerated heavy ions: 6.5 MeV O, 10.5 MeV Si, 10.5 MeV Ge, and 11 MeV Er in the single ion regime with fluences from 109 cm-2 to 1010 cm-2 and a direct comparison made with defects formed in the same material irradiated with 0.7 MeV fast neutron fluences up to 1012 cm-2. A scanning ion microprobe was used as the ion implantation tool of n-Cz:Si samples prepared as Schottky diodes, while the ion beam induced current (IBIC) technique was utilized for direct ion counting. The single acceptor state of the divacancy V2(-/0) is the most prominent defect state observed in DLTS spectra of n-CZ:Si samples implanted by selected ions and the sample irradiated by neutrons. The complete suppression of the DLTS signal related to the double acceptor state of divacancy, V2(=/-) has been observed in all samples irradiated by ions and neutrons. Moreover, the DLTS peak associated with formation of the vacancy-oxygen complex VO in the neutron irradiated sample was also completely suppressed in DLTS spectra of samples implanted with the raster scanned ion microbeam. The reason for such behaviour is twofold, (i) the local depletion of the carrier concentration in the highly disordered regions, and (ii) the effect of the microprobe-assisted single ion implantation. The activation energy for electron emission for states assigned to the V2(-/0) defect formed in samples implanted by single ions follows the Meyer-Neldel rule. An increase of the activation energy is strongly correlated with increasing ion mass.

  4. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10-7 torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column

  5. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  6. The regularities of the induction and reparation of DNA double strand breaks in human lymphocytes after irradiation with accelerated heavy ions of different energy

    The regularities of the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in human lymphocytes after irradiation with different doses of accelerated lithium and carbon ions (33 and 480 MeV/nucleon, LET = 20 and 10.2 keV/μm, respectively) and γ-rays 60Co by using comet assay were investigated. It was shown that dependence of DSB formation increases linearly with growing of the dose of lithium and carbon ions and γ-rays. The biological effectiveness of carbon ions with high energy was similar to γ-rays, lithium ions possess greater biological effectiveness in comparison with γ-rays and value of RBE of lithium ions amount to 1.6±0.1. The kinetics of DSB reparation in human lymphocytes after irradiation with lithium and carbon ions and γ-rays was studied. It is revealed that the reparation proceeds effectively with heavy-ion and γ-ray irradiation by exponential kinetics

  7. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility: Users handbook

    The primary objective of this handbook is to provide information for those who plan to carry out research programs at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator systems and experimental apparatus available are described. The mechanism for obtaining accelerator time and the responsibilities of those users who are granted accelerator time are described. The names and phone numbers of ORNL personnel to call for information about specific areas are given

  8. Lifetime of charge stripping foils and transmission of heavy ions in 12UD-pelletron tandem accelerator

    The lifetime of charge stripping foils produced by means of new arc-discharge method developed by Sugai was measured for the bombardment of 10 MeV Au ions. Transmission of Au ions through 12UD-pelletron tandem accelerator was also measured. The lifetime of tested charge stripping foils for 10-15 μg/cm2 thick and 3.8-5.0 μg/cm2 thick, respectively, demonstrated to be longer than that of usual arc-discharge method by more than 30 times and 20 times, meanwhile, the transmission of 3.8-5.0 μg/cm2 thick foils was about 4 times higher than that of 10-15 μg/cm2 thick foils. (orig.)

  9. Laser ion source for particle accelerators

    Sherwood, T R

    1995-01-01

    There is an interest in accelerating atomic nuclei to produce particle beams for medical therapy, atomic and nuclear physics, inertial confinement fusion and particle physics. Laser Ion Sources, in which ions are extracted from plasma created when a high power density laser beam pulse strikes a solid surface in a vacuum, are not in common use. However, some new developments in which heavy ions have been accelerated show that such sources have the potential to provide the beams required for high-energy accelerator systems.

  10. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    The 1989 Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter is reported. The aim of the symposium is to evidence another aspect of heavy ions research at the interplay between atomic and solid state physics. The scope of the Symposium includes the fundamental aspects of heavy ion excitation, ionization, charge exchange, energy loss, energy dissipation and relaxation in solids, channeling and coherent effects in crystals and ion induced modifications of materials