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Sample records for accelerated cerebral white

  1. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  2. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    Giménez, Mónica; Born, A Peter; Nagy, Zoltan;

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven preterm infants were compared to 10 full-term infants at term equivalent age using a voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Preterm infants exhibited higher fractional anisotropy values, which may suggest accelerated maturation, in the location of the sagittal...

  3. Cerebral white matter lesions and depressive symptoms in elderly adults

    Groot, Jan Cees; de Leeuw, Frank; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Jolles, Jellemer; Breteler, Monique; Hofman, Albert

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is evidence for a vascular cause of late-life depression. Cerebral white matter lesions are thought to represent vascular abnormalities. White matter lesions have been related to affective disorders and a history of late-onset depression in psychiatric patients. Their relation with mood disturbances in the general population is not known. We investigated the relation between white matter lesions and the presence of depressive symptoms or a history of depression i...

  4. Investigation of involvement of cerebral white matter in DRPLA

    Clinical, radiological, and histological examinations were performed on eight patients with autosomal-dominant dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA) including an autopsy case, to investigate the abnormal findings of the cerebral white matter in DRPLA. Three of the eight patients were found to have diffuse low density on CT or diffuse high-signal areas on T2-MRI in the white matter of the brain. There were no correlations between abnormal findings in the white matter and the following factors; age of onset, duration of the disease, clinical manifestations, disease severity, Hachinski score, or EEG abnormality. Single photon emission tomography failed to reveal any relative decrease in cerebral blood flow in the white matter, even in the three patients with abnormal findings in the white matter. MRI perfusion studies did not suggest any decrease in cerebral blood volume in any of the patients examined, but in the DRPLA patients the latency, i. e., the interval from the time of injection to the time of the minimum signal intensity, was significantly prolonged in comparison with the results in normal controls. On histopathological investigation, there was diffuse decreased staining in the centrum semiovale deep white matter of the temporal lobes bilaterally, but no gliosis, or arteriolar thickening or hyalinization were detected. These findings confirmed that the lesions in the white matter in DRPLA are not attributable to cerebral ischemia. The abnormal findings are presumably the result of the degeneration which occurs in DRPLA itself. Moreover the results of the MRI perfusion study suggest that even patients without abnormal findings in their white matter have lesions in the white matter which cannot be detected by usual CT or MRI examinations. (author)

  5. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm2) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author)

  6. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm/sup 2/) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author).

  7. Alcohol Use and Cerebral White Matter Compromise in Adolescence

    Elofson, Jonathan; Gongvatana, Win; Carey, Kate B.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, a period known to be critical in neurodevelopment. The adolescent brain may be particularly susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. While the cognitive deficits associated with alcohol use during adolescence have been well-documented, the neural substrates underlying these effects remain inadequately understood. Cerebral white matter has been suggested as a primary site of alcohol-related damage and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) a...

  8. In vivo evidence of cerebellar atrophy and cerebral white matter loss in Huntington disease

    Fennema-Notestine, C; Archibald, S.L.; Jacobsen, M.W.; Corey-Bloom, J; Paulsen, J.S.; Peavy, G.M.; Gamst, A.C.; Hamilton, J.M.; Salmon, D.P.; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regional pattern of white matter and cerebellar changes, as well as subcortical and cortical changes, in Huntington disease (HD) using morphometric analyses of structural MRI. METHODS: Fifteen individuals with HD and 22 controls were studied; groups were similar in age...... and education. Primary analyses defined six subcortical regions, the gray and white matter of primary cortical lobes and cerebellum, and abnormal signal in the cerebral white matter. RESULTS: As expected, basal ganglia and cerebral cortical gray matter volumes were significantly smaller in HD. The HD...... group also demonstrated significant cerebral white matter loss and an increase in the amount of abnormal signal in the white matter; occipital white matter appeared more affected than other cerebral white matter regions. Cortical gray and white matter measures were significantly related to caudate...

  9. The Instrumented Fetal Sheep as a Model of Cerebral White Matter Injury in the Premature Infant

    Back, Stephen A.; Riddle, Art; Dean, Justin; Hohimer, A. Roger

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in neonatal intensive care, survivors of premature birth remain highly susceptible to unique patterns of developmental brain injury that manifest as cerebral palsy and cognitive-learning disabilities. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to cerebral white matter injury related to hypoxia-ischemia. Cerebral white matter development in fetal sheep shares many anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. Thus, the fetal sheep has provided unique experimenta...

  10. Malnutrition and cerebral white matter lesions in dialysis patients

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between nutritional status and the severity of cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in dialysis patients. Subjects consisted of 28 patients with end-stage renal failure who underwent regular hemodialysis in the affiliated hospitals of Showa University Hospital. All subjects underwent brain MRI and various clinical and laboratory tests. All subjects were divided into three groups based on the following criteria. Group I was defined as having 0 or 1 of the 4 findings of malnutrition (body mass index 2, total lymphocyte counts 3, serum albumin concentrations <3.5 g/dL, normalized protein catabolic rate <0.9 g/kg/day). Group II was defined as having 2 of these 4 findings, and group III was defined as having 3 or all of these 4 findings. WMLs detected on T2-weightd MRI were rated using the semiquantitative method yielding two continuous variables (perivascular hyperintensity (PVH) scores, deep subcortical white matter hyperintensity (DSWMH) scores). PVH and DSWMH scores were significantly higher in patients in groups III and II compared to that of those in group I. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the four findings of malnourishment described above had significant impact on PVH and DSWMH scores. These findings suggest that nutritional status (especially malnutrition) in dialysis patients may be involved in the severity of WMLs. (author)

  11. Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume

    This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and methods: A clinical database of 70 children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay was established with children between the ages of 1 and 5 years. These children also demonstrated abnormal periventricular T2 hyperintensities associated with and without ventriculomegaly. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted images were used to measure the thickness (genu, mid-body, and splenium) and length of the corpus callosum. Volumes of interest were digitized based on gray-scale densities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter on axial T2-weighted and FLAIR images. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was correlated with cerebral white matter volume. Subgroup analysis was also performed to examine the relationship of this correlation with both gestational age and neuromotor outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients. There was a positive correlation between the thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and the volume of cerebral white matter across all children studied (R=0.665, P=0.0001). This correlation was not dependent on gestational age. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was decreased in the spastic diplegia group compared to the two other groups (hypotonia and developmental delay only; P<0.0001). Within each neuromotor subgroup, there was a positive correlation between thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and volume of the cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume

    Panigrahy, Ashok [Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Barnes, Patrick D. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Robertson, Robert L. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sleeper, Lynn A. [New England Research Institute, Watertown, MA (United States); Sayre, James W. [UCLA Medical Center, Departments of Radiology and Biostatistics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and methods: A clinical database of 70 children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay was established with children between the ages of 1 and 5 years. These children also demonstrated abnormal periventricular T2 hyperintensities associated with and without ventriculomegaly. Mid-sagittal T1-weighted images were used to measure the thickness (genu, mid-body, and splenium) and length of the corpus callosum. Volumes of interest were digitized based on gray-scale densities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter on axial T2-weighted and FLAIR images. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was correlated with cerebral white matter volume. Subgroup analysis was also performed to examine the relationship of this correlation with both gestational age and neuromotor outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients. There was a positive correlation between the thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and the volume of cerebral white matter across all children studied (R=0.665, P=0.0001). This correlation was not dependent on gestational age. The thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum was decreased in the spastic diplegia group compared to the two other groups (hypotonia and developmental delay only; P<0.0001). Within each neuromotor subgroup, there was a positive correlation between thickness of the mid-body of the corpus callosum and volume of the cerebral white matter. (orig.)

  13. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  14. Accelerator Center: National symbol or white elephant?

    This article discusses the possible future of the National Accelerator Center facility in South Africa. This state of the art facility with a 200-megaelectrol-volt proton cyclotron, carries out important nuclear physics research but takes a huge part of South Africa's total science research budget

  15. Vascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, cerebral white matter lesions and cerebral perfusion in a population-based study

    We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)

  16. Radiosurgery with a linear accelerator in cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Esteves, Sergio Carlos Barros; Nadalin, Wladimir; Piske, Ronie Leo; Benabou, Salomon; Souza, Evandro de; Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Zuliani de [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: estevesrt@uol.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Objective. To evaluate results achieved with radiosurgery and complications of the procedure when treating arteriovenous malformations with linear accelerator. Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between October 1993 and December 1996. Sixty-one patients with arteriovenous malformations were treated with radiosurgery utilizing a 6 MW energy linear accelerator. Ages of the 32 female and 29 male patients ranged from 6 to 54 years (mean: 28.3 years). The most frequent initial symptom was cephalea (45.9%), followed by neurological deficit (36.1%). Cerebral hemorrhage diagnosed by image was observed in 35 patients (57.3%). Most arteriovenous malformations (67.2%) were graded Spetzler III and IV. Venous stenosis (21.3%) and aneurysm (13.1%) were the most frequent angio-architecture changes. The dose administered varied from 12 to 27.5 Gy in the periphery of the lesion. Results. Out of twenty-eight patients that underwent conclusive angiography control, complete obliteration was achieved in 18 (72%) and treatment failed in 7 (absence of occlusion with more than 3 years of follow-up). Four were submitted to a second radiosurgery, and one of these has shown obliteration after 18 months of follow-up. Discussion. Several factors were analyzed regarding the occlusion rate (gender, age, volume, localization, Spetzler, flow , embolization, total of isocenters, prescribed dose and chosen isodose) and complications (total of isocenters, localization, volume, maximum dose, prescribed dose and chosen isodose). Analyzed variables showed no statistical significance for obliteration of the vessel, as well as for treatment complications. The largest diameter of the arteriovenous malformation, its volume and the dose administered did not influence time of obliteration. Conclusion. Radiosurgery is effective in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and can be an alternative for patients with clinical contraindication or with lesions in eloquent areas. In the studied

  17. Progression of Cerebral Atrophy and White Matter Hyperintensities in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    de Bresser, Jeroen; Tiehuis, Audrey M.; van den Berg, Esther; Reijmer, Yael D.; Jongen, Cynthia; Kappelle, L Jaap; Mali, Willem P.; Viergever, Max A.; Biessels, Geert Jan; ,

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes is associated with a moderate degree of cerebral atrophy and a higher white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume. How these brain-imaging abnormalities evolve over time is unknown. The present study aims to quantify cerebral atrophy and WMH progression over 4 years in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 55 patients with type 2 diabetes and 28 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched control participants had two 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scans with a 4-year ...

  18. Cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity are reduced in white matter hyperintensities

    Marstrand, J.R.; Garde, E; Rostrup, Egill;

    2002-01-01

    reported global reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity. In this study, we examined localized hemodynamic status to compare WMH to normal appearing white matter (NAWM). METHODS: A group of 21 normal 85-year-old subjects were studied using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI...... NAWM (P=0.026, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: These results show that a change in the hemodynamic status is present within the WMH, making these areas more likely to be exposed to transient ischemia inducing myelin rarefaction. In the future, MRI may be used to examine the effect of therapeutic strategies...

  19. Diazoxide and dimethyl sulphoxide alleviate experimental cerebral hypoperfusion-induced white matter injury in the rat brain

    Farkas, E; Annahazi, A; Institoris, A; Mihaly, A; Luiten, PGM; Bari, F

    2005-01-01

    Aging and dementia are accompanied by cerebral white matter (WM) injury. which is considered to be of ischemic origin. A causal link between cerebral ischemia and WM damage has been demonstrated in rats: however. few attempts appear to have, been made to test potential drugs for the alleviation of i

  20. The apolipoprotein E epsilon4-allele and antihypertensive treatment are associated with increased risk of cerebral MRI white matter hyperintensities

    Høgh, P; Garde, Ellen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 (APOE-epsilon4) is a potential risk factor for cerebral vascular disease. The aim of the present study was to examine the relative importance of APOE-epsilon4 and other relevant risk factors for the extent of cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH) in a...

  1. Detection of white matter lesions in cerebral small vessel disease

    Riad, Medhat M.; Platel, Bram; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-02-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are diffuse white matter abnormalities commonly found in older subjects and are important indicators of stroke, multiple sclerosis, dementia and other disorders. We present an automated WML detection method and evaluate it on a dataset of small vessel disease (SVD) patients. In early SVD, small WMLs are expected to be of importance for the prediction of disease progression. Commonly used WML segmentation methods tend to ignore small WMLs and are mostly validated on the basis of total lesion load or a Dice coefficient for all detected WMLs. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method that is designed to detect individual lesions, large or small, and we validate the detection performance of our system with FROC (free-response ROC) analysis. For the automated detection, we use supervised classification making use of multimodal voxel based features from different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, including intensities, tissue probabilities, voxel locations and distances, neighborhood textures and others. After preprocessing, including co-registration, brain extraction, bias correction, intensity normalization, and nonlinear registration, ventricle segmentation is performed and features are calculated for each brain voxel. A gentle-boost classifier is trained using these features from 50 manually annotated subjects to give each voxel a probability of being a lesion voxel. We perform ROC analysis to illustrate the benefits of using additional features to the commonly used voxel intensities; significantly increasing the area under the curve (Az) from 0.81 to 0.96 (p<0.05). We perform the FROC analysis by testing our classifier on 50 previously unseen subjects and compare the results with manual annotations performed by two experts. Using the first annotator results as our reference, the second annotator performs at a sensitivity of 0.90 with an average of 41 false positives per subject while our automated method reached the same

  2. Effects of Surgery and Proton Therapy on Cerebral White Matter of Craniopharyngioma Patients

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine radiation dose effect on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in craniopharyngioma patients receiving surgery and proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Fifty-one patients (2.1-19.3 years of age) with craniopharyngioma underwent surgery and proton therapy in a prospective therapeutic trial. Anatomical magnetic resonance images acquired after surgery but before proton therapy were inspected to identify white matter structures intersected by surgical corridors and catheter tracks. Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to measure microstructural integrity changes in cerebral white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from DTI was statistically analyzed for 51 atlas-based white matter structures of the brain to determine radiation dose effect. FA in surgery-affected regions in the corpus callosum was compared to that in its intact counterpart to determine whether surgical defects affect radiation dose effect. Results: Surgical defects were seen most frequently in the corpus callosum because of transcallosal resection of tumors and insertion of ventricular or cyst catheters. Longitudinal DTI data indicated reductions in FA 3 months after therapy, which was followed by a recovery in most white matter structures. A greater FA reduction was correlated with a higher radiation dose in 20 white matter structures, indicating a radiation dose effect. The average FA in the surgery-affected regions before proton therapy was smaller (P=.0001) than that in their non–surgery-affected counterparts with more intensified subsequent reduction of FA (P=.0083) after therapy, suggesting that surgery accentuated the radiation dose effect. Conclusions: DTI data suggest that mild radiation dose effects occur in patients with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy. Surgical defects present at the time of proton therapy appear to accentuate the radiation dose effect longitudinally

  3. Effects of Surgery and Proton Therapy on Cerebral White Matter of Craniopharyngioma Patients

    Uh, Jinsoo, E-mail: jinsoo.uh@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Sabin, Noah D. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Ogg, Robert J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Boop, Frederick A. [Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Jane, John A. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Hua, Chiaho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine radiation dose effect on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in craniopharyngioma patients receiving surgery and proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Fifty-one patients (2.1-19.3 years of age) with craniopharyngioma underwent surgery and proton therapy in a prospective therapeutic trial. Anatomical magnetic resonance images acquired after surgery but before proton therapy were inspected to identify white matter structures intersected by surgical corridors and catheter tracks. Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to measure microstructural integrity changes in cerebral white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from DTI was statistically analyzed for 51 atlas-based white matter structures of the brain to determine radiation dose effect. FA in surgery-affected regions in the corpus callosum was compared to that in its intact counterpart to determine whether surgical defects affect radiation dose effect. Results: Surgical defects were seen most frequently in the corpus callosum because of transcallosal resection of tumors and insertion of ventricular or cyst catheters. Longitudinal DTI data indicated reductions in FA 3 months after therapy, which was followed by a recovery in most white matter structures. A greater FA reduction was correlated with a higher radiation dose in 20 white matter structures, indicating a radiation dose effect. The average FA in the surgery-affected regions before proton therapy was smaller (P=.0001) than that in their non–surgery-affected counterparts with more intensified subsequent reduction of FA (P=.0083) after therapy, suggesting that surgery accentuated the radiation dose effect. Conclusions: DTI data suggest that mild radiation dose effects occur in patients with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy. Surgical defects present at the time of proton therapy appear to accentuate the radiation dose effect longitudinally

  4. Intranasal administration of aTf protects and repairs the neonatal white matter after a cerebral hypoxic-ischemic event.

    Guardia Clausi, Mariano; Paez, Pablo M; Campagnoni, Anthony T; Pasquini, Laura A; Pasquini, Juana M

    2012-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that the intracerebral injection of apotransferrin (aTf) attenuates white matter damage and accelerates the remyelination process in a neonatal rat model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) injury. However, the intracerebral injection of aTf might not be practical for clinical treatments. Therefore, the development of less invasive techniques capable of delivering aTf to the central nervous system would clearly aid in its effective clinical use. In this work, we have determined whether intranasal (iN) administration of human aTf provides neuroprotection to the neonatal mouse brain following a cerebral hypoxic-ischemic event. Apotransferrin was infused into the naris of neonatal mice and the HI insult was induced by right common carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to low oxygen concentration. Our results showed that aTf was successfully delivered into the neonatal HI brain and detected in the olfactory bulb, forebrain and posterior brain 30 min after inhalation. This treatment successfully reduced white matter damage, neuronal loss and astrogliosis in different brain regions and enhanced the proliferation and survival of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) in the subventricular zone and corpus callosum (CC). Additionally, using an in vitro hypoxic model, we demonstrated that aTf prevents oligodendrocyte progenitor cell death by promoting their differentiation. In summary, these data suggest that iN administration of aTf has the potential to be used for clinical treatment to protect myelin and to induce remyelination in demyelinating hypoxic-ischemic events in the neonatal brain. PMID:22736466

  5. White matter cerebral blood flow is inversely correlated with structural and functional connectivity in the human brain

    Aslan, Sina; Huang, Hao; Uh, Jinsoo; Mishra, Virendra; Xiao, Guanghua; van Osch, Matthias J.P.; Lu, Hanzhang

    2011-01-01

    White matter provides anatomic connections among brain regions and has received increasing attention in understanding brain intrinsic networks and neurological disorders. Despite significant progresses made in characterizing the white matter’s structural properties using post-mortem techniques and in vivo diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI) methods, its physiology remains poorly understood. In the present study, cerebral blood flow (CBF) of the white matter was investigated on a fiber-tract-specif...

  6. Diffusion MRI study of cerebral white matter lesions in patients with Binswanger's disease

    We performed diffusion MRI studies in 14 patients with extensive ischemic leukoencephalopathy, including 9 with dementia (diagnosed as Binswanger's disease), and 5 without dementia, and 8 age-matched controls. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in anterior and posterior periventricular white matter were significantly higher in demented and non-demented patients than in the controls, and diffusion anisotropy disappeared in patients because of the high ratio of the diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the nerve fibers to those parallel to the nerve fibers. ADCs in the corpus callosum were significantly higher in demented patients than in non demented patients and controls. Therefore, diffusion anisotropy disappeared only in demented (Binswanger's disease) patients. These results suggest that the cerebral white matter lesions in Binswanger's disease reflect a decrease of nerve fibers and diffuse myelin loss, and that the loss of nerve fibers in the corpus callosum may play a role in inducing cognitive decline. Diffusion MRI may be useful in the pathophysiological evaluation of cerebral white matter lesions. (author)

  7. Cerebral small vessel disease affects white matter microstructure in mild cognitive impairment.

    Papma, Janne M; de Groot, Marius; de Koning, Inge; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U; van der Lugt, Aad; Vernooij, Meike W; Niessen, Wiro J; van Swieten, John C; Koudstaal, Peter J; Prins, Niels D; Smits, Marion

    2014-06-01

    Microstructural white matter deterioration is a frequent finding in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), potentially underlying default mode network (DMN) dysfunctioning. Thus far, microstructural damage in MCI has been attributed to Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. A cerebrovascular role, in particular the role of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), received less interest. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the role of CSVD in microstructural deterioration within the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in MCI. MCI patients were subdivided into those with (n = 20) and without (n = 31) macrostructural CSVD evidence on MRI. Using TBSS we performed microstructural integrity comparisons within the whole brain NAWM. Secondly, we segmented white matter tracts interconnecting DMN brain regions by means of automated tractography segmentation. We used NAWM DTI measures from these tracts as dependent variables in a stepwise-linear regression analysis, with structural and demographical predictors. Our results indicated microstructural deterioration within the anterior corpus callosum, internal and external capsule and periventricular white matter in MCI patients with CSVD, while in MCI patients without CSVD, deterioration was restricted to the right perforant path, a tract along the hippocampus. Within the full cohort of MCI patients, microstructure within the NAWM of the DMN fiber tracts was affected by the presence of CSVD. Within the cingulum along the hippocampal cortex we found a relationship between microstructural integrity and ipsilateral hippocampal volume and the extent of white matter hyperintensity. In conclusion, we found evidence of CSVD-related microstructural damage in fiber tracts subserving the DMN in MCI. PMID:24115179

  8. Age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter in normal subjects

    To investigate age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter, we performed diffusion-weighted MRI studies in 21 normal subjects aged 25 to 96 years. The anisotropic rations (ARs), defined as the apparent diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the nerve fibers to those parallel to the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in elderly than in young subjects in the anterior and posterior white matter surrounding the lateral ventricle. Moreover, significant correlation between age and AR was found in the anterior white matter. The ventricular index (VI) measured on MRI, as a quantitative indicator of brain atrophy, was significantly higher in elderly than younger subjects, and significantly correlated with AR in the anterior white matter. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the VI showed the highest correlation for AR. On the other hand, there was no significant correlations between ARs in the corpus callosum and age. These results suggest that morphological changes in the myelin and axon in the white matter occur in elderly normal subjects, probably due to neuronal loss with aging. (author)

  9. Investigation of spatial correlation in MR images of human cerebral white matter using geostatistical methods

    Keil, Fabian

    2014-03-20

    Investigating the structure of human cerebral white matter is gaining interest in the neurological as well as in the neuroscientific community. It has been demonstrated in many studies that white matter is a very dynamic structure, rather than a static construct which does not change for a lifetime. That means, structural changes within white matter can be observed even on short timescales, e.g. in the course of normal ageing, neurodegenerative diseases or even during learning processes. To investigate these changes, one method of choice is the texture analysis of images obtained from white matter. In this regard, MRI plays a distinguished role as it provides a completely non-invasive way of acquiring in vivo images of human white matter. This thesis adapted a statistical texture analysis method, known as variography, to quantify the spatial correlation of human cerebral white matter based on MR images. This method, originally introduced in geoscience, relies on the idea of spatial correlation in geological phenomena: in naturally grown structures near things are correlated stronger to each other than distant things. This work reveals that the geological principle of spatial correlation can be applied to MR images of human cerebral white matter and proves that variography is an adequate method to quantify alterations therein. Since the process of MRI data acquisition is completely different to the measuring process used to quantify geological phenomena, the variographic analysis had to be adapted carefully to MR methods in order to provide a correctly working methodology. Therefore, theoretical considerations were evaluated with numerical samples in a first, and validated with real measurements in a second step. It was shown that MR variography facilitates to reduce the information stored in the texture of a white matter image to a few highly significant parameters, thereby quantifying heterogeneity and spatial correlation distance with an accuracy better than 5

  10. Investigation of spatial correlation in MR images of human cerebral white matter using geostatistical methods

    Investigating the structure of human cerebral white matter is gaining interest in the neurological as well as in the neuroscientific community. It has been demonstrated in many studies that white matter is a very dynamic structure, rather than a static construct which does not change for a lifetime. That means, structural changes within white matter can be observed even on short timescales, e.g. in the course of normal ageing, neurodegenerative diseases or even during learning processes. To investigate these changes, one method of choice is the texture analysis of images obtained from white matter. In this regard, MRI plays a distinguished role as it provides a completely non-invasive way of acquiring in vivo images of human white matter. This thesis adapted a statistical texture analysis method, known as variography, to quantify the spatial correlation of human cerebral white matter based on MR images. This method, originally introduced in geoscience, relies on the idea of spatial correlation in geological phenomena: in naturally grown structures near things are correlated stronger to each other than distant things. This work reveals that the geological principle of spatial correlation can be applied to MR images of human cerebral white matter and proves that variography is an adequate method to quantify alterations therein. Since the process of MRI data acquisition is completely different to the measuring process used to quantify geological phenomena, the variographic analysis had to be adapted carefully to MR methods in order to provide a correctly working methodology. Therefore, theoretical considerations were evaluated with numerical samples in a first, and validated with real measurements in a second step. It was shown that MR variography facilitates to reduce the information stored in the texture of a white matter image to a few highly significant parameters, thereby quantifying heterogeneity and spatial correlation distance with an accuracy better than 5

  11. Cerebral white matter damage in frontotemporal dementia assessed by diffusion tensor tractography

    Matsuo, Koushun; Mizuno, Toshiki; Kasai, Takashi; Kondo, Masaki; Nakagawa, Masanori [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan); Yamada, Kei; Akazawa, Kentaro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan); Mori, Satoru [Matsushita Memorial Hospital, Department of Neurology, Osaka (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study white matter integrity in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The subjects comprised 20 patients (9 men, 11 women) with FTD and 17 age-matched healthy controls (9 men, 8 women). Based on the data obtained from DTI, we performed tractography of the major cerebral pathways, including the pyramidal tracts, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), bilateral arcuate fasciculi (AF), inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF) and uncinate fasciculi (UF). We measured the values of fractional anisotropy (FA) in each fiber and statistically compared the findings in patients with those in controls. We found a significant decrease in FA values in the selected association fibers as well as anterior fibers of the CC in the patients with FTD. The greatest decrease in mean FA of the UF was seen in advanced FTD. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in FA in the bilateral pyramidal tracts. The features of FTD from the view point of cerebral white matter damage were revealed by tractography based on DTI. DTI is therefore considered to be a useful method, and may provide clues to elucidating the pathogenesis of FTD. (orig.)

  12. Arteriolosclerosis in the cerebral white matter in Binswanger type vascular dementia

    We evaluated the arteriolar adventitial proliferative rate (AP) in the white matter of 118 autopsied brains (58 control cases, C group; 43 hypertensive cases, HT group; and 17 Binswanger type vascular dementia cases, VD group), together with the sclerotic rate (AS) of the middle cerebral artery. In the C group, AP increased with age, advancing rapidly in subjects over 80 years old. In contrast, AS increased slowly in subjects over 80 years old. There was no difference between AS in the VD and HT groups, while the VD group showed a greater AP than did the HT group. The results of CT scans performed in 45 cases revealed that while AP demonstrated a significant correlation with leukoaraiosis(LA), AS showed no such correlation. Our results suggest that arteriolar adventitial proliferation plays a more important role in the onset of Binswanger type vascular dementia and the progress of LA. We also observed a strong relationship between ischemic changes in the cerebral white matter and arteriolar adventitial proliferation. (author)

  13. Photoperiodic Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow in White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Teplitsky, Seth; Gnyawali, Surya; Nelson, Randy J; Rink, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Individuals living outside the tropics need to adjust their behavioral and physiological repertoires throughout the year to adapt to the changing seasons. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) reduce hippocampal volumes, hippocampal-dependent memory function, long-term potentiation, and alter neurogenesis in response to short (winter-like) day lengths (photoperiods). During winter, these mice putatively shunt energy away from the brain to maximize peripheral thermogenesis, immune function, and survival. We hypothesized that these changes in brain function are accompanied by alterations in brain vasculature. We maintained white-footed mice in short (8 h light/16 h dark) or long (16 h light/8 h dark) photoperiods for 8-9 weeks. Mice were then perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin to visualize the perfused cerebrovasculature. Short-day mice reduced hippocampal and cortical capillary density (FITC(+) area); vessels isolated from short day-exposed mice expressed higher mRNA levels of the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Additionally, short-day mice reduced cerebral blood flow ∼15% compared with their long-day counterparts, as assessed by laser speckle flowmetry. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher levels of MMP2 in the hippocampus of mice maintained in short days compared with long days, potentially contributing to the observed vascular remodeling. These data demonstrate that a discrete environmental signal (i.e., day length) can substantially alter cerebral blood flow in adult mammals. PMID:27570829

  14. Outcome of cerebral arteriovenous malformations after linear accelerator reirradiation

    Moraes, Paulo L.; Rodrigo S Dias; Eduardo Weltman; Adelmo J Giordani; Salomon Benabou; Segreto, Helena R. C.; Segreto, Roberto A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients undergoing single-dose reirradiation using the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Methods: A retrospective study of 37 patients with brain AVM undergoing LINAC reirradiation between April 2003 and November 2011 was carried out. Patient characteristics, for example, gender, age, use of medications, and comorbidities; disease characteristics, for example, Spetzler-Martin ...

  15. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  16. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A. [Section of Neuropsychology, Division of Disability Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, 980-8575 Sendai (Japan); Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J. [MR Unit, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France); Viader, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France)

    2000-06-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  17. Pharmacological Effects of Erythropoietin and its Derivative Carbamyl erythropoietin in Cerebral White Matter Injury

    Liu, Wei

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the predominant form of brain injury in the premature infant and the most common cause of cerebral palsy, yet no therapy currently exists for this serious human disorder. As PVL often occurs in preterm infants suffering from cerebral hypoxia/ischemia with or without prior exposure to maternal-fetal infection/inflammation, we used hypoxia/ischemia with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, to produce clinically relevant PVL-like lesions in the white matter in postnatal day six (P6) mice. We studied the white matter pathology under different conditions, such as different durations of hypoxia and different doses of LPS, to evaluate the effects of those etiological factors on neonatal white matter injury. Distinct related pathological events were investigated at different time points during the progression of PVL. We used immunohistochemistry, histological analysis, and electron microscopy (EM) to study demylination that occurs in the white matter area, which is consistent with the pathology of human PVL. Previous studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) and its derivative carbamylated EPO (CEPO) are neuroprotective in various experimental models of brain injury. However, none of these studies investigated their efficacy against white matter injury using appropriate animal models of PVL. We produced unilateral or bilateral white matter injury in P6 mice using unilateral carotid ligation (UCL) followed by hypoxia (6% oxygen, 35 min) or by UCL/hypoxia plus LPS injection, respectively. We administered a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of EPO or CEPO (5000 IU/kg) immediately after the insult, and found both drugs to provide significant protection against white matter injury in PVL mice compared to vehicle-treated groups. In addition, EPO and CEPO treatments attenuated neurobehavioral dysfunctions in an acute manner after PVL injury. EPO and CEPO have relatively few adverse effects, and thus may be a therapeutic agent

  18. Alterations of the Cerebral White Matter in a Middle-Aged Patient with Turner Syndrome: An MRI Study

    Tanji, Haruko; Nakajima, Katsuo; Wada, Manabu; Kato, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman with intellectual disability was admitted to the hospital due to pneumonia. MRI of her brain showed diffuse hyperintensities on T2-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery images in the bilateral cerebral white matter. Laboratory examination revealed sustained high levels of serum KL-6. Karyotyping revealed partial monosomy of the X chromosome. This is the first case showing diffuse white matter lesions in the brain, and sustained high levels of serum KL-6 in Turne...

  19. Comparison of the relationship between cerebral white matter and grey matter in normal dogs and dogs with lateral ventricular enlargement

    Schmidt, Martin J.; Laubner, Steffi; Kolecka, Malgorzata; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Ondreka, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of...

  20. Effect of white matter lesions on cerebral blood flow in asymptomatic individuals

    In 32 patients with asymptomatic white matter lesions (WMLs), we evaluated the age-related changes in the number of white matter lesions, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). CBF was measured with the intravenous 133Xe injection method. The number of WMLs in whole brain was measured by the magnetic resonance imaging. CBF decreased with advancing age (r=0.529; p<0.01), while the number of WMLs (r=0.39; p<0.05), CVR (r=0.464; p<0.01) and MABP (r=0.229; ns) increased with advancing age. There was a significantly negative correlation (r=-0.499; p<0.01) between CBF and the number of WMLs. While, CVR showed a positive correlation with the number of WMLs (r=0.468; p<0.01). Multivariate regression analysis with stepwise forward selection method indicated that the number of WMLs and age were independent and negative predictors for CBF, while other factors did not. CBF decreased with a concomitant rise in CVR. On the basis of the results listed above, we assumed that ischemic damage of the white matter and/or functional suppression of distant loci due to the primary tissue damage are the best explanation for CBF reduction in asymptomatic individuals with WMLs. High resolution CBF imaging as well as evaluation of structural alterations in cerebrovascular vessels should be required to further define the mechanisms. (author)

  1. Unbiased Stereological Analysis of Reactive Astrogliosis to Estimate Age-Associated Cerebral White Matter Injury.

    McNeal, David W; Brandner, Dieter D; Gong, Xi; Postupna, Nadia O; Montine, Thomas J; Keene, C Dirk; Back, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) contributes to cognitive dysfunction associated with pathological aging. Because reactive astrocyte-related factors contribute to remyelination failure after WMI, we sought accurate, cost-effective, and reproducible histopathological approaches for quantification of morphometric features of reactive astrogliosis in aged human white matter in patients with vascular brain injury (VBI). We compared 7 distinct approaches to quantify the features of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labeled astrocytes in the prefrontal white matter of brains from patients with VBI (n = 17, mean age 88.8 years) and controls that did not exhibit VBI (n = 11, mean age 86.6 years). Only modern stereological techniques (ie, optical fractionator and spaceballs) and virtual process thickness measurements demonstrated significant changes in astrocyte number, process length, or proximal process thickness in cases with VBI relative to controls. The widely employed methods of neuropathological scoring, antibody capture assay (histelide), area fraction fractionator, and Cavalieri point counting failed to detect significant differences in GFAP expression between the groups. Unbiased stereological approaches and virtual thickness measurements provided the only sensitive and accurate means to quantify astrocyte reactivity as a surrogate marker of WMI in human brains with VBI. PMID:27142644

  2. Spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in patients with occult spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Xuetao Mu

    Full Text Available Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP is a common type of cerebral palsy (CP, which presents as a group of motor-impairment syndromes. Previous conventional MRI studies have reported abnormal structural changes in SDCP, such as periventricular leucomalacia. However, there are roughly 27.8% SDCP patients presenting normal appearance in conventional MRI, which were considered as occult SDCP. In this study, sixteen patients with occult SDCP and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were collected and the data were acquired on a 3T MR system. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis to investigate whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP. By using VBM method, the grey matter volume reduction was revealed in the bilateral basal ganglia regions, thalamus, insula, and left cerebral peduncle, whereas the white matter atrophy was found to be located in the posterior part of corpus callosum and right posterior corona radiata in the occult SDCP patients. By using TBSS, reduced fractional anisotropy (FA values were detected in multiple white matter regions, including bilateral white matter tracts in prefrontal lobe, temporal lobe, internal and external capsule, corpus callosum, cingulum, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum. Additionally, several regions of white matter tracts injury were found to be significantly correlated with motor dysfunction. These results collectively revealed the spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP.

  3. Comparison of the Relationship between Cerebral White Matter and Grey Matter in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Lateral Ventricular Enlargement.

    Martin J Schmidt

    Full Text Available Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of the forebrain still exists in brachycephalic dogs with oversized ventricles. The relative cerebral grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume in dogs were determined based on magnetic-resonance-imaging datasets using graphical software. In an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA using body mass as the covariate, the adjusted means of the brain tissue volumes of two groups of dogs were compared. Group 1 included 37 mesaticephalic dogs of different sizes with no apparent changes in brain morphology, and subjectively normal ventricle size. Group 2 included 35 brachycephalic dogs in which subjectively enlarged cerebral ventricles were noted as an incidental finding in their magnetic-resonance-imaging examination. Whereas no significant different adjusted means of the grey matter could be determined, the group of brachycephalic dogs had significantly larger adjusted means of lateral cerebral ventricles and significantly less adjusted means of relative white matter volume. This indicates that brachycephalic dogs with subjective ventriculomegaly have less white matter, as expected based on their body weight and cerebral volume. Our study suggests that ventriculomegaly in brachycephalic dogs is not a normal variant of ventricular volume. Based on the changes in the relative proportion of WM and CSF volume, and the unchanged GM proportions in dogs with ventriculomegaly, we rather suggest that distension of the lateral ventricles might be the underlying cause

  4. Comparison of the Relationship between Cerebral White Matter and Grey Matter in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Lateral Ventricular Enlargement.

    Schmidt, Martin J; Laubner, Steffi; Kolecka, Malgorzata; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Ondreka, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of the forebrain still exists in brachycephalic dogs with oversized ventricles. The relative cerebral grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume in dogs were determined based on magnetic-resonance-imaging datasets using graphical software. In an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using body mass as the covariate, the adjusted means of the brain tissue volumes of two groups of dogs were compared. Group 1 included 37 mesaticephalic dogs of different sizes with no apparent changes in brain morphology, and subjectively normal ventricle size. Group 2 included 35 brachycephalic dogs in which subjectively enlarged cerebral ventricles were noted as an incidental finding in their magnetic-resonance-imaging examination. Whereas no significant different adjusted means of the grey matter could be determined, the group of brachycephalic dogs had significantly larger adjusted means of lateral cerebral ventricles and significantly less adjusted means of relative white matter volume. This indicates that brachycephalic dogs with subjective ventriculomegaly have less white matter, as expected based on their body weight and cerebral volume. Our study suggests that ventriculomegaly in brachycephalic dogs is not a normal variant of ventricular volume. Based on the changes in the relative proportion of WM and CSF volume, and the unchanged GM proportions in dogs with ventriculomegaly, we rather suggest that distension of the lateral ventricles might be the underlying cause of pressure

  5. Intranasal Insulin Prevents Cognitive Decline, Cerebral Atrophy and White Matter Changes in Murine Type I Diabetic Encephalopathy

    Francis, George J.; Martinez, Jose A.; Liu, Wei Q.; Xu, Kevin; Ayer, Amit; Fine, Jared; Tuor, Ursula I.; Glazner, Gordon; Hanson, Leah R.; Frey, William H., II; Toth, Cory

    2008-01-01

    Insulin deficiency in type I diabetes may lead to cognitive impairment, cerebral atrophy and white matter abnormalities. We studied the impact of a novel delivery system using intranasal insulin (I-I) in a mouse model of type I diabetes (streptozotocin-induced) for direct targeting of pathological and cognitive deficits while avoiding potential…

  6. An autopsy case of acute multiple sclerosis with multifocal low density areas in the cerebral white matter on CT scans

    A 34-year-old woman presented with urination difficulty and consciousness disturbance, followed by persistent neurologic findings, such as semicomatose mental status and bilateral optic neuritis, and monophasic clinical course. Cranial CT showed multifocal low density areas in cerebral white matter. The patient was clinically diagnosed as having acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. She died of sepsis four months later. Autopsy revealed multifocal large demyelinating lesions confined to the cerebral white matter, shown as low density areas on CT scans, and demyelinating plaques scattered in the optic nerves and chiasm, and cerebral peduncle. The final diagnosis was acute multiple sclerosis. The CT appearance of multifocal low density areas was most likely due to demyelinating lesions causing edema and tissue necrosis. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Outcome of cerebral arteriovenous malformations after linear accelerator reirradiation

    Paulo L Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients undergoing single-dose reirradiation using the Linear Accelerator (LINAC for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM. Methods: A retrospective study of 37 patients with brain AVM undergoing LINAC reirradiation between April 2003 and November 2011 was carried out. Patient characteristics, for example, gender, age, use of medications, and comorbidities; disease characteristics, for example, Spetzler-Martin grading system, location, volume, modified Pollock-Flickinger score; and treatment characteristics, for example, embolization, prescription dose, radiation dose-volume curves, and conformity index were analyzed. During the follow-up period, imaging studies were performed to evaluate changes after treatment and AVM cure. Complications, such as edema, rupture of the blood-brain barrier, and radionecrosis were classified as symptomatic and asymptomatic. Results: Twenty-seven patients underwent angiogram after reirradiation and the percentage of angiographic occlusion was 55.5%. In three patients without obliteration, AVM shrinkage made it possible to perform surgical resection with a 2/3 cure rate. A reduction in AVM nidus volume greater than 50% after the first procedure was shown to be the most important predictor of obliteration. Another factor associated with AVM cure was a prescription dose higher than 15.5 Gy in the first radiosurgery. Two patients had permanent neurologic deficits. Factors correlated with complications were the prescription dose and maximum dose in the first procedure. Conclusion: This study suggests that single-dose reirradiation is safe and feasible in partially occluded AVM. Reirradiation may not benefit candidates whose prescribed dose was lower than 15.5 Gy in the first procedure and initial AVM nidus volume did not decrease by more than 50% before reirradiation.

  8. Cerebral white matter changes are associated with abnormalities on neurological examination in non-disabled elderly

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje;

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter changes (WMC) are associated with motor, cognitive, mood, urinary disturbances, and disability, but little is known about the prevalence of neurological signs in patients with these brain lesions. We assessed the presence and occurrence of neurological abnormalities over a 3......-year period and their possible associations with WMC in a cohort of initially non-disabled elderly subjects. Data from the multicenter Leukoaraiosis And DISability study were used. A standard neurological examination was performed at baseline and at each of the annual follow-up visits. A standard MRI...... scan was performed at baseline and after 3-years. WMC severity was graded as mild, moderate, or severe on the Fazekas scale, while the Rotterdam scale was used to assess progression. Infarcts and their occurrence were also assessed. Six hundred and thirty-nine non-disabled subjects were enrolled (mean...

  9. Cerebral White Matter and Retinal Arterial Health in Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    P. L. Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 33 hypertensive (22 with comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 29 normotensive (8 with T2DM middle-aged and elderly adults, comparable in age and education. Relative to normotensive participants, those with hypertension, in addition to a higher prevalence of periventricular white matter (WM lesions, had significantly lower WM microstructural integrity of major fiber tracts as seen with MRI-based diffusion tensor imaging. Among participants with hypertension, those with co-morbid T2DM (n=22 had more widespread WM pathology than those without T2DM (n=11. Furthermore and consistent with previous research, both hypertension and T2DM were related to decreased retinal arterial diameter. Further exploratory analysis demonstrated that the observed retinal arteriolar narrowing among individual with hypertension was associated with widespread subclinical losses in WM microstructural integrity and these associations were present predominantly in the frontal lobe. We found that T2DM adds to the damaging effects of hypertension on cerebral WM, and notably these effects were independent of age and body mass index. Given that the decrease in retinal arteriolar diameter may be a biomarker for parallel pathology in cerebral arterioles, our data suggest that the frontal lobe may be particularly vulnerable to microvascular damage in the presence of hypertension and T2DM.

  10. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction is associated with cerebral white matter lesions in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis

    Cerebral white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered to be the result of brain ischemic injury and a risk factor for clinical stroke. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the cardiac diastolic function and cerebral white matter lesions in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. The study subjects were 55 patients (75±7 years) with risk factors for atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular events were excluded from the study. Cerebral white matter lesions, which were defined as exhibiting high intensity regions on brain MRI, were evaluated with the degrees of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) according to the Japanese Brain Dock Guidelines of 2003. Peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E' velocity) was measured by tissue Doppler echocardiography, and was used as a parameter of cardiac diastolic function. The mean value of E' velocity was decreased due to the cardiac diastolic dysfunction (5.2±1.4 cm/s). In addition, the E' velocity was inversely correlated with the degree of PVH (ρ=-0.701, p<0.001). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the decrease in the E' velocity (β coefficient=-0.42, p<0.001) and the presence of hypertension (β coefficient=0.31, p=0.001) were independent determinants of the degree of PVH. Thus, cardiac diastolic dysfunction is correlated to the severity of cerebral white matter lesions, suggesting the cardio-cerebral connection in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. (author)

  11. Cilostazol reduces blood brain barrier dysfunction, white matter lesion formation and motor deficits following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    Edrissi, Hamidreza; Schock, Sarah C; Cadonic, Robert; Hakim, Antoine M; Thompson, Charlie S

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a pathological process leading to lacunar infarcts, leukoaraiosis and cerebral microbleeds. Dysfunction of the blood brain barrier (BBB) has been proposed as a mechanism in the progression cerebral small vessel disease. A rodent model commonly used to study some aspects of CSVD is bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in the rat. In the present study it was determined that gait impairment, as determined by a tapered beam test, and BBB permeability increased following BCCAO. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to have anti-apoptotic effects and prevent white matter vacuolation and rarefaction induced by BCCAO in rats. In this study the protective effect of cilostazol administration on the increase BBB permeability following BCCAO was determined as well as the effect on plasma levels of circulating microparticles (MPs), cerebral white matter rarefaction, glial activation and gait disturbance. The effect of cilostazol on in vitro endothelial barriers was also evaluated. Cilostazol treatment improved BBB permeability and reduced gait disturbance, visual impairment and microglial activation in optic tract following BCCAO in vivo. It also reduced the degree of cell death and the reduction in trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in artificial endothelial barriers in vitro induced by MP treatment of in vitro barriers. PMID:27350079

  12. APOL1 renal-risk variants associate with reduced cerebral white matter lesion volume and increased gray matter volume.

    Freedman, Barry I; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Bryan, R Nick; Palmer, Nicholette D; Hicks, Pamela J; Ma, Lijun; Rocco, Michael V; Smith, S Carrie; Xu, Jianzhao; Whitlow, Christopher T; Wagner, Benjamin C; Langefeld, Carl D; Hawfield, Amret T; Bates, Jeffrey T; Lerner, Alan J; Raj, Dominic S; Sadaghiani, Mohammad S; Toto, Robert D; Wright, Jackson T; Bowden, Donald W; Williamson, Jeff D; Sink, Kaycee M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Divers, Jasmin

    2016-08-01

    To assess apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal-risk-variant effects on the brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cerebral volumes and cognitive function were assessed in 517 African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS) Memory IN Diabetes (MIND) and 2568 hypertensive African American Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) participants without diabetes. Within these cohorts, 483 and 197 had cerebral MRI, respectively. AA-DHS participants were characterized as follows: 60.9% female, mean age of 58.6 years, diabetes duration 13.1 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate of 88.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and a median spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio of 10.0 mg/g. In additive genetic models adjusting for age, sex, ancestry, scanner, intracranial volume, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, statins, nephropathy, smoking, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, APOL1 renal-risk-variants were positively associated with gray matter volume (β = 3.4 × 10(-3)) and negatively associated with white matter lesion volume (β = -0.303) (an indicator of cerebral small vessel disease) and cerebrospinal fluid volume (β= -30707) (all significant), but not with white matter volume or cognitive function. Significant associations corresponding to adjusted effect sizes (β/SE) were observed with gray matter volume (0.16) and white matter lesion volume (-0.208), but not with cerebrospinal fluid volume (-0.251). Meta-analysis results with SPRINT Memory and Cognition in Decreased Hypertension (MIND) participants who had cerebral MRI were confirmatory. Thus, APOL1 renal-risk-variants are associated with larger gray matter volume and lower white matter lesion volume suggesting lower intracranial small vessel disease. PMID:27342958

  13. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in senile dementia of Alzheimer's type and vascular dementia with deep white matter changes

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF), and cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were investigated using positron emission tomography (PET) in 16 patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT), and compared with those of 6 nondemented and 3 demented patients with deep white matter high signal (DWMH) on T2-weighted MRI and 6 controls. rCBF, rCMRO2 and rCBV were determined using C15O2, 15O2 and C15O, respectively. rCBF and CMRO2 were significantly decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortex (P 2 was significantly reduced in only the frontal and temporal cortex of demented patients (P < 0.05). rOEF was significantly increased in the parietal cortex of patients with SDAT and in the white matter of patients with SDAT or DWMH (P < 0.05), and the increase in the frontal white matter significantly paralleled the progression of dementia in patients with SDAT (P < 0.05). rCBV was significantly decreased in the parietal and temporal cortex of patients with SDAT (P < 0.05), but not in any areas of those with DWMH. (orig.)

  14. Diffusion Imaging of Cerebral White Matter in Persons Who Stutter: Evidence for Network-Level Anomalies

    Shanqing eCai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in brain white matter have been a main focus of recent neuroimaging studies on stuttering. However, no prior study has examined brain connectivity on the global level of the cerebral cortex in persons who stutter (PWS. In the current study, we analyzed the results from probabilistic tractography between regions comprising the cortical speech network. An anatomical parcellation scheme was used to define 28 speech production-related ROIs in each hemisphere. We used network-based statistic (NBS and graph theory to analyze the connectivity patterns obtained from tractography. At the network level, the probabilistic corticocortical connectivity from the PWS group were significantly weaker that from persons with fluent speech (PFS. NBS analysis revealed significant components in the bilateral speech networks with negative correlations with stuttering severity. To facilitate comparison with previous studies, we also performed tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and regional fractional anisotropy (FA averaging. Results from tractography, TBSS and regional FA averaging jointly highlight the importance of several regions in the left peri-Rolandic sensorimotor and premotor areas, most notably the left ventral premotor cortex and middle primary motor cortex, in the neuroanatomical basis of stuttering.

  15. Comparing Cerebral White Matter Lesion Burdens between Parkinson’s Disease with and without Dementia

    Sun-Ah Choi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral white matter lesions (CWMLs have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of dementia, disability, and death. CWMLs are more common in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD than in normal elderly individuals of comparable age. Only a few studies have been done to determine whether CWMLs may influence cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Fully developed PD with concurrent AD was reported to likely cause impaired cognition in spite of accumulating evidence suggesting that PD with dementia (PDD is more closely associated with Lewy body (LB pathology. Currently, contradictory data on the neuropathology of dementia in PD require further prospective clinicopathological studies in larger cohorts to elucidate the impact of AD and α-synuclein (SCNA pathologies on the cognitive status in these disorders. Previous reports did not suggest CWMLs to be associated with an increased risk of PDD. After adjusting for age at death, age at onset of PD, and duration of PD, our recent study investigating CWMLs in PDD via autopsy has shown a positive correlation between the burden of CWMLs and PDD. The frequent co-existence of both LB and AD lesions suggests that both pathologies independently or synergistically contribute to both movement disorders and cognitive impairment. The individual and cumulative burden of CWMLs, LB lesions, and AD lesions may synergistically contribute to cognitive decline in LB disorders such as PDD.

  16. Accelerated progression of white matter hyperintensities and subsequent risk of mortality

    Sabayan, Behnam; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westendorp, Rudi G; van Buchem, Mark A; de Craen, Anton J M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association of accelerated progression of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with mortality outcomes in 534 older subjects at risk for cardiovascular disease. Using brain magnetic resonance imaging, volume of WMH was measured 2 times in an average of 33 months apart. After the...

  17. Effects of statins on the progression of cerebral white matter lesion: Post hoc analysis of the ROCAS (Regression of Cerebral Artery Stenosis) study.

    Mok, Vincent C T; Lam, Wynnie W M; Fan, Yu Hua; Wong, Adrian; Ng, Ping Wing; Tsoi, Tak Hon; Yeung, Vincent; Wong, Ka Sing

    2009-05-01

    Arteriosclerotic related cerebral white matter lesion (WML) is associated with increased risk of death, stroke, dementia, depression, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence. We investigated the effects of statins on WML progression by performing a post hoc analysis on the ROCAS (Regression of Cerebral Artery Stenosis) study, which is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of statins upon asymptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis progression among stroke-free individuals. Two hundreds and eight randomized subjects were assigned to either placebo (n = 102) or simvastatin 20 mg daily (n = 106) for 2 years. Baseline severity of WML was graded visually into none, mild, and severe. Volume (cm3) of WML was determined quantitatively at baseline and at end of study using a semi-automated method based on MRI. Primary outcome was the change in WML volume over 2 years. After 2 years of follow-up, there was no significant change in WML volume between the active and the placebo group as a whole. However, stratified analysis showed that for those with severe WML at baseline, the median volume increase in the active group (1.9 cm3) was less compared with that in the placebo group (3.0 cm3; P = 0.047). Linear multivariate regression analysis identified that baseline WML volume (beta = 0.63, P < 0.001) and simvastatin treatment (beta = -0.214, P = 0.043) independently predicted change in WML volume. Our findings suggest that statins may delay the progression of cerebral WML only among those who already have severe WML at baseline. PMID:19252811

  18. A radiological study of cerebral white matter lesions in patients with dementia using diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    We investigated the changes in water diffusion in the cerebral white matter and the corpus callosum in 12 patients with Binswanger's disease (BD), and 19 patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), including 12 without (AD-) and 7 with periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) lesions (AD+), using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in the anterior and posterior white matter were significantly higher in patients with BD and AD than in 12 age-matched controls. The ADCs were significantly higher in AD (+) than in AD (-) patients. Anisotropic ratios (ARs), defined as diffusion restricted perpendicular to the direction of the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in BD and AD (+) patients, and even in AD (-) patients, than in the controls. ARs in the anterior white matter were significantly higher in BD than in AD (+), while in the posterior white matter the ratios were significantly higher in AD (+) rather than BD patients. The ADCs and ARs in the genu of the corpus callosum were significantly higher in patients with BD and AD (+) compared to the control subjects, while ADCs and ARs in the splenium were significantly higher in patients with AD (+) and AD (-) than in those with BD. These results suggest that mild myelin loss occurs in AD patients even in apparently normal white matter and in the splenium of the corpus callosum. A definite loss of myelin and axons, including incomplete infarction, occurs preferentially in anterior white matter in BD, while in posterior white matter in AD (+), as seen on T2-weighted images as PVH. Studies with diffusion-weighted MRI may allow the characterization of different pathological processes and enable the demonstration of underlying white matter lesion in patients with dementia that cannot be visualized by conventional MRI. (author)

  19. Long-term accelerated current operation of white light-emitting diodes

    Long-term degradation tests regarding white light-emitting diodes based on InGaN were performed under accelerated current conditions, and the half-life of the light's output was estimated. An estimated mean half-life of 1.5x104 h was obtained under the recommended 20-mA operating condition. The change in the emission spectrum was found to be slight, and the color quality was considered generally satisfactory over the long term

  20. MR spectroscopy of cerebral white matter in type 2 diabetes; no association with clinical variables and cognitive performance

    Tiehuis, Audrey; Meer, Femke van der; Mali, Willem; Luijten, Peter [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Hp E01.332), PO Box 85500, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pleizier, Marc; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, Jaap [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) is associated with cognitive decline, but the pathogenesis of this important complication remains unclear. We investigated whether abnormalities in neuronal metabolism or membrane integrity in normal appearing cerebral white matter are associated with cognitive impairment in patients with DM2. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1.5 T), aimed at N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total choline (Cho), and total creatine (Cr), was performed in the cerebral white matter (centrum semiovale) of 72 patients with DM2 and 40 control subjects. All participants underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluation. Patients with DM2 performed worse with respect to global neuropsychological functioning than controls (p < 0.05), in particular on memory and information processing speed. We observed no differences in NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, or NAA/Cho ratio's between patients with DM2 and controls. Cognitive performance in patients with DM2 was not correlated with any of these brain metabolites, neither were the clinical variables. We conclude that disturbances in neuronal viability and cellular membrane status assessed by NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho ratios cannot explain cognitive decline in patients with DM2. (orig.)

  1. MR spectroscopy of cerebral white matter in type 2 diabetes; no association with clinical variables and cognitive performance

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) is associated with cognitive decline, but the pathogenesis of this important complication remains unclear. We investigated whether abnormalities in neuronal metabolism or membrane integrity in normal appearing cerebral white matter are associated with cognitive impairment in patients with DM2. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1.5 T), aimed at N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total choline (Cho), and total creatine (Cr), was performed in the cerebral white matter (centrum semiovale) of 72 patients with DM2 and 40 control subjects. All participants underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluation. Patients with DM2 performed worse with respect to global neuropsychological functioning than controls (p < 0.05), in particular on memory and information processing speed. We observed no differences in NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, or NAA/Cho ratio's between patients with DM2 and controls. Cognitive performance in patients with DM2 was not correlated with any of these brain metabolites, neither were the clinical variables. We conclude that disturbances in neuronal viability and cellular membrane status assessed by NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho ratios cannot explain cognitive decline in patients with DM2. (orig.)

  2. Hypoxia during pregnancy in rats leads to the changes of the cerebral white matter in adult offspring

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of reduced fetal oxygen supply on cerebral white matter in the adult offspring and further assess its susceptibility to postnatal hypoxia and high-fat diet. Based on a 3 x 2 full factorial design consisting of three factors of maternal hypoxia, postnatal high-fat diet, and postnatal hypoxia, the ultrastructure of myelin, axon and capillaries were observed, and the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-H+L(NF-H+L), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was analyzed in periventricular white matter of 16-month-old offspring. Demyelination, injured axon and damaged microvasculars were observed in maternal hypoxia offspring. The main effect of maternal hypoxia lead to decreased expression of MBP or NF-H+L, and increased expression of GFAP (all P < 0.05). Moreover, there was positive three-way interaction among maternal hypoxia, high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia on MBP, NF-H+L or GFAP expression (all P < 0.05). In summary, our results indicated that maternal hypoxia during pregnancy in rats lead to changes of periventricular white matter in adult offspring, including demyelination, damaged axon and proliferated astroglia. This effect was amplified by high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia.

  3. Hypoxia during pregnancy in rats leads to the changes of the cerebral white matter in adult offspring

    Wang, Lingxing; Cai, Ruowei [Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Lv, Guorong, E-mail: lxingwan502@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Huang, Ziyang; Wang, Zhenhua [Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China)

    2010-05-28

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of reduced fetal oxygen supply on cerebral white matter in the adult offspring and further assess its susceptibility to postnatal hypoxia and high-fat diet. Based on a 3 x 2 full factorial design consisting of three factors of maternal hypoxia, postnatal high-fat diet, and postnatal hypoxia, the ultrastructure of myelin, axon and capillaries were observed, and the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-H+L(NF-H+L), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was analyzed in periventricular white matter of 16-month-old offspring. Demyelination, injured axon and damaged microvasculars were observed in maternal hypoxia offspring. The main effect of maternal hypoxia lead to decreased expression of MBP or NF-H+L, and increased expression of GFAP (all P < 0.05). Moreover, there was positive three-way interaction among maternal hypoxia, high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia on MBP, NF-H+L or GFAP expression (all P < 0.05). In summary, our results indicated that maternal hypoxia during pregnancy in rats lead to changes of periventricular white matter in adult offspring, including demyelination, damaged axon and proliferated astroglia. This effect was amplified by high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia.

  4. Cerebral gray and white matter changes and clinical course in metachromatic leukodystrophy

    Groeschel, Samuel; í Dali, Christine; Clas, Philipp; Böhringer, Judith; Duno, Morten; Krarup, Christian; Kehrer, Christiane; Wilke, Marko; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare metabolic disorder leading to demyelination and rapid neurologic deterioration. As therapeutic options evolve, it seems essential to understand and quantify progression of the natural disease. The aim of this study was to assess cerebral volumetric...

  5. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral white matter development

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has become a sensitive tool to monitor white matter development. Different applications of diffusion-weighted techniques provide information about premyelinating, myelinating, and postmyelinating states of white matter maturation. Mirroring maturational processes on the cellular level, DWI has to be regarded as a morphological method as well as a functional instrument, giving insight into molecular processes during the formation of axons and myelin sheets and into the steric arrangement of white matter tracts the formation of which is strongly influenced by their function

  6. The correlation between cognitive function and cerebral white matter lesions/insulin resistance in patients with lacunar infarction:a clinical study of 184 cases

    张琼予

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between cognitive function and cerebral white matter lesions(WML)/insulin resistance(IR) in patients with stroke.Methods Between May 2011 and October 2011,the clin-ical data of 184 in-patients with lacunar infarction were

  7. Simvastatin Reduces Lipopolysaccharides-Accelerated Cerebral Ischemic Injury via Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-kappa B Activity.

    Anthony Jalin, Angela M A; Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, Chunsook; Ju, Chung; Pahk, Kisoo; Song, Hwa Young; Kim, Won-Ki

    2015-11-01

    Preceding infection or inflammation such as bacterial meningitis has been associated with poor outcomes after stroke. Previously, we reported that intracorpus callosum microinjection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) strongly accelerated the ischemia/reperfusion-evoked brain tissue damage via recruiting inflammatory cells into the ischemic lesion. Simvastatin, 3-hydroxy-3-methylgultaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor, has been shown to reduce inflammatory responses in vascular diseases. Thus, we investigated whether simvastatin could reduce the LPS-accelerated ischemic injury. Simvastatin (20 mg/kg) was orally administered to rats prior to cerebral ischemic insults (4 times at 72, 48, 25, and 1-h pre-ischemia). LPS was microinjected into rat corpus callosum 1 day before the ischemic injury. Treatment of simvastatin reduced the LPS-accelerated infarct size by 73%, and decreased the ischemia/reperfusion-induced expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS, COX-2 and IL-1β in LPS-injected rat brains. However, simvastatin did not reduce the infiltration of microglial/macrophageal cells into the LPS-pretreated brain lesion. In vitro migration assay also showed that simvastatin did not inhibit the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-evoked migration of microglial/macrophageal cells. Instead, simvastatin inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, a key signaling event in expressions of various proinflammatory mediators, by decreasing the degradation of IκB. The present results indicate that simvastatin may be beneficial particularly to the accelerated cerebral ischemic injury under inflammatory or infectious conditions. PMID:26535078

  8. Decreased and Increased Anisotropy along Major Cerebral White Matter Tracts in Preterm Children and Adolescents

    Travis, Katherine E.; Adams, Jenna N.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; FELDMAN, HEIDI M.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is highly prevalent and associated with neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. Adverse outcomes, particularly in children born before 32 weeks of gestation, have been attributed in large part to white matter injuries, often found in periventricular regions using conventional imaging. To date, tractography studies of white matter pathways in children and adolescents born preterm have evaluated only a limited number of tracts simultaneously. The current study compares diffusio...

  9. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla; Ferro, José M; O'Brien, John T; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Fazekas, Franz; Scheltens, Philip; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Inzitari, Domenico; Study, LADIS

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC).......Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC)....

  10. Vestibular loss and balance training cause similar changes in human cerebral white matter fractional anisotropy.

    Nadine Hummel

    Full Text Available Patients with bilateral vestibular loss suffer from severe balance deficits during normal everyday movements. Ballet dancers, figure skaters, or slackliners, in contrast, are extraordinarily well trained in maintaining balance for the extreme balance situations that they are exposed to. Both training and disease can lead to changes in the diffusion properties of white matter that are related to skill level or disease progression respectively. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to compare white matter diffusivity between these two study groups and their age- and sex-matched controls. We found that vestibular patients and balance-trained subjects show a reduction of fractional anisotropy in similar white matter tracts, due to a relative increase in radial diffusivity (perpendicular to the main diffusion direction. Reduced fractional anisotropy was not only found in sensory and motor areas, but in a widespread network including long-range connections, limbic and association pathways. The reduced fractional anisotropy did not correlate with any cognitive, disease-related or skill-related factors. The similarity in FA between the two study groups, together with the absence of a relationship between skill or disease factors and white matter changes, suggests a common mechanism for these white matter differences. We propose that both study groups must exert increased effort to meet their respective usual balance requirements. Since balance training has been shown to effectively reduce the symptoms of vestibular failure, the changes in white matter shown here may represent a neuronal mechanism for rehabilitation.

  11. Changes in cerebral white matter in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a low incidence with a new therapeutic protocol

    The magnetic resonance (MR) assessment of changes in cerebral white matter in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after the application of a new treatment. A prospective study was carried out in 50 consecutive children with ALL who had undergone MR imaging during the first 6 months after diagnosis. ALL was classified as standard risk (SR), high risk (HR) or very high risk (VHR) on the basis of conventional criteria. The major difference in the new protocol consisted in a phase of intensification in which different drugs are combined with dexamethasone in cases of HR ALL, together with the exclusion of cranial irradiation in a subgroup of HR patients. ALL the HR and VHR children with changes in white matter, as well as some of those in the SR group, underwent follow-up MR imaging. Thirty-two patients were classified as SR, 15 as HR and 3 as VHR. Changes were observed in 8% of cases (3 patients in the SR group and 1 in the HR group); all were neurologically asymptomatic. The lesions were hyperintense in protein density (PD) and T2-weighted images, with a frontal and occipital periventricular distribution in two cases and occipital in the other two. Serial follow-up images showed a reduction in the lesion in two cases and its persistence in one. The fourth patients died before follow-up images were achieved. There were no new changes in any of the patients. None of the children undergoing cranial irradiation (4 in the HR group and 2 in the VHR group) presented changes in white matter. The incidence of asymptomatic changes in white matter following central nervous system prophylaxis in children with ALL is lower than expected. The different chemoprophylactic protocol during the intensification phase probably protects against the development of these changes. Chemotherapy plays a predominant role in this type of atherogenesis. (Author) 15 refs

  12. SU-E-J-143: Short- and Near-Term Effects of Proton Therapy On Cerebral White Matter

    Uh, J; Merchant, T; Ogg, R; Sabin, N; Hua, C [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Indelicato, D [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess early effects of proton therapy on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in relation to the subsequent near-term development of such effects. Methods: Sixteen children (aged 2–19 years) with craniopharyngioma underwent proton therapy of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) in a prospective therapeutic trial. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed at baseline before proton therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Tract-based spatial statics analysis of DTI data was performed to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) in 26 volumes of interest (VOIs). The dose distributions were spatially normalized to identify VOIs prone to high doses. The longitudinal percentage changes of the FA and RD in these VOIs at 3 and 12 months from the baseline were calculated, and their relationships were evaluated. Results: The average dose was highest to the cerebral peduncle (CP), corticospinal tract (CST) in the pons, pontine crossing tract (PCT), anterior/posterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC/PLIC), and genu of the corpus callosum (GCC). It ranged from 33.3 GCE (GCC) to 49.7 GCE (CP). A mild but statistically significant (P<0.05) decline of FA was observed 3 months after proton therapy in all VOIs except the PLIC and ranged from −1.7% (ALIC) to −2.8% (PCT). A significant increase of RD was found in the CP (3.5%) and ALIC (2.1%). The average longitudinal change from the baseline was reduced at 12 months for most VOIs. However, the standard deviation increased, indicating that the temporal pattern varied individually. The follow-up measurements at 3 and 12 months correlated for the CP, CST, PCT, and GCC (P < 0.04). Conclusion: DTI data suggest early (3 months) effects of proton therapy on microstructures in the white matter. The subsequent follow-up indicated individual variation of the changes, which was partly implied by the early effects.

  13. SU-E-J-143: Short- and Near-Term Effects of Proton Therapy On Cerebral White Matter

    Purpose: To assess early effects of proton therapy on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in relation to the subsequent near-term development of such effects. Methods: Sixteen children (aged 2–19 years) with craniopharyngioma underwent proton therapy of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) in a prospective therapeutic trial. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed at baseline before proton therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Tract-based spatial statics analysis of DTI data was performed to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) in 26 volumes of interest (VOIs). The dose distributions were spatially normalized to identify VOIs prone to high doses. The longitudinal percentage changes of the FA and RD in these VOIs at 3 and 12 months from the baseline were calculated, and their relationships were evaluated. Results: The average dose was highest to the cerebral peduncle (CP), corticospinal tract (CST) in the pons, pontine crossing tract (PCT), anterior/posterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC/PLIC), and genu of the corpus callosum (GCC). It ranged from 33.3 GCE (GCC) to 49.7 GCE (CP). A mild but statistically significant (P<0.05) decline of FA was observed 3 months after proton therapy in all VOIs except the PLIC and ranged from −1.7% (ALIC) to −2.8% (PCT). A significant increase of RD was found in the CP (3.5%) and ALIC (2.1%). The average longitudinal change from the baseline was reduced at 12 months for most VOIs. However, the standard deviation increased, indicating that the temporal pattern varied individually. The follow-up measurements at 3 and 12 months correlated for the CP, CST, PCT, and GCC (P < 0.04). Conclusion: DTI data suggest early (3 months) effects of proton therapy on microstructures in the white matter. The subsequent follow-up indicated individual variation of the changes, which was partly implied by the early effects

  14. An allometric scaling law between gray matter and white matter of cerebral cortex

    An allometric scaling relationship between cortical white and gray volumes is derived from a general model that describes brain's remarkable efficiency and prodigious communications between brain areas. The model assumes that (1) a cell's metabolic rate depends upon cell's surface; (2) the overall basal metabolic rates of brain areas depend upon their fractal structures; (3) differential brain areas have same basal metabolic rate at slow wave sleep. The obtained allometric exponent scaling white matter to gray matter is 1.2, which is very much close to Zhang and Sejnowski's observation data

  15. Analyses of disruption of cerebral white matter integrity in schizophrenia with MR diffusion tensor fiber tracking method

    We have analyzed cerebral white matter using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) to measure the diffusion anisotropy of water molecules. The goal of this study is the quantitative evaluation of schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor images are acquired for patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects, group-matched for age, sex, and handedness. Fiber tracking is performed on the superior longitudinal fasciculus for the comparison between the patient and comparison groups. We have analysed and compared the cross-sectional area on the starting coronal plane and the mean and standard deviation of the fractional anisotropy and the apparent diffusion coefficient along fibers in the right and left hemispheres. In the right hemisphere, the cross-sectional areas in patient group are significantly smaller than those in the comparison group. Furthermore, in the comparison group, the cross-sectional areas in the right hemisphere are significantly larger than those in the left hemisphere, whereas there is no significant difference in the patient group. These results suggest that we may evaluate the disruption in white matter integrity in schizophrenic patients quantitatively by comparing the cross-sectional area of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in the right and left hemispheres. (author)

  16. In vivo evidence of cerebellar atrophy and cerebral white matter loss in Huntington disease

    Fennema-Notestine, C; Archibald, S.L.; Jacobsen, M.W.; Corey-Bloom, J; Paulsen, J.S.; Peavy, G.M.; Gamst, A.C.; Hamilton, J.M.; Salmon, D.P.; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regional pattern of white matter and cerebellar changes, as well as subcortical and cortical changes, in Huntington disease (HD) using morphometric analyses of structural MRI. METHODS: Fifteen individuals with HD and 22 controls were studied; groups were similar in age...

  17. Cerebral H-1 MR spectroscopy revealing white matter NAA decreases in glutaric aciduria type I

    Sijens, P. E.; Smit, G. P. A.; Meiners, L. C.; Oudkerk, M.; van Spronsen, F. J.

    2006-01-01

    MR spectroscopy in two patients with glutaric aciduria type I revealed reductions in the white matter N-acetylaspartate signal, in the more severe case accompanied by a loss of glutamate and the appearance of lactate signals. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum carotenoids and cerebral white matter lesions : The Rotterdam Scan Study

    den Heijer, T; Launer, LJ; de Groot, JG; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; van Gijn, J; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the relation between serum levels of carotenoids and white matter lesions (WMLs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: Evaluation of cross-sectional data from a cohort study. SETTING: The Rotterdam Scan Study. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and three nondemented older persons,

  19. Measurement of fractional anisotropy in normal cerebral white matter and brain tumors with diffusion tensor imaging

    The purpose of this study was to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of normal adult brain tissue and tumors, and to compare the differences. Eight normal adults and ten patients in whom intracranial tumors had been diagnosed were included. Imaging was performed using a 1.5 T MR unit and a single-shot spin-echo EPI pulse sequence (TR/TE=4024/94 msec, 128 acquisition/256 reconstruction, 23 cm FOV, 5mm thickness, 2mm interslice gap, 4 NSA), six different direction gradients (x, y, z, xy, yz, xz), and 2 b-values (0, 1000). Isotropic ADC (D) was obtained from seven images per slice, and fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated from the isotropic ADC and eigenvalues of three directions. A region of interest was drawn at frontal gray and white matter, periventricular white matter, the corpus callosum, internal capsule, caudate nucleus and center of the tumor mass, and for each region, fractional anisotropy readings were obtained. In normal adults, the findings were as follows: frontal gray matter: D=0.81±0.06, FA=0.32±0.03; frontal white matter:D=0.79±0.04, FA=0.56±0.09, periventricular white matter: D=0.77±0.02, FA=0.51±0.04; corpus callosum: D=0.79±0.07, FA=0.82±0.07; internal capsule: D=0.73±0.04, FA=0.77±0.05; caudate nucleus: D=0.76±0.05, FA=0.35±0.05. High anisotropy was demonstrated in white matter, especially in the corpus callosum and internal capsule, and the degree of anisotropy was similar in gray and deep gray matter. For most brain tumors, isotropic ADC was similar to that of white matter, but fractional anisotropy was lower. A low-grade astrocytoma showed higher isotropic ADC and lower fractional anisotropy than normal white matter, and at the center of al meningioma, fractional anisotropy was high. For the classification of brain tumors and determination of the extent of disease, comparison between the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy is useful

  20. Asymmetry of cerebral grey and white matter and structural volumes in relation to sex hormones and chromosomes

    Ivanka eSavic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whilst many studies show sex differences in cerebral asymmetry, their mechanisms are still unknown. This report describes the potential impact of sex hormones and sex chromosomes by comparing MR data from 39 male and 47 female controls and 33 men with an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY Methods: Regional asymmetry in grey and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV was calculated using voxel based moprhometry (SPM5, by contrasting the unflipped and flipped individual GMV and WMV images. In addition, structural volumes were calculated for the thalamus, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus, using the FreeSurfer software. Effects of plasma testosterone and estrogen on the GMV and WMV, as well on the right/left ratios of the subcortical volumes were tested by multi-regression analysis.Results: All three groups showed a leftward asymmetry in the motor cortex and the planum temporale, and a rightward asymmetry of the middle occipital cortex. Both asymmetries were more pronounced in 46,XY males than 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and were positively correlated with testosterone levels. There was also a rightward asymmetry of the vermis and leftward asymmetry in the cerebellar hemispheres in all groups. Notably, cerebellar asymmetries were larger in 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, but were not related to sex hormone levels. No asymmetry differences between 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and no overall effects of brain size were detected.Conclusion: The asymmetry in the planum temporale area and the occipital cortex seem related to processes associated with testosterone, whereas the observed cerebellar asymmetries suggest a link with X-chromosome escapee genes. Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry are moderated by sex hormones and X-chromosome genes, in a regionally differentiated manner.

  1. High b-value diffusion tensor imaging of unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusive disease: evaluation of white matter injury

    posterior limb of the internal capsule, FA were 0.622 ±0.026 and 0.694 ±0.034, λ1 were (5.064 ± 0.448) × 10-3 and (4.924 ± 0.365) × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively. Mean FA was significantly decreased (t=7.823, 8.013, all P<0.01) and mean λ1 was significantly increased (t=7.811, 8.800, all P<0.01) at the ipsilateral anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule. There was no significant difference in ADC, λ2 and λ3 value between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. And all the DTI parameters,including mean ADC, FA, λ1, λ2 and λ3 values, showed no statistical difference between both sides of cerebral peduncle and pons. Conclusion: DTI at high b value can provide useful information for visualizing ischemic white matter injury in patients without obvious infarct lesions on conventional MR imaging. (authors)

  2. Altered white matter integrity and functional connectivity of hyperacute-stage cerebral ischemia in a rat model.

    Cha, Jihoon; Kim, Sung Tae; Jung, Won Beom; Han, Yong Hee; Im, Geun Ho; Lee, Jung Hee

    2016-10-01

    Ischemic stroke is accompanied by structural deformation and functional deficits in the affected hemisphere. Within a couple of hours after symptom onset, the accurate identification of brain characteristics is critical to design the therapeutic strategies and it can potentially improve overall brain tissue viability by minimizing irreversible brain damage. In this study, white matter integrity and functional connectivity within 2-4h after right middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats were investigated using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging. During this stage, diffusion tensor image (DTI) revealed that fractional anisotropy along the ipsilesional external capsule was slightly increased as compared with preoperative baseline. Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) showed that the inter-hemispheric functional connectivities from primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory of forelimb (S1FL), and barrel field (S1BF) seeds were considerably reduced at the hyperacute stage. Fractional amplitudes of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) from rs-fMRI were significantly enhanced at the hyperacute stage in the frequency spectrum between 0.01 and 0.08Hz. In addition, the changes in fALFF were negatively correlated with the number of functionally connected voxels in M1, S1FL and S1BF. Our results suggest that these techniques are useful tools to evaluate remarkable brain changes in the hyperacute stage of ischemic stroke. PMID:27108358

  3. Increased apoptosis and hypomyelination in cerebral white matter of macular mutant mouse brain

    Shoichi Takikita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypomyelination in developing brain is often accompanied by congenital metabolic disorders. Menkes kinky hair disease is an X-linked neurodegenerative disease of impaired copper transport, resulting from a mutation of the Menkes disease gene, a transmembrane copper-transporting p-type ATPase gene (ATP7A. In a macular mutant mouse model, the murine ortholog of Menkes gene (mottled gene is mutated, and widespread neurodegeneration and subsequent death are observed. Although some biochemical analysis of myelin protein in macular mouse has been reported, detailed histological study of myelination in this mouse model is currently lacking. Since myelin abnormality is one of the neuropathologic findings of human Menkes disease, in this study early myelination in macular mouse brain was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Two-week-old macular mice and normal littermates were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded and vibratome sections was performed using antibodies against either CNPase, cleaved caspase-3 or O4 (marker of immature oligodendrocytes. This staining showed that cerebral myelination in macular mouse was generally hypoplastic and that hypomyelination was remarkable in internal capsule, corpus callosum, and cingulate cortex. In addition, an increased number of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells were observed in corpus callosum and internal capsule. Copper deficiency induced by low copper diet has been reported to induce oligodendrocyte dysfunction and leads to hypomyelination in this mouse model. Taken together, hypomyelination observed in this study in a mouse model of Menkes disease is assumed to be induced by increased apoptosis of immature oligodendrocytes in developing cerebrum, through deficient intracellular copper metabolism.

  4. Cerebrovascular dysfunction and microcirculation rarefaction precede white matter lesions in a mouse genetic model of cerebral ischemic small vessel disease

    Joutel, A.; Monet-Lepretre, M.; Gosele, C.; Baron-Menguy, C.; Hammes, A.; Schmidt, S.; Lemaire-Carrette, B.; Domenga, V.; Schedl, A; Lacombe, P.; Huebner, N.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral ischemic small vessel disease (SVD) is the leading cause of vascular dementia and a major contributor to stroke in humans. Dominant mutations in NOTCH3 cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a genetic archetype of cerebral ischemic SVD. Progress toward understanding the pathogenesis of this disease and developing effective therapies has been hampered by the lack of a good animal model. Here, we report the developmen...

  5. Complications following linear accelerator based stereotactic radiation for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Jane; Roed, Henrik; Ohlhues, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    Primarily, gamma knife centers are predominant in publishing results on arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treatments including reports on risk profile. However, many patients are treated using a linear accelerator-most of these at smaller centers. Because this setting is different from a large...... gamma knife center, the risk profile at Linac departments could be different from the reported experience. Prescribed radiation doses are dependent on AVM volume. This study details results from a medium sized Linac department center focusing on risk profiles....

  6. Monitoring the changes in plasm C-reactive protein,fibrinogen and blood white cell in patients with primary hypertension combined with acute cerebral infarction

    Yuanfei Deng; Juan Hang; Yane Chen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatow reaction and the increased level of its accompanying active protein play an important role in the occurrence and development of cerebral infarction. C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and white blood cell, as the monitoring index of inflammatory reaction, are very important in the occurrence and development of acute cerebral infarction.OBJECTIVE: To make a comparison between patients with primary hypertension accompanied with acute cerebral infarction and with simple primary hypertension by observing the changes in plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels as well as white blood cell and differential counts and analyzing their significances.DESIGN : Controlled observation.SETTTNG: Ward Building for VIP, Shenzhen Hospital, Peking University.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 133 patients with primary hypertension were selected from Ward Building for VIP,Shenzhen Hospital, Peking University during September 2003 to September 2005. The diagnostic criteda were based on the hypertension diagnosis criteria formulated by the 7th World Health Organization-lnternational Society of Hypertension Guidelines (WHO-ISH) in 1998. The informed consents were obtained from all the participants. The involved patients were assigned into two groups: primary hypertension group, in which, there were 65 patients with primary hypertension ( degree 2), including 42 males and 23 females,with mean age of (61 ±14)years and mean blood pressure of (162.7±6.8)/(94.2±8.4) mm Hg(1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa), and primary hypertension combined with cerebral infarction group, in which, there were 68 patients with primary hypertension combined with cerebral infarction ( meeting the diagnostic criteria formulated in the 4th National Cerebrovascular Diseases Meeting in 1995 and diagnosed by skull CT or MRI to exclude the patients with lacunar infarction), including 42 males and 26 females, with mean age of (56±15)years and mean blood pressure of (176.4±9.2)/(96.3±9.7) mm Hg.METHODS: Plasm C

  7. Spatial Patterns of Whole Brain Grey and White Matter Injury in Patients with Occult Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Mu, Xuetao; Nie, Binbin; Wang, Hong; Duan, Shaofeng; Zhang, Zan; Dai, Guanghui; Ma, Qiaozhi; Shan, Baoci; Ma, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy(SDCP)is a common type of cerebral palsy (CP), which presents as a group of motor-impairment syndromes. Previous conventional MRI studies have reported abnormal structural changes in SDCP, such as periventricular leucomalacia. However, there are roughly 27.8% SDCP patients presenting normal appearance in conventional MRI, which were considered as occult SDCP. In this study, sixteen patients with occult SDCP and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects we...

  8. Study of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia by MRI. Correlation between West syndrome and cerebral white matter lesions

    Clinical features of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were studied by MRI. The subjects were 10 patients with West syndrome associated with PVL. Occipital spike on electroencephalograms was considered an important characteristic finding of West syndrome. Patients with West syndrome associated with PVL had a lower cerebral blood flow volume at the early phase than those with cryptogenic West syndrome, suggesting a difference of pathophysiology between West syndrome with PVL and cryptogenic West syndrome. Abnormal findings on electroencephalograms and MRI, which are considered to affect the disease course, suggest the presence of cerebral cortical abnormalities, therefore, it is proved to be difficult to study the pathophysiology of West syndrome solely focusing on the findings of the cerebral cortical basal ganglia and the related parts. (Y.S.)

  9. Accelerated decline in white matter integrity in clinically normal individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Rieckmann, Anna; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Buckner, Randy L; Hedden, Trey

    2016-06-01

    Prior studies have identified white matter abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, cross-sectional studies in normal older individuals show little evidence for an association between markers of AD risk (APOE4 genotype and amyloid deposition), and white matter integrity. Here, 108 normal older adults (age, 66-87) with assessments of apolipoprotein e4 (APOE4) genotype and assessment of amyloid burden by positron emission tomography underwent diffusion tensor imaging scans for measuring white matter integrity at 2 time points, on average 2.6 years apart. Linear mixed-effects models showed that amyloid burden at baseline was associated with steeper decline in fractional anisotropy in the parahippocampal cingulum (p < 0.05). This association was not significant between baseline measures suggesting that longitudinal analyses can provide novel insights that are not detectable in cross-sectional designs. Amyloid-related changes in hippocampus volume did not explain the association between amyloid burden and change in fractional anisotropy. The results suggest that accumulation of cortical amyloid and white matter changes in parahippocampal cingulum are not independent processes in individuals at increased risk for AD. PMID:27143434

  10. Comparison of quantitative autoradiographic and xenon-133 clearance methods: correlation of gray and white matter cerebral blood flow with compartmental blood flow indices

    The relationships between CBF in gray and white matter to those of the fast and slow components of xenon-133 clearance curves remain uncertain. CBF was measured in 13 anaesthetized baboons under a variety of conditions, using both the xenon-133 clearance technique and [14C]iodoantipyrine quantitative autoradiography. There was a linear relationship between CBF, as determined by the stochastic (height/area) analysis of the clearance curve, and mean CBF determined from the autoradiograms (r = 0.94, p less than 0.001, slope = 0.86 +/- 0.09). There was also a linear correlation between the fast-flow component (measured with xenon-133) and blood flow in the cerebral gray matter (measured with [14C]iodoantipyrine) (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001, slope = 0.69 +/- 0.15) and between the slow-flow component (with xenon-133) and blood flow in white matter (with [14C]iodoantipyrine) (r = 0.79, p less than 0.01, slope = 0.81 +/- 0.10). In the primate brain, the fast- and slow-flow indices therefore appear to be representative of CBF in gray matter and white matter, respectively, whereas the stochastic analysis provides a stable measure of mean CBF within the tissue monitored

  11. Comparison of quantitative autoradiographic and xenon-133 clearance methods: correlation of gray and white matter cerebral blood flow with compartmental blood flow indices

    Tuor, U.I.; Fitch, W.; Graham, D.I.; Mendelow, A.D.

    1986-08-01

    The relationships between CBF in gray and white matter to those of the fast and slow components of xenon-133 clearance curves remain uncertain. CBF was measured in 13 anaesthetized baboons under a variety of conditions, using both the xenon-133 clearance technique and (14C)iodoantipyrine quantitative autoradiography. There was a linear relationship between CBF, as determined by the stochastic (height/area) analysis of the clearance curve, and mean CBF determined from the autoradiograms (r = 0.94, p less than 0.001, slope = 0.86 +/- 0.09). There was also a linear correlation between the fast-flow component (measured with xenon-133) and blood flow in the cerebral gray matter (measured with (14C)iodoantipyrine) (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001, slope = 0.69 +/- 0.15) and between the slow-flow component (with xenon-133) and blood flow in white matter (with (14C)iodoantipyrine) (r = 0.79, p less than 0.01, slope = 0.81 +/- 0.10). In the primate brain, the fast- and slow-flow indices therefore appear to be representative of CBF in gray matter and white matter, respectively, whereas the stochastic analysis provides a stable measure of mean CBF within the tissue monitored.

  12. Changes in cerebral white matter in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a low incidence with a new therapeutic protocol; Alteracion de la sustancia blanca cerebral en la leucemialinfoblastica aguda pediatrica: baja incidencia con un nuevo protocolo terapeutico

    Menor, F.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Fortuno, J. R.; Verdeguer, A.; Castell, V.; Esteban, M. J. [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The magnetic resonance (MR) assessment of changes in cerebral white matter in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after the application of a new treatment. A prospective study was carried out in 50 consecutive children with ALL who had undergone MR imaging during the first 6 months after diagnosis. ALL was classified as standard risk (SR), high risk (HR) or very high risk (VHR) on the basis of conventional criteria. The major difference in the new protocol consisted in a phase of intensification in which different drugs are combined with dexamethasone in cases of HR ALL, together with the exclusion of cranial irradiation in a subgroup of HR patients. ALL the HR and VHR children with changes in white matter, as well as some of those in the SR group, underwent follow-up MR imaging. Thirty-two patients were classified as SR, 15 as HR and 3 as VHR. Changes were observed in 8% of cases (3 patients in the SR group and 1 in the HR group); all were neurologically asymptomatic. The lesions were hyperintense in protein density (PD) and T2-weighted images, with a frontal and occipital periventricular distribution in two cases and occipital in the other two. Serial follow-up images showed a reduction in the lesion in two cases and its persistence in one. The fourth patients died before follow-up images were achieved. There were no new changes in any of the patients. None of the children undergoing cranial irradiation (4 in the HR group and 2 in the VHR group) presented changes in white matter. The incidence of asymptomatic changes in white matter following central nervous system prophylaxis in children with ALL is lower than expected. The different chemoprophylactic protocol during the intensification phase probably protects against the development of these changes. Chemotherapy plays a predominant role in this type of iatrogenesis. (Author) 15 refs.

  13. HEART FAILURE WITH LOW CARDIAC OUTPUT AND RISK OF DEVELOPMENT OF LESIONS IN THE CEREBRAL WHITE MATTER

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Diminished cardiac output can lead to the development of white matter lesions. White matter lesions are related to cognitive impairment, stroke risk and vascular death, yet the precise aetiology is uncertain. Methods: In this study we recruited 130 patients attending our medicine and neurology outpatient department, and divided them into those with a history of heart failure (n:24), atrial fibrillation (n:26), and those with atherosclerotic risk factors (n:80). The patients without low o...

  14. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the grey matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Pedro F. M. Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital that differ in how neurons distributed across their grey matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non

  15. Assessment of damage to cerebral white matter fiber in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging

    Chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are caused by demyelination of cerebral white matter fibers. We examined whether diffusion tensor imaging can sensitively represent damage to fibers of the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. Subjects comprised 13 adult patients with CO poisoning, classified into three groups according to clinical behaviors: group A, patients with transit acute symptoms only; group P, patients with persistent neurological symptoms; and group D, patients with ''delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae'' occurring after a lucid interval. Median fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the centrum semiovale bilaterally at 2 weeks were compared between these groups and a control group of ten healthy volunteers. Myelin basic protein (MBP) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was examined at 2 weeks to evaluate the degree of demyelination in patients. MBP concentration was abnormal or detectable for all group P and group D patients but was undetectable for all patients assigned to group A. Low FA values in groups P and D displaying chronic neurological symptoms clearly differed from those in controls and group A without chronic neurological symptoms, but ADC showed no significant differences between patient groups. MBP concentration at 2 weeks after CO inhalation confirmed a certain extent of demyelination in the central nervous system of patients who would develop chronic neurological symptoms. In these patients, FA sensitively represented damage to white matter fibers in the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of damage to cerebral white matter fiber in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging

    Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Nishimoto, Hideaki; Ishigaki, Daiya [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Fujiwara, Shunrou; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Yoshida, Tomoyuki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Morioka (Japan); Oikawa, Hirotaka [Iwate Prefectural Advanced Critical Care and Emergency, Morioka (Japan); Kamada, Katsura [Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are caused by demyelination of cerebral white matter fibers. We examined whether diffusion tensor imaging can sensitively represent damage to fibers of the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. Subjects comprised 13 adult patients with CO poisoning, classified into three groups according to clinical behaviors: group A, patients with transit acute symptoms only; group P, patients with persistent neurological symptoms; and group D, patients with ''delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae'' occurring after a lucid interval. Median fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the centrum semiovale bilaterally at 2 weeks were compared between these groups and a control group of ten healthy volunteers. Myelin basic protein (MBP) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was examined at 2 weeks to evaluate the degree of demyelination in patients. MBP concentration was abnormal or detectable for all group P and group D patients but was undetectable for all patients assigned to group A. Low FA values in groups P and D displaying chronic neurological symptoms clearly differed from those in controls and group A without chronic neurological symptoms, but ADC showed no significant differences between patient groups. MBP concentration at 2 weeks after CO inhalation confirmed a certain extent of demyelination in the central nervous system of patients who would develop chronic neurological symptoms. In these patients, FA sensitively represented damage to white matter fibers in the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. (orig.)

  17. The Cornell-BNL FFAG-ERL Test Accelerator: White Paper

    Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Hoffstaetter, Georg; Mayes, Christopher; Patterson, Ritchie; Sagan, David; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Berg, Scott; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brooks, Stephen; Brown, Kevin; Fischer, Wolfram; Hao, Yue; Meng, Wuzheng; Méot, François; Minty, Michiko; Peggs, Stephen; Ptitsin, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Thieberger, Peter; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The Cornell-BNL FFAG-ERL Test Accelerator (C$\\beta$) will comprise the first ever Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) based on a Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) lattice. In particular, we plan to use a Non Scaling FFAG (NS-FFAG) lattice that is very compact and thus space- and cost- effective, enabling multiple passes of the electron beam in a single recirculation beam line, using the superconducting RF (SRF) linac multiple times. The FFAG-ERL moves the cost optimized linac and recirculation lattice to a dramatically better optimum. The prime accelerator science motivation for C$\\beta$ is proving that the FFAG-ERL concept works. This is an important milestone for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) plans to build a major Nuclear Physics facility, eRHIC, based on producing 21 GeV electron beams to collide with the RHIC ion beams. A consequence of the C$\\beta$ work would be the availability of significantly better, cost-effective, compact CW high-brightness electron beams for a plethora of scientific inves...

  18. Discriminating between silent cerebral infarction and deep white matter hyperintensity using combinations of three types of magnetic resonance images: a multicenter observer performance study

    Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Hirai, Toshinori [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Taoka, Toshiaki [Nara Prefectural Medical University, Department of Radiology, Kashihara (Japan); Higano, Shuichi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Sendai (Japan); Wakabayashi, Chieko [Suiseikai Kajikawa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hiroshima (Japan); Matsusue, Eiji [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Ida, Masahiro [Ebara Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    We attempted to determine the most appropriate combination of magnetic resonance (MR) images that can accurately detect and discriminate between asymptomatic infarction and deep white matter hyperintensity (DWMH); these lesions have different clinical implications and are occasionally confused. We performed an observer performance analysis using cerebral MR images of 45 individuals with or without asymptomatic small white matter infarction and/or mild DWMH who participated in a physical checkup program at four institutions. Six observers interpreted whether infarction and/or DWMH existed in combinations of two or three image types of the T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted images (T2WI), and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. The observers' performance was evaluated with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The averaged area under the ROC curve (Az) for detecting a infarction was significantly larger in the combination of all the three image types (0.95) than that in any combinations of the two image types (T1WI and FLAIR images, 0.87; T2WI and FLAIR images, 0.85; T1WI and T2WI, 0.86). The Az for detecting DWMH was significantly smaller in the combination of T1WI and T2WI (0.79) than that in other image combinations (T1WI and FLAIR, 0.89; T2WI and FLAIR, 0.91; T1WI, T2WI, and FLAIR, 0.90). The combination of T1WI, T2WI, and FLAIR images is required to accurately detect both small white matter infarction and mild DWMH. (orig.)

  19. Poor cerebral inflammatory response in eIF2B knock-in mice: implications for the aetiology of vanishing white matter disease.

    Yuval Cabilly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in any of the five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B can lead to an inherited chronic-progressive fatal brain disease of unknown aetiology termed leucoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM. VWM is one of the most prevalent childhood white matter disorders, which markedly deteriorates after inflammation or exposure to other stressors. eIF2B is a major housekeeping complex that governs the rate of global protein synthesis under normal and stress conditions. A previous study demonstrated that Eif2b5(R132H/R132H mice suffer delayed white matter development and fail to recover from cuprizone-induced demyelination, although eIF2B enzymatic activity in the mutant brain is reduced by merely 20%. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Poor astrogliosis was observed in Eif2b5(R132H/R132H mice brain in response to systemic stress induced by peripheral injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Even with normal rates of protein synthesis under normal conditions, primary astrocytes and microglia isolated from mutant brains fail to adequately synthesise and secrete cytokines in response to LPS treatment despite proper induction of cytokine mRNAs. CONCLUSIONS: The mild reduction in eIF2B activity prevents the appropriate increase in translation rates upon exposure to the inflammatory stressor LPS. The data underscore the importance of fully-functional translation machinery for efficient cerebral inflammatory response upon insults. It highlights the magnitude of proficient translation rates in restoration of brain homeostasis via microglia-astrocyte crosstalk. This study is the first to suggest the involvement of microglia in the pathology of VWM disease. Importantly, it rationalises the deterioration of clinical symptoms upon exposure of VWM patients to physiological stressors and provides possible explanation for their high phenotypic variability.

  20. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  1. Spatial data analysis in the quantitative assessment of cerebral white matter pathology on MRI in HIV infection

    This study was carried out using MRI (proton density - and T2-weighted) on 16 HIV-negative controls, 9 symptom-free HIV-positive patients and 25 with CDC IV HIV disease. The studies from this last group had previously been allocated by a radiologist to the following categories: 8 with focal mass lesions and normal-appearing white matter; 9 with diffuse encephalopathy (high signal on T2-weighted images, affecting most or all of the white matter) and 8 with patchy encephalopathy (high signal affecting only one or two areas within the white matter). Moran's I, a statistic of spatial autocorrelation, was calculated for the grey-scale values of a sampled pixel array from a central white matter region of each of the images. All values of Moran's I calculated in this study showed a large positive excess over the expected value under randomisation, indicating highly significant positive auto-correlation in the spatial arrangement of the grey-scale values. On T2-weighted images a statistically significant increase in the mean value of Moran's I, compared with controls, was found in the diffuse encephalopathy group, indicating that quantifiable changes in the spatial autocorrelation of pixel data can be related to recognised qualitative changes in the appearance of white matter in subjects with HIV disease. A lesser, but significant, rise in the mean value of Moran's I was also found in the focal mass lesion group, suggesting that changes in spatial autocorrelation may indicate pathological change in advance of qualitative MRI changes. (orig.)

  2. Radiosurgery with a linear accelerator in cerebral arteriovenous malformations Radiocirurgia com acelerador linear em malformações arteriovenosas cerebrais

    Sérgio Carlos Barros Esteves

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate results achieved with radiosurgery and complications of the procedure when treating arteriovenous malformations with linear accelerator. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between October 1993 and December 1996. Sixty-one patients with arteriovenous malformations were treated with radiosurgery utilizing a 6MV energy linear accelerator. Ages of the 32 female and 29 male patients ranged from 6 to 54 years (mean: 28.3 years. The most frequent initial symptom was cephalea (45.9%, followed by neurological deficit (36.1%. Cerebral hemorrhage diagnosed by image was observed in 35 patients (57.3%. Most arteriovenous malformations (67.2% were graded Spetzler III and IV. Venous stenosis (21.3% and aneurysm (13.1% were the most frequent angioarchitecture changes. The dose administered varied from 12 to 27.5Gy in the periphery of the lesion. RESULTS: Out of twenty-eight patients that underwent conclusive angiography control, complete obliteration was achieved in 18 (72% and treatment failed in 7 (absence of occlusion with more than 3 years of follow-up. Four were submitted to a second radiosurgery, and one of these has shown obliteration after 18 months of follow-up. DISCUSSION: Several factors were analyzed regarding the occlusion rate (gender, age, volume, localization, Spetzler, flow, embolization, total of isocenters, prescribed dose and chosen isodose and complications (total of isocenters, localization, volume, maximum dose, prescribed dose and chosen isodose. Analyzed variables showed no statistical significance for obliteration of the vessel, as well as for treatment complications. The largest diameter of the arteriovenous malformation, its volume and the dose administered did not influence time of obliteration. CONCLUSION: Radiosurgery is effective in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and can be an alternative for patients with clinical contraindication or with lesions in eloquent areas. In the studied

  3. White matter dementia

    Filley, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    White matter dementia (WMD) is a syndrome introduced in 1988 to highlight the potential of cerebral white matter disorders to produce cognitive loss of sufficient severity to qualify as dementia. Neurologists have long understood that such a syndrome can occur, but the dominance of gray matter as the locus of higher function has strongly directed neurobehavioral inquiry to the cerebral cortex while white matter has received less attention. Contemporary neuroimaging has been crucial in enablin...

  4. FGF21 Lowers Plasma Triglycerides by Accelerating Lipoprotein Catabolism in White and Brown Adipose Tissues.

    Schlein, Christian; Talukdar, Saswata; Heine, Markus; Fischer, Alexander W; Krott, Lucia M; Nilsson, Stefan K; Brenner, Martin B; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2016-03-01

    FGF21 decreases plasma triglycerides (TGs) in rodents and humans; however, the underlying mechanism or mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we examined the role of FGF21 in production and disposal of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in mice. Treatment with pharmacological doses of FGF21 acutely reduced plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), liver TG content, and VLDL-TG secretion. In addition, metabolic turnover studies revealed that FGF21 facilitated the catabolism of TRL in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). FGF21-dependent TRL processing was strongly attenuated in CD36-deficient mice and transgenic mice lacking lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissues. Insulin resistance in diet-induced obese and ob/ob mice shifted FGF21 responses from WAT toward energy-combusting BAT. In conclusion, FGF21 lowers plasma TGs through a dual mechanism: first, by reducing NEFA plasma levels and consequently hepatic VLDL lipidation and, second, by increasing CD36 and LPL-dependent TRL disposal in WAT and BAT. PMID:26853749

  5. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki;

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled to...... fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples...... were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined to...

  6. Cerebral White Matter Integrity and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Middle-aged Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Hoogenboom, Wouter S.; Marder, Thomas J.; Flores, Veronica L.; Huisman, Susanne; Eaton, Hana P.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Bolo, Nicolas R.; Simonson, Donald C.; Jacobson, Alan M.; Kubicki, Marek; Martha E. Shenton; Musen, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of brain abnormalities at the preclinical stage can be useful for developing preventive interventions to abate cognitive decline. We examined whether middle-aged type 2 diabetic patients show reduced white matter integrity in fiber tracts important for cognition and whether this abnormality is related to preestablished altered resting-state functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN). Diabetic and nondiabetic participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging, funct...

  7. Association of cerebral white matter lesions with cognitive function and mood in Japanese elderly people: a population-based study

    Yamawaki, Mika; Wada-Isoe, Kenji; Yamamoto, Mikie; Nakashita, Satoko; Uemura, Yusuke; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Nakayama, Takeo; Nakashima, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the relationships between regional white matter lesions (WMLs), lifestyle factors, and cognitive, motor function and mood. Methods A comprehensive evaluation, including brain MRI, blood tests, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the Mini Mental State Examination, and the Geriatric Depression Scale, was performed for people aged 65 years or older living in Ama-cho on October 1, 2009. Participants were classified by severity of periventricular hyperintensities ...

  8. Accelerated shelf-life testing of quality loss for a commercial hydrolysed hen egg white powder.

    Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Labuza, Theodore P

    2012-11-15

    In recent years, due to the specific health benefits associated with bioactive peptides and the reduction of protein allergenicity by enzymatic hydrolysis, the utilisation of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages for both protein supplementation and clinical use has significantly increased. However, few studies have explored the moisture-induced effects on food protein hydrolysates, and the resulting changes in the structure and texture of the food matrix as well as the loss in functional properties of bioactive peptides during storage. The main purpose of this study is to determine the influence of water activity (a(w)) on the storage quality of a commercial spray-dried hydrolysed hen egg white powder (HEW). During storage at 45 °C for two months at different a(w)s (0.05-0.79), the selected physicochemical properties of the HEW samples were analysed. Overall, the effect of a(w) on the colour change of HEW at 45 °C for one month was similar to that of HEW after four months at 23 °C due to the presence of a small amount of glucose in HEW. Several structural changes occurred at a(w)s from 0.43 to 0.79 including agglomeration, stickiness and collapse. Kinetic analysis showed a first-order hyperbolic model fit for the change in the L(∗) value, the total colour difference (ΔE(∗)) and the fluorescence intensity (FI). There was a high correlation between colour change and fluorescence, as expected for the Maillard reaction. The reduction in the remaining free amino groups was about 5% at a(w) 0.50 and 6% at a(w) 0.79 after one month storage. In summary, during storage, the Maillard reaction and/or its resulting products could decrease the nutritional value and the quality of HEW. PMID:22868115

  9. Surface-bound basement membrane components accelerate amyloid-β peptide nucleation in air-free wells: an in vitro model of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Ozawa, Daisaku; Ookoshi, Tadakazu; Naiki, Hironobu

    2013-08-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is caused by deposition of the amyloid β-peptide which consists of mainly 39-40 residues to the cortical and leptomeningeal vessel walls. There are no definite in vitro systems to support the hypothesis that the vascular basement membrane may act as a scaffold of amyloid β-peptide carried by perivascular drainage flow and accelerate its amyloid fibril formation in vivo. We previously reported the critical roles of interfaces and agitation on the nucleation of amyloid fibrils at low concentrations of amyloid β-peptide monomers. Here, we reproduced the perivascular drainage flow in vitro by using N-hydroxysuccinimide-Sepharose 4 Fast flow beads as an inert stirrer in air-free wells rotated at 1rpm. We then reproduced the basement membranes in the media of cerebral arteries in vitro by conjugating Matrigel and other proteins on the surface of Sepharose beads. These beads were incubated with 5μM amyloid β(1-40) at 37°C without air, where amyloid β(1-40) alone does not form amyloid fibrils. Using the initiation time of fibril growth kinetics (i.e., the lag time of fibril growth during which nuclei, on-pathway oligomers and protofibrils are successively formed) as a parameter of the efficiency of biological molecules to induce amyloid fibril formation, we found that basement membrane components including Matrigel, laminin, fibronectin, collagen type IV and fibrinogen accelerate the initiation of amyloid β-peptide fibril growth in vitro. These data support the essential role of vascular basement membranes in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. PMID:23608949

  10. Mild cognitive impairment, poor episodic memory, and late-life depression are associated with cerebral cortical thinning and increased white matter hyperintensities

    Motonobu Fujishima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In various independent studies to date, cerebral cortical thickness and white matter hyperintensity (WMH volume have been associated with episodic memory, depression, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The aim of this study was to uncover variations in cortical thickness and WMH volume in association with episodic memory, depressive state, and the presence of MCI simultaneously in a single study population. The participants were 186 individuals with MCI (clinical dementia rating [CDR] of 0.5 and 136 healthy elderly controls (HCs; CDR of 0 drawn from two community-based cohort studies in northern Japan. We computed cerebral cortical thickness and WMH volume by using MR scans and statistically analyzed differences in these indices between HCs and MCI participants. We also assessed the associations of these indices with memory performance and depressive state in participants with MCI. Compared with HCs, MCI participants exhibited thinner cortices in the temporal and inferior parietal lobes and greater WMH volumes in the corona radiata and semioval center. In MCI participants, poor episodic memory was associated with thinner cortices in the left entorhinal region and increased WMH volume in the posterior periventricular regions. Compared with non-depressed MCI participants, depressed MCI participants showed reduced cortical thickness in the anterior medial temporal lobe and ambient gyrus adjacent to the amygdala bilaterally, as well as greater WMH volume as a percentage of the total intracranial volume (WMHr. A higher WMHr was associated with cortical thinning in the frontal, temporal, and parietal regions in MCI participants. These results demonstrate that episodic memory and depression are associated with both cortical thickness and WMH volume in MCI participants. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the dynamic associations and interactions among these indices.

  11. Cerebral Microbleeds and White Matter Hyperintensities in Cognitively Healthy Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study Evaluating the Effect of Arterial Stiffness

    Anna-Märta Gustavsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arterial stiffness reflects the ageing processes in the vascular system, and studies have shown an association between reduced cognitive function and cerebral small vessel disease. Small vessel disease can be visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH and lacunar infarcts but also as cerebral microbleeds on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We aimed to investigate if arterial stiffness influences the presence of microbleeds, WMH and cognitive function in a population of cognitively healthy elderly. Methods: The study population is part of the Swedish BioFinder study and consisted of 208 individuals without any symptoms of cognitive impairment, who scored >27 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination. The participants (mean age, 72 years; 59% women underwent MRI of the brain with visual rating of microbleeds and WMH. Arterial stiffness was measured with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV. Eight cognitive tests covering different cognitive domains were performed. Results: Microbleeds were detected in 12% and WMH in 31% of the participants. Mean (±standard deviation, SD cfPWV was 10.0 (±2.0 m/s. There was no association between the presence of microbleeds and arterial stiffness. There was a positive association between arterial stiffness and WMH independent of age or sex (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.40, p 0.05. Cognitive performance was not associated with microbleeds, but individuals with WMH performed slightly worse than those without WMH on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (mean ± SD, 35 ± 7.8 vs. 39 ± 8.1, p Conclusions: Arterial stiffness was not associated with the presence of cerebral microbleeds or cognitive function in cognitively healthy elderly. However, arterial stiffness was related to the presence of WMH, but the association was attenuated when multiple adjustments were made. There was a weak negative association between WMH and performance in one specific test of attention

  12. Relation between age-related decline in intelligence and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities in healthy octogenarians: a longitudinal study

    Garde, E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Krabbe, K;

    2000-01-01

    study of age-related decline in intellectual function and MRI at age 80 years. METHODS: From a cohort of 698 people born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in Denmark, 68 healthy non-demented individuals had been tested with the Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS) at ages 50, 60, and 70......-matter hyperintensities are related to decline in intelligence but, in healthy octogenarians, the cumulative effect of these features alone explains only a small part of the large differences among individuals in age-related decline in intelligence. Interpretation of the presence and severity of white......-matter hyperintensities in a diagnostic context must be done cautiously...

  13. Relation between age-related decline in intelligence and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities in healthy octogenarians: a longitudinal study

    Garde, E; Mortensen, E L; Krabbe, K;

    2000-01-01

    study of age-related decline in intellectual function and MRI at age 80 years. METHODS: From a cohort of 698 people born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in Denmark, 68 healthy non-demented individuals had been tested with the Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS) at ages 50, 60, and 70......-matter hyperintensities are related to decline in intelligence but, in healthy octogenarians, the cumulative effect of these features alone explains only a small part of the large differences among individuals in age-related decline in intelligence. Interpretation of the presence and severity of white......-matter hyperintensities in a diagnostic context must be done cautiously....

  14. Metabolic changes of prefrontal cerebral lobe ,white matter and cerebellum in patients with post-stroke depression A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Qinggang Xu; Hong Cao; Qingwei Song; Jianlin Wu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy(1H-MRS)non-invasively detects changes in chemical substances in the brain,which reflects the pathological metabolism.OBJECTIVE:To investigate changes in N-acetyl-aspartate(NAA),choline(Cho),creatine(Cr),and myoinositol(MI)in the gray and white matter of cerebral prefrontal lobe and cerebellum of patients with differential degrees of post-stroke depression(PSD)using 1H-MRS.DESIGN:A case control study.SETTING:The First Affiliated Hospital of the Dalian Medical University.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 38 patients with stroke(28 male and 10 female patients,aged 40 to 79 years)were selected from the Department of Neurology,1st Atfiliated Hospital,Dalian Medical University,from February to October in 2004.All subjects met the DSM-IV criteria for cerebrovascular disease and depression.The degree of depression was defined according to Hamilton criteria.38 patients with PSD were divided into two groups according to the time after ischemia,20 patients in the acute group with less than 10 days after ischemic attack(mild:16 patients,moderate/severe:4 patients)and 18 patients in the chronic group with more than 11 days after ischemic attack(mild:15 patients,moderate/severe:3 patients).Seventeen healthy volunteers with matching age from 41 to 80 years were examined as a control group.The study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht,and each participant signed an informed consent form.METHODS:Spectra were acquired by multi-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy(PRESS)sequence with GE signal.ST MP-di,localized in prefrontal cerebral lobe and cerebellum.Values of NAA,Cho,MI,and Cr ere compared between different graded PSD patients and control subjects with one-way analysis of variance in software SPSS11.5.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Metabolite concentration in different brain regions of interest.Difference in metabolites between distinctly graded PSD patients and control subjects.Exclusion of age

  15. Automated, quantitative measures of grey and white matter lesion burden correlates with motor and cognitive function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Alex M. Pagnozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White and grey matter lesions are the most prevalent type of injury observable in the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs of children with cerebral palsy (CP. Previous studies investigating the impact of lesions in children with CP have been qualitative, limited by the lack of automated segmentation approaches in this setting. As a result, the quantitative relationship between lesion burden has yet to be established. In this study, we perform automatic lesion segmentation on a large cohort of data (107 children with unilateral CP and 18 healthy children with a new, validated method for segmenting both white matter (WM and grey matter (GM lesions. The method has better accuracy (94% than the best current methods (73%, and only requires standard structural MRI sequences. Anatomical lesion burdens most predictive of clinical scores of motor, cognitive, visual and communicative function were identified using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection operator (LASSO. The improved segmentations enabled identification of significant correlations between regional lesion burden and clinical performance, which conform to known structure-function relationships. Model performance was validated in an independent test set, with significant correlations observed for both WM and GM regional lesion burden with motor function (p < 0.008, and between WM and GM lesions alone with cognitive and visual function respectively (p < 0.008. The significant correlation of GM lesions with functional outcome highlights the serious implications GM lesions, in addition to WM lesions, have for prognosis, and the utility of structural MRI alone for quantifying lesion burden and planning therapy interventions.

  16. The Association between Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Plasma Omega-3 to Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ratio to Cognitive Impairment Development

    Michihiro Suwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has a potential for predicting cognitive impairment. Serum polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels are important for evaluating the extent of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether abnormal PUFA levels affected WMH grading and cognitive function in patients without significant cognitive impairment. Methods. Atherosclerotic risk factors, the internal carotid artery (ICA plaque, and serum ratios of eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acids (EPA/AA and docosahexaenoic to arachidonic acids (DHA/AA were assessed in 286 patients. The relationship among these risk factors, WMH, and cognitive function was evaluated using WMH grading and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results. The development of WMH was associated with aging, hypertension, ICA plaques, and a low serum EPA/AA ratio (<0.38, obtained as the median value but was not related to dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and a low serum DHA/AA ratio (<0.84, obtained as the median value. In addition, the MMSE score deteriorated slightly with the progression of WMH (29.7 ± 1.0 compared to 28.4 ± 2.1, P<0.0001. Conclusions. The progression of WMH was associated with a low serum EPA/AA ratio and accompanied minimal deterioration in cognitive function. Sufficient omega-3 PUFA intake may be effective in preventing the development of cognitive impairment.

  17. A Patient with Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome Presenting with Executive Cognitive Deficits and Cerebral White Matter Lesions

    Kensaku Kasuga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects males who are carriers of a premutation of a CGG expansion in the FMR1 gene. In Asian populations, FXTAS has rarely been reported. Here, we report the case of a Japanese FXTAS patient who showed predominant executive cognitive deficits as the main feature of his disease. In contrast, the patient exhibited only very mild symptoms of intention tremor and ataxia, which did not interfere with daily activities. A gene analysis revealed that the patient carried a premutation of a CGG expansion (111 CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene. The mRNA expression level of FMR1 in the patient was 1.5-fold higher than in controls. On brain MRI scans, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images showed high-intensity lesions in the middle cerebellar peduncles and the cerebral white matter, with a frontal predominance. The present case extends previous notions regarding the cognitive impairment in FXTAS patients. Recognizing FXTAS patients with predominant cognitive impairment from various ethnic backgrounds would contribute to our understanding of the phenotypic variation of this disease.

  18. Involvement of lipoprotein(a) phenotypes in the etiology of cerebral white matter lesion seen in the elderly with geriatric syndrome

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], an apolipoprotein(a) combined with apoB100 protein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, has a variety of phenotypes, mainly due to the number of kringle 4 type 2 within the apolipoprotein(a), and kringle 4 type 2 is extremely similar to plasminogen. Lp(a) is well-known as a risk factor for atherosclerosis, however, the association between Lp(a) phenotypes and the etiology of cerebral white matter lesion, so-called leukoaraiosis seen commonly in the elderly, remains unclear. We therefore conducted a study in 113 elderly patients with geriatric syndrome by assessing MR images and determining the Lp(a) phenotypes. They were divided into 4 groups according to the Fazekas scale for grading leukoaraiosis, and we compared the distribution of Lp(a) phenotypes and background factors in each group. Factors related to severe leuko-araiosis were also studied by multivariate analysis. There were no significant differences in age or gender among groups. Alzheimer disease and cardioembolic stroke were frequently seen in groups without leukoaraiosis or with mild leukoaraiosis, whereas the frequencies of vascular risks, previous history of stroke and vascular dementia were high in group with severe leukoaraiosis. Multivariate analysis showed strong association of S4 homozygote of the Lp(a) phenotype to severe leukoaraiosis, indicating the S4 homozygote as an independent factor for severe leukoaraiosis as well as hypertension, a high level of Lp(a) of 40 mg/dl or more. Among all patients, a high Lp(a) level and S4 homozygote, showing a low level of Lp(a), were seen in 20.4%, respectively. This contradictory finding that high levels of Lp(a) and S4 homozygote were both associated with severe leukoaraiosis indicated the possibility of different mechanisms for developing white matter lesions; a high level of Lp(a) (LDL cholesterol and apoB100 protein rich) promotes atherosclerosis of major arteries such as the carotid artery, while S4 homozygote [low

  19. Cerebral palsy

    This paper reviews cranial MR findings in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to clarify and categorize this disorder. The MR images of 40 patients with clinical CP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suffered either varying spastic plegias, hypotonicity, or choreoathetosis. Concomitantly, the patients suffered from static encephalopathy, developmental delay, and/or microcephaly. Twenty-four patients were born at or near term, 10 were premature, and incomplete birth histories were available in six. The MR images revealed mild to severe degrees of white matter damage in 24 patients (12 term, nine premature, three unknown)

  20. Radiosurgery with a linear accelerator in cerebral arteriovenous malformations Radiocirurgia com acelerador linear em malformações arteriovenosas cerebrais

    Sérgio Carlos Barros Esteves; Wladimir Nadalin; Ronie Leo Piske; Salomon Benabou; Evandro de Souza MD; Antonio Carlos Zuliani de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate results achieved with radiosurgery and complications of the procedure when treating arteriovenous malformations with linear accelerator. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between October 1993 and December 1996. Sixty-one patients with arteriovenous malformations were treated with radiosurgery utilizing a 6MV energy linear accelerator. Ages of the 32 female and 29 male patients ranged from 6 to 54 years (mean: 28.3 years). The most frequent initial symptom ...

  1. Detecting damaged regions of cerebral white matter in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using voxel-based analysis with diffusion tensor imaging

    The present study aimed to detect the main regions of cerebral white matter (CWM) showing damage in the subacute phase for CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms using voxel-based analysis (VBA) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Subjects comprised 22 adult CO-poisoned patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers as controls. Patients were classified into patients with transient acute symptoms only (group A) and patients with chronic neurological symptoms (group S). In all patients, DTI covering the whole brain was performed with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system at 2 weeks after CO exposure. As procedures for VBA, all fractional anisotropy (FA) maps obtained from DTI were spatially normalized, and FA values for all voxels in the whole CWM on normalized FA maps were statistically compared among the two patient groups and controls. Voxels with significant differences in FA were detected at various regions in comparisons between groups S and A and between group S and controls. In these comparisons, more voxels were detected in deep CWM, including the centrum semiovale, than in other regions. A few voxels were detected between group A and controls. Absolute FA values in the centrum semiovale were significantly lower in group S than in group A or controls. VBA demonstrated that CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms had already suffered damage to various CWM regions in the subacute phase. In these regions, the centrum semiovale was suggested to be the main region damaged in the subacute phase after CO inhalation. (orig.)

  2. Detecting damaged regions of cerebral white matter in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using voxel-based analysis with diffusion tensor imaging

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Sanjo, Katsumi; Koeda, Atsuhiko [Iwate Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Morioka (Japan); Mori, Kiyoshi [Iwate Prefectural Critical Care and Emergency Center, Department of Neurology, Morioka (Japan); Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    The present study aimed to detect the main regions of cerebral white matter (CWM) showing damage in the subacute phase for CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms using voxel-based analysis (VBA) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Subjects comprised 22 adult CO-poisoned patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers as controls. Patients were classified into patients with transient acute symptoms only (group A) and patients with chronic neurological symptoms (group S). In all patients, DTI covering the whole brain was performed with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system at 2 weeks after CO exposure. As procedures for VBA, all fractional anisotropy (FA) maps obtained from DTI were spatially normalized, and FA values for all voxels in the whole CWM on normalized FA maps were statistically compared among the two patient groups and controls. Voxels with significant differences in FA were detected at various regions in comparisons between groups S and A and between group S and controls. In these comparisons, more voxels were detected in deep CWM, including the centrum semiovale, than in other regions. A few voxels were detected between group A and controls. Absolute FA values in the centrum semiovale were significantly lower in group S than in group A or controls. VBA demonstrated that CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms had already suffered damage to various CWM regions in the subacute phase. In these regions, the centrum semiovale was suggested to be the main region damaged in the subacute phase after CO inhalation. (orig.)

  3. Simvastatin Reduces Lipopolysaccharides-Accelerated Cerebral Ischemic Injury via Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-kappa B Activity

    Anthony Jalin, Angela M. A.; Lee, Jae-Chul; CHO, GEUM-SIL; Kim, Chunsook; Ju, Chung; Pahk, Kisoo; Song, Hwa Young; Kim, Won-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Preceding infection or inflammation such as bacterial meningitis has been associated with poor outcomes after stroke. Previously, we reported that intracorpus callosum microinjection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) strongly accelerated the ischemia/reperfusion-evoked brain tissue damage via recruiting inflammatory cells into the ischemic lesion. Simvastatin, 3-hydroxy-3-methylgultaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor, has been shown to reduce inflammatory responses in vascular diseases. Thus, we in...

  4. Expression of SOX10 in cerebral white matter in immature rats with postnatal infections%未成熟大鼠出生后感染对脑白质中SOX10蛋白表达的影响

    孙婷婷; 徐艳; 王军; 王瑞妍; 于桥; 冯晶晶; 李慧慧

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of postnatal infection on SOX10 expression in cerebral white matter in immature rats. Methods A total of 96 newborn SD rats were randomly divided into hypoxia group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, and control group. At day 3 and 6 after birth, the rats in LPS group and hypoxia group were intraperitoneally injected with 0.25 mg/kg of LPS while the rats in control group were injected with normal saline. Meanwhile the rats in hypoxia group were maintained in a hypoxic tank under atmospheric pressure and thermostatic water bath at 37℃for 2 hours of ventilation with mixed gas con-taining 8%O2 and 92%N2 at a rate of 2 L/min starting 3 days after birth. At day 7, 10, 14, 21 after birth, eight rats in each groups were sacriifced and the cerebral white matter was extracted. HE staining was performed to observe the pathological changes of cerebral white matter by light microscopy. The expression of SOX10 in cerebral white matter was determined by immunohisto-chemical and Western blotting analysis. The expression of TLR-4 was determined by Western blotting. Results In LPS group and hypoxia group, the SOX10 positive cells and expressions of SOX 10 and TLR-4 were increased at day 7, reached the peak at day 10, and then gradually declined. There were signiifcant differences between any two time points (P0.05). At each time point, the difference in the SOX10 positive cells and the expressions of SOX 10 and TLR-4 were statistically signiifcant among three groups (PLPS group>control group and there were signiifcantly differences between each groups (P0.05)。在不同时间点,脂多糖组、缺氧组和对照组三组之间SOX10阳性细胞数、SOX10和TLR-4蛋白表达的差异均有统计学意义(P均=0.000);均为缺氧组最高,其次为脂多糖组;各时间点两两比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论未成熟大鼠出生后感染可引起脑损伤,缺氧与感染双重因素同时存在可加重脑

  5. Cerebral Hypoxia

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page Synonym(s): Hypoxia, Anoxia Table of Contents ( ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Cerebral Hypoxia? Cerebral hypoxia refers to a condition in which ...

  6. Tuberculoma cerebral Cerebral tuberculoma

    ELIZABETH CLARA BARROSO; TÂNIA REGINA BRÍGIDO DE OLIVEIRA; ANA MARIA DANTAS DO AMARAL; VALÉRIA GÓES FERREIRA PINHEIRO; ANA LÚCIA DE OLIVEIRA SOUSA

    2002-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa ...

  7. Disruption of the Cerebral White Matter Network Is Related to Slowing of Information Processing Speed in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Reijmer, Yael D.; Leemans, Alexander; Brundel, Manon; Kappelle, L Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan; ,

    2013-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes often show slowing of information processing. Disruptions in the brain white matter network, possibly secondary to vascular damage, may underlie these cognitive disturbances. The current study reconstructed the white matter network of 55 nondemented individuals with type 2 diabetes (mean age, 71 ± 4 years) and 50 age-, sex-, and education-matched controls using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging–based fiber tractography. Graph theoretical analysis was then appl...

  8. Cerebral Perfusion and Aortic Stiffness Are Independent Predictors of White Matter Brain Atrophy in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Assessed With Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    van Elderen, Saskia G. C.; Brandts, Anne; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; Kroft, Lucia J.M.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Smit, Johannes W.A.; de Roos, Albert

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify vascular mechanisms of brain atrophy in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients by investigating the relationship between brain volumes and cerebral perfusion and aortic stiffness using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Approval from the local institutional review board was obtained, and patients gave informed consent. Fifty-one type 1 DM patients (30 men; mean age 44 ± 11 years; mean DM duration 23 ± 12 years) and 34 age- and sex-matched healt...

  9. Cerebral Palsy

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  10. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

  11. Cerebral Atrophy

    ... Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, and fronto-temporal dementia cerebral palsy , in which lesions (damaged areas) may impair motor ... lead to cerebral atrophy. NIH Patient Recruitment for Cerebral Atrophy Clinical Trials ... by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  12. Elevated circulating vascular cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) is associated with concurrent depressive symptoms and cerebral white matter Hyperintensities in older adults

    Tchalla, Achille E.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Sorond, Farzaneh A.; Travison, Thomas G.; Dantoine, Thierry; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Circulating vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) is a presumed marker of endothelial activation and dysfunction, but little is known about its association with mood. We hypothesized that elevated plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1 may be a marker of depressive symptoms due to cerebral vascular disease. Methods: We studied 680 community-dwelling participants in the MOBILIZE Boston Study, aged 65 years and older. sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were measured by ELISA assay and depressive sympto...

  13. MRI of sickle cell cerebral infarction

    Eleven patients with sickle cell disease and neurological symptoms underwent MRI examination. Cerebral infarcts of two types were found, those in the vascular distribution of the middle cerebral artery and those in the deep white matter. In the patient whose hydration and whose oxygenation of erythrocytes has been treated, MRI offers diagnostic advantages over arteriography and CT. (orig.)

  14. What is cerebral small vessel disease?

    An accumulating amount of evidence suggests that the white matter hyperintensities on T2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging predict an increased risk of dementia and gait disturbance. This state has been proposed as cerebral small vessel disease, including leukoaraiosis, Binswanger's disease, lacunar stroke and cerebral microbleeds. However, the concept of cerebral small vessel disease is still obscure. To understand the cerebral small vessel disease, the precise structure and function of cerebral small vessels must be clarified. Cerebral small vessels include several different arteries which have different anatomical structures and functions. Important functions of the cerebral small vessels are blood-brain barrier and perivasucular drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma. Cerebral capillaries and glial endfeet, take an important role for these functions. However, the previous pathological investigations on cerebral small vessels have focused on larger arteries than capillaries. Therefore little is known about the pathology of capillaries in small vessel disease. The recent discoveries of genes which cause the cerebral small vessel disease indicate that the cerebral small vessel diseases are caused by a distinct molecular mechanism. One of the pathological findings in hereditary cerebral small vessel disease is the loss of smooth muscle cells, which is an also well-recognized finding in sporadic cerebral small vessel disease. Since pericytes have similar character with the smooth muscle cells, the pericytes should be investigated in these disorders. In addition, the loss of smooth muscle cells may result in dysfunction of drainage of interstitial fluid from capillaries. The precise correlation between the loss of smooth muscle cells and white matter disease is still unknown. However, the function that is specific to cerebral small vessel may be associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. (author)

  15. Role of Cognitive Enhancer Therapy in Alzheimer’s Disease with Concomitant Cerebral White Matter Disease: Findings from a Long-Term Naturalistic Study

    Ng, Kok Pin; Ng, Aloysius; Assam, Pryseley; Heng, Esther; Kandiah, Nagaendran

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking for cognitive enhancer therapy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and concomitant cerebrovascular disease (mixed AD) as such patients would have been excluded from clinical trials. Earlier studies of mixed AD have focused on large vessel cerebrovascular disease. The influence of small vessel cerebrovascular disease (svCVD) in the form of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) on treatment outcomes in mixed AD has not been addressed. Objective In this long-term...

  16. Relationship between Cerebral Microbleeds and White Matter Lesions and Lacunar ;Infarcts%脑微出血与脑白质病变及腔隙性梗死关系研究

    高中宝; 赵杏丽; 王振福; 杨扬; 管锦群; 王婷; 吴卫平

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨脑微出血(cerebral microbleeds,CMBs)与脑白质病变(white matter lesions,WML)及腔隙性梗死(lacunar infarcts,LI)的关系。  方法连续纳入2010年2月至2012年2月解放军总医院南楼神经内科病房根据病史及头颅影像学检查确诊患有脑血管病或具有高血压、糖尿病、高脂血症等脑血管病危险因素者217例。采用G E公司1.5T磁共振成像行头颅常规序列及T2*血管加权成像(T2 star weighted angiography,SWAN)序列扫描。记录深部及皮层部位CMBs病灶数,按照Fazekas评分和Scheltens改良量表将脑室旁白质高信号(peri-ventricular hyperintensities,PVH)和深部白质高信号(deep white matter hyperintensities,DWMH)分别评分,根据病灶数量评估LI的严重程度分析CMBs与PVH、DWMH及LI的关系。  结果随着PVH和DWMH评分的升高,CMBs的检出率分别由41.8%(PVH=1)及40.8%(DWMH=1)升高至68.8%(PVH=3)及76.9%(DWMH=3);随着LI数量的增加,CMBs的检出率由46.3%升高至75%。深部CMBs与PVH及DWMH的严重程度有较强相关性(rs=0.345,P<0.001;rs=0.346,P<0.001),与LI亦显著相关(rs=0.281,P<0.001);而皮层CMBs与PVH及DWMH严重程度仅呈弱相关(rs=0.219,P=0.001;rs=0.189,P=0.005),与LI无显著相关性。  结论深部CMBs与脑室旁及深部脑白质病变、LI相关。%Objective To investigate the relationship between cerebral microbleeds(CMBs) and white matter lesions(WML) and lacunar infarcts(LI). Methods The identiifed population inculded 217 patients with cerebral vascular disease or related risk factors admitted to the Department of Geriatric Neurology of the PLA General Hospital between February, 2010 and February, 2012. Routine sequence and T2 star weighted angiography sequence of magnetic resonance imaging were performed with 1.5 Tesla machine maded by General Electric company. The number of CMBs in deep and

  17. Monitoring for volcano-hydrothermal activity using continuous gravity and local ground acceleration measurements: New deployments at Inferno Crater, Waimangu and White Island, New Zealand

    Jolly, Arthur; Fournier, Nico; Cole-Baker, Jeremy; Miller, Craig

    2010-05-01

    Volcanoes with crater lakes are often characterised by shallow hydrothermal systems which display cyclic behaviour (temperature, lake level, chemistry, etc.) and shallow seismic tremor. Present monitoring programmes in New Zealand include routine collection of these observables, but the associated shallow sub-surface processes are still inadequately modelled and poorly understood. Models would be better constrained with the incorporation of additional geophysical parameters. To this end, we have established a new test programme to continuously monitor for micro-gravity variations at New Zealand volcanoes. We utilise a Micro-g-LaCoste gPhone relative gravity meter having 1 Hz sample rate and a measurement precision of 1 microgal to test the viability of gravity monitoring for volcano-hydrothermal systems. We have initially tested the new sensor in a short term deployment (~2 months) at Inferno Crater, Waimangu, New Zealand. Inferno shows dramatic variations in crater lake level (> 7 m range), temperature (>40o C range) and hydrothermally derived tremor, all over a period of ~5 weeks. The amplitude and period of these observables are ideal for testing gravity variations associated with a cycling hydrothermal system because several cycles can be obtained in a relatively short campaign. We have deployed the gravity sensor into a buried vault having a stable concrete base to minimise local environmental influences. This vault is located ~20 meters from Inferno Lake edge (at high stand) and offers sufficient noise reduction to measure the gravitational effects associated with lake level changes. We will show results for the new gravity meter including raw relative gravity measurements and first order corrections (earth-tide, ocean loading, sensor level, temperature, and barometric pressure) to obtain both residual gravity and overprinted local ground accelerations (earthquakes and local tremor). To examine the effects of local ground vibrations on the gravity meter, we

  18. Tuberculoma cerebral Cerebral tuberculoma

    ELIZABETH CLARA BARROSO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa 5-15% das formas extrapulmonares e é reconhecida como de alta letalidade. Apresentação tumoral como a relatada é rara, particularmente em imunocompetentes. Quando tratada, pode ter bom prognóstico e deve entrar sempre no diagnóstico diferencial de massas cerebrais.It is reported a case of a previously healthy man with seizures of sudden onset. A contrast head computerized tomogram (CT showed a right frontoparietal expanding lesion suggesting to be metastatic. No prior disease was found on investigation. The histologic exam of the brain revealed tuberculoma. The seizures were controlled with Hidantoin 300 mg/day and antituberculosis chemotherapy for 18 months. Central nervous system tuberculosis (5-15% of the extrapulmonary forms is highly lethal. The case reported herein is specially rare in immunocompetent patients. It may have good prognosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain tumours.

  19. Cerebral fat embolism

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  20. Cerebral Palsy

    ... 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cerebral Palsy: Keith's Story Physical Therapy I Have Cerebral Palsy. Can I Babysit? Body Image and Self-Esteem Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  1. Cerebral palsy.

    Graham, H Kerr; Rosenbaum, Peter; Paneth, Nigel; Dan, Bernard; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Damiano, Diane L; Becher, Jules G; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Colver, Allan; Reddihough, Dinah S; Crompton, Kylie E; Lieber, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood-onset, lifelong physical disability in most countries, affecting about 1 in 500 neonates with an estimated prevalence of 17 million people worldwide. Cerebral palsy is not a disease entity in the traditional sense but a clinical description of children who share features of a non-progressive brain injury or lesion acquired during the antenatal, perinatal or early postnatal period. The clinical manifestations of cerebral palsy vary greatly in the type of movement disorder, the degree of functional ability and limitation and the affected parts of the body. There is currently no cure, but progress is being made in both the prevention and the amelioration of the brain injury. For example, administration of magnesium sulfate during premature labour and cooling of high-risk infants can reduce the rate and severity of cerebral palsy. Although the disorder affects individuals throughout their lifetime, most cerebral palsy research efforts and management strategies currently focus on the needs of children. Clinical management of children with cerebral palsy is directed towards maximizing function and participation in activities and minimizing the effects of the factors that can make the condition worse, such as epilepsy, feeding challenges, hip dislocation and scoliosis. These management strategies include enhancing neurological function during early development; managing medical co-morbidities, weakness and hypertonia; using rehabilitation technologies to enhance motor function; and preventing secondary musculoskeletal problems. Meeting the needs of people with cerebral palsy in resource-poor settings is particularly challenging. PMID:27188686

  2. Brain white matter lesions correlated to newborns death and lethality Fatores correlacionados ao óbito e à letalidade hospitalar em neonatos com lesão da substância branca cerebral

    Nayara Argollo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to describe hospital lethality rates and factors correlated to death in neonates with brain white matter lesions. METHODS: a retrospective study was performed from January 1994 to December 2001. Neonates with white brain matter lesions were divided into survival and death groups and their medical files reviewed through the single blind method to determine evolution. Death certificates provided the cause of death. The groups were compared through correlation coefficients. Hospital lethality rate was calculated. RESULTS: ninety three cases of white brain matter lesions and seven deaths were determined. Hospital lethality rate was of 8.2.% (95%CI: 2.4-14.0 independently from lesion occurrence time, and of 10.3% (95%CI: 3.3-17.3 for deaths occurred during prenatal and perinatal periods. Death was correlated to: Apgar score, non-cephalic presentation, gestational age, hyperglicemia, hypercalcemia, convulsion, respiratory insufficiency and atelectasy. CONCLUSIONS: hospital lethality was of 10.3% generating the following hypothesis: perinatal asphyxia must be the principal direct and indirect etiologic factor (aggravating the expression of prematurity and infection diseases, of prenatal and perinatal mortality among newborns with white brain matter lesions; and OBJETIVOS: descrever a taxa de letalidade hospitalar e fatores correlacionados com o óbito em crianças com lesão da substância branca cerebral (LSB. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo realizado de janeiro de 1994 a dezembro de 2001. Os neonatos com LSB foram divididos em sobreviventes ou óbito, e seus prontuários revisados de forma cega para a evolução. Dos atestados de óbito, a causa de morte. Os grupos foram comparados por coeficientes de correlação. Calculada a taxa de letalidade hospitalar. RESULTADOS: foram encontrados 93 casos de LSB e sete óbitos. A taxa de letalidade hospitalar foi de 8,2%, (IC95%: 2,4-14,0, independentemente da época de instalação da lesão, e de

  3. Cerebral hypoxia

    ... the veins ( deep vein thrombosis ) Lung infections (pneumonia) Malnutrition When to Contact a Medical Professional Cerebral hypoxia ... References Bernat JL. Coma, vegetative state, and brain death. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  4. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage

  5. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    Yoon, Sang Hum; Chang, Seung Kuk; Cho, Mee Young; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage.

  6. Behcet's disease with cerebral vasculitis

    The case presented illustrates the diagnostic dilemma off neurological involvement in Behcet's disease and other inflammatory diseases. 'Psychiatric' symptoms were present for 2 years without abnormalities on SPECT or MRI and without CSF pleocytosis. Even at the time of fitting, no CSF abnormalities were observed. The preceding psychiatric presentations may have been due to cerebral vasculitis that was exacerbated by withdrawal of steroids. Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the most sensitive imaging modality. Lesions are usually in the brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia region or periventricular white matter, and the pons and the mesencephalon are commonly affected. In our patient there was no diencephalic or brainstem involvement. The inflammatory process can appear as a very large lesion, with gadolinium enhancement and significant mass effect, as in our patient. Brain magnetic resonance imaging. Postgadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, axial image shows two large lesions in the right frontal lobe, with the larger, posterior lesion demonstrating vivid ring enhancement. A central nodule is isodense, with the cerebral white matter within the larger lesion. Surrounding low T1 signal involves the hemispheric white matter without cortical extension and is consistent with vasogenic oedema. Minor mass effect is demonstrated with bowing of the anterior falx cerebri to the left. Biopsy shows prominent fibrinoid necrosis in small calibre postcapillary venules and cerebral white matter. There are surrounding acute and chronic inflammatory cells and nuclear debris, consistent with vasculitis

  7. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... kids who are living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ...

  8. Tuberculoma cerebral

    BARROSO ELIZABETH CLARA; OLIVEIRA TÂNIA REGINA BRÍGIDO DE; AMARAL ANA MARIA DANTAS DO; PINHEIRO VALÉRIA GÓES FERREIRA; SOUSA ANA LÚCIA DE OLIVEIRA

    2002-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de paciente com crises convulsivas de início recente. A tomografia computadorizada cerebral evidenciou imagem sugestiva de lesão expansiva metastática frontoparietal direita. A investigação de tumor primário ou outra doença foi negativa e o exame histopatológico do tecido cerebral diagnosticou tuberculoma. As convulsões foram controladas com a associação de hidantoína 300mg/dia ao esquema específico, utilizado por 18 meses. A tuberculose do sistema nervoso central representa ...

  9. Mutation in the AP4M1 Gene Provides a Model for Neuroaxonal Injury in Cerebral Palsy

    Verkerk, Annemieke J. M. H.; Schot, Rachel; Dumee, Belinda; Schellekens, Karlijn; Swagemakers, Sigrid; Bertoli-Avella, Aida M; Lequin, Maarten H.; Dudink, Jeroen; Govaert, Paul; van Zwol, A.L.; Hirst, Jennifer; Wessels, Marja W.; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene; Verheijen, Frans W.; de Graaff, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral palsy due to perinatal injury to cerebral white matter is usually not caused by genetic mutations, but by ischemia and/or inflammation. Here, we describe an autosomal-recessive type of tetraplegic cerebral palsy with mental retardation, reduction of cerebral white matter, and atrophy of the cerebellum in an inbred sibship. The phenotype was recorded and evolution followed for over 20 years. Brain lesions were studied by diffusion tensor MR tractography.

  10. Cerebral Arteriosclerosis

    ... the brain can cause a hemorrhagic stroke. Both types of stroke can be fatal. Cerebral arteriosclerosis is also related to a condition known as vascular dementia, in which small, symptom-free strokes cause cumulative damage and death to neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. Personality changes in ...

  11. Cerebritis due to Listeria monocytogeneses: CT and MR findings

    Infections by Listeria monocytogenes are uncommon, with cerebritis being even rarer. We present three cases of cerebritis which occurred during an outbreak of listeriosis. The CT and MR findings at diagnosis and during follow-up are described. Predominant deep white matter lesions with nodular and ring enhancement were seen. The MR yielded a higher resolution of the lesions than CT. (orig.)

  12. Cerebritis due to Listeria monocytogeneses: CT and MR findings

    Aladro, Y. [Dept. of Neurology, Hospital Nuestra Senora del Pino, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ponce, P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital Nuestra Senora del Pino, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Santullano, V. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital Nuestra Senora del Pino, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Angel-Moreno, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hospital Insular, Univ. of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Angel Santana, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital Nuestra Senora del Pino, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    1996-04-01

    Infections by Listeria monocytogenes are uncommon, with cerebritis being even rarer. We present three cases of cerebritis which occurred during an outbreak of listeriosis. The CT and MR findings at diagnosis and during follow-up are described. Predominant deep white matter lesions with nodular and ring enhancement were seen. The MR yielded a higher resolution of the lesions than CT. (orig.)

  13. Immobilized Inocula of White-Rot Fungi Accelerate both Detoxification and Organic Matter Transformation in Two-Phase Dry Olive-Mill Residue

    Sampedro, I.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Marinari, S.; Stazi, S. R.; Grego, S.; Petruccioli, M.; Federici, F.; D´Annibale, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2009), s. 5452-5460. ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : White-rot fungi * immobilized inocula * phenols Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  14. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  15. Influence of rotating magnetic field on cerebral infarction volume, cerebral edema and free radicals metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Xiaohong Liu; Zhiqiang Zhang; Lixin Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has shown that magnetic field can improve blood circulation, decrease blood viscosity, inhibit free radicals, affect Ca2+ flow in nerve cells, control inflammatory and immunological reaction, and accelerate nerve cell regeneration. In addition, protective effect of magnetic field, which acts as an iatrophysics, on ischemic brain tissues has been understood gradually.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of rotating magnetic field (RMF) on volume of cerebral infarction,cerebral edema and metabolism of free radicals in rats after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Rehabilitation Center of disabled children, Liaoniang; Department of Rehabilitation, the Second Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University; Department of Rehabilitation Physiotherapy, the First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University.MATERIALS: A total of 70 healthy Wistar rats aged 18-20 weeks of both genders were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation group with 12 rats, control group with 20 rats and treatment group with 38 rats. The treatment group included 4 time points: immediate reperfusion with 6 ones, 6-hour reperfusion with 20 ones, 12-hour reperfusion with 6 ones and 18-hour reperfusion with 6 rats. Main instruments were detailed as follows: magnetic head of rotating magnetic device was 6 cm in diameter; magnetic induction intensity at the surface of magnetic head was 0.25 T in silence; the maximal magnetic induction intensity was 0.09 T at the phase of rotation; the average rotating speed was 2500 r per minute.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the China Medical University in March 2003. Focal cerebral ischemic animal models were established with modified Longa's method. Operation was the same in the sham operation, but the thread was inserted as 10 mm. Neurologic impairment was assessed with 5-rating method to screen out cases. Those survivals with grade 1 and grade 2 after ischemia for 2

  16. Cerebral malaria.

    Postels, Douglas G; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-01-01

    Malaria, the most significant parasitic disease of man, kills approximately one million people per year. Half of these deaths occur in those with cerebral malaria (CM). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines CM as an otherwise unexplained coma in a patient with malarial parasitemia. Worldwide, CM occurs primarily in African children and Asian adults, with the vast majority (greater than 90%) of cases occurring in children 5 years old or younger in sub-Saharan Africa. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and involves infected erythrocyte sequestration, cerebral inflammation, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. A recently characterized malarial retinopathy is visual evidence of Plasmodium falciparum's pathophysiological processes occurring in the affected patient. Treatment consists of supportive care and antimalarial administration. Thus far, adjuvant therapies have not been shown to improve mortality rates or neurological outcomes in children with CM. For those who survive CM, residual neurological abnormalities are common. Epilepsy, cognitive impairment, behavioral disorders, and gross neurological deficits which include motor, sensory, and language impairments are frequent sequelae. Primary prevention strategies, including bed nets, vaccine development, and chemoprophylaxis, are in varied states of development and implementation. Continuing efforts to find successful primary prevention options and strategies to decrease neurological sequelae are needed. PMID:23829902

  17. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake during exercise. Adrenaline appears to accelerate cerebral glycolysis through a beta2-adrenergic receptor mechanism since noradrenaline is without such an effect. In addition, the exercise-induced cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake is blocked by combined...

  18. Cerebral hypoxia and ischemia in preterm infants

    Alberto Ravarino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth is a major public health issue internationally affecting 13 million babies worldwide. Hypoxia and ischemia is probably the commonest type of acquired brain damage in preterm infants. The clinical manifestations of hypoxic-ischemic injury in survivors of premature birth include a spectrum of cerebral palsy and intellectual disabilities. Until recently, the extensive brain abnormalities in preterm neonates appeared to be related mostly to destructive processes that lead to substantial deletion of neurons, axons, and glia from necrotic lesions in the developing brain. Advances in neonatal care coincide with a growing body of evidence that the preterm gray and white matter frequently sustain less severe insults, where tissue destruction is the minor component. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the major form of white matter injury and consists classically of focal necrotic lesions, with subsequent cyst formation, and a less severe but more diffuse injury to cerebral white mater, with prominent astrogliosis and microgliosis but without overt necrosis. With PVL a concomitant injury occurs to subplate neurons, located in the subcortical white matter. Severe hypoxic-ischemic insults that trigger significant white matter necrosis are accompanied by neuronal degeneration in cerebral gray and white matter. This review aims to illustrate signs of cerebral embryology of the second half of fetal life and correlate hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the premature infant. This should help us better understand the symptoms early and late and facilitate new therapeutic strategies. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  19. White matter dementia in CADASIL.

    Filley, C M; Thompson, L L; Sze, C I; Simon, J A; Paskavitz, J F; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K

    1999-03-01

    Cerebral white matter disorders may be associated with profound neurobehavioral dysfunction. We report a 62-year-old man who had a slowly progressive 25-year history of personality change, psychosis, mood disorder, and dementia. Neurologic examination disclosed abulia, impaired memory retrieval, and preserved language, with only minimal motor impairment. Neuropsychological testing found a sustained attention deficit, cognitive slowing, impaired learning with intact recognition, and perseveration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive leukoencephalopathy. Right frontal brain biopsy showed ill-defined white matter pallor with hyaline narrowing of white matter arterioles. Granular osmiophilic material adjacent to vascular smooth muscle cells on electron microscopy of a skin biopsy, and an arginine for cysteine replacement at position 169 in the 4 EGF motif of the notch 3 region on chromosome 19q12 established the diagnosis of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). This case illustrates that CADASIL can manifest as an isolated neurobehavioral disorder over an extended time period. The dementia associated with CADASIL closely resembles that which may occur with other white matter disorders, and represents an example of white matter dementia. PMID:10371078

  20. Absorbed dose evaluation based on a computational voxel model incorporating distinct cerebral structures

    Brandao, Samia de Freitas; Trindade, Bruno; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: samiabrandao@gmail.com; bmtrindade@yahoo.com; campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2007-07-01

    Brain tumors are quite difficult to treat due to the collateral radiation damages produced on the patients. Despite of the improvements in the therapeutics protocols for this kind of tumor, involving surgery and radiotherapy, the failure rate is still extremely high. This fact occurs because tumors can not often be totally removed by surgery since it may produce some type of deficit in the cerebral functions. Radiotherapy is applied after the surgery, and both are palliative treatments. During radiotherapy the brain does not absorb the radiation dose in homogeneous way, because the various density and chemical composition of tissues involved. With the intention of evaluating better the harmful effects caused by radiotherapy it was developed an elaborated cerebral voxel model to be used in computational simulation of the irradiation protocols of brain tumors. This paper presents some structures function of the central nervous system and a detailed cerebral voxel model, created in the SISCODES program, considering meninges, cortex, gray matter, white matter, corpus callosum, limbic system, ventricles, hypophysis, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord. The irradiation protocol simulation was running in the MCNP5 code. The model was irradiated with photons beam whose spectrum simulates a linear accelerator of 6 MV. The dosimetric results were exported to SISCODES, which generated the isodose curves for the protocol. The percentage isodose curves in the brain are present in this paper. (author)

  1. Coexistência das síndromes de Capgras e Frégoli associadas à redução de volume frontotemporal e hiperintensidades em substância branca cerebral Coexistence of Capgras and Frégoli syndromes associated to frontotemporal volume reduction and cerebral white matter hyperintensities

    Gizela Turkiewicz

    2009-01-01

    psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood disorders, and with neurological diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and brain injury (trauma, vascular. OBJECTIVES: To describe and discuss a case of coexistent between Capgras and Frégoli syndromes in a female patient with paranoid schizophrenia and brain MRI findings. METHODS: Psychiatric interview and brain MRI scanning. RESULTS: The patient presented structural magnetic resonance imaging periventricular and subcortical white matter hyperintensities on flair images mainly concentrated in the right frontotemporal region and bilateral frontotemporal volume loss. DISCUSSION: The described neuroimaging findings may represent an organic substrate to the delusional misidentification syndromes of the present case. The delusional symptoms in Capgras and Frégoli syndromes could be the result of a right temporolimbic-frontal disconnection which results in impossibility to associate previous memories to new information and consequently misidentifying symptoms. Moreover a volume loss of such cerebral regions, as observed in the present case, may also play a significant role in the development of delusional misidentification syndromes.

  2. Cerebral cysticercosis

    Two cases of histologically proven cerebral cysticercosis are presented. In both cases subcutaneous tissue nodules, a rare feature, were present. Several disease patterns are apparent - meningeal, parenchymatous and ventricular, spinal cord lesions and mixed patterns. Epilepsy is by far the major presenting symptom of cysticercosis, which in turn plays a significant role in the causation of adult-onset epilepsy in Blacks. Despite its drawbacks, the haemag-glutination inhibition test remains the most satisfactory serological method at present available for the diagnosis of cysticercosis; it is positive in up to 85% of cases of proven cysticercosis. With the advent of computed tomography many cases of unsuspected cysticercosis (symptomatic or asymptomatic) are being discovered

  3. ACCELERATED LABORATORY TEST OF THREE AMAZONIAN WOOD SPECIES CALLED TAUARI, EXPOSED TO WHITE- AND BROWN-ROT FUNGI AND COLOR RESPONSE ACCORDING TO CIE L* A* B* SYSTEM

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to: evaluate de natural durability of three species of tauari ( Couratari guianensis Aublet , Couratari oblongifolia Ducke & R.Knuth and Couratari stellata A.C.Smith, report the colorimetric parameters according to CIE L*a*b* 1976 system and also show the appearance of control and attacked wood blocks. Two brown-rot [ Gloeophyllum trabeum (Persoon ex Fries Murril. and Lentinus lepideus Fr.] and two white-rot [ Trametes versicolor (Linnaeus ex Fries Pilat and Ganoderma applanatum (Pers. ex Wallr.] fungi were used . Tauari wood was classed as “moderately resistant” to “resistant” when exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum fungi. All extractives’ contents of attacked samples decreased when compared with the control (sound wood, except Couratari stellata exposed to Ganoderma applanatum. Conversely, all ash contents increased when compared with the control, except Couratari stellata exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum. All attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples were darker, except wood meal from Couratari stellata exposed to Trametes versicolor , and redder than the control. The ∆ E* mean value in attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples attained 29.5 and 14.3, respectively.

  4. Locations of cerebral infarctions in tuberculous meningitis

    The locations of cerebral infarctions were studied in 14 patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 173 patients with noninflammatory ischemic stroke (IS). In patients with TBM, 75% of infarctions occurred in the 'TB zone' supplied by medial striate and thalamoperforating arteries; only 11% occurred in the 'IS zone' supplied by lateral striate, anterior choroidal and thalamogeniculate arteries. In patients with IS, 29% of infarctions occurred in the IS zone, 29% in the subcortical white matter, and 24% in (or involving) the cerebral cortex. Only 11% occurred in the TB zone. Bilaterally symmetrical infarctions of the TB zone were common with TBM (71%) but rare with IS (5%). (orig.)

  5. Effect of INHP on brain white matter lesion and cognitive impairment due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats%间断性常压低氧后适应对慢性脑血流低灌注大鼠脑白质损伤和认知功能障碍的影响

    李国青; 孟然; 任长虹; 冯兴中; 曹金强; 李宁; 马林; 吉训明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of intermittent normobaric hypoxia postconditioning (INHP) on brain white matter lesion and cognitive impairment due to chronic cerebral hypoperfu -sion in rats .Methods Thirty-two SD rats were divided into sham group ,model group,INHP1 group and INHP2 group (8 in each group) .Cognitive function of rats was assessed by Morris water maze test and severity of brain white matter lesion was assessed with Klüver-Barrera staining . Astroglia and microglia in brain white matter were marked with GFAP and Iba-1 antibodies .Results The cognitive impairment ,axonal loss and vacuolization in brain white matter with activated astrocytes and microglias occurred earlier in model group than in sham group .The reference anamness was poorer ,the brain white matter lesion was severer ,and the number of GFAP-posi-tive astrocytes and Iba-1-positive microglias was greater in INHP1 group than in model group , whereas the reference anamness was better ,the brain white matter lesion was milder ,and the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes and Iba-1-positive microglias was smaller in INHP2 group than in model group (P<0 .05) .Conclusion Delayed INHP but not early INHP can improve cognitive impairment and brain white matter lesion due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion .%目的 探讨间断性常压低氧后适应(intermittent normobaric hypoxia postconditionning,INHP)对慢性脑血流低灌注大鼠脑白质损伤和认知功能障碍的影响.方法 选择健康成年雄性SD大鼠32只,随机分为假手术组、模型组、INHP1组和INHP2组,每组8只.Morris水迷宫用于评价大鼠的认知功能,Klüver-Barrera 染色用于评价脑白质损伤的严重程度,胶质纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)抗体、Iba-1抗体分别用于免疫标记脑白质中星形胶质细胞和小胶质细胞.结果 与假手术组比较,模型组大鼠出现认知功能障碍、脑白质中髓鞘脱失、空泡形成,并有星形胶质细胞、小胶质细

  6. THE STRUCTURE AND FINE STRUCTURE OF TELENCEPHALIC WHITE MATTER IN GALLUS DOMESTICUS SPECIES

    LAURA DANIELA URDEŞ; N. CORNILĂ; PAULA POŞAN; DANIELA IANIŢCHI

    2013-01-01

    In Gallus domesticus species, the cerebral emispheres are constituted by the grey and white matter. The white matter is located into emispheres’ center, integrating in its mass a number of nervous nuclei, while the grey matter, placed to the periphery and into the center of telencephalon, composes the cerebral cortex and telencephalic nervous nuclei. Histologically, the white matter is constituted by nervous mielinic prolongations (projection, association and commisural fibres), glial cells a...

  7. Cerebral Hypoperfusion Precedes Nausea During Centrifugation

    Serrador, Jorge M.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Black, F. Owen; Wood, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    Nausea and motion sickness are important operational concerns for aviators and astronauts. Understanding underlying mechanisms associated with motion sickness may lead to new treatments. The goal of this work was to determine if cerebral blood flow changes precede the development of nausea in motion sick susceptible subjects. Cerebral flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (Finapres) and end-tidal CO2 were measured while subjects were rotated on a centrifuge (250 degrees/sec). Following 5 min of rotation, subjects were translated 0.504 m off-center, creating a +lGx centripetal acceleration in the nasal-occipital plane. Ten subjects completed the protocol without symptoms while 5 developed nausea (4 while 6ff-center and 1 while rotating on-center). Prior to nausea, subjects had significant increases in blood pressure (+13plus or minus 3 mmHg, P less than 0.05) and cerebrovascular resistance (+46 plus or minus 17%, P less than 0.05) and decreases in cerebral flow velocity both in the second (-13 plus or minus 4%) and last minute (-22 plus or minus 5%) before symptoms (P less than 0.05). In comparison, controls demonstrated no change in blood pressure or cerebrovascular resistance in the last minute of off-center rotation and only a 7 plus or minus 2% decrease in cerebral flow velocity. All subjects had significant hypocapnia (-3.8 plus or minus 0.4 mmHg, P less than 0.05), however this hypocapnia could not fully explain the cerebral hypoperfusion associated with the development of nausea. These data indicate that reductions in cerebral blood flow precede the development of nausea. Further work is necessary to determine what role cerebral hypoperfusion plays in motion sickness and whether cerebral hypoperfusion can be used to predict the development of nausea in susceptible individuals.

  8. The relationship between brain atrophy and asymptomatic cerebral lesions

    In order to clarify the relationship between brain atrophy and asymptomatic cerebral lesions, total of 235 subjects (130 males and 105 females), who had neither neurologic deficits nor organic lesions on cerebral computed tomography, were studied. The subjects' ages ranged from 40 to 86 years (mean 66). They were divided into two groups: 90 controls without hypertension or diabetes mellitus (Group C), and 145 patients with essential hypertension (Group H). Brain atrophy was diagnosed using the caudate head index (CHI). Asymptomatic cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were defined as asymptomatic lacunae and white matter lesions. Caudate head index was higher in Group H than it was in Group C, and CHI in both groups was significantly correlated with the number of asymptomatic lacunae and the severity of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. These results indicate that brain atrophy may progress along with asymptomatic cerebral lesions. (author)

  9. MRI of a family with leukoencephalypathy with vanishing white matter

    Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta; Pakula-Kosciesza, Iwona [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna; Pronicka, Ewa [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Department of Metabolic Diseases, Warsaw (Poland); Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika [Miedzyleski Specialistic Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warsaw (Poland); Kmiec, Tomasz [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Department of Neurology, Warsaw (Poland); Scheper, Gert; Knaap, Marjo S. van der [Free University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-01

    Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is a newly described entity with characteristic MRI features. We report the cranial MRI findings in three sisters with slowly progressive neurological deterioration. The MRI showed symmetrical diffuse abnormalities of cerebral white matter with hypointensity on FLAIR images. The diagnosis of leukoencephalopathy with VWM was made on the basis of genetic analysis. (orig.)

  10. MRI of a family with leukoencephalypathy with vanishing white matter

    Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is a newly described entity with characteristic MRI features. We report the cranial MRI findings in three sisters with slowly progressive neurological deterioration. The MRI showed symmetrical diffuse abnormalities of cerebral white matter with hypointensity on FLAIR images. The diagnosis of leukoencephalopathy with VWM was made on the basis of genetic analysis. (orig.)

  11. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna; Gouw, Alida A; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; Petrovic, Katja; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, Jose M; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Inzitari, Domenico; Fazekas, Franz; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated samp...

  12. United Cerebral Palsy

    ... Voices of UCP blog for the latest updates. United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support ... Our Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 ...

  13. Cerebral palsy and epilepsy

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in early childhood. Epilepsy is known to have a high association with cerebral palsy. All types of epileptic seizures can be seen in patients with cerebral palsy. Complex partial and secondary generalized ones are the most frequent seizure types. In persons with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the diagnosis of epilepsy presents unique difficulties. Generally they are not able to describe the epileptic ev...

  14. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  15. Study of cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebral infarction by 133Xe inhalation method

    Cerebral blood flow in both hemispheres was studied by the Xe-133 inhalation method in 49 patients with cerebral infarction in the unilateral hemisphere. They were classified into three groups by computed tomographic findings as follows: relatively large low density lesion including the cerebral cortex and subcortex (group I), relatively large low density lesion including the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia (group II), and small low density lesion including the subcortical white matter (group III). Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) in the affected hemisphere was markedly low in group I, moderately low in group II, and slightly low in group III. Several cases in groups I and II revealed remarkable changes of mCBF within one month after the onset. The mCBF in both hemispheres was lower in group I than in groups II and III within one week after the onset. Seven to 12 weeks later, mCBF was lower in the affected hemisphere than in the unaffected one in groups I and II: This was lower when compared with that in group III. There was almost no difference in mCBF between the affected and unaffected hemispheres in group III. Sequential changes of mCBF in both hemispheres were divided into 7 types in reevaluable 27 patients. Sequential changes of mCBF in both hemispheres of the patients with cerebral infarction were considered to be caused mainly by recanalization and hemorrhagic infarction. (J.P.N.)

  16. Cerebellar and cerebral atrophy in trichothiodystrophy

    Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Sargent, Michael A.; Poskitt, Kenneth J. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Prendiville, Julie S. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatric Dermatology, Department of Paediatrics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    Trichothiodystrophy is a rare neuroectodermal disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance that is characterized by brittle hair, nail dysplasia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, and gonadal failure. We describe a female patient whose cranial MRI revealed almost total lack of myelination in the supratentorial white matter, which is similar to the previously described cases. In addition, there was progressive cerebellar and cerebral atrophy, which has not been well documented in association with trichothiodystrophy. (orig.)

  17. China White

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    ’. We maintain a distinction, with White and with Frank Knight, of risk, on the one hand, and uncertainty, on the other, where ‘risk’ has to do with entities that are in principle insurable or calculable and ‘uncertainty’ has to do with what is not calculable/insurable. An entrepreneur’s decision...... to enter a market, to invest in and enter a production market, entails what White calls a ‘commitment to facilities’. This, for White and Knight, is inherently incalculable, and hence uncertain....

  18. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT NEEDLE-RETAINING DURATION ON CEREBRAL HEMODYNAMICS OF CEREBRAL PARALYSIS CHILDREN

    袁青; 王琴玉; 冯健强; 张壮涛; 陈雪云; 靳瑞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of different needle-retaining duration on cerebral hemodynamics in cerebral paralysis (CP) children.Methods: A total of 20 cases of CP children were subjected into this study.Changes of systolic peak value (Vs), blood flow velocity at the end-diastolic phase (Ved), mean velocity (Vm), pulsation index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of the cerebral hemodynamics before and after performing JIN's Three-Needling Therapy with the needles retained for 30 min (group A) and 5 min (group B) were observed by using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD).Results: After acupuncture, the blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) was accelerated, and the resistance of blood vessels decreased.The effect of needle-retaining-30 min was better than that of needle-retaining-5 min.Conclusion: In treating cerebral paralysis by using JIN's Three-Needling Therapy, sufficient stimulation provided by needle remaining is an important factor for achieving satisfactory therapeutic effects.

  19. Vanishing White Matter Disease: A Review with Focus on Its Genetics

    Pronk, Jan C.; van Kollenburg, Barbara; Scheper, Gert C.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2006-01-01

    Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) is an autosomal recessive brain disorder, most often with a childhood onset. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy indicate that, with time, increasing amounts of cerebral white matter vanish and are replaced by fluid. Autopsy confirms white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration. The…

  20. Pathological review of late cerebral radionecrosis

    Late cerebral radionecrosis may be considered to be a specific chronic inflammatory response, although it is unknown whether the initial damage by brain irradiation is to an endothelial cell or a glial cell. I discuss the pathological specificity of late cerebral radionecrosis by studying the published literature and a case that I experienced. In late cerebral radionecrosis, there are typical coagulation necrosis areas containing fibrinoid necrosis with occlusion of the lumina and poorly active inflammatory areas with many inflammatory ghost cells, focal perivascular lymphocytes, hyalinized vessels, and telangiectatic vascularization near and in the necrotic tissue, and more active inflammatory areas formed as a partial rim of the reactive zone by perivascular lymphocytes, much vascularization, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes at the corticomedullary border adjacent to necrotic tissue in the white matter. It is difficult to believe that coagulation necrosis occurs without first disordering the vascular endothelial cells because fibrinoid necrosis is a main feature and a diffusely multiple lesion in late cerebral radionecrosis. Because various histological findings do develop, progress, and extend sporadically at different areas and times in the irradiated field of the brain for a long time after radiation, uncontrolled chronic inflammation containing various cytokine secretions may also play a key role in progression of this radionecrosis. Evaluation of the mechanism of the development/aggravation of late cerebral radionecrosis requires a further study for abnormal cytokine secretions and aberrant inflammatory reactions. (author)

  1. What's new in cerebral palsy.

    JONES, M H

    1953-11-01

    Among new researches bearing on cerebral palsy are the growth of brain cells in tissue cultures for experimentation; the use of polysaccharides to prevent the formation of a glial barrier to nerve growth after injury; observation of changes in reactions of neurons at various stages of development; the finding of hypernatremia and hyperchloremia in lesions of the frontal lobe and the thalamus; stimulation of cerebral blood flow by injection of sodium bicarbonate and retardation with ammonium chloride; and studies of serial sections of brains of palsied children who died. Study of development in the early months of life has made possible the detection of significant abnormalities in behavior early in life. Loss of hearing may be tested in very young children by measuring minute variations in electrical resistance of the skin upon auditory stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Conditions which have been described as having been confused with cerebral palsy are dislocation of a cervical vertebra, hereditary spastic paraplegia, transverse myelopathy, injury to the spinal cord or cauda equina by anomalous growths of the spine, and also encephalitis and meningitis. Sedation has proved a valuable adjunct to electroencephalographic study of cerebral palsy. Better criteria for abnormality in the young child should be determined and the application of them more clearly standardized. Simple exercises are useful for early training of palsied children to stimulate development. "Crossed laterality"-the dominant eye being contralateral to the preferred hand-has been counteracted by special training with great success in eliminating emotional and behavior problems and accelerating development.Recent studies indicate that only 50 per cent of cerebral palsy patients have normal or better intelligence. Subluxation of the hip joint, a common deformity associated with cerebral palsy, can sometimes be corrected by operation if detected at an early stage. Radical ablation of

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging study of early white matter integrity in HIV-infected patients: A tract-based spatial statistics analysis

    Ruili Li

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Multiple cerebral white matter fiber tracts are damaged in HIV-infected patients without cognitive impairment. Quantitative analysis of DTI using TBSS is valuable in evaluating changes of HIV-associated white matter microstructures.

  3. 弥散张量成像对2型糖尿病患者脑白质微结构改变的早期诊断%Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in the Early Diagnosis of Cerebral White Matter Microstructure Change

    田志岩; 张惠红; 周玉颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨2型糖尿病患者的脑白质微结构异常改变与认知功能障碍的关系。方法选取35例非痴呆的老年2型糖尿病患者,平均年龄为(71±5)岁;年龄,性别,文化程度匹配的35例作为对照组,对两组进行磁共振弥散加权成像检查并对其做认知评估。比较两组的弥散各向异性分数(FA)值和平均弥散率(MD)差异。结果平均弥散率(MD),病例组高于对照组(P<0.05),提示病例组存在脑白质微结构异常改变。MD增加与信息处理速度减慢和记忆减退相关(P<0.05)。结论2型糖尿病患者脑白质存在不同程度的异常与认知功能障碍相关。%ObjectiveTo investigate whether type 2 diabetes is associated with microstructural abnormalities in specific cerebral white matter tracts and to relate these microstructural abnormalities to cognitive functioning.MethodsThirty-five non demented older individuals with type 2 diabetes, mean age (71±5) years, and 35 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects underwent a tesla diffusion-weighted MRI scan and a detailed cognitive assessment. Tractography was performed to reconstruct several white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor imaging measures, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), were compared between groups and related to cognitive performance.Results MD was significantly increased in all tracts in both hemispheres in patients compared with control subjects (P<0.05), reflecting microstructural white matter abnormalities in the diabetes group. Increased MD was associated with slowing of information-processing speed and worse memory performance in the diabetes (P<0.05). Conclusion Individuals with type 2 diabetes showed microstructural abnormalities in various white matter pathways. These abnormalities were related to worse cognitive functioning.

  4. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    beta 1/2-adrenergic blockade, but not by beta1-adrenergic blockade. Furthermore, endurance training appears to lower the cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake and preserve cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. This is possibly related to an attenuated catecholamine response. Finally...... cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake during exercise. Adrenaline appears to accelerate cerebral glycolysis through a beta2-adrenergic receptor mechanism since noradrenaline is without such an effect. In addition, the exercise-induced cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake is blocked by combined...

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow and periventricular hyperintensity in silent cerebral infarction. Comparison with multi-infarct dementia

    In order to investigate relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and the white matter lesions on MRI in silent cerebral infarction, we quantitatively measured rCBF by 123I-IMP autoradiography method (IMP ARG method) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) in 36 patients with silent cerebral infarction (SCI group), 22 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID group), and 16 control subjects without periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) and lacunar infarction on MRI (CL group). Regions of interest (ROIs) on rCBF images were set in the frontal (F), temporal (T), parietal (P), occipital (O) cortex, and the cerebral white matter (W). The severity of PVH on MRI T2-weighted image was divided into four grades (grade 0-3). Though the frequency of hypertension was significantly higher in SCI group and MID group compared with CL group, no significant difference was seen in the mean age among these three groups. rCBF in the white matter and cerebral cortices except the occipital cortex in SCI group was significantly low compared with CL group (rCBFSCI/rCBFCL: W 0.87, F 0.87, T 0.87, P 0.88, O 0.92). rCBF in the white matter and cerebral cortices, especially in the white matter and frontal cortex, in MID group was significantly low compared with SCI group (rCBFMID/rCBFCL: W 0.69, F 0.71, T 0.74, P 0.75, O 0.81). The mean grade of PVH in MID group was significantly higher than that in SCI group (SCI 1.1 vs MID 2.5). The severity of PVH was significantly correlated with each rCBF in the white matter and cerebral cortices, especially in the white matter and frontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the quantitative measurement of rCBF by IMP ARG method is useful for the follow-up study in the patients with silent cerebral infarction as well as the evaluation of the severity of PVH on MRI. (author)

  6. Cerebral angiography in leptomeningitis and cerebritis

    This is a report of the cerebral angiographic findings in cases of meningitis and cerebritis. Fifty-nine patients, 38 of whom were under 1 year of age, underwent cerebral angiography by means of femoral catheterization. All the patients had signs of increased intracranial pressure, seizures, focal cerebral signs, positive transillumination of the head, and or abnormal brain scan findings. A few patients who did not respond to systemic antibiotics as was expected were also evaluated by means of cerebral angiography. The following characteristic angiographic findings were observed in 18 cases of active meningitis: (1) A hasy appearance around the arteries (halo formation) between the late arterial and capillary phases. (2) Narrowing of the arteries in the basal cistern. This sometimes extended to the peripheral arteries. (3) Irregular caliber following the narrowing of arteries (in few cases). (4) Circulation time so slow that veins could be seen in the late arterial phase. (5) Halo formation around the anterior chroidal artery and the clear appearance of the choroid plexus in the venous phase (when the infectious process reached the choroid plexus). Cerebritis could be identified on the angiograms by two signs: (1) local swelling of the brain (mainly the temporal lobe) and (2) staining around the veins without any abnormal signs in the arterial phase (laminar staining). In conclusion, angiography is a meaningful test by which to determine the phase of meningitis and cerebritis. These two conditions should be treated based on valid information obtained by means of CSF examinations and neuroradiological tests, especially CT scan and cerebral angiography. (author)

  7. Magnetic Resonance Features of Cerebral Malaria

    Yadav, P.; Sharma, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, U. (Dept. of Radiodiagnosis and Dept. of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India))

    2008-06-15

    Background: Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. Material and Methods: We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Results: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. Conclusion: MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients

  8. Magnetic Resonance Features of Cerebral Malaria

    Background: Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. Material and Methods: We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Results: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. Conclusion: MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients

  9. White Lies

    许文龙

    2000-01-01

    Lillian Carter, the President s mother, once set up an interview with an aggressive reporter without benefitfrom the press office. "Your son," the reporter said, "has been travelling the country, telling people not to vote for him if he everlies to them. Can you, knowing a son as only a mother can, honestly say he s never lied?" "Well, perhaps a little white lie now and then," Mrs. Carter replied. "And what," retorted the reporter, "is the difference between a white lie and any other? Define a whi...

  10. European Whiteness?

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  11. White Nights

    Shani, Michal

    2016-01-01

    “How can you sleep at night after you ruined my life?” Arthur, a veteran patient of mine, implored after receiving his test results. This essay recounts my experience as a physician in coping with an extremely anxious patient, its influence on me, and some of my reflections on the ensuing white nights.

  12. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  13. MRI of white matter changes in the Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome

    We report a case of Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome with spastic diplegia and conduction aphasia. MRI demonstrated the white matter changes deep in the cerebral hemispheres. We analyse the MRI findings and compare the results with neuropsychological signs. (orig.)

  14. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  15. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUVmax, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUVmax with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  16. Long-term cognitive sequelae of cerebral malaria in Vietnam veterans.

    Richardson, E D; Varney, N R; Roberts, R J; Springer, J A; Wood, P S

    1997-01-01

    The brains of fatal cases of cerebral malaria exhibit capillary occlusion, punctiform hemorrhages, and focal necrosis in subcortical white matter. Some studies have suggested that the brain pathology of survivors is similar to that of fatal cases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that cerebral malaria survivors would exhibit neuropsychological impairment due to the residual cerebral damage sustained from the infection. Vietnam veterans reporting a history of cerebral malaria were compared with a group of veterans with a history of combat-related injuries on standard neuropsychological tasks and on dichotic listening (DL). The cerebral malaria group performed worse on memory tasks and exhibited greater clinical impairments on DL, consistent with presumed disruption of subcortical white matter tracts. PMID:16318473

  17. Watershed Cerebral Infarction in a Patient with Acute Renal Failure

    Ruya Ozelsancak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure can cause neurologic manifestations such as mood swings, impaired concentration, tremor, stupor, coma, asterixis, dysarthria. Those findings can also be a sign of cerebral infarct. Here, we report a case of watershed cerebral infarction in a 70-year-old female patient with acute renal failure secondary to contrast administration and use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Patient was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging because of dysarthria. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed milimmetric acute ischemic lesion in the frontal and parietal deep white matter region of both cerebral hemisphere which clearly demonstrated watershed cerebral infarction affecting internal border zone. Her renal function returned to normal levels on fifth day of admission (BUN 32 mg/dl, creatinine 1.36 mg/dl and she was discharged. Dysarthria continued for 20 days.

  18. White Matter Lesions, Carotid and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Late-Onset Depression and Healthy Controls

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Poulsen, Mikael Kjær; Garde, Ellen; Øvrehus, Kristian Altern; Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan; Dey, Damini; Sørensen, Leif Hougaard; Videbech, Poul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are more common in individuals with late-onset or late-life depression. It has been proposed that carotid atherosclerosis may predispose to WMLs by inducing cerebral hypoperfusion. This hemodynamic effect of carotid atherosclerosis could be importa...

  19. Plasma accelerators

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  20. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    Saini Monica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS are a group of disorders that have in common an acute presentation with headache, reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, with or without neurological signs and symptoms. In contrast to primary central nervous system vasculitis, they have a relatively benign course. We describe here a patient who was diagnosed with RCVS.

  1. Cerebral Palsy (CP) Quiz

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pop Quiz: Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Sandy is the parent of a child with cerebral palsy and the Board President of Gio’s Garden , a ...

  2. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics.

  3. Cerebral haematocrit measurement

    Regional cerebral haematocrit was measured in a group of sixteen subjects by the single-photon emission computerized tomography method. This group included three normal subjects as controls and thirteen patients affected with ischaemic cerebral disease presenting clinically with transient ischaemic attacks-six patients - or recent cerebral stroke - seven patients. Two intravenous radioactive tracers - technetium-99m labelled autologous red blood cells and Tc-99m human serum albumin were used. Cerebral tomographic imaging was performed using a rotating scintillation camera. The values of cerebral haematocrit obtained, taken as a ratio to venous haematocrit, range between 0.65-0.88 in the subjects studied. As a general finding in normal subjects and in patients with transient ischaemic attacks, no significant difference between right and left hemispheric haematocrit value was noted. However, in the group of patients affected with stroke, a significant difference in the right versus left hemispheric Hct was observed in 3 patients, the higher Hct value corresponding to the affected side. The clinical implication is on the emphasis of cerebral Hct measurement when the measurement of cerebral blood flow or volume is sought. Also the variation in regional Hct value observed in patients with stroke, above mentioned, points to a regulation mechanism of the blood composition for optimal oxygen delivery to the brain that is impaired in these patients. 14 refs. (Author)

  4. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  5. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  6. Cerebral Fat Embolism: Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate the diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and the follow-up MRI findings, of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The initial DWI and clinical findings of six patients with cerebral fat embolism were retrospectively evaluated. The finding of DWI with a b-value of 1000 s/mm2 (b=1000) was compared with that of DWI with a b-value of 0 s/mm2 (b=0). In three patients who underwent follow-up MRI, the interval change of the lesion on T2-weighted images was investigated. RESULTS: The characteristic DWI finding of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage was multiple, hyperintense, dot-like lesions disseminated in the brain. These lesions were distributed dominantly in the bilateral border-zone areas. Some lesions had an ancillary location including the cortex, deep white matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. The lesions were more intense and numerous in DWI (b=1000) than in DWI (b=0). The findings on the follow-up T2-weighted images were multiple confluent hyperintense lesions in the white matter with progression since the initial MRI. CONCLUSION: DWI could be a sensitive tool for detecting cerebral fat embolism in the acute phase. It is recommended that DWI be included in the initial evaluation of cerebral fat embolism with MRI

  7. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    ... cerebral aneurysm from forming. People with a diagnosed brain aneurysm should carefully control high blood pressure, stop smoking, and avoid cocaine use or other stimulant drugs. They should also ...

  8. Neonatal Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    The presentation, treatment, and outcome of neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (SVT) were studied in 42 children, using neurology clinic records (1986-2005) at Indiana University School of Medicine.

  9. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    ... Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... al. Course of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation. Neurology. 2007;68:1411-1416. PMID: 17452586 www.ncbi. ...

  10. MRI of patients with cerebral palsy and normal CT scan

    Three children with clinical evidence of cerebral palsy (CP) and normal cerebral computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify CT-undetectable white matter lesions in the watershed zones of arterial territories. The two patients with spastic diplegia showed bilateral lesions either in the subcortical regions or in the occipital periventricular regions. The patient with congenital hemiplegia exhibited unilateral lesions in the periventricular region. We conclude that MRI is more informative than CT for the evaluation of patients with CP. (orig.)

  11. MRI of patients with cerebral palsy and normal CT scan

    Bogaert, P. van; Szliwowski, H.B. (Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Neurology); Baleriaux, D.; Christophe, C. (Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology))

    1992-02-01

    Three children with clinical evidence of cerebral palsy (CP) and normal cerebral computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify CT-undetectable white matter lesions in the watershed zones of arterial territories. The two patients with spastic diplegia showed bilateral lesions either in the subcortical regions or in the occipital periventricular regions. The patient with congenital hemiplegia exhibited unilateral lesions in the periventricular region. We conclude that MRI is more informative than CT for the evaluation of patients with CP. (orig.).

  12. Rehabilitation in cerebral palsy.

    Molnar, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most frequent physical disability of childhood onset. Over the past four decades, prevalence has remained remarkably constant at 2 to 3 per 1,000 live births in industrialized countries. In this article I concentrate on the rehabilitation and outcome of patients with cerebral palsy. The epidemiologic, pathogenetic, and diagnostic aspects are highlighted briefly as they pertain to the planning and implementation of the rehabilitation process.

  13. Cerebral aneurysms and inflammation

    Toshihiro Yokoi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple inflammatory factors, playing a crucial role in cerebral aneurysm formation, have been identified. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α has been revealed to have a close connection with several risk factors that affect aneurysm formation. Remarkable expression in aneurysm walls of mRNA for TNF-α has been observed in humans. Possible therapeutic interventions to reduce the formation of cerebral aneurysms may include the inhibition of mediators of inflammation.

  14. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  15. Cerebral Palsy Litigation

    Sartwelle, Thomas P.; Johnston, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothe...

  16. Comparison of solitary cerebral metastasis and glioblastoma multiform

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MR images of solitary cerebral metastasis and glioblastoma multiform to determine the differential findings. Ten cases of solitary cerebral metastasis and 14 cases of glioblastoma multiform were retrospectively reviewed, all of which were proved by pathologically. The MR findings were compared in regard to tumor size and location, degree of edema, enhancement pattern, and shape of rime enhancement. Mean maximum diameter or solitary cerebral metastasis was 3.85 cm(s.d. 1.47). Metastatic lesions were located in corticomedullary junction(70%) with cerebellum in 2 cases. The locations of glioblastoma multiform were white matter(64%) without cerebellar involvement and the mean maximum diameter was 5.43 cm(s.d. 0.99). In solitary cerebral metastasis, the size of edema was larger than the tumor diameter in 50%, but glioblastoma multiform did not show severe degree of edema. Rim enhancement seen in 7 cases of solitary cerebral metastasis showed unilocular shape and complete rim in 6 cases, and even thickness and smooth inner margine in 5 cases. However, rim enhancement seen in 11 cases of glioblastoma multiform showed multilocular appearance with septa in all cases, incomplete rim in 5 cases, and uneven thickness and irregular inner margin in 10 cases. Tumor location, degree of edema, and rim enhancement pattern on Gd-enhanced MR may be useful in differentiation between solitary cerebral metastasis and glioblastoma multiform

  17. Future accelerators (?)

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made

  18. Future accelerators (?)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  19. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...

  20. Tracking White Matter Fiber in Human Brain

    KANGNing; ZHANGJun; EricSCarlson

    2004-01-01

    A new approach for noninvasively tracing brain white matter fiber tracts is presented using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) data. This technique is based on successive anisotropic diffusion simulations over the human brain, which are utilized to construct three dimensional diffusion fronts. The fiber pathways are determined by evaluating the distance and orientation from fronts to their corresponding diffusion seeds. Real DT-MRI data are used to demonstrate the tracking scheme. It is shown that several major white matter fiber pathways can be reproduced noninvasively, with the tract branching being allowed. Since the diffusion simulation,which is a truly physical phenomenon reflecting the underlying architecture of cerebral tissues, makes full use of the entire diffusion tensor data, the proposed approach is expected to enhance robustness and reliability of the DT-MRI based fiber tracking techniques in white matter fiber reconstruction.

  1. THE STRUCTURE AND FINE STRUCTURE OF TELENCEPHALIC WHITE MATTER IN GALLUS DOMESTICUS SPECIES

    LAURA DANIELA URDEŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Gallus domesticus species, the cerebral emispheres are constituted by the grey and white matter. The white matter is located into emispheres’ center, integrating in its mass a number of nervous nuclei, while the grey matter, placed to the periphery and into the center of telencephalon, composes the cerebral cortex and telencephalic nervous nuclei. Histologically, the white matter is constituted by nervous mielinic prolongations (projection, association and commisural fibres, glial cells and blood vessels (including muscular arteriols originated from the leptomeningeal space. This data, based on our experiment, are illustrated by the most suggestive aspects, chosen to be presented in this paper work.

  2. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  3. Clinical Neuroimaging of cerebral ischemia

    Notice points in clinical imaging of cerebral ischemia are reviewed. When cerebral blood flow is determined in acute stage of cerebral embolism (cerebral blood flow SPECT), it is important to find area of ischemic core and ischemic penumbra. When large cortex area is assigned to ischemic penumbra, thrombolytic therapy is positively adapted, but cautious correspondence is necessary when ischemic core is recognized. DWI is superior in the detection of area equivalent to ischemic core of early stage, but, in imaging of area equivalent to ischemic penumbra, perfusion image or distribution image of cerebral blood volume (CBV) by MRI need to be combined. Luxury perfusion detected by cerebral blood flow SPECT in the cases of acute cerebral embolism suggests vascular recanalization, but a comparison with CT/MRI and continuous assessment of cerebral circulation dynamics were necessary in order to predict brain tissue disease (metabolic abnormality). In hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, it is important to find stage 2 equivalent to misery perfusion by quantification of cerebral blood flow SPECT. Degree of diaschisis can indicate seriousness of brain dysfunction for lacuna infarct. Because cerebral circulation reserve ability (perfusion pressure) is normal in all areas of the low cerebral blood flow by diaschisis mechanism, their areas are easily distinguished from those of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. (K.H.)

  4. Protective effect of gypenoside on oxidative damage of the white matter in rats after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion%绞股蓝总皂甙对慢性脑缺血性白质氧化性损伤的保护作用

    张广林; 王本瀚; 熊家锐; 郭效东; 张长远; 高国栋

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨绞股蓝总皂甙对慢性脑缺血大鼠脑白质氧化性损伤的保护作用以及对脑缺血大鼠认知功能的影响.方法 将57只成年雄性SD大鼠按随机数字表法分成假手术组(n=12)、模型组(n=15)、绞股蓝总皂甙200 mg组(n=15)、绞股蓝总皂甙400 mg组(n=15),后3组采用双侧颈总动脉结扎法制备慢性脑缺血模型,且在造模后3h分别将等量生理盐水,200 mg/kg、400mg/kg绞股蓝总皂甙溶液灌胃,1次/d,持续33 d.应用Morris水迷宫实验测试各组大鼠空间学习与记忆能力的改变,酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定大鼠胼胝体、视束内超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、丙二醛(MDA)含量,免疫组化染色用8-羟基脱氧鸟苷(8-OHdG)抗体测定中枢神经细胞的氧化损伤水平.结果 与模型组相比,绞股蓝总皂甙400 mg组大鼠的逃避潜伏期明显缩短及在原平台象限的游泳时间明显延长,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).与假手术组比较,模型组大鼠胼胝体及视束内MDA含量明显增加,SOD活性明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).与模型组相比,绞股蓝总皂甙400 mg组MDA含量明显降低,SOD活性明显升高,8-OHdG阳性细胞数明显减少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).与模型组相比,绞股蓝总皂甙200 mg组SOD活性、MDA含量及8-OHdG阳性细胞数差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 绞股蓝总皂甙能有效改善慢性脑缺血大鼠脑白质氧化性损伤,提示其可能是一种有效的抗痴呆药物,但其作用的确切机制还有待进一步研究.%Objective To investigate the protective effect of gypenoside (GP) on oxidative damage of the white matter in rats after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and on its alterations of cognitive function.Methods A total of 57 male SD rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups:sham-operated group (n=12),vehicle group (n=15),200 mg/kg GP treatment group (n=15) and 400 mg/kg GP treatment group (n=15); chronic cerebral hypo

  5. Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute cerebral stroke

    Diffusion-weighted MRI has been demonstrated to be valuable in the assessment of cerebral stroke. Recent advance in MR systems of hardware with larger maximum gradient amplitude and faster imaging strategies, such as EPI, has made it possible to acquire whole brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in less that one minute. The purposes of this study are to evaluate clinical usefulness of DWI and to clarify pitfalls in the diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke. Seventeen patients with 18 ischemic lesions were studied. DWI were taken with 1.5 Tesla MRI (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Germany) using EPI sequence. Fifteen lesions out of them (3 in cerebral cortex, 9 in basal ganglia/deep white matter and 3 in cerebellum) were studied serially at various times up to 147 days. Acute cerebral infarction was seen clearly as an area of hyperintensity with DWI and as hypointensity in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps which are indicative of decreased diffusion. DWI detected areas of hyperintense acute infarcts, as early as 2.5 hours after onset, which were not visualized on T2-weighted image (T2WI). The lesion of cerebral infarction became isointense in ADC maps at 14-28 days after onset, whereas with DWI it became isointense at about 2 months. Because ADC changed earlier than DWI, ADC maps were useful for differentiate acute from nonacute lesion in cases of recurrent stroke within a short period. In a patient with transient global amnesia for 7 hours, DWI did not show any lesion at 8 hours. In terms of cerebral hemorrhage, lesions were seen as area of hyperintensity in DWI at 3 days and were not distinguishable from that of infarct. Despite limitations in the diagnosis of transient ischemia and cerebral hemorrhage, DWI is a useful technique for early detection of cerebral infarction, especially within the first 6 hours after stroke onset. (author)

  6. Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute cerebral stroke

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito; Suga, Sadao; Kawase, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Masakazu; Sadanaga, Humiko; Okamura, Miyuki; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Mihara, Ban [Mihara Memorial Hospital, Isezaki, Gunma (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI has been demonstrated to be valuable in the assessment of cerebral stroke. Recent advance in MR systems of hardware with larger maximum gradient amplitude and faster imaging strategies, such as EPI, has made it possible to acquire whole brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in less that one minute. The purposes of this study are to evaluate clinical usefulness of DWI and to clarify pitfalls in the diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke. Seventeen patients with 18 ischemic lesions were studied. DWI were taken with 1.5 Tesla MRI (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Germany) using EPI sequence. Fifteen lesions out of them (3 in cerebral cortex, 9 in basal ganglia/deep white matter and 3 in cerebellum) were studied serially at various times up to 147 days. Acute cerebral infarction was seen clearly as an area of hyperintensity with DWI and as hypointensity in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps which are indicative of decreased diffusion. DWI detected areas of hyperintense acute infarcts, as early as 2.5 hours after onset, which were not visualized on T{sub 2}-weighted image (T2WI). The lesion of cerebral infarction became isointense in ADC maps at 14-28 days after onset, whereas with DWI it became isointense at about 2 months. Because ADC changed earlier than DWI, ADC maps were useful for differentiate acute from nonacute lesion in cases of recurrent stroke within a short period. In a patient with transient global amnesia for 7 hours, DWI did not show any lesion at 8 hours. In terms of cerebral hemorrhage, lesions were seen as area of hyperintensity in DWI at 3 days and were not distinguishable from that of infarct. Despite limitations in the diagnosis of transient ischemia and cerebral hemorrhage, DWI is a useful technique for early detection of cerebral infarction, especially within the first 6 hours after stroke onset. (author)

  7. Improved Quality of Life in A Case of Cerebral Palsy after Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation

    Alok Sharma; Hemangi Sane; Pooja Kulkarni; Myola D’sa; Nandini Gokulchandran; Prerna Badhe

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non progressive, demyelinating disorder that affects a child’s development and posture and may be associated with sensation, cognition, communication and perception abnormalities. In CP, cerebral white matter is injured resulting in the loss of oligodendrocytes. This causes damage to the myelin and disruption of nerve conduction. Cell therapy is being explored as an alternate therapeutic strategy as there is no treatment currently available for CP. To s...

  8. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation: an emerging disease.

    Savoiardo, M; Erbetta, A; Di Francesco, J C; Brioschi, M; Silani, V; Falini, A; Storchi, G; Brighina, L; Ferrarese, C; Ticozzi, N; Messina, S; Girotti, F

    2011-05-15

    Three elderly patients with, respectively: mild cognitive impairment, severe and progressive neurologic involvement, and focal neurologic deficit, were observed. MRI showed multiple areas of white matter edema, at times partially involving the cortex, in the first two patients, and a single area in the third. Treatment with steroids determined the disappearance of the lesions and clinical amelioration. The key to the diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri) was the demonstration, with appropriate MRI sequences, of microbleeds consistent with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). This diagnosis was supported by genetic analysis of APOE with demonstration of ε4/ε4 genotype, found in about 80% of CAA patients who develop inflammatory changes. In the appropriate clinical setting, MRI demonstration of microbleeds supported by results of genetic analysis of APOE may strongly support the diagnosis of CAA-ri thus avoiding cerebral biopsy. PMID:24059616

  9. Cerebral palsy and multiple births.

    Pharoah, P. O.; Cooke, T

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the birthweight specific prevalence of cerebral palsy in singleton and multiple births. METHODS: Registered births of babies with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire during the period 1982 to 1989 were ascertained. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of cerebral palsy was 2.3 per 1000 infant survivors in singletons, 12.6 in twins, and 44.8 in triplets. The prevalence of cerebral palsy rose with decreasing birthweight. The birthweight sp...

  10. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) was used as an experimental model of ischemic stroke. MCAO produces an acute lesion consisting of an ischemic core or focus with severely reduced blood flow surrounded by a borderzone or ischemic penumbra with less pronounced blood flow reduction. Cells in the...... radical scavenger α-PBN on the periinfarct depolarizations and infarct volume was investigated. In study number six, the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport complexes I, II and IV was evaluated histochemically during reperfusion after MCAO in order to assess the possible role of mitochondrial...

  11. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W;

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types of...... migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do not...

  12. Cerebral abscess in children

    A cerebral abscess (CA) is a focal, infectious process only or multiple, located in the cerebral parenchyma that produces tisular lysis and it behaves like a lesion of space occupative, being a suppurative illness, who origin is a distant infection, or for continuity that studies initially as an area of focal cerebritis and it is developed to a collection surrounded purulent. At the moment they are perfecting technical and protocols diagnoses and therapeutic and measures for allow to control the natural history of the illness, making from the confrontation to this pathology a necessarily interdisciplinary complicated art, stiller in the infantile population, due to their difficulty in the diagnosis and the relevance of the same one. The paper includes epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, localization, pathology, clinic, diagnoses, treatment and diagnostic images

  13. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge;

    2007-01-01

    were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  14. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E.M.; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti [University of Brescia, Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Cornali, Claudio; Mardighian, Dikran; Fontanella, Marco M. [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Pinardi, Chiara [Spedali Civili, Medical Physics Unit, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Luigi F.; Rezzani, Rita [University of Brescia, Section of Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Gasparotti, Roberto [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences. (orig.)

  15. Size matters: Cerebral volume influences sex differences in neuroanatomy

    Leonard, CM; Towler, S; Welcome, S; Halderman, LK; Otto, R.; Eckert, MA; Chiarello, C

    2008-01-01

    Biological and behavioral differences between the sexes range from obvious to subtle or nonexistent. Neuroanatomical differences are particularly controversial, perhaps due to the implication that they might account for behavioral differences. In this sample of 200 men and women, large effect sizes (Cohen's d > 0.8) were found for sex differences in total cerebral gray and white matter, cerebellum, and gray matter proportion (women had a higher proportion of gray matter). The only one of thes...

  16. Human cerebral neuropathology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Nelson, Peter T.; Smith, Charles D.; Abner, Erin A.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Scheff, Stephen W.; Davis, Gregory J.; Jeffrey N. Keller; Jicha, Gregory A.; Davis, Daron; Wang, Wang-Xia; Hartman, A; Katz, Douglas G.; Markesbery, William R.

    2009-01-01

    The cerebral neuropathology of Type 2 diabetes (CNDM2) has not been positively defined. This review includes a description of CNDM2 research from before the ‘Pubmed Era’. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on cerebrovascular and white matter pathology. These and prior studies about cerebrovascular histopathology in diabetes are reviewed. Evidence is also described for and against the link between CNDM2 and Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. To study this matter directly, we evaluated dat...

  17. Effect of Early Intervention and Rehabilitation on Myelin-associated Glycoprotein Expression of White Matter in Neonatal Ratswith Cerebral Injury after Intrauterine Infection%早期干预及康复训练对宫内感染脑损伤仔鼠脑白质髓鞘相关糖蛋白表达的影响

    张明达; 李晓捷

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨早期干预及康复训练对宫内感染致脑损伤仔鼠脑白质髓鞘相关糖蛋白(MAG)表达的影响.方法 30 只孕17d、18d 的Wistar 大鼠腹腔注射脂多糖,抽取所生仔鼠100 只随机分干预组和非干预组各50 只.另10 只孕鼠注射生理盐水,取50 只所生仔鼠为对照组.干预组进行早期干预和康复训练,3 组分别于14d、21d、28d 行改良BBB和悬吊实验评分,各组分别在1d、7d、14d、21d、28d 随机抽取6 只取脑组织行免疫组化染色,观察脑白质MAG的表达情况.结果 在悬吊试验和改良BBB测试中,对照组得分均明显高于脂多糖组(P<0.01),干预组得分均明显高于非干预组(P<0.01);脂多糖组脑白质中MAG 表达量明显高于对照组(P<0.01),非干预组表达量明显高于干预组(P<0.01).结论 早期干预及康复训练可改善脑损伤鼠的运动功能并能降低MAG的表达.%Objective To explore the effect of early intervention on myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) expression of white matter in neonatal rats with cerebral brain injury caused by intrauterine infection. Methods 17 days or 18 days pregnant Wistar rats were consecutively injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally. 100 neonatal rats born from LPS group were randomly divided into intervention group and non-intervention group with 50 in each group. Another 10 pregnant rats were injected with normal saline, 50 neonatal ratsborn from the the normal saline group were taken as control group. The intervention group received early intervention and rehabilitation training. All the groups underwent hanging test and modified BBB test on the j 4th, 21st arid 28th day. 6 rats in each group were tested by im-munohistochemical staining to observe the MAG expression in white matter on the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th day. Results The scores of hanging test and modified BBB test were significantly higher in the control group than in the LPS group (P<0.01). And higher in the

  18. Laser accelerator

    Vigil, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1979,W. B. Colson and S. K. Ride proposed a new kind of electron accelerator using a uniform magnetic field in combination with a circularly-polarized laser field. A key concept is to couple the oscillating electric field to the electron’s motion so that acceleration is sustained. This dissertation investigates the performance of the proposed laser accelerator using modern high powered lasers and mag-netic fields that are significan...

  19. Cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following various cerebral diseases, (1)

    Patients having cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following hypoglycemia, cerebral contusion, or cerebral hypoxia including cerebrovascular disorders were reported. Description was made as to cerebral changes visualized on CT images and clinical courses of a patient who revived 10 minutes after heart stoppage during neurosurgery, a newborn with asphyxia, a patient with hypoglycemia, a patient who suffered from asphyxia by an accident 10 years before, a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning at an acute stage, a patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning 10 years before, a patient with diffuse cerebral ischemic changes, a patient with cerebral edema around metastatic tumor, a patient with respiration brain, a patient with neurological sequelae after cerebral contusion, a patient who had an operation to excise right parietal lobe artery malformation, and a patient who was shooted by a machine gun and had a lead in the brain for 34 years. (Tsunoda, M.)

  20. White matter integrity and cerebral network topology in focal epilepsy

    Otte, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide more than fifty million people suffer from recurrent spontaneous seizures. Seizures are considered to be harmful to the brain and may have adverse long-term behavioral and cognitive consequences in particular in people with focal epilepsies that do not respond to pharmacotherapy. Character

  1. White matter integrity and cerebral network topology in focal epilepsy

    Otte, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide more than fifty million people suffer from recurrent spontaneous seizures. Seizures are considered to be harmful to the brain and may have adverse long-term behavioral and cognitive consequences in particular in people with focal epilepsies that do not respond to pharmacotherapy. Characterization of seizure related brain damage may provide knowledge to better comprehend the mechanisms underlying the poorly understood comorbidities often encountered in patients with focal epilepsy. I...

  2. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  3. A Dietary Treatment Improves Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Connectivity in Aging apoE4 Mice.

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Zerbi, Valerio; Jansen, Diane; Haast, Roy; Lütjohann, Dieter; Broersen, Laus M; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 (apoE4) polymorphism is the main genetic determinant of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A dietary approach (Fortasyn) including docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium has been proposed for dietary management of AD. We hypothesize that the diet could inhibit AD-like pathologies in apoE4 mice, specifically cerebrovascular and connectivity impairment. Moreover, we evaluated the diet effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional connectivity (FC), gray/white matter integrity, and postsynaptic density in aging apoE4 mice. At 10-12 months, apoE4 mice did not display prominent pathological differences compared to wild-type (WT) mice. However, 16-18-month-old apoE4 mice revealed reduced CBF and accelerated synaptic loss. The diet increased cortical CBF and amount of synapses and improved white matter integrity and FC in both aging apoE4 and WT mice. We demonstrated that protective mechanisms on vascular and synapse health are enhanced by Fortasyn, independent of apoE genotype. We further showed the efficacy of a multimodal translational approach, including advanced MR neuroimaging, to study dietary intervention on brain structure and function in aging. PMID:27034849

  4. A Dietary Treatment Improves Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Connectivity in Aging apoE4 Mice

    Maximilian Wiesmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available APOE ε4 (apoE4 polymorphism is the main genetic determinant of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A dietary approach (Fortasyn including docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium has been proposed for dietary management of AD. We hypothesize that the diet could inhibit AD-like pathologies in apoE4 mice, specifically cerebrovascular and connectivity impairment. Moreover, we evaluated the diet effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF, functional connectivity (FC, gray/white matter integrity, and postsynaptic density in aging apoE4 mice. At 10–12 months, apoE4 mice did not display prominent pathological differences compared to wild-type (WT mice. However, 16–18-month-old apoE4 mice revealed reduced CBF and accelerated synaptic loss. The diet increased cortical CBF and amount of synapses and improved white matter integrity and FC in both aging apoE4 and WT mice. We demonstrated that protective mechanisms on vascular and synapse health are enhanced by Fortasyn, independent of apoE genotype. We further showed the efficacy of a multimodal translational approach, including advanced MR neuroimaging, to study dietary intervention on brain structure and function in aging.

  5. LIBO accelerates

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  6. Biofidelic white matter heterogeneity decreases computational model predictions of white matter strains during rapid head rotations.

    Maltese, Matthew R; Margulies, Susan S

    2016-11-01

    The finite element (FE) brain model is used increasingly as a design tool for developing technology to mitigate traumatic brain injury. We developed an ultra high-definition FE brain model (>4 million elements) from CT and MRI scans of a 2-month-old pre-adolescent piglet brain, and simulated rapid head rotations. Strain distributions in the thalamus, coronal radiata, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex gray matter, brainstem and cerebellum were evaluated to determine the influence of employing homogeneous brain moduli, or distinct experimentally derived gray and white matter property representations, where some white matter regions are stiffer and others less stiff than gray matter. We find that constitutive heterogeneity significantly lowers white matter deformations in all regions compared with homogeneous properties, and should be incorporated in FE model injury prediction. PMID:27123826

  7. Induction accelerators

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  8. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    El término parálisis cerebral (PC) engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia me...

  9. Parálisis cerebral Cerebral palsy

    Jorge Malagon Valdez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El término parálisis cerebral (PC engloba a un gran número de síndromes neurológicos clínicos, de etiología diversa. Estos síndromes se caracterizan por tener una sintomatología común: los trastornos motores. Algunos autores prefieren manejar términos como "encefalopatía fija", "encefalopatías no evolutivas". Se mencionan la utilidad de programas de intervención temprana y métodos especiales de rehabilitación, así como el manejo de las deficiencias asociadas como la epilepsia, deficiencia mental, trastornos del lenguaje, audición, visión, déficit de la atención que mejoran el pronóstico de manera significativa. El pronóstico también depende de la gravedad del padecimiento y de las manifestaciones asociadas.The term cerebral palsy (CP, is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the nonevolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations.

  10. [The concept of cerebral lacunae from 1838 to the present].

    Poirier, J; Derouesné, C

    1985-01-01

    The term lacunae was first used by Dechambre (1838) referring to small cavities developed during the process of resorption within cerebral softenings. Some years later, lacunae was applied by Durand-Fardel (1843) to small cavities located in the basal ganglia and hypothetically attributed to old, healed cerebral softenings. Durand-Fardel (1842, 1854) described "l'état criblé" as many round small holes ("criblures") always containing a patient blood vessel and located in the hemispheric white matter. He believed that "état criblé" was caused by mechanical compression of cerebral tissue related to the dilatation of the blood cerebral vessels during repetitive cerebral congestion. Chronic dementia or delirium were considered as the clinical counterpart of "état criblé". In the second half of the XIXth century, the few reports about lacunae were confusing due to the imprecise use of the terms "lacunae" and "état criblé". Furthermore, some authors described lacunae as sequelae of haemorrhage, others as old softenings or both. In the beginning of the XXth century, the masterly work of P. Marie (1901) established a clear distinction between the "foyers lacunaires de désintégration" and "état criblé" de Durand-Fardel or single perivascular dilatation of one of the lenticulo-striate arteries at its entrance into the lenticular nucleus or post-mortem charges (cerebral porosity, "état de fromage de gruyère"). He described lacunae as small cerebral softenings caused by occlusion of the blood vessels by a "local arteriosclerotic process". However, he also stated that some lacunae containing a patent blood vessel were due to a perivascular space dilatation destroying the adjacent brain parenchyma by a process of "destructive vaginalitis". Marie observed that lacunae were frequently clinically asymptomatic, but "that the hemiplegia of the old people was more often due to cerebral lacunae than to cerebral haemorrhage or softening". During the first half of the XXth