WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerated carbonation technology

  1. Environmental Remediation and Conversion of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into Useful Green Products by Accelerated Carbonation Technology

    Kwang-Suk You; Ji-Whan Ahn; Gi-Chun Han; Mihee Lim

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called ‘accelerated carbonation’, which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO2. Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from muni...

  2. Environmental Remediation and Conversion of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 into Useful Green Products by Accelerated Carbonation Technology

    Kwang-Suk You

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2, a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called ‘accelerated carbonation’, which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO2. Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC. Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper making industry. The quantity of captured CO2 in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO2 emissions and environmental remediation.

  3. Accelerating the development and deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies : an innovation system perspective

    van Alphen, K.

    2011-01-01

    In order to take up the twin challenge of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, while meeting a growing energy demand, the potential deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies is attracting a growing interest of policy makers around the world. At present CCS is the only t

  4. Advanced modeling to accelerate the scale up of carbon capture technologies

    Miller, David C.; Sun, XIN; Storlie, Curtis B.; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to help meet the goals of the DOE carbon capture program, the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) was launched in early 2011 to develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced computational tools and validated multi-scale models to reduce the time required to develop and scale-up new carbon capture technologies. This article focuses on essential elements related to the development and validation of multi-scale models in order to help minimize risk and maximize learning as new technologies progress from pilot to demonstration scale.

  5. Accelerating Mineral Carbonation Using Carbonic Anhydrase.

    Power, Ian M; Harrison, Anna L; Dipple, Gregory M

    2016-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have gained considerable attention for their potential use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies because they are able to catalyze rapidly the interconversion of aqueous CO2 and bicarbonate. However, there are challenges for widespread implementation including the need to develop mineralization process routes for permanent carbon storage. Mineral carbonation of highly reactive feedstocks may be limited by the supply rate of CO2. This rate limitation can be directly addressed by incorporating enzyme-catalyzed CO2 hydration. This study examined the effects of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) and CO2-rich gas streams on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)2], a highly reactive mineral. Alkaline brucite slurries were amended with BCA and supplied with 10% CO2 gas while aqueous chemistry and solids were monitored throughout the experiments (hours to days). In comparison to controls, brucite carbonation using BCA was accelerated by up to 240%. Nesquehonite [MgCO3·3H2O] precipitation limited the accumulation of hydrated CO2 species, apparently preventing BCA from catalyzing the dehydration reaction. Geochemical models reproduce observed reaction progress in all experiments, revealing a linear correlation between CO2 uptake and carbonation rate. Data demonstrates that carbonation in BCA-amended reactors remained limited by CO2 supply, implying further acceleration is possible. PMID:26829491

  6. Prospects for Accelerator Technology

    Todd, Alan

    2011-02-01

    Accelerator technology today is a greater than US$5 billion per annum business. Development of higher-performance technology with improved reliability that delivers reduced system size and life cycle cost is expected to significantly increase the total accelerator technology market and open up new application sales. Potential future directions are identified and pitfalls in new market penetration are considered. Both of the present big market segments, medical radiation therapy units and semiconductor ion implanters, are approaching the "maturity" phase of their product cycles, where incremental development rather than paradigm shifts is the norm, but they should continue to dominate commercial sales for some time. It is anticipated that large discovery-science accelerators will continue to provide a specialty market beset by the unpredictable cycles resulting from the scale of the projects themselves, coupled with external political and economic drivers. Although fraught with differing market entry difficulties, the security and environmental markets, together with new, as yet unrealized, industrial material processing applications, are expected to provide the bulk of future commercial accelerator technology growth.

  7. APT accelerator technology

    The proposed accelerator production of tritium (APT) project requires an accelerator that provides a cw proton beam of 100 m A at 1300 MeV. Since the majority of the technical risk of a high-current cw (continuous-wave, 100% DF) accelerator resides in the low-energy section, Los Alamos is building a 20 MeV duplicate of the accelerator front end to confirm design codes, beam performance, and demonstrate operational reliability. We report on design details of this low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) and discuss the integrated design of the full accelerator for the APT plant. LEDA's proton injector is under test and has produced more than 130 mA at 75 keV. Fabrication is proceeding on a 6.7- MeV, 8-meter-long RFQ, and detailed design is underway on coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) structures. In addition, detailed design and technology experiments are underway on medium-beta superconducting cavities to assess the feasibility of replacing the conventional (room-temperature copper) high-energy linac with a linac made of niobium superconducting RF cavities. (author)

  8. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... features of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in...

  9. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... features of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in...... that opportunities are generally poorly appreciated by the industry and research communities alike. It is found that the construction industry is characterized by low-tech trajectories where dedicated innovation networks are often too fragile for innovations to stabilize and diffuse. The institutional...

  10. Optimizing accelerator technology

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research and training network, oPAC, is bringing together 22 universities, research centres and industry partners to optimize particle accelerator technology. CERN is one of the network’s main partners and will host 5 early-stage researchers in the BE department.   A diamond detector that will be used for novel beam diagnostics applications in the oPAC project based at CIVIDEC. (Image courtesy of CIVIDEC.) As one of the largest Marie Curie Initial Training Networks ever funded by the EU – to the tune of €6 million – oPAC extends well beyond the particle physics community. “Accelerator physics has become integral to research in almost every scientific discipline – be it biology and life science, medicine, geology and material science, or fundamental physics,” explains Carsten P. Welsch, oPAC co-ordinator based at the University of Liverpool. “By optimizing the operation of accelerators, all of these...

  11. Superconducting accelerator technology

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  12. Accelerator Technology for the Mankind

    Sultansoy, S

    2006-01-01

    Particle accelerators technology is one of the generic technologies which is locomotive of the development in almost all fields of science and technology. According to the U.S. Department of Energy: "Accelerators underpin every activity of the Office of Science and, increasingly, of the entire scientific enterprise. From biology to medicine, from materials to metallurgy, from elementary particles to the cosmos, accelerators provide the microscopic information that forms the basis for scientific understanding and applications. The combination of ground and satellite based observatories and particle accelerators will advance our understanding of our world, our galaxy, our universe, and ourselves." Because of this, accelerator technology should become widespread all over the world. Existing situation shows that a large portion of the world, namely the South and Mid-East, is poor on the accelerator technology. UNESCO has recognized this deficit and started SESAME project in Mid-East, namely Jordan. Turkic Acceler...

  13. Accelerator technology for the mankind

    Full text: Particle accelerators technology is one of the generic technologies which is locomotive of the development in almost all fields of science and technology. According to the U. S. Department of Energy: Accelerators underpin every activity of the Office of Science and, increasingly, of the entire scientific enterprise. From biology to medicine, from materials to metallurgy, from elementary particles to the cosmos, accelerators provide the microscopic information that forms the basis for scientific understanding and applications. The combination of ground and satellite based observatories and particle accelerators will advance our understanding of our world, our galaxy, our universe, and ourselves. Because of this, accelerator technology should become widespread all over the world. Existing situation shows that a large portion of the world, namely the South and Mid-East, is poor on the accelerator technology. UNESCO has recognized this deficit and started SESAME project in Mid-East, namely Jordan. Turkic Accelerator Complex (TAC) project is more comprehensive and ambitious project, from the point of view of it includes light sources, particle physics experiments and proton and secondary beam applications. At this stage, TAC project includes: Linac-ring type charm factory; Synchrotron light source based on positron ring; Free electron laser based on electron linac; GeV scale proton accelerator; TAC-Test Facility

  14. Accelerator technology working group summary

    A summary is presented of workshop deliberations on basic scaling, the economic viability of laser drive power for HEP accelerators, the availability of electron beam injectors for near-term experiments, and a few very general remarks on technology issues

  15. Industrial Applications of Accelerator Technologies

    PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) put its aim on development of high power linear proton accelerator and its beam applications. So, it has, since late 1990's, accumulated accelerator and ion source technologies, supplied beam utilization service to related industry. As of now, right after 10 year long project(PEFP), many of its low energy beam technologies seem to be successfully utilized for industrial purpose to meet the market needs, especially in improvement of production process and manufacturing performance, new substance development, etc. In this context, it is high time to carry out in-depth industrialization development on PEFP's retained ion beam technology prowess: To help them diffused profitable markets as soon as possible. So, in this work, through verification on the industrialization feasibility by experiments, it is going to get it started, with cooperation of participatory company, to enter into markets with developed technology and products

  16. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability. 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. Technology development for RF accelerators

    Accelerator Control Division (ACnD) is having mandate for the design and development of key technologies in RF particle accelerators and for specialized applications in the field of RF Power, Controls, Magnetism, Superconductivity, Beam diagnostics and magnetic and electric field measurements. The activities being carried out in ACnD are mainly divided into three sectors, viz. (1) The Indian Accelerator program, (2) Accelerator development in collaboration with international laboratories and (3) specialized and specific applications for physics and material science applications. For the LEHIPA project at BARC, ACnD is involved in the development of Low level RF control systems, RF protection interlock systems, RF power systems and transmission lines, Drift Tube Linac and Permanent Magnets Based Drift Tubes. ACnD is also working in collaboration with international laboratories like Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), USA and GANIL, France. Under these collaborations, ACnD is responsible for the design and delivery of Low level RF controls and interlock systems, Solid state RF power amplifiers, Beam handling systems including warm quadrupoles and Superconducting focusing magnets and Beam diagnostics elements. ACnD is also working in specialized fields including high field magnets for MHD studies, magnetic sensors and magnetic flow meters for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor); focusing magnets for miniature klystron for mission critical applications, Field press and Pulsed field magnetizers for permanent magnets development, and High uniformity magnets for heavy ion penning traps. (author)

  18. Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1989

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses: accelerator physics and special projects; experiments and injectors; magnetic optics and beam diagnostics; accelerator design and engineering; radio-frequency technology; accelerator theory and simulation; free-electron laser technology; accelerator controls and automation; and high power microwave sources and effects.

  19. Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1989

    This paper discusses: accelerator physics and special projects; experiments and injectors; magnetic optics and beam diagnostics; accelerator design and engineering; radio-frequency technology; accelerator theory and simulation; free-electron laser technology; accelerator controls and automation; and high power microwave sources and effects

  20. The transfer of accelerator technology to industry

    The national laboratories and universities are sources for innovative accelerator technology developments. With the growing application of accelerators in such fields as semiconductor manufacturing, medical therapy isotope production, nuclear waste transmutation, materials testing, bomb detection, pure science, etc., it is becoming more important to transfer these technologies and build an accelerator industrial base. In this talk the methods of technology transfer, the issues involved in working with the labs and examples of successful technology transfers are discussed. (Author)

  1. Research needs of the new accelerator technologies

    A review is given of some of the new accelerator technologies with a special eye to the requirements which they generate for research and development. Some remarks are made concerning the organizational needs of accelerator research

  2. Accelerated carbonation of brucite in mine tailings for carbon sequestration.

    Harrison, Anna L; Power, Ian M; Dipple, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric CO(2) is sequestered within ultramafic mine tailings via carbonation of Mg-bearing minerals. The rate of carbon sequestration at some mine sites appears to be limited by the rate of CO(2) supply. If carbonation of bulk tailings were accelerated, large mines may have the capacity to sequester millions of tonnes of CO(2) annually, offsetting mine emissions. The effect of supplying elevated partial pressures of CO(2) (pCO(2)) at 1 atm total pressure, on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)(2)], a tailings mineral, was investigated experimentally with conditions emulating those at Mount Keith Nickel Mine (MKM), Western Australia. Brucite was carbonated to form nesquehonite [MgCO(3) · 3H(2)O] at a rate that increased linearly with pCO(2). Geochemical modeling indicated that HCO(3)(-) promoted dissolution accelerated brucite carbonation. Isotopic and aqueous chemistry data indicated that equilibrium between CO(2) in the gas and aqueous phases was not attained during carbonation, yet nesquehonite precipitation occurred at equilibrium. This implies CO(2) uptake into solution remains rate-limiting for brucite carbonation at elevated pCO(2), providing potential for further acceleration. Accelerated brucite carbonation at MKM offers the potential to offset annual mine emissions by ~22-57%. Recognition of mechanisms for brucite carbonation will guide ongoing work to accelerate Mg-silicate carbonation in tailings. PMID:22770473

  3. Accelerator-driven transmutation technologies

    The basic principles of accelerator-driven transmutation technologies (ADTT) are outlined and their assets highlighted. Current designs of ADTT facilities pursue 3 basic objectives: (i) Systems designed to generate power and convert nuclear wastes produced by conventional nuclear reactors into long-lived radioisotopes by transmutation. Such isotopes will be separated from molten salts by centrifugal separation. A single subcritical assembly will 'burn' wastes produced by several conventional NPPs. (ii) Systems for power generation using thorium fuel. Such systems are not designed for transmutation of nuclear wastes. The amount of transuranium elements produced by the thorium cycle is minimal, whereby the problem of storage of very long lived isotopes is virtually eliminated. (iii) Systems for transmutation of plutonium reclaimed from nuclear weapons. As to the future of ADTT in comparison with nuclear fusion, an asset of the former is that there remain no unsolved principal physical problems that would preclude its implementation. What has to be solved is materials and technological problems and, in particular, the financial problem. Implementation of ADTT is impossible in any way other than on the basis of a wide international cooperation. There exists a group of people dealing with ADTT in the Czech Republic, joining academic and industrial experts; this group is fostering contacts with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, U.S.A. The Institute of Nuclear Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, has set up an ADTT Documentation Center, which is accessible to any person interested in this promising field of science and technology. (P.A.). 3 figs

  4. Centre for Nuclear and Accelerator Technologies (CENTA)

    A Centre for Nuclear and Accelerator Technologies (CENTA) has been established at the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics of the Comenius University in Bratislava comprising of a tandem laboratory designed for the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). The 3 MV Pelletron accelerator is a key feature of the equipment which will enable to carry out state of the art research in physical, environmental, material, biological and medical sciences in collaboration with leading European and world laboratories. The laboratory is further equipped with two ion sources - Alphatros (RF source for H and He ions) and MC-SNICS source (target wheel with 40 positions for solid targets), and low and high energy analyzers of ions (all equipment of National Electrostatics Corp., USA). We shall discuss in detail development of methods for analysis of 14C around nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice, and present results of temporal 14C variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide and in tree rings collected at the monitoring stations in Zlkovce and in Bratislava. (authors)

  5. Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1991

    This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; Φ Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations

  6. Accelerator Technology Division progress report, FY 1992

    Schriber, S.O.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Heighway, E.A.

    1993-07-01

    This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; Defense Free-Electron Lasers; AXY Programs; A Next Generation High-Power Neutron-Scattering Facility; JAERI OMEGA Project and Intense Neutron Sources for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Supercollider; The High-Power Microwave (HPM) Program; Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Power Systems Highlights; Industrial Partnering; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Accelerator Theory and Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  7. Accelerator Technology Division progress report, FY 1992

    This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; Defense Free-Electron Lasers; AXY Programs; A Next Generation High-Power Neutron-Scattering Facility; JAERI OMEGA Project and Intense Neutron Sources for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Supercollider; The High-Power Microwave (HPM) Program; Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Power Systems Highlights; Industrial Partnering; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Accelerator Theory and Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations

  8. Accelerator Technology: Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators

    Missiaen, D

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '8.9 Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators' of the Chapter '8 Accelerator Technology' with the content: 8.9 Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators 8.9.1 Introduction 8.9.2 Reference and Co-ordinate Systems 8.9.3 Definition of the Beam Line on the Accelerator Site 8.9.4 Geodetic Network 8.9.5 Tunnel Preliminary Works 8.9.6 The Alignment References 8.9.7 Alignment of Accelerator Components 8.9.8 Permanent Monitoring and Remote Alignment of Low Beta Quadrupoles 8.9.9 Alignment of Detector Components

  9. A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies

    Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy

  10. A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies.

    PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA, T.; FLANZ, J.

    2007-06-25

    Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy.

  11. Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) Acceleration Technology

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — SRF cavities enable accelerators to increase particle beam energy levels while minimizing the use of electrical power by all but eliminating electrical resistance....

  12. Carbon beams, production and acceleration

    Installation, test and working conditions of a new negative-ion facility of the Salazar EN tandem are briefly described. Carbon is the material used for the test and the heavy ion stripping phenomenon is reviewed. (author)

  13. Accelerator Applications Support Nuclear Science and Technology

    Accelerators are machines that use high voltages to produce artificial radiation in the form of beams of energetic particles. They are more versatile and safer than radioactive sources because the energy can be varied, and when the accelerator is turned off, so is the radiation. Accelerators are used for diverse applications such as to treat cancer, analyse artwork and old artefacts, clean up waste effluent gases, produce computer chips and map the structure of proteins. Accelerator technology makes a valuable contribution to the technological progress of a country, which in turn can also contribute to a country’s economic development

  14. Technology of superconducting accelerator dipoles

    We discuss accelerator dipoles and their characteristics. Other types of magnets, in particular bubble chamber magnets have been quite successful. Their performance is based on cryogenic stability which is addressed only briefly in this chapter. This type of stability is not available to the accelerator designer because of the large quantities of copper or other stabilizer that would reduce the current density in the windings to an unacceptably low value

  15. Accelerator Technology Division progress report, FY 1993

    This report discusses the following topics: A Next-Generation Spallation-Neutron Source; Accelerator Performance Demonstration Facility; APEX Free-Electron Laser Project; The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) Program; Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Linac Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Radio-Frequency Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operation

  16. Superconducting magnet technology for accelerators

    A review article on superconducting magnets for accelerators should first answer the question, why superconductivity. The answer revolves around two pivotal facts: (1) fields in the range of 2 T to 10 T can be achieved; and (2) the operating cost can be less than conventional magnets. The relative importance of these two factors depends on the accelerator. In the case where an upgrade of an accelerator at an existing facility is planned, the ability to obtain fields higher than conventional magnets leads directly to an increase in machine energy for the given tunnel. In the case of a new facility, both factors must be balanced for the most economical machine. Ways to achieve this are discussed

  17. TESLA accelerator installation: development of accelerator methods and technologies

    The TESLA Accelerator Installation is a multipurpose facility for production, acceleration and use of ions consisting of a light ion source, a heavy ion source, an isochronous cyclotron and a number of experimental channels. Its construction had begun in December 1989 and it was stopped temporarily in June 1998, after completing about three quarters of the planned jobs. The construction of the facility included the development of a number of accelerator methods and technologies. We shall present in this lecture the developed methods and technologies related to large electromagnets and systems for precise moving of their parts, systems for precise measurement of magnetic fields, radiofrequency resonators and amplifier chains, large high-vacuum chambers, cooling, control and safety systems of complex experimental set-ups, and production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  18. Accelerators for the advanced radiation technology project

    Ion beam irradiation facilities are now under construction for the advanced radiation technology (ART) project in Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) JAERI. The project is intended to make an effective use of ion beams, especially ion beams, in the research field of radiation application technology. The TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities include four ion accelerators to produce almost all kinds of energetic ions in the periodic table. The facilities are also provided with several advanced irradiation means and act as very powerful accelerator complex for material development. Specifically, this report presents an outline of the ART project, features of TIARA as accelerator facilities dedicated to material development, the AVF cyclotron under construction (Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Model 930), tandem accelerator, microbeam, and experimental instruments used. (N.K.)

  19. Laser technologies for laser accelerators. Annual report

    The primary result of the work reported is the determination of laser system architectures that satsify the requirements of high luminosity, high energy (about 1 TeV), electron accelerators. It has been found that high laser efficiency is a very hard driver for these accelerators as the total average laser output optical power is likely to fall above 10 MW. The luminosity requires rep rates in the kHz range, and individual pulse lengths in the 1-10 psec range are required to satisfy acceleration gradient goals. CO2 and KrF lasers were chosen for study because of their potential to simultaneously satisfy the given requirements. Accelerator luminosity is reviewed, and requirements on laser system average power and rep rate are determined as a function of electron beam bunch parameters. Laser technologies are reviewed, including CO2, excimers, solid state, and free electron lasers. The proposed accelerator mechanisms are summarized briefly. Work on optical transport geometries for near and far field accelerators are presented. Possible exploitation of the CO2 and DrF laser technology to generate the required pulse lengths, rep rates, and projected efficiencies is illustrated and needed development work is suggested. Initial efforts at developing a 50 GeV benchmark conceptual design and a 100 MeV demonstration experiment conceptual design are presented

  20. CAS CERN Accelerator School vacuum technology. Proceedings

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twelfth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Vacuum Technology'. Despite the importance of vacuum technology in the design and operation of particle accelerators at CERN and at the many other accelerators already installed around the world, this was the first time that CAS has organized a course devoted entirely to this topic. Perhaps this reflects the facts that vacuum has become one of the more critical aspects of future accelerators, and that many of the pioneers in the accelerator field are being replaced by new, younger personnel. The lectures start with the basic concepts of the physics and technology of vacuum followed by detailed descriptions of the many different types of gas-pumping devices and methods to measure the pressures achieved. The outgassing characteristics of the different materials used in the construction of vacuum systems and the optimisation of cleaning methods to reduce this outgassing are then explained together with the effects of the residual gases on the particle beams. Then follow chapters on leak detection, materials and vacuum system engineering. Finally, seminars are presented on designing vacuum systems, the history of vacuum devices, the LHC (large hadron collider) vacuum system, vacuum systems for electron storage rings, and quality assurance for vacuum. (orig.)

  1. Technologies for Advanced Induction Accelerators

    Hernández, M A; Autrey, D; Duncan, G; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E; Hanks, R; Kamin, G; Sangster, C; Sharp, W; Williams, C

    2000-01-01

    To harness fusion energy is one of today's greatest technological challenges, and one well worth pursuing. Success in the development of fusion power would result in a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. The fusion reaction, the process that powers the sun and the stars, can be duplicated on Earth. However, to date these fusion processes have been the products of large-scale experimental efforts. They have yet to achieve fusion in a manner that is cost effective and efficient enough to be applied in a commercial reactor. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been centrally involved in the Nation's inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program for over 25 years. Much of the focus of the LLNL ICF Program has been the well-known effort to develop high power, short wavelength laser drivers to create the conditions necessary for the fusion process. But the ICF Program has also been investigating, in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the potential of heavy-ion accelerato...

  2. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    Full text: As presented at the overview seminar held on December 98, the activities of the Department were shared among several directions of accelerator applications, as well as research and development works on new accelerator techniques and technologies. In the group of proton and ion accelerators, two main tasks were advanced. The first was a further step in the optimization of operational parameters of multicusp ion-source, prepared for axial injection system in C-30 cyclotron. Another one is the participation in important modifications of r.f. acceleration system in heavy-ion accelerator C-200 of Warsaw University. In the broad field of electron accelerators our main attention was directed at medical applications. Most important of them was the designing and construction of a full scale technological model of a high-gradient accelerating structure for low-energy radiotherapy unit CO-LINE 1000. Microwave measurements, and tuning were accomplished, and the technical documentation for construction of radiation unit completed. This work was supported by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Preparatory work was continued to undertake in the year 1999 the design of two new medical accelerators. First is a new generation radiotherapy unit, with 15 MeV electron beam and two selected energies of X-ray photons. This accelerator should in future replace the existing Neptun 10 MeV units. The work will be executed in the frame of the Project-Ordered commissioned by the State Committee for Scientific Research. The next type of accelerators in preparation is the mobile, self-shielded electron-beam unit for inter operative irradiation. The specification of parameters was completed and study of possible solutions advanced. The programme of medical accelerator development is critically dependent on the existence of a metrological and experimental basis. Therefore the building of a former proton linear accelerator was adopted to the new function as electron accelerators

  3. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    Pachan, M. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1999-10-01

    Full text: As presented at the overview seminar held on December 98, the activities of the Department were shared among several directions of accelerator applications, as well as research and development works on new accelerator techniques and technologies. In the group of proton and ion accelerators, two main tasks were advanced. The first was a further step in the optimization of operational parameters of multicusp ion-source, prepared for axial injection system in C-30 cyclotron. Another one is the participation in important modifications of r.f. acceleration system in heavy-ion accelerator C-200 of Warsaw University. In the broad field of electron accelerators our main attention was directed at medical applications. Most important of them was the designing and construction of a full scale technological model of a high-gradient accelerating structure for low-energy radiotherapy unit CO-LINE 1000. Microwave measurements, and tuning were accomplished, and the technical documentation for construction of radiation unit completed. This work was supported by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Preparatory work was continued to undertake in the year 1999 the design of two new medical accelerators. First is a new generation radiotherapy unit, with 15 MeV electron beam and two selected energies of X-ray photons. This accelerator should in future replace the existing Neptun 10 MeV units. The work will be executed in the frame of the Project-Ordered commissioned by the State Committee for Scientific Research. The next type of accelerators in preparation is the mobile, self-shielded electron-beam unit for inter operative irradiation. The specification of parameters was completed and study of possible solutions advanced. The programme of medical accelerator development is critically dependent on the existence of a metrological and experimental basis. Therefore the building of a former proton linear accelerator was adopted to the new function as electron accelerators

  4. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  5. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    problems with DKFZ Heidelberg, where she participates in the development so called scanning collimators. As a result of a collaboration with LNF INFN Frascati, apart from two travelling wave RF structures now operated in the CTF3 experiment at CERN, one additional TW structure was made in our Department. It serves as an experimental unit for further study of TW technology. The collaboration with the DESY TESLA-FEL Project during the past years concerned mainly the RF accelerating super-conducting superstructures. This work ended with good results; it was reported in a common international oral session held during PAC2003 in Portland, USA. The superstructures have a chance to be mass-produced if the TESLA Superconducting Collider gets international financial approval. The work on RF vacuum windows upgrading against the multipactor effects in high power couplers was continued at DESY till the end of 2003. The original new technologies of thin TiN coating of ceramic windows were applied using newly constructed coating set-up. The summary of our 2003 results on coating will be presented in the TESLA Report 2004-02. A prerequisite of practising Accelerator Physics is understanding its importance in the wider context. Looking to professional literature on accelerators applications, one finds that in the developed world roughly 20000 accelerators exist (excluding electron units below 0.2 MeV) and yearly this number increases by at least 10%. More than half are used for material modification and roughly 30 % in radiotherapy. The most advanced technically and technologically are accelerators for subatomic physics and synchrotron radiation sources, where the total number of existing or under construction machines surpasses 200. New solutions, new technologies, cost reductions are still being investigated. So, in spite of difficult financial conditions, there is real motivation to keep accelerator physics alive in our Institute. (author)

  6. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    Full text: The principal Department's duties in 1999 have not changed and were consequently directed on development in the area of electron and ion accelerators and their applications in science, medicine and technology. Two important events dominated the current and future orientation of R and D activity. The first was finalizing of long time efforts for preparing of the ordered research project granted by the State Committee of Scientific Research and devoted to elaboration and design of a new electron accelerator for radiotherapy, with two energies of X-ray photon beams. This project was formally approved in March 1999 and due to organisatory procedures set in operation after few months. In the second half of 1999, an important progress was done in advancing the project. The second mentioned event is foundation by the government of a Multiyear Research Programme - called ''Isotopes and Accelerators''. This programme formulates a broad spectrum of important tasks oriented on application of isotopes and accelerator techniques in many branches of science and national economy. The expected participation of the Department in this programme comprises following subjects: medical interoperative accelerator, high power electron accelerator for radiation technology, and upgrading of cyclotron for isotopes production. In course of 1999, preparatory studies in these subjects were carried out. Some of the results were presented on conferences and seminars. An interesting experience was the expertise done on technical status of Eindhoven isochronous cyclotron and its possible transfer to Swierk as a professional tool for isotopes production. In the group of medical applications, three subjects were continued during 1999 and brought important results: - completion of microwave measurements of high gradient acceleration structure for low energy accelerators; such structure will be very useful solution for Co-Line and interoperative accelerator; - evaluation of design data and

  7. Technology development for high power induction accelerators

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability

  8. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Functionally within the MDF, ORNL operates DOE’s unique Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF)—a 42,000 ft2 innovative technology facility and works with leading...

  9. Accelerator-Driven System with Current Technology

    Lee, Hee Seok; Lee, Tae Yeon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    World needs a safer and cleaner nuclear power plant. A nuclear power plant that will not cause a disaster and that will produce radiotoxic nuclear waste as small as possible. At the moment, the closest system is the accelerator driven system (ADS) making use of the Thorium fuel. First of all, it is safer in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. And, there won't be a Fukushima-like accident, because this Thorium ADS reactor uses air cooling. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of ADS was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty of accelerator. The accelerator-based system needs 0.6-1 GeV and at least a few MW power proton beam, which is an unprecedentedly high power. The most powerful 1 GeV proton linear accelerator is the Spallation Neutron Source, USA, which operates now at the power of 1.5 MW with the length of 350 m. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. Another difficulty is reliability of accelerator operation. To be used as a power plant facility, accelerator should obviously operate such that the power plant may continuously generate electricity at least for months with no interruption. However, the reality is that a high power proton accelerator is hardly operated even a few hours without interruption, although very short interruptions are tolerable. Anyway, it will take a time to develop an accelerator sufficiently reliable to be used for power generation. Now the question is if it is possible to realize ADS with the current level of accelerator technology. This paper seeks the possibility.

  10. Accelerator-Driven System with Current Technology

    World needs a safer and cleaner nuclear power plant. A nuclear power plant that will not cause a disaster and that will produce radiotoxic nuclear waste as small as possible. At the moment, the closest system is the accelerator driven system (ADS) making use of the Thorium fuel. First of all, it is safer in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. And, there won't be a Fukushima-like accident, because this Thorium ADS reactor uses air cooling. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of ADS was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty of accelerator. The accelerator-based system needs 0.6-1 GeV and at least a few MW power proton beam, which is an unprecedentedly high power. The most powerful 1 GeV proton linear accelerator is the Spallation Neutron Source, USA, which operates now at the power of 1.5 MW with the length of 350 m. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. Another difficulty is reliability of accelerator operation. To be used as a power plant facility, accelerator should obviously operate such that the power plant may continuously generate electricity at least for months with no interruption. However, the reality is that a high power proton accelerator is hardly operated even a few hours without interruption, although very short interruptions are tolerable. Anyway, it will take a time to develop an accelerator sufficiently reliable to be used for power generation. Now the question is if it is possible to realize ADS with the current level of accelerator technology. This paper seeks the possibility

  11. Technology and applications of electron accelerator

    Technology of electron accelerator have been developed so fast in advanced countries. It was applied in the research and development (R and D) and comercially in various industries. The industries applying electron accelerator includes polymers industry, sterilization of medical tools, material surface modification, and environmental management. The radiation process using electron beam is an ionization radiation process. Two facilities of electron accelerator have been established in pilot scale at the Centre for the Application of Isotope and Radiation CAIR-BATAN, Jakarta, for the RandD of radiation process technology and in demonstrating the electron accelerator application in industry in Indonesia. The first has low energy specification of 300 keV, 50 mA, EPS-300 type and the second has medium energy specification of 2 MeV, 10 mA dynamitron model GJ-2 type. Both the electron accelerators have an electron penetration depth capability of 0.6 and 12 mm, respectively, for the double side irradiation in the materials with density of 1 g/cm3. They also highly capacity production and electron beam cross-section of 120 cm length and 10 cm width. The beam will go through the atmosphere for irradiation samples or industrial products. The radiation dose can be selected precisely by adjusting the electron beam current and conveyor speed. Both of these facilities were applied in many aspects RandD, for examples dosimetry, wood surface coating, cross-linking of polymer, heatshrincable tube, polymer grafting, plastic degradation, food preservation, sterilization and so on. Engineering factors of radiation design process and general observation of electron accelerator application in RandD for various industries in Indonesia are briefly discussed

  12. Laser technology inspires new accelerator concepts

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research network, LA³NET, is bringing together universities, research centres and industry partners worldwide to explore the use of laser technology in particle beam generation, acceleration and diagnostics. As one of the network partners, CERN will be hosting three early stage researchers in the BE and EN Departments.   One of the laser systems now in use in the ISOLDE experiment. If you take a closer look at recent experimental developments, you’ll notice a new topic trending: laser technology. It’s being used to study the characteristics of particles, as incorporated into the new ALPHA-2 set-up; to conduct diagnostics of particle beams, as used in a laser wire scanner at Petra III; to “breed” unusual ion beams, as carried out by ISOLDE’s Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS); and even to accelerate particles to high energies, as explored at Berkeley’s BELLA facility. These projects notwithstanding...

  13. New directions for accelerator mass spectrometry technology

    The influence on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of developments in other fields is reviewed and three examples are discussed in detail. The appropriate use of electric and magnetic analysers with small AMS systems (129I, for nuclear fuel monitoring and ocean circulation tracer studies. The inclusion of gas chromatography technology extends the capability of AMS to applications which require large numbers of samples with rapid turn-around. The adaptation of chemical reaction cell technology to negative ion beams adds new isobar selection capability to AMS and will permit analyses of isotopes such as 36Cl on small AMS systems. (author)

  14. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  15. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    accelerator radiation head. These programmes enable us to take into account the data of all components along the beam transportation path, and facilitate the design of beam forming systems, e.g. narrow photon beams for stereotactic radiosurgery. * Preliminary studies of a bunching system for high power electron accelerator. Such an accelerator for radiation technology was planned in the programme ''Isotopes and Accelerators'' which was accepted by the Government but not put in operation. It is worthwhile to prepare for possible work on this task by a study of most crucial problems of new design. In effect it was proposed to divide the accelerating structure into two separate parts - bunching and accelerating sections. This solution should improve the efficiency of beam capture and transport. This is very important hut not easy for a beam with high space charge. * An interesting item was the study of possible solutions of a linear energy booster for upgrading proton energy achievable in existing cyclotrons, to get an energy useful for hadron therapy. The principal feature of this idea is to use typical structures of proton linear accelerators, with the RF frequency band in the range of 3000 MHz. It gives the possibility to diminish the dimensions of the structure, and also to achieve high gradients of the accelerating field. In this way it is possible in the module with length about 1.2 m, to get the energy increase of about 15 MeV. In the international collaboration, the Italian INFN-Frascati proposed to undertake a common task on the design and construction of travelling wave sections operating in a deflecting mode, for application in CLIC Test Facility as beam kickers. CLIC is the CERN competitor to the TESLA project of high energy linear beam collider, operating at room temperature but at extremely high frequency, 30 GHz. To join the proposed task it was necessary to make an initial theoretic study and to build an aluminium model in order to formulate the principal design

  16. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    (full text) In the context of general discussions concerning the activity of the Institute, it was important to look critically at current and future directions at the Department's activity. Attention is given to development of basic accelerator knowledge, realized at home and throughout international collaborations. Of importance is a steady improvement of metrological and experimental basis for accelerator research. Apart of this, some development tendencies were formulated during 1997, oriented to application fields of accelerators. As examples should be named: - medical applications: a) A serious effort was given to an idea of using the existing compact cyclotron C-30 as a source for creation of a diagnostic centre in Swierk. The proposition was formulated in contact with the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Medical Academy, and the ''Brodno'' General Hospital. In spite of declared medical interest in such an installation, the project was not approved, due to lack of proper financial support. b) Model measurements and verification of theoretical assumptions and calculations oriented on the design of a very short, high-gradiented acceleration structure for the low energy accelerator COLINE/1000 were done. This project will enable us to achieve ''source - isocentre distance'', of 1000 mm, instead of existing 800 mm. This is important for therapy. In 1998, this work will be supported by the State Committee for Scientific Research. c) Preliminary discussions, and design approach were undertaken in collaboration with the Centre of Oncology, for elaboration of a movable low-energy accelerator with electron beam output, matched to inter operational irradiation during surgical therapy of tumours. - applications in radiation technology: Comparison of isotope and machine radiation sources indicates that, under Polish conditions it is reasonable to use purpose-oriented high power accelerators. The working group composed of specialists from IChTJ and IPJ prepared the

  17. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology - Overview

    Full text: The work of Department P-10 in 2004 included the following subjects: - development of radiographic 4 MeV electron accelerator, - physical and technological problems related to the development of accelerating and deflecting types travelling and standing wave RF structures and their subsystems, - MC simulations applied to radiotherapy; continuation study of photon beams with the use of BEAMnrc Monte Carlo codes, - minor works concerning the C-30 cyclotron: the modifications of an H- external ion source and actualisation our list for cyclotron upgrading. The compact 6 MeV electron linac constructed in Department P-10 was mounted on an experimental stand, equipped with necessary auxiliary systems (pulsed high power RF supply, focusing and beam measuring system, cooling and temperature stabilising and safety system) and put into preliminary operation. The output energy and current intensity of the structure were measured and compared with the calculated values. The computational codes written in our Department during realisation of the 6/15 MeV project were used for that purpose, giving satisfactory agreement of calculations with measurements. The accelerator can be operated in electron or X-ray mode depending on demand. In 2004 all sub-units of the accelerator were operationally tested and intensity optimisation for e-/X-ray conversion was made. As the linac is thought primarily as a tool for radiographic services which may be offered by the Department, a number of X-ray exposures to radiographic films has been made in order to check its usability and the quality of pictures. The MC calculations of photon beams produced on the e-/X converter were made to complete the design of radiographic facility. Apart from radiography, the output beams of electrons and/or X-rays can also be used for studies in dosimetry, radiation effects in electronic components, neutron production in RT low energy linacs and so on. The TiN coating of accelerator components, in

  18. Electron gun for technological linear accelerator

    The work is purposed to the design of diode electron gun for powerful technologic electron linac and to experimental investigations of the beam parameters at the gun exit.The gun feature is the quick cathode replacement.This is very impotent for operating of the accelerator.The gun optics and beam parameters were calculated using the EGUN code.Beam parameters were investigated as at the special test stand so as component of the linac injector.The gun produces the beam current of 2 A at the anode voltage 25 kV.Measured beam parameters correspond to calculated results

  19. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology - Overview

    The activities of P-10 Department in year 2005 were devoted to: - development of radiographic 4 MeV electron accelerator, - development of accelerating and deflecting types travelling (TW) and standing wave (SW) RF structures for electrons and ions, - MC simulations applied to photon and ion radiotherapy The compact 6 MeV electron linac constructed in Department P-10 was put in the beginning of reported year into experimental operation. The request for permission to use ionisation source (6 MeV linac) was submitted to National Atomic Energy Agency. On the basis of all necessary documents the permission for routine using of our linac was granted. Actually the e/X conversion tungsten target has been moved from vacuum to air. To improve the safety of accelerator operation, the new collimator and some shielding walls were added. Two regimes of operation are actually possible: X ray output beam or electron beam depending on user demand. Some old non-reliable sub-units of accelerator were replaced, and energy and intensity optimisation for e-/X-ray conversion were made. The MC calculations of photon beams produced on e-/X converter were repeated taking into account the new collimator and additional shields. The triode gun, originally thought of as a part of 6/15 MeV medical accelerator is still on long term tests showing excellent performance; it was twice opened to air to confirm the possibility of repeated formation of gun dispenser cathode. New pulse modulator was routinely used in these tests. The sublimation set-up designed and made in our Department for the TiN coating of accelerator components underwent successfully the technological test including coating quality of several ceramic RF power vacuum windows. Within the German heavy ion therapy program the DKFZ Heidelberg is responsible for medical physics problems of treatment planning and modeling of ion beams for GSI Radiotherapy Facility. The MC simulations are used to calibrate the X-ray CT scanners to obtain

  20. Industrial applications of low energy accelerator technologies

    Industrial application researches utilizing a beam extracting unit and an accelerator with an energy less than 3 MeV have been conducted. Although a number of industrial application areas exist, a few research items had been selected for this project, which include the gemstone coloration and the surface modifications of metals/polymers. In the case of gemstone coloration, the green/yellow colored diamond by a proton beam irradiation and blue color emitting sapphire utilizing Co ion implantation are being evaluated as the high potential for commercialization. And, the band gap structures as a result of impurities' doping was calculated with density functional theory (DFT) and it was found to be well consistent with experimental results. The surface modification of stainless juice extracting gears have been successful and patented, resulting in a technology transfer to the company. The reduction in the detachment of the metallic elements during juice extracting as a results of ion beam surface modification is expected to be broadly applicable to the other relevant industrial materials and parts. In the case of gemstone coloration, it is estimated to be one of the highest commercially valuable items because of its extremely low processing expense. The research results have been successful and is worth while transferring the technologies to the industrial sectors. During the second phase research, 6 SCI papers have been published and 9 patents have been submitted and 3 patents have been registered. 1 technology has been transferred to the company for industrialization and 1 technology is pending for a transference

  1. Emerging landscape of accelerator science and technology

    John Cockcroft's splitting of the atom and Ernest Lawrence's invention of the cyclotron in the first half of the twentieth century ushered in the grand era of ever higher energy particle accelerators to probe deeper into matter. It also forged a link, bonding scientific discovery with technological innovation that continues today in the twenty first century. In the second half of the twentieth century, we witnessed the emergence of the photon and neutron sciences driven by accelerators built-by-design producing tailored and ultra-bright pulses of bright photons and neutrons to probe structure and function of matter from aggregate to individual molecular and atomic scales in unexplored territories in material and life sciences. As we enter the twenty first century, the race for ever higher energies, brightness and luminosity to probe atto-metric and atto-second domains of the ultra-small structures and ultra-fast processes continues. We give a glimpse of the recent developments and innovations in the conception, production and control of charged particle beams in the service of scientific society. (author)

  2. Industrial applications of low energy accelerator technologies

    Park, Jae Won; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jun Yeon; Lee, Jae Sang; Yeo, Sun Mog; Lee, Ji Ah [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Industrial application researches utilizing a beam extracting unit and an accelerator with an energy less than 3 MeV have been conducted. Although a number of industrial application areas exist, a few research items had been selected for this project, which include the gemstone coloration and the surface modifications of metals/polymers. In the case of gemstone coloration, the green/yellow colored diamond by a proton beam irradiation and blue color emitting sapphire utilizing Co ion implantation are being evaluated as the high potential for commercialization. And, the band gap structures as a result of impurities' doping was calculated with density functional theory (DFT) and it was found to be well consistent with experimental results. The surface modification of stainless juice extracting gears have been successful and patented, resulting in a technology transfer to the company. The reduction in the detachment of the metallic elements during juice extracting as a results of ion beam surface modification is expected to be broadly applicable to the other relevant industrial materials and parts. In the case of gemstone coloration, it is estimated to be one of the highest commercially valuable items because of its extremely low processing expense. The research results have been successful and is worth while transferring the technologies to the industrial sectors. During the second phase research, 6 SCI papers have been published and 9 patents have been submitted and 3 patents have been registered. 1 technology has been transferred to the company for industrialization and 1 technology is pending for a transference

  3. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology - Overview

    Full text: The activity of the P-10 department is focused on the development of new acceleration techniques and technology, as well as on applications of particle accelerators. Our team is able to perform all kind of calculations of research, medical and industrial accelerator components, including accelerating cavities, magnets, transfer lines, sources and targets, collimators and applicators. The main topic of the 2010 was the realization of the ' Accelerators and Detectors ' project. All results of this work are included in detailed descriptions of the particular machines. The other tasks are summarized below: 1) WP-06 Task in the European XFEL Project As part of the EXFEL preparatory phase, IPJ is developing HOM and Pickup output lines from superconducting cavities antennas, and Beam Line Absorbers of travelling HOM. This abridged WP-06 task is wholly realized by IPJ and belongs to WPG-1 (Work Package Group 1- Cold linac). The HOM couplers are used to extract and to dissipate Radio Frequency ('' RF '') energy present in the cavity due to the excitation of the HOMs by the electron beam bunches. The low frequency part of the HOM spectrum (below the cut-off frequency of the beam tube) will be extracted by HOM couplers and transmitted via coax lines to external loads. Each 9-cell cavity is equipped with two HOM couplers placed close to the end cells and working in a 2K environment. The propagating HOM power will be ca. 5.4 W/cryomodule for operation with 40000 bunches/s of a nominal charge of 1 nCoulomb. Power dissipated in BLA will be transferred to the 70 K environment by a copper stub brazed directly to the absorbing ceramic ring. The stub holds the ring in a stainless steel vacuum chamber thermally isolated from the 2K region by a flexible bellows. In 2010 the wakefields excited by beam bunches down to 40 microns were calculated, and the related wake potential and frequency spectrum of HOMs evaluated. The absorbing material (CA137 of Ceradyne Enterprice

  4. Carbon-14 dating with the 14UD accelerator

    A carbon-14 accelerator mass spectroscopy system is now in routine operation on the 14UD accelerator. It offers a modest precision of ∼ 3% for samples that are >10% modern. Its performances and some of recent applications are briefly discussed

  5. An Alternative Mechanism for Accelerated Carbon Sequestration in Concrete

    Haselbach, Liv M.; Thomle, Jonathan N.

    2014-07-01

    The increased rate of carbon dioxide sequestration (carbonation) is desired in many primary and secondary life applications of concrete in order to make the life cycle of concrete structures more carbon neutral. Most carbonation rate studies have focused on concrete exposed to air under various conditions. An alternative mechanism for accelerated carbon sequestration in concrete was investigated in this research based on the pH change of waters in contact with pervious concrete which have been submerged in carbonate laden waters. The results indicate that the concrete exposed to high levels of carbonate species in water may carbonate faster than when exposed to ambient air, and that the rate is higher with higher concentrations. Validation of increased carbon dioxide sequestration was also performed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is theorized that the proposed alternative mechanism reduces a limiting rate effect of carbon dioxide dissolution in water in the micro pores of the concrete.

  6. Electromagnetic forming - a potentially viable technique for accelerator technology

    Modern day accelerator development encompasses a myriad technologies required for their diverse needs. Whereas RF, high voltage, vacuum, cryogenics etc., technologies meet their functional requirements, high finish lapping processes, ceramic-metal joining, oven brazing, spark erosion or wire cutting etc., are a must to meet their fabrication requirements. Electromagnetic (EM) forming technique falls in the latter category and is developed as a special technology. It is currently catering to the development as a nuclear reactor technology, but has the potential to meet accelerator requirements too. This paper highlights the general principle of its working, simple design guidelines, advantages, and suggests some specific areas where this could benefit accelerator technologies

  7. Accelerator physics and technology research toward future multi-MW proton accelerators

    Shiltsev, V; Romanenko, A; Valishev, A; Zwaska, R

    2015-01-01

    Recent P5 report indicated the accelerator-based neutrino and rare decay physics research as a centrepiece of the US domestic HEP program. Operation, upgrade and development of the accelerators for the near-term and longer-term particle physics program at the Intensity Frontier face formidable challenges. Here we discuss accelerator physics and technology research toward future multi-MW proton accelerators.

  8. Accelerator Technology Program. Status report, April-September 1985

    This report presents highlights of major projects in the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first section deals with the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. The second section covers code development and documentation done by the Accelerator Theory and Simulation Group. Following sections relate to the Proton Storage Ring, the racetrack microtron projects, beam dynamics, accelerator structure development, and LAMPF II. The last sections discuss programs involving free-electron laser technology, microwave and magnet technology, the portable accelerator, and klystron code development. The report concludes with a listing of papers published by AT-Division personnel during this reporting period

  9. Self-shielded electron linear accelerators designed for radiation technologies

    Belugin, V. M.; Rozanov, N. E.; Pirozhenko, V. M.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes self-shielded high-intensity electron linear accelerators designed for radiation technologies. The specific property of the accelerators is that they do not apply an external magnetic field; acceleration and focusing of electron beams are performed by radio-frequency fields in the accelerating structures. The main characteristics of the accelerators are high current and beam power, but also reliable operation and a long service life. To obtain these characteristics, a number of problems have been solved, including a particular optimization of the accelerator components and the application of a variety of specific means. The paper describes features of the electron beam dynamics, accelerating structure, and radio-frequency power supply. Several compact self-shielded accelerators for radiation sterilization and x-ray cargo inspection have been created. The introduced methods made it possible to obtain a high intensity of the electron beam and good performance of the accelerators.

  10. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  11. Accelerator Technology Program. Status report, April-September 1985

    This report presents highlights of major projects in the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Radio-frequency and microwave technology are dealt with. The p-bar gravity experiment, accelerator theory and simulation activities, the Proton Storage Ring, and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test accelerator are discussed. Activities on the proposed LAMPF II accelerator, the BEAR (Beam Experiment Aboard Rocket) project, beam dynamics, the National Bureau of Standards racetrack microtron, and the University of Illinois racetrack microtron are covered. Papers published by AT-Division personnel during this reporting period are listed

  12. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    Spentzouris, P.; /Fermilab; Cary, J.; /Tech-X, Boulder; McInnes, L.C.; /Argonne; Mori, W.; /UCLA; Ng, C.; /SLAC; Ng, E.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-14

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors. ComPASS is in the first year of executing its plan to develop the next-generation HPC accelerator modeling tools. ComPASS aims to develop an integrated simulation environment that will utilize existing and new accelerator physics modules with petascale capabilities, by employing modern computing and solver technologies. The ComPASS vision is to deliver to accelerator scientists a virtual accelerator and virtual prototyping modeling environment, with the necessary multiphysics, multiscale capabilities. The plan for this development includes delivering accelerator modeling applications appropriate for each stage of the ComPASS software evolution. Such applications are already being used to address challenging problems in accelerator design and optimization. The ComPASS organization

  13. Reviews of accelerator science and technology

    Chou, Weiren

    2008-01-01

    Particle accelerators are a major invention of the 20th century. In the last eight decades, they have evolved enormously and have fundamentally changed the way we live, think and work. Accelerators are the most powerful microscopes for viewing the tiniest inner structure of cells, genes, molecules, atoms and their constituents such as protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and quarks. This opens up a whole new world for materials science, chemistry and molecular biology.Accelerators with megawatt beam power may ultimately solve a critical problem faced by our society, namely, the treatment of nuclear waste and the supply of an alternative type of energy. There are also tens of thousands of small accelerators all over the world. They are used every day for medical imaging, cancer therapy, radioisotope production, high-density chip-making, mass spectrometry, cargo x-ray/gamma-ray imaging, detection of explosives and illicit drugs, and weapons. This volume provides a comprehensive review of this driving and fas...

  14. Induction linear accelerator technology for SDIO applications

    The research effort reported concentrated primarily on three major activities. The first was aimed at improvements in the accelerator drive system of an induction linac to meet the high repetition rate requirements of SDI applications. The second activity centered on a redesign of the accelerator cells to eliminate the beam breakup instabilities, resulting in optimized beam transport. The third activity sought to improve the source of electrons to achieve a higher quality beam to satisfy the requirement of the free electron laser

  15. ADVANCEMENTS IN LASER TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS TO ACCELERATORS

    A brief review on the emergent applications of laser technology to particle accelerators is provided. Important developments in laser technology that lead to the application are introduced. Advancements in laser technology have dramatically expanded the applications of lasers to particle accelerators. Today, lasers have been used for accelerators in a broad range from operational systems such as nonintrusive particle beam diagnostics instruments, to elaborate applications with high technical readiness levels including, for instance, photoinjectors, a laser assisted foil-less charge exchange injection scheme and Compton scattering-based light sources, and finally to exotic topics such as laser driven electron/ion accelerators. This talk reviews recent experimental results achieved in the above applications, their requirements on laser parameters and challenges that require future laser technology development. Important technical elements such as the femto-second pulse generation, the burstmode optical amplifiers, the beam combining from laser arrays, and the power enhancement optical cavity will be briefly described.

  16. Accelerator technology and SPECT developments for BNCT

    Accelerator-Based BNCT (AB-BNCT) is establishing itself worldwide as the future modality to start the phase of in-hospital facilities. There are projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators. They will be briefly mentioned. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be presented. The topics will cover: high power ion sources, power and voltage generation systems for a Tandem- Electrostatic Quadrupole (TES Q) accelerator, acceleration tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, control systems, high power targets, the 9Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA.s), treatment room design, treatment planning assessment of clinical cases, etc. A complete test stand has been built and commissioned for intense proton beam production and characterization. Beams of 10 to 30 m A have been produced and transported during variable periods of operation by means of a pre accelerator and an electrostatic quadrupole doublet to a suppressed Faraday cup. The beam diagnostics has been performed through the observation with digital cameras of induced fluorescence in the residual gas. A 200 kV TES Q accelerator prototype has been constructed and tested and a 600 keV prototype is under construction. Self consistent space charge beam transport simulations have been performed and compared with experimental results. In addition to the traditional 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, 9Be(d,n)10B using a thin Be target has been thoroughly studied as a candidate for a possible neutron source for deep seated tumors, showing a satisfactory performance. BSA.s and production targets and a treatment room complying with regulations have also been designed. Realistic clinical treatment planning cases for AB-BNCT have been studied showing very good results. Finally we will present advances in the development of a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT

  17. Accelerated carbonation of Friedel's salt in calcium aluminate cement paste

    The stability of Friedel's salt with respect to carbonation has been studied in calcium aluminate cement (CAC) pastes containing NaCl (3% of Cl- by weight of cement). Carbonation was carried out on a powdered sample in flowing 5% CO2 gas at 65% relative humidity to accelerate the process. At an intermediate carbonation step, a part of the sample was washed and dried up to 10 cycles to simulate a dynamic leaching attack. The two processes were followed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), pH and Cl- analyses in the simulated pore solution

  18. Assesment of Ion Accelerator Technology for Material Engineering

    The assesment of ion accelerator technology for material engineering has been carried out. The objective of the assesment is to prepare the document about application of ion accelerator technology for the industry of material engineering. The assesment is related with the plan of establishment of accelerator laboratory at CRDAT of BATAN, where the one of its applications in the future is for industry of material engineering. Application of accelerator technology for material engineering is mostly using ion implantation technique, where ions of certain atoms (called dopan) are implanted into material after accelerating up to a certain kinetic energy. Ion implantation technique in material engineering can be used for surface treatment of industrial engine components such as heat exchanger, turbine, seeker ring, gear, roller, etc. The kinds of dopan ions, which were used for surface treatment, are reactive elements such as Y, Ce, Zr, Hf, Ti, and Cr, Ta as well as N ions. The ion current for surface treatment is from μA up to mA, with the energy of 20 to 600 keV which can be provided by ion implantation accelerator. Therefore the application of accelerator laboratory for the industry of material engineering needs one unit of ion implantation accelerator which produces various kind of ions with variable ions energy from 20 up to 600 keV and equipped with its supporting facilities. (author)

  19. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology - Overview

    Full text: In 2007 we covered the following subjects: · miniaturization of electron linear accelerating structures, · calculations, construction and measurements of a proton accelerating structure operated at high RF frequency, · study of the photon and electron spectra of photon beams using BEAMnrc Monte Carlo codes, · preparatory works for participation in the international X-FEL project, · preparing a Proposal for the Polish Hadron Therapy Project; participation in meetings of the Consortium for the National Center of Hadron Therapy, · development and exploitation of experimental set-ups in Department P-10 (3 electron linacs, TiN deposition unit, triode electron gun measuring stand). The aim of electron accelerating structures is the search for electron accelerator miniaturization, especially for IORT accelerators. At higher frequencies, much higher accelerating fields can be applied and as the wavelength becomes shorter, the overall size of the structure and various components become smaller. Two RF frequency regions are investigated, the C-band region covering 4 to 8 GHz and X-band covering 8 to 12 GHz. In 2006, the main physical parameters of 5720 MHz SW side coupled structures were studied, as well as the availability of necessary microwave high power equipment. In 2007, further optimization of the accelerating structure was approached, the beam dynamics calculated and mechanical design of a prototype prepared. The prototype of a compact proton linac is under study and construction in ENEA-Frascati as an alternative to a cyclotron or synchrotron offered by specialized industries. Generally, linacs are characterized by the ease of beam extraction, and very good beam quality and simple energy changes. Compactness is achieved by very high operating RF frequency of 3 GHz. As a continuation of previous work, all manufacturing tests were finished and the documentation of subsection 2 was closed. In July 2007, the structure subsection 2 was completed and

  20. Commnity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science And Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators And Accelerator Technologies

    Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John; /Tech-X, Boulder; Mcinnes, Lois Curfman; /Argonne; Mori, Warren; /UCLA; Ng, Cho; /SLAC; Ng, Esmond; Ryne, Robert; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-10-21

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors.

  1. Community petascale project for accelerator science and simulation: advancing computational science for future accelerators and accelerator technologies

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators are essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC-1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC-2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modelling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multiphysics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R and D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors

  2. Commnity Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    Spentzouris, Panagiotis; /Fermilab; Cary, John; /Tech-X, Boulder; Mcinnes, Lois Curfman; /Argonne; Mori, Warren; /UCLA; Ng, Cho; /SLAC; Ng, Esmond; Ryne, Robert; /LBL, Berkeley

    2008-07-01

    The design and performance optimization of particle accelerators is essential for the success of the DOE scientific program in the next decade. Particle accelerators are very complex systems whose accurate description involves a large number of degrees of freedom and requires the inclusion of many physics processes. Building on the success of the SciDAC1 Accelerator Science and Technology project, the SciDAC2 Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS) is developing a comprehensive set of interoperable components for beam dynamics, electromagnetics, electron cooling, and laser/plasma acceleration modeling. ComPASS is providing accelerator scientists the tools required to enable the necessary accelerator simulation paradigm shift from high-fidelity single physics process modeling (covered under SciDAC1) to high-fidelity multi-physics modeling. Our computational frameworks have been used to model the behavior of a large number of accelerators and accelerator R&D experiments, assisting both their design and performance optimization. As parallel computational applications, the ComPASS codes have been shown to make effective use of thousands of processors.

  3. Accelerator science and technology in Europe 2008-2017

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    European Framework Research Projects have recently added a lot of meaning to the building process of the ERA - the European Research Area. Inside this, the accelerator technology plays an essential role. Accelerator technology includes large infrastructure and intelligent, modern instrumentation embracing mechatronics, electronics, photonics and ICT. During the realization of the European research and infrastructure project FP6 CARE 2004-2008 (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe), concerning the development of large accelerator infrastructure in Europe, it was decided that a scientific editorial series of peer-reviewed monographs from this research area will be published in close relation with the projects. It was a completely new and quite brave idea to combine a kind of a strictly research publisher with a transient project, lasting only four or five years. Till then nobody did something like that. The idea turned out to be a real success. The publications now known and valued in the accelerator world, as the (CERN-WUT) Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology, is successfully continued in already the third European project EuCARD2 and has logistic guarantees, for the moment, till the 2017, when it will mature to its first decade. During the realization of the European projects EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator R&D 2009-2013 and TIARA (Test Infrastructure of Accelerator Research Area in Europe) there were published 18 volumes in this series. The ambitious plans for the nearest years is to publish, hopefully, a few tens of new volumes. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, published in the monographs of the European Framework Projects (FP) on accelerator technology. The succession of CARE, Eu

  4. Biomass carbon-14 ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Measurement methods of a biomass carbon ratio in biomass products based on 14C-radiocarbon concentration have been reviewed. Determination of the biomass carbon ratio in biomass products is important to secure the reliance in the commercial market, because the 'biomass products' could contain products from petroleum. The biomass carbon ratio can be determined from percent Modern Carbon (pMC) using ASTM D6866 methods. The pMC value is calculated from the comparison between the 14C in sample and 14C in reference material. The 14C concentration in chemical products can be measured by liquid scintillation counter (LSC) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). LSC can be applicable to determine the biomass carbon ratio for liquid samples such as gasoline with bioethanol (E5 or E10). On the other hand, AMS can be used to determine the biomass carbon ratio for almost all kinds of organic and inorganic compounds such as starch, cellulose, ethanol, gasoline, or polymer composite with inorganic fillers. AMS can accept the gaseous and solid samples. The graphite derived from samples included in solid phase is measured by AMS. The biomass carbon of samples derived from wood were higher than 100% due to the effect of atomic bomb test in the atmosphere around 1950 which caused the artificial 14C injection. Exact calculation methods of the biomass carbon ratio from pMC will be required for the international standard (ISO standard). (author)

  5. Neural computation and particle accelerators research, technology and applications

    D'Arras, Horace

    2010-01-01

    This book discusses neural computation, a network or circuit of biological neurons and relatedly, particle accelerators, a scientific instrument which accelerates charged particles such as protons, electrons and deuterons. Accelerators have a very broad range of applications in many industrial fields, from high energy physics to medical isotope production. Nuclear technology is one of the fields discussed in this book. The development that has been reached by particle accelerators in energy and particle intensity has opened the possibility to a wide number of new applications in nuclear technology. This book reviews the applications in the nuclear energy field and the design features of high power neutron sources are explained. Surface treatments of niobium flat samples and superconducting radio frequency cavities by a new technique called gas cluster ion beam are also studied in detail, as well as the process of electropolishing. Furthermore, magnetic devises such as solenoids, dipoles and undulators, which ...

  6. Indigenous development of advanced technologies lasers and accelerators

    Lasers and accelerators are powerful tools at the fore-front of the present day scientific research and technological developments. R and D activities in the areas of lasers and accelerators being pursued at various laboratories of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) span wide-ranging applications in basic research, industry, health care, and strategic areas covering energy research and national security, besides participation in large scale international projects. Core strength in these areas has been built through indigenous development of related advanced technologies like radio-frequency (RF) power; ultra-high vacuum, laser and accelerator materials, magnets, power supplies and control systems, superconducting radio-frequency cavities, cryogenics, and high damage threshold optical coatings. An overview of the laser and accelerator activities in DAE laboratories is presented in this article. (author)

  7. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    Miller, David; Sahinidis, N V; Cozad, A; Lee, A; Kim, H; Morinelly, J; Eslick, J; Yuan, Z

    2013-06-04

    This presentation reports development of advanced computational tools to accelerate next generation technology development. These tools are to develop an optimized process using rigorous models. They include: Process Models; Simulation-Based Optimization; Optimized Process; Uncertainty Quantification; Algebraic Surrogate Models; and Superstructure Optimization (Determine Configuration).

  8. Accelerator technology program. Progress report, January-June 1981

    Knapp, E.A.; Jameson, R.A. (comps.)

    1982-05-01

    This report covers the activities of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Accelerator Technology Division during the first 6 months of calendar 1981. We discuss the Division's major projects, which reflect a variety of applications and sponsors. The varied technologies concerned with the Proton Storage ring are concerned with the Proton Storage Ring are continuing and are discussed in detail. For the racetrack microtron (RTM) project, the major effort has been the design and construction of the demonstration RTM. Our development of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator continues to stimulate interest for many possible applications. Frequent contacts from other laboratories have revealed a wide acceptance of the RFQ principle in solving low-velocity acceleration problems. In recent work on heavy ion fusion we have developed ideas for funneling beams from RFQ linacs; the funneling process is explained. To test as many aspects as possible of a fully integrated low-energy portion of a Pion generator for Medical Irradiation (PIGMI) Accelerator, a prototype accelerator was designed to take advantage of several pieces of existing accelerator hardware. The important principles to be tested in this prototype accelerator are detailed. Our prototype gyrocon has been extensively tested and modified; we discuss results from our investigations. Our work with the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility is reviewed in this report.

  9. Accelerator technology program. Progress report, January-June 1981

    This report covers the activities of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Accelerator Technology Division during the first 6 months of calendar 1981. We discuss the Division's major projects, which reflect a variety of applications and sponsors. The varied technologies concerned with the Proton Storage ring are concerned with the Proton Storage Ring are continuing and are discussed in detail. For the racetrack microtron (RTM) project, the major effort has been the design and construction of the demonstration RTM. Our development of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator continues to stimulate interest for many possible applications. Frequent contacts from other laboratories have revealed a wide acceptance of the RFQ principle in solving low-velocity acceleration problems. In recent work on heavy ion fusion we have developed ideas for funneling beams from RFQ linacs; the funneling process is explained. To test as many aspects as possible of a fully integrated low-energy portion of a Pion generator for Medical Irradiation (PIGMI) Accelerator, a prototype accelerator was designed to take advantage of several pieces of existing accelerator hardware. The important principles to be tested in this prototype accelerator are detailed. Our prototype gyrocon has been extensively tested and modified; we discuss results from our investigations. Our work with the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility is reviewed in this report

  10. Accelerator technology program. Status report, October 1984-March 1985

    Jameson, R.A.; Schriber, S.O. (comps.)

    1986-04-01

    Activities of the racetrack-microtron development programs are highlighted, one of which is being done in collaboration with the National Bureau of Standards and the other with the University of Illinois; the BEAR (Beam Experiment Aboard Rocket) project; work in beam dynamics; the proposed LAMPF II accelerator; and the Proton Storage Ring. Discussed next is radio-frequency and microwave technology, followed by activities in accelerator theory and simulation, and free-electron laser technology. The report concludes with a listing of papers published during this reporting period.

  11. Accelerator technology program. Status report, October 1984-March 1985

    Activities of the racetrack-microtron development programs are highlighted, one of which is being done in collaboration with the National Bureau of Standards and the other with the University of Illinois; the BEAR (Beam Experiment Aboard Rocket) project; work in beam dynamics; the proposed LAMPF II accelerator; and the Proton Storage Ring. Discussed next is radio-frequency and microwave technology, followed by activities in accelerator theory and simulation, and free-electron laser technology. The report concludes with a listing of papers published during this reporting period

  12. Acid neutralisation capacity of accelerated carbonated stainless steel slag.

    Johnson, D C; MacLeod, C L; Hills, C D

    2003-05-01

    The acid neutralisation capacity test is widely used to assess the long-term performance of waste materials prior to disposal. Samples of fixed mass are exposed to increasing additions of nitric add in sealed containers and the resultant pH is plotted as a titration curve. In this work, the add neutralisation capacity test was used in the assessment of an accelerated carbonated stainless steel slag. Difficulties arose in applying the test procedure to this material. This was largely because of the raised pressure from significant volumes of released carbon dioxide trapped in the sealed sample containers, causing an alteration to leachate pH values. Consequently, the add neutralisation capacity test was modified to enable testing of samples in equilibrium with the atmosphere. No adverse effects on the results from testing of a carbonate free material were recorded. PMID:12803247

  13. ACCELERATED CARBONATION OF STEEL SLAG COMPACTS: DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

    Mieke eQuaghebeur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral carbonation involves the capture and storage of carbon dioxide in carbonate minerals. Mineral carbonation presents opportunities for the recycling of steel slags and other alkaline residues that are currently landfilled. The Carbstone process was initially developed to transform non-hydraulic steel slags (stainless steel slag and basic oxygen furnace slags in high quality construction materials. The process makes use of accelerated mineral carbonation by treating different types of steel slags with CO2 at elevated pressure (up to 2 MPa and temperatures (20 to 140°C. For stainless steel slags raising the temperature from 20 to 140°C had a positive effect on the CO2 uptake, strength development and the environmental properties (i.e. leaching of Cr and Mo of the carbonated slag compacts. For BOF slags raising the temperature was not beneficial for the carbonation process. Elevated CO2 pressure and CO2 concentration of the feed gas had a positive effect on the CO2 uptake and strength development for both types of steel slags. In addition also the compaction force had a positive effect on the strength development. The carbonates that are produced in-situ during the carbonation reaction act as a binder, cementing the slag particles together. The carbonated compacts (Carbstones have technical properties that are equivalent to conventional concrete products. An additional advantage is that the carbonated materials sequester 100 to 150 g CO2/kg slag. The technology was developed on lab scale by optimisation of process parameters with regard to compressive strength development, CO2 uptake and environmental properties of the carbonated construction materials. The Carbstone technology was validated using (semi-industrial equipment and process conditions.

  14. An overview of accelerator-driven transmutation technology

    Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology, or ADT2, is a collection of programs that share a common theme - they each have at their heart an intense source of neutrons generated by a high-energy proton beam striking a heavy metal target. The beam energy, typically 1000 MeV, is enough for a single proton to smash a target atom into atomic fragments. This so-called spallation process generates large numbers of neutrons (around 20 to 30 per proton) amid the atomic debris. These neutrons are of high value because they can be used to transmute neighboring atoms by neutron capture. Three distinct ADT2 program elements will be described. These are ADEP - accelerator-driven energy production, ABC - accelerator based conversion (of plutonium) and ATW - accelerator transmutation of waste

  15. Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for preparation of feeds to ABC and ATW systems, for example from spent reactor fuel sources, those required within an ABC/ATW system for material recycle and recovery of key long-lived radionuclides for further transmutation, and those required for reuse and cleanup of molten fluoride salts. The project also featured beginning experimental development in areas associated with a small molten-salt test loop and exploratory centrifugal separations systems

  16. Technology benefits associated with Accelerator Production of Tritium

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) offers a clean, safe, and reliable means of producing the tritium needed to maintain the nuclear deterrent. Tritium decays away naturally at a rate of ∼5.5%/yr; therefore, the tritium reservoirs in nuclear weapons must be periodically replenished. In recent years this has been accomplished by recycling tritium from weapons being retired from the stockpile. Although this strategy has served well since the last US tritium production reactor was shut down in 1988, a new tritium production capability will be required within 10 yr. Important technology benefits will result from direct utilization of some of the APT proton beam; others could result from advances in the technologies of particle accelerators and high-power spallation targets. These technology benefits are briefly discussed here

  17. Accelerating innovation in information and communication technology for health.

    Crean, Kevin W

    2010-02-01

    Around the world, inventors are creating novel information and communication technology applications and systems that can improve health for people in disparate settings. However, it is very difficult to find investment funding needed to create business models to expand and develop the prototype technologies. A comprehensive, long-term investment strategy for e-health and m-health is needed. The field of social entrepreneurship offers an integrated approach to develop needed investment models, so that innovations can reach more patients, more effectively. Specialized financing techniques and sustained support from investors can spur the expansion of mature technologies to larger markets, accelerating global health impacts. PMID:20348074

  18. Accelerator Technology Program. Status report, October 1983-March 1984

    This report covers major projects in the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first sections highlight activities related to beam dynamics, inertial fusion, structure development, the racetrack microtron, and the CERN high-energy physics experiment NA-12. Discussed next is the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility, followed by a summary of progress on the Proton Storage Ring and activities of the Theory and Simulation Group. The report concludes with a discussion of the H- accelerator program and a listing of papers published by AT-Division personnel during this reporting period

  19. Evidence for super-exponentially accelerating atmospheric carbon dioxide growth

    Hüsler, Andreas D

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the growth rates of atmospheric carbon dioxide and human population, by comparing the relative merits of two benchmark models, the exponential law and the finite-time-singular (FTS) power law. The later results from positive feedbacks, either direct or mediated by other dynamical variables, as shown in our presentation of a simple endogenous macroeconomic dynamical growth model. Our empirical calibrations confirm that human population has decelerated from its previous super-exponential growth until 1960 to ``just' an exponential growth, but with no sign of more deceleration. As for atmospheric CO2 content, we find that it is at least exponentially increasing and most likely characterized by an accelerating growth rate as off 2009, consistent with an unsustainable FTS power law regime announcing a drastic change of regime. The coexistence of a quasi-exponential growth of human population with a super-exponential growth of carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere is a diagnostic of insignificant impr...

  20. Accelerator technology program. Status report, July-December 1982

    Major projects of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Accelerator Technology Division are discussed, covering activities that occurred during the last six months of calendar 1982. The first sections report highlights in beam dynamics, accelerator inertial fusion, radio-frequency structure development, the racetrack microtron, CERN high-energy physics experiment NA-12, and high-flux radiographic linac study. Next we report on selected proton Storage Ring activities that have made significant progress during this reporting period, followed by an update on the free electron laser. The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility work is discussed next, then progress on the klystron development project and on the gyrocon project. The activities of the newly formed Theory and Simulation Group are outlined. The last section covers activities concerning the accelerator test stand for the neutral particle beam program

  1. Advanced visualization technology for terascale particle accelerator simulations

    This paper presents two new hardware-assisted rendering techniques developed for interactive visualization of the terascale data generated from numerical modeling of next generation accelerator designs. The first technique, based on a hybrid rendering approach, makes possible interactive exploration of large-scale particle data from particle beam dynamics modeling. The second technique, based on a compact texture-enhanced representation, exploits the advanced features of commodity graphics cards to achieve perceptually effective visualization of the very dense and complex electromagnetic fields produced from the modeling of reflection and transmission properties of open structures in an accelerator design. Because of the collaborative nature of the overall accelerator modeling project, the visualization technology developed is for both desktop and remote visualization settings. We have tested the techniques using both time varying particle data sets containing up to one billion particle s per time step and electromagnetic field data sets with millions of mesh elements

  2. EuCARD 2010 Accelerator Technology in Europe

    Romaniuk, R S

    2010-01-01

    Accelerators are basic tools of the experimental physics of elementary particles, nuclear physics, light sources of the fourth generation. They are also used in myriad other applications in research, industry and medicine. For example, there are intensely developed transmutation techniques for nuclear waste from nuclear power and atomic industries. The European Union invests in the development of accelerator infrastructures inside the framework programs to build the European Research Area. The aim is to build new infrastructure, develop the existing, and generally make the infrastructure available to competent users. The paper summarizes the first year of activities of the EU FP7 Project Capacities EuCARD –European Coordination of Accelerator R&D. Several teams from this country participate actively in this project. The contribution from Polish research teams concerns: photonic and electronic measurement – control systems, RF-gun co-design, thin-film superconducting technology, superconducting transpo...

  3. Enhancement of accelerated carbonation of alkaline waste residues by ultrasound.

    Araizi, Paris K; Hills, Colin D; Maries, Alan; Gunning, Peter J; Wray, David S

    2016-04-01

    The continuous growth of anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the atmosphere and the disposal of hazardous wastes into landfills present serious economic and environmental issues. Reaction of CO2 with alkaline residues or cementitius materials, known as accelerated carbonation, occurs rapidly under ambient temperature and pressure and is a proven and effective process of sequestering the gas. Moreover, further improvement of the reaction efficiency would increase the amount of CO2 that could be permanently sequestered into solid products. This paper examines the potential of enhancing the accelerated carbonation of air pollution control residues, cement bypass dust and ladle slag by applying ultrasound at various water-to-solid (w/s) ratios. Experimental results showed that application of ultrasound increased the CO2 uptake by up to four times at high w/s ratios, whereas the reactivity at low water content showed little change compared with controls. Upon sonication, the particle size of the waste residues decreased and the amount of calcite precipitates increased. Finally, the sonicated particles exhibited a rounded morphology when observed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:26905698

  4. Development of small applied accelerator in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    Hattori, T

    2002-01-01

    Interdigital-H(IH) Linac was constructed and applied to materials research in the University. IH Linac uses 1.6 MV small tandem pelletron and accelerates ion (>Q/A=1/4) from 240 KeV to 2.4 MeV. The secondary IH Linac was built and increased the energy to 3.4 MeV/u. In order to apply linac to therapy, IH Linac for PET (Position Emission Tomography), Carbon 6 MeV/u Linac for cancer therapy, APF (Alternating Phase Focus)-IH prototype linac, Carbon 2 MeV/u test APF-IH linac were developed. On application to semiconductor and industry, IHQ type MeV ion implantation device, APF-IH type MeV ion implantation device and high-energy electron accelerator were developed. A bone density measurement instrument was developed and the data was proved better values than ordinary instrument. The problems of prototype small accelerator are summarized. (S.Y.)

  5. Accelerator Technology Program. Progress report, January-June 1980

    The activities of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's (LASL) Accelerator Technology (AT) Division during the first six months of calendar 1980 are discussed. This report is organized around major projects of the Division, reflecting a wide variety of applications and sponsors. The first section summarizes progress on the Proton Storage Ring to be located between LAMPF and the LASL Pulsed Neutron Research facility, followed by a section on the gyrocon, a new type of high-power, high-efficiency radio-frequency (rf) amplifier. The third section discusses the racetrack microtron being developed jointly by AT Division and the National Bureau of Standards; the fourth section concerns the free-electron studies. The fifth section covers the radio-frequency quadrupole linear accelerator, a new concept for the acceleration of low-velocity particles; this section is followed by a section discussing heavy ion fusion accelerator development. The next section reports activities in the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test program, a collaborative effort with the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. The final section deals first with development of H- ion sources and injectors, then with accelerator instrumentation and beam dynamics

  6. The final technical report of the CRADA, 'Medical Accelerator Technology'

    Under this CRADA, Berkeley Lab and the industry partner, General Atomics (GA), have cooperatively developed hadron therapy technologies for commercialization. Specifically, Berkeley Lab and GA jointly developed beam transport systems to bring the extracted protons from the accelerator to the treatment rooms, rotating gantries to aim the treatment beams precisely into patients from any angle, and patient positioners to align the patient accurately relative to the treatment beams. We have also jointly developed a patient treatment delivery system that controls the radiation doses in the patient, and hardware to improve the accelerator performances, including a radio-frequency ion source and its low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system. This project facilitated the commercialization of the DOE-developed technologies in hadron therapy by the private sector in order to improve the quality of life of the nation

  7. Study of the Accelerator Technology Development for Cancer Radiotherapy

    The hadronic particle beams including both protons, neutrons and charged particles have been studied for cancer therapy by a number of research centers in several countries during the past two decades. In this paper is briefly discussed concerning the accelerator type and its applications. The future trends are seen in the new technological developments like the use of proton gantries, beam scanning techniques, improved patient handling system and in the increasing precision of treatment. (author)

  8. Accelerator technology program. Progress report, July-December 1980

    The activities of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Accelerator Technology Division are discussed. This report covers the last six months of calendar 1980 and is organized around the Division's major projects. These projects reflect a wide variety of applications and sponsors. The major technological innovations promoted by the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiation (PIGMI) program have been developed; accelerator technologies relevant to the design of a medically practical PIGMI have been identified. A new group in AT Division deals with microwave and magnet studies; we describe the status of some of their projects. We discuss the prototype gyrocon, which has been completed, and the development of the radio-frequency quadrupole linear accelerator, which continues to stimulate interest for many possible applications. One section of this report briefly describes the results of a design study for an electron beam ion source that is ideally suited as an injector for a heavy ion linac; another section reports on a turbine engine test facility that will expose operating turbine engines to simulated maneuver forces. In other sections we discuss various activities: the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test program, the free-electron laser program, the racetrack microtron project, the Proton Storage ring, and H- ion sources and injectors

  9. Technology benefits resulting from accelerator production of tritium

    One of the early and most dramatic uses of nuclear transformations was in development of the nuclear weapons that brought World War II to an end. Despite that difficult introduction, nuclear weapons technology has been used largely as a deterrent to war throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) offers a clean, safe, and reliable means of producing the tritium (a heavy form of hydrogen) needed to maintain the nuclear deterrent. Tritium decays away naturally at a rate of about 5.5% per year; therefore, the tritium reservoirs in nuclear weapons must be periodically replenished. In recent years this has been accomplished by recycling tritium from weapons being retired from the stockpile. Although this strategy has served well since the last US tritium production reactor was shut down in 1988, a new tritium production capability will be required within ten years. Some benefits will result from direct utilization of some of the APT proton beam; others could result from advances in the technologies of particle accelerators and high power spallation targets. The APT may save thousands of lives through the production of medical isotopes, and it may contribute to solving the nation's problem in disposing of long-lived nuclear wastes. But the most significant benefit may come from advancing the technology, so that the great potential of accelerator applications can be realized during our lifetimes

  10. Leveraging Old Intellectual Property to Accelerate Technology Entrepreneurship

    Derek Smith

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring or licensing assets to older technologies, including surviving intellectual property rights, is an often-overlooked viable strategy for accelerating technology entrepreneurship. This strategy can help entrepreneurs short-cut the growth of a customer base, reduce development effort, and shorten the time to market with a minimum viable product. However, this strategy is not without risk; entrepreneurs need to be careful that the acquired intellectual property rights are not fraught with issues that could severely outweigh any perceived value. Proper investigation is required to ensure success because the current literature fails to provide tools that an entrepreneur can apply when considering the acquisition of intellectual property. This article includes a case study of a technology company – Piranha Games – that indirectly acquired sole and exclusive access to a substantial historical customer base by acquiring and licensing older technology and surviving intellectual property assets. The founders then leveraged the existing product brand and its historical customers to acquire significant funding and went global with a minimum viable product in three years. The copyright and trademark assets provided value on day one to Piranha Games by making it difficult and risky for others to exploit the technology. Based on this case study, this article offers recommendations to entrepreneurs who may benefit from acquiring old intellectual property to accelerate the growth of their startups.

  11. Technological Development in Carbon Sequestration at Petrobras

    Castello Branco, R.; Vazquez Sebastian, G.; Murce, T.; Cunha, P.; Dino, R.; Sartori Santarosa, C.

    2007-07-01

    Petrobras defined, in its mission, the intention to act in a safe and profitable way, with social and environmental responsibility. In its vision, the company decided to be an oil and energy company, taking into account climate change mitigation. These changes were partially caused, without the company's knowledge, for many years, by the burning of fossil fuels. Among many technologies available for this mitigation, carbon sequestration is the one that, in a short space of time, can avoid the collapse of earth's climate. In order to meet this carbon sequestration challenge, there has been established, at CENPES, three strategies for its technological development: (i) establishment of a Systemic Project for Carbon Sequestration within the scope of the Environmental Technology Program - PROAMB; (ii) creation of a Group of Carbon Sequestration Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - formation of team and qualification program, which includes the realization of the International Seminar on Carbon Sequestration and Climate Change at Petrobras in October 2006; and (iii) Implementation of the Technological Network of Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation. (auth)

  12. Technological Learning for Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies

    K. Riahi; Rubin, E.S.; Taylor, M. R.; L. Schrattenholzer; Hounshell, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes potentials of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCT) in a set of long-term energy-economic-environmental scenarios based on alternative assumptions for technological progress of CCT. In order to get a reasonable guide to future technological progress in managing CO2 emissions, we review past experience in controlling sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from power plants. By doing so, we quantify a "learning curve" for CCT, which describes the relationship between ...

  13. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Accelerator Technology and its Application

    The proceeding contains papers presented on Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Accelerator Technology and Its Application, held in Yogyakarta, 16 january 1996. This proceeding contains papers on accelerator technology, especially electron beam machine. There are 11 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  14. Compact and energy saving magnet technology for particle accelerators

    Despite the fact that funding agencies and industrial users of particle accelerators get more and more alerted about costs of civil engineering, installation and operation, only little effort has been put into development of sustainable, energy and cost saving accelerator technology. In order to reduce the total-cost-of ownership of accelerator magnets, operating at high electrical power for twenty years or more, permanent magnet based Green Magnet technology has been developed at a consortium around Danfysik's R and D team. Together with our partners from ISA, Aarhus University, the Aarhus School of Engineering, the company Sintex and Aalborg University all obstacles in applying permanent magnet technology as e.g. thermal drift and inhomogeneities of magnetic fields have been overcome. The first Green Magnet has now been operated for more than half a year in an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility at the ETH in Zurich. The performance of this B=0.43T 90 deg. H-type bending magnet and the most recently builtB=1T, 30 deg. C-type Green Magnet for the synchrotron light source ASTRID2 at ISA in Aarhus will be presented. Danfysik also is designing, manufacturing and testing 60 compact magnet systems, developed at MAX-Lab for the new MAXIV 3.0 GeV synchrotron light source. In addition, 12 for the 1.5 GeV light source and another 12 for the new SOLARIS light source in Krakow, Poland are buying built. Up to a dozen or more magnet functions have been integrated into one yoke of these compact magnet systems, which makes the new MAXIV light sources compact, energy saving and at the same time very bright. Test results and design concepts of the new MAXIV and SOLARIS magnets will be presented. (author)

  15. Materials for Accelerator Technologies Beyond the Niobium Family

    Three niobium-based materials make up the entire present portfolio of superconducting technology for accelerators: Nb-Ti and Nb3Sn magnet wires and pure niobium for RF cavities. Because these materials are at a high level of maturity, limits imposed by the boundaries of their superconductivity constrain the energy reach of accelerators to several TeV. We sketch here a plan for targeted development of emerging higher field and higher temperature superconductors that could enable accelerators at significantly higher energies. Niobium-based superconductors are the crucial enablers of present accelerators. The Nb-Ti LHC dipole and quadrupole wires, with transition temperature Tc of 9 K and upper critical field Hc2 of 15 T, represent the highest form of superconductor strand art: massive, quarter-ton conductor billets are drawn from 300 mm diameter to ∼1 mm as a single, multi-kilometer-long piece, while retaining uniformity of the several thousand Nb-Ti filaments to within 5% at the scale of a few micrometers. Strands are twisted into fully transposed cables with virtually no loss, preserving a carefully tuned nanostructure that generates the high flux-pinning forces and high current densities to enable high magnetic fields. Nb3Sn, with twice the Tc and Hc2, is now approaching this level of conductor art, where over the last 5 years the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and the Next European Dipole (NED) program have demonstrated that Nb3Sn can be made into 4 meter long quadrupoles with 12 T fields and 250 T/m gradients. Linear accelerators at TJNAF, ORNL (SNS), and under construction for the European XFEL exploit niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) technology, with gradients at ∼20 MV/m. Tremendous research and development is underway to realize high-power goals for Project X at FNAL and for a possible ILC at 35 MV/m gradients. Despite these impressive achievements, the very maturity of these niobium-based technologies makes them incapable of

  16. Accelerator Technology Program. Status report, January-September 1983

    This report presents highlights of major projects in the Accelerator Technology Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first section deals with the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility's 2-MeV accelerator on which tests began in May, as scheduled. Then, activities are reported on beam dynamics, inertial fusion, structure development, the racetrack microtron, the CERN high-energy physics experiment NA-12, and LAMPF II. The Proton Storage Ring is discussed next, with emphasis on the computer control system, diagnostics interfacing, and theoretical support. Other sections summarize progress on a portable radiographic linac, developments on the klystron code, and on permanent magnets. Activities of the Theory and Simulation Group are outlined next, followed by discussion of the oscillator experiment and the energy-recovery experiment in the free electron laser project. The last section reports on the accelerator test stand. An unusual and very satisfying activity for the Division was the hosting of the 1983 Particle Accelerator Conference in Santa Fe, March 21-23, 1983. The conference had the largest attendance ever, with 895 registrants, 61 invited papers, and 521 contributed papers

  17. Global change accelerates carbon assimilation by a wetland ecosystem engineer

    Caplan, Joshua S.; Hager, Rachel N.; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

    2015-11-01

    The primary productivity of coastal wetlands is changing dramatically in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, nitrogen (N) enrichment, and invasions by novel species, potentially altering their ecosystem services and resilience to sea level rise. In order to determine how these interacting global change factors will affect coastal wetland productivity, we quantified growing-season carbon assimilation (≈gross primary productivity, or GPP) and carbon retained in living plant biomass (≈net primary productivity, or NPP) of North American mid-Atlantic saltmarshes invaded by Phragmites australis (common reed) under four treatment conditions: two levels of CO2 (ambient and +300 ppm) crossed with two levels of N (0 and 25 g N added m-2 yr-1). For GPP, we combined descriptions of canopy structure and leaf-level photosynthesis in a simulation model, using empirical data from an open-top chamber field study. Under ambient CO2 and low N loading (i.e., the Control), we determined GPP to be 1.66 ± 0.05 kg C m-2 yr-1 at a typical Phragmites stand density. Individually, elevated CO2 and N enrichment increased GPP by 44 and 60%, respectively. Changes under N enrichment came largely from stimulation to carbon assimilation early and late in the growing season, while changes from CO2 came from stimulation during the early and mid-growing season. In combination, elevated CO2 and N enrichment increased GPP by 95% over the Control, yielding 3.24 ± 0.08 kg C m-2 yr-1. We used biomass data to calculate NPP, and determined that it represented 44%-60% of GPP, with global change conditions decreasing carbon retention compared to the Control. Our results indicate that Phragmites invasions in eutrophied saltmarshes are driven, in part, by extended phenology yielding 3.1× greater NPP than native marsh. Further, we can expect elevated CO2 to amplify Phragmites productivity throughout the growing season, with potential implications including accelerated spread

  18. Analysis of accelerants and fire debris using aroma detection technology

    Barshick, S.A.

    1997-01-17

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of electronic aroma detection technologies for the detection and identification of accelerant residues in suspected arson debris. Through the analysis of known accelerant residues, a trained neural network was developed for classifying suspected arson samples. Three unknown fire debris samples were classified using this neural network. The item corresponding to diesel fuel was correctly identified every time. For the other two items, wide variations in sample concentration and excessive water content, producing high sample humidities, were shown to influence the sensor response. Sorbent sampling prior to aroma detection was demonstrated to reduce these problems and to allow proper neural network classification of the remaining items corresponding to kerosene and gasoline.

  19. The accelerator driven transmutation technology - A study on the linac for proton accelerator

    Han, Bum Soo; Joh, Ki Hun; Kim, Sung Myun; Park, Heung Gyu; Park, Jong Pil; Kang, Bo Sun [Samsung Heavy Industries, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the manufacturing technology of proton accelerators, and to find the adequate manufacturing technique for construction of such proton accelerators. Review of manufacturing technology for RFQ has been carried out - RFQ machine of other country has been reviewed on the aspects of manufacturing, - Machining of engineering mock-up has been performed based on the designed data, - Brazing technology for RFQ, and brazing test and analysis of Copper specimen. Adequate brazing conditions for RFQ - 1st brazing (vane to section, 950 deg C), Filler metal composition: Cu-20Sn, Brazing conditions: peak temp. 950 deg C (holding time 20min, rising rate 7 deg C/min), Atmosphere: H{sub 2}. - 2nd brazing (section to section, 850 deg C or less), Filler metal: Cu-Sn4%-P7.5%-Ag6%, Brazing conditions: peak temp. 750 deg C (holding time 20min, rising rate 7 deg C/min), Atmosphere: H{sub 2}. 8 refs., (author). 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Carbonation acceleration of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles: induced by yeast fermentation

    Lopez-Arce, Paula; Zornoza-Indart, Ainara

    2015-09-01

    Carbonation of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles and consolidation of limestone are accelerated by high humidity and a yeast fermentation system that supplies a saturated atmosphere on CO2, H2O vapor and ethanol during 28 days. Nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analyses with thermogravimetry. Spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy analyses, and hydric and mechanical tests were also performed in stones specimens. Samples exposed to the yeast environment achieve 100 % relative CaCO3 yield, whereas at high humidity but without the yeast and under laboratory environment, relative yields of 95 % CaCO3 and 15 % CaCO3 are, respectively, reached, with white crusts and glazing left on the stone surfaces when the nanoparticles are applied at a concentration of 25 g/l. The largest increase in the drilling resistance and surface hardness values with slight increase in the capillarity absorption and desorption coefficients and with lesser stone color changes are produced at a concentration of 5 g/l, in the yeast system environment. This especially happens in stone specimens initially with bimodal pore size distributions, more amounts of pores with diameters between 0.1 and 1 µm, higher open porosity values and faster capillary coefficients. An inexpensive and reliable method based on water and yeast-sugar solution is presented to speed up carbonation of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles used as a consolidating product to improve the mechanical properties of decayed limestone from archaeological and architectural heritage.

  1. Use of permanent magnets in accelerator technology: Present and future

    This report is a collection of viewgraphs discussing accelerator magnets. Permanent magnet systems have some generic properties that, under some circumstances, make them not only mildly preferable over electromagnets, but make it possible to do things that can not be done with any other technology. After a general discussion of these generic advantages, some specific permanent magnet systems will be described. Special emphasis will be placed on systems that have now, or are likely to have in the future, a significant impact on how some materials research is conducted. 4 refs., 33 figs

  2. Proceeding on the scientific meeting and presentation on accelerator technology and its applications: physics, nuclear reactor

    The scientific meeting and presentation on accelerator technology and its applications was held by PTAPB BATAN on 13 December 2011. This meeting aims to promote the technology and its applications to accelerator scientists, academics, researchers and technology users as well as accelerator-based accelerator research that have been conducted by researchers in and outside BATAN. This proceeding contains 23 papers about physics and nuclear reactor. (PPIKSN)

  3. Accelerator technology program. Progress report, January-December 1979

    The activities of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's (LASL) Accelerator Technology (AT) Division during the calendar year 1979 are highlighted, with references to more detailed reports. This report is organized around the major projects of the Division, reflecting a wide variety of applications and sponsors. The first section covers the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test program, a collaborative effort with the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; the second section summarizes progress on the Proton Storage Ring to be built between LAMPF and the LASL Pulsed Neutron Research facility. A new project that achieved considerable momentum during the year is described next - the free-electron laser studies; the following section discusses the status of the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiation program. Next, two more new programs, the racetrack microtron being developed jointly by AT-Division and the National Bureau of Standards and the radio-frequency (rf) accelerator development for heavy ion fusion, are outlined. Development activities on a new type of high-power, high-efficiency rf amplifier called the gyrocon are then reported, and the final sections cover development of H- ion sources and injectors, and linear accelerator instrumentation and beam dynamics

  4. Development of superconducting acceleration cavity technology for free electron lasers

    As a result of the cooperative research between the KAERI and Peking University, the key technologies of superconducting acceleration cavity and photoelectron gun have been developed for the application to high power free electron lasers. A 1.5-GHz, 1-cell superconducting RF cavity has been designed and fabricated by using pure Nb sheets. The unloaded Q values of the fabricated superconducting cavity has been measured to be 2x109 at 2.5K, and 8x109 at 1.8K. The maximum acceleration gradient achieved was 12 MeV/m at 2.5K, and 20MV/m at 1.8 K. A cryostat for the 1-cell superconducting cavity has been designed. As a source of electron beam, a DC photocathode electron gun has been designed and fabricated, which is composed of a photocathode evaporation chamber and a 100-keV acceleration chamber. The efficiency of the Cs2Te photocathode is 3% nominally at room temperature, 10% at 290 deg C. The superconducting photoelectron gun system developed has been estimated to be a good source of high-brightness electron beam for high-power free electron lasers

  5. Application of accelerated carbonation on MSW combustion APC residues for metal immobilization and CO2 sequestration.

    Cappai, G; Cara, S; Muntoni, A; Piredda, M

    2012-03-15

    The present study focuses on the application of an aqueous phase accelerated carbonation treatment on air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste combustion, aimed at assessing its influence on the environmental behaviour of the residue under concern, as well as the potential of the process in terms of sequestration of the CO2. APC residues are considered hazardous waste and must be treated before final disposal in order to achieve the immobilization/mobilization of critical contaminants such as heavy metals as well as mobilization of soluble salts. The treatment applied proved to be effective in reducing the mobility of Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu and Mo, the optimum final pH for the carbonated APC residues being in a range of 10-10.5, whilst a mobilization effect was noticed for Sb and no effect was assessed for chlorides. The effect of carbonation treatment on the contaminant release was further evaluated by means of a sequential extraction procedure, indicating that the distribution of contaminants on water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate fraction was modified after treatment. The CO2 sequestration potential assessed for the APC residues showed that the carbonation technology could be a technically viable option in order to reduce emissions from WtE plants. PMID:21601357

  6. Superconducting RF Technology R and D for Future Accelerator Applications

    Superconducting rf (SRF) technology is evolving rapidly, as are its applications. While there is active exploitation of what one may call the current state-of-the-practice, there is also rapid progress in expanding in several dimensions the accessible and useful parameter space. While state-of-the-art performance sometimes outpaces thorough understanding, the improving scientific understanding from active SRF research is clarifying routes to obtain optimum performance from present materials and opening avenues beyond the standard bulk niobium. The improving technical basis understanding is enabling process engineering to improve both performance confidence and reliability and also unit implementation costs. Increasing confidence in the technology enables the engineering of new creative application designs. We attempt to survey this landscape to highlight the potential for future accelerator applications

  7. Advanced power flow technologies for high current ICF accelerators

    Two new technologies for raising the power density in high current, inertial confinement fusion accelerators have been developed in the past two years. Magnetic flashover inhibition utilizes the self-magnetic fields around the vacuum insulator surface to inhibit surface flashover; average electric fields of 40 Mv/m at magnetic fields of 1.1 T have been achieved. Self-magnetic insulation of long, vacuum transmission lines has been used to transport power at 1.6 x 1014 W/m2 over six meters and up to 1.6 x 1015 W/m2 over short distances in a radial anode-cathode feed. The recent data relevant to these new technologies and their implications for ICF will be explored

  8. The story of the Tevatron accelerators: Accelerator science and technology breakthroughs, achievements and lessons

    For almost a quarter of a century, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider was the centerpiece of the world's high energy physics program - since it began operation in December of 1985, until it was overtaken by LHC in 2011. The aim of this unique scientific instrument was to explore the elementary particle physics reactions with center of mass collision energies of up to 1.96 TeV. The initial design luminosity of the Tevatron was 1030 cm-2 s-1, however as a result of two decades of upgrades, the accelerator has been able to deliver 430 times higher luminosities to each of two high luminosity experiments, CDF and D0. The Tevatron has been shut off since September 30, 2011. The collider was arguably one of the most complex research instruments ever to reach the operation stage and is widely recognized for many technological breakthroughs and numerous physics discoveries. In this paper, we briefly present the history of the Tevatron, major advances in accelerator physics, technology implemented during the long quest for better and better performance, and the lessons learned from our experience.

  9. Carbon prices and incentives for technological development.

    Lundgren, Tommy; Marklund, Per-Olov; Samakovlis, Eva; Zhou, Wenchao

    2015-03-01

    There is concern that the carbon prices generated through climate policies are too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it was negative. The price of fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, the results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the CO2 tax have been too low. Even though the data for this study is specific for Sweden, the models and results are applicable internationally. When designing policy to mitigate CO2 emissions, it is vital that the policy creates a carbon price that is high enough - otherwise the pressure on technological development will not be sufficiently strong. PMID:25560661

  10. Tourism Transport, Technology, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Technological development from horse-drawn carriages to the new Airbus A380 has led to a remarkable increase in both the capacity and speed of tourist travel. This development has an endogenous systemic cause and will continue to increase carbon dioxide emissions/energy consumption if left unchecked

  11. Education in a rapidly advancing technology: Accelerators and beams

    The field of accelerators and beams (A and B) is one of today's fast changing technologies. Because university faculties have not been able to keep pace with the associated advancing knowledge, universities have not been able to play their traditional role of educating the scientists and engineers needed to sustain this technology for use in science, industry, commerce, and defense. This problem for A and B is described and addressed. The solution proposed, a type of ''distance'' education, is the U.S. Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) created in the early 1980s. USPAS provides the universities with a means of serving the education needs of the institutions using A and B, primarily but not exclusively the national laboratories. The field of A and B is briefly summarized. The need for education outside the university framework, the raison d'etre for USPAS, the USPAS method, program structure, and curriculum, and particular USPAS-university connections are explained. The management of USPAS is analyzed, including its unique administrative structure, its institutional ties, and its operations, finance, marketing, and governmental relations. USPAS performance over the years is documented and a business assessment is made. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the future potential for this type of educational program, including possible extrapolation to new areas and/or different environments, in particular, its extra-government potential and its international possibilities. (c) 2000 American Association of Physics Teachers

  12. Repetitive pulse accelerator technology for light ion inertial confinement fusion

    Successful ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pellet is calculated to require that several megajoules of energy be deposited in the pellet's centimeter-sized shell within 10 ns. This implies a driver power of several hundreds of terawatts and power density around 100 TW/cm2. The Sandia ICF approach is to deposit the energy with beams of 30 MV lithium ions. The first accelerator capable of producing these beams (PBFA II, 100 TW) will be used to study beam formation and target physics on a single pulse basis. To utilize this technology for power production, repetitive pulsing at rates that may be as high as 10 Hz will be required. This paper will overview the technologies being studied for a repetitively pulsed ICF accelerator. As presently conceived, power is supplied by rotating machinery providing 16 MJ in 1 ms. The generator output is transformed to 3 MV, then switched into a pulse compression system using laser triggered spark gaps. These must be synchronized to about 1 ns. Pulse compression is performed with saturable inductor switches, the output being 40 ns, 1.5 MV pulses. These are transformed to 30 MV in a self-magnetically insulated cavity adder structure. Space charge limited ion beams are drawn from anode plasmas with electron counter streaming being magnetically inhibited. The ions are ballistically focused into the entrances of guiding discharge channels for transport to the pellet. The status of component development from the prime power to the ion source will be reviewed

  13. Education in a rapidly advancing technology: Accelerators and beams

    Month, Mel

    2000-06-01

    The field of accelerators and beams (A&B) is one of today's fast changing technologies. Because university faculties have not been able to keep pace with the associated advancing knowledge, universities have not been able to play their traditional role of educating the scientists and engineers needed to sustain this technology for use in science, industry, commerce, and defense. This problem for A&B is described and addressed. The solution proposed, a type of "distance" education, is the U.S. Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) created in the early 1980s. USPAS provides the universities with a means of serving the education needs of the institutions using A&B, primarily but not exclusively the national laboratories. The field of A&B is briefly summarized. The need for education outside the university framework, the raison d'être for USPAS, the USPAS method, program structure, and curriculum, and particular USPAS-university connections are explained. The management of USPAS is analyzed, including its unique administrative structure, its institutional ties, and its operations, finance, marketing, and governmental relations. USPAS performance over the years is documented and a business assessment is made. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the future potential for this type of educational program, including possible extrapolation to new areas and/or different environments, in particular, its extra-government potential and its international possibilities.

  14. Carbon nanohorns allow acceleration of osteoblast differentiation via macrophage activation

    Hirata, Eri; Miyako, Eijiro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ushijima, Natsumi; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Russier, Julie; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the proof-of-concept on the osteoblast differentiation capacity by CNHs will allow future studies focused on CNHs as ideal therapeutic materials for bone regeneration.Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the

  15. How can public policies accelerate the progress in technologies for the struggle against climate change?

    After having recalled the three stages of the technical progress according to Schumpeter (invention, innovation and diffusion), and the roles of R and D and learning in this process, the author briefly comments the cost evolution of different energy production technologies between 1980 and 1995, proposes a simple modelling of the learning system under the influence of public policies, and indicates the research themes by 2050. Then, she discusses the fact that the R and D level is not socially optimal, notably because of market imperfections, and also because some innovations may have applications within a time which is too long for companies. This is the reason why the State generally takes care of fundamental research. She discusses either demand-based or supply-based public policies aiming at accelerating the progress in low carbon technologies, describes the international cooperation in R and D (agreement on research on low carbon technologies, standards), and how to promote the diffusion of technology towards developing countries (problem of emission increase in these countries, technology transfer in general and within the frame of the convention on climate change, public development support and direct foreign investments)

  16. Accelerating Gas Adsorption on 3D Percolating Carbon Nanotubes

    Li, Hui; Wen, Chenyu; Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Dongping; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-02-01

    In the field of electronic gas sensing, low-dimensional semiconductors such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can offer high detection sensitivity owing to their unprecedentedly large surface-to-volume ratio. The sensitivity and responsivity can further improve by increasing their areal density. Here, an accelerated gas adsorption is demonstrated by exploiting volumetric effects via dispersion of SWCNTs into a percolating three-dimensional (3D) network in a semiconducting polymer. The resultant semiconducting composite film is evaluated as a sensing membrane in field effect transistor (FET) sensors. In order to attain reproducible characteristics of the FET sensors, a pulsed-gate-bias measurement technique is adopted to eliminate current hysteresis and drift of sensing baseline. The rate of gas adsorption follows the Langmuir-type isotherm as a function of gas concentration and scales with film thickness. This rate is up to 5 times higher in the composite than only with an SWCNT network in the transistor channel, which in turn results in a 7-fold shorter time constant of adsorption with the composite. The description of gas adsorption developed in the present work is generic for all semiconductors and the demonstrated composite with 3D percolating SWCNTs dispersed in functional polymer represents a promising new type of material for advanced gas sensors.

  17. Accelerating process and catalyst development in reforming reactions with high throughput technologies under industrially relevant conditions

    Schunk, S.A.; Bollmann, G.; Froescher, A.; Kaiser, H.; Lange de Oliveira, A.; Roussiere, T.; Wasserschaff, G. [hte Aktiengesellschaft, Heidelberg (Germany); Domke, I. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The generation of hydrogen via reforming of a variety of carbon containing feed-stocks in the presence of water is up to date one of the most versatile technologies for the production of hydrogen and syngas. Although these reforming technologies are in principle well established, understood and commercialized, there are still a number of technological challenges that are not solved up to a satisfactorily degree and there is a constant demand for appropriate answers to the challenges posed. High throughput experimentation can be a valuable tool in helping accelerate the development of suitable solutions on the catalyst and process development side. In order to be able to generate test data that are close or identical to process relevant conditions, hte has developed a new technology portfolio of test technologies named Stage-IV technology. In contrast to earlier developments which address more small scale testing on the basis of catalyst volumes of 1ml up to 10 ml under isothermal conditions, our new technology portfolio offers the advantage of test volumes at sub-pilot scale also realizing reactor dimensions close to technical applications. This does not only ensure a good mimic of the hydrodynamic conditions of the technical scale, but also allows a fingerprinting of features like temperature gradients in the catalyst bed which play a large role for catalyst performance. Apart from catalyst tests with granulates when screening for optimized catalyst compositions, the units are designed to accommodate tests with shaped catalysts. In order to demonstrate how these technologies can accelerate catalyst and process development we have chosen technically challenging application examples: (I) Pre-reforming and reforming of methane based feeds which accelerate coking and catalyst deactivation. Higher reaction pressures, high CO{sub 2} contents in the feedgas (which occur typically in sources like bio-gas or certain types of natural gas), the presence of higher alkanes

  18. Repetitive pulse accelerator technology for light ion inertial confinement fusion

    This paper will overview the technologies being studied for a repetitively pulsed ICF accelerator. As presently conceived, power is supplied by rotating machinery providing 16 MJ in 1 ms. The generator output is transformed to 3 MV, then switched into a pulse compression system using laser triggered spark gaps. These must be synchronized to about 1 ns. Pulse compression is performed with saturable inductor switches, the output being 40 ns, 1.5 MV pulses. These are transformed to 30 MV in a self-magnetically insulated cavity adder structure. Space charge limited ion beams are drawn from anode plasmas with electron counter streaming being magnetically inhibited. The ions are ballistically focused into the entrances of guiding discharge channels for transport to the pellet. The status of component development from the prime power to the ion source will be reviewed

  19. Recycling technology of emitted carbon dioxide

    Arakawa, Hironori [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research (NIMC), Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Ways to halt global warming are being discussed worldwide. Global warming is an energy problem which is mainly attributed to the large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released into the atmosphere from the rapid increase in energy consumption since the Industrial Revolution. The basic solution to the problem, therefore, is to cut consumption of fossil fuels. To this end, it is important to promote energy conservation by improving the fuel efficiency of machines, as well as shift to energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide and develop related technologies. If current trends in economic growth continue in the devloping world as well as the developed countries, there can be no doubt that energy consumption will increase. Therefore, alongside energy conservation and the development of alternative energies, the importance of technologies to recover and fix CO{sub 2} will increase in the fight against global warming.

  20. Accelerated soil carbon turnover under tree plantations limits soil carbon storage.

    Chen, Guangshui; Yang, Yusheng; Yang, Zhijie; Xie, Jinsheng; Guo, Jianfen; Gao, Ren; Yin, Yunfeng; Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of native forests by tree plantations is increasingly common globally, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Improving our understanding of the long-term effects of this replacement on soil organic carbon (SOC) remains paramount for effectively managing ecosystems to mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. Meta-analyses imply that native forest replacement usually reduces SOC stocks and may switch the forest from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon. Using a long-term chronosequence during which areas of subtropical native forest were replaced by Chinese fir, we show by direct measurement that plantations have significantly accelerated SOC turnover compared with native forest, an effect that has persisted for almost a century. The immediate stimulation of SOC decomposition was caused by warmer soil before the closure of the plantation's canopy. Long-term reductions in SOC mean residence times were coupled to litter inputs. Faster SOC decomposition was associated with lower soil microbial carbon use efficiency, which was due to smaller litter inputs and reduced nutrient availabilities. Our results indicate a previously unelucidated control on long-term SOC dynamics in native forests and demonstrate a potential constraint on climate mitigation when such forests are replaced by plantations. PMID:26805949

  1. Accelerated soil carbon turnover under tree plantations limits soil carbon storage

    Chen, Guangshui; Yang, Yusheng; Yang, Zhijie; Xie, Jinsheng; Guo, Jianfen; Gao, Ren; Yin, Yunfeng; Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of native forests by tree plantations is increasingly common globally, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Improving our understanding of the long-term effects of this replacement on soil organic carbon (SOC) remains paramount for effectively managing ecosystems to mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. Meta-analyses imply that native forest replacement usually reduces SOC stocks and may switch the forest from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon. Using a long-term chronosequence during which areas of subtropical native forest were replaced by Chinese fir, we show by direct measurement that plantations have significantly accelerated SOC turnover compared with native forest, an effect that has persisted for almost a century. The immediate stimulation of SOC decomposition was caused by warmer soil before the closure of the plantation’s canopy. Long-term reductions in SOC mean residence times were coupled to litter inputs. Faster SOC decomposition was associated with lower soil microbial carbon use efficiency, which was due to smaller litter inputs and reduced nutrient availabilities. Our results indicate a previously unelucidated control on long-term SOC dynamics in native forests and demonstrate a potential constraint on climate mitigation when such forests are replaced by plantations.

  2. Accelerated Carbonate Dissolution as a CO2 Separation and Sequestration Strategy

    Caldeira, K G; Knauss, K G; Rau, G H

    2004-02-18

    We have proposed a technique that could reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from near coastal fossil-fuel power plants using existing power plant cooling water flow rates (Rau and Caldeira, 1999; Caldeira and Rau, 2000). Preliminary cost estimates are as low as $68 per tonne C sequestered, as compared to > $170 per tonne C estimated for other approaches to CO{sub 2} separation with geologic or deep-ocean storage. Engineers at McDermott Technologies, Inc., have independently estimated the cost of our proposed technique, and came to the conclusion that our cost estimates were at the high end of the likely range. Interest has been expressed in pursuing this approach further both in Norway and in Japan. We have proved the viability of our concept using (1) bench-top laboratory experiments (Figures 1 and 2), (2) computer modeling of those experiments, (3) more sophisticated cost estimates, and (4) three-dimensional computer modeling of the consequences to global ocean chemistry (Figure 3 and 4). The climate and environmental impacts of our current, carbon intensive energy usage demands that effective and practical energy alternatives and CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies be found. As part of this effort, various means of capturing and storing CO{sub 2} generated from fossil-fuel-based energy production are being investigated (e.g. [3,4]). One of the proposed methods involves a geochemistry-based capture and sequestration process [5,6] that hydrates point-source, waste CO{sub 2} with water to produce a carbonic acid solution. This in turn is reacted and neutralized with limestone, thus converting the original CO{sub 2} gas to calcium bicarbonate in solution, the overall reaction being: CO{sub 2(g)} + H{sub 2}O{sub (l)} + CaCO{sub 3(s)} {yields} Ca{sub (aq)}{sup 2+} + 2HCO{sub 3(aq)}{sup -} The dissolved calcium bicarbonate produced is then released and diluted in the ocean where it would add minimally to the large, benign pool of these ions already present in seawater. Such a

  3. Status of Accelerator Driven Systems Research and Technology Development

    One of the greatest challenges for nuclear energy is how to properly manage the highly radioactive waste generated during irradiation in nuclear reactors. In order for nuclear power to exploit its full potential as a major sustainable energy source, there needs to be a safe and effective way to deal with this waste. Since 1995, several scenario studies have been conducted on different advanced nuclear fuel cycle and waste management options in various countries. Examples include the collaborative projects under “Global sustainable nuclear energy scenarios for long term development and deployment of nuclear energy” of the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) initiative, and the scenario studies conducted under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the Euratom research project PATEROS — Partitioning and Transmutation European Roadmap for Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Some of the proposed long term nuclear fuel cycles include an innovative concept of a hybrid system for the transmutation of long lived radioisotopes. This is usually the called accelerator driven system (ADS) — or accelerator driven transmutation of waste (ATW) — and consists of a high power proton accelerator, a heavy metal spallation target that produces neutrons when bombarded by the high power beam, and a subcritical core that is neutronically coupled to the spallation target. The ADS, which has been developed in different countries for more than 40 years, is claimed to offer new prospects and advantages for the transmutation of high level radioactive waste. The ADS would convert highly radioactive material to non-radioactive material or material with a much shorter half-life. In addition, these hybrid systems can generate electricity during the conversion of transuranic waste. In 1997, under the guidance of its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA published IAEA-TECDOC-985, Accelerator Driven Systems: Energy

  4. Study of Tandem Accelerator Technology and Its Prospects

    Tandem accelerator is an ion acceleration tool in which negative ions injected in the accelerator tube and stripped to become positive ions, then accelerated by electrostatic high voltage such that its energy is multiplied. In this paper, we describe the prospect of accelerator application briefly in agriculture and biotechnology, industry, health and medicine, environment fields. Technical study on tandem accelerator included SNICS and alphatross ion sources, acceleration system and stripper system. The study result for many kinds of negative ions and its current which should be injected in the accelerator tube and the output of tandem accelerator H+, and the distribution of C+, Ni+, Au+, Br+ ion on varying charge state is shown. (author)

  5. When to invest in carbon capture and storage technology: A mathematical model

    We present two models of the optimal investment decision in carbon capture and storage technology (CCS)—one where the carbon price is deterministic (based on the newly introduced carbon floor price in Great Britain) and one where the carbon price is stochastic (based on the ETS permit price in the rest of Europe). A novel feature of this work is that in both models investment costs are time dependent which adds an extra dimension to the decision problem. Our deterministic model allows for quite general dependence on carbon price and consideration of time to build and simple calculus techniques determine the optimal time to invest. We then analyse the effect of carbon price volatility on the optimal investment decision by solving a Bellman equation with an infinite planning horizon. We find that increasing the carbon price volatility increases the critical investment threshold and that adoption of this technology is not optimal at current prices, in agreement with other works. However reducing carbon price volatility by switching from carbon permits to taxes or by introducing a carbon floor as in Great Britain would accelerate the adoption of carbon abatement technologies such as CCS. - Highlights: • Analytic solution for the critical ETS permit price for optimal investment in CCS • Solution for the optimal time for investment in CCS in GB subject to carbon floor • Time varying investment cost included • Not optimal to invest at current ETS prices • ETS permit price volatility increases the optimal investment threshold

  6. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study

    Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system

  7. Chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated by sodium carbonate

    This paper presents results of a study on chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated using sodium carbonate. As strength development of alkali-activated slag cements containing neutral GBFS and sodium carbonate as activator at room temperature is known to be slow, three accelerators were investigated: sodium hydroxide, ordinary Portland cement and a combination of silica fume and slaked lime. In all cements, the main hydration product is C–(A)–S–H, but its structure varies between tobermorite and riversideite depending on the accelerator used. Calcite and gaylussite are present in all systems and they were formed due to either cation exchange reaction between the slag and the activator, or carbonation. With accelerators, compressive strength up to 15 MPa can be achieved within 24 h in comparison to 2.5 MPa after 48 h for a mix without an accelerator

  8. Chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated by sodium carbonate

    Kovtun, Maxim, E-mail: max.kovtun@up.ac.za; Kearsley, Elsabe P., E-mail: elsabe.kearsley@up.ac.za; Shekhovtsova, Julia, E-mail: j.shekhovtsova@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    This paper presents results of a study on chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated using sodium carbonate. As strength development of alkali-activated slag cements containing neutral GBFS and sodium carbonate as activator at room temperature is known to be slow, three accelerators were investigated: sodium hydroxide, ordinary Portland cement and a combination of silica fume and slaked lime. In all cements, the main hydration product is C–(A)–S–H, but its structure varies between tobermorite and riversideite depending on the accelerator used. Calcite and gaylussite are present in all systems and they were formed due to either cation exchange reaction between the slag and the activator, or carbonation. With accelerators, compressive strength up to 15 MPa can be achieved within 24 h in comparison to 2.5 MPa after 48 h for a mix without an accelerator.

  9. Theoretical and technological building blocks for an innovation accelerator

    van Harmelen, F.; Kampis, G.; Börner, K.; van den Besselaar, P.; Schultes, E.; Goble, C.; Groth, P.; Mons, B.; Anderson, S.; Decker, S.; Hayes, C.; Buecheler, T.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    Modern science is a main driver of technological innovation. The efficiency of the scientific system is of key importance to ensure the competitiveness of a nation or region. However, the scientific system that we use today was devised centuries ago and is inadequate for our current ICT-based society: the peer review system encourages conservatism, journal publications are monolithic and slow, data is often not available to other scientists, and the independent validation of results is limited. The resulting scientific process is hence slow and sloppy. Building on the Innovation Accelerator paper by Helbing and Balietti [1], this paper takes the initial global vision and reviews the theoretical and technological building blocks that can be used for implementing an innovation (in first place: science) accelerator platform driven by re-imagining the science system. The envisioned platform would rest on four pillars: (i) Redesign the incentive scheme to reduce behavior such as conservatism, herding and hyping; (ii) Advance scientific publications by breaking up the monolithic paper unit and introducing other building blocks such as data, tools, experiment workflows, resources; (iii) Use machine readable semantics for publications, debate structures, provenance etc. in order to include the computer as a partner in the scientific process, and (iv) Build an online platform for collaboration, including a network of trust and reputation among the different types of stakeholders in the scientific system: scientists, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, students and industrial innovators among others. Any such improvements to the scientific system must support the entire scientific process (unlike current tools that chop up the scientific process into disconnected pieces), must facilitate and encourage collaboration and interdisciplinarity (again unlike current tools), must facilitate the inclusion of intelligent computing in the scientific process, must facilitate

  10. Basics of Accelerator Science and Technology at CERN

    2013-01-01

    This course will provide an introductory level training in General Accelerator Physics for CERN staff (mainly engineers and technical engineers) who have not yet attended one of the regular CERN Accelerator School Introductory courses. This one-week course will review the core topics of accelerator physics with special emphasis on CERN machines and CERN applications, respectively. Application is by invitation only.

  11. Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.

    Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

    2010-02-05

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg

  12. Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation

    Zemskov, S.V.; Ahmad, B.; Copuroglu, O.; Vermolen, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, whi

  13. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Accelerator Technology and Its Applications

    Scientific meeting and presentation on accelerator, technology and its application is held by BATAN Yogyakarta at 8 February 2000. The purpose of the seminar is to monitor at BATAN research activity on accelerator area and is already carried out by by BATAN's researcher as well as outside BATAN. The proceeding contains research article as many as 25 topics about accelerator technology development and its application. The proceeding article is come from 21 articles from BATAN and 4 articles from outside BATAN. (PPIN)

  14. Accelerator Technology and High Energy Physic Experiments, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physica and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper is the second part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with accelerator technology and high energy physics experiments. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different tech...

  15. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Accelerator Technology and its Applications

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Accelerator Technology and Its Application is held by BATAN Yogyakarta at October, 1, 2003. The purpose of the seminar is to monitor at BATAN research activity on accelerator and is already carried out by BATAN's researcher as well as outside BATAN. The proceeding contains research article as many of 36 topics about accelerator technology development and its application. The articles are indexing separately. (PPIN)

  16. CO2 laser technology for advanced particle accelerators

    Short-pulse, high-power CO2 lasers open new prospects for development of ultra-high gradient laser-driven electron accelerators. The advantages of λ=10 μm CO2 laser radiation over the more widely exploited solid state lasers with λ∼1 μm are based on a λ2-proportional ponderomotive potential, λ-proportional phase slippage, and λ-proportional scaling of the laser accelerator structures. We show how a picosecond terawatt CO2 laser that is under construction at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility may benefit the ATF's experimental program of testing far-field, near-field, and plasma accelerator schemes

  17. CO2 laser technology for advanced particle accelerators

    Short-pulse, high-power C02 lasers open new prospects for development of high-gradient laser-driven electron accelerators. The advantages of λ=10 μm CO2 laser radiation over the more widely exploited solid state lasers with λ∼1 μm are based on a λ2-proportional ponderomotive potential, λ-proportional phase slippage distance, and %-proportional scaling of the laser accelerator structures. We show how a picosecond terawatt C02 laser that is under construction at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility may benefit the ATFs experimental program of testing far-field, near-field, and plasma accelerator schemes

  18. FAW Technology Strategies of Low-Carbon Passenger Car

    Li Jun

    2012-01-01

    Author analyzed the global background of low-carbon technology around the world,a technology & economy analysis model called TOS was developed in the paper,author analyzed technology paths for low-carbon Car in China based on the current technologies available and technologies to he developed in China,3 possible paths are presented based on the analysis,author also explained the FAW BlueWay technology strategies for low carbon cars both for short mid and long term objectives.Author concludes the paper with illustration of powertrain lineup for FAW BlueWay Technologies.

  19. A modeling of an accelerator using the object oriented technology

    It is proposed to construct a hypothetic accelerator on a computer using object orientation, by giving thought to the control system in the Photon Factory. As the language, the C++ which is appearing widely in world is employed. What is the object, that is, the accelerator which is present before us now (Photon Factory) like, what data composition it has, and how it is operated are reconfirmed, and the works of fitting those to the class of C++ are required. In this report, three hypothetical accelerator models that may help these works. Object orientation is to write programs by making objects the main bodies. In this case, an object, accelerator, is expressed on a program, and is called hypothetic accelerator. By the access to the hypothetic accelerator, it is aimed at to operate an actual accelerator. An accelerator has many data. The selection of the data necessary for the control is the first step. Thereafter, giving and taking of the data are considered. The objectifying as a system is accompanied by ambiguity, and requires thought. In order to observe the features of object-oriented program, a simple model 'hypothetic PF-ring model 1', a grouped, organization chart-like model 'hypothetic PF-ring model 2' and 'hypothetic PF-ring model 3' in which an object is arranged in a ring using the concept of linear list are introduced. (K.I.)

  20. Accelerator R and D activities at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore

    Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore is a premier national institute engaged in R and D work in front-line areas of particle accelerators and lasers. The Centre has designed, developed, and commissioned two synchrotron radiation sources: Indus-1 and Indus-2, which are serving as national facilities. The Centre is pursuing various other accelerator activities viz. development of a high energy proton accelerator for Indian spallation neutron source, electron accelerators for food irradiation and industrial applications, and free electron lasers (FEL) in THz and IR spectral region, study of innovative schemes of laser driven electron and ion acceleration, and development of supporting advanced technologies such as superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) cavities, cryogenics, RF power, magnets, ultra-high vacuum, laser manufacturing of accelerator components, and control instrumentation. In this talk, an overview of the progress made in accelerator activities at RRCAT in recent years will be presented

  1. Effect of the new carbon fiber board of Elekta Precise linear accelerator on the radiation dose

    Objective: To investigate the dosimetric influence of pure carbon fiber treatment tabletop of Elekta Precise new linear accelerator in radiotherapy. Methods: Surface-axis distance (SAD) technology was employed for the measurement. Two groups of fields were set and both of them were SAD opposed portals (one of them went through the tabletop,while the other did not). A PTW electrometer and a 0.6 cm3 Farmer ionization chamber were utilized for comparison measurement. Then dose attenuation of the main table board, extended body board, the extended board for head, neck and shoulders, and the joints of these boards were calculated. Results: Under the energy of 6 MV,the dose attenuations of the following locations were: 1.4% - 7.2% at the main treatment table board; 2.8% - 38.7%, 1.4% -30.1%, 1.5% -20.8% and 1.4% - 11.2%, respectively at distances of 1, 4, 7 and 8 cm from the joint of the main table board; 0.5% - 5.0% at the extended body board; 4.7% - 15.4% at distance of 1 cm from the joint of the extended body board; 0.5% -3.3% at the neck position of the extended board for head, neck and shoulders; 5.3% - 16.7% at the shoulder positions; and 6.8% -30.4% at the joint between the extended boards and the main table board. Conclusions: The dose attenuations of the new linear accelerator pure carbon fiber treatment tabletop vary at different locations. Considerable higher attenuations are observed at the table board joints than other locations. (authors)

  2. Assessment of the adequacy of US accelerator technology for Department of Energy missions

    Accelerator technology has made enormous impact across a wide field of research, industrial, and commercial endeavor and new developments are projected to broaden this technology transfer and open up new applications not previously possible or economically attractive. At the same time, however, the broad multi-agency base of support for the development of accelerator technology has largely evaporated leaving the program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research (OER) as the only major National effort not directed at specific narrow applications. In order to continue to reap the benefits and spin-offs from this area of technology, an expanded long-term funding committment is vigorously endorsed since there appear to be major payoff potential in several areas of national need. Three specific recommendations are made that would accelerate the projected benefits from accelerator technology. An expanded effort should be undertaken to develop the key technologies of high brightness, high current, large area, long life, reliable ion, electron and RF sources along with associated studies directed toward accelerator design optimization. A centralized computational facility with a dedicated staff and library of programs for simulation of accelerator phenomenology should be created similar to that for the magnetic fusion program. Advanced accelerator R and D should be funded at a steady level to support a long range accelerator applications program

  3. Technological Improvements in the DARHT II Accelerator Cells

    Prichard, Benjamin A; Bieniosek, Frank; Briggs, Richard J; Chow, Ken; Fawley, William M; Genoni, Thomas E; Henestroza, Enrique; Hughes, Thomas P; Kang, Mike; Nielsen, Kurt; Reginato, Lou; Waldron, William

    2005-01-01

    DARHT employs two perpendicular electron Linear Induction Accelerators to produce intense, bremsstrahlung x-ray pulses for flash radiography. The second axis, DARHT II, features an 18 MeV, 2-kA, 2-microsecond accelerator. DARHT II accelerator cells have undergone a series of test and modeling efforts to fully understand their sub par performance. These R&D efforts have led to a better understanding of Linear Induction Accelerator physics for the unique DARHT II design. Specific improvements have been identified and tested. Improvements in the cell oil region, the cell vacuum region, and the PFNs have been implemented in the prototype units that have doubled the cell's performance. A series of prototype acceptance test are underway on a number of prototype units to demonstrate that the required cell lifetime is met at the improved performance levels. Early acceptance tests indicate that the lifetime requirements are being exceeded. The shortcomings of the previous design are summarized. The improvements to...

  4. CO2 laser technology for advanced particle accelerators. Revision

    Short-pulse, high-power CO2 lasers open new prospects for development of ultra-high gradient laser-driven electron accelerators. The advantages of λ=10 μm CO2 laser radiation over the more widely exploited solid state lasers with λ∼1 μm are based on a λ2-proportional ponderomotive potential, λ-proportional phase slippage distance, and λ-proportional scaling of the laser accelerator structures. We show how a picosecond terawatt CO2 laser that is under construction at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility may benefit the ATF's experimental program of testing far-field, near-field, and plasma accelerator schemes

  5. DTU climate change technologies. Recommendations on accelerated development and deployment of climate change technologies

    Larsen, Hans; Halsnaes, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, System Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Nielsen, Niels Axel; Moeller, J.S.; Hansen, Jakob Fritz; Froekjaer Strand, I. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2009-09-15

    During 2009, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has held a number of international workshops for climate change. Participants came from industry, research institutions and government. The workshops focused on sustainable energy systems and climate change adaptation. The summary of conclusions and recommendations from the workshops constitutes a comprehensive set of technology tracks and recommended actions towards accelerated development and deployment of technology within these two key areas. The workshop process has led to three main conclusions. A. Radical changes are needed to develop sustainable energy systems. B. Tools and processes that climate-proof societal planning and management are needed in order to adapt to climate change. C. Partnerships concerning innovation and deployment (research, development and deployment) are required to meet time constraints.

  6. EuCARD 2010 Accelerator Technology in Europe

    Romaniuk, R S

    2010-01-01

    Accelerators are basic tools of the experimental physics of elementary particles, nuclear physics, light sources of the fourth generation. They are also used in myriad other applications in research, industry and medicine. For example, there are intensely developed transmutation techniques for nuclear waste from nuclear power and atomic industries. The European Union invests in the development of accelerator infrastructures inside the framework programs to build the European Research Area. Th...

  7. Carbon ion and high intensity acceleration test of TIT heavy ion RFQ linac

    The RFQ Linac at Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT-RFQ) was constructed and acceleration test of ion beams 4He+ and 12C2+ was performed. The linac was designed to accelerate particles with charge to mass ratio(q/A) of 1-1/16 injected at 5 keV/u up to 214 keV/u. As the result of acceleration test, beam transmission was 89% for a low beam current. It is nearly design data 91% and the acceleration characteristic agrees well with a computer simulation. (author)

  8. On the choice of carbon materials for the internal wall of accelerators and ion transport channels

    The possibility of applying carbon materials for decreasing induced radioactivity of the ISTRA-36 proton accelerator which is the driver of the created neutron generator, is considered. It is shown that application of carbon materials in the accelerating channel makes it possible to solve the problem on the high-current manual control. The application of these materials is particularly effective also therefore, that they have low neutron emission which allows to reduce the radiation loads up to the permissible ones for the level magneto-solid lenses. The performed studies on the vacuum properties of the carbon materials showed that the samples degassed at the temperature of 500-600 deg C do not indicate their presence in the accelerator vacuum volume

  9. Application of software and hardware components of can-technology for accelerator control

    CAN-technology was developed for embedded hard real time automotive applications. Software components of CAN-technology consist of high level application protocols, programs for testing, monitoring and configuring of CAN-nodes as well as the components which bind CAN-components with SCADA systems and ensure control through the WEB-browsers. CAN-technology is used in INP to control accelerators, for beam diagnostic and, in cooperation with the RRC Kurchatov Institute, in automation of the large neutrino detector Borexino. Long-term positive experience of CAN-technology usage allows us to recommend this technology for accelerator control especially if industrial style and compatibility is desired

  10. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  11. Life Prediction on a T700 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cylinder with Limited Accelerated Life Testing Data

    Ma Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated life testing investigation was conducted on a composite cylinder that consists of aluminum alloy and T700 carbon fiber. The ultimate failure stress predictions of cylinders were obtained by the mixing rule and verified by the blasting static pressure method. Based on the stress prediction of cylinder under working conditions, the constant stress accelerated life test of the cylinder was designed. However, the failure data cannot be sufficiently obtained by the accelerated life test due to the time limitation. Therefore, most of the data presented to be high censored in high stress level and zero-failure data in low stress level. When using the traditional method for rupture life prediction, the results showed to be of lower confidence. In this study, the consistency of failure mechanism for carbon fiber and cylinder was analyzed firstly. According to the analysis result, the statistical test information of carbon fiber could be utilized for the accelerated model constitution. Then, rupture life prediction method for cylinder was proposed based on the accelerated life test data and carbon fiber test data. In this way, the life prediction accuracy of cylinder could be improved obviously, and the results showed that the accuracy of this method increased by 35%.

  12. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact of SciDAC on Accelerator Science & Technology

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, "Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook." Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to Sci...

  13. Solidification of stainless steel slag by accelerated carbonation.

    Johnson, D C; MacLeod, C L; Carey, P J; Hills, C D

    2003-06-01

    On exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) at a pressure of 3 bars, compacts formed from pressed ground slag, and 12.5 weight percent water, were found to react with approximately 18% of their own weight of CO2. The reaction product formed was calcium carbonate causing the slag to self-cement. Unconfined compressive strengths of 9MPa were recorded in carbonated compacts whereas strengths of < 1 MPa were recorded in non-carbonated slag compacts. As molten stainless steel slag containing dicalcium silicate (C2S) cools it can undergo several phase transitions. The final transformation from the beta-polymorph to gamma-C2S is accompanied by a volume change that causes the slag to self-pulverise or 'dust'. As a consequence of this the fine grained portion of the slag contains more of this phase whilst the coarser particles of the slag contain more of the calcium magnesium silicates that contribute the bulk of the waste. The fine fraction (< 125 microm) of the slag when ground is found to react to the same extent as the ground bulk slag and produces compacts with equivalent strength. A coarser fraction (4-8 mm) when ground to a similar grading does not react as extensively and produces a weaker product. Additions of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at 5 and 10 percent by weight did not alter the degree of reaction during carbonation of the bulk slag or ground fine fraction, however the strength of the 4-8 mm fraction was increased by this change. PMID:12868521

  14. The impact of new computer technology on accelerator control

    This paper describes some recent developments in computing and stresses their application in accelerator control systems. Among the advances that promise to have a significant impact are (1) low cost scientific workstations; (2) the use of ''windows'', pointing devices and menus in a multi-tasking operating system; (3) high resolution large-screen graphics monitors; (4) new kinds of high bandwidth local area networks. The relevant features are related to a general accelerator control system. For example, this paper examines the implications of a computing environment which permits and encourages graphical manipulation of system components, rather than traditional access through the writing of programs or ''canned'' access via touch panels

  15. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 1010 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5 × 109 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 1011 C6+ ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the 11C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C4+ ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of 11C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated 11C4+ beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the 11C4+ beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  16. Monitoring accelerated carbonation on standard Portland cement mortar by nonlinear resonance acoustic test

    Eiras, J. N.; Kundu, T.; Popovics, J. S.; Monzó, J.; Borrachero, M. V.; Payá, J.

    2015-03-01

    Carbonation is an important deleterious process for concrete structures. Carbonation begins when carbon dioxide (CO2) present in the atmosphere reacts with portlandite producing calcium carbonate (CaCO3). In severe carbonation conditions, C-S-H gel is decomposed into silica gel (SiO2.nH2O) and CaCO3. As a result, concrete pore water pH decreases (usually below 10) and eventually steel reinforcing bars become unprotected from corrosion agents. Usually, the carbonation of the cementing matrix reduces the porosity, because CaCO3 crystals (calcite and vaterite) occupy more volume than portlandite. In this study, an accelerated carbonation-ageing process is conducted on Portland cement mortar samples with water to cement ratio of 0.5. The evolution of the carbonation process on mortar is monitored at different levels of ageing until the mortar is almost fully carbonated. A nondestructive technique based on nonlinear acoustic resonance is used to monitor the variation of the constitutive properties upon carbonation. At selected levels of ageing, the compressive strength is obtained. From fractured surfaces the depth of carbonation is determined with phenolphthalein solution. An image analysis of the fractured surfaces is used to quantify the depth of carbonation. The results from resonant acoustic tests revealed a progressive increase of stiffness and a decrease of material nonlinearity.

  17. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Kasai, Takao; Iizuka, Tadashi; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Department of Oral Functional Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586 (Japan); Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka [Division of Protein Engineering, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: tkasai@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  18. The accelerated site technology deployment program presents the segmented gate system

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is working to accelerate the acceptance and application of innovative technologies that improve the way the nation manages its environmental remediation problems. The DOE Office of Science and Technology established the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program (ASTD) to help accelerate the acceptance and implementation of new and innovative soil and ground water remediation technologies. Coordinated by the Department of Energy's Idaho Office, the ASTD Program reduces many of the classic barriers to the deployment of new technologies by involving government, industry, and regulatory agencies in the assessment, implementation, and validation of innovative technologies. The paper uses the example of the Segmented Gate System (SGS) to illustrate how the ASTD program works. The SGS was used to cost effectively separate clean and contaminated soil for four different radionuclides: plutonium, uranium, thorium, and cesium. Based on those results, it has been proposed to use the SGS at seven other DOE sites across the country

  19. The accelerated site technology deployment program presents the segmented gate system

    PATTESON,RAYMOND; MAYNOR,DOUG; CALLAN,CONNIE

    2000-02-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is working to accelerate the acceptance and application of innovative technologies that improve the way the nation manages its environmental remediation problems. The DOE Office of Science and Technology established the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program (ASTD) to help accelerate the acceptance and implementation of new and innovative soil and ground water remediation technologies. Coordinated by the Department of Energy's Idaho Office, the ASTD Program reduces many of the classic barriers to the deployment of new technologies by involving government, industry, and regulatory agencies in the assessment, implementation, and validation of innovative technologies. The paper uses the example of the Segmented Gate System (SGS) to illustrate how the ASTD program works. The SGS was used to cost effectively separate clean and contaminated soil for four different radionuclides: plutonium, uranium, thorium, and cesium. Based on those results, it has been proposed to use the SGS at seven other DOE sites across the country.

  20. The R/D of high power proton accelerator technology in China

    Guan Xialing

    2002-12-01

    In China, a multipurpose verification system as a first phase of our ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton LINAC) and a swimming pool light water subcritical reactor. In this paper the activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described.

  1. WILGA Photonics and Web Engineering, January 2012; EuCARD Sessions on HEP and Accelerator Technology

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from technical universities during the SPIE-IEEE Wilga January 2012 Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonline...

  2. Accelerated carbonation test of sprayed concrete%喷射混凝土快速碳化试验研究

    马蕊; 牛荻涛; 王家滨

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the carbonation resistance of sprayed concrete and the mechanical property after carbonation ,the accel-erated carbonation test was carried out.The results indicated that the carbonation resistance of sprayed concrete was superior to the normal. With the increasing of carbonation depth,compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of sprayed concrete grew rapidly.The admix-ing of steel fiber can further improve the carbonation resistance,reduce the carbonation rate,and increase the splitting tensile strength of sprayed concrete greatly.Besides,based on analyzing the effects of shotcrete technology and carbonation resistance of steel fiber admixing to sprayed concrete,a carbonation depth model for sprayed concrete was established.%通过快速碳化试验,探讨了喷射混凝土抗碳化性能和碳化后力学性能变化规律。试验结果表明:喷射混凝土较普通混凝土具有更好的抗碳化性能,其抗压强度、劈拉强度随碳化深度的增加快速提高;掺入钢纤维能进一步提高喷射混凝土碳化性能,减小碳化速率,还能显著提高喷射混凝土碳化后劈拉强度。同时,在分析钢纤维和施工方式对混凝土碳化影响的基础上,建立了喷射混凝土碳化深度模型。

  3. The effects of accelerated carbonation on CO(2) uptake and metal release from incineration APC residues.

    Baciocchi, Renato; Costa, Giulia; Di Bartolomeo, Elisabetta; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2009-12-01

    This work presents the results of a study on accelerated carbonation of incinerator air pollution control residues, with a particular focus on the modifications in the leaching behaviour of the ash. Aqueous carbonation experiments were carried out using 100% CO(2) at different temperatures, pressures and liquid-to-solid ratios, in order to assess their influence on process kinetics, CO(2) uptake and the leaching behaviour of major and trace elements. The ash showed a particularly high reactivity towards CO(2), owing to the abundance of calcium hydroxides phases, with a maximum CO(2) uptake of approximately 250g/kg. The main effects of carbonation on trace metal leaching involved a significant decrease in mobility for Pb, Zn and Cu at high pH values, a slight change or mobilization for Cr and Sb, and no major effects on the release of As and soluble salts. Geochemical modelling of leachates indicated solubility control by different minerals after carbonation. In particular, in the stability pH range of carbonates, solubility control by a number of metal carbonates was clearly suggested by modelling results. These findings indicate that accelerated carbonation of incinerator ashes has the potential to convert trace contaminants into sparingly soluble carbonate forms, with an overall positive effect on their leaching behaviour. PMID:19700299

  4. Accelerated corrosion of stainless steels with the presence of molten carbonates below 923 K

    The high-temperature corrosion of stainless steels (SUS316L and SUS310S) in the presence of lithium-potassium eutectic carbonate and lithium-sodium eutectic carbonate has been studied by thermogravimetry and the metal consumption method under a carbon dioxide-oxygen atmosphere in the temperature range of 773-1123 K. Although the corrosion of SUS310S obeyed the parabolic rate law for all reaction conditions, the corrosion of SUS316L significantly depended on the reaction conditions. At or above 923 K, the corrosion of SUS316L obeyed the parabolic rate law, even with a carbonate coating. The corrosion rates were accelerated during the initial period of corrosion tests below 923 K, especially around 823 K with a lithium-sodium carbonates coating. The initial accelerated corrosion was a local corrosion, which produced through holes in the metal specimens, and occurred more clearly at higher carbon dioxide partial pressures with the lithium-sodium carbonate coating than with the lithium-potassium carbonate coating. (author)

  5. Development of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technology at the Comenius University in Bratislava

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Masarik, Jozef; Ješkovský, Miroslav; Kaizer, Jakub; Šivo, Alexander; Breier, Robert; Pánik, Ján; Staníček, Jaroslav; Richtáriková, Marta; Zahoran, Miroslav; Zeman, Jakub

    2015-10-01

    An Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) laboratory has been established at the Centre for Nuclear and Accelerator Technologies (CENTA) at the Comenius University in Bratislava comprising of a MC-SNICS ion source, 3 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator, and an analyzer of accelerated ions. The preparation of targets for 14C and 129I AMS measurements is described in detail. The development of AMS techniques for potassium, uranium and thorium analysis in radiopure materials required for ultra-low background underground experiments is briefly mentioned.

  6. Clean Coal Technologies: Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment [Russian Version

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world’s most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry’s considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbonconstrained world.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPACT RADIOGRAPHY ACCELERATOR USING DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; McCarrick, J; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2005-06-02

    We are developing an inexpensive compact accelerator system primarily intended for pulsed radiography. Design characteristics are an 8 MeV endpoint energy, 2 kA beam current, a cell gradient of approximately 3 MV/m (for an overall accelerator length is 2-3 m), and <$1/Volt capital costs. Such designs have been made possible with the development of high specific energy dielectrics (>10J/cm{sup 3}), specialized transmission line designs and multi-gap laser triggered low jitter (<1 ns) gas switches. In this geometry, the pulse forming lines, switches, and insulator/beam pipe are fully integrated within each cell to form a compact, stand-alone, stackable unit. We detail our research and modeling to date, recent high voltage test results, and the integration concept of the cells into a radiographic system.

  8. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  9. Advanced visualization technology for terascale particle accelerator simulations

    Ma, K-L; Schussman, G.; Wilson, B.; Ko, K.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents two new hardware-assisted rendering techniques developed for interactive visualization of the terascale data generated from numerical modeling of nextgeneration accelerator designs. The first technique, based on a hybrid rendering approach, makes possible interactive exploration of large-scale particle data from particle beam dynamics modeling. The second technique, based on a compact texture-enhanced representation, exploits the advanced features of commodity graphic...

  10. Advanced metaheuristic algorithms for laser optimization in optical accelerator technologies

    Tomizawa, Hiromitsu

    2011-10-01

    Lasers are among the most important experimental tools for user facilities, including synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers (FEL). In the synchrotron radiation field, lasers are widely used for experiments with Pump-Probe techniques. Especially for X-ray-FELs, lasers play important roles as seed light sources or photocathode-illuminating light sources to generate a high-brightness electron bunch. For future accelerators, laser-based techonologies such as electro-optic (EO) sampling to measure ultra-short electron bunches and optical-fiber-based femtosecond timing systems have been intensively developed in the last decade. Therefore, controls and optimizations of laser pulse characteristics are strongly required for many kinds of experiments and improvement of accelerator systems. However, people believe that lasers should be tuned and customized for each requirement manually by experts. This makes it difficult for laser systems to be part of the common accelerator infrastructure. Automatic laser tuning requires sophisticated algorithms, and the metaheuristic algorithm is one of the best solutions. The metaheuristic laser tuning system is expected to reduce the human effort and time required for laser preparations. I have shown some successful results on a metaheuristic algorithm based on a genetic algorithm to optimize spatial (transverse) laser profiles, and a hill-climbing method extended with a fuzzy set theory to choose one of the best laser alignments automatically for each machine requirement.

  11. High voltage technologies for radio frequency (RF) systems of proton accelerators in BARC

    Accelerators were invented to provide energetic particles to investigate the structure of the atomic nucleus. They speed up and increase the energy of a beam of particles by generating electric fields that accelerate the particles and magnetic fields that steer and focus them. An RF accelerator uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams. The RF power amplifier, which provides electromagnetic fields, converts direct current (D.C.) input power into r.f. output power. The accelerating structures use this r.f. power to accelerate low-charge bunches to high energies. An important program of Department of Atomic Energy is to build accelerator driven sub critical reactor system (ADS). In ADS, high energy proton beam (from the CW particle accelerator, 1 GeV, > 20 mA) strikes a heavy element target which yields copious neutrons by (p, xn) spallation reaction inside a sub-critical core. One of the critical components of ADS is a 1 GeV, high current proton accelerator. It is being built in three phases. In the first phase, a 20 MeV, 30 mA, low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA) is under construction at BARC. It requires radio frequency (RF) power for beam acceleration and is provided by high power RF systems. The RF systems require and use high voltage DC technologies (at 100 kV and 65 kV) as their subsystems that are developed with the help of local Indian industries. These technologies are making use of innovative techniques, new insulating materials and new technologies to avoid the critical problems (associated with high voltages) like arcing, sparking, energy deposition under arcing etc. This poster will describe in detail these high voltage technologies developed with the help of local Indian industries. (author)

  12. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The Electron String type of Ion Sources (ESIS) was developed, constructed and tested first in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These ion sources can be the appropriate sources for production of pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams which can be used for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact the test ESIS Krion-6T already now at the solenoid magnetic field only 4.6 T provides more than 10^10 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5*10^9 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable for application at synchrotrons. It was also found, that Krion-6T can provide more than 10^11 C6+ ions per second at 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. As for production of 11C radioactive ion beams ESIS can be the most economic kind of ion source. To proof that the special cryogenic cell for pulse injection of gaseous species into electron string was successfully tested using the ESIS Krion-2M.

  13. Evaluation of some commercial grade polymers as possible dosimeters for technological irradiations in electron accelerators

    Bryl-Sandelewska, T

    2002-01-01

    Dosimetric properties of two kinds of clear polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)and one kind of polystyrene (PS) sheets in technological accelerator irradiations, are presented. Absorbance of the sheets and its dependence on the dose have been measured at a suitable wavelength using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. Both kind PMMA can be used for technological dose measurements but each of them in the different range of the doses (approx 3 to approx 30 kGy and approx 30 to above 200 kGy). Heating the samples after irradiation accelerates the stabilization of the absorbance, which change slowly during the storage of the samples if not heated.Absorbance of clear PS sheets decreases very much during the storage after irradiation, and heating of the samples does not accelerate the stabilization of the value. It can be said that the Ps investigated is not suitable for technological dose measurements in accelerator i radiations.

  14. How can public policies accelerate the progress in technologies for the struggle against climate change?; Comment les politiques publiques peuvent-elles accelerer le progres sur les technologies de lutte contre le changement climatique?

    Vieillefosse, A

    2008-07-01

    After having recalled the three stages of the technical progress according to Schumpeter (invention, innovation and diffusion), and the roles of R and D and learning in this process, the author briefly comments the cost evolution of different energy production technologies between 1980 and 1995, proposes a simple modelling of the learning system under the influence of public policies, and indicates the research themes by 2050. Then, she discusses the fact that the R and D level is not socially optimal, notably because of market imperfections, and also because some innovations may have applications within a time which is too long for companies. This is the reason why the State generally takes care of fundamental research. She discusses either demand-based or supply-based public policies aiming at accelerating the progress in low carbon technologies, describes the international cooperation in R and D (agreement on research on low carbon technologies, standards), and how to promote the diffusion of technology towards developing countries (problem of emission increase in these countries, technology transfer in general and within the frame of the convention on climate change, public development support and direct foreign investments)

  15. Effects of thin-film accelerated carbonation on steel slag leaching.

    Baciocchi, R; Costa, G; Polettini, A; Pomi, R

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the effects of accelerated carbonation on the leaching behaviour of two types of stainless steel slags (electric arc furnace and argon oxygen decarburisation slag). The release of major elements and toxic metals both at the natural pH and at varying pH conditions was addressed. Geochemical modelling of the eluates was used to theoretically describe leaching and derive information about mineralogical changes induced by carbonation. Among the investigated elements, Ca and Si were most appreciably affected by carbonation. A very clear effect of carbonation on leaching was observed for silicate phases; geochemical modelling indicated that the Ca/Si ratio of Ca-controlling minerals shifted from ∼ 1 for the untreated slag to 0.5-0.67 for the carbonated samples, thus showing that the carbonation process left some residual Ca-depleted silicate phases while the extracted Ca precipitated in the form of carbonate minerals. For toxic metals the changes in leaching induced by carbonation appeared to be mainly related to the resulting pH changes, which were as high as ∼ 2 orders of magnitude upon carbonation. Depending on the specific shape of the respective solubility curves, the extent of leaching of toxic metals from the slag was differently affected by carbonation. PMID:25596552

  16. Changes in mineralogical and leaching properties of converter steel slag resulting from accelerated carbonation at low CO2 pressure

    H of the K3 slag (originally pH ± 12.5) was reduced by about 1.5 units, while the K1 slag showed a smaller decrease in pH from about 11.7 to 11.1. However, the pH reduction after carbonation of the K3 slag was observed to lead to an increased V-leaching. Vanadium leaching from the K1 slag resulted in levels above the limit values of the Dutch Soil Quality Decree, for both the untreated and carbonated slag. V-leaching from the carbonated K3 slag remained below these limit values at the relatively high pH that remained after carbonation. The V-bearing di-Ca silicate (C2S) phase has been identified as the major source of the V-leaching. It is shown that the dissolution of this mineral is limited in fresh steel slag, but strongly enhanced by carbonation, which causes the observed enhanced release of V from the K3 slag. The obtained insights in the mineral transformation reactions and their effect on pH and V-leaching provide guidance for further improvement of an accelerated carbonation technology.

  17. Proceedings of the 20th meeting for tandem accelerators and their associated technologies

    The 20th Meeting of Tandem Accelerators and their Associated Technologies was held from July 12 through 13, 2007 at Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, under the auspices of the Nuclear Science Research Institute of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). About one hundred and ten people participated in the meeting from thirty-three organizations; universities, research institutes and industries, which have a tandem accelerator or an electrostatic accelerator. The objective of the meeting is to contribute to research and development of accelerator technology by exchanging information on their accelerators each other. The meeting consisted of oral and poster sessions. Forty-seven presentations about present status and technical development on tandem accelerators or electrostatic accelerators and applications using these accelerators were discussed during the two days. This report summarizes the forty-five presentations including posters in the meeting. This publication is the collection of the paper presented at the title meeting. The 44 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model

    The continued increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide due to anthropogenic emissions is predicted to lead to significant changes in climate. About half of the current emissions are being absorbed by the ocean and by land ecosystems, but this absorption is sensitive to climate as well as to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, creating a feedback loop. General circulation models have generally excluded the feedback between climate and the biosphere, using static vegetation distributions and CO2 concentrations from simple carbon-cycle models that do not include climate change. Here we present results from a fully coupled, three-dimensional carbon-climate model, indicating that carbon-cycle feedbacks could significantly accelerate climate change over the twenty-first century. We find that under a 'business as usual' scenario, the terrestrial biosphere acts as an overall carbon sink until about 2050, but turns into a source thereafter. By 2100, the ocean uptake rate of 5 Gt C yr-1 is balanced by the terrestrial carbon source, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations are 250 p.p.m.v. higher in our fully coupled simulation than in uncoupled carbon models, resulting in a global-mean warming of 5.5 K, as compared to 4 K without the carbon-cycle feedback. (author)

  19. Microbially Accelerated Carbonate Mineral Precipitation as a Strategy for in Situ Carbon Sequestration and Rehabilitation of Asbestos Mine Sites.

    McCutcheon, Jenine; Wilson, Siobhan A; Southam, Gordon

    2016-02-01

    A microbially accelerated process for the precipitation of carbonate minerals was implemented in a sample of serpentinite mine tailings collected from the abandoned Woodsreef Asbestos Mine in New South Wales, Australia as a strategy to sequester atmospheric CO2 while also stabilizing the tailings. Tailings were leached using sulfuric acid in reaction columns and subsequently inoculated with an alkalinity-generating cyanobacteria-dominated microbial consortium that was enriched from pit waters at the Woodsreef Mine. Leaching conditions that dissolved 14% of the magnesium from the serpentinite tailings while maintaining circumneutral pH (1800 ppm, pH 6.3) were employed in the experiment. The mineralogy, water chemistry, and microbial colonization of the columns were characterized following the experiment. Micro-X-ray diffraction was used to identify carbonate precipitates as dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O] and hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] with minor nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that carbonate mineral precipitates form directly on the filamentous cyanobacteria. These findings demonstrate the ability of these organisms to generate localized supersaturating microenvironments of high concentrations of adsorbed magnesium and photosynthetically generated carbonate ions while also acting as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation. This study is the first step toward implementing in situ carbon sequestration in serpentinite mine tailings via microbial carbonate precipitation reactions. PMID:26720600

  20. Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation

    In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, which is incorporated into the impregnation of the sodium mono-fluorophosphate (Na-MFP) solution. The model of the self-healing process is built under the assumption that the position of the carbonation front changes in time where the rate of diffusion of Na-MFP into the carbonated cement matrix and the reaction rates of the free phosphate and fluorophosphate with the components of the cement are comparable to the speed of the carbonation front under accelerated carbonation conditions. The model is based on an initial-boundary value problem for a system of partial differential equations which is solved using a Galerkin finite element method. The results obtained are discussed and generalized to a three-dimensional case.

  1. A data acquisition and processing system for carbon profiling using the accelerator IBIS

    One of the uses of the accelerator IBIS is to measure the distribution of carbon in various matrices counting protons emitted from the reaction 12C(d,p)13C as a deuteron beam is scanned across the sample. A low-cost system based upon two microcomputers has now been developed to acquire and analyse the data in real time. The microcomputer method offers a number of advantages over off-line calculation and reduces demands on accelerator time and staff effort. (author)

  2. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  3. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    Amin, Munib

    2008-12-15

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  4. A proton medical accelerator by the SBIR route: An example of technology transfer

    Medical facilities for radiation treatment of cancer with protons have been established in many laboratories throughout the world. Essentially all of these have been designed as physics facilities, however, because of the requirement for protons up to 250 MeV. Most of the experience in this branch of accelerator technology lies in the national laboratories and a few large universities. A major issue is the transfer of this technology to the commercial sector to provide hospitals with simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive accelerators for this application. The author has chosen the SBIR route to accomplish this goal. ACCTEK Associates have received grants from the National Cancer Institute for development of the medical accelerator and beam delivery systems. Considerable encouragement and help has been received from Argonne National Laboratory and the Department of Energy. The experiences to date and the pros and cons on this approach to commercializing medical accelerators are described. 4 refs., 1 fig

  5. The overview and history of permanent magnet devices in accelerator technology

    This paper reviews the early history of accelerator development with a particular focus on the important discoveries that opened the door for the application of permanent-magnet materials to this area of science. Researchers began to use permanent-magnet materials in particle accelerators soon after the invention of the alternating gradient principle, that showed magnetic fields could be used to control the transverse envelope of charged-particle beams. Since that time, permanent-magnet materials have found wide application in the modern charged particle accelerator. The history of permanent-magnet use in accelerator physics and technology is outlined, general design considerations are presented, and material properties of concern for particle accelerator applications are discussed

  6. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  7. LUEh-60 accelerator as an injector for technological source of synchrotron radiation

    A linear electron accelerator developed as a beam injector for a compact technological sources of synchrotron radiation (SR) designed for solving the problems of X-ray lithography in the field of microelectronics is described. Physical basis for choice systems for accelerator with energy up to 60 MeV at pulse current up to 100 μA to optimize beam output parameters is presented. 7 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  8. Development of accelerator technology in Poland, Impact of European CARE and EuCARD projects

    Romaniuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    The development of accelerator technology in Poland is strictly combined with the cooperation with specialist accelerator centers of global character, where the relevant knowledge is generated, allowing to build big and modern machines. These are relatively costly undertakings of interdisciplinary character. Most of them are financed from the local resources. Only the biggest machines are financed commonly by many nations like: LHC in CERN, ILC in Fermi Lab, E-XFEL in DESY. A similar financin...

  9. Carbon Nanotubes Technology for Removal of Arsenic from Water

    Ali Naghizadeh; Ahmad Reza Yari; Hamid Reza Tashauoei; Mokhtar Mahdavi; Elham Derakhshani; Rahman Rahimi; Pegah Bahmani; Hiva Daraei; Esmaeil Ghahremani

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this article as: Naghizadeh A, Yari AR, Tashauoei HR, Mahdavi M, Derakhshani E, Rahimi R, Bahmani P. Carbon nanotubes technology for removal of arsenic from water. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1):6-11. Aims of the Study: This study was aimed to investigate the adsorption mechanism of the arsenic removal from water by using carbon nanotubes in continuous adsorption column. Materials & Methods: Independent variables including carbon nanotubes dosage, contact time and breakthrough poi...

  10. Transaction costs analysis of low-carbon technologies

    Mundaca, Luis; Mansoz, Mathilde; Neij, Lena; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2013-01-01

    Transaction costs (TCs) must be taken into account when assessing the performance of policy instruments that create markets for the diffusion and commercialization of low-carbon technologies (LCTs). However, there are no comprehensive studies on the development and application of transaction cost analysis to LCTs. In this meta-analysis, a wide-ranging evaluation of TCs associated with energy efficiency, renewable energy, and carbon market technologies is provided. There is a plethora of diffe...

  11. Accelerating the deployment of offshore renewable energy technologies. Final Report

    MacDonald, Mott

    2011-02-15

    Offshore wind energy and ocean energy (i.e. wave and tidal) are at different stages of technology development and deployment, and, as such, they require different approaches for successful deployment. However, regardless of their deployment stage, these technologies may face common hurdles in their way to market competitiveness. IEA-RETD has completed a study with the overall objective to assist policy makers and project developers in a better understanding of these barriers and the specifics of offshore renewable energy and to give them practical guidelines. These include an offshore energy deployment framework, substantiated by evidence-based analyses, and recommendations for future policies design, including best practices for allocation of seafloor rights.

  12. Accelerated Volume Rendering Using Level-Of-Detail Technology

    Xu, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more virtual manufacturing simulations use volume rendering technology to enhance the display results and effects. When using large volume data sets, normal rendering algorithms trade off image quality against rendering speed. However, it is often not necessary to render the whole data set at some particular observation angles. If the unnecessary data ( during a special defined condition) can be edited, the rendering time can be saved and the frame rate can be rais...

  13. Accelerating cancer systems biology research through Semantic Web technology.

    Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute's caBIG, so users can interact with the DMR not only through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers' intellectual property. PMID:23188758

  14. Accelerating Industrial Adoption of Metal Additive Manufacturing Technology

    Vartanian, Kenneth; McDonald, Tom

    2016-03-01

    While metal additive manufacturing (AM) technology has clear benefits, there are still factors preventing its adoption by industry. These factors include the high cost of metal AM systems, the difficulty for machinists to learn and operate metal AM machines, the long approval process for part qualification/certification, and the need for better process controls; however, the high AM system cost is the main barrier deterring adoption. In this paper, we will discuss an America Makes-funded program to reduce AM system cost by combining metal AM technology with conventional computerized numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools. Information will be provided on how an Optomec-led team retrofitted a legacy CNC vertical mill with laser engineered net shaping (LENS®—LENS is a registered trademark of Sandia National Labs) AM technology, dramatically lowering deployment cost. The upgraded system, dubbed LENS Hybrid Vertical Mill, enables metal additive and subtractive operations to be performed on the same machine tool and even on the same part. Information on the LENS Hybrid system architecture, learnings from initial system deployment and continuing development work will also be provided to help guide further development activities within the materials community.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Collection and Pressurization Technology Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reactive Innovations, LLC, proposes a Phase I SBIR program to develop a compact and lightweight electrochemical reactor to separate and pressurize carbon dioxide...

  16. Toshiba's accelerator technology and approach toward higher performance and downsizing for heavy-ion radiotherapy

    Toshiba has developed various systems and components for particle beam accelerators, and delivered a number of accelerator systems including for SPring-8, which is the world's largest-class synchrotron radiation facility, as well as for the Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Facility (provisional name). Combining our proprietary technologies cultivated through our experience in the development of particle beam accelerators, we are promoting the development of an accelerator for heavy-ion radiotherapy. Toward the higher performance and downsizing of its accelerator, we are also focusing on the research and development of both an ion source applying laser beam technologies, and a superconducting deflecting magnet for accelerators. (author)

  17. Killing effect of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions and RBE determination

    LIQiang; ZHOUGuang-Ming; 等

    2002-01-01

    Survival curves of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions with linear energy transfers of 125.5,200 and 700keV/um were measured,respectively,Inactivation cross sections corresponding to the irradiation above were deduced from the V79 cell survival curves.They are 7.86±0.17,10.44±1.11 and 32.32±3.59um2 in turn.With the surviving response of V79 cells to 60Co γ-rays as a reference value,relative biological effectiveness at 10%,20%,50%and 80% survival levels were given for the accelerated carbon ions,The results showed that carbon ions with LET of 125.5keV/um had a higher value of RBE at all the four survival levels than the carbon ions with other LETs.It was prompted that the maximum value of RBE for the V79 cell surviving as the biological endpoint emerged at the LET below 200keV/um for carbon ions.

  18. Connectivity of diagnostic technologies: improving surveillance and accelerating tuberculosis elimination

    Isaacs, C.; Affolabi, D.; Alagna, R.; Brockmann, D.; de Jong, B. C.; Cambau, E.; Churchyard, G.; Cohen, T.; Delmee, M.; Delvenne, J-C.; Farhat, M.; Habib, A.; Holme, P.; Keshavjee, S.; Khan, A.; Lightfoot, P.; Moore, D.; Moreno, Y.; Mundade, Y.; Pai, M.; Patel, S.; Nyaruhirira, A. U.; Rocha, L. E. C.; Takle, J.; Trébucq, A.; Creswell, J.; Boehme, C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY In regard to tuberculosis (TB) and other major global epidemics, the use of new diagnostic tests is increasing dramatically, including in resource-limited countries. Although there has never been as much digital information generated, this data source has not been exploited to its full potential. In this opinion paper, we discuss lessons learned from the global scale-up of these laboratory devices and the pathway to tapping the potential of laboratory-generated information in the field of TB by using connectivity. Responding to the demand for connectivity, innovative third-party players have proposed solutions that have been widely adopted by field users of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay. The experience associated with the utilisation of these systems, which facilitate the monitoring of wide laboratory networks, stressed the need for a more global and comprehensive approach to diagnostic connectivity. In addition to facilitating the reporting of test results, the mobility of digital information allows the sharing of information generated in programme settings. When they become easily accessible, these data can be used to improve patient care, disease surveillance and drug discovery. They should therefore be considered as a public health good. We list several examples of concrete initiatives that should allow data sources to be combined to improve the understanding of the epidemic, support the operational response and, finally, accelerate TB elimination. With the many opportunities that the pooling of data associated with the TB epidemic can provide, pooling of this information at an international level has become an absolute priority. PMID:27393530

  19. Connectivity of diagnostic technologies: improving surveillance and accelerating tuberculosis elimination.

    Andre, E; Isaacs, C; Affolabi, D; Alagna, R; Brockmann, D; de Jong, B C; Cambau, E; Churchyard, G; Cohen, T; Delmee, M; Delvenne, J-C; Farhat, M; Habib, A; Holme, P; Keshavjee, S; Khan, A; Lightfoot, P; Moore, D; Moreno, Y; Mundade, Y; Pai, M; Patel, S; Nyaruhirira, A U; Rocha, L E C; Takle, J; Trébucq, A; Creswell, J; Boehme, C

    2016-08-01

    In regard to tuberculosis (TB) and other major global epidemics, the use of new diagnostic tests is increasing dramatically, including in resource-limited countries. Although there has never been as much digital information generated, this data source has not been exploited to its full potential. In this opinion paper, we discuss lessons learned from the global scale-up of these laboratory devices and the pathway to tapping the potential of laboratory-generated information in the field of TB by using connectivity. Responding to the demand for connectivity, innovative third-party players have proposed solutions that have been widely adopted by field users of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay. The experience associated with the utilisation of these systems, which facilitate the monitoring of wide laboratory networks, stressed the need for a more global and comprehensive approach to diagnostic connectivity. In addition to facilitating the reporting of test results, the mobility of digital information allows the sharing of information generated in programme settings. When they become easily accessible, these data can be used to improve patient care, disease surveillance and drug discovery. They should therefore be considered as a public health good. We list several examples of concrete initiatives that should allow data sources to be combined to improve the understanding of the epidemic, support the operational response and, finally, accelerate TB elimination. With the many opportunities that the pooling of data associated with the TB epidemic can provide, pooling of this information at an international level has become an absolute priority. PMID:27393530

  20. Acetylene-Accelerated Alcohol Catalytic CVD Growth of Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    R. Xiang; Einarsson, E.; Okawa, J.; Miyauchi, Y.; Maruyama, S.

    2008-01-01

    Addition of only 1% of acetylene into ethanol was found to enhance the growth rate of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by up to ten times. Since acetylene is a byproduct of the thermal decomposition of ethanol, this suggests an alternative fast reaction pathway to the formation of SWNTs from ethanol via byproducts of decomposition. This accelerated growth, however, only occurred in the presence of ethanol, whereas pure acetylene at the same partial pressure resulted in negligible growth ...

  1. Characterization of Corrosion Products on Carbon Steel Exposed to Natural Weathering and to Accelerated Corrosion Tests

    Renato Altobelli Antunes; Rodrigo Uchida Ichikawa; Luis Gallego Martinez; Isolda Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the corrosion products formed on carbon steel plates submitted to atmospheric corrosion in urban and industrial atmospheres with those formed after accelerated corrosion tests. The corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The specimens were exposed to natural weathering in both atmospheres for nine months. The morphologies of the corrosion products were evaluated using scanning electron micr...

  2. Non scaling fixed field gradient accelerator design for proton and carbon therapy

    The Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerators became again a subject of great interest in many accelerator physics applications, after more than fifty years of their first appearance. The original FFAG's are the 'scaling' design where particle orbits during acceleration scale with momentum. In Japan a number of scaling FFAG's have been built, or are under construction. The original designs are proposed and used in many applications: proton acceleration in medical field for cancer therapy, electron acceleration for the low (food radiation, electron demonstration ring) and high energies (future e-RHIC 10 GeV), acceleration of muons (the 'PRISM'-project in Japan), proton acceleration for the AGS upgrade at Brookhaven National Laboratory, etc. There are many advantages of the scaling FFAG with respect to the today common use of synchrotrons, cyclotrons, or linear accelerators-linacs: the magnetic field is fixed, possibility of high repetition rate. Disadvantages of the scaling FFAG are the large required aperture and large circumference. This is due to the scaling law between the orbit and momentum and the relatively large opposite bending field requirement. This proposed non-scaling design had been extensively investigated in many respects. A European proposal to build a non-scaling FFAG electron demonstration ring is in progress. Recent international CYCLOTRON conference had dedicated time for the update on the FFAG acceleration. The non-scaling FFAG's should dramatically reduce required aperture and circumferences. If the fixed magnetic field produces the linear gradient, there is a tune variation during fast acceleration and resonances are a crossed. The small dispersion function and strong focusing in this design reduces the aperture size for almost an order of magnitude with respect to standard scaling FFAG design. We present one of the possible applications of the non-scaling proton and carbon cancer therapy FFAG accelerator. The cancer proton therapy

  3. Application of accelerated carbonation with a combination of Na2CO3 and CO2 in cement-based solidification/stabilization of heavy metal-bearing sediment.

    Chen, Quanyuan; Ke, Yujuan; Zhang, Lina; Tyrer, Mark; Hills, Colin D; Xue, Gang

    2009-07-15

    The efficient remediation of heavy metal-bearing sediment has been one of top priorities of ecosystem protection. Cement-based solidification/stabilization (s/s) is an option for reducing the mobility of heavy metals in the sediment and the subsequent hazard for human beings and animals. This work uses sodium carbonate as an internal carbon source of accelerated carbonation and gaseous CO(2) as an external carbon source to overcome deleterious effects of heavy metals on strength development and improve the effectiveness of s/s of heavy metal-bearing sediment. In addition to the compressive strength and porosity measurements, leaching tests followed the Chinese solid waste extraction procedure for leaching toxicity - sulfuric acid and nitric acid method (HJ/T299-2007), German leaching procedure (DIN38414-S4) and US toxicity characteristic leaching procedures (TCLP) have been conducted. The experimental results indicated that the solidified sediment by accelerated carbonation was capable of reaching all performance criteria for the disposal at a Portland cement dosage of 10 wt.% and a solid/water ratio of 1:1. The concentrations of mercury and other heavy metals in the leachates were below 0.10mg/L and 5mg/L, respectively, complying with Chinese regulatory level (GB5085-2007). Compared to the hydration, accelerated carbonation improved the compressive strength of the solidified sediment by more than 100% and reduced leaching concentrations of heavy metals significantly. It is considered that accelerated carbonation technology with a combination of Na(2)CO(3) and CO(2) may practically apply to cement-based s/s of heavy metal-bearing sediment. PMID:19128876

  4. Extraordinary tools for extraordinary science: the impact of SciDAC on accelerator science and technology

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, 'Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook'. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects

  5. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact ofSciDAC on Accelerator Science&Technology

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-08-10

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  6. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact of SciDAC on Accelerator Science and Technology

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects

  7. Sample distillation/graphitization system for carbon pool analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    A facility at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, DC, has been developed to extract, trap, cryogenically distill and graphitize carbon from a suite of organic and inorganic carbon pools for analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The system was developed to investigate carbon pools associated with the formation and stability of methane hydrates. However, since the carbon compounds found in hydrate fields are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, this apparatus is applicable to a number of oceanographic and environmental sample types. Targeted pools are dissolved methane, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), solid organic matrices (e.g., seston, tissue and sediments), biomarkers and short chained (C1-C5) hydrocarbons from methane hydrates. In most instances, the extraction, distillation and graphitization events are continuous within the system, thus, minimizing the possibility of fractionation or contamination during sample processing. A variety of methods are employed to extract carbon compounds and convert them to CO2 for graphitization. Dissolved methane and DIC from the same sample are sparged and cryogenically separated before the methane is oxidized in a high temperature oxygen stream. DOC is oxidized to CO2 by 1200 W ultraviolet photo-oxidation lamp, and solids oxidized in sealed, evacuated tubes. Hydrocarbons liberated from the disassociation of gas hydrates are cryogenically separated with a cryogenic temperature control unit, and biomarkers separated and concentrated by preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC). With this system, up to 20 samples, standards or blanks can be processed per day

  8. Multiple model approach to evaluation of accelerated carbonation for steelmaking slag in a slurry reactor.

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Lu; Chang, E-E; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-07-01

    Basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) exhibits highly alkaline properties due to its high calcium content, which is beneficial to carbonation reaction. In this study, accelerated carbonation of BOFS was evaluated under different reaction times, temperatures, and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios in a slurry reactor. CO2 mass balance within the slurry reactor was carried out to validate the technical feasibility of fixing gaseous CO2 into solid precipitates. After that, a multiple model approach, i.e., theoretical kinetics and empirical surface model, for carbonation reaction was presented to determine the maximal carbonation conversion of BOFS in a slurry reactor. On one hand, the reaction kinetics of BOFS carbonation was evaluated by the shrinking core model (SCM). Calcite (CaCO3) was identified as a reaction product through the scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses, which provided the rationale of applying the SCM in this study. The rate-limiting step of carbonation was found to be ash-diffusion controlled, and the effective diffusivity for carbonation of BOFS in a slurry reactor were determined accordingly. On the other hand, the carbonation conversion of BOFS was predicted by the response surface methodology (RSM) via a nonlinear mathematical programming. According to the experimental data, the highest carbonation conversion of BOFS achieved was 57% under an L/S ratio of 20 mL g(-1), a CO2 flow rate of 0.1 L min(-1), and a pressure of 101.3 kPa at 50 °C for 120 min. Furthermore, the applications and limitations of SCM and RSM were examined and exemplified by the carbonation of steelmaking slags. PMID:27038901

  9. Educating the next generation in the science and technology of plasmas, beams and accelerators

    Barletta, Wiliam

    2007-11-01

    Accelerators are essential tools for discovery in fundamental physics, biology, and chemistry. Particle beam based instruments in medicine, industry and national security constitute a multi-billion dollar per year industry. More than 55,000 peer-reviewed papers having accelerator as a keyword are available on the Web. Yet only a handful of universities offer any formal training in accelerator science. Several reasons can be cited: 1) The science and technology of non-neutral plasmas cuts across traditional academic disciplines. 2) Electrical engineering departments have evolved toward micro- and nano-technology and computing science. 3) Nuclear physics departments have atrophied. 4) With few exceptions, interest at individual universities is not extensive enough to support a strong faculty line. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed an educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator / beam science and technology than any university in the world. Governed and supported by a consortium of nine DOE laboratories and two NSF university laboratories, USPAS offers a responsive and balanced curriculum of science, engineering, and hands-on courses. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, cross-disciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics.

  10. Important requirements for RF generators for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT)

    All Accelerator-Driven Transmutation applications require very large amounts of RF Power. For example, one version of a Plutonium burning system requires an 800-MeV, 80-mA, proton accelerator running at 100% duty factor. This accelerator requires approximately 110-MW of continuous RF power if one assumes only 10% reserve power for control of the accelerator fields. In fact, to minimize beam spill, the RF controls may need as much as 15 to 20% of reserve power. In addition, unlike an electron accelerator in which the beam is relativistic, a failed RF station can disturb the synchronism of the beam, possibly shutting down the entire accelerator. These issues and more lead to a set of requirements for the RF generators which are stringent, and in some cases, conflicting. In this paper, we will describe the issues and requirements, and outline a plan for RF generator development to meet the needs of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies. The key issues which will be discussed include: operating efficiency, operating linearity, effect on the input power grid, bandwidth, gain, reliability, operating voltage, and operating current

  11. Simple production method for making 3 μg/cm2 cracked slacked carbon accelerator stripper foils

    A simple method for making thin 3 μg/cm2 carbon stripper foils for heavy ion bombardment and accelerator radiochronology is described along with a simple method for stripper foil thickness determination

  12. Carbon The Future Material for Advanced Technology Applications

    Messina, Giacomo

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and their applications constitute a burgeoning topic of scientific research among scientists and engineers attracted from diverse areas such as applied physics, materials science, biology, mechanics, electronics and engineering. Further development of current materials, advances in their applications, and discovery of new forms of carbon are the themes addressed by the frontier research in these fields. This book covers all the fundamental topics concerned with amorphous and crystalline C-based materials, such as diamond, diamond-like carbon, carbon alloys, carbon nanotubes. The goal is, by coherently progressing from growth - and characterisation techniques to technological applications for each class of material, to fashion the first comprehensive state-of-the-art review of this fast evolving field of research in carbon materials.

  13. Accelerator Technology Program: Status report, October 1985--March 1986: Volume 1

    This report presents highlights of the major projects in the Accelerator Technology (AT) Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first section details progress associated with the accelerator test stand. Following sections cover achievements in accelerator theory and simulation, LAMPF II accomplishments, and updates on BEAR, beam dynamics, the rf laboratory, p-bar gravity experiment, University of Illinois racetrack microtron, and NBS microtron. Also included are results from the Proton Storage Ring commissioning, developments in very high microwave systems, and advances in the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test rf technology. In addition, the Phoenix Project and the Krypton Fluoride Project are discussed. The report concludes with a listing of papers published by AT-Division personnel during this reporting period. 42 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Accelerator Technology and High Energy Physic Experiments, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physica and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper is the second part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with accelerator technology and high energy physics experiments. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the XXXth Jubilee SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the ...

  15. Accelerated carbonation and leaching behavior of the slag from iron and steel making industry

    Quanyuan Chen; D.C. Johnson; Lingyun Zhu; Menghong Yuan; C.D. Hills

    2007-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and steelmaking slag have been used as a raw material for cement production or as an aggregate to make concrete, which contribute aluminum, calcium, iron, and silicon oxides. The suitability of the slag for a particular application depends on its reactivity, cost, availability, and its influence on the properties of the resulting concrete. For the interest of durability studying of concrete in the presence of slag, the accelerated carbonation products and leaching behavior of the slag and Portland cement (PC) were studied. The experimental results confirmed that the slag was more resistant to carbonation compared to PC. The carbonation degree of GGBFS reduced by 17.74%; and the carbonation degrees of steelmaking slags reduced by 9.51%-11.94%. Carbonation neutralized the alkaline nature of the hydrated pastes and gave rise to the redox potential of the leachate slightly (30-77 mV). The carbonation also increased the release of most of the elements presented, except for calcium, to the aqueous environment. It is concluded that blend cements (PC plus slag) have economical advantages and better durability compared to PC.

  16. Interim Status of the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning Project

    A. M Smith; G. E. Matthern; R. H. Meservey

    1998-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E) teamed to establish the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning (ID&D) project to increase the use of improved technologies in D&D operations. The project is making the technologies more readily available, providing training, putting the technologies to use, and spreading information about improved performance. The improved technologies are expected to reduce cost, schedule, radiation exposure, or waste volume over currently used baseline methods. They include some of the most successful technologies proven in the large-scale demonstrations and in private industry. The selected technologies are the Pipe Explorer, the GammaCam, the Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation Optimal Planning System (DDROPS), the BROKK Demolition Robot, the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS), the Oxy-Gasoline Torch, the Track-Mounted Shear, and the Hand-Held Shear.

  17. Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash.

    Nilsson, M; Andreas, L; Lagerkvist, A

    2016-05-01

    About 85% of the ashes produced in Sweden originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste and biofuel. The rest comes from the thermal treatment of recycled wood, peat, charcoal and others. About 68% of all ashes annually produced in Sweden are used for constructions on landfills, mainly slopes, roads and embankments, and only 3% for construction of roads and working surfaces outside the landfills (SCB, 2013). Since waste bottom ash (BA) often has similar properties to crushed bedrock or gravel, it could be used for road constructions to a larger extent. However, the leaching of e.g. Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn can cause a threat to the surrounding environment if the material is used as it is. Carbonation is a commonly used pre-treatment method, yet it is not always sufficient. As leaching from aged ash is often controlled by adsorption to iron oxides, increasing the number of Fe oxide sorption sites can be a way to control the leaching of several critical elements. The importance of iron oxides as sorption sites for metals is known from both mineralogical studies of bottom ash and from the remediation of contaminated soil, where iron is used as an amendment. In this study, zero valent iron (Fe(0)) was added prior to accelerated carbonation in order to increase the number of adsorption sites for metals and thereby reduce leaching. Batch, column and pHstat leaching tests were performed and the leaching behaviour was evaluated with multivariate data analysis. It showed that leaching changed distinctly after the tested treatments, in particular after the combined treatment. Especially, the leaching of Cr and Cu clearly decreased as a result of accelerated carbonation. The combination of accelerated carbonation with Fe(0) addition reduced the leaching of Cr and Cu even further and reduced also the leaching of Mo, Zn, Pb and Cd compared to untreated BA. Compared with only accelerated carbonation, the Fe(0) addition significantly reduced the leaching of Cr, Cu and Mo

  18. Changes in mineralogical and leaching properties of converter steel slag resulting from accelerated carbonation at low CO2 pressure

    below these limit values at the relatively high pH that remained after carbonation. The V-bearing di-Ca silicate (C2S) phase has been identified as the major source of the V-leaching. It is shown that the dissolution of this mineral is limited in fresh steel slag, but strongly enhanced by carbonation, which causes the observed enhanced release of V from the K3 slag. The obtained insights in the mineral transformation reactions and their effect on pH and V-leaching provide guidance for further improvement of an accelerated carbonation technology.

  19. Key Factors Affecting a Technology Entrepreneur's Choice of Incubator or Accelerator

    Diane A. Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Technology entrepreneurship rarely succeeds in isolation; increasingly, it occurs in interconnected networks of business partners and other organizations. For entrepreneurs lacking access to an established business ecosystem, incubators and accelerators provide a possible support mechanism for access to partners and resources. Yet, these relatively recent approaches to supporting entrepreneurship are still evolving. Therefore, it can be challenging for entrepreneurs to assess these mechanisms...

  20. Overview of CERN Technology Transfer Strategy and Accelerator-Related Activities

    Chesta, E; Wuensch, W; Sgobba, S; Stora, T; Chiggiato, P; Taborelli, M

    2013-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is actively engaged in identifying technologies developed for its accelerator complex that could be profitably used by partner research organizations or commercial companies in applications with potentially high socio-economic impact beyond pure fundamental physics research. \

  1. Industrial technologies for Co-57 and 57CoCL2 using accelerators of the electrons

    Full text: This article describes Co-57 radioisotope industrial technologies using the powerful accelerators of the electrons. The detailed information to manufacture 57CoCL2 having the higher specific activity and volume is described. These characteristics are very attractive for the medical customers

  2. Metal forming technology for the fabrication of seamless Superconducting radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators

    Palmieri Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Particle accelerators is rather unique, since in a few high-energy Physics great laboratories, such at CERN for example, there have been built the largest technological installations ever conceived by humankind. The Radiofrequency resonant cavities are the pulsing heart of an accelerator. In case of superconducting accelerators, bulk niobium cavities, able to perform accelerating gradients up to 40 MeV/m, are just a jewel of modern technology. The standard fabrication technology foresees the cutting of circular blanks, their deep-drawing into half-cells, and its further joining by electron beam welding under ultra high vacuum environment that takes several hours. However, proposals such as the International Linear Collider, to which more than 900 scientists from all over the world participate, foresee the installation of 20.000 cavities. In numbers, it means the electron beam weld one by one under Ultra High Vacuum of 360,000 hemi-cells. At a cost of 500 €/Kg of high purity Niobium, this will mean a couple of hundreds of millions of Euros only for the bare material. In this panorama it is evident that a cost reducing approach must be considered. In alternative the author has proposed a seamless and low cost fabrication method based on spinning of fully resonators. Preliminary RF tests at low temperatures have proved that high accelerating gradients are achievable and that they are not worse than those obtainable with the standard technology. Nevertheless up to when the next accelerator will be decided to be built there is still room for improvement.

  3. Accelerated cleanup of carbon tetrachloride in a radiologically contaminated site at the Hanford Site

    Radioactively-contaminated acidic aqueous wastes and organic liquids were discharged to the soil column at three disposal sites within the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, resulting in the carbon tetrachloride contamination of the ground water and unsaturated soils. A CERCLA Expedited Response Action (ERA) has been initiated for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated soils to mitigate further contamination of the ground water. Based on the contaminant nature and distribution, site physical characteristics, and technology pilot tests, soil vapor extraction with above-ground treatment of the soil vapor was chosen as the preferred remedial technology for the ERA

  4. Advanced technology for functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Lingjie Meng; Chuanlong Fu; Qinghua Lu

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has attracted considerable interest in the fields of physics, chemistry, material science and biology. The functionalized CNTs exhibit improved properties enabling facile fabrication of novel nanomaterials and nanodevices. Most of the functionalization approaches developed at present could be categorized into the covalent attachment of functional groups and the non-covalent adsorption of various functional molecules onto the surface of CNTs. This review highlights recent development and our work in functionalization of carbon nanotubes, leading to bio-compatible CNTs, fluorescent CNTs and transition metal func-tionalizcd CNTs. These novel methods possess advantages such as simplified technical procedures and reduced cost of novel nanoma-terials and nanodcvices fabrication.

  5. Carbon Footprint - Application in Graphic Art Technology

    Ivana Bolanča Mirković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for more sustainable products and processes has triggered the develop-ment of a large number of environmental assessment tools. These tools measure environmental performance and identify improvement potentials from the envi-ronmental point of view. The life cycle assessment (lca methods take into ac-count all effects on the environment, direct and indirect resource inputs and/or emissions during the whole life cycle of products. The carbon footprint is a sub-set of data covered by life cycle assessment.The aim of this paper is to describe the potential environmental impacts (green-house gases, carbon footprint of printed paper and new media.

  6. Carbon Footprint - Application in Graphic Art Technology

    Ivana Bolanca Mirkovic

    2010-01-01

    The need for more sustainable products and processes has triggered the development of a large number of environmental assessment tools. These tools measure environmental performance and identify improvement potentials from the environmental point of view. The life cycle assessment (lca) methods take into account all effects on the environment, direct and indirect resource inputs and/or emissions during the whole life cycle of products.  The carbon footprint is a sub-set of data covered by lif...

  7. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2002/2003

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Department for neutron research, Uppsala university. The activities of the group is directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from carbon and lead at 96 MeV. The precision in the results surpasses all previous data by at least an order of magnitude. These measurements represent the highest energy in neutron scattering where the ground state has been resolved. The results show that all previous theory work has underestimated the probability for neutron scattering at the present energy by 0-30 %. A new method for measurements of absolute probabilities for neutron-induced nuclear reactions with experimental techniques only has been developed. Previously, only two such methods have been known. One student has reached his PhD exam. Two PhD students have been accepted. TSL has decided to build a new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance for these, and similar, activities. A new instrument for measurements of inelastic neutron scattering has been built, tested and found to meet the specifications. This work has been performed in collaboration with two French research groups from Caen and Nantes. The instrument is intended to be used for a series of experiments during the coming years. Previous work by the group on nuclear data for assessment of electronics reliability has lead to a new industry standard in the USA

  8. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2002/2003

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2003-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Department for neutron research, Uppsala university. The activities of the group is directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from carbon and lead at 96 MeV. The precision in the results surpasses all previous data by at least an order of magnitude. These measurements represent the highest energy in neutron scattering where the ground state has been resolved. The results show that all previous theory work has underestimated the probability for neutron scattering at the present energy by 0-30 %. A new method for measurements of absolute probabilities for neutron-induced nuclear reactions with experimental techniques only has been developed. Previously, only two such methods have been known. One student has reached his PhD exam. Two PhD students have been accepted. TSL has decided to build a new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance for these, and similar, activities. A new instrument for measurements of inelastic neutron scattering has been built, tested and found to meet the specifications. This work has been performed in collaboration with two French research groups from Caen and Nantes. The instrument is intended to be used for a series of experiments during the coming years. Previous work by the group on nuclear data for assessment of electronics reliability has lead to a new industry standard in the USA.

  9. Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation

    Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO2 concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO2 exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods

  10. Carbon capture and storage as a corporate technology strategy challenge

    Latest estimates suggest that widespread deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) could account for up to one-fifth of the needed global reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050. Governments are attempting to stimulate investments in CCS technology both directly through subsidizing demonstration projects, and indirectly through developing price incentives in carbon markets. Yet, corporate decision-makers are finding CCS investments challenging. Common explanations for delay in corporate CCS investments include operational concerns such as the high cost of capture technologies, technological uncertainties in integrated CCS systems and underdeveloped regulatory and liability regimes. In this paper, we place corporate CCS adoption decisions within a technology strategy perspective. We diagnose four underlying characteristics of the strategic CCS technology adoption decision that present unusual challenges for decision-makers: such investments are precautionary, sustaining, cumulative and situated. Understanding CCS as a corporate technology strategy challenge can help us move beyond the usual list of operational barriers to CCS and make public policy recommendations to help overcome them. - Research highlights: → Presents a corporate technology strategy perspective on carbon capture and storage (CCS). → CCS technology is precautionary, sustaining, cumulative and situated. → Decision-makers need to look beyond cost and risk as barriers to investment in CCS.

  11. Enzyme-accelerated and structure-guided crystallization of calcium carbonate: role of the carbonic anhydrase in the homologous system.

    Müller, Werner E G; Schlossmacher, Ute; Schröder, Heinz C; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Korzhev, Michael; Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The calcareous spicules from sponges, e.g. from Sycon raphanus, are composed of almost pure calcium carbonate. In order to elucidate the formation of those structural skeletal elements, the function of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), isolated from this species, during the in vitro calcium carbonate-based spicule formation, was investigated. It is shown that the recombinant sponge CA substantially accelerates calcium carbonate formation in the in vitro diffusion assay. A stoichiometric calculation revealed that the turnover rate of the sponge CA during the calcification process amounts to 25 CO2s(-1) × molecule CA(-1). During this enzymatically driven process, initially pat-like particles are formed that are subsequently transformed to rhomboid/rhombohedroid crystals with a dimension of ~50 μm. The CA-catalyzed particles are smaller than those which are formed in the absence of the enzyme. The Martens hardness of the particles formed is ~4 GPa, a value which had been determined for other biogenic calcites. This conclusion is corroborated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which revealed that the particles synthesized are composed predominantly of the elements calcium, oxygen and carbon. Surprising was the finding, obtained by light and scanning electron microscopy, that the newly formed calcitic crystals associate with the calcareous spicules from S. raphanus in a highly ordered manner; the calcitic crystals almost perfectly arrange in an array orientation along the two opposing planes of the spicules, leaving the other two plane arrays uncovered. It is concluded that the CA is a key enzyme controlling the calcium carbonate biomineralization process, which directs the newly formed particles to existing calcareous spicular structures. It is expected that with the given tools new bioinspired materials can be fabricated. PMID:23978410

  12. Improved technology for manufacture of carbon electrodes

    A Platon; A Dumbrava; N Iutes-Petrescu; Luzia Simionescu

    2000-02-01

    Current industrial carbon electrodes are typically manufactured by blending petroleum coke particles (the filler) with molten coal tar pitch (the binder) and extruding the resultant mix to form the `green electrode’. This is then baked under controlled conditions. In case of usage as anodes in steel electric furnaces (or as other carbon and graphite products), the electrodes could undergo further processing like pitch impregnation or graphitization. During heat treatment, some of the organics are destructively distilled, vaporized or decomposed, resulting in carbon deposition in the electrode. As the vaporized materials exit the body of the electrode they cause porosity in the walls, which results in reduction in density, current carrying capacity and flexural strength. The paper presents investigations to improve some physico-chemical characteristics of these electrodes (such as coefficient of thermal expansion, mechanical strengths, density, pore volume, porosity etc.), obtained in different manufacture steps, by addition of varieties of coal tar pitch. These include attempts to improve the chemical compatibility of the coke-pitch system in the mixture and establish the method and the point of introduction of additive, the concentration required and appropriate analytical control during the entire manufacture. Methods of analysis used include thermogravimetry and porosimetry. The microstructure of the electrodes is investigated through a wide range and the data obtained include pore size and pore volume distribution, surface area, porosity, particle size distribution and type of pores. The overall results clearly indicate better characteristics and performance for electrodes with additives as against electrodes without them, such as lower porosity, lower thermal expansion coefficients and greater mechanical strength. These data are analyzed with respect to the process step and electrode type.

  13. Key Factors Affecting a Technology Entrepreneur's Choice of Incubator or Accelerator

    Diane A. Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurship rarely succeeds in isolation; increasingly, it occurs in interconnected networks of business partners and other organizations. For entrepreneurs lacking access to an established business ecosystem, incubators and accelerators provide a possible support mechanism for access to partners and resources. Yet, these relatively recent approaches to supporting entrepreneurship are still evolving. Therefore, it can be challenging for entrepreneurs to assess these mechanisms and to make insightful decisions on whether or not to join an incubator or accelerator, and which incubator or accelerator best meets their needs. In this article, five key factors that entrepreneurs should take into consideration about incubators and accelerators are offered. Insights are drawn from two surveys of managers and users of incubators and accelerators. An understanding of these five key success factors (stage of venture, fit with incubator’s mission, selection and graduation policies, services provided, and network of partners and potential pitfalls will help entrepreneurs confidently enter into a relationship with an incubator or accelerator.

  14. Promoting International Cooperation and Public Acceptance in Utilizing Proton Accelerator Technology

    Proton engineering's main tool will be a high power proton accelerator which is to be established within next 10 years in the frame of Proton engineering Frontier Project. It is necessary for public to understand the meaning and importance of the project so that Project activities such as site preparation can be efficiently completed. And, it is required to establish a sound plan of international cooperation, and to develop user program to establish domestic foundation in utilizing the accelerator. Along with public relations activities through newspapers and broadcasting, there were more than 20 times of project presentations requested by various local governments, universities, and scientific societies. which resulted in strong support of the project from various societies. Based on collected information through actual visits to and internet surveys on foreign accelerators, a recommendation of international cooperation scheme has been made to complement domestic technological weak points, and there were discussions with some foreign organizations for that purpose. Especially, KEK of Japan, IHEP of China and KAERI have been deliberating on planning detail cooperation programs in developing and utilizing accelerator among 3 countries Some research items related with NT/BT/IT and utilizing proton beam were planned to be implemented in the Project. And a user program implemented in the Project In order to be prepared for future use of the accelerator. In order to upbring junior researchers for future days, an accelerator summer school has been planned to be held annually inviting prominent foreign and domestic lecturers

  15. Accelerated carbonation of steelmaking slags in a high-gravity rotating packed bed.

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Tan, Chung-Sung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2012-08-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) sequestration using the accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag in a high-gravity rotating packed bed (RPB) under various operational conditions was investigated. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, rotation speed and slurry flow rate on the CO(2) sequestration process were evaluated. The samples of reacted slurry were analyzed quantitatively using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and qualitatively using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The sequestration experiments were performed at a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20:1 with a flow rate of 2.5 L min(-1) of a pure CO(2) stream under atmospheric temperature and pressure. The results show that a maximum conversion of BOF slag was 93.5% at a reaction time of 30 min and a rotation speed of 750 rpm at 65°C. The experimental data were utilized to determine the rate-limiting mechanism based on the shrinking core model (SCM), which was validated by the observations of SEM and TEM. Accelerated carbonation in a RPB was confirmed to be a viable method due to its higher mass-transfer rate. PMID:22633879

  16. Reproducing ten years of road ageing - Accelerated carbonation and leaching of EAF steel slag

    Reuse of industrial aggregates is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. This paper proposes a laboratory method for accelerated ageing of steel slag, to predict environmental and technical properties, starting from fresh slag. Ageing processes in a 10-year old asphalt road with steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type in the subbase were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and leaching tests. Samples from the road centre and the pavement edge were compared with each other and with samples of fresh slag. It was found that slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas the road centre material was nearly identical to fresh slag, in spite of an accessible particle structure. Batches of moisturized road centre material exposed to oxygen, nitrogen or carbon dioxide (CO2) were used for accelerated ageing. Time (7-14 days), temperature (20-40 oC) and initial slag moisture content (8-20%) were varied to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. After ageing, water was added to assess leaching of metals and macroelements. 12% moisture, CO2 and seven days at 40 oC gave the lowest pH value. This also reproduced the observed ageing effect for Ca, Cu, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ca (decreased leaching) and for V, Si, and Al (increased leaching). However, ageing effects on SO4, DOC and Cr were not reproduced.

  17. Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    As long as fossil fuels and carbon-intensive industries play dominant roles in our economies, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will remain a critical greenhouse gas reduction solution. This CCS roadmap aims at assisting governments and industry in integrating CCS in their emissions reduction strategies and in creating the conditions for scaled-up deployment of all three components of the CCS chain: CO2 capture, transport and storage. To get us onto the right pathway, this roadmap highlights seven key actions needed in the next seven years to create a solid foundation for deployment of CCS starting by 2020. IEA analysis shows that CCS is an integral part of any lowest-cost mitigation scenario where long-term global average temperature increases are limited to significantly less than 4 °C, particularly for 2 °C scenarios (2DS). In the 2DS, CCS is widely deployed in both power generation and industrial applications. The total CO2 capture and storage rate must grow from the tens of megatonnes of CO2 captured in 2013 to thousands of megatonnes of CO2 in 2050 in order to address the emissions reduction challenge. A total cumulative mass of approximately 120 GtCO2 would need to be captured and stored between 2015 and 2050, across all regions of the globe.

  18. Killing effect of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions and RBE determination

    2002-01-01

    Survival curves of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accclerated carbon ions with linear energy transfers of 125.5, 200 and 700 keV/μm were measured, respectively. Inactivation cross sections corresponding to the irradiation above were deduced from the V79 cell survival curves. They are 7.86±0.17, 10.44±1.11 and 32.32±3.58 μm2 in turn. With the surviving response of V79 cells to 60Co γ-rays as a reference value, relative biological effectiveness at 10%, 20%, 50% and 80% survival levels were given for the accelerated carbon ions. The results showed that carbon ions with LET of 125.5 keV/μm had a higher value of RBE at all the four survival levels than the carbon ions with other LETs. It was prompted that the maximum value of RBE for the V79 cell surviving as the biological endpoint emerged at the LET below 200 keV/μm for carbon ions.

  19. A combination of Ang Ⅱ and carbon tetrachloride accelerates process of hepatic fibrosis

    周馨; 李定国; 李宣海; 陆汉明; 张文竹

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess whether Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) used in combination could accelerate the process of fibrosis and whether Ang Ⅱ play a role in exaggerating hepatic fibrosis in rats.Methods Ang Ⅱ was injected into the abdominal cavity of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats together with subcutaneous injection of CCl4. Rats were killed after 14 and 28 d. Blood serum and liver specimen were collected. The extent of fibrosis in the stained liver tissue sections was determined with the KS 400 Image Analysis System. Results Rats receiving Ang Ⅱ and CCl4 for 28 d showed extensive liver fibrosis. Along with the increase of hepatic fibrosis, the serum concentration of Ang Ⅱ went up gradually. Conclusions A combination of Ang Ⅱ and CCl4 would accelerate the process of hepatic fibrosis. Ang Ⅱ probably took part in the occurrence of heparic fibrosis.

  20. Characterization of Corrosion Products on Carbon Steel Exposed to Natural Weathering and to Accelerated Corrosion Tests

    Renato Altobelli Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the corrosion products formed on carbon steel plates submitted to atmospheric corrosion in urban and industrial atmospheres with those formed after accelerated corrosion tests. The corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The specimens were exposed to natural weathering in both atmospheres for nine months. The morphologies of the corrosion products were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The main product found was lepidocrocite. Goethite and magnetite were also found on the corroded specimens but in lower concentrations. The results showed that the accelerated test based on the ASTM B117 procedure presented poor correlation with the atmospheric corrosion tests whereas an alternated fog/dry cycle combined with UV radiation exposure provided better correlation.

  1. Selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system

    38 theses are presented in this selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system. It includes reactor physics and experiment, accelerators physics and technology, nuclear physics, material research and partitioning. 13 abstracts, which has been presented on magazines home and abroad, are collected in the appendix

  2. New technology for carbon dioxide at high pressure

    Carbon dioxide has long been the nemesis of environmentalists because of its role in global warming, but under just the right conditions-namely, high pressure and high temperature its one of nature's best and most environmentally benign solvents. Decaf-coffee lovers, for instance, benefit from its ability to remove caffeine from coffee beans.During the last few years, carbon dioxide has also made inroads in the dry-cleaning industry, providing a safe cleaning alternative to the chemical perchloroethylene. But it's on the high-tech front that carbon dioxide may make its biggest impact. There are huge opportunities. Scientists have known for more than a century that at 75 times atmospheric pressure and 31 degree centigrade, carbon dioxide goes into and odd state that chemists called supercritical. What's interesting to industry is that supercritical carbon dioxide may be an enabling technology for going to smaller dimensions.(Author)

  3. Incentives of carbon dioxide regulation for investment in low-carbon electricity technologies in Texas

    This paper compares the incentives a carbon dioxide emissions price creates for investment in low carbon dioxide-emitting technologies in the electricity sector. We consider the extent to which operational differences across generation technologies - particularly, nuclear, wind and solar photovoltaic - create differences in the incentives for new investment, which is measured by the operating profits of a potential entrant. First, astylized model of an electricity system demonstrates that the composition of the existing generation system may cause electricity prices to increase by different amounts over time when a carbon dioxide price is imposed. Differences in operation across technologies therefore translate to differences in the operating profits of a potential entrant. Then, a detailed simulation model is used to consider a hypothetical carbon dioxide price of $10-$50 per metric ton for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market. The simulations show that, for the range of prices considered, the increase in electricity prices is positively correlated with output from a typical wind unit, but the correlation is much weaker for nuclear and photovoltaic. Consequently, a carbon dioxide price creates much stronger investment incentives for wind than for nuclear or photovoltaic technologies in the Texas market. - Highlights: → Compare incentives for new investment in low-emission electricity technologies created by carbon dioxide price. → Focus on ERCOT power system using stochastic unit commitment model. →Find a greater incentive for wind than solar or nuclear because of correlation between wind generation and increase in electricity prices.

  4. Accelerated export of sediment and carbon from a landscape under intensive agriculture.

    Glendell, M; Brazier, R E

    2014-04-01

    The export of total organic carbon (particulate and dissolved) from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems has important implications for water quality and the global carbon cycle. However, most research to date has focused on DOC losses from either forested or peaty catchments, with only limited studies examining the controls and rates of total fluvial carbon losses from agricultural catchments, particularly during storm events. This study examined the controls and fluxes of total suspended sediment (SS), total particulate (TPC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from two adjacent catchments with contrasting intensive agricultural and semi-natural land-use. Data from 35 individual storm events showed that the agricultural catchment exported significantly higher SS concentrations on a storm-by-storm basis than the semi-natural catchment, with peak discharge exerting a greater control over SS, TPC and DOC concentrations. Baseflow DOC concentrations in the agricultural catchment were significantly higher. DOC quality monitored during one simultaneous rainfall event differed between the two study catchments, with more humic, higher molecular weight compounds prevailing in the agricultural catchment and lower molecular weight compounds prevailing in the semi-natural catchment. During an eight month period for which a comparable continuous turbidity record was available, the estimated SS yields from the agricultural catchment were higher than from the semi-natural catchment. Further, the agricultural catchment exported proportionally more TPC and a comparable amount of DOC, despite a lower total soil carbon pool. These results suggest that altered hydrological and biogeochemical processes within the agricultural catchment, including accelerated soil erosion and soil organic matter turnover, contributed to an enhanced fluvial SS and carbon export. Thus, we argue that enhancing semi-natural vegetation within intensively farmed catchments could reduce sediment and carbon losses

  5. Application of carbon fiber composite materials for the collision sections of particle accelerators

    Components made of carbon fiber composite material (CFCM) with Epoxy or BMI matrix were designed for various applications such as vacuum tubes, vertex chambers or support structures. The outstanding properties of CFCM which in many aspects are superior to metal structures especially qualify CFCM components for use in the collision sections of particle accelerators. A total of some 50 m of CFCM beam-tubes and of around 20 different CFCM structures and support elements of various configurations were produced following the specific needs and requirements of high energy particle physics at CERN, DESY and several other research institutes

  6. Technologies for improved soil carbon management and environmental quality

    Reicosky, D.C. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Morris, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to create an environmental awareness of and to provide insight into the future balance of environment and economic issues in developing new technologies that benefit the farmer, the public, and agricultural product sales. Agricultural impacts of tillage-induced CO{sub 2} losses are addressed along with new and existing technologies to minimize tillage-induced flow of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, Emphasis is placed on the carbon cycle and the cost of environmental damage to illustrate the need for improved technologies leading to reduced environmental impacts by business ventures. New technologies and concepts related to methods of tillage and stover management for carbon sequestration with the agricultural production systems are presented. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Accelerated ageing of an EAF black slag by carbonation and percolation for long-term behaviour assessment.

    Gurtubay, L; Gallastegui, G; Elias, A; Rojo, N; Barona, A

    2014-07-01

    The efficient reuse of industrial by-products, such as the electric arc furnace (EAF) black slag, is still hindered by concern over their long-term behaviour in outdoor environments. The aim of this study was to develop an accelerated ageing method to simulate the long-term natural carbonation of EAF slag exposed to the elements. The degree of carbonation achieved in a freshly produced slag after accelerated ageing and in a slag used on a fifteen-year-old unpaved road was very similar. The influence of particle size on accelerated carbonation was assessed, with it being concluded that the slag sample with a particle size bigger than 5-6 mm underwent slight carbonation over time when it was exposed to CO2. The accelerated ageing procedure based on percolating a previously carbonated water solution through the slag column allowed gradual leaching with simulated acid rain, as well as providing information about the gradual and total chemical release from the slag. Three classification groups were established according to the release rate of the determined elements. The joint use of the accelerated carbonation method and the percolation test is proposed as a useful tool for environmental risk assessment concerning the long-term air exposure of EAF black slag. PMID:24726964

  8. GPU-accelerated automatic identification of robust beam setups for proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy

    We demonstrate acceleration on graphic processing units (GPU) of automatic identification of robust particle therapy beam setups, minimizing negative dosimetric effects of Bragg peak displacement caused by treatment-time patient positioning errors. Our particle therapy research toolkit, RobuR, was extended with OpenCL support and used to implement calculation on GPU of the Port Homogeneity Index, a metric scoring irradiation port robustness through analysis of tissue density patterns prior to dose optimization and computation. Results were benchmarked against an independent native CPU implementation. Numerical results were in agreement between the GPU implementation and native CPU implementation. For 10 skull base cases, the GPU-accelerated implementation was employed to select beam setups for proton and carbon ion treatment plans, which proved to be dosimetrically robust, when recomputed in presence of various simulated positioning errors. From the point of view of performance, average running time on the GPU decreased by at least one order of magnitude compared to the CPU, rendering the GPU-accelerated analysis a feasible step in a clinical treatment planning interactive session. In conclusion, selection of robust particle therapy beam setups can be effectively accelerated on a GPU and become an unintrusive part of the particle therapy treatment planning workflow. Additionally, the speed gain opens new usage scenarios, like interactive analysis manipulation (e.g. constraining of some setup) and re-execution. Finally, through OpenCL portable parallelism, the new implementation is suitable also for CPU-only use, taking advantage of multiple cores, and can potentially exploit types of accelerators other than GPUs.

  9. Carbon pool analysis of methane hydrate regions in the seafloor by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Accelerator mass spectrometry for 14C was applied to the study of carbon pools associated with methane hydrate formations found in the seafloor at two continental margin sites. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) site contains thermogenically produced methane that is ancient and thus free of 14C. The Cascadia Margin site contains biogenically produced methane, so may contain some 14C. This work reports on the 14C content of organic matter in the sediment at the GOM site, and of the methane in hydrates from both sites. In the GOM, the surface sediments contained ancient organic matter that was from 20% to 60% of the total organic carbon content. At both sites, the collected hydrates contained essentially no 14C

  10. Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

    P. Bauer et al.

    2002-12-05

    The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and beam-stability [1]. Quantitative estimates of these limits were made and translated into scaling laws that could be inscribed into the particle energy versus machine size plane to delimit the boundaries for possible VLHCs. Eventually, accelerator simulations were performed to obtain the maximum achievable luminosities within these boundaries. Although this study aimed at investigating a general VLHC, it was unavoidable to refer in some instances to the recently studied, [2], 200 TeV center-of-mass energy VLHC stage-2 design (VLHC-2). A more thorough rendering of this work can be found in [3].

  11. Accelerated carbonation of steelmaking slags in a high-gravity rotating packed bed

    Highlights: ► The carbonation conversion in a RPB was higher than that in traditional reactors. ► The optimum conditions were operated at 750 rpm and 65 °C for 30 min. ► The product on BOF slag was identified as crystallized calcite based on SEM and XRD. ► The diffusivity ranged from 10−7 to 10−6 cm2 s−1 based on the shrinking core model. - Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration using the accelerated carbonation of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag in a high-gravity rotating packed bed (RPB) under various operational conditions was investigated. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, rotation speed and slurry flow rate on the CO2 sequestration process were evaluated. The samples of reacted slurry were analyzed quantitatively using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and qualitatively using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The sequestration experiments were performed at a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20:1 with a flow rate of 2.5 L min−1 of a pure CO2 stream under atmospheric temperature and pressure. The results show that a maximum conversion of BOF slag was 93.5% at a reaction time of 30 min and a rotation speed of 750 rpm at 65 °C. The experimental data were utilized to determine the rate-limiting mechanism based on the shrinking core model (SCM), which was validated by the observations of SEM and TEM. Accelerated carbonation in a RPB was confirmed to be a viable method due to its higher mass-transfer rate.

  12. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an important part of the lowest-cost greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation portfolio. IEA analysis suggests that without CCS, overall costs to reduce emissions to 2005 levels by 2050 increase by 70%. This roadmap includes an ambitious CCS growth path in order to achieve this GHG mitigation potential, envisioning 100 projects globally by 2020 and over 3000 projects by 2050. This roadmap's level of project development requires an additional investment of over USD 2.5-3 trillion from 2010 to 2050, which is about 6% of the overall investment needed to achieve a 50% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. OECD governments will need to increase funding for CCS demonstration projects to an average annual level of USD 3.5 to 4 billion (bn) from 2010 to 2020. In addition, mechanisms need to be established to incentivise commercialisation beyond 2020 in the form of mandates, GHG reduction incentives, tax rebates or other financing mechanisms.

  13. Technological acceleration and organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry

    The upstream oil and gas industry experienced a dramatic technological acceleration in the early 1970's. The relationships between the agents in this industry have themselves undergone deep changes since that date. This thesis shows that a tight link exists between the technological acceleration and the organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry. In a first part, it focuses on the economic theory's developments concerning industrial organization. In a second part, it applies these developments to three types of relations: those between the owner-states of hydrocarbon resources and the international petroleum companies; those between the international petroleum companies and their subcontractors; and finally those between the international petroleum companies themselves. (author)

  14. WILGA Photonics and Web Engineering, January 2012; EuCARD Sessions on HEP and Accelerator Technology

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from technical universities during the SPIE-IEEE Wilga January 2012 Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium held two times a year is a summary in the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also a great occasion for SPIE, IEEE, OSA and PSP st...

  15. Slurry Molding Technologies for Novel Carbon and Graphite Materials

    Burchell, T.D.

    2004-06-30

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a slurry molding technology for the manufacture of porous, high surface area, carbon fiber composites molecular sieves, and carbon-carbon composite preforms. Potentially, this technology could be applied to the manufacture of a host of novel carbon materials including porous adsorbent carbons, low-pressure drop adsorbent carbon composites, ultra-fine-grained graphite, and carbon fiber reinforced graphite. New opportunities for high surface carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) materials are now emerging. Many of these opportunities are driven by increasingly harsh environmental pressures. Traditional granular activated carbon (GAC) is not suitable for many of these applications because of the difficulties encountered with attrition and in forming ''structures'' which have the necessary mechanical and physical properties. In addition, the electrical desorption of adsorbed species is not possible with GAC due to its low bulk electrical conductivity. Activated carbon fibers have been found to be useful in some applications. Work by ORNL has shown, for example, that CFCMS materials are capable of adsorbing various gases and desorbing them under electrical stimulation. For some applications these fibers have to be formed into a structure that can offer the desired mechanical integrity and pressure drop characteristics. To date, the work by ORNL has focused on the use of a single manufacturer's isotropic pitch fibers which, when activated, may be cost prohibitive for many applications. Fine-grained graphite is attractive for many applications including the chemical processing industry where their unique combination of properties--including high strength and chemical inertness, are particularly attractive. However, a lack of toughness can limit their utility in certain applications. The use of ultra-fine powders in conjunction with slurry molding and hot pressing offers the

  16. Development of Wind-and-React Bi-2212 Accelerator Magnet Technology

    Godeke, A; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D. R.; English, C.D.; Felice, H.; Hannaford, C.R.; Prestemon, S. O.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.; Hikichi, Y.; Nishioka, J; Hasegawa, T.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the progress in our R&D program, targeted to develop the technology for the application of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212) in accelerator magnets. The program uses subscale coils, wound from insulated cables, to study suitable materials, heat treatment homogeneity, stability, and effects ofmagnetic field and thermal and electro-magnetic loads. We have addressed material and reaction related issues and report onthe fabrication, heat treatment, and analysis of subscale Bi-2212 coils. ...

  17. Basis and objectives of the Los Alamos accelerator driven transmutation technology project

    The paper describes a new accelerator-based nuclear technology developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory which offers total destruction of the weapons Plutonium inventory, a solution to the commercial nuclear waste problem which greatly reduces or eliminates the requirement for geologic waste storage, and a system which generates potentially unlimited energy from Thorium fuel while destroying its own waste and operating in a new regime of nuclear safety

  18. Basis and objectives of the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology Project

    The Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) Project carries three approaches for dealing with waste from the defense and commercial nuclear energy enterprise. First, the problem of excess weapons plutonium in the US and Russia originating both from stockpile reductions and from defense production site clean-up is one of significant current and long-term concern. The ADTT technology offers the possibility of almost complete destruction of this plutonium by fission. The technology might be particularly effective for destruction of the low quality plutonium from defense site clean-up since the system does not require the fabrication of the waste into fuel assemblies, does not require reprocessing and refabrication, and can tolerate a high level of impurities in the feed stream. Second, the ADTT system also can destroy the plutonium, other higher actinide, and long-lived fission product from commercial nuclear waste which now can only be dealt with by geologic storage. And finally, and probably most importantly the system can be used for the production of virtually unlimited electric power from thorium with concurrent destruction of its long-lived waste components so that geologic containment for them is not required. In addition plutonium is not a significant byproduct of the power generation so that non-proliferation concerns about nuclear power are almost completely eliminated. All of the ADTT systems operate with an accelerator supplementing the neutrons which in reactors are provided only by the fission process, and therefore the system can be designed to eliminate the possibility for a runaway chain reaction. The means for integration of the accelerator into nuclear power technology in order to make these benefits possible is described including estimates of accelerator operating parameters required for the three objectives

  19. Annotated bibliography of Accelerator Technology Division research and development, 1978-1985

    A bibliography is presented of unclassified published and in-house technical material written by members of the Accelerator Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, since its inception in January, 1978. The author and subject concordances in this report provide cross-reference to detailed citations kept in a computer database and a microfilm file of the documents. The citations include an abstract and other notes, and can be searched for key words and phrases

  20. A review of mineral carbonation technologies to sequester CO2.

    Sanna, A; Uibu, M; Caramanna, G; Kuusik, R; Maroto-Valer, M M

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and sequestration includes a portfolio of technologies that can potentially sequester billions of tonnes of CO2 per year. Mineral carbonation (MC) is emerging as a potential CCS technology solution to sequester CO2 from smaller/medium emitters, where geological sequestration is not a viable option. In MC processes, CO2 is chemically reacted with calcium- and/or magnesium-containing materials to form stable carbonates. This work investigates the current advancement in the proposed MC technologies and the role they can play in decreasing the overall cost of this CO2 sequestration route. In situ mineral carbonation is a very promising option in terms of resources available and enhanced security, but the technology is still in its infancy and transport and storage costs are still higher than geological storage in sedimentary basins ($17 instead of $8 per tCO2). Ex situ mineral carbonation has been demonstrated on pilot and demonstration scales. However, its application is currently limited by its high costs, which range from $50 to $300 per tCO2 sequestered. Energy use, the reaction rate and material handling are the key factors hindering the success of this technology. The value of the products seems central to render MC economically viable in the same way as conventional CCS seems profitable only when combined with EOR. Large scale projects such as the Skyonic process can help in reducing the knowledge gaps on MC fundamentals and provide accurate costing and data on processes integration and comparison. The literature to date indicates that in the coming decades MC can play an important role in decarbonising the power and industrial sector. PMID:24983767

  1. Advances in wine aging technologies for enhancing wine quality and accelerating wine aging process.

    Tao, Yang; García, Juan Francisco; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Wine aging is an important process to produce high-quality wines. Traditionally, wines are aged in oak barrel aging systems. However, due to the disadvantages of the traditional aging technology, such as lengthy time needed, high cost, etc., innovative aging technologies have been developed. These technologies involve aging wines using wood fragments, application of micro-oxygenation, aging on lees, or application of some physical methods. Moreover, wine bottling can be regarded as the second phase of wine aging and is essential for most wines. Each technology can benefit the aging process from different aspects. Traditional oak barrel aging technology is the oldest and widely accepted technology. The application of wood fragments and physical methods are promising in accelerating aging process artificially, while application of micro-oxygenation and lees is reliable to improve wine quality. This paper reviews recent developments of the wine aging technologies. The impacts of operational parameters of each technology on wine quality during aging are analyzed, and comparisons among these aging technologies are made. In addition, several strategies to produce high-quality wines in a short aging period are also proposed. PMID:24345051

  2. X-ray generation experiment in STF accelerator on quantum beam technology program

    To obtain high brightness quasi-monochromatic X-ray via Inverse Compton Scattering, highly intensified laser beam is designed and implemented in a new beam line of KEK Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) accelerator, under the program of 'Quantum Beam Technology Program'. The STF accelerator is a superconducting Linac using ILC technology, operated with a 5 Hz repetition, 1 ms electron bunch train, and 40 MeV beam energy. The intensified laser beam was generated by a 4-mirror optical cavity with beam-synchronized burst-amplified laser input. The high brightness X-ray is generated by the collision between incoming electron beam and stored laser beam in the 4-mirror cavity. The 4-mirror optical cavity technology has been selected for their stable laser storage with long mirror distance, where electron beam is coming in and out for head-on collision between them. On this report, STF accelerator construction including collision laser system, and also collision results are described. (author)

  3. Geo-Spatial Technologies for Carbon Sequestration Monitoring and Management

    V. Jeyanny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Globally, the quantification of Carbon Sequestration (CS potential of various ecosystems is a challenge. There is an urgent need for technologies that can quantify CS potential cost-efficiently in a repeated and organized manner. Approach: Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS have great potential in current estimation, future prediction and management of carbon sequestration potential in terrestrial ecosystems. This review discusses the current utilization of RS and GIS technologies in CS management in various sectors. Results: Deployment of RS and GIS for CS sequestration improves accuracy, reduces costs, increases productivity, and provides current observations from a regional scale. Conclusion: This review demonstrates the synergistic role of RS and GIS technologies in improving CS management.

  4. Acceleration of carbon-13 spin-lattice relaxation times in amino acids by electrolytes

    Tian Jinping; Yin Yingwu

    2004-01-01

    A series of amino acids and carboxylic acids were determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy.The results showed that addition of 3M MgCl2 led to the 13C NMR integral area of samples being well proportional to number of carbon atoms that produce the particular signal with reliability over 95%. Measurements of 13C spin-lattice relaxation times (T1's) are reported for a number of amino acids. T1's of all the carbons in amino acids generally tend to decrease with the increase of the concentration of electrolytes, and the presence of magnesium slats is of significant. Carboxylic carbons in amino acids are the most sensitive "acceptor" of the 13C spin-lattice relaxation accelerating effects in electrolytes, and the 13C spin-lattice relaxation accelerating ability of electrolytes is Mg(ClO4)2 >MgCl2 >CaCl2 >NaCl >KCl >LiClO4 >NaOH. In general, T1's of C1 carbons in nonpolar a-amino acids are higher than those in polar and basic a-amino acids both in aqueous and 3M MgCl2 medium. In aliphatic straight-chain amino acids, a-, a-, a-, ai- and a- amino acids, T1's of C1 carbons tend to reduce with the increase of inserted carbon numbers between amino and carboxylic groups compared with Gly. T1's can be decreased even more when amino acids are mixed in 3M MgCl2, but T1's of carbons in amino acids decrease slightly with increase of the concentration of amino acids in 3M MgCl2. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed in terms of intermolecular interaction and paramagnetic impurity in electrolytes, large contributions of intermolecular interaction which is enhanced in electrolytes concentrate on the incoming "unsaturation" of the primary solvation shell of cations with the increase of electrolytes concentration and complexes formation of amino acids with metal ions. In electrolytes, amino acids are "anchored" to cations and molecule tumbling is slowed down, molecular rigidity is increased and molecular size is "enlarged", all of these are helpful to accelerate

  5. Development of Evaluation Technology for Prevention of Two-Phase FAC on Carbon Steel

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Shim, Heesang; Lee, Eun Hee; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    There are many pipelines to be managed from wall thinning by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the secondary system of a nuclear power. FAC is a process in which a normally protective oxide layer on the internal carbon or low-alloy steel piping surface dissolves into a stream of flowing water or a wet steam mixture. In this process, the oxide layer becomes thinner and the corrosion rate increases until the corrosion rate and dissolution rates are equal. Recent researches and reports indicate that the FAC problem is prevalent in spite of the development of an inspection method and management skills applying computer programs. Therefore, it is important to mitigate or prevent FAC on the carbon steel, and surface coating technology has been investigated for pipeline systems in a steam flow. Since the occurrence of a Surry-2 pipe rupture accident, a lot of effort has been made to manage the FAC of carbon steel piping. Some of the chemicals were known as a corrosion inhibitor. Bateman et al. reported that the addition of Ti may decrease the FAC rate of carbon steel by ∼ 65 %, TiO{sub 2} was also effective in mitigating the stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubes under concentrated crevice conditions. A platinum doping method was applied as another mitigation strategy of carbon steel wall thinning. Noble metal, including Pt, had produced the layers of a very high catalyst concentration and this catalytic effect induced a lower corrosion potential for nickel alloys.

  6. Development of Evaluation Technology for Prevention of Two-Phase FAC on Carbon Steel

    There are many pipelines to be managed from wall thinning by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the secondary system of a nuclear power. FAC is a process in which a normally protective oxide layer on the internal carbon or low-alloy steel piping surface dissolves into a stream of flowing water or a wet steam mixture. In this process, the oxide layer becomes thinner and the corrosion rate increases until the corrosion rate and dissolution rates are equal. Recent researches and reports indicate that the FAC problem is prevalent in spite of the development of an inspection method and management skills applying computer programs. Therefore, it is important to mitigate or prevent FAC on the carbon steel, and surface coating technology has been investigated for pipeline systems in a steam flow. Since the occurrence of a Surry-2 pipe rupture accident, a lot of effort has been made to manage the FAC of carbon steel piping. Some of the chemicals were known as a corrosion inhibitor. Bateman et al. reported that the addition of Ti may decrease the FAC rate of carbon steel by ∼ 65 %, TiO2 was also effective in mitigating the stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubes under concentrated crevice conditions. A platinum doping method was applied as another mitigation strategy of carbon steel wall thinning. Noble metal, including Pt, had produced the layers of a very high catalyst concentration and this catalytic effect induced a lower corrosion potential for nickel alloys

  7. Endogenous Technological Progress with Uncertainty and Carbon Abatement Polices

    Cho, G.L. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Most greenhouse gas abatement policy models tend to neglect a potentially important element that is relevant to the induced technology changes(ITC). These models that incorporate technological change treat such a change as autonomous, that is, unaffected by changes in prices brought about by policy reforms. However, climate change policies can create economic incentives to engage in more extensive R and D oriented toward the discovery of new production techniques that mitigate a reliance on convectional fuels, ultimately resulting in impacts on the policies themselves. In order to investigate the significance of induced technology for the attractiveness of abatement policies, this study develop the multi-sectoral dynamic CGE model by incorporating two characteristics of technological progress: the endogenous growth model with externality of technology in Romer (1986) and Lucas(1988) and the technological changes resulting from profit maximizing investment in R and D in Rebelo(1991) and Jones and Manuelli(1990). Furthermore, technological progress is affected by not only the economical factors but also the political and institutional system that cannot be captured in this model. This study considers such uncertainty in the technological progress as technology shock as in RBC school. This study shows that the presence of ITC implies lower costs of achieving a given abatement target in terms of the reduction cost per ton of carbon and GDP losses. The presence of ITC reduces the GDP losses by 0.9%p{approx}1.5%p compared with the absence of the ITC. As the abatement target is substantially high, R and D is reduced significantly even in the presence of ITC. Therefore, it is necessary to seriously consider the tax recycling for enhancing R and D investment, which minimizes the GDP losses. The reduction cost is highly sensitive to the uncertainty in technological progress. The technology shock leads the reduction cost to widely vary, in terms of standard deviation, 3

  8. Carbon Capture in the Cement Industry: Technologies, Progress, and Retrofitting.

    Hills, Thomas; Leeson, Duncan; Florin, Nicholas; Fennell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Several different carbon-capture technologies have been proposed for use in the cement industry. This paper reviews their attributes, the progress that has been made toward their commercialization, and the major challenges facing their retrofitting to existing cement plants. A technology readiness level (TRL) scale for carbon capture in the cement industry is developed. For application at cement plants, partial oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing, and calcium looping are the most developed (TRL 6 being the pilot system demonstrated in relevant environment), followed by direct capture (TRL 4-5 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a relevant environment) and full oxy-fuel combustion (TRL 4 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a lab environment). Our review suggests that advancing to TRL 7 (demonstration in plant environment) seems to be a challenge for the industry, representing a major step up from TRL 6. The important attributes that a cement plant must have to be "carbon-capture ready" for each capture technology selection is evaluated. Common requirements are space around the preheater and precalciner section, access to CO2 transport infrastructure, and a retrofittable preheater tower. Evidence from the electricity generation sector suggests that carbon capture readiness is not always cost-effective. The similar durations of cement-plant renovation and capture-plant construction suggests that synchronizing these two actions may save considerable time and money. PMID:26630247

  9. How carbon pricing changes the relative competitiveness of low-carbon baseload generating technologies

    There is wide public debate about which electricity generating technologies will best be suited to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Sometimes this debate ignores real-world practicalities and leads to over-optimistic conclusions. Here we define and apply a set of fit-for-service criteria to identify technologies capable of supplying baseload electricity and reducing GHGs by amounts and within the timescale set by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Only five current technologies meet these criteria: coal (both pulverised fuel and integrated gasification combined cycle) with carbon capture and storage (CCS); combined cycle gas turbine with CCS; Generation III nuclear fission; and solar thermal backed by heat storage and gas turbines. To compare costs and performance, we undertook a meta-review of authoritative peer-reviewed studies of levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) and life-cycle GHG emissions for these technologies. Future baseload electricity technology selection will be influenced by the total cost of technology substitution, including carbon pricing, which is synergistically related to both LCOE and emissions. Nuclear energy is the cheapest option and best able to meet the IPCC timetable for GHG abatement. Solar thermal is the most expensive, while CCS will require rapid major advances in technology to meet that timetable. -- Research highlights: → Future energy production must be uncoupled from greenhouse gas emissions. → We rank low-carbon technologies on ability to supply fit-for-service baseload electricity. → A meta-review of authoritative literature shows nuclear is best placed to replace fossil fuels. → A carbon price must rise above $30/t CO2e before other low-emission technologies can compete with PF coal.

  10. Critical Metals in Strategic Low-carbon Energy Technologies

    Moss, R. L.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the rapid growth in demand for certain materials, compounded by political risks associated with the geographical concentration of the supply of them, shortages of materials could be a potential bottleneck to the deployment of low-carbon energy technologies. Consequently, an assessment has been carried out to ascertain whether such shortages could jeopardise the objectives of the EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), especially in the six low-carbon energy technologies of SET-Plan, namely: nuclear, solar, wind, bioenergy, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and electricity grids. The assessment identified 14 metals for which the deployment of the six technologies will require 1% or more (and in some cases, much more) of current world supply per annum between 2020 and 2030. Following a more critical examination, based on the likelihood of rapid future global demand growth, limitations to expanding supply in the short to medium term, and the concentration of supply and political risks associated with key suppliers, 5 of the 14 metals were pinpointed to be at high risk, namely: the rare earth metals neodymium and dysprosium (for wind technology), and the by-products (from the processing of other metals) indium, tellurium and gallium (for photovoltaic technologies). In addition, the work has explored potential mitigation strategies, ranging from expanding European output, increasing recycling and reuse to reducing waste and finding substitutes for these metals in their main applications. Furthermore, recommendations are provided which include closely working with the EU's Raw Materials Initiative; supporting efforts to ensure reliable supply of ore concentrates at competitive prices; promoting R&D and demonstration projects on new lower cost separation processes; and promoting the further development of recycling technologies and increasing end-of-life collection

  11. Medical accelerator project for proton and carbon therapy in Hyogo Prefectural Government

    Hyogo Prefectural Government starts building a facility for proton radiation therapy that will also provide carbon therapy. The facility will be completed in 2000. Its output energy can be charged to 230 MeV/u proton beam and to 320 MeV/u carbon beam. In 1995, fundamental design of an accelerator was ordered. In the present plan, five rooms are to be provided for medical treatment. Different beam lines will be equipped in each room, one horizontal, one vertical with horizontal, two gantries, and one 45-degree oblique beam. 50-bed hospital will be built on an adjacent site to accommodate up to more than one thousand patients a year. These medical facilities will be part of the Harima Science Garden City, where Super Photon ring-8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility (SPring-8) is now building, which will be one of the most powerful synchrotron facilities in the world when completed in 1997. In the future, the medical imaging of using the beam of SPring-8 will be possible to diagnose the early cancer, which will be treated by proton or carbon beams without surgery. (author)

  12. Effect of accelerated carbonation on AOD stainless steel slag for its valorisation as a CO2-sequestering construction material

    Salman, Muhammad Salman; Cizer, Özlem; Pontikes, Yiannis; Santos, Rafael; Vandewalle, Lucie; Blanpain, Bart; Van Balen, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Non-stabilized Argon Oxygen Decarburisation (AODNS) slag in powdered form was examined for its carbon dioxide sequestration capacity and for its potential utilization in the fabrication of high value building materials. The curing of the sample was carried out in two accelerated carbonation environments: i) in a carbonation chamber, maintained at atmospheric pressure, 22 °C, 5 vol.% CO2 and 80% RH; and ii) in a carbonation reactor, where the CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and temperature could b...

  13. Reducing Students' Carbon Footprints Using Personal Carbon Footprint Management System Based on Environmental Behavioural Theory and Persuasive Technology

    Lin, Shyh-ming

    2016-01-01

    This study applied environmental behavioural theories to develop a personal carbon footprint management system and used persuasive technology to implement it. The system serves as an educational system to improve the determinants of students' low-carbon behaviours, to promote low-carbon concepts and to facilitate their carbon management. To assess…

  14. DOE's Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration Program accelerating the implementation of innovative technologies

    A program to help accelerate the adoption and implementation of new and innovative remediation technologies has been initiated by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program Office (EM40). Developed as a Public-Private Partnership program in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Technology Innovation Office (TIO) and coordinated by Sandia National Laboratories, the Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program attempts to reduce many of the classic barriers to the use of new technologies by involving government, industry, and regulatory agencies in the assessment, implementation, and validation of innovative technologies. In this program, DOE facilities work cooperatively with EPA, industry, national laboratories, and state and federal regulatory agencies to establish remediation demonstrations using applicable innovative technologies at their sites. Selected innovative technologies are used to remediate small, one to two acre, sites to generate the full-scale and real-world operating, treatment performance, and cost data needed to validate these technologies and gain acceptance by industry and regulatory agencies, thus accelerating their use nationwide. Each ITRD project developed at a DOE site is designed to address a typical soil or groundwater contamination issue facing both DOE and industry. This includes sites with volatile organic compound (VOC), semi-VOC, heavy metal, explosive residue, and complex or multiple constituent contamination. Projects are presently underway at three DOE facilities, while additional projects are under consideration for initiation in FY96 at several additional DOE sites. A brief overview of the ITRD Program, program plans, and the status and progress of existing ITRD projects are reviewed in this paper

  15. The Machine Protection System for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    Wu, Jinyuan [Fermilab; Warner, Arden [Fermilab; Liu, Ning [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden [Fermilab

    2015-11-15

    The Machine Protection System (MPS) for the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility (FAST) has been implemented and tested. The system receives signals from several subsystems and devices which conveys the relevant status needed to the safely operate the accelerator. Logic decisions are made based on these inputs and some predefined user settings which in turn controls the gate signal to the laser of the photo injector. The inputs of the system have a wide variety of signal types, encoding methods and urgencies for which the system is designed to accommodate. The MPS receives fast shutdown (FSD) signals generated by the beam loss system and inhibits the beam or reduces the beam intensity within a macropulse when the beam losses at several places along the accelerator beam line are higher than acceptable values. TTL or relay contact signals from the vacuum system, toroids, magnet systems etc., are chosen with polarities that ensure safe operation of the accelerator from unintended events such as cable disconnection in the harsh industrial environment of the experimental hall. A RS422 serial communication scheme is used to interface the operation permit generator module and a large number of movable devices each reporting multi-bit status. The system also supports operations at user defined lower beam levels for system conunissioning. The machine protection system is implemented with two commercially available off-the-shelf VMEbus based modules with on board FPGA devices. The system is monitored and controlled via the VMEbus by a single board CPU

  16. Evaluating the development of carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is seen as an important solution to solve the twin challenge of reducing GHG emissions, while utilizing fossil fuel reserves to meet future energy requirements. In this study an innovation systems perspective is applied to review the development of CCS technologies in the US between 2000 and 2009 and to come up with policy recommendations for technology managers that wish to accelerate the deployment of CCS. The analysis describes the successful built-up of an innovation system around CCS and pinpoints the key determinants for this achievement. However, the evaluation of the system's performance also indicates that America's leading role in the development of CCS should not be taken for granted. It shows that the large CCS R and D networks, as well as the extensive CCS knowledge base, which have been accumulated over the past decade, have not yet been valorized by entrepreneurs to explore the market for integrated CCS concepts linked to power generation. Therefore, it is argued that the build-up of the innovation system has entered a critical phase that is decisive for a further thriving development of CCS technologies in the US. This study provides a clear understanding of the current barriers to the technology's future deployment and outlines a policy strategy that (1) stimulates technological learning; (2) facilitates collaboration and coordination in CCS actor networks; (3) creates financial and market incentives for the technology; and (4) provides supportive regulation and sound communication on CCS. (author)

  17. Public demonstration projects and field trials: Accelerating commercialisation of sustainable technology in solar photovoltaics

    The paper considers the role of government funded demonstration projects and field trials (DTs) in accelerating the commercialisation of new energy technologies that meet a public good but do not have immediate market appeal [Sagar, A.D., van der Zwaan, B., 2006. Technological innovation in the energy sector: R and D, deployment, and learning-by-doing. Energy Policy 34, 2601-2608]. Drawing on an original database of DTs in the EU, Japan and USA from 1973 to 2004, we review the history of DTs in photovoltaic technology for electricity generation, and its subsequent take up as a commercial energy source. We find that DTs that are aimed purely at discovering suitable market opportunities are less successful in achieving diffusion than projects that target a particular application and concentrate resources on it. The former nevertheless have a vital role to play in the learning process, while a targeted focus is often dependent on national industrial and institutional factors.

  18. Climate-change effects on soils: Accelerated weathering, soil carbon and elemental cycling

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-04-01

    Climate change [i.e., high atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (≥400 ppm); increasing air temperatures (2-4°C or greater); significant and/or abrupt changes in daily, seasonal, and inter-annual temperature; changes in the wet/dry cycles; intensive rainfall and/or heavy storms; extended periods of drought; extreme frost; heat waves and increased fire frequency] is and will significantly affect soil properties and fertility, water resources, food quantity and quality, and environmental quality. Biotic processes that consume atmospheric CO2, and create organic carbon (C) that is either reprocessed to CO2 or stored in soils are the subject of active current investigations, with great concern over the influence of climate change. In addition, abiotic C cycling and its influence on the inorganic C pool in soils is a fundamental global process in which acidic atmospheric CO2 participates in the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, ultimately delivering bicarbonate and Ca2+ or other cations that precipitate in the form of carbonates in soils or are transported to the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Soil responses to climate change will be complex, and there are many uncertainties and unresolved issues. The objective of the review is to initiate and further stimulate a discussion about some important and challenging aspects of climate-change effects on soils, such as accelerated weathering of soil minerals and resulting C and elemental fluxes in and out of soils, soil/geo-engineering methods used to increase C sequestration in soils, soil organic matter (SOM) protection, transformation and mineralization, and SOM temperature sensitivity. This review reports recent discoveries, identifies key research needs, and highlights opportunities offered by the climate-change effects on soils.

  19. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A new technology roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications, released today in Beijing, shows that carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial applications by 4 gigatonnes in 2050. Such an amount is equal to roughly one-tenth of the total emission cuts needed from the energy sector by the middle of the century. This requires a rapid deployment of CCS technologies in various industrial sectors, and across both OECD and non-OECD countries. The roadmap, a joint report from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), says that over 1800 industrial-scale projects are required over the next 40 years.

  20. Possibilities and Challenges designing low-carbon-energy technologies

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    study object and discusses the question: What are the main possibilities and challenges when designing low-carbon illumination technologies? To answer this question, we use a systemic approach including environmental, economic, energy and political issues using relevant concepts from the Ecological......Though there is broad consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on the use of low-carbon technologies, and even though there is a big potential to turn to a more sustainable design and innovation, there are several elements that need to be taken into...... account to be able to achieve efficient reductions of energy and CO2 emissions and at the same time design a product attractive for the consumer, in terms of price, level of service and aesthetical demands, to ensure its strategic implementation. This paper takes the Danish office lighting sector as a...

  1. Development of accelerator technology in Poland, Impact of European CARE and EuCARD projects

    Romaniuk, R

    2008-01-01

    The development of accelerator technology in Poland is strictly combined with the cooperation with specialist accelerator centers of global character, where the relevant knowledge is generated, allowing to build big and modern machines. These are relatively costly undertakings of interdisciplinary character. Most of them are financed from the local resources. Only the biggest machines are financed commonly by many nations like: LHC in CERN, ILC in Fermi Lab, E-XFEL in DESY. A similar financing solution has to be implemented in Poland, where a scientific and political campaign is underway on behalf of building two big machines, a Polish Synchrotron in Kraków and a Polish FEL in Świerk. Around these two projects, there are realized a dozen or so smaller ones.

  2. Development of free electron laser and accelerator technology in Poland (CARE and EuCARD projects)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The development of accelerator technology in Poland is strictly combined with the cooperation with specialist accelerator centers of global character, where the relevant knowledge is generated, allowing to build big and modern machines. These are relatively costly undertakings of interdisciplinary character. Most of them are financed from the local resources. Only the biggest machines are financed commonly by many nations like: LHC in CERN, ILC in Fermi Lab, E-XFEL in DESY. A similar financing solution has to be implemented in Poland, where a scientific and political campaign is underway on behalf of building two big machines, a Polish Synchrotron in Kraków and a Polish FEL in Świerk. Around these two projects, there are realized a dozen or so smaller ones.

  3. Corrosion behavior of modified nano carbon black/epoxy coating in accelerated conditions

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • By using SDS as a surfactant, nano particles of CB were uniformly dispersed. • CB nanoparticle in the epoxy coating improved the corrosion resistance of the coating. • By addition of CB nanoparticles to the epoxy diffusion ions and water became limited. • The dominance of barrier mechanism was proved by calculation of the diffusion coefficients. - Abstract: The electrochemical behavior and anticorrosion properties of modified carbon black (CB) nanoparticles in epoxy coatings were investigated in accelerated conditions. Nanoparticles of CB were modified by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Dispersion of nanoparticles into epoxy was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The accelerated condition was prepared at 65 °C. CB nanoparticles improved corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. The optimum concentration of CB in the epoxy coating was 0.75 wt%. Results showed that the CB hinder the corrosion due to its barrier properties. CB can decrease the diffusion coefficient of water in the coating with filling the micropores

  4. Corrosion behavior of modified nano carbon black/epoxy coating in accelerated conditions

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira, E-mail: shariatpanahih@ripi.ir; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • By using SDS as a surfactant, nano particles of CB were uniformly dispersed. • CB nanoparticle in the epoxy coating improved the corrosion resistance of the coating. • By addition of CB nanoparticles to the epoxy diffusion ions and water became limited. • The dominance of barrier mechanism was proved by calculation of the diffusion coefficients. - Abstract: The electrochemical behavior and anticorrosion properties of modified carbon black (CB) nanoparticles in epoxy coatings were investigated in accelerated conditions. Nanoparticles of CB were modified by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Dispersion of nanoparticles into epoxy was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The accelerated condition was prepared at 65 °C. CB nanoparticles improved corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. The optimum concentration of CB in the epoxy coating was 0.75 wt%. Results showed that the CB hinder the corrosion due to its barrier properties. CB can decrease the diffusion coefficient of water in the coating with filling the micropores.

  5. Risk-Based Comparison of Carbon Capture Technologies

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Dale, Crystal; Jones, Edward

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we describe an integrated probabilistic risk assessment methodological framework and a decision-support tool suite for implementing systematic comparisons of competing carbon capture technologies. Culminating from a collaborative effort among national laboratories under the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI), the risk assessment framework and the decision-support tool suite encapsulate three interconnected probabilistic modeling and simulation components. The technology readiness level (TRL) assessment component identifies specific scientific and engineering targets required by each readiness level and applies probabilistic estimation techniques to calculate the likelihood of graded as well as nonlinear advancement in technology maturity. The technical risk assessment component focuses on identifying and quantifying risk contributors, especially stochastic distributions for significant risk contributors, performing scenario-based risk analysis, and integrating with carbon capture process model simulations and optimization. The financial risk component estimates the long-term return on investment based on energy retail pricing, production cost, operating and power replacement cost, plan construction and retrofit expenses, and potential tax relief, expressed probabilistically as the net present value distributions over various forecast horizons.

  6. An Accelerated Test Method of Simultaneous Carbonation and Chloride Ion Ingress: Durability of Silica Fume Concrete in Severe Environments

    Ghahari, S. A.; Ramezanianpour, A. M.; Ramezanianpour, A. A.; Esmaeili, M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion attack on mechanical characteristics and durability of concrete containing silica fume have been investigated through an accelerated test method. Specimens containing different amounts of silica fume were maintained in an apparatus in which carbon dioxide pressure and concentration and relative humidity were kept constant, and wetting and drying cycles in saline water were applied. Surface resistivity, sorptivity, CO2 consumption, and c...

  7. Simulation of Cascaded Longitudinal-Space-Charge Amplifier at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (Fast) Facility

    Halavanau, A. [Northern Illinois U.; Piot, P. [Northern Illinois U.

    2015-12-01

    Cascaded Longitudinal Space Charge Amplifiers (LSCA) have been proposed as a mechanism to generate density modulation over a board spectral range. The scheme has been recently demonstrated in the optical regime and has confirmed the production of broadband optical radiation. In this paper we investigate, via numerical simulations, the performance of a cascaded LSCA beamline at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility to produce broadband ultraviolet radiation. Our studies are carried out using elegant with included tree-based grid-less space charge algorithm.

  8. Accelerator laboratories: development centers for experimental physics and technology in Mexico

    Three years ago in this Nuclear Center the author and Professor Graef expounded the inception and development of experimental physics and new techniques centered about laboratories and equipped in our country with positive ion accelerators. Extracted here is the information on the laboratories that have allowed professional training as well as the furtherance of scientific productivity in each group. An additional proposal as to how the technical groups knowledgeable in advanced technology might contribute significantly to adequate preparation of youth at the intermediate level able to generate innocuous micro industries in their own neighbourhood. (Author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Accelerator physics and technology challenges of very high energy hadron colliders

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2015-08-01

    High energy hadron colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present, international particle physics community considers several options for a 100 TeV proton-proton collider as a possible post-LHC energy frontier facility. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. This paper briefly reviews the accelerator physics and technology challenges of the future very high energy colliders and outlines the areas of required research and development towards their technical and financial feasibility.

  10. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs. PMID:25597687

  11. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture

    Tielin Wang; Jon Hovland; KlauS J.Jens

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture.Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance,and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems.This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC).Thermal reclaiming,ion exchange,and electrodialysis,although principally developed for sour gas sweetening,have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas.The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses,and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs.An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  12. Evaluation of Flow Accelerated Corrosion of Carbon Steel with Rotating Cylinder

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of the carbon steel piping in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been major issue in nuclear industry. Rotating cylinder FAC test facility was designed and fabricated and then performance of the facility was evaluated. The facility is very simple in design and economic in fabrication and can be used in material and chemistry screening test. The facility is equipped with on line monitoring of pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen(DO), and temperature. Fluid velocity is controlled with rotating speed of the cylinder with a test specimen. FAC test of SA106 Gr. B carbon steel under 4 m/s flow velocity was performed with the rotating cylinder at DO concentration of less than 1 ppb and of 1.3 ppm. Also a corrosion test of the carbon steel at static condition, that is at zero fluid velocity, of test specimen and solution was performed at pH from 8 to 10 for comparison with the FAC data. For corrosion test in static condition, the amount of non adherent corrosion product was almost constant at pH ranging from 8 to 10. But adherent corrosion product decreased with increasing pH. This trend is consistent with decrease of Fe solubility with an increase in pH. For FAC test with rotating cylinder FAC test facility, the amount of non adherent corrosion product was also almost same for both DO concentrations. The rotating cylinder FAC test facility will be further improved by redesigning rotating cylinder and FAC specimen geometry for future work

  13. Accelerating the market penetration of renewable energy technologies in South Africa

    There exists a large potential for renewable energy technologies in South Africa and despite the fact that rapid growth of the application of renewable energy takes place in many parts of the world, the current installed renewable capacity in South Africa is negligible. The objective of this study is to address this gap by analysing ways to accelerate the market penetration of renewable energy technologies in South Africa. The activities undertaken in this study comprise two major components: a thorough analysis of South Africa's specific constraints and barriers to renewable energy implementation, and a review of the lessons learnt from Member States of the European Union (EU) on the promotion of renewable energy development. The focus of the study was restricted to the analysis of electricity generating technologies, in particular solar energy, biomass, wind power and mini-hydro renewable energy technologies. Recommendations to stimulate the market penetration of renewable energy technologies in South Africa are formulated. They are structured in: actions to enhance the policy framework for renewable power generation, actions to enhance the policy framework for off-grid renewable energy, and recommendations to stimulate renewable energy project development. 44 refs

  14. Technology development of solid state rf systems at 350 MHz and 325 MHz for RF accelerator

    For decades vacuum tubes and klystrons have been used in high power application such as RF accelerators and broadcast transmitters. However, now, the solid-state technology can give power output in kilowatt regime. Higher RF power output can be achieved by combining several solid-state power amplifier modules using power combiners. This technology presents several advantages over traditional RF amplifiers, such as simpler start-up procedure, high modularity, high redundancy and flexibility, elimination of high voltage supplies and high power circulators, low operational cost, online maintenance without shut down of RF power station and no warm up time. In BARC, solid state amplifier technology development is being done both at 350 MHz and 325 MHz using RF transistors such as 1 kW LDMOS and 350 Watt VDMOS. Topology of input and output matching network in RF modules developed, consist of two L type matching sections with each section having a combination of series micro-strip line and parallel capacitor. The design is of equal Q for both the sections and of 25 ohm characteristics impedance of micro strip lines. Based on this, lengths of micro strips lines and values of shunt capacitors have been calculated. The calculated and simulated values of network elements have been compared. Similarly power combiners have been designed and developed based on Wilkinson techniques without internal resistors and using coaxial technology. This paper presents design and development of RF power amplifier modules, associated power combiner technologies and then integrated RF power amplifier. (author)

  15. Needs and emerging opportunities of electron beam accelerators on radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications in South America

    The radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications has been developed and used worldwide. In South America there are 17 industrial electron beam accelerators with energy from 200 keV to 10 MeV, operating in private companies and governmental institutions to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, there are more than 1400 high-current electron beam accelerators in commercial use throughout the world. The major end-use markets for these EB units are R and D, wire and electric cables, heat shrinkable tubes and films, foams, tires and components, semiconductors and multilayer packages. In addition, the Brazilian Technical Association for Radiation Curing was foundered in 1993. The knowledge on EB technology has been sharing with the associated industries and partners in Brazil, since that time. In 2006, an agreement with RadTech International North America and this Brazilian association promotes the RadTech South America, which has its headquarters in IPEN-CNEN/SP. Nowadays, the emerging opportunities in South America are paints, adhesives and coatings cure; disinfestations of seeds; films and multilayer packages irradiation for low-energy EBA (150 - 300 keV). For mid-energy EBA (300 keV-5 MeV), they are flue gas treatment (SO2 and NOX removal); composite materials and carbon fibers irradiation; irradiated grafting ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells application; natural polymers irradiation and biodegradable blends production. For high-energy EBA (5-10 MeV), they are sterilization of medical, pharmaceutical and biological products; gemstone enhancement; treatment of industrial and domestic effluents and sludge; preservation and disinfestations of foods and agricultural products; sugarcane bagasse irradiation as pretreatment to produce ethanol biofuel; decontamination of pesticide packing; soil remediation; organic compounds removal from wastewater; treatment of effluent from petroleum production units and

  16. Accelerator-driven transmutation technology: a high-tech solution to some nuclear waste problems

    This paper discusses current technical and non-technical issues regarding the innovative concept of using accelerator-driven transmutation processes for nuclear waste management. Two complex and related issues are addressed. First, the evolution of the current U.S. conceptual design is identified to indicate that there has been sufficient technological advancement with regard to a 1991 scientific peer review to warrant the advent of a large-scale national research and development program. Second, the economics and politics of the transmutation system are examined to identify non-technical barriers to the implementation of the program. Although a number of key challenges are identified in this paper, the benefits of the research and development effort and the potential paradigm shift in attitude toward resource stewardship could greatly enhance public confidence in nuclear waste management that will have rapid positive repercussions on nuclear technology research and commercial applications. (author)

  17. Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U.S. accelerator transmutation of waste system

    A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system

  18. Fabrication Technologies of the High Gradient Accelerator Structures at 100MV/m Range

    Wang, Juwen; Van Pelt, John; Yoneda, Charles; Gudkov, D; Riddone, Germana; Higo, Toshiyasu; Takatomi, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    A CERN-SLAC-KEK collaboration on high gradient X-band structure research has been established in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the CLIC baseline design for the main linac stably operating at more than 100 MV/m loaded accelerating gradient. Several prototype CLIC structures were successfully fabricated and high power tested. They operated at 105 MV/m with a breakdown rate that meets the CLIC linear collider specifications of <5×10-7/pulse/m. This paper summarizes the fabrication technologies including the mechanical design, precision machining, chemical cleaning, diffusion bonding as well as vacuum baking and all related assembly technologies. Also, the tolerances control, tuning and RF characterization will be discussed

  19. Surveying and optical tooling technologies combined to align a skewed beamline at the LAMPF accelerator

    Optical Tooling evolved from traditional surveying, and both technologies are sometimes used interchangeably in large industrial installations, since the instruments and their specialized adapters and supports complement each other well. A unique marriage of both technologies was accomplished in a novel application at LAMPF, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. LAMPF consists of a linear accelerator with multiple target systems, one of which had to be altered to accommodate a new beamline for a neutrino experiment. The new line was to be installed into a crowded beam tunnel and had to be skewed and tilted in compound angles to avoid existing equipment. In this paper we describe how Optical Tooling was used in conjunction with simple alignment and reference fixtures to set fiducials on the magnets and other mechanical components of the beamline, and how theodolites and sight levels were then adapted to align these components along the calculated skew planes. Design tolerances are compared with measured alignment results

  20. Biased HiPIMS technology for superconducting rf accelerating cavities coating

    G. Rosaz, G.; Sonato, D.; Calatroni, S.; Ehiasarian, A.; Junginger, T.; Taborelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years the interest of the thin film science and technology community on High Impulse Power Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) coatings has steadily increased. HIPIMS literature shows that better thin film morphology, denser and smoother films can be achieved when compared with standard dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS) coating technology. Furthermore the capability of HIPIMS to produce a high quantity of ionized species can allow conformal coatings also for complex geometries. CERN already studied the possibility to use such a coating method for SRF accelerating cavities. Results are promising but not better from a RF point of view than dcMS coatings. Thanks to these results the next step is to go towards a biased HiPIMS approach. However the geometry of the cavities leads to complex changes in the coating setup in order to apply a bias voltage. Coating system tweaking and first superconducting properties of biased samples are presented.

  1. Policy and innovation in low-carbon energy technologies

    Nemet, Gregory Frank

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GhG) emissions by several gigatons of CO 2-equivalents per year, while affordably meeting the world's growing demand for energy, will require the deployment of tens of terawatts of low-carbon energy production and end-use technologies over the next several decades. But improvements are needed because existing technologies are expensive, limited in availability, or not sufficiently reliable for deployment at that scale. At the same time, the presence of multiple market failures implies that private actors will under-invest in climate-related innovation without government intervention. To help resolve this impasse, policy makers will need to select from a vast set of policy instruments that may stimulate innovation in, and adoption of, these technologies. In this thesis, four studies are used to contribute to understanding the characteristics of the innovation process---and its interactions with policy---for low-carbon energy technologies. These include analyses of: (1) the trends and future prospects for U.S. energy R&D investment, (2) the effectiveness of demand-pull for wind power in California, (3) the sources of cost reductions in photovoltaics (PV), and (4) the effect of widespread deployment of PV on the earth's albedo. When considering these studies together, the uncertainty in expectations about future policies that increases the risk for investments in innovation emerges as a central problem. As observed in multiple instances in this thesis, the lags between investments in innovation and the payoffs for private actors can last several years. These distant payoffs rely heavily on the status of future government policies because externalities are pervasive for the development of climate-relevant technologies. When expectations about the future level---or existence---of these policy instruments are uncertain, then firms discount the value of these future policies and under-invest in innovation. The diffusion of institutional innovation

  2. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Z.M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S.C.; Shen, X.K.; Jing, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, C.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Z.P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zong, Y.; Wang, Y.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-21

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60–70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article. -- Highlights: •The key technology of DWA, including switches and pulse forming lines were studied. •The SiC PCSS obtained from Shanghai Institute were tested. •Two layers ZIP lines (new structure) and four layers Blumlein lines were studied with laser triggered spark gap switches. •A nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on DWA technologies is achieved and studied experimentally. •The principle of DWA is also proved by the diode.

  3. I-NET: interactive neuro-educational technology to accelerate skill learning.

    Raphael, Giby; Berka, Chris; Popovic, Djordje; Chung, Gregory K W K; Nagashima, Sam O; Behneman, Adrienne; Davis, Gene; Johnson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The learning of a novel task currently rely heavily on conventional classroom instruction with qualitative assessment and observation. Introduction of individualized tutorials with integrated neuroscience-based evaluation techniques could significantly accelerate skill acquisition and provide quantitative evidence of successful training. We have created a suite of adaptive and interactive neuro-educational technologies (I-NET) to increase the pace and efficiency of skill learning. It covers four major themes: 1) Integration of brain monitoring into paced instructional tutorials, 2) Identifying psychophysiological characteristics of expertise using a model population, 3) Developing sensor-based feedback to accelerate novice-to-expert transition, 4) Identifying neurocognitive factors that are predictive of skill acquisition to allow early triage and interventions. We selected rifle marksmanship training as the field of application. Rifle marksmanship is a core skill for the Army and Marine Corps and it involves a combination of classroom instructional learning and field practice involving instantiation of a well-defined set of sensory, motor and cognitive skills. The instrumentation that incorporates the I-NET technologies is called the Adaptive Peak Performance Trainer (APPT). Preliminary analysis of pilot study data for performance data from a novice population that used this device revealed an improved learning trajectory. PMID:19963623

  4. Preferential enhancement of laser-driven carbon ion acceleration from optimized nanostructured surfaces

    Malay Dalui; W.-M. Wang; T. Madhu Trivikram; Subhrangshu Sarkar; Sheroy Tata; Jha, J.; Ayyub, P.; Sheng, Z. M.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity ultrashort laser pulses focused on metal targets readily generate hot dense plasmas which accelerate ions efficiently and can pave way to compact table-top accelerators. Laser-driven ion acceleration studies predominantly focus on protons, which experience the maximum acceleration owing to their highest charge-to-mass ratio. The possibility of tailoring such schemes for the preferential acceleration of a particular ion species is very much desired but has hardly been explored. ...

  5. Incentives for early adoption of carbon capture technology

    We analyze a policy proposal for regulating the next generation of baseload electricity generation facilities in the United States. The cornerstone of this regulation is a (hypothetical) EPA mandate for an emission standard of 80 kg of CO2 per MWh of electricity generated. The mandate would go into effect at the end of 2027 for all power generating facilities that come into operation after 2017. Fossil-fuel power plants could meet the standard by capturing between 80 and 90% of their current CO2 emissions. While the initial cost of complying with this standard is relatively high for first-of-a-kind facilities, learning effects are projected to reduce this cost substantially by the end of 2027, provided new facilities consistently adopt carbon capture technology in the intervening years. We identify a combination of investment- and production tax credits that provide the required incentives for new facilities to be willing to comply with the standard ahead of the mandate. Due to the anticipated learning effects, the incremental cost associated with the stricter emission limit is projected to about 1.2¢ per kWh of electricity in the long run. - Highlights: • Study the cost effects of a CO2 emission standard for natural gas power plants. • The standard requires the deployment of carbon capture technology. • Future compliance costs are reduced through learning effects. • Identify tax incentives that induce early technology adoption. • Early adoption results in relatively modest electricity cost increases

  6. Los Alamos transmutation research: heavy liquid metal coolant technology and accelerator-driven materials test station

    The US Department of Energy is developing technologies needed to reduce the quantity of high-level nuclear waste bound for deep geologic disposal. Los Alamos National Laboratory has a long history of transmutation research in support of this mission. This report summarises two research programmes in the portfolio development of lead-alloy coolant technology and materials, and the Materials Test Station (MTS) using an accelerator-driven spallation target. We have been developing lead and lead-bismuth coolant technology and materials for advanced transmutation and nuclear energy systems since the mid-1990. Our programme mainly consists of operating a medium-scale lead-bismuth eutectic materials and thermal-hydraulic test loop (DELTA), conducting tests and experiments, developing associated coolant chemistry and liquid metal flow measurement and control sensors, instrumentation and systems, building and validating system corrosion models. We are also building a high-temperature natural convection lead test loop using an advanced material (Al-rich oxide dispersion strengthened steel). Key activities and an assessment of the technological readiness level will be given. (authors)

  7. Microwave plasma CVD technology of carbon and carbon-nitrogen films

    Carbon and carbon-nitrogen films have been deposited by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition at 2.45 GHz. During the process methane-argon-hydrogen-nitrogen atmospheres were used. The films were grown in a wide temperature range from the room temperature up to 950oC in total gas pressure from 0.1 to 0.5 Tr. The materials were examined by means of FTIR and optical spectroscopy. The authors investigated the influence of technological conditions on composition, structure and optical properties. The chemical composition of films depended on the substrate temperature and plasma content. The carbon hydrogen bonds intensity decreased strongly at elevated temperature.The process of degradation of mechanical properties was also observed. The results indicate that there is a possibility of mechanical and electronic applications of these materials. (author)

  8. Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for

  9. Investigation of the potential of coal combustion fly ash for mineral sequestration of CO2 by accelerated carbonation

    Mineral carbonation of alkaline waste materials is being studied extensively for its potential as a way of reducing the increased level of CO2 in the atmosphere. Carbonation converts CO2 into minerals which are stable over geological time scales. This process occurs naturally but slowly, and needs to be accelerated to offset the present rate of emissions from power plants and other emission sources. The present study attempts to identify the potential of coal fly ash as a source for carbon storage (sequestration) through ex-situ accelerated mineral carbonation. In the study, two operational parameters that could affect the reaction process were tested to investigate their effect on mineralization. Coal fly ash was mixed with water to different water-to-solid ratios and samples were carbonated in a pressure vessel at different initial CO2 pressures. Temperature was kept constant at 40 °C. According to the results, one ton of Hazelwood fly ash could sequester 7.66 kg of CO2. The pressure of CO2 inside the vessel has an effect on the rate of CO2 uptake and the water-to-solid ratio affects the weight gain after the carbonation of fly ash. The results confirm the possibility of the manipulation of process parameters in enhancing the carbonation reaction. - Highlights: ► Mineral sequestration CO2 by of coal fly ash is a slow process under ambient conditions. ► It can be accelerated by manipulating the process parameters inside a reactor. ► Initial CO2 pressure and water to solid mixing ratio inside the reactor are two of those operational parameters. ► According to the test results higher CO2 initial pressure gives higher on rates of CO2 sequestration. ► Water to fly ash mixing ratio effect on amount of CO2 sequestered into fly ash

  10. The present status of carbon 14 analysis and projects for beryllium 10 analysis at the Tandetron 1 accelerator, Nagoya University

    Nakamura, Toshio; Oda, Hirotaka; Ikeda, Akiko; Niu, Etsuko [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    The operation experience in 1999 of the Tandetron accelerator age estimation system, Nagoya University, is reported, after the overview and the history of the accelerator is briefly described. Total number of carbon 14 environmental samples analyzed was 8567. The project of introducing new HVEE Tandetron for C-14 analysis, and modifying the present GIC Tandetron for Be-10 analysis is presented. Ion source shall be replaced, and the heavy ion detector shall be installed. Projected geological and archaeological studies using Be-10 are enumerated. (A. Yamamoto)

  11. Low Secondary Electron Yield Carbon Coatings for Electron Cloud Mitigation in Modern Particle Accelerators

    Yin Vallgren, Christina; Taborelli, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    In order to upgrade the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) performance to be oriented towards higher energies and higher intensities in the future, a series of improvements of the existing LHC injectors is planned to take place over the next few years. Electron cloud effects are expected to be enhanced and play a central role in limiting the performance of the machines of the CERN complex. Electron cloud phenomena in beam pipes are based on electron multiplication and can be sufficiently suppressed if the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) of the surface of the beam pipes is lower than unity. The goal of this work is to find and study a thin film coating with reliably low initial Secondary Electron Yield (SEY), which does not require bake-out or conditioning in situ with photons, is robust again air exposure and can easily be applied in the beam pipes of accelerators. In this work, amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films have been prepared by DC magnetron sputtering for electron cloud mitigation and antimultipactor applicatio...

  12. Low Secondary Electron Yield Carbon Coatings for Electron-cloud Mitigation in Modern Particle Accelerators

    Yin Vallgren, Christina; Calatroni, Sergio; Chiggiato, Paolo; Costa Pinto, Pedro; Marques, Hugo; Neupert, Holger; Taborelli, Mauro; Vollenberg, Wilhelmus; Wevers, Ivo; Yaqub, Kashif

    2010-01-01

    Electron-cloud is one of the main limitations for particle accelerators with positively charged beams of high intensity and short bunch spacing, as the SPS at CERN. The Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) of the inner surface of the vacuum chamber is the main parameter governing the phenomenon. The effect could be eliminated by coating the vacuum chambers with a material of low SEY, which does not require bake-out and is robust against air exposure. For such a purpose amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings were produced by magnetron sputtering of graphite targets. They exhibit maximum SEY between 0.95 and 1.05 after air transfer to the measuring instrument. After 1 month of air exposure the SEY rises by 10 - 20 % of the initial values. Storage in desiccator or by packaging in Al foil makes this increase negligible. The coatings have a similar X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) C1s spectrum for a large set of deposition parameters and exhibit an enlarged linewidth compared to HOPG graphite. The static outgassing witho...

  13. Environmental levels of carbon-14 around a Swedish nuclear power plant measured with accelerator mass spectrometry

    Stenström, K.; Erlandsson, B.; Hellborg, R.; Wiebert, A.; Skog, G.

    1996-06-01

    14C is one of the radionuclides which are produced by nuclear power plants. The main part of the 14C, which is released during normal operation, is produced through neutron induced reactions in the cooling water and is released as airborne effluents (such as CO 2 and hydrocarbons) through the ventilation system of the plant to the surrounding environment. Because of the biological importance of carbon and the long half-life of 14C, it is of interest to measure the releases and their incorporation into living material in the environment of the power plants. In this pilot study the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility at the University of Lund has been used to measure the 14C activity concentration in vegetation around a Swedish nuclear power plant. AMS is suitable mainly because of the accuracy obtained within a short measuring time, which makes it possible to analyze a sufficient number of samples for a thorough investigation. The results of this study demonstrate that the AMS method is suitable for investigations of the influence on the local environment of reactor-released 14C by analysis of living material. To test dispersion models, however, air sampling both of emission source and in the surrounding of the plant seems more suitable.

  14. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phillip; Capone, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids.

  15. Evaluation of High Energy Nuclear Data of Importance for Use in Accelerator and Space Technology

    Lee, Young Ouk

    2005-10-15

    New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements.

  16. Ultracompact Accelerator Technology for a Next-Generation Gamma-Ray Source

    Marsh, R A; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Wu, S S; Hartemann, F V; Barty, C J

    2012-05-14

    This presentation reported on the technology choices and progress manufacturing and testing the injector and accelerator of the 250 MeV ultra-compact Compton Scattering gamma-ray Source under development at LLNL for homeland security applications. This paper summarizes the status of various facets of current accelerator activities at LLNL. The major components for the X-band test station have been designed, fabricated, and await installation. The XL-4 klystron has been delivered, and will shortly be dressed and installed in the ScandiNova modulator. High power testing of the klystron into RF loads will follow, including adjustment of the modulator for the klystron load as necessary. Assembly of RF transport, test station supports, and accelerator components will follow. Commissioning will focus on processing the RF gun to full operating power, which corresponds to 200 MV/m peak electric field on the cathode surface. Single bunch benchmarking of the Mark 1 design will provide confidence that this first structure operates as designed, and will serve as a solid starting point for subsequent changes, such as a removable photocathode, and the use of various cathode materials for enhanced quantum efficiency. Charge scaling experiments will follow, partly to confirm predictions, as well as to identify important causes of emittance growth, and their scaling with charge. Multi-bunch operation will conclude testing of the Mark 1 RF gun, and allow verification of code predictions, direct measurement of bunch-to-bunch effects, and initial implementation compensation mechanisms. Modeling will continue and focus on supporting the commissioning and experimental program, as well as seeking to improve all facets of linac produced Compton gamma-rays.

  17. Evaluation of High Energy Nuclear Data of Importance for Use in Accelerator and Space Technology

    New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements

  18. Advances in NEG coating and NEG pumping technologies for accelerators and industrial applications

    NEG (Non Evaporable Getter) pumping technology is becoming very popular in vacuum applications as it provides very large pumping speed in a compact package. In particular, the deposition of getter thin film on the internal surface of a particle accelerator chamber allows to reduce the outgassing rate while providing large pumping speed inside the beam pipe. This is advantageous in narrow gap or small diameter beam pipes which could not be otherwise effectively pumped by lumped pumps, due to conductance limitations. The main features of NEG coatings and their application to complex and narrow gap chambers, like for example insertion devices of synchrotron light sources, will be presented and discussed. Critical technological issues, process limitations and future perspectives are illustrated from the point of view of an industrial provider. New advances in getter materials and pumping technologies will be also illustrated with a special focus on a novel generation of getter pumps which can be used at pressure as high as 10-7 mbar. This allows to extend the operational range of application of NEG pump from UHV-XHV regime to High Vacuum applications. (author)

  19. Particle accelerator physics and technology for high energy density physics research

    Interaction phenomena of intense ion- and laser radiation with matter have a large range of application in different fields of science, extending from basic research of plasma properties to applications in energy science, especially in inertial fusion. The heavy ion synchrotron at GSI now routinely delivers intense uranium beams that deposit about 1 kJ/g of specific energy in solid matter, e.g. solid lead. Our simulations show that the new accelerator complex FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at GSI as well as beams from the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) will vastly extend the accessible parameter range for high energy density states. A natural example of hot dense plasma is provided by our neighbouring star the sun, and allows a deep insight into the physics of fusion, the properties of matter at high energy density, and is moreover an excellent laboratory for astro-particle physics. As such the sun's interior plasma can even be used to probe the existence of novel particles and dark matter candidates. We present an overview on recent results and developments of dense plasma physics addressed with heavy ion and laser beams combined with accelerator- and nuclear physics technology. (authors)

  20. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...

  1. Summary: 'A roadmap for developing Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology'. A report to Congress

    The U.S. Congressional Conference Report accompanying the Fiscal Year 1999 Energy and Water Development Appropriation Act directed the U.S. Department of Energy, through its Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, to conduct a study of accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW). It was transmitted to the U.S. Congress on November 1, 1999. The Report to Congress made it clear that the U.S. Administration, in transmitting the report, was not taking a position either way on those recommendations. If an ATW program were to be undertaken in the U.S., the pace and funding would have to be evaluated and planned in light of the currently unproven technologies involved, the potential benefits, and overall Government budget priorities. (author)

  2. Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Indian cement industry is one of the most efficient in the world. Its efforts to reduce its carbon footprint by adopting the best available technologies and environmental practices are reflected in the achievement of reducing total CO2 emissions to an industrial average of 0.719 tCO2/t cement in 2010 from a substantially higher level of 1.12 tCO2/t cement in 1996. However, because the manufacturing process relies on the burning of limestone, it still produced 137 MtCO2 in 2010 – approximately 7% of India’s total man-made CO2 emissions. Yet opportunity for improvement exists, particularly in relation to five key levers that can contribute to emissions reductions: alternative fuel and raw materials; energy efficiency; clinker substitution; waste heat recovery and newer technologies. This roadmap sets out one pathway by which the Indian cement industry can reach its targets to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions by 2050, thereby laying the foundation for low-carbon growth in the years beyond. The Technology Roadmap: Low-Carbon Technology for the Indian Cement Industry builds on the global IEA technology roadmap for the cement sector developed by the IEA and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development’s Cement Sustainability Initiative. It outlines a possible transition path for the Indian cement industry to reduce its direct CO2 emissions intensity to 0.35 tCO2/t cement and support the global goal of halving CO2 emissions by 2050.

  3. Accelerating the transfer and diffusion of energy saving technologies steel sector experience-Lessons learned

    Okazaki, Teruo, E-mail: okazaki.teruo@nsc.co.j [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 6-1 Marunouchi, 2 Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-8071 (Japan); Global Environmental Affairs Department, Nippon Steel Corporation, 6-1 Marunouchi, 2 Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-8071 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Mitsutsune, E-mail: mits@m-yamaguchi.j [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 13-207 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro, Tokyo153-8904 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    It is imperative to tackle the issue globally mobilizing all available policies and measures. One of the important ones among them is technology transfer and diffusion. By utilizing international co-operation, industry can promote such measures in two ways: through government policy and through industry's own voluntary initiative. Needless to say, various government policies and measures play essential role. By the same token, industry initiative can complement them. There is much literature documenting the former. On the contrary there are few on the latter. This paper sheds light on the latter. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of global voluntary sectoral approach for technology diffusion and transfer based on steel sector experience. The goal is to contribute toward building a worldwide low-carbon society by manufacturing goods with less energy through international cooperation of each sector. The authors believe that the voluntary sectoral approach is an effective method with political and practical feasibilities, and hope to see the continued growth of more initiatives based on this approach. - Highlights: {yields} There exist huge reduction potentials in steel industries globally. {yields} Technology transfer and diffusion are keys to achieve reductions. {yields} Main barriers are economic, technological and policy-related. {yields} Case studies in overcoming barriers are discussed. {yields} In steel industry, a voluntary sectoral approach has shown to be effective.

  4. Accelerating the transfer and diffusion of energy saving technologies steel sector experience-Lessons learned

    It is imperative to tackle the issue globally mobilizing all available policies and measures. One of the important ones among them is technology transfer and diffusion. By utilizing international co-operation, industry can promote such measures in two ways: through government policy and through industry's own voluntary initiative. Needless to say, various government policies and measures play essential role. By the same token, industry initiative can complement them. There is much literature documenting the former. On the contrary there are few on the latter. This paper sheds light on the latter. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of global voluntary sectoral approach for technology diffusion and transfer based on steel sector experience. The goal is to contribute toward building a worldwide low-carbon society by manufacturing goods with less energy through international cooperation of each sector. The authors believe that the voluntary sectoral approach is an effective method with political and practical feasibilities, and hope to see the continued growth of more initiatives based on this approach. - Highlights: → There exist huge reduction potentials in steel industries globally. → Technology transfer and diffusion are keys to achieve reductions. → Main barriers are economic, technological and policy-related. → Case studies in overcoming barriers are discussed. → In steel industry, a voluntary sectoral approach has shown to be effective.

  5. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technological innovation system in China: Structure, function evaluation and policy implication

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can be an important technology option for China in addressing global climate change and developing clean energy technologies. Promoted by international climate conventions and supported by government research and development programs, an increasing number of CCS pilot and demonstration projects have been launched in China. In this study, we analyze the structure of China’s CCS effort from a technological innovation system (TIS) perspective. Within this system, key socio-political components, including institutions, actor-networks, and technology development, are examined to evaluate the state of the innovation system. The study assessed the perceived capacity of seven functional areas of the CCS innovation system through a survey of key CCS actors and stakeholders. The findings suggest that China’s CCS innovation system has a strong functional capacity for knowledge and technology development. It is significantly weaker in the innovative functions of knowledge diffusion, market formation, facilitating entrepreneurs and new entrants into the CCS market. Based on the evaluation of China’s technological innovation system to develop CCS, the article articulates specific public policies to formulate a more robust innovation system to traverse the “valley of death” from research and development to commercial deployment and accelerate energy innovation in China. - Highlights: ► We analyze and evaluate China’s CCS innovation system from TIS perspective. ► Strong and systematic CCS innovation system structure has come into being in China. ► The system has acquired high knowledge development and accumulation. ► Weak innovation functions are identified: market creation, guidance, etc. ► Public policies are needed to improve the innovation system performance.

  6. Free standing diamond-like carbon thin films by PLD for laser based electrons/protons acceleration

    Thema, F.T.; Beukes, P.; Ngom, B.D. [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Manikandan, E., E-mail: mani@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Central Research Laboratory, Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital (SBMCH), Chrompet, Bharath University, Chennai, 600044 (India); Maaza, M., E-mail: maaza@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2015-11-05

    This study we reports for the first time on the synthesis and optical characteristics of free standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto graphene buffer layers for ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. The fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations indicate that the suitability of such free standing DLC thin-films within the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range and hence their appropriateness for the targeted applications. - Highlights: • We report for the first time synthesis of free standing diamond-like carbon. • Pulsed laser deposition onto graphene buffer layers. • Fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations. • Ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. • This material's suitable for the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range.

  7. Free standing diamond-like carbon thin films by PLD for laser based electrons/protons acceleration

    This study we reports for the first time on the synthesis and optical characteristics of free standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto graphene buffer layers for ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. The fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations indicate that the suitability of such free standing DLC thin-films within the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range and hence their appropriateness for the targeted applications. - Highlights: • We report for the first time synthesis of free standing diamond-like carbon. • Pulsed laser deposition onto graphene buffer layers. • Fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations. • Ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. • This material's suitable for the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range

  8. AN INTEGRATED MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR CARBON MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Anand B. Rao; Edward S. Rubin; Michael B. Berkenpas

    2004-03-01

    CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) is gaining widespread interest as a potential method to control greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel sources, especially electric power plants. Commercial applications of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies are found in a number of industrial process operations worldwide. Many of these capture technologies also are applicable to fossil fuel power plants, although applications to large-scale power generation remain to be demonstrated. This report describes the development of a generalized modeling framework to assess alternative CO{sub 2} capture and storage options in the context of multi-pollutant control requirements for fossil fuel power plants. The focus of the report is on post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture using amine-based absorption systems at pulverized coal-fired plants, which are the most prevalent technology used for power generation today. The modeling framework builds on the previously developed Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). The expanded version with carbon sequestration is designated as IECM-cs. The expanded modeling capability also includes natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants and integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems as well as pulverized coal (PC) plants. This report presents details of the performance and cost models developed for an amine-based CO{sub 2} capture system, representing the baseline of current commercial technology. The key uncertainties and variability in process design, performance and cost parameters which influence the overall cost of carbon mitigation also are characterized. The new performance and cost models for CO{sub 2} capture systems have been integrated into the IECM-cs, along with models to estimate CO{sub 2} transport and storage costs. The CO{sub 2} control system also interacts with other emission control technologies such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems for SO{sub 2} control. The integrated model is applied to

  9. Desalination of Saline and Brackish Waters using Carbon Aerogel Technology

    Mohammad Reza Massoudinejad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: The increasing demand for drinking water has led scientists to the use of saline waters, but existing desalinating processes are very expensive. carbon aerogel is a type of organic aerogel that is suitable for desalination owing to its unique porous structure. Low potential of fouling and deposits, very low wastewater production, electrostatic regeneration of aerogels and, in turn, no need to acid consumption, and lower power consumption are some of this technology benefits.Materials and Method: In this experimental- analytical study, the purpose was survey of saline and brackish water desalination using carbon aerogel technology and its comparison with electrolysis.The community studied was synthetic salt water samples, using of TDS and EC indicators. The minimum synthetic samples were 243. In this regard, after polymerization of Resorsinol and Formaldehyde compounds under ambient pressure conditions and then its pyrolysis, we fabricated plates of carbon aerogel.Result: With manufacturing in the pilot-scale, the effect of different parameters, including input salt concentration, current, water flow, distance of between electrodes and pH, on NaCl sorption amount of carbon aerogel electrodes were studied. Generally, adsorption amount increased with increasing of current and NaCl concentration and decreased with increasing of distance electrodes, flow and pH.  Results: Fabricating reactor at pilot-scale, we studied the effect of different parameters, including input salt concentration, current, water flow, intra-distance of electrodes, and pH on the NaCl sorption using carbon aerogel electrodes. Generally, adsorption capacity increased with increasing of current and NaCl concentration in the inlet flow, and it decreased with increasing intra-distance of electrodes, flow, and pH.Conclusion: Under the most optimal

  10. Accelerating the commercialization of university technologies for military healthcare applications: the role of the proof of concept process

    Ochoa, Rosibel; DeLong, Hal; Kenyon, Jessica; Wilson, Eli

    2011-06-01

    The von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at UC San Diego (vonliebig.ucsd.edu) is focused on accelerating technology transfer and commercialization through programs and education on entrepreneurism. Technology Acceleration Projects (TAPs) that offer pre-venture grants and extensive mentoring on technology commercialization are a key component of its model which has been developed over the past ten years with the support of a grant from the von Liebig Foundation. In 2010, the von Liebig Entrepreneurism Center partnered with the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), to develop a regional model of Technology Acceleration Program initially focused on military research to be deployed across the nation to increase awareness of military medical needs and to accelerate the commercialization of novel technologies to treat the patient. Participants to these challenges are multi-disciplinary teams of graduate students and faculty in engineering, medicine and business representing universities and research institutes in a region, selected via a competitive process, who receive commercialization assistance and funding grants to support translation of their research discoveries into products or services. To validate this model, a pilot program focused on commercialization of wireless healthcare technologies targeting campuses in Southern California has been conducted with the additional support of Qualcomm, Inc. Three projects representing three different universities in Southern California were selected out of forty five applications from ten different universities and research institutes. Over the next twelve months, these teams will conduct proof of concept studies, technology development and preliminary market research to determine the commercial feasibility of their technologies. This first regional program will help build the needed tools and processes to adapt and replicate this model across other regions in the

  11. Minimising the economic cost and risk to accelerator-driven subcritical reactor technology: The case of designing for flexibility: Part 1

    Highlights: ► Accelerator performance is a risk to ADSR reactor technology demonstration. ► Sensitivity of ADSR economic value to accelerator performance is assessed. ► Economic value of ADSRs with and without accelerator redundancy is tested. ► Real options identify design flexibility to accelerator performance uncertainty. ► Multiple ADSR “park” with a single integrated accelerator system is proposed. - Abstract: Demonstrating the generation of electricity for commercial markets with accelerator-driven subcritical reactor (ADSR) technology will incur substantial financial risk. This risk will arise from traditional uncertainties associated with the construction of nuclear power stations and also from new technology uncertainties such as the reliability of the required accelerator system. The sensitivity of the economic value of ADSRs to the reliability of the accelerator system is assessed. Using linear accelerators as an example of choice for the accelerator technology, the economic assessment considers an ADSR with either one or two accelerators driving it. The extent to which a second accelerator improves the accelerator system reliability is determined, as are the costs for that reliability improvement. Two flexible designs for the accelerator system are also considered, derived from the real options analysis technique. One seeks to achieve the benefits of both the single and dual accelerator ADSR configurations through initially planning to build a second accelerator, but only actually constructing it once it is determined to be economically beneficial to do so. The other builds and tests an accelerator before committing to constructing a reactor. Finally, a phased multiple-reactor park with an integrated system of accelerators is suggested and discussed. The park uses the principles of redundancy as for the Dual accelerator ADSR and flexibility as for the real options design, but for a lower cost per unit of electricity produced.

  12. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics.

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Liuhanzi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kim, Hyunook; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-09-01

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO2 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO2 flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO2 fixation capacity of 102g perkg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO2 reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO2 fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion. PMID:26025583

  13. Accelerator-driven transmutation technologies for resolution of long-term nuclear waste concerns

    The paper provides a rationale for resolution of the long-term waste disposition issue based on complete destruction of fissile material and all higher actinides. It begins with a brief history of geologic storage leading to the present impasse in the US. The proliferation aspects of commercial plutonium are presented in a new light as a further driver for complete destruction. The special problems in Russia and the US of the disposition of the highly enriched spent naval reactor fuel and spent research reactor fuel are also presented. The scale of the system required for complete destruction is also examined and it is shown that a practical system for complete destruction of commercial and defense fissile material must be widely dispersed rather than concentrated at a single site. Central tenants of the US National Academy of Sciences recommendations on waste disposition are examined critically and several technologies considered for waste destruction are described briefly and compared Recommendations for waste disposition based on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology suitable for both the US and Russia are presented

  14. The Role of Black Carbon from Wildfires in Accelerating Snow and Glacier Melt in Washington State

    Kaspari, S.; Delaney, I.; Pittenger, D.; Skiles, M.

    2014-12-01

    In Washington, snow and glacier melt provide an important source of water resources, however spring snowpack levels are declining and glaciers are retreating. While warming temperatures are a well-recognized factor contributing to snowpack decline and glacier retreat, another cause may be the deposition of black carbon (BC) onto snow and glacier surfaces. Since 2010 we have collected snow and ice core samples to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of BC deposited in Washington snow and glacier ice. BC concentrations in the winter snowpack are relatively low, with BC concentrations increasing in spring and summer due to melt induced enrichment and increased dry deposition. BC induced melt may accelerate the timing of spring snowmelt at lower elevations, however BC induced melt is likely largest at relatively high elevations where the snowpack persists into the summer months when BC concentrations were observed to be highest. Based on our research to date, the highest BC concentrations in Washington snow and ice are linked to forest fires. A shallow ice core retrieved from Mt. Olympus demonstrated that BC deposition was a magnitude higher during the 2011 Big Hump forest fire, resulting in a threefold increase in the rate of change of river discharge due to glacier melt. An ice core from South Cascade Glacier spanning the 20th century also suggests that the highest BC concentrations are associated with forest fires. Furthermore, burned areas can continue to provide a source of BC to the snowpack post-fire. We measured BC concentrations in snow at a study site from 2010-2013 in Washington State. The surrounding forest burned in 2012, after which BC deposited on the snowpack post-fire was at least four-fold higher than pre-fire. This research has implications for projected climate change, as forest fires are projected to increase and the seasonal snowpack is projected to decrease, both of which contribute to higher BC concentrations in the snowpack.

  15. Using Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Technology To Meet Accelerated Cleanup Program Milestones

    Some DOE Complex facilities are entering the late stages of facility closure. As waste management operations are completed at these sites, remaining inventories of legacy mixed wastes must be finally disposed. These wastes have unique physical, chemical and radiological properties that have made their management troublesome, and hence why they have remained on site until this late stage of closure. Some of these wastes have had no approved or practical treatment alternative until just recently. Results are provided from using advanced mixed waste treatment technology to perform two treatment campaigns on these legacy wastes. Combinations of macro-encapsulation, vacuum thermal desorption (VTD), and chemical stabilization, with off-site incineration of the organic condensate, provided a complete solution to the problem wastes. One program included approximately 1,900 drums of material from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. Another included approximately 1,200 drums of material from the Accelerated Cleanup Program at the Oak Ridge Reservation. Both of these campaigns were conducted under tight time schedules and demanding specifications, and were performed in a matter of only a few months each. Coordinated rapid waste shipment, flexible permitting and waste acceptance criteria, adequate waste receiving and storage capacity, versatile feed preparation and sorting capability, robust treatment technology with a broad feed specification, and highly reliable operations were all valuable components to successful accomplishment of the project requirements. Descriptions of the waste are provided; material that was difficult or impossible to treat in earlier phases of site closure. These problem wastes included: 1) the combination of special nuclear materials mixed with high organic chemical content and/or mercury, 2) high toxic metal content mixed with high organic chemical content, and 3) very high organic chemical content mixed with debris, solids and sludge

  16. Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel piping in nuclear power plants

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is a process whereby the normally protective oxide layer on carbon or low alloy steel dissolved into a stream of flowing water resulting in increasing the corrosion rate. Major influencing factors that affect the FAC are flow velocity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and steel composition. The experimental study described in this paper was focused on evaluating the FAC behavior of carbon steel according to environment conditions. Feasibility tests for the mitigation method against the FAC were also carried out with controlling the water chemistry and with applying the magnetic field. A high temperature rotating cylinder electrode (HTRCE) and a water chemistry control system was developed to perform the electrochemical test in high temperature water environments. The main design concept of HTRCE is to assure stable operation of working electrode in a severe environment, to insulate electrode housing except working electrode surface against external fluid, and to extract corrosion parameter from the rotating cylinder to outside of the autoclave safely. The electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) and current density were measured as a function of temperature and rotating speed using polarization monitoring. ECP values dropped at a rate of -1.51 mV/.deg. C above 150 .deg. C, which may be come from the formation of magnetite on the steel surface. With increasing rotation of the RCE, the ECP shifted upward in all temperature ranges. This shift may be attributed to the diffusion enhancement of the oxidizing agents in the rapidly flowing of fluid. From the velocity exponent of the cathodic half-cell current density on the steel surface, it was evident that a mass transfer process first dominated the corrosion reaction at 150 .deg. C, and then an activation process partly controlled the corrosion kinetics with increasing temperature. From the results of corrosion experiment at high temperature water, HTRCE has been proved

  17. Nondestructive inspection technologies for low-carbon stainless steel

    This report summarized modification and additional items of 'ultrasonic testing guide for in-service inspection of light-water type nuclear power plant components' (JEAG4207-2004) for ultrasonic testing method for Primary Loop of Recirculation system (PLR) piping and core shrouds on the base of four year project on nondestructive inspection technologies for low-carbon stainless steel, which investigated defect detection capability and sizing accuracy for PLR piping and core shrouds, and their explanatory notes on ultrasonic testing method, indication length measurement, phased-array method and defect depth measurement for PLR piping, and indication length measurement and defect depth measurement for core shrouds. 'Eddy current testing guide using upper coil (draft)' for core shrouds was proposed with detailed explanatory notes. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Scenarios of technology adoption towards low-carbon cities

    Technological change has often been presented as a readily accepted means by which long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions can be achieved. Cities are the future centers of economic growth, with the global population becoming predominantly urban; hence, increases or reductions of GHG emissions are tied to their energy strategies. This research examines the likelihood of a developed world city (the Greater Toronto Area) achieving an 80% reduction in GHG emissions through policy-enabled technological change. Emissions are examined from 3 major sources: light duty passenger vehicles, residential buildings and commercial/institutional buildings. Logistic diffusion curves are applied for the adoption of alternative vehicle technologies, building retrofits and high performance new building construction. This research devises high, low and business-as-usual estimates of future technological adoption and finds that even aggressive scenarios are not sufficient to achieve an 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. This further highlights the challenges faced in maintaining a relatively stable climate. Urban policy makers must consider that the longer the lag before this transition occurs, the greater the share of GHG emissions mitigation that must addressed through behavioural change in order to meet the 2050 target, which likely poses greater political challenges. - Highlights: • Explores policy options in a city targeting an 80% GHG emission reduction target by 2050. • Aggressive building code changes will have minimal impact on GHG mitigation. • Support of low-carbon electricity for the majority of generation necessary by 2050. • Internal combustion engine use must be mostly eliminated from the vehicle stock. • Policies supporting elimination of physical exchange space should be promoted

  19. UK carbon reduction potential from technologies in the transport sector

    NONE

    2006-07-11

    Reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from UK transport is likely to require a combination of measures, including increased energy efficiency, new technology introduction, and fuel switching. Apart from demand-side management, the most important technologies can be divided into (a) vehicles and (b) fuels. Key vehicle technologies are: battery electric vehicles, for niche markets including urban journeys hybrid-electric vehicles, replacing conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles fuel cell vehicles, potentially able to replace all conventional vehicles; Different fuels can be used in these different vehicles: electricity will be required for battery vehicles, and for some hybrids, known as plug-in hybrids; biofuels can be introduced either as blends in current fuels, and used in current vehicles and hybrids, or potentially at levels of 100% with some engine modifications; hydrogen is probably required for fuel cell vehicles, and could be also used in internal combustion engines. Each of these technologies and fuels faces technical, cost and policy challenges before it can compete commercially. However, these do not appear insurmountable. Each also offers benefits other than simply possible reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from transport. In the near term, hybrid vehicles and biofuels are expected to be the main contributors to reductions in emissions. The environmental impact of biofuels is complex and care should be taken in evaluating and monitoring their real-world effects, especially if either raw materials or finished fuels are imported. In the longer term, but only if technical development is successful, fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen offer the potential for major emissions reductions. Indicative figures, and ranges, of costs of carbon reduction from different fuels and routes are given. (UK)

  20. Electron Accelerator Facilities

    Lecture presents main aspects of progress in development of industrial accelerators: adaptation of accelerators primary built for scientific experiments, electron energy and beam power increase in certain accelerator constructions, computer control system managing accelerator start-up, routine operation and technological process, maintenance (diagnostics), accelerator technology perfection (electrical efficiency, operation cost), compact and more efficient accelerator constructions, reliability improvement according to industrial standards, accelerators for MW power levels and accelerators tailored for specific use

  1. AIP conference on accelerator driven transmutation technologies and applications, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 25-29, 1994

    This conference was the first to bring together US and foreign researchers to define Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) concepts in several important national and international application areas - nuclear waste transmutation, minimizing of world plutonium inventories, and long-term energy production. The conference covered a number of diverse technological areas - accelerators, target/blankets, separations, materials - that make up ADTT systems. The meeting provided one of the first opportunities for specialists in these technologies to meet together and learn about system requirements, components, and interface issues. It was also an opportunity to formulate plans for future developments in ADTT. During the conference over one hundred technical presentations were made describing ADTT system and technology concepts as well as the impact of ADTT on issues related to global plutonium management and the high-level nuclear waste problem areas. Separate abstracts have been entered into the database for articles from this report

  2. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  3. Societal acceptance of carbon capture and storage technologies

    Alphen, Klaas van [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, NL 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: k.vanalphen@geo.uu.nl; Voorst tot Voorst, Quirine van [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, NL 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hekkert, Marko P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, NL 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands); Smits, Ruud E.H.M. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, NL 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-08-15

    For the actual implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, societal support is a crucial precondition. This paper describes an extensive study on the acceptance of CCS by stakeholders in the Netherlands and explores one of the determining factors in the acceptance of CCS by the lay public, i.e. the way the Dutch press perceives and portrays CCS. The stakeholder analysis shows that there is a positive attitude towards CCS by industry, government, and environmental NGOs, provided that the conditions they pose on the deployment of CCS are met. The content analysis of Dutch news articles conveys that the media portrayal of CCS is-to a certain extent-a balanced reflection of the way CCS is perceived by the stakeholders. Both analyses show that the concerns about CCS have not overshadowed the main promise that CCS is part of the solution to climate change. However, the current negative aspects of CCS as raised by different stakeholders and the media will remain if no action is taken. Therefore, the conditions posed on the use of CCS, as well as the actions required to meet these conditions, could function as a proxy for the 'societal voice', articulating the most important issues concerning the future acceptance of CCS technology.

  4. Societal acceptance of carbon capture and storage technologies

    Van Alphen, Klaas; Van Voorst tot Voorst, Quirine; Hekkert, Marko P.; Smits, Ruud E.H.M. [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Department of Innovation Studies

    2007-08-15

    For the actual implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, societal support is a crucial precondition. This paper describes an extensive study on the acceptance of CCS by stakeholders in the Netherlands and explores one of the determining factors in the acceptance of CCS by the lay public, i.e. the way the Dutch press perceives and portrays CCS. The stakeholder analysis shows that there is a positive attitude towards CCS by industry, government, and environmental NGOs, provided that the conditions they pose on the deployment of CCS are met. The content analysis of Dutch news articles conveys that the media portrayal of CCS is - to a certain extent - a balanced reflection of the way CCS is perceived by the stakeholders. Both analyses show that the concerns about CCS have not overshadowed the main promise that CCS is part of the solution to climate change. However, the current negative aspects of CCS as raised by different stakeholders and the media will remain if no action is taken. Therefore, the conditions posed on the use of CCS, as well as the actions required to meet these conditions, could function as a proxy for the 'societal voice', articulating the most important issues concerning the future acceptance of CCS technology. (author)

  5. Societal acceptance of carbon capture and storage technologies

    For the actual implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, societal support is a crucial precondition. This paper describes an extensive study on the acceptance of CCS by stakeholders in the Netherlands and explores one of the determining factors in the acceptance of CCS by the lay public, i.e. the way the Dutch press perceives and portrays CCS. The stakeholder analysis shows that there is a positive attitude towards CCS by industry, government, and environmental NGOs, provided that the conditions they pose on the deployment of CCS are met. The content analysis of Dutch news articles conveys that the media portrayal of CCS is - to a certain extent - a balanced reflection of the way CCS is perceived by the stakeholders. Both analyses show that the concerns about CCS have not overshadowed the main promise that CCS is part of the solution to climate change. However, the current negative aspects of CCS as raised by different stakeholders and the media will remain if no action is taken. Therefore, the conditions posed on the use of CCS, as well as the actions required to meet these conditions, could function as a proxy for the 'societal voice', articulating the most important issues concerning the future acceptance of CCS technology. (author)

  6. Low carbon technology performance vs infrastructure vulnerability: Analysis through the local and global properties space

    Dawson, DA; Purnell, P; Roelich, K; Busch, J.; Steinberger, JK

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies, necessary for low-carbon infrastructure networks, are being adopted to help reduce fossil fuel dependence and meet carbon mitigation targets. The evolution of these technologies has progressed based on the enhancement of technology-specific performance criteria, without explicitly considering the wider system (global) impacts. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneously assessing local (technology) and global (infrastructure) performance, allowing key t...

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies and Economic Investment Opportunities in the UK

    CHEVALLIER, Julien

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the role played by carbon and capture (CCS) technologies in order to facilitate the transition to low-carbon emitting technologies in the medium term. More precisely, we address the following central questions: how will the development of CCS technologies impact energy policies in order to yield to sustainable energy solutions? At what costs will pollution reductions be achieved? And most importantly, which CCS technologies will turn out to offer the most effective and ef...

  8. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO2, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO2 per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO2 emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO2 captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO2 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO2 flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO2 fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO2 reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO2 fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion

  9. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    Chang, E-E [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei City, Taiwan 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pan, Shu-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Liuhanzi [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Haidin District, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Yi-Hung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec. 3, Zhongxiao E. Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kim, Hyunook [Department of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiang, Pen-Chi, E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  10. The status of fast reactor technology development and accelerator driven subcritical system researches in China

    Since last May in mainland China there are two nuclear power plants with total capacity of 2.1 GWe in operation and four NPPs in construction. It is envisaged that the total nuclear power capacity will be about 8.5 GWe in the year 2005. Recently the Government is considering four other new NPPs with a total capacity of about 4 GWe and starting their construction during 'tenth five years Plan' (2001-2005). The three new nuclear systems, FBR, ADS and Hybrid, have started to be developed with a rather moderate project and are all still in the early stage. For fast reactor engineering development, the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) of 65 MWt is the first step. After some additional accidents analysis, especially sodium spray fire accident analysis, the reactor building construction will be continued. The main components including of the reactor block, primary and secondary circuits, fuel handling system have been ordered. It is foreseen to have CEFR reaching first criticality at the end of 2005. The second step 300 MWe Modular Fast Reactor (MPFR) is under consideration, which will be a prototype for large size fast reactor. Based on the size of MPFR, the role of MA transmutation has been evaluated. For the Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS), we are making great efforts to accomplish the research tasks worked out in the first phase program (1998-2002) with emphasis on the system optimization, reactor physics and technology, accelerator physics and technology and nuclear and material data base, and are enthusiastically preparing to step to the second phase program which is marked by ADS concept verification study (2000-2007). As to the Fusion-Fission Hybrid System, in near-term the emphasis will be put on the experiments on two big testing facilities HL-1M and HT-7 on one hand, and on the other hand, we will determine the targets of medium-term and long-term development for Hybrid system and work out relative development program

  11. Design and development of high power pulsed technologies and systems for H- and proton accelerators

    For energizing the 3 MeV RFQ, under development at RRCAT, a 1 MW pulsed RF system operating at 352.2 MHz is required. The characteristics of the pulsed RF delivered to RFQ are important for its correct operation. Keeping in view these requirements, in house design and development of crucial technologies like high voltage solid state pulse modulators, WR 2300 waveguide components, solid state high voltage switches, high voltage high power pulse transformers, advanced solid state Marx modulator, high power RF/Microwave test facilities etc has been initiated. A 1 MW pulsed test stand at 352.21 MHz has been developed and tested using TH 2089 klystrons provided by CERN. A solid state bouncer modulator with 500 microsecs pulse duration, 25 Hz pulse repetition rate, giving output voltage upto 100 kV for energizing klystron for pulsed RFQ has been designed, integrated and testing has been started. Design and prototype development of advanced solid state Marx modulator has also been carried out. The WR 2300 waveguide components have also been developed and tested at low power as well as 1 MW pulsed power at the test stand. The WR 2300 waveguide transmission line with full height dual directional coupler, harmonic filter, three port junction circulator, full height to half height transition, half height waveguide sections, E and H bends, power dividers, flexible waveguides, phase shifter, 45 deg E plane bends, RF loads etc. was assembled and tested at 1 MW pulsed power. Utilizing the experience gathered, design of WR 2300 waveguide transmission system for LEHIPA project of BARC was also done. Development of 1.3 GHz RF systems and cavity test set ups for characterizing the superconducting cavities is in advanced stage. A solid state bouncer compensated long pulse modulator operating at 100 kV, 20 A with 800 microsecs pulse duration at 2 Hz PRR, was successfully designed, developed and supplied to CERN for LINAC 4 proton accelerator project under DAE CERN collaboration in

  12. Comparative study of ageing, heat treatment and accelerated carbonation for stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in view of reducing regulated heavy metal/metalloid leaching

    Santos, Rafael; Mertens, Gilles; Salman, Muhammad; Cizer, Özlem; Gerven, Tom Van

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the performance of four different approaches for stabilization of regulated heavy metal and metalloid leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA): (i) short term (three months) heap ageing, (ii) heat treatment, (iii) accelerated moist carbonation, and (iv) accelerated pressurized slurry carbonation. Two distinct types of MSWI-BA were tested in this study: one originating from a moving-grate furnace incineration operation treating exclusively house...

  13. Radiosensitivity of pimonidazole-unlabelled intratumour quiescent cell population to γ-rays, accelerated carbon ion beams and boron neutron capture reaction.

    Masunaga, S; Sakurai, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Hirayama, R; Matsumoto, Y; Uzawa, A; Suzuki, M.; Kondo, N; Narabayashi, M.; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K.

    2013-01-01

    [Objectives] To detect the radiosensitivity of intratumour quiescent (Q) cells unlabelled with pimonidazole to accelerated carbon ion beams and the boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR). [Methods] EL4 tumour-bearing C57BL/J mice received 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously to label all intratumour proliferating (P) cells. After the administration of pimonidazole, tumours were irradiated with γ-rays, accelerated carbon ion beams or reactor neutron beams with the prior administration of...

  14. Application of carbon isotope analyses in food technology

    The vast economic size of the food market offers great temptations for the production and sale of fraudulent products, adulterated products and synthetic products that are labeled as natural ones. Conventional techniques of chemical analyses have served the food industry well for many years but are limited in their ability to detect certain types of fraudulent or mislabelled products. The aversion to added sugar and the demand for 'all natural' food products among consumers has led to a great deal of mislabelling on the part of food processors in order to achieve greater economic gain. The nature of deceptions detectable by carbon Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis (SIRA) in food technology falls into three broad categories. The most common is the adulteration of an expensive natural product, such as apple juice, with a much cheaper natural product such as cane sugar or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). The second is outright falsification of a food. An example is maple syrup produced by simple addition of maple flavoring to a sugar syrup or HFCS. The third general category is the sale of synthetic materials as natural ones or the addition of synthetic materials to natural ones in order to increase the volume of the product. The procedure for using carbon SIRA in monitoring food products involves two stages. It must first be established that the product to be analyzed, or some specific component of it, has a particular isotopic composition that can be distinguished from that of the materials that might be used to adulterate it. Potential adulterating components are then analyzed to establish their isotopic identity. The carbon SIRA method cannot, in general, be used to establish purity unequivocally but it can be used to establish impurity or adulteration with a high degree of success. The overall process of carbon SIRA consists of three stages: selection of the sample or the isolation of the particular compound to be analyzed, conversion of this compound into CO2 gas

  15. Designing and Demonstrating a Master Student Project to Explore Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology

    Asherman, Florine; Cabot, Gilles; Crua, Cyril; Estel, Lionel; Gagnepain, Charlotte; Lecerf, Thibault; Ledoux, Alain; Leveneur, Sebastien; Lucereau, Marie; Maucorps, Sarah; Ragot, Melanie; Syrykh, Julie; Vige, Manon

    2016-01-01

    The rise in carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration in the Earth's atmosphere, and the associated strengthening of the greenhouse effect, requires the development of low carbon technologies. New carbon capture processes are being developed to remove CO[subscript 2] that would otherwise be emitted from industrial processes and fossil fuel…

  16. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2003/2004

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Nilsson, L.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2004-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala univ. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from hydrogen at 96 MeV. The results corroborate the normalization of previously obtained data at TSL, which have been under debate. This is of importance since this reaction serves as reference for many other measurements. Compelling evidence of the existence of three-body forces in nuclei has been obtained. Within the project, one PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded. One PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded for work closely related to the project. A new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance has been built and commissioned at TSL.

  17. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2003/2004

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala univ. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from hydrogen at 96 MeV. The results corroborate the normalization of previously obtained data at TSL, which have been under debate. This is of importance since this reaction serves as reference for many other measurements. Compelling evidence of the existence of three-body forces in nuclei has been obtained. Within the project, one PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded. One PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded for work closely related to the project. A new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance has been built and commissioned at TSL

  18. Information technology for studying carbon sink in stemwood of forest ecosystems

    Tokar, O.; Lesiv, M.; Korol, M.

    2014-01-01

    An information technology for calculation of carbon ink in stemwood of forest ecosystems on a territorial basis is developed. This information technology involves interpretation of input data of statistical inventory of forest stands using electronic maps of forestry, formation of databases and processing the data by applying a special algorithm for calculating the carbon sink in stemwood and presenting the results in a form of thematic maps. The estimation of the carbon sink in stemwood is ...

  19. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  20. Low-carbon scenario and technologies in modern city --Case study of Shenyang%Low-carbon scenario and technologies in modern city --Case study of Shenyang

    Liu Zhu; Geng Yong; Xue Bing; Dong Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    From a multi-dimensional perspective of economic development, carbon dioxide and industrial pollutant emission and resource consumption in the case study of Shenyang, this paper analyzes the resource consumption and environmental impact in the process of urban economic development and low-carbon transition and evaluates the emission reduction potential and scenario of various technologies. The results show that city plays a key role in global low-carbon economic construction, and it is pointed out that emission reduction technology in urban scale can reduce total amount of carbon emission to substantial extent. From the aspect of future development, the input of technology and economic growth pattern should be strengthened so as to realize economic development as well as the total amount reduction of pollutant emission.

  1. An Accelerated Test Method of Simultaneous Carbonation and Chloride Ion Ingress: Durability of Silica Fume Concrete in Severe Environments

    S. A. Ghahari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion attack on mechanical characteristics and durability of concrete containing silica fume have been investigated through an accelerated test method. Specimens containing different amounts of silica fume were maintained in an apparatus in which carbon dioxide pressure and concentration and relative humidity were kept constant, and wetting and drying cycles in saline water were applied. Surface resistivity, sorptivity, CO2 consumption, and carbonation and chloride ion ingress depths measurements were taken. Phase change due to carbonation and chloride ion attack was monitored by XRD analysis, and microstructures and interfacial transition zones were studied by implementing SEM as well as mercury intrusion porosimetry. It was expected to have a synergistic effect in the tidal zone where simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion attack happen. However, the observed reduced surface resistivity, compared to specimens maintained in CO2 gas, could be due to the moisture that is available near the surface, hindering CO2 from penetrating into the pores of the specimens. Moreover, the porosity analysis of the specimens showed that the sample containing silica fume cured in the tidal zone had 50.1% less total porosity than the plain cement paste cured in the same condition.

  2. Carbon Nanotubes Technology for Removal of Arsenic from Water

    Ali Naghizadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Naghizadeh A, Yari AR, Tashauoei HR, Mahdavi M, Derakhshani E, Rahimi R, Bahmani P. Carbon nanotubes technology for removal of arsenic from water. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:6-11. Aims of the Study: This study was aimed to investigate the adsorption mechanism of the arsenic removal from water by using carbon nanotubes in continuous adsorption column. Materials & Methods: Independent variables including carbon nanotubes dosage, contact time and breakthrough point were carried out to determine the influence of these parameters on the adsorption capacity of the arsenic from water. Results: Adsorption capacities of single wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes were about 148 mg/g and 95 mg/g respectively. The experimental data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and equilibrium data indicate the best fit obtained with Langmuir isotherm model. Conclusions: Carbon nanotubes can be considered as a promising adsorbent for the removal of arsenic from large volume of aqueous solutions. References: 1. Lomaquahu ES, Smith AH. Feasibility of new epidemiology studies on arsenic exposures at low levels. AWWA Inorganic Contaminants Workshop. San Antonio; 1998. 2. Burkel RS, Stoll RC. Naturally occurring arsenic in sandstone aquifer water supply wells of North Eastern Wisconsin. Ground Water Monit Remediat 1999;19(2:114-21. 3. Mondal P, Majumder CB, Mohanty B. Laboratory based approaches for arsenic remediation from contaminated water: recent developments. J Hazard Mater 2006;137(1: 464-79. 4. Meenakshi RCM. Arsenic removal from water: a review. Asian J Water Environ Pollut 2006;3(1:133-9. 5. Wickramasinghe SR, Binbing H, Zimbron J, Shen Z, Karim MN. Arsenic removal by coagulation and filtration: comparison of ground waters from United States and Bangladesh. Desalination 2004;169:231-44. 6. Hossain MF. Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-an overview. Agric Ecosyst Environ 2006;113(1-4:1-16. 7. USEPA, Arsenic. Final

  3. Carbon Tariffs: Effects in Settings with Technology Choice and Foreign Comparative Advantage

    Drake, David Francis

    2012-01-01

    Carbon regulation is intended to reduce global emissions, but there is growing concern that such regulation may simply shift production to unregulated regions and increase global emissions in the process. Carbon tariffs have emerged as a possible mechanism to address these concerns by imposing carbon costs on imports at the regulated region's border. I show that, when firms choose from discrete production technologies and offshore producers hold a comparative cost advantage, carbon leakage ca...

  4. Key policy considerations for facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries

    Based on Phase I of a UK-India collaborative study, this paper analyses two case studies of low carbon technologies-hybrid vehicles and coal-fired power generation via integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The analysis highlights the following six key considerations for the development of policy aimed at facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries: (1) technology transfer needs to be seen as part of a broader process of sustained, low carbon technological capacity development in recipient countries; (2) the fact that low carbon technologies are at different stages of development means that low carbon technology transfer involves both vertical transfer (the transfer of technologies from the R and D stage through to commercialisation) and horizontal transfer (the transfer from one geographical location to another). Barriers to transfer and appropriate policy responses often vary according to the stage of technology development as well as the specific source and recipient country contexts; (3) less integrated technology transfer arrangements, involving, for example, acquisition of different items of plant from a range of host country equipment manufacturers, are more likely to involve knowledge exchange and diffusion through recipient country economies; (4) recipient firms that, as part of the transfer process, strategically aim to obtain technological know-how and knowledge necessary for innovation during the transfer process are more likely to be able to develop their capacity as a result; (5) whilst access to Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) may sometimes be a necessary part of facilitating technology transfer, it is not likely to be sufficient in itself. Other factors such as absorptive capacity and risks associated with new technologies must also be addressed; (6) there is a central role for both national and international policy interventions in achieving low carbon technology transfer. The lack of available empirical analysis

  5. Analysis of low-carbon industrial symbiosis technology for carbon mitigation in a Chinese iron/steel industrial park: A case study with carbon flow analysis

    CO2 mitigation strategies in industrial parks are a significant component of the Chinese climate change mitigation policy, and industrial symbiosis can provide specific CO2 mitigation opportunity. Technology is important to support symbiosis, but few studies in China have focused on this topic at the industrial park level. This research presented a case study in a national iron and steel industrial park in China. Focus was given onto carbon mitigation through industrial symbiosis technology using substance flow analysis (SFA). Three typical iron and steel industry technologies, including coke dry quenching (CDQ), combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and CO2 capture by slag carbonization (CCSC) were evaluated with SFA. Technology assessment was further conducted in terms of carbon mitigation potential and unit reduction cost. Compared with the Business as usual (BAU) scenario, application with CDQ, CCPP, and CCSC reduced the net carbon emissions by 56.18, 134.43, and 222.89 kg CO2 per ton crude steel inside the industrial parks, respectively, including both direct and indirect emissions. Economic assessment revealed that the unit costs for the three technologies were also high, thereby necessitating national financial support. Finally, relevant policy suggestions and future concerns were proposed and discussed. - Highlights: • A typical carbon mitigation case study on China iron/steel industrial park. • Using carbon SFA to investigate mitigation effects of industrial symbiosis technology. • CCPP greatly reduced the indirect carbon emission embodied in power purchase. • CCSC reduced the carbon emission by distributing fixed carbon into by-product. • Specific low carbon-tech promotion policies fit to China was discussed and proposed

  6. Towards a novel laser-driven method of exotic nuclei extraction-acceleration for fundamental physics and technology

    Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Orlandi, Riccard; Sako, Hiroyuki; Pikuz, Tatiana A; Faenov, Anatory Ya; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Pirozhkov, Alexander S; Matsukawa, Kenya; Sagisaka, Akito; Ogura, Koichi; Kanasaki, Masato; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Yuji; Koura, Hiroyuki; Kando, Masaki; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Bulanov, Sergei V; Kondo, Kiminori; Imai, Kenichi; Nagamiya, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of properties of exotic nuclei, essential for fundamental nuclear physics, now confronts a formidable challenge for contemporary radiofrequency accelerator technology. A promising option can be found in the combination of state-of-the-art high-intensity short pulse laser system and nuclear measurement techniques. We propose a novel Laser-driven Exotic Nuclei extraction-acceleration method (LENex): a femtosecond petawatt laser, irradiating a target bombarded by an external ion beam, extracts from the target and accelerates to few GeV highly-charged nuclear reaction products. Here a proof-of-principle experiment of LENex is presented: a few hundred-terawatt laser focused onto an aluminum foil, with a small amount of iron simulating nuclear reaction products, extracts almost fully stripped iron nuclei and accelerate them up to 0.9 GeV. Our experiments and numerical simulations show that short-lived, heavy exotic nuclei, with a much larger charge-to-mass ratio than in conventional technology, can ...

  7. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    Wu, Fengjun; Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen; Cui, Yuan; Yan, Hongbin; Zhang, Huajian; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply.

  8. High energy physics advisory panel's composite subpanel for the assessment of the status of accelerator physics and technology

    In November 1994, Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research (OER), initiated a broad assessment of the current status and promise of the field of accelerator physics and technology with respect to five OER programs -- High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy, and Health and Environmental Research. Dr. Krebs asked the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) to establish a composite subpanel with representation from the five OER advisory committees and with a balance of membership drawn broadly from both the accelerator community and from those scientific disciplines associated with the OER programs. The Subpanel was also charged to provide recommendations and guidance on appropriate future research and development needs, management issues, and funding requirements. The Subpanel finds that accelerator science and technology is a vital and intellectually exciting field. It has provided essential capabilities for the DOE/OER research programs with an enormous impact on the nation's scientific research, and it has significantly enhanced the nation's biomedical and industrial capabilities. Further progress in this field promises to open new possibilities for the scientific goals of the OER programs and to further benefit the nation. Sustained support of forefront accelerator research and development by the DOE's OER programs and the DOE's predecessor agencies has been responsible for much of this impact on research. This report documents these contributions to the DOE energy research mission and to the nation

  9. Advances in medical electron linear accelerator technologies and the development of a next generation robotic radiation therapy system

    Radiation therapy for cancer began in the early 20th century with X-ray tubes delivering a few hundred keV. Through the 1930's to 1940's, 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerators and Betatrons of 20 to 45 MeV were used for cancer treatment. In the mid 1950's, radiation therapy combined 4 to 8 MeV linear accelerators with several high power microwave magnetrons and klystrons working in the megawatt range that have been developed for radar applications during the second world war. Since then, the linear accelerator became the most commonly used technology for radiation therapy and nowadays, more than 8000 linear accelerators are contributing to the treatment of cancer worldwide. We present the development of a real-time 3D robotic radiation therapy system combined with a compact X-band linear accelerator for the early detection of deep seated, small tumors. The system utilizes multiple narrow high energy X-ray beams focused on the target tumor. Real-time positioning is achieved by non-invasive methods based on correlation models for tumor motion and respiratory signals. Emphasis is placed on the tumor motion which is used to control a robotic head with six degrees of freedom to fix the tumor in a certain spatial position. (author)

  10. 16 October 2012 - Norwegian University of Science and Technology Rector Digernes in the ATLAS visitor centre with Senior Norwegian S. Stapnes and J. Vigen; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

    Jacques Fichet

    2012-01-01

    16 October 2012 - Norwegian University of Science and Technology Rector Digernes in the ATLAS visitor centre with Senior Norwegian S. Stapnes and J. Vigen; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

  11. The affect of community dynamics and knowledge on the acceleration of technology development for the transition towards a hydrogen based transport system in Germany

    Van Giessel, J.F.; Ros, M.

    2003-03-15

    Due to the disadvantages (energy security, urban air pollution, the risk of climate change due to CO2 emission) of the current energy system, scientists and policymakers are searching for alternative energy sources to reduce the need for and use of fossil fuel and make the energy system more sustainable. Hydrogen is one of the proposed options. The transportation sector has a large contribution to climate change in terms of carbon dioxide emission. Hydrogen can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the air pollution and CO2 emission in the transportation sector. In Europe many organisations and institutions are working together on the research and development of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier for the transportation sector. The EC tries to reach the policy goal to substitute 2% of the fuel used in the transportation sector by hydrogen in the year 2015 and even 5% in the year 2020. In the EU, Germany is a frontrunner in the amount of hydrogen R and D projects. Many R and D projects in Germany are aimed at the transport sector. Most major car manufactures in Germany, especially DaimlerChrysler and BMW, invest large amounts of money in the R and D of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Besides spending of these organisations, the Federal German government and some state governments (Bundesstate) stimulate the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies since 1980. The growing awareness of both policy makers and major car manufactures in Germany to use hydrogen as an alternative fuel for the transportation sector makes it interesting to review this transition process in the transportation sector in Germany and see if this process can be accelerated. The innovation systems theory and the co-evolution of technology and community distinguish community dynamics and knowledge as important factors for describing technological change. In this research these factors will be used to determine the affect on the acceleration of technology development. The

  12. Focus on low carbon technologies. The positive solution

    Omer, Abdeen Mustafa [17 Juniper Court, Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    The use of renewable energy sources is a fundamental factor for a possible energy policy in the future. Taking into account the sustainable character of the majority of renewable energy technologies, they are able to preserve resources and to provide security, diversity of energy supply and services, virtually without environmental impact. This paper outlines possible energy savings and better performance achieved by different solar passive strategies (skylights, roof monitors and clerestory roof windows) and element arrangements across the roof in zones of cold to temperate climates. The aim of this work is to find possible design strategies, and to find solutions to provide thermal and luminous comfort in spaces of intermittent use and a poor aspect or orientation. In regions where heating is important during winter months, the use of top-light solar passive strategies for spaces without an equator-facing facade can efficiently reduce energy consumption for heating, lighting and ventilation. Passive solar systems for space heating and cooling, as well as passive cooling techniques when used in combination with conventional systems for heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting, can significantly contribute to the energy saving in the buildings sector, and the thermal behaviour of the dependent on the alternatives and interventions made on the building's shell. Exploitation of renewable energy in buildings and agricultural greenhouses can significantly contribute to energy saving. Promoting innovative renewable applications and reinforcing renewable energy market will contribute to preservation of the ecosystem by reducing emissions at local and global levels and will contribute to the amelioration of environmental conditions by replacing conventional resources with renewable sources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases and coexist comfortably with existing urban, agricultural and tourist land uses. As concerns society, development of the

  13. Some interesting and exotic applications of carbon-14 dating by accelerator mass spectrometry

    There are many applications of 14C dating and other measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). In particular, applications to dating of archaeological samples and interesting artifacts are discussed. Other applications, such as to extraterrestrial materials such as lunar samples and meteorites show the broad range of topics that can be addressed with 14C studies.

  14. Accelerator system of neutron spallation source for nuclear energy technology development

    High intensity proton accelerators are at present and developed for applications in neutron spallation sources. The advantages of this source are better safety factor, easy in controlling and spent fuel free. A study of conceptual design of required accelerator system has been carried out. Considering the required proton beam and feasibility in the development stages, a stepped linac system is an adequate choice for now

  15. Impact of accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety - Share cost project of the European Community

    As a result of the growing interest in Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), some European institutes have established a shared cost project in the framework of the European Community. The overall objective of the project is to make an assessment of the possibilities of accelerator-driven hybrid reactor systems from the point of view of safe energy production, minimum waste production and transmutation capabilities

  16. A review of activated carbon technologies for reducing MSW incinerator emissions

    Though activated carbon is, by no means, a newcomer to the pollution control field, having been used as a water purifier and more recently demonstrated as a flue gas cleaner on power plants, it is now attracting considerable attention in Europe as a means to reduce further the quantity of toxic organic and metal emissions from new and existing municipal waste combustors. Since activated carbon is a potentially important future emissions control technology for MWCs in the US, particularly for removal of mercury and dioxin, this paper discusses the impetus which has motivated the experimentation with various activated carbon technologies which is now taking place, will describe how some of the activated carbon systems (e.g., post-emissions control fixed carbon bed and injection of carbon with scrubber reagent) being tested now function and where they fit in existing pollution control trains, and will present available performance data and emissions reductions actually achieved for each system

  17. Use of accelerated helium-3 ions for determining oxygen and carbon impurities in some pure materials

    Aleksandrova, G. I.; Borisov, G. I.; Demidov, A. M.; Zakharov, Y. A.; Sukhov, G. V.; Shmanenkova, G. I.; Shchelkova, V. P.

    1978-01-01

    Methods are developed for the determination of O impurity in Be and Si carbide and concurrent determination of C and O impurities in Si and W by irradiation with accelerated He-3 ions and subsequent activity measurements of C-11 and F-18 formed from C and O with the aid of a gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer. Techniques for determining O in Ge and Ga arsenide with radiochemical separation of F-18 are also described.

  18. Low carbon thermal technologies in an ageing society – What are the issues?

    This paper is a commentary on the theme of this special issue, low carbon thermal technologies and older age, and the Conditioning Demand project. Drawing on the project findings, I discuss some key aspects of ageing that are relevant to the roll-out of low carbon technologies in domestic settings in ageing, developed societies. These include biological, cognitive, institutional and social dimensions. I conclude with some suggestions for ways of working to maximise the potential benefits of low carbon thermal technologies for older people. -- Highlights: •The specific needs of older people must be considered in low carbon transitions. •The vulnerability discourse however dominates in a way which is unhelpful. •Some physiological aspects of ageing affect person-technology fit. •Cultural aspects influence the success of integration of LCTs into domestic settings. •More inclusive design is needed if older people are to benefit from LCTs

  19. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS. OPEN CUT METHODS

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with tradition open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been dev...

  20. Considerations in forecasting the demand for carbon sequestration and biotic storage technologies

    Trexler, M.C. [Trexler and Associates, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified forestry and other land-use based mitigation measures as possible sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. An overview of sequestration and biotic storage is presented, and the potential impacts of the use of carbon sequestration as a mitigation technology are briefly noted. Carbon sequestration is also compare to other mitigation technologies. Biotic mitigation technologies are concluded to be a legitimate and potentially important part of greenhouse gas mitigation due to their relatively low costs, ancillary benefits, and climate impact. However, not all biotic mitigation techniques perfectly match the idealized definition of a mitigation measure, and policies are becoming increasingly biased against biotic technologies.

  1. Highly accelerated cardiovascular MR imaging using many channel technology: concepts and clinical applications

    Niendorf, Thoralf [RWTH Aachen, University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Sodickson, Daniel K. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CVMRI) is of proven clinical value in the non-invasive imaging of cardiovascular diseases. CVMRI requires rapid image acquisition, but acquisition speed is fundamentally limited in conventional MRI. Parallel imaging provides a means for increasing acquisition speed and efficiency. However, signal-to-noise (SNR) limitations and the limited number of receiver channels available on most MR systems have in the past imposed practical constraints, which dictated the use of moderate accelerations in CVMRI. High levels of acceleration, which were unattainable previously, have become possible with many-receiver MR systems and many-element, cardiac-optimized RF-coil arrays. The resulting imaging speed improvements can be exploited in a number of ways, ranging from enhancement of spatial and temporal resolution to efficient whole heart coverage to streamlining of CVMRI work flow. In this review, examples of these strategies are provided, following an outline of the fundamentals of the highly accelerated imaging approaches employed in CVMRI. Topics discussed include basic principles of parallel imaging; key requirements for MR systems and RF-coil design; practical considerations of SNR management, supported by multi-dimensional accelerations, 3D noise averaging and high field imaging; highly accelerated clinical state-of-the art cardiovascular imaging applications spanning the range from SNR-rich to SNR-limited; and current trends and future directions. (orig.)

  2. Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems. Second International Workshop Proceedings, Nantes, France, 21-23 May 2013

    The accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a potential transmutation system option as part of partitioning and transmutation strategies for radioactive waste in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Following the success of the workshop series on the utilisation and reliability of the High Power Proton Accelerators (HPPA), the scope of this new workshop series on Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems has been extended to cover subcritical systems as well as the use of neutron sources. The workshop organised by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency provided experts with a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the field of ADS and neutron sources. A total of 40 papers were presented during the oral and poster sessions. Four technical sessions were organised addressing ADS experiments and test facilities, accelerators, simulation, safety, data, neutron sources that were opportunity to present the status of projects like the MYRRHA facility, the MEGAPIE target, FREYA and GUINEVERE experiments, the KIPT neutron source, and the FAIR linac. These proceedings include all the papers presented at the workshop

  3. Accelerating the spin-up of the coupled carbon and nitrogen cycle model in CLM4

    Y. Fang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The commonly adopted biogeochemistry spin-up process in earth system model is to run the model for hundreds to thousands of years subject to periodic atmospheric forcing to reach dynamic steady state of the carbon-nitrogen (CN models. A variety of approaches have been proposed to reduce the computation time of the spin-up process. Significant improvement in computational efficiency has been made recently. However, a long simulation time is still required to reach the common convergence criteria of the coupled carbon/nitrogen model. A gradient projection method was proposed and used to further reduce the computation time after examining the trend of the dominant carbon pools. The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4 with carbon and nitrogen component was used in this study. From point scale simulations we found that the method can reduce the computation time by 20–69% compared to the fastest approach in the literature. We also found that the cyclic stability of total carbon for some cases differs from that of the periodic atmospheric forcing, and some cases even showed instability. Close examination showed that one case has a carbon periodicity much longer than that of the atmospheric forcing due to the annual fire disturbance that is longer than half a year. The rest was caused by the instability of water table calculation in the hydrology model of CLM4. The instability issue is resolved after we replaced the hydrology scheme in CLM4 with a low model for variably saturated porous media.

  4. Carbon capture from coal fired power plant using pressurized fluid bed technology

    Williams, Dennis; Christensen, Tor

    2010-09-15

    This presentation will discuss the use of a pressurized fluid bed boiler system and specialized carbon capture system to burn coal and generagte clean electricity. The paper will present the existing boiler and carbon capture technology and present economics, thermal performance and emissions reduction for a 100Mw module.

  5. How to trigger low carbon technologies by EU targets for 2030? An assessment of technology needs

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Janeiro, L.; Winkel, T.

    2013-04-15

    The current EU framework for energy and climate policies up to 2020 consists of three headline targets: 20% reduction of GHG emissions compared to 2005, a 20% share of renewable energy in final energy consumption, and 20% primary energy savings compared to baseline developments. While progress on these 2020 targets is mixed, discussions in the EU about climate and energy policies and targets for the period after 2020 have started. Given the long cycles associated to energy and climate investments, agreement on a clear longer-term policy framework is critical to improve visibility for investors and avoid lock-in effects in inefficient or polluting technologies. Therefore, the European Commission published a Communication on 6 June 2012 on the need for a long term policy framework for renewable energy, and a Green Paper on the 2030 climate and energy policy framework on 27 March 2013. Against this background, the Dutch Ministries of Infrastructure and Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs requested PBL to create input for the European debate on climate targets and policies until and beyond 2030. Ecofys supported PBL by addressing the following two questions: (1) What steps are needed for selected key technology groups to achieve long term GHG emission reductions and what climate and energy policies are likely to trigger these steps?; and (2) What are the pros and cons of a 2030 policy framework with (a) a GHG reduction target only, and (b) targets for GHG reduction, renewable energy, and energy efficiency? The focus of the first question was on four technology groups, namely (1) energy efficiency in the built environment, notably for heat; (2) solar PV and wind energy; (3) advanced biofuels; (4) CO2 carbon capture and storage (CCS). An analysis of the steps needed for the deployment of the full GHG mitigation potential of the discussed technology groups shows that this will largely depend on the adoption of a wide range of policy instruments by EU Member

  6. SET-Plan - Scientific Assessment in Support of the Materials Roadmap Enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies - Fossil Fuel Energies Sector, Including Carbon Capture and Storage

    GOMEZ-BRICEÑO Dolores; Jong, Martin; DRAGE Trevor; Falzetti, Marco; Hedin, Niklas; Snijkers, Frans

    2011-01-01

    This document is part of a series of Scientific Assessment reports that underpin the Materials Roadmap enabling Low Carbon Energy Technologies. This report deals with the Fossil Fuel Energies Sector, including Carbon Capture and Storage.

  7. A cost-effective and versatile technology for regenerating activated carbon

    McLaughlin, H. [Waste Min, Inc., Croton, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption by activated carbon is a mainstream technology for the removal of soluble chemicals from waters and wastewaters, as well as for the removal of organics from vapor streams. Activated carbon basically acts like a sponge - accumulating the chemical species removed from the liquid or vapor stream. When the capacity of the carbon is reached, the spent carbon must be replaced or regenerated to restore its ability to adsorb. The current commercial regeneration options for spent carbon have significant shortcomings. Regeneration by steaming or low temperature heating removes low boiling organic compounds from vapor-phase carbon, but is not efficient removing less volatile compounds and does not regenerate liquid-phase activated carbons. High temperature thermal regeneration methods are expensive to build and operate, have high energy requirements, destroy the adsorbed compounds, and gradually destroy the carbon itself. An alternative technology that avoids the shortcomings of current methods is regeneration of spent activated carbon by extraction with organic solvents. The process uses an organic solvent to dissolve adsorbed material out of the internal pores of the activated carbon. Subsequently, the residual solvent is removed, typically by steaming, then the solvent is recovered and recycled. Cost-wise, solvent regeneration of activated carbon is substantially less expensive than thermal methods. The solvent regeneration technology works for virtually all adsorption applications where thermal regeneration is currently utilized. Capacity-wise, solvent regeneration restores 70% to 90% of the adsorption capacity of virgin activated carbon - while recovering the adsorbates intact and without deteriorating the activated carbon. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Some problems on a local shield calculation of technological installations with electron accelerators

    Calculation results are presented of biological protection of radiation units with electron accelerators. The calculation has been performed with competitive line method for a linear isotron source of braking radiation. Ferrum with atomic number 26 has been used as a target material. For this type of accelerator the following calculation technique has been adopted: protection thickness has been selected with respect to some particular material. Then a spacing has been calculated between the source and the external side for which a braking radiation dosage rate upon the protection surface has been maximum permissible

  9. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to capture, enhanced weathering, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. PMID:26732128

  10. Electrochemical Acceleration of Carbonate and Silicate Weathering for CO2 Mitigation

    Rau, G. H.; Carroll, S.

    2011-12-01

    Carbonate and many silicate minerals dissolve in strong acids, and such acids are commonly generated at the anode of a conventional saline water electrolysis cell. It was therefore reasoned that encasing such an anode with base minerals would lead to enhanced mineral dissolution and hence increased hydroxide (base) generation at the cathode, formed in course of splitting water, generating H2 and OH-. Subsequent exposue of the alkalized solution to CO2 (e.g., as in air) would lead to absorption of the CO2 and formation of stable dissolved or solid (bi)carbonates for carbon sequestration. Previously, it has been demonstrated that mineral carbonate encasement of a seawater electrolysis cell anode indeed generated basic solutions in excess of pH 9 that were subsequently neutralized via contact with air CO2, increasing the carbon content of the initial seawater by 30% (Rau, G.H. 2008. Environ Sci. Techol. 42, 8935-). To test such a weathering/CO2 capture scheme using silicate minerals, either powdered wollastonite or ultramafic rock standard (UM-4) was encased around the anode of an electrolysis cell composed of graphite electrodes and a 0.25M Na2SO4 electrolyte solution. After 0.5 to 1.5 hrs of electricity application (3.5Vdc, 5-10mA), the electrolyte pH rose to as much as 11.1 (initial and blank solution pH's anolyte acid, H2SO4, forming mostly insoluble CaSO4 and MgSO4 at the anode. This then allowed NaOH normally produced at the cathode to accumulate in solution, in turn reacting with air CO2 to form NaHCO3. Longer electrolysis times and/or alternative electrolyte solutions might allow formation and precipitation of Ca or Mg carbonates. Such electrochemistry might ultimately provide a safe, efficient way to harness the planet's: i) large, off-peak or off-grid renewable electricity potential, ii) abundant basic minerals, and iii) vast natural brine electrolytes for large-scale air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production.

  11. ECOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES OF IMPLEMENTING CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA

    Alexey Cherepovitsyn; Alina Ilinova

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define the main approaches to the implementation of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies in the oil and gas industry in Russia, and also to identify ecological, economic and social issues of their usage. Promotion of the technology of carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration by means of capturing and injecting it into underground reservoirs is a promising mechanism of reducing carbon dioxide concentration. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies might be...

  12. PREFACE: International Symposium on Vacuum Science & Technology and its Application for Accelerators (IVS 2012)

    Pandit, V. S.; Pal, Gautam

    2012-11-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970 to promote vacuum science and technology in academic, industrial and R&D institutions in India. IVS is a member society of the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Applications (IUVSTA). It has organized International and national symposia, short term courses and workshops on different aspects of Vacuum Science and Technology at regular intervals. So far 27 National symposia, 4 International Symposia and 47 courses have been organized at various locations in India. There has been an active participation from R&D establishments, universities and Indian industries during all these events. In view of the current global situation and emerging trends in vacuum technology, the executive committee of the IVS suggested to us that we organize an International Symposium at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata from 15-17 February 2012. At the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre we have a large number of high vacuum systems used in the K130 Cyclotron and K500 Superconducting Cyclotron. Also a large cryogenic system using LHe plant is in operation for cryopanels and a superconducting magnet for K-500 Cyclotron. The main areas covered at the symposium were the production and measurement of vacuums, leak detection, design and development of large vacuum systems, vacuum metallurgy, vacuum materials and the application of high vacuums in cyclotrons, LINACS and other accelerators. This symposium provided an opportunity for interaction between active researchers and technologists and allowed them to review the current situation, report recent experimental results, share the available expertise and consider the future R&D efforts needed in this area. Keeping the industrial significance of vacuum technology in mind, an exhibition of the vacuum related equipment, accessories, products etc by various suppliers and manufactures was organized alongside the symposium. Participation by a large number of exhibitors

  13. Assessment of Carbon Tetrachloride Groundwater Transport in Support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Technology Demonstration Program

    Groundwater modeling was performed in support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program. The ITRD program is facilitated by Sandia National Laboratory for the Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology. This report was prepared to document the results of the modeling effort and facilitate discussion of characterization and remediation options for the carbon tetrachloride plume among the ITRD participants. As a first step toward implementation of innovative technologies for remediation of the carbon tetrachloride (CT) plume underlying the 200-West Area, this modeling was performed to provide an indication of the potential impact of the CT source on the compliance boundary approximately 5000 m distant. The primary results of the modeling bracket the amount of CT source that will most likely result in compliance/non-compliance at the boundary and the relative influence of the various modeling parameters

  14. Assessment of Carbon Tetrachloride Groundwater Transport in Support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Technology Demonstration Program

    Truex, Michael J.; Murray, Christopher J.; Cole, Charles R.; Cameron, Richard J.; Johnson, Michael D.; Skeen, Rodney S.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2001-07-13

    Groundwater modeling was performed in support of the Hanford Carbon Tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program. The ITRD program is facilitated by Sandia National Laboratory for the Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology. This report was prepared to document the results of the modeling effort and facilitate discussion of characterization and remediation options for the carbon tetrachloride plume among the ITRD participants. As a first step toward implementation of innovative technologies for remediation of the carbon tetrachloride (CT) plume underlying the 200-West Area, this modeling was performed to provide an indication of the potential impact of the CT source on the compliance boundary approximately 5000 m distant. The primary results of the modeling bracket the amount of CT source that will most likely result in compliance/non-compliance at the boundary and the relative influence of the various modeling parameters.

  15. Carbon-14 ages of Antarctic meteorites with accelerator and small-volume counting techniques

    C-14 measurements were made on six Yamato and Victoria Land meteorites using tandem accelerator mass spectroscopy. The studies brought to 27 the number of Antarctic meteorites that have been examined for terrestrial aging. Details of the spectroscopic method are provided, along with the results in combinations with the data from the other 21 meteorites. It is found that the Yamato meteorites are younger than those found at Allan Hills, implying that two mechanisms may exist for the abundant Antarctic meteorites: exposure where falling due to a paucity of ice, and transport and exposure by sublimating ice

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of a compact microbeam radiotherapy system based on carbon nanotube field emission technology

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an experimental radiotherapy technique that has shown potent antitumor effects with minimal damage to normal tissue in animal studies. This unique form of radiation is currently only produced in a few large synchrotron accelerator research facilities in the world. To promote widespread translational research on this promising treatment technology we have proposed and are in the initial development stages of a compact MRT system that is based on carbon nanotube field emission x-ray technology. We report on a Monte Carlo based feasibility study of the compact MRT system design. Methods: Monte Carlo calculations were performed using EGSnrc-based codes. The proposed small animal research MRT device design includes carbon nanotube cathodes shaped to match the corresponding MRT collimator apertures, a common reflection anode with filter, and a MRT collimator. Each collimator aperture is sized to deliver a beam width ranging from 30 to 200 μm at 18.6 cm source-to-axis distance. Design parameters studied with Monte Carlo include electron energy, cathode design, anode angle, filtration, and collimator design. Calculations were performed for single and multibeam configurations. Results: Increasing the energy from 100 kVp to 160 kVp increased the photon fluence through the collimator by a factor of 1.7. Both energies produced a largely uniform fluence along the long dimension of the microbeam, with 5% decreases in intensity near the edges. The isocentric dose rate for 160 kVp was calculated to be 700 Gy/min/A in the center of a 3 cm diameter target. Scatter contributions resulting from collimator size were found to produce only small (<7%) changes in the dose rate for field widths greater than 50 μm. Dose vs depth was weakly dependent on filtration material. The peak-to-valley ratio varied from 10 to 100 as the separation between adjacent microbeams varies from 150 to 1000 μm. Conclusions: Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate

  17. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  18. EuCARD and CARE - development of accelerator technology in Poland

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    EuCARD (2009-1013) and CARE (2004-2008) are examples of big European R&D projects for building integrated accelerator infrastructures in Europe. Several research teams from a number of European countries are participating in this consolidated effort. Here we summarize the tasks done by some teams from Poland on a more general background.

  19. Compact accelerator for clinical use

    The first clinical trial with carbon beams generated from the HIMAC was conducted in June 1994. The total number of patients treated as of October 2006 is in excess of 3,000. In view of the significant growth in the number of protocols, the Japanese government gave its approval for carbon-ion therapy at NIRS as an advanced medical technology in 2003. The impressive advances of carbon-ion therapy using HIMAC have been supported by high-reliability operation and by advanced developments of beam-delivery and accelerator technologies. Based on our ten years of experience with HIMAC, we recently proposed a compact carbon-ion therapy facility for widespread use in Japan. The key technologies of the accelerator and irradiation systems for this compact facility have been under development since April 2004, with the main thrust being focused on downsizing the facility for cost reduction. On the basis of the design and R and D studies for the compact carbon-ion facility, its construction was begun at Gunma University in April 2006. In addition, our future plans for HIMAC also include the design of a new treatment facility. The design work has already been initiated and will lead to the further development of therapy using HIMAC. The following descriptions give a summary account of the carbon-ion treatment facility and of the HIMAC facility. (author)

  20. Energy technologies evaluated against climate targets using a cost and carbon trade-off curve.

    Trancik, Jessika E; Cross-Call, Daniel

    2013-06-18

    Over the next few decades, severe cuts in emissions from energy will be required to meet global climate-change mitigation goals. These emission reductions imply a major shift toward low-carbon energy technologies, and the economic cost and technical feasibility of mitigation are therefore highly dependent upon the future performance of energy technologies. However, existing models do not readily translate into quantitative targets against which we can judge the dynamic performance of technologies. Here, we present a simple, new model for evaluating energy-supply technologies and their improvement trajectories against climate-change mitigation goals. We define a target for technology performance in terms of the carbon intensity of energy, consistent with emission reduction goals, and show how the target depends upon energy demand levels. Because the cost of energy determines the level of adoption, we then compare supply technologies to one another and to this target based on their position on a cost and carbon trade-off curve and how the position changes over time. Applying the model to U.S. electricity, we show that the target for carbon intensity will approach zero by midcentury for commonly cited emission reduction goals, even under a high demand-side efficiency scenario. For Chinese electricity, the carbon intensity target is relaxed and less certain because of lesser emission reductions and greater variability in energy demand projections. Examining a century-long database on changes in the cost-carbon space, we find that the magnitude of changes in cost and carbon intensity that are required to meet future performance targets is not unprecedented, providing some evidence that these targets are within engineering reach. The cost and carbon trade-off curve can be used to evaluate the dynamic performance of existing and new technologies against climate-change mitigation goals. PMID:23560987

  1. Technology interactions among low-carbon energy technologies: What can we learn from a large number of scenarios?

    Advanced low-carbon energy technologies can substantially reduce the cost of stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Understanding the interactions between these technologies and their impact on the costs of stabilization can help inform energy policy decisions. Many previous studies have addressed this challenge by exploring a small number of representative scenarios that represent particular combinations of future technology developments. This paper uses a combinatorial approach in which scenarios are created for all combinations of the technology development assumptions that underlie a smaller, representative set of scenarios. We estimate stabilization costs for 768 runs of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), based on 384 different combinations of assumptions about the future performance of technologies and two stabilization goals. Graphical depiction of the distribution of stabilization costs provides first-order insights about the full data set and individual technologies. We apply a formal scenario discovery method to obtain more nuanced insights about the combinations of technology assumptions most strongly associated with high-cost outcomes. Many of the fundamental insights from traditional representative scenario analysis still hold under this comprehensive combinatorial analysis. For example, the importance of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and the substitution effect among supply technologies are consistently demonstrated. The results also provide more clarity regarding insights not easily demonstrated through representative scenario analysis. For example, they show more clearly how certain supply technologies can provide a hedge against high stabilization costs, and that aggregate end-use efficiency improvements deliver relatively consistent stabilization cost reductions. Furthermore, the results indicate that a lack of CCS options combined with lower technological advances in the buildings sector or the transportation sector is

  2. Benefit of chromium in reducing the rates of flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel outlet feeders in CANDU reactors

    In the mid 1990's, wall thinning of outlet feeders due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) was recognized as an active mechanism in the outlet feeders of CANDU reactors. To address wall thinning of outlet feeders in new reactor construction and refurbishment projects, AECL introduced a minimum Cr concentration in its specification for the SA-106 carbon steel feeder pipe. The effectiveness of Cr in reducing FAC was subsequently demonstrated in in-reactor and out-reactor loops at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. More recently, wall-thinning rates have been determined from wall thickness data collected from outlet feeders, containing a specified minimum Cr concentration, installed in the Point Lepreau Generating Station in 2001. This paper presents the FAC rates determined from in-service outlet feeders and compares the rates with data from previous in-reactor and out-reactor test loops, highlighting the consistency observed in results from the three sources. (author)

  3. Prospective Environmental Impacts of Selected Low-Carbon Electricity Technologies

    Bouman, Evert A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: As one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the global electricity production sector faces the challenge of mitigating its emissions by transitioning towards cleaner production technologies. In light of this transition, it has been shown that even though renewable energy technologies have clear benefits over fossil generation technologies, there are trade-offs from an environmental and material perspective (Hertwich et al. 2015; Singh et al. 201...

  4. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  5. Lanthanum carbonate prevents accelerated medial calcification in uremic rats: role of osteoclast-like activity

    Che, Yu; Bing, Chen; Akhtar, Javed; Tingting, Zhao; Kezhou, Yu; Rong, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Background Arterial medial calcification (AMC) is frequent prevalence in patients with end stage renal disease. Evidence about hyperphosphatemia induced anabolic crosstalk between osteoblast and osteoclast in AMC of uremia is rare. Lanthanum carbonate as an orally administered phosphate-binding agent to reduce phosphate load and ameliorate AMC, but direct evidence is missing. Methods Detailed time-course studies were conducted of Sprague–Dawley rats fed with adenine and high phosphate diet to...

  6. Surface coatings on carbon steel for prevention of flow accelerated corrosion under two phase flow conditions

    Shim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Kyung Mo; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Since the occurrence of a Surry-2 pipe rupture accident, a lot of effort has been made to prevent FAC of carbon steel piping. Some of the chemicals were suggested as a corrosion inhibitor. A platinum decoration was applied as another prevention strategy of carbon steel thinning. The severe FAC-damaged carbon steel pipings were replaced by tolerant materials such as SA335 Gr.P22. However, some components such as the piping materials between moisture separator and turbine have still suffered from the FAC degradation. This work provides a coating method to prevent the FAC degradation of the SA106 Gr.B, which is a piping material between moisture separator and high-pressure turbine, under two-phase flow. We suggested the coating materials to prevent FAC of SA106Gr.B under two-phase water-vapor flow. The FAC resistance of SA106Gr.B was improved with 5 times by electroless-deposited Ni-P protective layer. Other coating materials also enhanced the tolerance up to 5 times for the FAC in a condition of 150 .deg. C and 3.8 bar at 9.5 compared to non-coated SA106Gr.B.

  7. Algal-based CO2 Sequestration Technology and Global Scenario of Carbon Credit Market: A Review

    Shailendra Kumar Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the global and national scenario of Carbon credit. This paper will also discuss the advantages of the algae-based carbon capture technology in growing carbon credit market. Carbon Dioxide (CO2, the most important greenhouse gas produced by combustion of fuels, has become a cause of global panic as its concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere has been rising alarmingly. However, it is now turning into a product that helps people, countries, consultants, traders, corporations and even farmers earn billion of rupees. A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tone of CO2 or CO2 equivalent (CO2-e. Businesses can exchange, buy or sell carbon credits in the international markets at the prevailing market price. India and China are likely to emerge as biggest seller and Europe is going to be biggest buyers of carbon credits. Using algae for reduction the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is known as algae-based carbon capture technology. This new technology has attracted companies that need inexpensive CO2 sequestration solutions. Algae farming emerge as the best CO2 sequestration technique in comparison with other methods.

  8. Terahertz Science and Technology of Macroscopically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films

    Kono, Junichiro

    One of the outstanding challenges in nanotechnology is how to assemble individual nano-objects into macroscopic architectures while preserving their extraordinary properties. For example, the one-dimensional character of electrons in individual carbon nanotubes leads to extremely anisotropic transport, optical, and magnetic phenomena, but their macroscopic manifestations have been limited. Here, we describe methods for preparing macroscopic films, sheets, and fibers of highly aligned carbon nanotubes and their applications to basic and applied terahertz studies. Sufficiently thick films act as ideal terahertz polarizers, and appropriately doped films operate as polarization-sensitive, flexible, powerless, and ultra-broadband detectors. Together with recently developed chirality enrichment methods, these developments will ultimately allow us to study dynamic conductivities of interacting one-dimensional electrons in macroscopic single crystals of single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  9. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation. Feasibility of enhanced natural weathering as a CO2 emission reduction technology

    A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonates. Potential advantages of mineral CO2 sequestration compared to, e.g., geological CO2 storage include (1) the permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO2, due to the thermodynamic stability of the carbonate product formed and (2) the vast potential sequestration capacity, because of the widespread and abundant occurrence of suitable feedstock. In addition, carbonation is an exothermic process, which potentially limits the overall energy consumption and costs of CO2 emission reduction. However, weathering processes are slow, with timescales at natural conditions of thousands to millions of years. For industrial implementation, a reduction of the reaction time to the order of minutes has to be achieved by developing alternative process routes. The aim of this thesis is an investigation of the technical, energetic, and economic feasibility of CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. In Chapter 1 the literature published on CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation is reviewed. Among the potentially suitable mineral feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration, Ca-silicates, more particularly wollastonite (CaSiO3), a mineral ore, and steel slag, an industrial alkaline solid residue, are selected for further research. Alkaline Ca-rich residues seem particularly promising, since these materials are inexpensive and available near large industrial point sources of CO2. In addition, residues tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their (geo)chemical instability. Various process routes have been proposed for mineral carbonation, which often include a pre-treatment of the solid feedstock (e.g., size reduction and

  10. Policies to Accelerate Fuel, Technology andBehavioural Change in Transport - Results and Success of the Austrian Climate: Active Mobile Programme after the First Seven Years

    There is plenty of concepts and strategies on almost all administrative levels to reduce carbon emissions and boost energy efficiency in transport. But it usually takes a long time to adapt national and regional legislation to these strategies with considerable loss of valuable time. Furthermore some of the defined measures will never find the necessary ''political will'' for implementation. To bridge this gap Austria's Environmental ministry supported by the Austrian Energy Agency, got into action 2005 and set up an action programme, condensing all so called ''soft'' and ''voluntary'' measures in transport (''mobility management''), that do not necessarily need to wait for legislation or specific administrative framework conditions. In its comprehensive approach - not only transport is targeted, but also buildings, renewables and energy saving - and also in its effects regarding the reduction of GHG emissions, Climate:active and especially climate:active mobile seems to be one-of-a-kind in Europe. Climate-active mobile set-up: free-of-charge consulting programmes addressing specific target groups (companies, cites andmunicipalities, real estate developers, schools andyouth, tourism); a financial support programme with 51 Mio Euro since 2007 for mobility management measures, fleet conversions to low-carbon technologies, work travel plans etc.; an EcoDriving training programme with up to now 20,000 trainees and educating all novice drivers in Austria in a smart driving style; a broad awareness raising campaign; about 2,900 klima:aktiv mobil partners among the target groups implementing sustainable transport measures and therewith reduces more than 530,000 tons of CO2 emissions every year, created or saved 4300 ''green jobs'' in transport and induced ''green'' investments by companies and administrations 7 to 8 times higher as the funding. Climate-active mobile is one of the main drivers in Austria to accelerate fuel, technology andbehavioural change in transport and

  11. A low carbon industrial revolution? Insights and challenges from past technological and economic transformations

    Recent efforts to promote a transition to a low carbon economy have been influenced by suggestions that a low carbon transition offers challenges and might yield economic benefits comparable to those of the previous industrial revolutions. This paper examines these arguments and the challenges facing a low carbon transition, by drawing on recent thinking on the technological, economic and institutional factors that enabled and sustained the first (British) industrial revolution, and the role of ‘general purpose technologies’ in stimulating and sustaining this and subsequent industrial transformation processes that have contributed to significant macroeconomic gains. These revolutions involved profound, long drawn-out changes in economy, technology and society; and although their energy transitions led to long-run economic benefits, they took many decades to develop. To reap significant long-run economic benefits from a low carbon transition sooner rather than later would require systemic efforts and incentives for low carbon innovation and substitution of high-carbon technologies. We conclude that while achieving a low carbon transition may require societal changes on a scale comparable with those of previous industrial revolutions, this transition does not yet resemble previous industrial revolutions. A successful low carbon transition would, however, amount to a different kind of industrial revolution. - Highlights: ► Investigates lessons for a low carbon transition from past industrial revolutions. ► Explores the implications of ‘general purpose technologies’ and their properties. ► Examines analysis of ‘long waves’ of technological progress and diffusion. ► Draws insights for low carbon transitions and policy.

  12. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of low carbon energy technologies: Indian perspective

    Saha, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Rahul; Kumar, Manish; Deswal, Surinder; Chandna, Pankaj

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, techno-economic and an environmental investigation and analysis of Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs) has been presented, with special emphasis on India. The paper identify, analyze and recommend, on the basis of available and collected / collated information and data, the promising and potential low carbon energy technology options suited to Indian conditions for grid connected power generation. The evaluation criteria adopted include - emission reduction potential, technological feasibility, and economic viability; and on its basis recommend a detailed action plan and strategy for guiding future research and development with a more focused approach considering current Indian policy framework.

  13. Quantum Systems Engineering: A structured approach to accelerating the development of a quantum technology industry

    Everitt, M. J.; Henshaw, Michael J de C; Dwyer, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    The exciting possibilities in the field of new quantum technologies extend far beyond the well-reported application of quantum computing. Precision timing, gravity sensors and imagers, cryptography, navigation, metrology, energy harvesting and recovery, biomedical sensors and imagers, and real-time optimisers all indicate the potential for quantum technologies to provide the basis of a technological revolution. From the field of Systems Engineering emerges a focused strategy for the developme...

  14. Comparative study of ageing, heat treatment and accelerated carbonation for stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in view of reducing regulated heavy metal/metalloid leaching.

    Santos, Rafael M; Mertens, Gilles; Salman, Muhammad; Cizer, Özlem; Van Gerven, Tom

    2013-10-15

    This study compared the performance of four different approaches for stabilization of regulated heavy metal and metalloid leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA): (i) short term (three months) heap ageing, (ii) heat treatment, (iii) accelerated moist carbonation, and (iv) accelerated pressurized slurry carbonation. Two distinct types of MSWI-BA were tested in this study: one originating from a moving-grate furnace incineration operation treating exclusively household refuse (sample B), and another originating from a fluid-bed furnace incineration operation that treats a mixture of household and light industrial wastes (sample F). The most abundant elements in the ashes were Si (20-27 wt.%) and Ca (16-19 wt.%), followed by significant quantities of Fe, Al, Na, S, K, Mg, Ti, and Cl. The main crystalline substances present in the fresh ashes were Quartz, Calcite, Apatite, Anhydrite and Gehlenite, while the amorphous fraction ranged from 56 to 73 wt.%. The leaching values of all samples were compared to the Flemish (NEN 7343) and the Walloon (DIN 38414) regulations from Belgium. Batch leaching of the fresh ashes at natural pH showed that seven elements exceeded at least one regulatory limit (Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Se and Zn), and that both ashes had excess basicity (pH > 12). Accelerated carbonation achieved significant reduction in ash basicity (9.3-9.9); lower than ageing (10.5-12.2) and heat treatment (11.1-12.1). For sample B, there was little distinction between the leaching results of ageing and accelerated carbonation with respect to regulatory limits; however carbonation achieved comparatively lower leaching levels. Heat treatment was especially detrimental to the leaching of Cr. For sample F, ageing was ineffective and heat treatment had marginally better results, while accelerated carbonation delivered the most effective performance, with slurry carbonation meeting all DIN limits. Slurry carbonation was deemed the most

  15. Advanced compact accelerator neutron generator technology for active neutron interrogation field work

    Due to a need for security screening instruments capable of detecting explosives and nuclear materials there is growing interest in neutron generator systems suitable for field use for applications broadly referred to as active neutron interrogation (ANI). Over the past two years Thermo Electron Corporation has developed a suite of different compact accelerator neutron generator products specifically designed for ANI field work to meet this demand. These systems incorporate hermetically-sealed particle accelerator tubes designed to produce fast neutrons using either the deuterium-deuterium (En = 2.5 MeV) or deuterium-tritium (En = 14.1 MeV) fusion reactions. Employing next-generation features including advanced sealed-tube accelerator designs, all-digital control electronics and innovative housing configurations these systems are suitable for many different uses. A compact system weighing less than 14 kg (MP 320) with a lifetime exceeding 1000 hours has been developed for portable applications. A system for fixed installations (P 325) has been developed with an operating life exceeding 4500 hours that incorporates specific serviceability features for permanent facilities with difficult-to-access shield blocks. For associated particle imaging (API) investigations a second-generation system (API 120) with an operating life of greater than 1000 hours has been developed for field use in which a high resolution fiberoptic imaging plate is specially configured to take advantage of a neutron point-source spot size of ∼2 mm. (author)

  16. Low carbon Finland 2050. VTT clean energy technology strategies for society

    Koljonen, T.; Simila, L.; Sipila, K. [and others

    2012-11-15

    The Low Carbon Finland 2050 project by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland aims to assess the technological opportunities and challenges involved in reducing Finland's greenhouse gas emissions. A target for reduction is set as at least 80% from the 1990 level by 2050 as part of an international effort, which requires strong RD and D in clean energy technologies. Key findings of the project are presented in this publication, which aims to stimulate enlightening and multidisciplinary discussions on low-carbon futures for Finland. The project gathered together VTT's technology experts in clean energy production, smart energy infrastructures, transport, buildings, and industrial systems as well as experts in energy system modelling and foresight. VTT's leading edge 'Low Carbon and Smart Energy' enables new solutions with a demonstration that is the first of its kind in Finland, and the introduction of new energy technology onto national and global markets. (orig.)

  17. Effects of accelerated carbon-ion on the induction of dominant lethality in the teleost fish, Oryzias latipes

    About a small teleost fish, Oryzias latipes, it has been reported that the dominant lethal mutation test by using the hatchability of eggs is useful for the estimation of the mutagenic effects of radiations and chemicals. In the present experiment, the genetic effects of heavy ions on the male germ cells of the fish by using the dominant lethal test system were studied. One of the albino strain of Medaka was used. The hatchability of fertilized eggs was examined to determine the no irradiation control value. The male of each pair was irradiated with the carbon ions accelerated with the RIKEN ring cyclotron. In the no irradiation control, most embryos hatched 7 - 10 days after fertilization. The numbers of dead embryos and newly hatched fry were counted every day in each cluster. Relative hatchability rate (RHR) was calculated. Dominant lethal rate was calculated as (1-RHR). The number of the irradiated fish pairs and the number of the examined eggs, the fertility of eggs and the hatchability of fertilized eggs due to irradiation, and the dominant lethal rate are reported. The induction of dominant lethality was about two times as high in carbon beam as that by X-ray. (K.I.)

  18. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags using CO2 diluted sources: CO2 uptakes and energy requirements

    Renato eBaciocchi; Giulia eCosta; Alessandra ePolettini; Raffaella ePomi; Alessio eStramazzo; Daniela eZingaretti

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry phase (L/S=5 l/kg, T=100 °C and Ptot=10 bar) and the thin film (L/S =0.3-0.4 l/kg, T=50 °C and Ptot=7-10 bar) routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake achieved as...

  19. Low carbon technology performance vs infrastructure vulnerability: analysis through the local and global properties space.

    Dawson, David A; Purnell, Phil; Roelich, Katy; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K

    2014-11-01

    Renewable energy technologies, necessary for low-carbon infrastructure networks, are being adopted to help reduce fossil fuel dependence and meet carbon mitigation targets. The evolution of these technologies has progressed based on the enhancement of technology-specific performance criteria, without explicitly considering the wider system (global) impacts. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneously assessing local (technology) and global (infrastructure) performance, allowing key technological interventions to be evaluated with respect to their effect on the vulnerability of wider infrastructure systems. We use exposure of low carbon infrastructure to critical material supply disruption (criticality) to demonstrate the methodology. A series of local performance changes are analyzed; and by extension of this approach, a method for assessing the combined criticality of multiple materials for one specific technology is proposed. Via a case study of wind turbines at both the material (magnets) and technology (turbine generators) levels, we demonstrate that analysis of a given intervention at different levels can lead to differing conclusions regarding the effect on vulnerability. Infrastructure design decisions should take a systemic approach; without these multilevel considerations, strategic goals aimed to help meet low-carbon targets, that is, through long-term infrastructure transitions, could be significantly jeopardized. PMID:25296295

  20. Engaging the public with low-carbon energy technologies: Results from a Scottish large group process

    This paper presents the results of a large group process conducted in Edinburgh, Scotland investigating public perceptions of climate change and low-carbon energy technologies, specifically carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). The quantitative and qualitative results reported show that the participants were broadly supportive of efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and that there is an expressed preference for renewable energy technologies to be employed to achieve this. CCS was considered in detail during the research due to its climate mitigation potential; results show that the workshop participants were cautious about its deployment. The paper discusses a number of interrelated factors which appear to influence perceptions of CCS; factors such as the perceived costs and benefits of the technology, and people's personal values and trust in others all impacted upon participants’ attitudes towards the technology. The paper thus argues for the need to provide the public with broad-based, balanced and trustworthy information when discussing CCS, and to take seriously the full range of factors that influence public perceptions of low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: • We report the results of a Scottish large group workshop on energy technologies. • There is strong public support for renewable energy and mixed opinions towards CCS. • The workshop was successful in initiating discussion around climate change and energy technologies. • Issues of trust, uncertainty, costs, benefits, values and emotions all inform public perceptions. • Need to take seriously the full range of factors that inform perceptions

  1. Low-carbon innovation and technology transfer in latecomer countries

    Lema, Rasmus; Lema, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    organizational arrangements for technology transfer which reflect the overall industry maturity in the solar PV sectors in these countries. This has great potential for long-term climate change mitigation efforts. However, the initiation of these new organizational arrangements often preceded the supply...... the future of the global climate regime. Technology transfer does not become less important as developing countries' capabilities mature, but the nature of technology transfer changes over time. This suggests a need to differentiate between countries at different levels of development. Lower middle......-income countries may have greater needs for building technological capabilities whereas cooperative activities may be suitable for upper middle-income countries that already have capabilities to address climate change...

  2. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology development

    Parsons, E. L., Jr.; Williams, M. C.; George, T. J.

    The MCFC technology has been identified by the DOE as a promising product for commercialization. Development of the MCFC technology supports the National Energy Strategy. Review of the status of the MCFC technology indicates that the MCFC technology developers are making rapid and significant progress. Manufacturing facility development and extensive testing is occurring. Improvements in performance (power density), lower costs, improved packaging, and scale up to full height are planned. MCFC developers need to continue to be responsive to end-users in potential markets. It will be market demands for the correct product definition which will ultimately determine the character of MCFC power plants. There is a need for continued MCFC product improvement and multiple product development tests.

  3. When should green technology support policies supplement the carbon price? The case of the electricity sector

    This thesis contributes to the literature on optimal policy choice. It studies the use of policy combinations to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions from electricity production. One finding applies to cases where uncertainty is such that the risk of a nil carbon price cannot be excluded. A cap on emissions alone may then not trigger enough abatements, justifying the addition of e.g. a renewable subsidy. When considering a transition toward a carbon free electricity sector, capital accumulation causes complex dynamic effects to happen. We find that decisions taken by comparing the leveled costs of abatement technologies, even including carbon costs, would favor intermediate technologies (e.g. gas plants) to the detriment of more-expensive but lower-carbon technologies (renewable power), leading to a suboptimal investment schedule. This thesis also studies the effects of marginal policy changes in a mix comprising the main French instruments. We find that surprisingly, adding a tariff for renewables financed by a tax on electricity consumption to a cap on emissions and a subsidy for energy efficiency will reduce the consumer electricity price when the non-renewable production is fixed and does not depend on the carbon price. The assessment of the French climate policies in the electricity sector shows that overlapping policies for mitigation may be justified by multiple carbon price failures, even if the ideal long-term policy mix depends on the carbon price trajectory. (author)

  4. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  5. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  6. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  7. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  8. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  9. Accelerated weathering of carbonate rocks following the 2010 forest wildfire on Mt. Carmel, Israel

    Shtober-Zisu, Nurit; Tessler, Naama; Tsatskin, Alexander; Greenbaum, Noam

    2015-04-01

    Massive destruction of carbonate rocks occurred on the slopes of Mt. Carmel, during the severe forest fire in 2010. The bedrock surfaces exhibited extensive exfoliation into flakes and spalls covering up to 80%-100% of the exposed rocks; detached boulders were totally fractured or disintegrated. The fire affected six carbonate units -- various types of chalk, limestone, and dolomite. The burned flakes show a consistent tendency towards flatness, in all lithologies, as 85%-95% of the flakes were detached in the form of blades, plates, and slabs. The effects of the fire depend to a large extent on the rocks' physical properties and vary with lithology: the most severe response was found in the chalk formations which are covered by calcrete (Nari crusts). These rocks reacted by extreme exfoliation, at an average depth of 7.7 to 9.6 cm and a maximum depth of 20 cm. The flakes formed in chalk were thicker, longer, and wider than those of limestone or dolomite formations. Moreover, the chalk outcrops were exfoliated in a laminar structure, one above the other, to a depth of 10 cm and more. Their shape also tended to be blockier or rod-like. In contrast, the limestone flakes were the thinnest, with 99% of them shaped like blades and plates. Scorched and blackened faces under the upper layer of spalls provided strong evidence that chalk breakdown took place at an early stage of the fire. The extreme response of the chalks can be explained by the laminar structure of the Nari, which served as planes of weakness for the rock destruction. Three years after the fire, the rocks continue to exfoliate and break down internally. As the harder surface of the Nari was removed, the more brittle underlying chalk is exposed to erosion. If fires can obliterate boulders in a single wildfire event, it follows that wildfires may serve as limiting agents in the geomorphic evolution of slopes. However, it is difficult to estimate the frequency of high-intensity fires in the Carmel region

  10. Informed public preferences for electricity portfolios with CCS and other low-carbon technologies.

    Fleishman, Lauren A; De Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Morgan, M Granger

    2010-09-01

    Public perceptions of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and other low-carbon electricity-generating technologies may affect the feasibility of their widespread deployment. We asked a diverse sample of 60 participants recruited from community groups in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to rank 10 technologies (e.g., coal with CCS, natural gas, nuclear, various renewables, and energy efficiency), and seven realistic low-carbon portfolios composed of these technologies, after receiving comprehensive and carefully balanced materials that explained the costs and benefits of each technology. Rankings were obtained in small group settings as well as individually before and after the group discussions. The ranking exercise asked participants to assume that the U.S. Congress had mandated a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from power plants to be built in the future. Overall, rankings suggest that participants favored energy efficiency, followed by nuclear power, integrated gasification combined-cycle coal with CCS and wind. The most preferred portfolio also included these technologies. We find that these informed members of the general public preferred diverse portfolios that contained CCS and nuclear over alternatives once they fully understood the benefits, cost, and limitations of each. The materials and approach developed for this study may also have value in educating members of the general public about the challenges of achieving a low-carbon energy future. PMID:20561264

  11. Modeling Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies in Energy and Economic Models

    There is a growing body of literature that points to the significant potential of carbon capture and storage technologies as a means for addressing concerns relating to climate change. In particular, carbon capture and storage technologies could be fundamental to controlling the costs of addressing climate change - not only in sectors such as electric power production from fossil fuels, but it may also be key to facilitating the emergence of an affordable global hydrogen economy which is one potential promising pathway for decarbonizing the transportation sector. This paper examines the current state-of-the-art in modeling these carbon capture and storage technologies within 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' models, and explores what these types of models tell us about the potential deployment of these technologies. Generally, 'top-down' models represent the overall energy-economic system while 'bottom-up' models are more narrowly focused on the physical or geographical details of the entity being modeled. The paper identifies key knowledge gaps that need to be closed in order to improve the resolution and accuracy of these models' projections of the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology in the near term and over the course of this century. The paper concludes by emphasizing which features of the different types of models must be combined in order to strengthen our understanding of the global potential for carbon capture and storage as a mechanism for emissions mitigation

  12. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH; SEMIANNUAL

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces

  13. Elevated carbon dioxide accelerates the spatial turnover of soil microbial communities.

    Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Xiong, Jinbo; Yu, Hao; Xu, Meiying; Hobbie, Sarah E; Reich, Peter B; Schadt, Christopher W; Kent, Angela; Pendall, Elise; Wallenstein, Matthew; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-02-01

    Although elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) significantly affects the α-diversity, composition, function, interaction and dynamics of soil microbial communities at the local scale, little is known about eCO2 impacts on the geographic distribution of micro-organisms regionally or globally. Here, we examined the β-diversity of 110 soil microbial communities across six free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental sites using a high-throughput functional gene array. The β-diversity of soil microbial communities was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with geographic distance under both CO2 conditions, but declined significantly (P < 0.05) faster at eCO2 with a slope of -0.0250 than at ambient CO2 (aCO2 ) with a slope of -0.0231 although it varied within each individual site, indicating that the spatial turnover rate of soil microbial communities was accelerated under eCO2 at a larger geographic scale (e.g. regionally). Both distance and soil properties significantly (P < 0.05) contributed to the observed microbial β-diversity. This study provides new hypotheses for further understanding their assembly mechanisms that may be especially important as global CO2 continues to increase. PMID:26414247

  14. Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel feeder pipes from Indian reactors

    En-masse feeder replacement was done at RAPS-2 after occurrence of a pinhole leak in B12 (S) outlet feeder elbow. Some of the feeders, removed after a service of 15.67 EFPY were received for detailed investigation. Ultrasonic thickness measurement of the feeders was carried out to ascertain the loss in wall thickness due to Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and marking the region of interest from outside. Surface morphology of inner surface of a number of feeder samples were carried out by SEM near the HAZ and adjoining area. Maximum FAC had occurred in the heat-affected zone of the weld in 32 NB elbows. Weld was affected to a lower extent than the parent metal due to higher chromium content. IGSCC cracks were also observed in parent metal portion of the middle elbow in 32 NB outlet feeder pipe due to bending residual stresses. There are two life limiting reasons to curtail the useful life in the reactors namely FAC and IGSCC. The problem of FAC can be reduced by increasing chromium content and reducing the flow velocity by opting for higher diameter feeder pipes. The welding defects and residual stresses in HAZ and surrounding areas are detrimental for FAC and IGSCC in the elbow region. This paper presents some of the microstructural observations and findings on FAC to explain the mechanism of degradation of feeders. (author)

  15. Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel feeder pipes from pressurized heavy water reactors

    Detailed investigation of a number of feeder pipes received from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Unit 2 (RAPS no. 2) after en-masse feeder pipe replacement after 15.67 Effective Full Power Years (EFPYs) was carried out. Investigations included ultrasonic thickness measurement by ultrasonic testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Results showed that maximum thickness reduction of the feeder had occurred downstream and close to the weld in 32 NB (1.25″/32.75 mm ID) elbows. Rate of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) was measured to be higher in the lower diameter feeder pipes due to high flow velocity and turbulence. Weld regions had thinned to a lower extent than the parent material due to higher chromium content in the weld. A weld protrusion has been shown to add to the thinning due to FAC and lead to faster thinning rate at localized regions. Surface morphology of inner surface of feeder had shown different size scallop pattern over the weld and parent material. Inter-granular cracks were also observed along the weld fusion line and in the parent material in 32 NB outlet feeder elbow.

  16. Prospects in using carbon-carbon composite materials based on viscose carbon fibers for the space technology needs

    Due to the unique combination of low density, high mechanical strength under elevated temperatures, high resistance to thermal shock loads and ablation resistance, carbon-carbon composite materials (CCCM) are widely used for manufacturing of highly thermally loaded structural components. The important scientific and technical difficulty is to increase and stabilize CCCM properties, reduce cost and leads to searching for new raw materials and engineering solutions. The article describes the prospects of replacing carbon fiber fills based on PAN-precursors which are traditionally used for producing CCCM by carbon fillers on the basis of viscose raw material; shows the advantages of using viscose-based carbon fibers when forming products of complex shape as well as the possibility of obtaining products with high functional characteristics. The creation of CCCM of layered reinforcement structure, in which carbon fabric layers interleave with layers of discontinuous carbon fibers, enabled to increase the overall density of carbon composites, to ensure sufficiently high level of mechanical characteristics and resistance to ablation

  17. Accelerated life tests of specimen heat pipe from Communication Technology Satellite (CTS) project

    Tower, L. K.; Kaufman, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A gas-loaded variable conductance heat pipe of stainless steel with methanol working fluid identical to one now on the CTS satellite was life tested in the laboratory at accelerated conditions for 14 200 hours, equivalent to about 70 000 hours at flight conditions. The noncondensible gas inventory increased about 20 percent over the original charge. The observed gas increase is estimated to increase operating temperature by about 2.2 C, insufficient to harm the electronic gear cooled by the heat pipes in the satellite. Tests of maximum heat input against evaporator elevation agree well with the manufacturer's predictions.

  18. Acceleration technology and power plant design for fast ignition heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    Full text: This talk gives an update on the progress in Heavy Ion Beam IFE experimental and theoretical activities conducted under the auspices of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation under contract No. 6.25.19.19.03/996. The considerations of heavy ion fusion power plant concept are based on the fast ignition principle for fusion targets. The cylindrical target is irradiated subsequently by a hollow beam in compression phase and by powerful ignition beam for initiation of the burning phase. The ignition is provided by the high energy 100 GeV Pt ions of different masses accelerated in RF-linac. The efficiency of the driver is taken ∼25%. The main beam delivers ∼5 MJ energy and the ignition beam ∼0.4 MJ to the target. Cylindrical DT filled target provides ∼600 MJ fusion yield, of which 180 MJ appears in X-rays and ionized debris and 420 MJ in neutrons. The repetition rate is taken as 2 Hz per reactor chamber. The first wall of the reactor chamber employs 'liquid wall' approach, particularly the wetted porous design. The lithium-lead eutectic is used as a coolant, with initial surface temperature of 550 deg. C. Computation of neutronics results in blanket energy deposition with maximum density of the order of 10E8 J/m3. The heat conversion system consisting of three coolant loops provides the net efficiency of the power plant of ∼35%. The Heavy Ion IFE experimental program is focused on a major upgrade of the ITEP accelerator complex for acceleration and accumulation of high current beams - the TeraWatt Accumulator project (ITEP-TWAC). Commissioning of the whole acceleration/accumulation beam gymnastic scheme with stacking of ∼10E10 C6+ and fast extraction to the experimental area has been done in 2003. The ion bunch is being compressed from 1 mks to ∼ 170 ns and focused down to a spot ∼ 1 mm. Current experiment efforts are aiming at measurements of ionization degree, charge state distribution, conductivity, plasma pressure, ion and

  19. Accelerated Carbonation of Steel Slags Using CO2 Diluted Sources: CO2 Uptakes and Energy Requirements

    Baciocchi, Renato; Costa, Giulia; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella; Stramazzo, Alessio; Zingaretti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry-phase (L/S = 5 l/kg, T = 100°C and Ptot = 10 bar) and the thin-film (L/S = 0.3–0.4 l kg, T = 50°C and Ptot = 7–10 bar) routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake ac...

  20. Heavy ion medical accelerator options

    This paper briefly explores the accelerator technology available for heavy ion medical accelerators in the mass range of 1 to 40 (protons through argon). Machines that are designed to produce the required intensities of a particular design ion, such as silicon (mass 28), can satisfy the intensity requirements for all lighter ions, and can produce beams with higher mass, such as argon, at somewhat reduced, but still useful intensity levels. They can also provide beams of radioactive ions, such as carbon-11 and neon-19, which are useful in diagnostic imaging and for directly verifiable treatments. These accelerators are all based on proven technology, and can be built at predictable costs. It is the conclusion of several design studies that they can be operated reliably in a hospital-based environment. 8 refs., 22 figs

  1. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags using CO2 diluted sources: CO2 uptakes and energy requirements

    Renato eBaciocchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry phase (L/S=5 l/kg, T=100 °C and Ptot=10 bar and the thin film (L/S =0.3-0.4 l/kg, T=50 °C and Ptot=7-10 bar routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake achieved as a function of the reaction time was analyzed and on this basis the energy requirements associated to each carbonation route and gas mixture composition were estimated considering to store the CO2 emissions of a medium size natural gas fired power plant (20 MW. For the slurry phase route, maximum CO2 uptakes ranged from around 8% at 10% CO2, to 21.1% (BOF-a and 29.2% (BOF-b at 40% CO2 and 32.5% (BOF-a and 40.3% (BOF-b at 100% CO2. For the thin film route, maximum uptakes of 13% (BOF-c and 19.5% (BOF-d at 40% CO2, and 17.8% (BOF-c and 20.2% (BOF-d at 100% were attained. The energy requirements of the two analyzed process routes appeared to depend chiefly on the CO2 uptake of the slag. For both process route, the minimum overall energy requirements were found for the tests with 40% CO2 flows (i.e. 1400-1600 MJ/t CO2 for the slurry phase and 2220-2550 MJ/t CO2 for the thin film route.

  2. Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy

    none,

    2010-11-01

    In this report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) calls for the development of a coordinated government-wide Federal energy policy. This will be a major undertaking, given the large number of Federal policies that affect the development, implementation, and use of energy technologies. For that reason, we recommend that the Administration initiate a process analogous to the Quadrennial Defense Review undertaken every four years by the Department of Defense

  3. Ranking of enabling technologies for oxy-fuel based carbon capture

    Ochs, T.L.; Oryshchyn, D.L.; Ciferno, J.P.

    2007-06-01

    The USDOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has begun a process to identify and rank enabling technologies that have significant impacts on pulverized coal oxy-fuel systems. Oxy-fuel combustion has been identified as a potential method for effectively capturing carbon in coal fired power plants. Presently there are a number of approaches for carbon capture via oxy-fuel combustion and it is important to order those approaches so that new research can concentrate on those technologies with high potentials to substantially lower the cost of reduced carbon electricity generation. NETL evaluates these technologies using computer models to determine the energy use of each technology and the potential impact of improvements in the technologies on energy production by a power plant. Near-term sub-critical boiler technologies are targeted for this analysis because: • most of the world continues to build single reheat sub-critical plants; • the overwhelming number of coal fired power plants requiring retrofit for CO2 capture are sub-critical plants. In addition, even in the realm of new construction, subcritical plants are common because they are well understood, easy to operate and maintain, fuel tolerant, and reliable. Following the initial investigation into sub-critical oxy-fuel technology, future investigations will move into the supercritical range.

  4. Induction accelerators

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  5. Laser ultrasound technology for fault detection on carbon fiber composites

    Seyrkammer, Robert; Reitinger, Bernhard; Grün, Hubert; Sekelja, Jakov; Burgholzer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The marching in of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) to mass production in the aeronautic and automotive industry requires reliable quality assurance methods. Laser ultrasound (LUS) is a promising nondestructive testing technique for sample inspection. The benefits compared to conventional ultrasound (US) testing are couplant free measurements and an easy access to complex shapes due to remote optical excitation and detection. Here the potential of LUS is present on composite test panels with relevant testing scenarios for industry. The results are evaluated in comparison to conventional ultrasound used in the aeronautic industry.

  6. Desalination of Saline and Brackish Waters using Carbon Aerogel Technology

    Mohammad Reza Massoudinejad; Hamed Mohammadi; Akbar Eslami; Hossein Najafi; Behzad Rezayi fard; Gholam Hossein Joshani

    2012-01-01

    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: The increasing demand for drinking water has led scientists to the use of saline waters, but existing desalinating processes are very expensive. carbon aerogel is a type of organic aerogel that is suitable for desalination owing to its unique porous structure. Low potential of fouling and deposits, very low wastewater production, ele...

  7. The investments in renewable energy sources: do low carbon economies better invest in green technologies?

    Antonio Angelo Romano; Giuseppe Scandurra (eds.)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in low carbon and high carbon economies. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries was proposed. Results demonstrate that the dynamic of investments in renewable sources is similar in the two panels, and depends by nuclear power generation, GDP and technological efficiency. Results show that countries try to reduce their environmental footpr...

  8. Worldwide Innovations in the Development of Carbon Capture Technologies and the Utilization of CO2

    Markewitz, P.; Kuckshinrichs, W.; Leitner, W.; Linssen, J.; Zapp, P.; Bongartz, R. (Roswitha); Schreiber, A.; Müller, T. (Tessa)

    2012-01-01

    While Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies are being developed with the focus of capturing and storing CO2 in huge quantities, new methods for the chemical exploitation of carbon dioxide (CCU) are being developed in parallel. The intensified chemical or physical utilization of CO2 is targeted at generating value from a limited part of the CO2 stream and developing better and more efficient chemical processes with reduced CO2 footprint. Here, we compare the status of the three main li...

  9. Assessment of carbon-14 control technology and costs for the LWR fuel cycle. Final report

    The report is an effort to incorporate present knowledge of carbon-14 behavior in Light Water Reactors and Fuel Reprocessing Plants into Designs compatible with present technology. The impact of radioactive effluents are considered according to the traditional measure of maximum radiation dose to individuals, summation of individual annual doses to obtain a total population dose, and the environmental dose commitment. The sources of carbon-14 in LWR's and fuel reprocessing facilities are identified. Systems for the removal of carbon-14 in existing and future plants are addressed from both a technological and economic standpoint. Existing technology indicates that caustic scrubbing is the most cost-effective alternative for concurrently removing C-14 from waste-gas streams and leaving it in a form compatible with permanent disposal conditions

  10. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  11. IAEA workshop on 'Technology and applications of accelerator driven systems (ADS)'. Working material

    The objective of this workshop was to familiarize the students with the status of the R and D activities in the areas of: General Concept and System Studies, Accelerator, Target, Sub-Critical Core, Fuel Development, Fuel Cycle Studies. Participants were given a review of ADS designs presently under consideration. Participants studied the theoretical foundation of ADS design work, identified the most problematic areas as well as the limitations of the simulation methods. Based on the discussion of the impact of the present uncertainties on the performance of the ADS, the needs for data and methods development and validation work were identified. Eighteen participants from 13 different countries namely (Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Sudan, Slovakia and Turkey) took part in the Workshop

  12. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  13. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-05-30

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  14. An accelerated technique for a ceramic-pressed-to-metal restoration with CAD/CAM technology.

    Lee, Ju-Hyoung

    2014-11-01

    The conventional fabrication of metal ceramic restorations depends on an experienced dental technician and requires a long processing time. However, complete-contour digital waxing and digital cutback with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can overcome these disadvantages and provide a correct metal framework design and space for the ceramic material. PMID:24952883

  15. Effect of Cr content, hardness and micro structure on flow-accelerated corrosion in carbon steel pipes. Examination of replaced carbon steel pipes

    68 replaced carbon steel piping in secondary system of pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been investigated by visual examination for checking thinning conditions. It is well known that the flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) was inhibited by traces of Cr in steel. Therefore, the chemical compositions of those steels have been measured. In addition, the micro structure and hardness of those steels have been investigated. And the relationship between those material variables and FAC rate was considered. As the results, (1) The Cr contents in those steels were below 0.1 wt% except one sample. Minute quantities of chromium increase the resistance against FAC. But the water velocity was thought to be the dominant factor rather than chemical composition in steel, at least such as below 0.1%Cr. (2) Hardness of all piping has been satisfied the specifications of each materials. The hardness of steels was not correlated with wall thinning rate. (3) The micro structure was also not correlated with FAC rate. (author)

  16. Accelerated OH(-) transport in activated carbon air cathode by modification of quaternary ammonium for microbial fuel cells.

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Cuijuan; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qingrui; Li, Nan; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is a promising catalyst for the air cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because of its high performance and low cost. To increase the performance of AC air cathodes, the acceleration of OH(-) transport is one of the most important methods, but it has not been widely investigated. Here we added quaternary ammonium to ACs by in situ anchoring of a quaternary ammonium/epoxide-reacting compound (QAE) or ex situ mixing with anion exchange resins in order to modify ACs from not only the external surface but also inside the pores. In 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the in situ anchoring of QAE was a more effective way to increase the power. The highest power density of 2781 ± 36 mW/m(2), which is 10% higher than that of the control, was obtained using QAE-anchored AC cathodes. When the medium was switched to an unbuffered NaCl solution, the increase in maximum power density (885 ± 25 mW/m(2)) was in accordance with the anion exchange capacity (0.219 mmol/g). The highest power density of the anion exchange resin-mixed air cathode was 51% higher than that of the control, indicating that anion exchange is urgently needed in real wastewaters. Excess anchoring of QAE blocked both the mesopores and micropores, causing the power output to be inhibited. PMID:24597673

  17. Quick Preparation of Moisture-Saturated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics and Their Accelerated Ageing Tests Using Heat and Moisture

    Masao Kunioka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A quick method involving the control of heat and water vapor pressure for preparing moisture-saturated carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP, 8 unidirectional prepreg layers, 1.5 mm thickness, epoxy resin has been developed. The moisture-saturated CFRP sample was obtained at 120 °C and 0.2 MPa water vapor in 72 h by this method using a sterilizer (autoclave. The bending strength and viscoelastic properties measured by a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA remained unchanged during repetitive saturation and drying steps. No degradation and molecular structural change occurred. Furthermore an accelerated ageing test with two ageing factors, i.e., heat and moisture was developed and performed at 140–160 °C and 0.36–0.62 MPa water vapor pressure by using a sealed pressure-proof stainless steel vessel (autoclave. The bending strength of the sample decreased from 1107 to 319 MPa at 160 °C and 0.63 MPa water vapor pressure in 9 days. Degraded samples were analyzed by DMA. The degree of degradation for samples was analyzed by DMA. CFRP and degraded CFRP samples were analyzed by using a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system (SAICAS and an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA equipped in a scanning electron microscope.

  18. Global Warming, Technology Transfer and Trade in Carbon Energy: Challenge or Threat?

    Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg; Stephan, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to combat global climate change through North-to-South technology transfer even without a global climate treaty? Or do carbon leakage and the rebound effect imply that it is possible to take advantage of technological improvements under the umbrella of a global arrangement only? For answering these questions a world with full international co-operation is compared with a world, where countries act non-cooperatively. More precisely, in case of non-cooperation two cases are discu...

  19. Conceptual design of an integrated technology model for carbon policy assessment.

    Backus, George A.; Dimotakes, Paul E. (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA)

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a technology choice model for understanding strategies to reduce carbon intensity in the electricity sector. The report considers the major modeling issues affecting technology policy assessment and defines an implementable model construct. Further, the report delineates the basis causal structure of such a model and attempts to establish the technical/algorithmic viability of pursuing model development along with the associated analyses.

  20. Inducing the international diffusion of carbon capture and storage technologies in the power sector

    Vallentin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Although CO2 capture and storage(CCS) technologies are heatedly debated, many politicians and energy producers consider them to be a possible technical option to mitigate carbon dioxide from large-point sources. Hence, both national and international decision-makers devote a growing amount of capacities and financial resources to CCS in order to develop and demonstrate the technology and enable ist broad diffusion.The presented report concentrates on the influence of policy incentives on CCS ...

  1. The Effect of Government Actions on Environmental Technology Innovation: Applications to the Integrated Assessment of Carbon Sequestration Technologies

    Rubin, E. S.; Hounshell, D. A.; Yeh, S.; Taylor, M.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Riahi, K.; Barreto, L.; Rao, S.

    2004-01-15

    This project seeks to improve the ability of integrated assessment models (IA) to incorporate changes in technology, especially environmental technologies, cost and performance over time. In this report, we present results of research that examines past experience in controlling other major power plant emissions that might serve as a reasonable guide to future rates of technological progress in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) systems. In particular, we focus on U.S. and worldwide experience with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technologies over the past 30 years, and derive empirical learning rates for these technologies. The patterns of technology innovation are captured by our analysis of patent activities and trends of cost reduction over time. Overall, we found learning rates of 11% for the capital costs of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system for SO{sub 2} control, and 13% for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO{sub x} control. We explore the key factors responsible for the observed trends, especially the development of regulatory policies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control, and their implications for environmental control technology innovation.

  2. Prospects of improvement of accelerated bread technologies by usage of dogrose and hawthorn

    Лебеденко, Тетяна Євгеніївна; Кожевнікова, Вікторія Олегівна; Новічкова, Тамара Петрівна

    2014-01-01

    In this article the analysis of main problems of baking industry connected with introduction of resource-saving technologies and reduction of quality of derivable product has been conducted; the current problems facing bread manufacturers have been determined. The objective of this research is the development of methods of complex increase of quality of products, their consumer properties, safety and nutritional value by usage of fruit phyto-additives.In this work on the basis of analysis of ...

  3. Innovative ion sources for accelerators: the benefits of the plasma technology

    Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Torrisi, L.; Ando, L.; Presti, M.; Láska, Leoš; Krása, Josef; Wolowski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, Suppl. C (2004), s. C883-C888. ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21./. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : plasma sources * ion sources * proton sources * ECR Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  4. A Comparative Study of In-Gel Digestions Using Microwave and Pressure-Accelerated Technologies

    Alvarado, Rudy; Tran, Diana; Ching, Bonnie; Phinney, Brett S.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most popular methods to prepare tryptic peptides for bottom-up proteomic analysis is in-gel digestion. To date, there have been few studies comparing various digestion methods. In this study, we compare the efficiency of several popular in-gel digestion methods, along with new technologies that may improve digestion efficiency, using a human epidermoid carcinoma cell lysate protein standard. The efficiency of each protocol was based on the average number of proteins identified and ...

  5. Chemical separations technologies for the US accelerator transmutation of waste programme

    Management of the spent nuclear fuel generated by the operating commercial reactors in the United States is entering a new phase because it is clear that the continued rate of accumulation of spent fuel is such that the spent fuel inventory will soon exceed the legislated capacity of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. An integrated chemical separations system has been conceived for the partitioning of this fuel preparatory to transmutation of transuranic elements and long-lived fission products in an accelerator-driven transmuter reactor. A hybrid aqueous/pyrochemical separations system is being developed, with the initial separation done with an aqueous solvent extraction process called UREX. The UREX process extracts uranium, technetium and iodine and directs the transuranic elements and other fission products to the liquid waste stream. The uranium is sufficiently pure that it can be disposed as a low-level waste, while the technetium and iodine are converted into targets for transmutation to stable isotopes. The liquid waste stream containing the transuranics is converted to solid oxide form and the transuranics are separated from the fission products by electrorefining after having been converted to the metallic state. Demonstrations of the process with actual LWR spent fuel are in progress. (author)

  6. Development of accelerated dewatering technology for managing oil sands fine fluid tailings

    Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Seto, J.T.C. [BGC Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Chapman, D. [O' Kane Consultants Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Carrier, W.D. III [Argila Enterprises Inc., Lakeland, FL (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This article discussed an accelerated dewatering technique being applied and tested for managing fine fluid tailings produced from oil sands mining. The process involved rim ditching and a decant system to promote the drainage of surface waters and enhance the drying and densification of mature fine tailings (MFT). To field test the procedure, a deposit containing 60,000 cubic metres of in-line flocculated MFT was constructed and instrumented to monitor consolidation and dewatering response of the MFT deposit over time. Ten months after being filled, the deposit had settled about 1.2 metres, which corresponds to a 19 percent reduction in volume relative to initial filling. The field test will continue for several more years, during which time the deposit will continue to be monitored and sampled. The Florida phosphate industry has used rim ditching for over 20 years, but the process had never before been applied to oil sand tailings. The paper discussed the particular consolidation behaviour of MFT, the rim ditch concept, the layout of the containment pit and instrumentation, the pit filling procedure, and post-filling observations. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Carbon prices, institutions, technology and electricity generation firms in two Australian states

    A relationship exists for the liberalised Australian electricity supply industry between institutional structures and technological change. The traditional institutional framework has been based on centralised generation and a regulated vertically integrated monopoly structure. This paper investigates the issues of institutional and technological change using the social cost perspective (including externalities), and focuses on the imperatives of greenhouse gas emission reductions. An Australian context has been chosen for the paper, in light of a proposed price on carbon; be that via an emission trading scheme or carbon tax. The power generation sector is dominated by coal- and gas-fired power plants due to the large reserves of coal and gas available in Australia. If carbon pricing of up to AU$40/tCO2 is introduced then the merit order for dispatch changes but coal-fired power generation sources remain an option. - Research highlights: → We examined two electricity generation regimes, one privatised and one corporatised. → Under private costs a market-based model provides little change in technology. → Under social costs both economic and political incentives for technological change. → Climate change provides generators with economic incentives for technological change. → Institutional and technology change are inter-related in moving to social cost.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of a compact microbeam radiotherapy system based on carbon nanotube field emission technology

    Schreiber, Eric C.; Chang, Sha X.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an experimental radiotherapy technique that has shown potent antitumor effects with minimal damage to normal tissue in animal studies. This unique form of radiation is currently only produced in a few large synchrotron accelerator research facilities in the world. To promote widespread translational research on this promising treatment technology we have proposed and are in the initial development stages of a compact MRT system that is based on ca...

  9. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

    2004-02-13

    The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

  10. Technology roadmap study on carbon capture, utilization and storage in China

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology will likely become an important approach to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and optimize the structure of energy consumption in China in the future. In order to provide guidance and recommendations for CCUS Research, Development and Demonstration in China, a high level stakeholder workshop was held in Chongqing in June 2011 to develop a technology roadmap for the development of CCUS technology. This roadmap outlines the overall vision to provide technically viable and economically affordable technological options to combat climate change and facilitate socio-economic development in China. Based on this vision, milestone goals from 2010 to 2030 are set out in accordance with the technology development environment and current status in China. This study identifies the critical technologies in capture, transport, utilization and storage of CO2 and proposes technical priorities in the different stages of each technical aspect by evaluating indices such as the objective contribution rate and technical maturity, and gives recommendations on deployment of full-chain CCUS demonstration projects. Policies which would support CCUS are also suggested in this study. - Highlights: • A technology roadmap for CCUS development in China from 2010 to 2030 is presented. • Sound data and analysis in combination with expert workshops are used. • Critical technologies in CCUS are identified. • Priority actions of all stages are identified and proposed. • Guidance and recommendations for CCUS RD and D are provided

  11. Safety aspects of a medium energy industrial electron beam accelerator being utilized for technology demonstration and commercial operations

    The safety of industrial accelerators with high energy beams (upto 10 MeV) and large beam powers (as high as 400 kW) are not only limited to radiological safety but also is extended to the various equipment and different activities carried out in utilizing the machine for wide ranging applications. BARC in early nineties, (for the first time in India), installed a unique high pulse- powered electron beam accelerator of energy 2 MeV in Trombay for developing industrial applications. This accelerator is capable of delivering powered electron beams upto 40kW average beam power (with 1200kW peak pulse power) at energy range 1 to 2 MeV. The output beam is made available in air over an area of 100 cm x 10 cm, using beam scanning mechanism so that industrial scale processing of materials are carried out. Several applications have been developed and commercially being exploited in the field of polymer crosslinking, degradation, crystalline alterations etc. In addition, applications pertaining to the environmental remediation using electron beams are being worked out. The facility which has been relocated at Navi Mumbai a decade ago and is developed into a technology demonstration cum commercial plant with several product handling gadgets to evaluate the feasibility of different EB treatment processes for the industry viz. waste water treatment, polymer modifications, recycling to name a few. The safety features of such demonstration plant has been designed taking into account its industrial-friendly design for the its utilization during irradiation of large scale multiple products, safety of users (industrial labor for handling materials), operation staff, the much valued industrial products and also several types of material handling equipment. While adequate radiation shielding is provided in the facility taking into the Bremsstrahlung radiation with respect to maximum beam energy and power of the installed accelerator, safety with respect to the ozone emission, High

  12. APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Patrick Gonzalez; Brad Kreps; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2003-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  13. THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2002-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  14. Evaluating the development of carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States

    Alphen, K. van; Noothout, P.M.; Hekkert, M.P.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is seen as an important solution to solve the twin challenge of reducing GHG emissions, while utilizing fossil fuel reserves to meet future energy requirements. In this study an innovation systems perspective is applied to review the development of CCS technologies i

  15. Accelerated technology development by the use of critical point imaging SEM

    Sanchez, Dominique; Hinschberger, Benôit; Bouckou, Loemba; Moreau, Olivier; Parisi, Paolo

    2015-03-01

    In order to optimize the time to market of the newest technology nodes and maximize their profitability, advanced semiconductor manufacturers need to adapt their yield enhancement strategies to their current development stage. During very early development, gross Defectivity at some critical process steps often makes it impractical to use broadband plasma or laser scanning micro-defect patterned wafer inspection techniques: such sensitive defect inspections capture a large number of defects, producing wafer defect maps so heavily populated that even wafer level signature are difficult to visualize.

  16. Hydrothermal carbonization as innovative technology in sustainable sanitation in Tanzania

    Krause, Ariane [Engineers Without Boarders (Germany), Berlin (DE). Project ' ' Carbonization as Sanitation' ' (CaSa)

    2011-07-01

    The need for sustainable systems is apparent as climate change and other adverse anthropogenic activities continue to negatively affect the soil fertility in Africa. One of the indicators of the loss of soil fertility is the continuous decrease in soil organic matter, which is the major building block of a fertile soil. This is mainly attributed to the inappropriate practice of human-beings of taking more substances from the ecosystem than the amount replaced. As the soil fertility is increasingly lost, food insecurity, due to dropped productivity of the soil, is becoming a critical issue in many areas of Africa, Tanzania is not any different in this respect. On the other hand, most people in rural areas of Africa still lack possibilities to cover their daily energy needs in a more sustainable way and many people mainly rely on firewood. This, in turn, has an adverse impact on the climate and the soil, causing a local viscous circle of poor soil and productivity conditions. Moreover, the sanitation coverage of those areas is very low and there is a need for appropriate sanitation systems. Therefore, the aim of this project is, to conduct research on the possibility of establishing a self-sustaining system for the rural areas of Kagera, Tanzania, to address the three basic issues: sanitation, energy supply and soil fertility. The system consists of a small-scale biogas digester, a urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT) and an adaptive hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) unit. Biogas is produced from crop residues and other domestic organic waste. The fermentation residues and the dehydrated fecal matter from the UDDT is then treated with HTC. The carbonised and sanitized residue is then applied as soil amendment to improve the soil fertility as manifested by the Terra Preta in the Amazon. This holistic approach is a new development in ecological sanitation. Therefore, a comprehensive sustainability assessment including environmental, economic and socio

  17. Norwegian-developed carbon dioxide technology licensed to Japan

    In the late 1980s, restrictions on the use of ozone-depleting substances created increased interest in alternative working fluids in refrigerators and heat pumps. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an incombustible, non-toxic and not ozone-depleting natural substance with low specific greenhouse effect. However, CO2 has some unusual thermodynamic properties. Thus, the pressure of a CO2 based system must be high, up to 150 bar, which means that new equipment must be developed. Research at SINTEF and the Technical University in Trondheim, Norway, in 1988-89 resulted in several patents which have later been commercialized and internationally licensed. The most important developments have been in air conditioning for cars, heat pumps for hot water and refrigeration systems for supermarkets. In Japan, a heat pump for hot water has been developed under licence. This is a 4.5 kW heat pump designed for use in detached houses and larger flats. One of the advantages of CO2 is that a high water temperature (70-90C) is obtained. The hot water container can then be made quite small. The heat pump is marketed by Tokyo Electric Power Company, which during the night has surplus power that can be sold for less than 25% of the daytime tariff. Compared with gas-fired water heaters, the consumption of primary energy is reduced by 30-50%. This is an important contribution to more efficient use of fossil fuel. Using CO2 also avoids the risk of fire and explosion that exists in the use of gas-fired water heaters

  18. Two-step accelerated mineral carbonation and decomposition analysis for the reduction of CO₂ emission in the eco-industrial parks.

    Jung, Seok; Wang, Li Pang; Dodbiba, Gjergj; Fujita, Toyohisa

    2014-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions are a leading contributor to the negative effects of global warming. Globally, research has focused on effective means of reducing and mitigating CO₂ emissions. In this study, we examined the efficacy of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) and accelerated mineral carbonation techniques in reducing CO₂ emissions in South Korea. First, we used Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) analysis to determine the trends in carbon production and mitigation at the existing EIPs. We found that, although CO₂ was generated as byproducts and wastes of production at these EIPs, improved energy intensity effects occurred at all EIPs, and we strongly believe that EIPs are a strong alternative to traditional industrial complexes for reducing net carbon emissions. We also examined the optimal conditions for using accelerated mineral carbonation to dispose of hazardous fly ash produced through the incineration of municipal solid wastes at these EIPs. We determined that this technique most efficiently sequestered CO₂ when micro-bubbling, low flow rate inlet gas, and ammonia additives were employed. PMID:25079989

  19. Workshop on CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] spectrometer magnet design and technology: Proceedings

    The planned experimental program at CEBAF includes high-resolution, large acceptance spectrometers and a large toroidal magnetic, detector. In order to take full advantage of the high quality beam characteristics, the performances required will make these devices quite unique instruments compared to existing facilities in the same energy range. Preliminary designs have shown that such performances can be reached, but key questions concerning design concepts and most appropriate and cost-effective technologies had to be answered before going further with the designs. It was the purpose of the Workshop on CEBAF Spectrometer Magnet Design and Technology, organized by the CEBAF Research and Engineering Divisions, to provide the most complete information about the state-of-the-art tools and techniques in magnet design and construction and to discuss the ones most appropriate to the CEBAF spectrometers. In addition, it is expected that this Workshop will be the staring point for further interactions and collaborations between international magnet experts and the CEBAF staff, during the whole process of designing and building the spectrometers

  20. High rates of carbon storage in old deciduous forests: Emerging mechanisms from the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET)

    Gough, C. M.; Nave, L. E.; Hardiman, B. S.; Bohrer, G.; Halperin, A.; Maurer, K.; Le Moine, J.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Vogel, C. S.; Curtis, P.; University Of Michigan Biological Station Forest Ecosystem Study (Umbs-Fest) Team

    2010-12-01

    Deciduous forests of the eastern US are broadly approaching an ecological threshold in which early successional dominant trees are senescing and giving way to later successional species, with unknown consequences for regional carbon (C) cycling. Though recent research demonstrates that forests may accumulate C for centuries, the mechanisms behind sustained rates of C storage in old, particularly deciduous, forests have not been identified. In a regionally representative forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station, we are combining observational and experimental C cycling studies to forecast how forest C storage responds to climate variation, disturbance, and succession. The Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), in which >6,700 aspen and birch trees (~35 % LAI) were stem girdled within a 39 ha area, is testing the hypothesis that forest production will increase rather than decline with age, due to increases in nitrogen (N) availability, N allocation to the canopy, and the concurrent development of a more biologically and structurally complex canopy. Results thus far support our hypothesis that aging forests in the region may sustain high rates of C storage through shifts in N cycling and increased canopy complexity. Girdling-induced mortality of early successional species reduced soil respiration, accelerated fine root turnover, and prompted the redistribution of N from the foliage of early to later successional species. Nitrogen redistribution increased leaf area index (LAI) production by later successional species, offsetting declines in LAI from senescing early successional species. High rates of net primary production (NPP) were sustained in stands comprising a diverse assemblage of early and later successional species because later successional species, when already present in the canopy, rapidly compensated for declining growth of early successional species. Canopy structural complexity, which increased with forest age, was positively