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Sample records for accelerated bioremediation research

  1. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER's tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER's and Office of Energy Research's (OER's) commitment to supporting DOE's environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE's environmental problems

  2. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER`s tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER`s and Office of Energy Research`s (OER`s) commitment to supporting DOE`s environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE`s environmental problems.

  3. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research Program. Final Report

    Bioremediation of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface necessitate an understanding of the metabolic capacities and interactions of the anaerobic microorganisms that are found there, including members of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Genetic investigation into the pathway of reductant flow to U(VI) in the SRB belonging to the genus Desulfovibrio has been the focus of this project. In Dv. desulfuricans strain G20, we confirmed the importance of the tetraheme cytochrome c3 by disruption of the gene encoding that cytochrome, cycA, and demonstrated a decrease in the ability of the mutant (I2) to reduce U(VI). We found that the cytochrome c3 was necessary for electrons from pyruvate to reach sulfate or fumarate as terminal electron acceptors. It was not needed for electrons from lactate to reach sulfate, from which we infer that a different pathway is used for the electrons from these two substrates. Cyrstal structure of the tetraheme cytochrome c3 was obtained and site-directed mutations of the protein indicated a binding site for metals at heme 4 of the structure. Kinetic studies for oxidation of reduced cytochrome c3 with U(VI) or molybdate revealed a preference for U(VI) as a substrate. Evidence for a role for sodium gradients in the energetic scheme for this soil organism was obtained.

  4. Environmental Assessment for Selection and Operation of the Proposed Field Research Centers for the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program

    N/A

    2000-04-18

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), within the Office of Science (SC), proposes to add a Field Research Center (FRC) component to the existing Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. The NABIR Program is a ten-year fundamental research program designed to increase the understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes that would allow the use of bioremediation approaches for cleaning up DOE's contaminated legacy waste sites. An FRC would be integrated with the existing and future laboratory and field research and would provide a means of examining the fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence bioremediation under controlled small-scale field conditions. The NABIR Program would continue to perform fundamental research that might lead to promising bioremediation technologies that could be demonstrated by other means in the future. For over 50 years, DOE and its predecessor agencies have been responsible for the research, design, and production of nuclear weapons, as well as other energy-related research and development efforts. DOE's weapons production and research activities generated hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste products. Past disposal practices have led to the contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater with complex and exotic mixtures of compounds. This contamination and its associated costs and risks represents a major concern to DOE and the public. The high costs, long duration, and technical challenges associated with remediating the subsurface contamination at DOE sites present a significant need for fundamental research in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences that will contribute to new and cost-effective solutions. One possible low-cost approach for remediating the subsurface contamination of DOE sites is through the use of a technology known as bioremediation. Bioremediation has been defined as the use of microorganisms to

  5. ORD RESEARCH PRIORITIES IN BIOREMEDIATION

    ORD is conducting research on bioremediation impacting Superfund sites, RCRA facilities, underground storage tanks and oil spills. Work supporting Superfund is focused on understanding monitored natural recovery in sediments for contaminants including PCBs and PAHs. Under RCRA,...

  6. Accelerated in situ bioremediation of groundwater

    Truex, M.J.; Hooker, B.S.; Anderson, D.B.

    1996-07-01

    In situ bioremediation, as applied in this project, is based on the principal of biostimulation: supplying nutrients to indigenous microbes to stimulate their metabolic activity and subsequent degradation of contaminants. Typically, a network of injection and extraction wells are used to recirculate groundwater into which amendments are added and distributed within the aquifer. The objective of the in situ process is to create in the aquifer a microbially active zone that maximizes contaminant destruction while controlling the distribution of microbial growth. It is important to control microbial growth to avoid plugging the aquifer near the injection well and to establish and sustain maximum treatment zones for each injection well. Figure I illustrates this concept for in situ bioremediation. The technology described herein is innovative in its use of the computer-based Accelerated Bioremediation Design Tool (ABDT) to aid in selecting appropriate system designs and to determine optimal operating strategies. In addition, numerical simulations within the design tool proved to be valuable during remediation operations to determine appropriate changes in the` operating strategy as the bioremediation process progressed. This is particularly important because in situ bioremediation is not a steady- state process, and corrective actions to operating parameters are typically needed to maintain both rapid destruction rates and hydraulic containment.

  7. Practical Solutions for the Design of Accelerated In Situ Bioremediation

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Komai, T.

    2010-12-01

    Bioremediation is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach for clean-up of hazardous chemicals from polluted geoenvironments, especially toxic organic compounds, like perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) from low-permeability strata at depths. The use of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC) or Oxygen Release Compound (ORC) is a common practice to accelerate anaerobic bioremediation or aerobic bioremediation, depending on the chemical forms of pollutants to be treated. An effective remediation, however, needs effective mixing of, and interaction between the bacteria, target compound(s), injected HRC or ORC as well as other substances if necessary. An understanding of migration behavior of dissolved hydrogen and dissolved oxygen in geological formations is, therefore, an important research subject for predicting potential areas of remediation during acceptable time periods. In this study, 3 practical solutions to the plane source, point source and line source diffusions which correspond to the semi-infinite, spherical and cylindrical models were derived and used to discuss the diffusive transport through low permeability geological media. A series of parameter studies using feasible values for the diffusion coefficient obtained from both literature survey and independent laboratory experiments were performed. Expected areas of hydrogen or oxygen migration were assumed to be from several tens of centimeters to a few meters with consideration of practical pollution problems, and acceptable remediation time periods were considered to be from several months to the maximum of 10-15 years. The results obtained from this study illustrated that transport of chemical substances, like dissolved hydrogen or oxygen used for accelerated bioremediation, due to diffusion is very sensitive to the magnitude of diffusion coefficient. The area of migration due to natural diffusion could be very limited. To effectively design and perform an accelerated

  8. Subtask 1.16-Slow-Release Bioremediation Accelerators

    Low-cost methods are needed to enhance various bioremediation technologies, from natural attenuation to heavily engineered remediation of subsurface hydrocarbon contamination. Many subsurface sites have insufficient quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus, resulting in poor bioactivity and increased remediation time and costs. The addition of conventional fertilizers can improve bioactivity, but often the nutrients dissolve quickly and migrate away from the contaminant zone before being utilized by the microbes. Through this project, conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center, polymers were developed that slowly release nitrogen and phosphorus into the subsurface. Conceptually, these polymers are designed to adhere to soil particles in the subsurface contamination zone where they slowly degrade and release nutrients over longer periods of time compared to conventional fertilizer applications. Tests conducted during this study indicate that some of the developed polymers have excellent potential to satisfy the microbial requirements for enhanced bioremediation

  9. BIOREMEDIATION

    Bioremediation is a method for using the activities of microorganisms and-or plants to transform organic or inorganic compounds that may be harmful to humans, animals, plants or the environment to compounds that are less harmful. In many instances the toxic compounds may be compl...

  10. Cyclodextrines accelerate off-site bioremediation of soils contaminated with mineral oil

    Sniegowski, Kristel; Achten, Sonja; Vanhecke, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Soils contaminated with mineral oil are often excavated and bioremediated off-site by biostimulation and biodegradation. The soils are aerated and supplied with the necessary nutrients to accelerate biodegradation. Ideally, without seriously disturbing the soil, the contaminants are completely mineralized and the soil can be reused. However, for some soils the degradation performance is poor despite the sufficient amount of bacteria, oxygen and nutrients present in the soil. The main factor i...

  11. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  12. Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

    2007-03-15

    Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

  13. Review of arctic Norwegian bioremediation research

    Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs

  14. Accelerators for atomic energy research

    The research and educational activities accomplished using accelerators for atomic energy research were studied. The studied items are research subjects, facility operation, the number of master theses and doctor theses on atomic energy research using accelerators and the future role of accelerators in atomic energy research. The strategy for promotion of the accelerator facility for atomic energy research is discussed. (author)

  15. Accelerator research studies

    This progress report for the Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland covers the second year (June 1, 1989 to May 31, 1990) of the current three-year contract period from June 1, 1988 to May 31, 1991, funded by the Department of Energy under Contract No. AC05-85ER40216. The research program is divided into three separate tasks, as follows: the study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams; the study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pulse-Powered Plasma Focus; the study of Microwave Sources and Parameter Scaling for High-Frequency Linacs. This report consists of three sections in which the progress for each task is documented separately. An introduction and synopsis is presented at the beginning of the progress report for each task

  16. Accelerator research studies

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under contract number AC05-85ER40216-8, is currently in the third year of its three-year funding cycle. This Renewal Proposal requests DOE support for the next three-year period from June 1, 1991 to May 31, 1994. It documents the progress made during the past year and outlines the proposed research program for the next three years. The program consisted of the following three tasks: Task A, ''Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' Task B, ''Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' Task C, ''Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders.'' These tasks will be discussed in this paper

  17. Accelerator research studies

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, ''Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, ''Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' (Co-P.I.'s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, ''Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,'' (Co-P.I.'s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  18. Accelerator research studies

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  19. Accelerator research studies

    1993-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' (Co-P.I.'s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,'' (Co-P.I.'s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  20. Application of time release electron donors and electron acceptors for accelerated bioremediation

    Currently, there are limited options for cost effective approaches to soil and groundwater contamination. One technology that has proven its potential involves the use of time release electron acceptors to accelerate the natural bioattenuation of aerobically degradable compounds and time release electron donors to accelerate the natural bioattenuation of anaerobic compounds. This technology enjoys its reputations as a sensible strategy for engineering accelerated bioattenuation, because it delivers results while 1) limiting or eliminating design, capital and management costs and 2) allowing for the engineering of a low-impact application and a subsequently invisible remediation process. Oxygen Release Compound (ORC ) is proprietary formulation of intercalated magnesium peroxide that releases oxygen slowly, for about a year, and facilitates the aerobic degradation of a range of environmental contaminants including petroleum hydrocarbons, certain chlorinated hydrocarbons, ether oxygenates and nitroaromatics. The history of ORC's introduction and acceptance represents a model for the evolution of an innovative technology. This statement comes by virtue of the fact that since 1994 ORC has been used on over 7000 sites worldwide and has been the subject of an extensive body of literature. Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC) is also a proprietary polylactate ester that is food grade and, upon being deposited into the aquifer, is slowly hydrolyzed to release lactic acid and other organic acid derivatives for about one to two years. The organic acids are fermented to hydrogen, which in turn donates electrons that drive reductive bioattenuation processes. This is primarily directed at a wide range of chlorinated hydrocarbons, but can be applied to the remediation of metals by redox induced precipitation. HRC has now been used on over 220 sites, which we believe make it the most widely used electron donor for accelerating bioattenuation. ORC and HRC can be configured as a

  1. Accelerator and fusion research division

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations

  2. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Fifteen different experiments were run during these 12 months, approximately the same as the previous two years. Brief summaries of each experiment are included. Accelerator usage is summarized and development activities are discussed. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Accelerators for research and applications

    The newest particle accelerators are almost always built for extending the frontiers of research, at the cutting edge of science and technology. Once these machines are operating and these technologies mature, new applications are always found, many of which touch our lives in profound ways. The evolution of accelerator technologies will be discussed, with descriptions of accelerator types and characteristics. The wide range of applications of accelerators will be discussed, in fields such as nuclear science, medicine, astrophysics and space-sciences, power generation, airport security, materials processing and microcircuit fabrication. 13 figs

  4. EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF STRATEGIES FOR OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: POTENTIAL AND LIMITATION, LABORATORY TO FIELD (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Several important additional research efforts were identified during the development of test systems and protocols for assessing the effectiveness and environmental safety of oil spill commercial bioremediation agents (CBAs). Research that examined CBA efficacy issues included: (...

  5. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis, and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. Brief summaries of research experiments are included. Accelerator usage is summarized and development activities are discussed. 8 refs., 8 tabs

  6. Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Jeremy eSemrau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbially-mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30 years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past five years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided.

  7. Bioremediation of oil spills: A review of challenges for research advancement

    Macaulay, Babajide Milton; Rees, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for liquid petroleum increases, the need for reliable and efficient oil spill clean-up techniques is inevitable. Bioremediation is considered one of the most sustainable clean-up techniques but the potential has not been fully exploited in the field because it is too slow to meet the immediate demands of the environment. This study reviews the challenges to managing oil spills in terrestrial and marine environments to identify areas that require further research. Current challen...

  8. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis, and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. Experiments performed from May 1991--April 1992 are described.

  9. Bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40 years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate (NO3-), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. A research and development program is presently underway to develop bioremediation technologies for treating contaminated Hanford groundwaters. The program includes development of both ex situ and in situ treatment methods, with primary emphasis on developing an in situ treatment process. The goal of the in situ process is to stimulate the native microorganisms and accelerate the natural degradation of NO3- and CCl4. A demonstration site at Hanford for in situ biological treatment was selected in 1990, and extensive hydrological, chemical, and biological characterization of the site is underway. Current research and development activities are focusing on developing methods for supplying nutrients to the subsurface, evaluating the effect of in situ bioremediation on the long-term mobility of metal and radionuclide co-contaminants, and modeling the bioremediation process using three-dimensional visualization tools to help design the field-scale demonstration site and predict performance

  10. UCLA accelerator research and development

    This progress report covers work supported by the above DOE grant over the period November 1, 1991 to July 31, 1992. The work is a program of experimental and theoretical studies in advanced particle accelerator research and development for high energy physics applications. The program features research at particle beam facilities in the United States and includes research on novel high power sources, novel focussing systems (e.g. plasma lens), beam monitors, novel high brightness, high current gun systems, and novel flavor factories in particular the φ Factory

  11. Bioremediation: A natural solution

    Bioremediation is an attractive remediation alternative because most full-scale bioremediation projects involve cost-effective contaminant treatment on-site. Recently, large scale bioremediation projects have included cleanups of ocean tanker spills, land-based chemical spills, and leaking chemical and petroleum storage tanks. Contaminated matrices have included beaches, soils, groundwater, surface waters (i.e., pits, ponds, lagoons), process waste streams and grease traps. Bioremediation is especially cost-effective when both soil and groundwater matrices are impacted because one remediation treatment system can be design to treat both media simultaneously in place. The primary advantages of in situ bioremediation include: on-site destruction of contaminants; accelerated cleanup time; minimal disruption to operations; lower remediation costs; and reduction of future liability

  12. Research needs of the new accelerator technologies

    A review is given of some of the new accelerator technologies with a special eye to the requirements which they generate for research and development. Some remarks are made concerning the organizational needs of accelerator research

  13. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  14. Bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites: bacteria and surfactant accelerated remediation

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Guzman, Francisco

    1996-11-01

    In Mexico, there are several environmental issues which are being addressed under the current governmental legislation. One important issue is restoring sites belonging to Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). PEMEX is a large government owned oil company that regulates and manages the oil reserves. These sites are primarily contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons which are a consequence of extracting millions of barrels of oil. Within the southern regions of Mexico there are sites which were contaminated by activities and spills that have occurred during the past 30 years. PEMEX has taken the leadership in correcting environmental problems and is very concerned about cleaning up the contaminated sites as quickly as possible. The most significant contaminated sites are located to the north of Veracruz and south of Tabasco. These sites areas are close to refineries or locations of oil exploration. The primary category of contaminants are hydrocarbons, among them asphaltens, aromatic and other contaminants. The concentration of the contaminants varies depending on the location of the sites, but it can reach as high as 500,000 ppm. PEMEX has been searching for appropriate, and cost- effective technologies to clean up these sites. Biologically based remediation activities are of primary interest to PEMEX. However, other treatment technologies such as chemical-physical methods, encapsulation and incineration are also being considered. The present report summarizes preliminary experiments that measured the feasibility of bioremediation for a contaminated site in southern Mexico.

  15. Bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites: Bacteria and surfactant accelerated remediation

    In Mexico, there are several environmental issues which are being addressed under the current governmental legislation. One of the important issues is restoring sites belonging to Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). PEMEX is a large government owned oil company that regulates and manages the oil reserves. These sites are primarily contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons which are a consequence of extracting millions of barrels of oil. Within the southern regions of Mexico there are sites which were contaminated by activities and spills that have occurred during the past 30 years. PEMEX has taken the leadership in correcting environmental problems and is very concerned about cleaning up the contaminated sites as quickly as possible. The most significant contaminated sites are located to the north of Veracruz and south of Tabasco. These site areas are close to refineries or locations of oil exploration. The primary category of contaminants are hydrocarbons, among them asphaltenes, aromatic and other contaminants. The concentration of the contaminants varies depending on the location of the sites, but it can reach as high as 500,000 ppm. PEMEX has been searching for appropriate, and cost-effective technologies to clean up these sites. Biologically based remediation activities are of primary interest to PEMEX. However, other treatment technologies such as chemical-physical methods, encapsulation and incineration are also being considered. The present report summarizes preliminary experiments that measured the feasibility of bioremediation for a contaminated site in southern Mexico

  16. Modeling bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    Atlas, R M; Hazen, T.; Philp, J. C.; Prommer, H.; Barry, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    Bioremediation: Applied Microbial Solutions for Real-World Environmental Cleanup is a fascinating examination of research and its real-world application. Intended for both academics and practitioners, the book presents information on the legal, scientific, and engineering principles behind bioremediation for cleaning up contaminated soil and groundwater sources. Bioremediation incorporates a variety of international perspectives in detailing for industrial engineers and rese...

  17. Health physics practices at research accelerators

    A review is given of the uses of particle accelerators in health physics, the text being a short course given at the Health Physics Society Ninth Midyear Topical Symposium in February, 1976. Topics discussed include: (1) the radiation environment of high energy accelerators; (2) dosimetry at research accelerators; (3) shielding; (4) induced activity; (5) environmental impact of high energy accelerators; (6) population dose equivalent calculation; and (7) the application of the ''as low as practicable concept'' at accelerators

  18. Bioremediation of oil spills

    In-situ bioremediation of crude oil spills relies on either the indigenous microbes at the polluted site, whose degradative abilities are accelerated by adding such agents as fertilizers or dispersants, or on introducing pollutant-degrading microbes into the site (possibly accompanied by stimulatory chemicals). The bioremediation method to be used at a specific site must be selected to be suitable for that site and its environmental conditions. The basic components of bioremediation are outlined and the background information needed to understand the chemical and biological limitations of the technique are presented. Specifically, the microbial community, the crude oil substrate composition, and biological limiting factors are discussed. Generalized examples of bioremediation applications are illustrated. 10 refs

  19. Accelerator Center for Energy Research (ACER)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Accelerator Center for Energy Research (ACER) exploits radiation chemistry techniques to study chemical reactions (and other phenomena) by subjecting samples to...

  20. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1989

    This report discusses the following topics on heavy-ion fusion accelerator research: MBE-4: the induction-linac approach; transverse beam dynamics and current amplification; scaling up the results; through ILSE to a driver; ion-source and injector development; and accelerator component research and development

  1. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1991

    This report discusses the following topics: research with multiple- beam experiment MBE-4; induction linac systems experiments; and long- range research and development of heavy-ion fusion accelerators

  2. Accelerator research studies. Progress report

    The major goal of this project is to study the effects that lead to emittance growth and limitation of beam current and brightness in periodic focusing systems (including linear accelerators). This problem is of great importance for all accelerator applications requiring high intensity beams with small emittance such as heavy ion fusion, spallation neutron sources and high energy physics. In the latter case, future machines must not only provide higher energies (in the range of 10 to 100 TeV), but also higher luminosities than the existing facilities. This implies considerably higher phase-space density of the particle beam produced by the injector linac, i.e., the detrimental emittance growth and concurrent beam loss observed in existing linacs must be avoided

  3. Accelerator research studies: Annual technical report

    This paper discusses accelerator research at the University of Maryland. The three task studies contained in this paper are: Instabilities and Emittance Growth in Periodic Focusing Systems for Intense Beams; Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pulse Powered Plasma Focus; and Microwave Sources and Parameter Scaling for High-Frequency e+e/sup /minus// Supercollider Linacs

  4. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  5. Proposed research on advanced accelerator concepts

    This report summarizes technical progress and accomplishments during the proposed three-year research on advanced accelerator concepts supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-88ER40465. A vigorous theoretical program has been pursued in critical problem areas related to advanced accelerator concepts and the basic equilibrium, stability, and radiation properties of intense charged particle beams. Broadly speaking, our research has made significant contributions in the following three major areas: Investigations of physics issues related to particle acceleration including two-beam accelerators and cyclotron resonance laser (CRL) accelerators; Investigations of RF sources including the free- electron lasers, cyclotron resonance masers, and relativistic magnetrons; Studies of coherent structures in electron plasmas and beams ranging from a low-density, nonrelativistic, pure electron plasma column to high-density, relativistic, non-neutral electron flow in a high-voltage diode. The remainder of this report presents theoretical and computational advances in these areas

  6. Bioremediation of oil on shoreline environments: development of techniques and guidelines

    Over the last 20 years, the development of operational procedures to accelerate the natural biodegradation rates of oil spilled on shoreline environments has been the focus of numerous research programs. As a result, bioremediation has been demonstrated to be an effective oil spill countermeasure for use in cobble, sand beach, salt marsh, and mudflat environments. Today, studies are directed towards improving the efficacy and evaluating the ecological impacts of available bioremediation agents and/or procedures. This review describes the latest developments in bioremediation strategies and their key success factors. (author)

  7. Research in nuclear chemistry using accelerators

    The article gives the general outline of the nuclear chemistry research carried out using accelerators. Studies on heavy ion induced nuclear reactions as well as heavy ion fusion fission reactions using accelerators providing heavy ion beams of energy in the range of 4-8 MeV/nucleon and light ion beams for energy below 50 MeV have been reviewed in the context of the work carried out in our laboratory. (author). 28 refs., 10 figs

  8. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  10. Research and transference of the ICES over Malargue, Mendoza, uranium bioremediation

    The origin of the International Center for Earth Sciences (ICES) dates back to 2002 when the Acoustic Emission Station on Volcano Peteroa was installed. Up to now, it represents the first of its kind in the entire Andean Cordillera. This scientific activity is jointly coordinated by scientists from Italy and Argentina. At the First Conference on Acoustic Emission held on 2004, a letter of intent for the establishment of ICES was signed. Presently, ICES is composed by 4 departments: Environment and Climate; Anthropology; Environmental and Territorial Environmental Risk; Resources and Exploration Geophysics. One of the primary objectives of ICES is to promoting applied research and development in the broad field of Earth Sciences. The experimental work consists of main 4 steps listed below: The 'Helianthus annus' (sunflower) has proven its ability to raise Uranium (U) in hydroponic systems and was widely used in the model U rizophyiltration extraction of groundwater in Ashtabula, Ohio, USA. Hydroponic trial design consists of 6 treatments and 4 repetitions plants witnesses without minimum level of U, U witnesses plants without and 4 with various levels of U (Stage 1). The Glomus intraradices is a mycorrhizal fungus used in strategies of U phyto-stabilization. Test consists in the cultivation of sunflower with roots inoculated with Glomus intraradices to determine their uptake and translocation of U (Stage 2). The inoculation of 'Glomus intraradices' in 'Helianthus annus' produces an effective symbiosis with the type of strain and its genetic diversity, some genotypes are highly suitable for this. There have been experiences of this kind in the basic research in several countries. In this work, we use the system in 'Helianthus-Glomus' phyto-stabilization or rizophyiltration soil as a strategy for bioremediation of U at the Malargue area, Province of Mendoza (Stage 3). It will launch a pilot test of the transfer plan, which involves creating a garden for the growth of

  11. Bioremediation of oil spills

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  12. 重金属镉污染生物修复的研究进展%Research Progress of Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Cadmium Pollution

    肖春文; 罗秀云; 田云; 卢向阳

    2013-01-01

    The present situation and main harm of cadmium pollution are overviewed,and then the research progress of bioremediation of cadmium pollution is summarized.The latest research progress of cadmium hyperaccumulation plants and microorganisms for adsorbing cadmium are especially reviewed.The bioremediation application prospect and the future research direction for bioremediation of cadmium pollution are systemtically elaborated.%概述了镉污染的现状及其主要危害,综述了镉污染生物修复的研究进展,特别是镉超富集植物和吸附镉微生物筛选的最新研究进展,系统阐述了镉污染生物修复的应用前景和今后的研究方向.

  13. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-06-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  14. Cometabolic bioremediation

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-15

    Cometabolic bioremediation is probably the most under appreciated bioremediation strategy currently available. Cometabolism strategies stimulate only indigenous microbes with the ability to degrade the contaminant and cosubstrate e.g. methane, propane, toluene and others. This highly targeted stimulation insures that only those microbes that can degrade the contaminant are targeted, thus reducing amendment costs, well and formation plugging, etc. Cometabolic bioremediation has been used on some of the most recalcitrant contaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine, etc. Methanotrophs have been demonstrated to produce methane monooxygense, an oxidase that can degrade over 300 compounds. Cometabolic bioremediation also has the advantage of being able to degrade contaminants to trace concentrations, since the biodegrader is not dependent on the contaminant for carbon or energy. Increasingly we are finding that in order to protect human health and the environment that we must remediate to lower and lower concentrations, especially for compounds like endocrine disrupters, thus cometabolism may be the best and maybe the only possibility that we have to bioremediate some contaminants.

  15. Radiation safety research at Indus accelerator complex

    A brief description of the radiation safety research being carried out at the electron synchrotron radiation sources, Indus-1 (450 MeV) and Indus-2 (2.5 GeV) is presented. As these sources being operated at high energy, the radiation environment is primarily due to the interaction of these electrons with accelerating structure, when beam loss takes place, and subsequent development of electromagnetic cascade. Radiation in the cascade mainly consists of the Bremsstrahlung component which initiates photo-neutron production. Characteristics of these radiations are that the energy can be as high up to the energy of the accelerated electron. This gives rise to problems in detection and personnel dosimetry due to dose buildup effects. The angular dependency and pulsed nature of these radiations complicate the issue of detection. Besides, accidental loss of beam in the vacuum envelope of the accelerator, in addition to normal loss calls for appropriate evaluation of these contributions for personnel radiation safety. Attempts made to understand these problems and the research and development work carried out at Indus Accelerator Complex in order to address them will be discussed. (author)

  16. The Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA)

    LIBRA is a concept to place a light-ion, charged-particle facility in a hospital environment, and to dedicate it to applications in biology and medicine. There are two aspects of the program envisaged for LIBRA: a basic research effort coupled with a program in clinical applications of accelerated charged particles. The operational environment to be provided for LIBRA is one in which both of these components can coexist and flourish, and one that will promote the transfer of technology and knowledge from one to the other. In order to further investigate the prospects for a Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA), discussions are underway with the Merritt Peralta Medical Center (MPMC) in Oakland, California, and the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF). In this paper, a brief discussion of the technical requirements for such a facility is given, together with an outline of the accelerator technology required. While still in a preliminary stage, it is possible nevertheless to develop an adequate working description of the type, size, performance and cost of the accelerator facilities required to meet the preliminary goals for LIBRA

  17. Arctic bioremediation

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  18. CARE07 Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe

    2007-01-01

    Annual Meeting, at CERN, 29-31 October 2007 The CARE project started on 1st January 2004 and will end on 31st December 2008. At the end of each year, the progress and status of its activities are reported in a general meeting. This year, the meeting takes place at CERN. The CARE objective is to generate structured and integrated European cooperation in the field of accelerator research and related R&D. The programme includes the most advanced scientific and technological developments, relevant to accelerator research for particle physics. It is articulated around three Networking Activities and four Joint Activities. The Networking Activities ELAN, BENE and HHH aim to better coordinate R&D efforts at the European level and to strengthen Europe’s ability to produce intense and high-energy particle beams (electrons and positrons, muons and neutrinos, protons and ions, respectively). The Joint Activities, SRF, PHIN, HIPPI and NED, aim at technical developments on s...

  19. CARE07 Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe

    2007-01-01

    Annual Meeting, at CERN, 29-31 October 2007 The CARE project started on 1st January 2004 and will end on 31st December 2008. At the end of each year, the progress and status of its activities are reported in a general meeting. This year, the meeting is taking place at CERN. The CARE objective is to generate structured and integrated European cooperation in the field of accelerator research and related R&D. The programme includes the most advanced scientific and technological developments, relevant to accelerator research for particle physics. It is articulated around three Networking Activities and four Joint Activities. The Networking Activities ELAN, BENE and HHH aim to better coordinate R&D efforts at the European level and to strengthen Europe’s ability to produce intense and high-energy particle beams (electrons and positrons, muons and neutrinos, protons and ions, respectively). The Joint Activities, SRF, PHIN, HIPPI and NED, aim at technical developments ...

  20. Arctic bioremediation

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions

  1. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency

  2. SINP MSU accelerator facility and applied research

    Full text: SINP accelerator facility includes 120 cm cyclotron, electrostatic generator with the upper voltage 3.0 MeV, electrostatic generator with the upper voltage 2.5 MeV, Cocroft -Walton generator with the upper voltage 500 keV, 150 keV accelerator for solid microparticles. A new generation of electron beam accelerators has been developed during the last decade. The SINP accelerator facility will be shortly described in the report. A wide range of basic research in nuclear and atomic physics, physics of ion-beam interactions with condensed matter is currently carried out. SINP activity in the applied research is concentrated in the following areas of materials science: - Materials diagnostics with the Rutherford backscattering techniques (RBS) and channeling of ions (RBS/C). A large number of surface ad-layers and multilayer systems for advanced micro- and nano-electronic technology have been investigated. A selected series of examples will be illustrated. - Concentration depth profiles of hydrogen by the elastic recoils detection techniques (ERD). Primarily, the hydrogen depth profiles in perspective materials for thermonuclear reactors have been investigated. - Lattice site locations of hydrogen by a combination of ERD and channeling techniques. This is a new technique which was successfully applied for investigation of hydrogen and hydrogen-defect complexes in silicon for the smart-cut technology. - Light element diagnostics by RBS and nuclear backscattering techniques (NBS). The technique is illustrated by applications for nitrogen concentration profiling in steels. Nitrogen take-up and release, nitrides precipitate formation will be illustrated. - New medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) facility and applications. Ultra-high vacuum and superior energy resolution electrostatic toroidal analyzer is designed to be applied for characterization of composition and structure of several upper atomic layers of materials

  3. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-10-20

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:10{sup 9}) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 10{sup 13--15} on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels that are commonly used to trace biochemical pathways in natural systems. {sup 14}C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. The primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subject research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. {sup 3} H, {sup 41}Ca and {sup 26}Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications.

  5. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:109) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 1013--15 on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels that are commonly used to trace biochemical pathways in natural systems. 14C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. The primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subject research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. 3 H, 41Ca and 26Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications

  6. Bioremediation of marine oil pollution

    An assessment is presented of the scientific and technological developments in the area of bioremediation and biodegradation of marine oil pollution. A number of allied technologies are also considered. The basic technology in bioremediation involves adding fertilizers to an oil spill to enhance the natural process of oil biodegradation. Bioremediation can be applied to open systems such as beach or land spills, or in closed and controlled environments such as storage containers, specially constructed or modified bioreactors, and cargo tanks. The major advantage of using closed environments is the opportunity to control the physical and nutritional parameters to optimize the rate of biodegradation. An evaluation of the state of the art of bioremediation in Canada is also included. Recommendations are made to involve the Canadian Transportation Development Centre in short-term research projects on bioremediation. These projects would include the use of a barge as a mobile bioreactor for the treatment of off-loaded oily waste products, the use of in-situ bioremediation to carry out extensive cleaning, degassing, and sludge remediation on board an oil tanker, and the use of a barge as a mobile bioreactor and facility for the bioremediation of bilges. 51 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs

  7. CARE05 coordinated accelerator research in Europe

    2005-01-01

    Annual Meeting at CERN, 23-25 November 2005 CARE started on 1st January 2004 and will last for five years. At the end of each year it holds a general meeting to report on the progress and status of its activities. This year, the CARE annual meeting is taking place at CERN The objective of the CARE project is to generate structured and integrated European cooperation in the field of accelerator research and related R&D. The program includes the most advanced scientific and technological developments, relevant to accelerator research for Particle Physics. It is articulated around three Networking Activities and four Joint Activities. The Networking Activities ELAN, BENE and HHH aim to better coordinate R&D efforts at the European level and to strengthen Europe's ability to evaluate and develop methods of producing intense and high energy beams of electrons, protons, muons and neutrinos. These activities are embedded in world-wide efforts towards future e+e- linear colliders, superior neutrino beam fa...

  8. Postremediation bioremediation

    In applying remediation technology, an important question is when to stop operations. Conventional wisdom states that each site has a limit of treatability. Beyond a point, the site conditions limit access to residual contaminants and, therefore, treatment effectiveness. In the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons, the issue in ceasing remedial operations is not what is the limit of treatment, but what should be the limit of effort. Because hydrocarbons are inherently biodegradable, there is a point in remediation where natural or intrinsic bioremediation is adequate to complete the remedial process. This point is reached when the rate of residual carbon release is the limiting factor, not the rate of oxygen or nutrient supply. At such a point, the rate and degree of remediation is the same whether an active system is being applied or whether nothing is being actively done. This paper presents data from several bioremediation projects where active remediation was terminated above the desired closure levels. These site data illustrate that intrinsic bioremediation is as effective in site closure as continued active remediation

  9. Accelerator physics and technology research toward future multi-MW proton accelerators

    Shiltsev, V; Romanenko, A; Valishev, A; Zwaska, R

    2015-01-01

    Recent P5 report indicated the accelerator-based neutrino and rare decay physics research as a centrepiece of the US domestic HEP program. Operation, upgrade and development of the accelerators for the near-term and longer-term particle physics program at the Intensity Frontier face formidable challenges. Here we discuss accelerator physics and technology research toward future multi-MW proton accelerators.

  10. Accelerators for Society - TIARA 2012 Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area (in Polish)

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    TIARA (Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - Preparatory Phae) is an European Collaboration of Accelerator Technology, which by running research projects, technical, networks and infrastructural has a duty to integrate the research and technical communities and infrastructures in the global scale of Europe. The Collaboration gathers all research centers with large accelerator infrastructures. Other ones, like universities, are affiliated as associate members. TIARA-PP (preparato...

  11. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  12. Accelerators for Society - TIARA 2012 Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area (in Polish)

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    TIARA (Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - Preparatory Phae) is an European Collaboration of Accelerator Technology, which by running research projects, technical, networks and infrastructural has a duty to integrate the research and technical communities and infrastructures in the global scale of Europe. The Collaboration gathers all research centers with large accelerator infrastructures. Other ones, like universities, are affiliated as associate members. TIARA-PP (preparatory phase) is an European infrastructural project run by this Consortium and realized inside EU-FP7. The paper presents a general overview of TIARA activities, with an introduction containing a portrait of contemporary accelerator technology and a digest of its applications in modern society.

  13. Recent progress on laser acceleration research

    Recently there has been a tremendous experimental progress in ultrahigh field particle acceleration driven by ultraintense laser pulses in plasmas. A design of the laser wakefield accelerators aiming at GeV energy gains is discussed by presenting our recent progress on the laser wakefield acceleration experiments, the developments of high quality electron beam injectors and the capillary plasma waveguide for optical guiding of ultrashort intense laser pulses. (author)

  14. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into

  15. Research on feedback system of synchrotron accelerator

    It is a very complex problem to use feedback control system in synchrotron accelerator. Some scientists design feedback control system to make high energy beam stable in synchrotron accelerator, but it is very rare to see theoretically analysis feedback system in synchrotron accelerator by using new concept of control model. One new feedback control model is a fresh idea to discuss the feedback system more deeply. A topic about feedback control system discussed here will be useful for synchrotron accelerator design and operation. It is an good idea for some scientists and technician to continue study. (authors)

  16. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations

  17. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations.

  18. Research of Virtual Accelerator Control System

    DongJinmei; YuanYoujin; ZhengJianhua

    2003-01-01

    A Virtual Accelerator is a computer process which simulates behavior of beam in an accelerator and responds to the accelerator control program under development in a same way as an actual accelerator. To realize Virtual Accelerator, control system should provide the same program interface to top layer Application Control Program, it can make 'Real Accelerator' and 'Virtual Accelerator'use the same GUI, so control system should have a layer to hide hardware details, Application Control Program access control devices through logical name but not through coded hardware address. Without this layer, it is difficult to develop application program which can access both 'Virtual' and 'Real' Accelerators using same program interfaces. For this reason, we can create CSR Runtime Database which allows application program to access hardware devices and data on a simulation process in a unified way. A device 'is represented as a collection of records in CSR Runtime Database. A control program on host computer can access devices in the system only through names of record fields, called channel.

  19. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density Cs+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac

  20. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils. PMID:26008965

  1. Solid oxide materials research accelerated electrochemical testing

    Windisch, C.; Arey, B.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop methods for accelerated testing of cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells under selected operating conditions. The methods would be used to evaluate the performance of LSM cathode material.

  2. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    1987-04-15

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  3. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately

  4. Accelerator ampersand Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations

  5. Accelerator Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    Berkner, Klaus H.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  6. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  7. Accelerator and fusion research division. 1992 Summary of activities

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations.

  8. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1988

    This report discusses the following topics: MBE-4: The Induction-Linac Approach; Current Amplification and Acceleration Schedules; Emittance and Current Amplification; Scaling Up the Results; Progress on the Carbon-Arc Source; Injector Development; Progress Towards an ILSE Design; Beam Combination; and Focusing-System Alignment Tolerances

  9. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  10. Bioremediation:A review of applications and problems to be resolved

    ZHOU Qixing; HUA Tao

    2004-01-01

    This review article describes the factors affecting bioremediation processes including: goals of bioremediation and the optimal ecological conditions required; inoculation of microorganisms; cometabolism; bioavailability and its improvement; biological evolution and its utilization;monitoring and control of bioremediation processes; identification of bioremediation effectiveness and ecological remediation and its key elements. The current progress in bioremediation techniques is summarized. The direction of future development, research and applications is also examined.

  11. KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) annual report, 2005

    This report summarizes research activities of KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) in the fiscal year 2005. Two years have passed since the KEK was reorganized as an inter-university research institute corporation, and KEK continue to facilitate a wide range of research programs based on high-energy accelerators for users from universities. KEK consists of two research institutes, the Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS) and the Institute of Materials Science (IMSS); and two laboratories, the Accelerator Laboratory and the Applied Research Laboratory. KEK has been operating four major accelerator facilities in Tsukuba: the 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), the KEK B-factory (KEKB), the Photon Factory (PF), and the Electron/Positron Injector Linac. We are now engaged in the construction of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) in Tokai in cooperation with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The J-PARC Center was established in February 2006 to take full responsibility for the operation of J-PARC. With the progress of construction, the PS ceased operation at the end of March 2006 after a history of 26 years. The task of KEK is to play a key role in the fields of elementary particle, nuclei, materials and life science as one of leading research facilities of the world. The fiscal year 2005 activities of both KEK employees and visiting researchers yielded excellent outcomes in these research fields. (J.P.N.)

  12. Accelerator research for heavy ion inertial fusion

    It is now one decade since serious consideration was first given to the use of heavy ion accelerators for inertial confinement fusion. After an initial period of wide-ranging studies, the US program settled on an induction linac method proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The ion kinetic energy is modest (30-100 MeV/amu, 5-10 GeV total) but intense beam currents of order 1 kA per beam in 10-30 beams are required on target in a short pulse of order 10-20 ns. In this review the conceptual designs are described, together with recent theory and experiments on high-current beam transport and use of multiple beams. Parallel efforts in West Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union are mentioned, and a two-year US study of heavy ion fusion electric power plants is summarized. (orig.)

  13. Bioremediation of oil spills

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  14. Accelerating research into the Higgs boson particle

    Nikolaidou, Rosy

    "The only Standard Model particle yet to be observed, the search for the Higgs Boson - the so-called 'God Particle' - demands advanced facilities and physics expertise. At the Cern laboratory in Switzerland, the ARTEMIS project is well-placed to pursue research in this area" (2 pages)

  15. Accelerator-driven neutron sources for materials research

    Particle accelerators are important tools for materials research and production. Advances in high-intensity linear accelerator technology make it possible to consider enhanced neutron sources for fusion material studies or as a source of spallation neutrons. Energy variability, uniformity of target dose distribution, target bombardment from multiple directions, time-scheduled dose patterns, and other features can be provided, opening new experimental opportunities. New designs have also been used to ensure hands-on maintenance on the accelerator in these factory-type facilities. Designs suitable for proposals such as the Japanese Energy-Selective Intense Neutron Source, and the international Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility are discussed

  16. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1987 summary of activities

    1988-04-01

    An overview of the design and the initial studies for the Advanced Light Source is given. The research efforts for the Center for X-Ray Optics include x-ray imaging, multilayer mirror technology, x-ray sources and detectors, spectroscopy and scattering, and synchrotron radiation projects. The Accelerator Operations highlights include the research by users in nuclear physics, biology and medicine. The upgrade of the Bevalac is also discussed. The High Energy Physics Technology review includes the development of superconducting magnets and superconducting cables. A review of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is also presented. The Magnetic Fusion Energy research included the development of ion sources, accelerators for negative ions, diagnostics, and theoretical plasma physics. (WRF)

  17. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1987 summary of activities

    An overview of the design and the initial studies for the Advanced Light Source is given. The research efforts for the Center for X-Ray Optics include x-ray imaging, multilayer mirror technology, x-ray sources and detectors, spectroscopy and scattering, and synchrotron radiation projects. The Accelerator Operations highlights include the research by users in nuclear physics, biology and medicine. The upgrade of the Bevalac is also discussed. The High Energy Physics Technology review includes the development of superconducting magnets and superconducting cables. A review of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is also presented. The Magnetic Fusion Energy research included the development of ion sources, accelerators for negative ions, diagnostics, and theoretical plasma physics

  18. idaho Accelerator Center Advanced Fuel Cycle Research

    Wells, Douglas; Dale, Dan

    2011-10-20

    The technical effort has been in two parts called; Materials Science and Instrumentation Development. The Materials Science technical program has been based on a series of research and development achievements in Positron-Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) for defect detection in structural materials. This work is of particular importance in nuclear power and its supporting systems as the work included detection of defects introduced by mechanical and thermal phenomena as well as those caused by irradiation damage. The second part of the program has focused on instrumentation development using active interrogation techniques supporting proliferation resistant recycling methodologies and nuclear material safeguards. This effort has also lead to basic physics studies of various phenomena relating to photo-fission. Highlights of accomplishments and facility improvement legacies in these areas over the program period include

  19. Accelerator R&D: Research for Science - Science for Society

    The HEP Accelerator R& D Task Force: N.R. Holtkamp,S. Biedron, S.V. Milton, L. Boeh, J.E. Clayton, G. Zdasiuk, S.A. Gourlay, M.S. Zisman,R.W. Hamm, S. Henderson, G.H. Hoffstaetter, L. Merminga, S. Ozaki, F.C. Pilat, M. White

    2012-07-01

    In September 2011 the US Senate Appropriations Committee requested a ten-year strategic plan from the Department of Energy (DOE) that would describe how accelerator R&D today could advance applications directly relevant to society. Based on the 2009 workshop 'Accelerators for America's Future' an assessment was made on how accelerator technology developed by the nation's laboratories and universities could directly translate into a competitive strength for industrial partners and a variety of government agencies in the research, defense and national security sectors. The Office of High Energy Physics, traditionally the steward for advanced accelerator R&D within DOE, commissioned a task force under its auspices to generate and compile ideas on how best to implement strategies that would help fulfill the needs of industry and other agencies, while maintaining focus on its core mission of fundamental science investigation.

  20. The CARE project - Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe

    2003-01-01

    A one-day presentation of the project will take place on Monday February 10th in the CERN Council Chamber. The meeting will start a 9am and is expected to end at 4:30pm. The meeting, which is open to the whole community, will present an initiative on accelerator R&D in Europe, supported by ECFA, with the aim to bid for European Union support through the Framework 6 scheme. This initiative is coordinated by a steering group (ESGARD - European Steering Group on Accelerator Research and Development), which has been set up to coordinate European efforts on accelerator R&D and the submission of such bids. The initial bids have to be submitted by April 15th. All those interested in accelerator R&D are welcome to attend.

  1. Accelerator ampersand Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book

  2. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation

  3. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    Chew, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book.

  4. THE CARE PROJECT - Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe

    2003-01-01

    A one-day presentation of the project will take place on Monday February 10th in the CERN Council Chamber. The meeting will start a 9am and is expected to end at 4:30pm. The meeting, which is open to the whole community, will present an initiative on accelerator R&D in Europe, supported by ECFA, with the aim to bid for European Union support through the Framework 6 scheme. This initiative is coordinated by a steering group (ESGARD - European Steering Group on Accelerator Research and Development), which has been set up to coordinate European efforts on accelerator R&D and the submission of such bids. The initial bids have to be submitted by April 15th. All those interested in accelerator R&D are welcome to attend. Presentation of the CARE project (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe) to be submitted within FP6 February 10th, at CERN in the council room Agenda Chair : C. Wyss 9:00 General presentation of FP6 and introduction of IA proposal (R. Aleksan) 9:45 Networking activities on e ...

  5. Advocacy For Accelerated Research In Phytotherapy For Repairs And Regenerations

    Charles A. Oyinbo; Awoniyi B. Adeyanju

    2011-01-01

    Th e article advocates for an accelerated research in phytotherapy for spinal cord injury recovery and functional restoration. Pubmed search analysis shows that phytotherapeutic products for spinal cord injury treatment are negligible, and not in the main stream neurosciences research. With the potentials inherent in medicinal plants, it is imperative to explore phytotherapy for spinal cord injury since conventional methods of treatments have failed to provide any satisfactory clinical interv...

  6. Bioremediation Education Science and Technology (BEST) Program Annual Report 1999

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2000-07-01

    The Bioremediation, Education, Science and Technology (BEST) partnership provides a sustainable and contemporary approach to developing new bioremedial technologies for US Department of Defense (DoD) priority contaminants while increasing the representation of underrepresented minorities and women in an exciting new biotechnical field. This comprehensive and innovative bioremediation education program provides under-represented groups with a cross-disciplinary bioremediation cirruculum and financial support, coupled with relevant training experiences at advanced research laboratories and field sites. These programs are designed to provide a stream of highly trained minority and women professionals to meet national environmental needs.

  7. A facility for accelerator research and education at Fermilab

    Church, Mike; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Fermilab is currently constructing the 'SRF Test Accelerator at the New Muon Lab' (NML). NML consists of a photo-emitted RF electron gun, followed by a bunch compressor, low energy test beamlines, SCRF accelerating structures, and high energy test beamlines. The initial primary purpose of NML will be to test superconducting RF accelerating modules for the ILC and for Fermilab's 'Project X' - a proposal for a high intensity proton source. The unique capability of NML will be to test these modules under conditions of high intensity electron beams with ILC-like beam parameters. In addition NML incorporates a photoinjector which offers significant tunability and especially the possibility to generate a bright electron beam with brightness comparable to state-of-the-art accelerators. This opens the exciting possibility of also using NML for fundamental beams research and tests of new concepts in beam manipulations and acceleration, instrumentation, and the applications of beams.

  8. Basic research with low-energy accelerator systems

    The major important tasks of basic research are to push back the frontiers of scientific knowledge, and to train students. It will be shown that small accelerator facilities are still capable of producing interesting and exciting results that are on the leading edge of scientific inquiry. In addition, I will argue that, although these facilities often cannot afford to train students in the use of the most modern research equipment, there is an important compensating benefit in that they larger facilities. This 'liberal' education, as opposed to 'technical' instruction in the use of the most modern research equipment, may well be of more value to society in the long run. (Author)

  9. BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANTS IN MARINE HABITATS

    Bioremediation is being increasingly seen as an effective environmentally benign treatment for shorelines contaminated as a result of marine oil spills. Despite a relatively long history of research on oil-spill bioremediation, it remains an essentially empirical technology and m...

  10. Steady State Plasma Accelerators and their Applications in Thermonuclear Research

    Steady state plasma accelerators make it possible in principle to obtain plasma fluxes of high energy and large flow rate. This is of interest in thermonuclear research for two reasons. Firstly, the accelerator can be used for injecting plasma into existing traps; secondly, it can be used to design new-types of thermonuclear reactors, which might be referred to as, ''Flow-type Reactors'' in which a positive yield is-realised during the time the material passes through the reactor system. The main types of accelerating mechanisms operating in this accelerator are described and a brief review is given of theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations carried out by the author and his colleagues. The numerical and theoretical analysis of the processes taking place in coaxial steady state accelerators revealed the possible existence of steady-state compressive flows during which the applied electromagnetic energy is not converted into kinetic plasma energy but is used for compression of the plasma. When the compressed flow is allowed to expand its thermal energy is converted into kinetic energy. Devices in which compressive flow is attained are referred to as magnetic plasma compressors. At the present stage the existence of compressive flows has been confirmed experimentally. To ensure a positive yield in-the region of compression a density of 1020 - 1020 cm-3 is essential. The possibility of obtaining a positive yield in linear ''Flow type Reactors'' is discussed. Such reactors consist of magnetic plasma guides of length ∼ 100 m, in which a flow of hot plasma is produced by a steady state plasma accelerator. (author)

  11. Research and Development for Ultra-High Gradient Accelerator Structures

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Dolgashev, Valery; Higashi, Yasuo; Spataro, Bruno

    2010-11-01

    Research on the basic physics of high-gradient, high frequency accelerator structures and the associated RF/microwave technology are essential for the future of discovery science, medicine and biology, energy and environment, and national security. We will review the state-of-the-art for the development of high gradient linear accelerators. We will present the research activities aimed at exploring the basic physics phenomenon of RF breakdown. We present the experimental results of a true systematic study in which the surface processing, geometry, and materials of the structures have been varied, one parameter at a time. The breakdown rate or alternatively, the probability of breakdown/pulse/meter has been recorded for different operating parameters. These statistical data reveal a strong dependence of breakdown probability on surface magnetic field, or alternatively on surface pulsed heating. This is in contrast to the classical view of electric field dependence.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 2

    Baughman, Jack A.; Micheletti, David A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 1

    Micheletti, David A.; Baughman, Jack A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

  14. Application of Novel Accelerator Research for Particle Therapy

    Bjerke, Henrik Hemmestad

    2014-01-01

    This thesis seeks to review the latest trends in hadron therapy devices, and evaluate the potential of novel, researched accelerator concepts for future application. Although the clinical benefits of hadron therapy over photon therapy is unproven or disputed for many cancer types, there are several cases where hadron therapy presents a superior option. Many governments and medical institutions are planning or already executing development of new hadron treatment facilities. However, the highe...

  15. The South African National Accelerator Centre and its research programme

    Watanabe, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    An overview of the South African National Accelerator Centre and its research activities is given with emphasis on medium energy nuclear physics and nuclear data measurements for medical use. Also presented is a preliminary result of {sup 40}Ca(p,p`x) spectrum measurement for 392 MeV which has been carried out at RCNP, Osaka University, under the South Africa-Japan collaborative programme. (author)

  16. AN APPROACH TO BIOREMEDIATION

    ELENA-ROXANA ARDELEANU

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides some mathematical models associated with bioremediation processes. Bioremediation is a process in which contaminants in polluted soils are eliminated by bacteria. The initial model is the one given by Keller and Segel. The Keller- Segel model takes into account the movement of bacteria by diffusion and chemotaxis. Starting from this generalized model, we present different forms of diffusion and chemotactic coefficients. All particular cases presented were confirmed experim...

  17. Application of accelerators for the research and development of scintillators.

    Shibuya, Kengo; Koshimizu, Masanori; Asai, Keisuke; Muroya, Yusa; Katsumura, Yosuke; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yamaya, Taiga; Murayama, Hideo

    2007-08-01

    We introduce experimental systems which use accelerators to evaluate scintillation properties such as scintillation intensity, wavelength, and lifetime. A single crystal of good optical quality is often unavailable during early stages in the research and development (R&D) of new scintillator materials. Because of their beams' high excitation power and/or low penetration depth, accelerators facilitate estimation of the properties of early samples which may only be available as powders, thin films, and very small crystals. We constructed a scintillation spectrum measurement system that uses a Van de Graaff accelerator and an optical multichannel analyzer to estimate the relative scintillation intensity. In addition, we constructed a scintillation time profile measurement system that uses an electron linear accelerator and a femtosecond streak camera or a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube followed by a digital oscilloscope to determine the scintillation lifetimes. The time resolution is approximately 10 ps. The scintillation spectra or time profiles can be obtained in a significantly shorter acquisition time in comparison with that required by conventional measuring systems. The advantages of the systems described in this study can significantly promote the R&D of novel scintillator materials. PMID:17764319

  18. Hands-on Training Courses Using Research Reactors and Accelerators

    The enhancement of nuclear science education and training in all Member States is of interest to the IAEA since many of these countries, particularly in the developing world, are building up and expanding their scientific and technological infrastructures. Unfortunately, most of these countries still lack sufficient numbers of well-educated and qualified nuclear specialists and technologists. This may arise from, amongst other things: a lack of candidates with sufficient educational background in nuclear science who would qualify to receive specialized training; a lack of institutions available for training nuclear science specialists; a lack of lecturers in nuclear related fields; and a lack of suitable educational and teaching materials. A related concern is the potential loss of valuable knowledge accumulated over many decades due to the ageing workforce. An imperative for Member States is to develop and offer suitable graduate and postgraduate academic programmes which combine study and project work so that students can attain a prerequisite level of knowledge, abilities and skills in their chosen subject area. In nearly all academic programmes, experimental work forms an essential and integral component of study to help students develop general and subject specific skills. Experimental laboratory courses and exercises can mean practical work in a conventional laboratory or an advanced facility with an operational particle accelerator or research reactor often accompanied by computer simulations and theoretical exercises. In this context, available or newly planned research reactors and particle accelerators should be seen as extremely important and indispensable components of nuclear science and technology curricula. Research reactors can demonstrate nuclear science and technology based on nuclear fission and the interaction of neutrons and photons with matter, while particle accelerators can demonstrate nuclear science and technology based on charged particle

  19. A brief account of National Centre for Accelerator based Research: 3.0 MV pelletron accelerator (9SDH4) based research facility for interdisciplinary research

    The upcoming National Centre for Accelerator based Research is a flagship programme of the University. The Centre is financially supported by Ministry of Human Resource Development through University Grants Commission (UGC) and Department of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India through Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS). In addition University has signed a MoU with Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. A brief outline of the experimental facilities being commissioned and the description of its salient features are described

  20. COBRA accelerator for Sandia ICF diode research at Cornell University

    Smith, D.L.; Ingwersen, P.; Bennett, L.F.; Boyes, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, D.E.; Greenly, J.B.; Sudan, R.N. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The new COBRA accelerator is being built in stages at the Laboratory of Plasma Studies in Cornell University where its applications will include extraction diode and ion beam research in support of the light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia National Laboratories. The 4- to 5-MV, 125- to 250-kA accelerator is based on a four-cavity inductive voltage adder (IVA) design. It is a combination of new ferromagnetically-isolated cavities and self magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) hardware and components from existing Sandia and Cornell facilities: Marx generator capacitors, hardware, and power supply from the DEMON facility; water pulse forming lines (PFL) and gas switch from the Subsystem Test Facility (STF); a HERMES-III intermediate store capacitor (ISC); and a modified ion diode from Cornell`s LION. The present accelerator consists of a single modified cavity similar to those of the Sandia SABRE accelerator and will be used to establish an operating system for the first stage initial lower voltage testing. Four new cavities will be fabricated and delivered in the first half of FY96 to complete the COBRA accelerator. COBRA is unique in the sense that each cavity is driven by a single pulse forming line, and the IVA output polarity may be reversed by rotating the cavities 180{degrees} about their vertical axis. The site preparations, tank construction, and diode design and development are taking place at Cornell with growing enthusiasm as this machine becomes a reality. Preliminary results with the single cavity and short positive inner cylinder MITL configuration will soon be available.

  1. An overview of the JAERI accelerator research and development

    The high-intensity proton accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and a beam power of 8 MW has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. The purpose of the NSP is to explore various basic research fields such as condensed matter physics in combination with a proton storage ring and nuclear technologies for radioactive waste transmutation based on proton induced spallation neutrons. The conceptual design and R and D work have been carried out for the components of the low energy accelerator portion. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, the superconducting (SC) linac has been designed and developed as a major option. The proton storage ring has been studied to produce high intensity pulsed beam. (author)

  2. Progress in high field accelerator magnet development by the US LHC Accelerator Research Program

    Sabbi, Gian Luca

    2011-01-01

    The maximum magnetic field available to guide and focus the proton beams will be the most important factor driving the design of the High Energy LHC. The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is a collaboration of US National Laboratories aiming at demonstrating the feasibility of Nb3Sn magnet technology for application to future colliders. While LARP is primarily focused on the requirements of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), it is also directly relevant to the High-Energy LHC (HE-LHC). Program results and future directions will be discussed.

  3. Progress in high field accelerator magnet development by the US LHC Accelerator Research Program

    Sabbi, Gian Luca; Collaboration, for the LARP

    2011-01-01

    The maximum magnetic field available to guide and focus the proton beams will be the most important factor driving the design of the High Energy LHC. The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is a collaboration of US National Laboratories aiming at demonstrating the feasibility of Nb3Sn magnet technology for application to future colliders. While LARP is primarily focused on the requirements of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), it is also directly relevant to the High-Energy LHC (HE-LHC)...

  4. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1984 summary of activities

    1985-05-01

    During fiscal 1984, major programmatic activities in AFRD continued in each of five areas: accelerator operations, highlighted by the work of nuclear science users, who produced clear evidence for the formation of compressed nuclear matter during heavy-ion collisions; high-energy physics, increasingly dominated by our participation in the design of the Superconducting Super Collider; heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, which focused on the design of a four-beam experiment as a first step toward assessing the promise of heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; and research at the Center for X-Ray Optics, which completed its first year of broadly based activities aimed at the exploitation of x-ray and ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, exploratory studies were under way, aimed at investigating major new programs for the division. During the past year, for example, we took a preliminary look at how we could use the Bevatron as an injector for a pair of colliding-beam rings that might provide the first glimpse of a hitherto unobserved state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma. Together with Livermore scientists, we also conducted pioneering high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) experiments and proposed a new FEL-based scheme (called the two-beam accelerator) for accelerating electrons to very high energies. And we began work on the design of the Coherent XUV Facility (CXF), an advanced electron storage ring for the production of intense coherent radiation from either undulators or free-electron lasers.

  5. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1984 summary of activities

    During fiscal 1984, major programmatic activities in AFRD continued in each of five areas: accelerator operations, highlighted by the work of nuclear science users, who produced clear evidence for the formation of compressed nuclear matter during heavy-ion collisions; high-energy physics, increasingly dominated by our participation in the design of the Superconducting Super Collider; heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, which focused on the design of a four-beam experiment as a first step toward assessing the promise of heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; and research at the Center for X-Ray Optics, which completed its first year of broadly based activities aimed at the exploitation of x-ray and ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, exploratory studies were under way, aimed at investigating major new programs for the division. During the past year, for example, we took a preliminary look at how we could use the Bevatron as an injector for a pair of colliding-beam rings that might provide the first glimpse of a hitherto unobserved state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma. Together with Livermore scientists, we also conducted pioneering high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) experiments and proposed a new FEL-based scheme (called the two-beam accelerator) for accelerating electrons to very high energies. And we began work on the design of the Coherent XUV Facility (CXF), an advanced electron storage ring for the production of intense coherent radiation from either undulators or free-electron lasers

  6. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environ...

  7. IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE USING BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA G4 PR1: ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY PARAMETERS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    The introduction of bacteria into aquifers for bioremediation purposes requires monitoring of the persistence and activity of microbial populations for efficacy and risk assessment purposes. Burkholderia cepacia G4 PR1 constitutively expresses a toluene ortho-monooxygenase (tom) ...

  8. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e+3- linear colliders

  9. MYRRHA: a multipurpose accelerator driven system for research and development

    SCK-CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, and IBA s.a., Ion Beam Application, a world leader in accelerator technology, want to fulfil a prominent role in the Accelerator Driven Systems field and are designing an ADS prototype, the MYRRHA Project, and conducting an associated R and D programme. The partners are foreseeing MYRRHA as a first step towards the European ADS-Demo facility. The project focuses primarily on ADS related research, i.e. structural materials and nuclear fuel research, liquid metals and associated aspects, sub-critical reactor physics and subsequently on applications such as waste transmutation, radioisotope production and safety research on sub-critical systems. In this respect, the MYRRHA system should become a new major research infrastructure for the European partners presently involved in the ADS Demo development, supporting and enabling the international R and D programs. Ion Beam Applications, the Belgium world leader in particle accelerators, had joined the MYRRHA Project to perform the accelerator development. Currently the study and preliminary conceptual design of the MYRRHA system is going on and an intensive R and D programme is conducted to assess the most risky points of the present design. This study will define the final choice of the characteristics of the facility depending on the selected fields of application to be achieved. The MYRRHA concept, as it is today, is based on the coupling of an upgraded commercial proton accelerator with a spallation target surrounded by a subcritical neutron-multiplying medium. Its design is determined by the versatility m applications that should be made possible. Further technical and/or strategic developments of the project might change the concept. A cyclotron, based on positive ion acceleration technology brings the protons up to an energy level of 350 MeV. The nominal current is 5 mA of protons. The spallation target system consists in a circuit with, at the upper part, a free

  10. Bioremediation effectiveness following the Exxon Valdez spill

    Statistical analyses of changes in the composition of oil residues remaining on beaches following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound have demonstrated that bioremediation was effective in accelerating oil removal. Extensive data were obtained in a joint bioremediation monitoring program conducted during the summer of 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Alaska, and Exxon. Composition changes in the oil relative to hopane, a trace oil component very resistant to biodegradation, provided the basis for accurately determining rates and extent of biodegradation. Results show that on fertilized beaches the rate of oil biodegradation was from three to more than five times faster than on adjacent, unfertilized control beaches. Further, most hydrocarbon components of the oil were biodegraded simultaneously, although at different rates. On one beach studied, about 60 percent of the total hydrocarbons detectable by gas chromatograph and 45 percent of the total PAH were biodegraded in three months. Bioremediation effectiveness was determined to depend primarily on the amount of nitrogen fertilizer delivered to the sediment per unit of oil present, time, and the extent of oil degradation prior to fertilizer application. The results suggest ways to improve future bioremediation application strategies and monitoring

  11. Bioremediation: A countermeasure for marine oil spills

    Three main types of bioremediation techniques are currently being developed or used for treatment of oil spills: adding nutrients to oiled shorelines; adding microbes to oiled shorelines; and addition of nutrients and/or microbes to open water oil slicks. Since all these technologies attempt to accelerate biodegradation, the processes of biodegradation of oil are summarized. Some of the potential uses of this technology are discussed, including specific instances where bioremediation has been applied at oil spills. Guidelines for evaluating and monitoring bioremediation applications are presented. Of the three types of bioremediation discussed, nutrient addition seems to hold the most immediate promise, especially for use in areas that would be adversely affected by physical or other removal methods. Environments where nutrient addition may play an important role in shoreline treatment include sheltered shorelines that are heavily oiled, shorelines with subsurface oil, and sensitive environments, especially wetlands. Nutrient additions are less likely to be effective in environments that are already nutrient-rich and for short-term, immediate response actions. 41 refs., 1 tab

  12. Research for the Relationships between Body Acceleration and Energy Expenditure

    ZHUYi; RUANXing-yun; SHENGYi; XUZhi-rong; GUOHai

    2004-01-01

    During our research, It has been found that body acceleration has strong relationships with the human energy expenditure. This paper discusses the methods to assess physical activity and concludes that for accurate assessment of physical activity under free living conditions the recently introduced accelerometer looks most promising. We developed a new computerized machine to assess the body activity and energy expenditure. Test datas of the treadmill experiment, respiration experiment and 5-kilometer-running experiment have been archieved,we found that body acceration integrals with time has linear relations with body energy expenture.

  13. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated surface water, groundwater, and soils

    Bioremediation is currently receiving considerable attention as a remediation option for sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. There is an enormous amount of interest in bioremediation, and numerous journals now publish research articles concerning some aspect of the remediation approach. A review of the literature indicates that two basic forms of bioremediation are currently being practiced: the microbiological approach and the microbial ecology approach. Each form has its advocates and detractors, and the microbiological approach is generally advocated by most of the firms that practice bioremediation. In this paper, the merits and disadvantages of these forms are reviewed and a conceptual approach is presented for assessing which form may be most useful for a particular contaminant situation. I conclude that the microbial ecology form of bioremediation may be the most useful for the majority of contaminant situations, and I will present two case histories in support of this hypothesis

  14. BIOREMEDIATION OF LOW GRADE ORES

    Rashmi Mishra*

    2016-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper is on a Bioremediation for the recovery of zinc from mining waste i.e. Low grade ore of Hindustan Zinc Limited. They are waste product for the mines, as the recovery process is expensive compared to the recovery product moreover it causes lots of pollution   Bioleaching Studies were carried out at different pH using mixed culture grown from mine water. Recovery of zinc in control set (without culture) was 8% in 37 days and at the same pH ...

  15. Bioremediation of contaminated sites

    By volatilizing aromatic compounds through aeration, landfarming is a recognized approach to the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. With this method, the soil is cultivated and aided with fertilizer amendment to provide a nutrient source for the microbial population involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of bioremediation will depend on several factors, including topographic features, soil properties, and biochemistry. Since bioremediation is inhibited by anaerobic conditions, sites that are sloped or have trenches to collect runoff water are preferable. As for soil properties, the percentage of sand should not be too high, but aeration is essential to avoid anaerobic conditions. Addition of straw is generally beneficial, and fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium will help degrading hydrocarbons. Temperature, pH, and salt content are also important factors since they facilitate microbial activity. 3 refs

  16. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N’Guessan

    2008-04-01

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation.

  17. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation

  18. High intensity linear accelerator development topics for panel discussion on ''Nuclear Energy Research and Accelerators: Future Prospects''

    Two companion papers at this meeting have introduced the subject of high intensity linacs for materials research and for radioactive waste transmutation; Prof. Kaneko's paper ''Intense Proton Accelerator,'' and my paper ''Accelerator-Based Intense Neutron Source for Materials R ampersand D.'' I will expand on those remarks to briefly outline some of the extensive work that has been done at Los Alamos toward those two application areas, plus a third --- the production of tritium in an accelerator-based facility (APT--Accelerator Production of Tritium). 1 ref., 11 figs

  19. Advocacy For Accelerated Research In Phytotherapy For Repairs And Regenerations

    Charles A. Oyinbo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Th e article advocates for an accelerated research in phytotherapy for spinal cord injury recovery and functional restoration. Pubmed search analysis shows that phytotherapeutic products for spinal cord injury treatment are negligible, and not in the main stream neurosciences research. With the potentials inherent in medicinal plants, it is imperative to explore phytotherapy for spinal cord injury since conventional methods of treatments have failed to provide any satisfactory clinical intervention. The current reasoning is to evaluate several therapeutic agents in a multimodal therapeutic strategy for the treatment of spinal cord injury. However, determining the therapeutic agents for this strategy that would provide satisfactory clinical intervention to achieve meaningful functional sensorimotor improvement remains critical. The interventions that would be safe and efficacious for a multimodal treatment strategy for spinal cord injury are not known yet. Fortunately, phytotherapy eliminates the fear of complications that combined conventional high-tech treatment may exhibit since the bioactive constituents in phytotherapeutic agents are naturally combined.

  20. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  1. 放射性污染土壤生物修复的研究进展%Research advances review over the bioremediation of soil contaminated by radionuclide

    范婷; 张晓文; 吕俊文; 唐东山; 陈亮

    2011-01-01

    土壤中放射性核素主要为天然来源和人为来源.而人为来源主要包括核试验、核武器制造、核能生产、核事故、放射性同位素的生产应用和矿物的开采冶炼等.综述了放射性核素污染土壤的植物修复、菌根修复、微生物修复等生物修复技术的研究进展,侧重探讨了这3种修复技术的协同作用,并对其研究的发展方向及今后的应用前景进行了讨论.%The present paper would like to give a general revision of research advances on the bioremediation of soil contaminated by ra-dionuclide. As the nuclear industry has been developing fast, the ra-dionuclide in the soil has become one of the major factors threatening human health and eco-toxicology. And, in turn, it has been found from the research channels that the rqain sources of the radionuclide pollution in the soil are coming from the nuclear tests, nuclear weapons production, the energy production of the nuclear power stations, nuclear accidents, as well as the production and application of radioisotopes and refining and application of minerals. It is just for the above reasons that we believe it necessary to point out the ever more great significance of such research advances in helping to reclaim the contaminated land soil and then illustrate some more effective and efficient new pollution-reducing and -removing techniques. Among them, the bioremediation technology is universally considered to be safest and most reliable. What is more, it also enjoys the obvious technological advantages of low cost, subtle disturbance on the environment with its capability of removing pollutants from the surrounding conditions of soil or water along with the radioactive contaminations. In addition, we also think it worthwhile to make a review of their new research advances, such as, phytoremediation, microbial remediation and mycorhiza remediation technologies. In spite of this, we would also like to put our emphasis on the limitations

  2. An accelerator facility within a mineral research establishment

    The importance of the minerals industry in Australia is evident from its share of about 40% of the country's export earnings. Its economic success is due in no small measure to the industry's ability to keep abreast with technological innovations and scientific developments, often through collaborations with federal Governments research laboratories such as the CSIRO. In this context, the CSIRO Division of Mineral Physics recently commissioned a laboratory, known as HIAF - the Heavy Ion Analytical Facility - based on a General Ionex 3 MV Tandetron, a tandem electrostatic accelerator. The Laboratory was designed to facilitate the development of the applications of a host of ion-beam techniques to problems in the geosciences, extending or complementing established methods. Flow-on to the minerals industry is anticipated, with varying degrees of immediacy dependent on the particular technique. The first stage operational at the commissioning provides RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) and NRA (nuclear reaction analysis) measurements, and includes the development of a beam microprobe. An ultra-sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system is planned for the second stage, to permit studies of chronology based on radio cosmogenic isotopes and ultra-traces in mineral samples. (orig.)

  3. Bioremediation of nanomaterials

    Chen, Frank Fanqing; Keasling, Jay D; Tang, Yinjie J

    2013-05-14

    The present invention provides a method comprising the use of microorganisms for nanotoxicity study and bioremediation. In some embodiment, the microorganisms are bacterial organisms such as Gram negative bacteria, which are used as model organisms to study the nanotoxicity of the fullerene compounds: E. coli W3110, a human related enterobacterium and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an environmentally important bacterium with versatile metabolism.

  4. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  5. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms. Implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, the way how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides is assessed. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. The way how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility is described. Why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions is explained. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. Development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions is described. Throughout, the key research needs are identified. (author)

  6. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures.

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-02-12

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs.

  7. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs

  8. Accelerator driven radiation clean nuclear power system conceptual research symposium

    The R and D of ADS (Accelerators Driven Subcritical System) in China introduced. 31 theses are presented. It includes the basic principle of ADS, accelerators, sub-critical reactors, neutron physics, nuclear data, partitioning and transmutation

  9. MYRRHA: a multipurpose accelerator driven system for research and development

    The development of a new nuclear installation that is able to fulfil the economical, social, environmental and technological demands, is a cornerstone for the future provision of sustainable energy. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) can pave the way for a more environmentally safe and acceptable nuclear energy production. Fundamental and applied R and D are crucial in the development of ADS technologies and demand the availability of appropriate prototype installations. In answer to this need and in order to update its current irradiation potential, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN), in partnership with Ion Beam Applications s. a. (IBA), is launching the MYRRHA project. It is focussed on the design, development and realisation of a modular and flexible irradiation facility based on the ADS concept. This paper describes the concept, the applications foreseen in the MYRRHA installation and the accompanying design activities currently being performed at SCK·CEN and IBA. (authors)

  10. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, fiscal year 1980, October 1979-September 1980

    1981-03-01

    Research during October 1979 to September 1980 is summarized. Areas covered include: accelerator operations; positron-electron project; stochastic beam cooling; high-field superconducting magnets; accelerator theory; neutral beam sources; and heavy ion fusion. (GHT)

  11. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, fiscal year 1980, October 1979-September 1980

    Research during October 1979 to September 1980 is summarized. Areas covered include: accelerator operations; positron-electron project; stochastic beam cooling; high-field superconducting magnets; accelerator theory; neutral beam sources; and heavy ion fusion

  12. Novel neutron sources at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    Xu, Y.; Garty, G.; Marino, S. A.; Massey, T. N.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Johnson, G. W.; Brenner, D. J.

    2012-03-01

    Since the 1960s, the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been providing researchers in biology, chemistry and physics with advanced irradiation techniques, using charged particles, photons and neutrons. We are currently developing a unique facility at RARAF, to simulate neutron spectra from an improvised nuclear device (IND), based on calculations of the neutron spectrum at 1.5 km from the epicenter of the Hiroshima atom bomb. This is significantly different from a standard fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and is dominated by neutron energies between 0.05 and 8 MeV. This facility will be based on a mixed proton/deuteron beam impinging on a thick beryllium target. A second, novel facility under development is our new neutron microbeam. The neutron microbeam will, for the first time, provide a kinematically collimated neutron beam, 10-20 micron in diameter. This facility is based on a proton microbeam, impinging on a thin lithium target near the threshold of the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. This novel neutron microbeam will enable studies of neutron damage to small targets, such as single cells, individual organs within small animals or microelectronic components.

  13. Bioremediation evaluation of surface soils contaminated with organic compounds

    This paper presents background information on bioremediation; information on biotechnologies that have been proven in other industries and that may be applicable to the natural gas industry; a protocol for assessing the feasibility of bioremediation; and, some preliminary results on some soils that were evaluated using the protocol. Background information related to natural gas production and processing sites and chemicals that are typically used are presented because both are important preliminary feasibility screening criteria. Applications of bioremediation to sites with similar chemicals such as refineries, wood treating plants, and former manufactured gas plants (MGP's) have been used for approximately 30 years, however bioremediation is not widely used to treat wellhead sites or natural gas production and processing sites. Examples of applications of bioremediation to non-natural gas industry sites are presented and the similarities, primarily chemical, are presented. The GRI developed an Accelerated Biotreatability Protocol for former MGP sites and it is currently being modified for application to the Exploration and Production (E and P) industry. The Accelerated Treatability Protocol is a decision-making framework to evaluate the potential full-scale biological treatment options. Preliminary results from some soils collected and evaluated using the protocol are presented

  14. Bioremediation of Creosote - contaminated Soil

    BYSS, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was studied employing the methods of soil microbial biology and using new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry analytical approach. The changes of the soil microbial community under the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution impact were analyzed and described, as well as the changes during the bioremediation experiments. Laboratory-scale bioremediation experiments using the soil microbial community (consisted of bacteria...

  15. Status of Accelerator Driven Systems Research and Technology Development

    One of the greatest challenges for nuclear energy is how to properly manage the highly radioactive waste generated during irradiation in nuclear reactors. In order for nuclear power to exploit its full potential as a major sustainable energy source, there needs to be a safe and effective way to deal with this waste. Since 1995, several scenario studies have been conducted on different advanced nuclear fuel cycle and waste management options in various countries. Examples include the collaborative projects under “Global sustainable nuclear energy scenarios for long term development and deployment of nuclear energy” of the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) initiative, and the scenario studies conducted under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the Euratom research project PATEROS — Partitioning and Transmutation European Roadmap for Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Some of the proposed long term nuclear fuel cycles include an innovative concept of a hybrid system for the transmutation of long lived radioisotopes. This is usually the called accelerator driven system (ADS) — or accelerator driven transmutation of waste (ATW) — and consists of a high power proton accelerator, a heavy metal spallation target that produces neutrons when bombarded by the high power beam, and a subcritical core that is neutronically coupled to the spallation target. The ADS, which has been developed in different countries for more than 40 years, is claimed to offer new prospects and advantages for the transmutation of high level radioactive waste. The ADS would convert highly radioactive material to non-radioactive material or material with a much shorter half-life. In addition, these hybrid systems can generate electricity during the conversion of transuranic waste. In 1997, under the guidance of its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA published IAEA-TECDOC-985, Accelerator Driven Systems: Energy

  16. The Research of a Novel SW Accelerating Structure with Small Beam Spot

    Yang, X; Chen, Y; Jin, X; Li, Maozhen; Lü, H; Xu, Z

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of on-axis coupled biperiodic standing-wave (SW) accelerating structure has been built for a 9 MeV accelerator. The research progress was introduced in this paper, it includes the choice of the accelerating structure, the analysis of electron beam dynamics, the tuning of the cavity, the measurement of the accelerating tube and the powered test. The small beam spot is the most interesting feature of this accelerating structure, the diameter of the beam spot is 1.4 mm. This accelerator has been used for the x photons generation and the x-ray dose rate is about 3400 rad/min/m.

  17. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  18. Bioremediation of Bunker C

    In the states of Washington and Oregon, the highest priority for waste management is now given to recycling, reuse and permanent solutions as opposed to landfill disposal. Bioremediation is recognized as a treatment of choice over other technologies that do not provide permanent solutions. From a business point of view, it is usually the most cost-effective. Bioremediation works extremely well for most common hydrocarbons including aviation fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. Bunker C, a high boiling point distillate, is the most recalcitrant hydrocarbon for treatment and is the topic of this paper. Bunker C lives up to its reputation of being a very recalcitrant hydrocarbon to biodegrade. The authors have demonstrated, however, that the soil matrix standards at industrial sites in Washington and Oregon can be achieved using new bioremediation techniques. These techniques are necessary over those typically used to biodegrade jet fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. These extra steps have been developed for our own use in our treatability laboratory

  19. Bioremediation of bunker C

    Bioremediation works extremely well for most common hydrocarbons including aviation fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. Bunker C, a high boiling point distillate, is the most recalcitrant hydrocarbon for treatment and is the topic of this paper. Bioremediation, Inc. has had an opportunity to perform two projects involving soil contaminated with bunker C. One was at a bulk terminal site which involved predominantly diesel, but also had bunker C contamination; the other was a paper-mill site which had exclusively bunker C contamination. This paper will address the authors' experiences at the paper-mill site. Bunker C lives up to its reputation of being a very recalcitrant hydrocarbon to biodegrade. They have demonstrated, however, that the soil matrix standards at industrial sites in Washington and Oregon can be achieved using new bioremediation techniques. These techniques are necessary over those typically used to biodegrade jet fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. These extra steps, as discussed later, have been developed for their own use in their treatability laboratory

  20. Soil bioremediation at CFB Trenton: evaluation of bioremediation processes

    Bioremediation processes and their application in the cleanup of contaminated soil, were discussed. The petroleum contaminated soil at CFB Trenton, was evaluated to determine which bioremediation process or combination of processes would be most effective. The following processes were considered: (1) white hot fungus, (2) Daramend proprietary process, (3) composting, (4) bioquest proprietary bioremediation processes, (5) Hobbs and Millar proprietary bioremediation process, and (6) farming. A brief summary of each of these options was included. The project was also used as an opportunity to train Latvian and Ukrainian specialists in Canadian field techniques and laboratory analyses. Preliminary data indicated that bioremediation is a viable method for treatment of contaminated soil. 18 refs., 3 figs

  1. Contaminants at DOE sites and their susceptibility to bioremediation

    Contaminants at DOE sites encompass a range of common industrial pollutants. However, the prevalence of contaminant mixtures including organics, metals, and radionuclides is relatively unique to DOE's facilities. Bioremediation has been shown to be effective for destruction of many of the organic pollutants. The technology also has promise for application to many of the metals and radionuclides; however, field demonstrations for these applications have not yet been attempted. Because of the complexity of biodegradation of even a single-compound class, little has been done to develop or demonstrate in situ bioremediation technologies for multicompound combinations. The current bioremediation demonstration on CCl4 and nitrates within the VOC-Arid Integrated Demonstration is one the first efforts to address inorganic and organic co-contaminants simultaneously. Additional research, technology development, and field demonstrations are needed to evaluate the applicability of in situ bioremediation to DOE's most common contaminant mixtures

  2. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils: A recipe for success

    Wittenbach, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation of land crude oil and lube oil spills is an effective and economical option. Other options include road spreading (where permitted), thermal desorption, and off-site disposal. The challenge for environment and operations managers is to select the best approach for each remediation site. Costs and liability for off-site disposal are ever increasing. Kerr-McGee`s extensive field research in eastern and western Texas provides the data to support bioremediation as a legitimate and valid option. Both practical and economical bioremediation as a legitimate and valid option. Both practical and economical, bioremediation also offers a lower risk of, for example, Superfund clean-up exposure than off-site disposal.

  3. Soils bio-remediation; Bioremediation des sols

    Vogel, T.M. [Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon-1 (France)

    2001-06-01

    The biological treatment of soils (in-situ or excavated) consists in the use of micro-organisms for the transformation of noxious compounds into non-noxious ones. Bacteria are the main micro-organisms used but fungi can play a role in some ex-situ processes. The bio-remediation of the soil and aquifer requires the use of various processes like diffusion and advection, sorption and desorption, and biodegradation. The degradation of the pollutants is efficient only if a sufficient amount of micro-organisms is in close-contact with the pollutants. The efficiency, fastness and cost are important factors to take into consideration in such remedial actions. Thus, a good mastery of soils sciences and processes engineering is needed. This article presents the concepts and processes used in biological remediation of soils: 1 - concept of processes engineering (heterogenous environments, processes characteristics, in-situ or on-site reactors); 2 - concept of biological treatments (micro-organisms, biodegradation, microbial ecology, bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation); 3 - biological treatment process (bio-venting, bio-spargeing, bio-slurping, in-situ aerobic bio-process, bio-hillock, phyto-remediation, metals extraction). (J.S.)

  4. Low-energy electron accelerators in industry and applied research

    Mondelaers, W.

    1998-04-01

    The use of electron accelerators in industry involve a broad range of machines and applications. The major actual large-scale applications are crosslinking of wire and cable insulation, plastic films and foam, curing of coatings and rubbers, and sterilisation of medical products. The recent availability, at attractive costs, of electron accelerators with high beam power (up to 200 kW) covering an energy range up to 10 MeV, has created new possibilities for a substantial expansion of the application range. The actual position of electron accelerators in industry is reviewed, new emerging applications and novel opportunities for multipurpose facilities are described.

  5. Neural computation and particle accelerators research, technology and applications

    D'Arras, Horace

    2010-01-01

    This book discusses neural computation, a network or circuit of biological neurons and relatedly, particle accelerators, a scientific instrument which accelerates charged particles such as protons, electrons and deuterons. Accelerators have a very broad range of applications in many industrial fields, from high energy physics to medical isotope production. Nuclear technology is one of the fields discussed in this book. The development that has been reached by particle accelerators in energy and particle intensity has opened the possibility to a wide number of new applications in nuclear technology. This book reviews the applications in the nuclear energy field and the design features of high power neutron sources are explained. Surface treatments of niobium flat samples and superconducting radio frequency cavities by a new technique called gas cluster ion beam are also studied in detail, as well as the process of electropolishing. Furthermore, magnetic devises such as solenoids, dipoles and undulators, which ...

  6. Darmstadt Linear Accelerator (DALINAC) Research Laboratory. Status report - July 1988

    The status of the DALINAC project is reviewed. The accelerator and the experimental facilities are described, and a free-electron laser project is considered. Furthermore, experiments on inelastic electron scattering on nuclei and atomic systems are listed. (HSI)

  7. Research and application of electron accelerator in China

    There are more than 30 product lines of irradiation cross-linking wire and cable and shrinkable tube by EB in Chinese industry. Total of 3,000 KW power of EB, in which 40% coming from home made accelerator. Recently, about 450 KW electron accelerator is being manufactured and used in protection of environment that is removal of SO2 and NOx from flue gas. (author)

  8. Research and application of electron accelerator in China

    Zhan Wenlong; Liu Zhenghao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2003-02-01

    There are more than 30 product lines of irradiation cross-linking wire and cable and shrinkable tube by EB in Chinese industry. Total of 3,000 KW power of EB, in which 40% coming from home made accelerator. Recently, about 450 KW electron accelerator is being manufactured and used in protection of environment that is removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas. (author)

  9. Essay: Robert H. Siemann As Leader of the Advanced Accelerator Research Department

    Robert H. Siemann originally conceived of the Advanced Accelerator Research Department (AARD) as an academic, experimental group dedicated to probing the technical limitations of accelerators while providing excellent educational opportunities for young scientists. The early years of the Accelerator Research Department B, as it was then known, were dedicated to a wealth of mostly student-led experiments to examine the promise of advanced accelerator techniques. High-gradient techniques including millimeter-wave rf acceleration, beam-driven plasma acceleration, and direct laser acceleration were pursued, including tests of materials under rf pulsed heating and short-pulse laser radiation, to establish the ultimate limitations on gradient. As the department and program grew, so did the motivation to found an accelerator research center that brought experimentalists together in a test facility environment to conduct a broad range of experiments. The Final Focus Test Beam and later the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator provided unique experimental facilities for AARD staff and collaborators to carry out advanced accelerator experiments. Throughout the evolution of this dynamic program, Bob maintained a department atmosphere and culture more reminiscent of a university research group than a national laboratory department. His exceptional ability to balance multiple roles as scientist, professor, and administrator enabled the creation and preservation of an environment that fostered technical innovation and scholarship.

  10. Essay: Robert H. Siemann As Leader of the Advanced Accelerator Research Department

    Colby, Eric R.; Hogan, Mark J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-14

    Robert H. Siemann originally conceived of the Advanced Accelerator Research Department (AARD) as an academic, experimental group dedicated to probing the technical limitations of accelerators while providing excellent educational opportunities for young scientists. The early years of the Accelerator Research Department B, as it was then known, were dedicated to a wealth of mostly student-led experiments to examine the promise of advanced accelerator techniques. High-gradient techniques including millimeter-wave rf acceleration, beam-driven plasma acceleration, and direct laser acceleration were pursued, including tests of materials under rf pulsed heating and short-pulse laser radiation, to establish the ultimate limitations on gradient. As the department and program grew, so did the motivation to found an accelerator research center that brought experimentalists together in a test facility environment to conduct a broad range of experiments. The Final Focus Test Beam and later the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator provided unique experimental facilities for AARD staff and collaborators to carry out advanced accelerator experiments. Throughout the evolution of this dynamic program, Bob maintained a department atmosphere and culture more reminiscent of a university research group than a national laboratory department. His exceptional ability to balance multiple roles as scientist, professor, and administrator enabled the creation and preservation of an environment that fostered technical innovation and scholarship.

  11. PAHs污染土壤生物修复强化技术研究进展%Research progress in enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soil

    王洪; 李海波; 孙铁珩; 胡筱敏

    2011-01-01

    为提高生物修复多环芳烃(PAHs)污染土壤的效率,从PAHs生物修复的原理和强化措施出发,综述了PAHs污染土壤生物修复的物理化学强化技术和生物强化技术,分析了各种技术的原理与适用条件,提出了植物强化微生物修复是PAHs污染土壤生物修复的重要发展方向.在进行强化修复的过程中,要注重现场应用和安全性评价.%This paper is aimed to present a general review on the enhanced measures to the bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well known as a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and more than 90% of PAHs present in the soil, which are toxic to the environment and pose as a hazard in food chain to human health.Bioremediation technology is the primary method to treat the PAHs contaminated soil and the enhanced measures of bioremediation treatment are essential to improve the degradation rate and adapt to the needs of field application. Referring to the reported literature at home and abroad in recent years, this paper comes out with a detail introduction and discussion on the principles and application of physicalchemical and biological based enhancement. The enhanced measures of physical-chemical included the application of surfactants, nutrient addition and co-metabolic substrate addition as well as the electron acceptors addition and utilization of chemical oxidants. The enhanced measures of bioremediation included the addition of highly efficient PAH-degrading bacteria and immobilization of bacteria, utilization of mycorrhizal fungi and application of bio-surfactants. The combined remediation of phytoremediation and microorganism on the PAHs conlaminated soil is an important direction of development and field application technology. At the same time, safety evaluation in the process of enhanced bioremediation is necessary in order to avoid new pollution and other security risks to

  12. Bioremediation a promising technology for nuclear waste treatment

    Microbes play a primordial role in completing various elemental cycles namely carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, which are necessary for sustainability of planet Earth. This natural capability of microbes is employed to transform manmade compounds to their elemental forms. Redeployment of microbes for specific tasks needs a re-engineering of microbial metabolism to accelerate transformation. The most widely used approach is genetic modification but this approach has resulted into grievous failures due to inability of genetically modified organism to survive in natural environment. Consequently, development of new approach towards bioremediation was conceptualized, where desired metabolic capability were achieved using consortia of microorganisms having complementary metabolism. Of late, the potential of biofilm communities for bioremediation processes has been realized since it has many advantages over whole cells, used as biocatalysts. Naturally immobilized microbial biofilms exclude the necessity of cell-immobilization as biofilm cells are already embedded in self-produced exopolymers. Moreover, biofilm-mediated bioremediation offers a proficient and safer alternative to planktonic cells-mediated bioremediation because cells in a biofilm are more robust to toxic materials present in the waste as they are embedded in the matrix that provides a physical barrier. This presentation will highlight the importance of planktonic and sessile bacteria in bioremediation of a few nuclear waste compounds. (author)

  13. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2007. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and tandem accelerator

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor-3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor-4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. This annual report describes a summary of activities of services and technical developments carried out in the period between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008. The activities were categorized into five service/development fields: (1) Operation and maintenance of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (2) Utilization of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (3) Upgrading of utilization techniques of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (4) Safety administration for research reactors and tandem accelerator. (5) International cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on lows and regulations concerning atomic energy, commendation, plans and outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  14. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2009. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and Tandem Accelerator

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor-3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor-4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. This annual report describes a summary of activities of services and technical developments carried out in the period between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2010. The activities were categorized into five service/development fields: (1) Operation and maintenance of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (2) Utilization of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (3) Upgrading of utilization techniques of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (4) Safety administration for research reactors and tandem accelerator. (5) International cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on lows and regulations concerning atomic energy, commendation, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  15. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2008. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and Tandem Accelerator

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor-3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor-4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. This annual report describes a summary of activities of services and technical developments carried out in the period between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009. The activities were categorized into five service/development fields: (1) Operation and maintenance of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (2) Utilization of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (3) Upgrading of utilization techniques of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (4) Safety administration for research reactors and tandem accelerator. (5) International cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on lows and regulations concerning atomic energy, commendation, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  16. Bioremediation Education Science and Technology (BEST) Program Annual Report 1999; TOPICAL

    The Bioremediation, Education, Science and Technology (BEST) partnership provides a sustainable and contemporary approach to developing new bioremedial technologies for US Department of Defense (DoD) priority contaminants while increasing the representation of underrepresented minorities and women in an exciting new biotechnical field. This comprehensive and innovative bioremediation education program provides under-represented groups with a cross-disciplinary bioremediation cirruculum and financial support, coupled with relevant training experiences at advanced research laboratories and field sites. These programs are designed to provide a stream of highly trained minority and women professionals to meet national environmental needs

  17. Research on GPU Acceleration for Monte Carlo Criticality Calculation

    Xu, Qi; Yu, Ganglin; Wang, Kan

    2014-06-01

    The Monte Carlo neutron transport method can be naturally parallelized by multi-core architectures due to the dependency between particles during the simulation. The GPU+CPU heterogeneous parallel mode has become an increasingly popular way of parallelism in the field of scientific supercomputing. Thus, this work focuses on the GPU acceleration method for the Monte Carlo criticality simulation, as well as the computational efficiency that GPUs can bring. The "neutron transport step" is introduced to increase the GPU thread occupancy. In order to test the sensitivity of the MC code's complexity, a 1D one-group code and a 3D multi-group general purpose code are respectively transplanted to GPUs, and the acceleration effects are compared. The result of numerical experiments shows considerable acceleration effect of the "neutron transport step" strategy. However, the performance comparison between the 1D code and the 3D code indicates the poor scalability of MC codes on GPUs.

  18. Principles of Bioremediation Assessment

    Madsen, E. L.

    2001-12-01

    Although microorganisms have successfully and spontaneously maintained the biosphere since its inception, industrialized societies now produce undesirable chemical compounds at rates that outpace naturally occurring microbial detoxification processes. This presentation provides an overview of both the complexities of contaminated sites and methodological limitations in environmental microbiology that impede the documentation of biodegradation processes in the field. An essential step toward attaining reliable bioremediation technologies is the development of criteria which prove that microorganisms in contaminated field sites are truly active in metabolizing contaminants of interest. These criteria, which rely upon genetic, biochemical, physiological, and ecological principles and apply to both in situ and ex situ bioremediation strategies include: (i) internal conservative tracers; (ii) added conservative tracers; (iii) added radioactive tracers; (iv) added isotopic tracers; (v) stable isotopic fractionation patterns; (vi) detection of intermediary metabolites; (vii) replicated field plots; (viii) microbial metabolic adaptation; (ix) molecular biological indicators; (x) gradients of coreactants and/or products; (xi) in situ rates of respiration; (xii) mass balances of contaminants, coreactants, and products; and (xiii) computer modeling that incorporates transport and reactive stoichiometries of electron donors and acceptors. The ideal goal is achieving a quantitative understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, and physiology of complex real-world systems.

  19. Bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    The Baldwin Waste Oil Site was an abandoned waste oil recycling facility located in Robstown, Nueces County, Texas. As part of their site assessment activities, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested that the Ecology and Environment, Inc., Technical Assistance Team (TAT) investigate the feasibility of using in-situ bioremediation to remediate soils contaminated with oil and grease components, petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds. Bioremediation based on the land treatment concept was tested. The land treatment concept uses techniques to optimize indigenous microbial populations and bring them in contact with the contaminants. The study was designed to collect data upon which to base conclusions on the effectiveness of bioremediation, to demonstrate the effectiveness of bioremediation under field conditions, and to identify potential problems in implementing a full-scale project. Bioremediation effectiveness was monitored through total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and Oil and Grease (O and G) analyses. Site specific treatment goals for the pilot project were concentrations of less than 1% for O and G and less than 10,000 mg/kg for TPH. Based on the reduction of TPH and O and G concentrations and the cost effectiveness of bioremediation based on the land treatment concept, full-scale in-situ bioremediation was initiated by the EPA at the Baldwin Waste Oil Site in February of 1993

  20. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, induction acceleration, is being studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  1. CARE Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe: integrating activity implemented as integrated infrastructure initiative

    Aleksan, R

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the CARE project was to generate a structured and integrated European area in the field of accelerator research and related R&D. A set of integrating activities involving the largest European infrastructure laboratories and their user communities “active in accelerator R&D”, including industrial partners was established with the following general objectives: 1) To optimise the use of existing infrastructures for improving the European knowledge on accelerator physics  By promoting a coherent and coordinated utilization and development of infrastructures and to facilitate the access to accelerators and test facilities for carrying accelerator studies  By understanding accelerator operation and reliability issues 2) To tackle new or state-of-the-art technologies in a more co-ordinated and collaborative approach  By developing a coherent and coordinated accelerator R&D program in Europe and carrying out joint R&D projects allowing one to enhance the existing (or...

  2. Database application research in real-time data access of accelerator control system

    The control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is a large-scale distributed real-time control system, It involves many types and large amounts of real-time data access during the operating. Database system has wide application prospects in the large-scale accelerator control system. It is the future development direction of the accelerator control system, to replace the differently dedicated data structures with the mature standardized database system. This article discusses the application feasibility of database system in accelerators based on the database interface technology, real-time data access testing, and system optimization research and to establish the foundation of the wide scale application of database system in the SSRF accelerator control system. Based on the database interface technology, real-time data access testing and system optimization research, this article will introduce the application feasibility of database system in accelerators, and lay the foundation of database system application in the SSRF accelerator control system. (authors)

  3. Research activities related to accelerator-based transmutation at PSI

    Transmutation of actinides and fission products using reactors and other types of nuclear systems may play a role in future waste management schemes. Possible advantages of separation and transmutation are: volume reductions, the re-use of materials, the avoidance of a cumulative risk, and limiting the duration of the risk. With its experience in reactor physics, accelerator-based physics, and the development of the SINQ spallation neutron source, PSI is in a good position to perform basic theoretical and experimental studies relating to the accelerator-based transmutation of actinides. Theoretical studies at PSI have been concentrated, so far, on systems in which protons are used directly to transmute actinides. With such systems and appropriate recycling schemes, the studies showed that considerable reduction factors for long-term toxicity can be obtained. With the aim of solving some specific data and method problems related to these types of systems, a programme of differential and integral measurements at the PSI ring accelerator has been initiated. In a first phase of this programme, thin samples of actinides will be irradiated with 590 MeV protons, using an existing irradiation facility. The generated spallation and fission products will be analysed using different experimental techniques, and the results will be compared with theoretical predictions based on high-energy nucleon-meson transport calculations. The principal motivation for these experiments is to resolve discrepancies observed between calculations based on different high-energy fission models. In a second phase of the programme, it is proposed to study the neutronic behaviour of multiplying target-blanket assemblies with the help of zero-power experiments set up at a separate, dedicated beam line of the accelerator. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry as a bioanalytical tool for nutritional research

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1997-09-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is a mass spectrometric method of detecting long-lived radioisotopes without regard to their decay products or half-life. The technique is normally applied to geochronology, but recently has been developed for bioanalytical tracing. AMS detects isotope concentrations to parts per quadrillion, quantifying labeled biochemicals to attomole levels in milligram- sized samples. Its advantages over non-isotopeic and stable isotope labeling methods are reviewed and examples of analytical integrity, sensitivity, specificity, and applicability are provided.

  5. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. Annual report, October 1978-September 1979

    Topics covered include: Super HILAC and Bevalac operations; high intensity uranium beams line item; advanced high charge state ion source; 184-inch synchrocyclotron; VENUS project; positron-electron project; high field superconducting accelerator magnets; beam cooling; accelerator theory; induction linac drivers; RF linacs and storage rings; theory; neutral beam systems development; experimental atomic physics; neutral beam plasma research; plasma theory; and the Tormac project

  6. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1--September 30, 1988

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  7. Inverse free electron laser beat-wave accelerator research

    A calculation on the stabilization of the sideband instability in the free electron laser (FEL) and inverse FEL (IFEL) was completed. The issue arises in connection with the use of a tapered (''variable-parameter'') undulator of extended length, such as might be used in an ''enhanced efficiency'' traveling-wave FEL or an IFEL accelerator. In addition, the FEL facility at Columbia was configured as a traveling wave amplifier for a 10-kW signal from a 24-GHz magnetron. The space charge field in the bunches of the FEL was measured. Completed work has been published

  8. Summary proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC)

    Drell, D.W. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research, Health Effects and Life Sciences Research Division; Metting, F.B. Jr. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wuy, L.D. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes the proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and Its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) held July 18-19, 1996 at the Airlie Center near Warrenton, Virginia. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its fundamental research program in Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR). The information summarized in these proceedings represents the general conclusions of the workshop participants, and not the opinions of workshop organizers or sponsors. Neither are they consensus opinions, as opinions differed among participants on a number of points. The general conclusions presented below were reached through a review, synthesis, and condensation of notes taken by NABIR Program Office staff and OHER program managers throughout the workshop. Specific contributions by participants during breakout sessions are recorded in bullet form in the appropriate sections, without attribution to the contributors. These contributions were transcribed as faithfully as possible from notes about the original discussions. They were edited only to make them grammatically correct, parallel in structure, and understandable to someone not familiar with the NABIR Program or BASIC element.

  9. Summary proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC)

    This document summarizes the proceedings of a workshop on Bioremediation and Its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) held July 18-19, 1996 at the Airlie Center near Warrenton, Virginia. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its fundamental research program in Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR). The information summarized in these proceedings represents the general conclusions of the workshop participants, and not the opinions of workshop organizers or sponsors. Neither are they consensus opinions, as opinions differed among participants on a number of points. The general conclusions presented below were reached through a review, synthesis, and condensation of notes taken by NABIR Program Office staff and OHER program managers throughout the workshop. Specific contributions by participants during breakout sessions are recorded in bullet form in the appropriate sections, without attribution to the contributors. These contributions were transcribed as faithfully as possible from notes about the original discussions. They were edited only to make them grammatically correct, parallel in structure, and understandable to someone not familiar with the NABIR Program or BASIC element

  10. Technical development of high intensity proton accelerators in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    Science and Technology Agency decided 'Options making extra gains of actinides and fission products (OMEGA)' and to promote the related researches. Also in JAERI, the research on the group separation method for separating transuranic elements, strontium and cesium from high level radioactive wastes has been carried out since the beginning of 1970s. Also the concept of the fast reactors using minor actinide mixture fuel is being established, and the accelerator annihilation treatment utilizing the nuclear spallation reaction by high energy protons has been examined. In this report, from the viewpoint of the application of accelerators to atomic energy field, the annihilation treatment method by the nuclear spallation reaction utilizing high intensity proton accelerators, the plan of the various engineering utilization of proton beam, and the development of accelerators in JAERI are described. The way of thinking on the annihilation treatment of radioactive waste, the system using fast neutrons, the way of thinking on the development of high intensity proton accelerator technology, the steps of the development, the research and development for constructing the basic technology accelerator, 2 MeV beam acceleration test, the basic technology accelerator utilization facility and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  11. EuCARD2: enhanced accelerator research and development in Europe

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. EuCARD2 is an European research project which will be realized during 2013-2017 inside the EC FP7 framework. The project concerns the development and coordination of European Accelerator Research and Development. The project is particularly important, to a number of domestic laboratories, due to some plans to build large accelerator infrastructure in Poland. Large accelerator infrastructure of fundamental and applied research character stimulates around it the development and industrial applications as well as biomedical of advanced accelerators, material research and engineering, cryo-technology, mechatronics, robotics, and in particular electronics - like networked measurement and control systems, sensors, computer systems, automation and control systems. The paper presents a digest of the European project EuCARD2 which is Enhanced European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper presents a digest of the research results and assumptions in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the final fourth annual meeting of the EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator R&D, and the kick-off meeting of the EuCARD2. There are debated a few basic groups of accelerator systems components like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution, high field magnets, superconducting cavities, novel beam collimators, etc. The paper bases on the following materials: Internet and Intranet documents combined with EuCARD2, Description of Work FP7 EuCARD-2 DoW-312453, 2013-02-13, and discussions and preparatory materials worked on by Eucard-2 initiators.

  12. Driving Parts Optimization Design for Radiation Shielding Doors of Proton Accelerator Research Center

    PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) was Launched in 2002 as one of the 21st Century Frontier R and D Programs of MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology). Gyeongju city was selected as the project host site in March, 2006, where 'Proton Accelerator Research Center' was going to be constructed. After starting the design in 2005, the Architectural and Civil design work has been performed by 2010. Since the Earthwork was started in 2009, the Construction works of Accelerator Facilities has been going smoothly to complete by 2012. In this paper, we describe driving Parts optimization design for radiation shielding doors of Proton Accelerator Research Center

  13. Project Development Teams: A Novel Mechanism for Accelerating Translational Research

    Sajdyk, Tammy J.; Sors, Thomas G.; Hunt, Joe D.; Murray, Mary E.; Deford, Melanie E.; Shekhar, Anantha; Denne, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    The trend in conducting successful biomedical research is shifting from individual academic labs to coordinated collaborative research teams. Teams of experienced investigators with a wide variety of expertise are now critical for developing and maintaining a successful, productive research program. However, assembling a team whose members have the right expertise requires a great deal of time and many resources. To assist investigators seeking such resources, the Indiana Clinical and Transla...

  14. Graduate education and research in the ERA of large accelerators

    Questions and concerns of the experimental particle physics community are addressed in these categories: quality of research, independence, creativity, evaluation and recognition, and value in graduate education

  15. NASA's Spaceflight Visual Impairment and Intracranial Hypertension Research Plan: An accelerated Research Collaboration

    Otto, Christian; Fogarty, J.; Grounds, D.; Davis, J.

    2010-01-01

    To date six long duration astronauts have experienced in flight visual changes and post flight signs of optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, hyperoptic shifts and or raised intracranial pressure. In some cases the changes were transient while in others they are persistent with varying degrees of visual impairment. Given that all astronauts exposed to microgravity experience a cephalad fluid shift, and that both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients have exhibited optic nerve sheath edema on MRI, there is a high probability that all astronauts develop in-flight idiopathic intracranial hypertension to some degree. Those who are susceptible, have an increased likelihood of developing treatment resistant papilledema resulting in visual impairment and possible long-term vision loss. Such an acquired disability would have a profound mission impact and would be detrimental to the long term health of the astronaut. The visual impairment and increased intracranial pressure phenomenon appears to have multiple contributing factors. Consequently, the working "physiological fault bush" with elevated intracranial pressure at its center, is divided into ocular effects, and CNS and other effects. Some of these variables have been documented and or measured through operational data gathering, while others are unknown, undocumented and or hypothetical. Both the complexity of the problem and the urgency to find a solution require that a unique, non-traditional research model be employed such as the Accelerated Research Collaboration(TM) (ARC) model that has been pioneered by the Myelin Repair Foundation. In the ARC model a single entity facilitates and manages all aspects of the basic, translational, and clinical research, providing expert oversight for both scientific and managerial efforts. The result is a comprehensive research plan executed by a multidisciplinary team and the elimination of stove-piped research. The ARC model emphasizes efficient and effective

  16. Electron accelerators for research at the frontiers of nuclear physics

    Electron accelerators for the frontiers of nuclear physics must provide high duty factor (>80%) for coincidence measurements; few-hundred-MeV through few-GeV energy for work in the nucleonic, hadronic, and confinement regimes; energy resolution of ∼10-4; and high current (≥ 100 μA). To fulfill these requirements new machines and upgrades of existing ones are being planned or constructed. Representative microtron-based facilities are the upgrade of MAMI at the University of Mainz (West Germany), the proposed two-stage cascaded microtron at the University of Illinois (USA), and the three-stage Troitsk ''polytron'' (USSR). Representative projects to add pulse stretcher rings to existing linacs are the upgrades at MIT-Bates (USA) and at NIKHEF-K (Netherlands). Recent advances in superconducting rf technology, especially in cavity design and fabrication, have made large superconducting cw linacs become feasible. Recirculating superconducting cw linacs are under construction at the University of Darmstadt (West Germany) and at CEBAF (USA), and a proposal is being developed at Saclay (France). 31 refs

  17. International topical meeting on nuclear research applications and utilization of accelerators. Book of abstracts

    Applications of particle accelerators cover a number of areas, from strategic and applied research, safety and security, environmental applications, materials research and analytical sciences, to radioisotope production and radiation processing. Accelerator based techniques and pulsed neutron sources are expected to lead to new initiatives in materials research of relevance for both the nuclear and non-nuclear fields. Material science studies with the use of accelerators, neutron beams and other nuclear analytical methods are relevant to the development of advanced reactors, nuclear fuel cycle needs and fusion research. In this regard, a better understanding of the irradiation effects in materials for energy and non-energy applications is needed, and is reflected in accelerator techniques for modification and analysis of materials for nuclear technologies. Accelerator applications for innovative nuclear systems aiming at rad-waste transmutation (e.g., accelerator driven systems) are being pursued in many countries. Research and development using accelerators involves a broad spectrum of skills to build a cadre of trained experts in nuclear techniques in IAEA Member States, and to generate knowledge for innovative methodologies and tools. The present conference is also being held in cooperation with the American Nuclear Society (ANS), which successfully organized the series of accelerator applications conferences known as AccApp. The ANS series of topical meetings has provided a forum for the global exchange of scientific and technical knowledge on a wide variety of related topics since the first AccApp took place in 1997 in Albuquerque, USA. The last conference which was held in 2007 in Pocatello, USA, was jointly organized by the ANS and the IAEA. The main objectives of the conference are to promote exchange of information among IAEA Member States representatives/delegates and to discuss new trends in accelerator applications including nuclear materials research

  18. Accelerating String Set Matching in FPGA Hardware for Bioinformatics Research

    Burgess Shane C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes techniques for accelerating the performance of the string set matching problem with particular emphasis on applications in computational proteomics. The process of matching peptide sequences against a genome translated in six reading frames is part of a proteogenomic mapping pipeline that is used as a case-study. The Aho-Corasick algorithm is adapted for execution in field programmable gate array (FPGA devices in a manner that optimizes space and performance. In this approach, the traditional Aho-Corasick finite state machine (FSM is split into smaller FSMs, operating in parallel, each of which matches up to 20 peptides in the input translated genome. Each of the smaller FSMs is further divided into five simpler FSMs such that each simple FSM operates on a single bit position in the input (five bits are sufficient for representing all amino acids and special symbols in protein sequences. Results This bit-split organization of the Aho-Corasick implementation enables efficient utilization of the limited random access memory (RAM resources available in typical FPGAs. The use of on-chip RAM as opposed to FPGA logic resources for FSM implementation also enables rapid reconfiguration of the FPGA without the place and routing delays associated with complex digital designs. Conclusion Experimental results show storage efficiencies of over 80% for several data sets. Furthermore, the FPGA implementation executing at 100 MHz is nearly 20 times faster than an implementation of the traditional Aho-Corasick algorithm executing on a 2.67 GHz workstation.

  19. Graduate Student Program in Materials and Engineering Research and Development for Future Accelerators

    Spentzouris, Linda [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-07-07

    The objective of the proposal was to develop graduate student training in materials and engineering research relevant to the development of particle accelerators. Many components used in today's accelerators or storage rings are at the limit of performance. The path forward in many cases requires the development of new materials or fabrication techniques, or a novel engineering approach. Often, accelerator-based laboratories find it difficult to get top-level engineers or materials experts with the motivation to work on these problems. The three years of funding provided by this grant was used to support development of accelerator components through a multidisciplinary approach that cut across the disciplinary boundaries of accelerator physics, materials science, and surface chemistry. The following results were achieved: (1) significant scientific results on fabrication of novel photocathodes, (2) application of surface science and superconducting materials expertise to accelerator problems through faculty involvement, (3) development of instrumentation for fabrication and characterization of materials for accelerator components, (4) student involvement with problems at the interface of material science and accelerator physics.

  20. Bacteria and bioremediation of marine oil spills

    Virtually all marine ecosystems harbor indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. These hydrocarbon degraders comprise less than one percent of the bacterial community in unpolluted environments, but generally increase to one to ten percent following petroleum contamination. Various hydrocarbons are degraded by these microorganisms at different rates, so there is an evolution in the residual hydrocarbon mixture, and some hydrocarbons and asphaltic petroleum hydrocarbons remain undegraded. Fortunately, these persistent petroleum pollutants are, for the most part, insoluble or are bound to solids; hence they are not biologically available and therefore not toxic to marine organisms. Carbon dioxide, water, and cellular biomass produced by the microorganisms from the degradable hydrocarbons may be consumed by detrital feeders and comprise the end products of the natural biological degradation process. Bioremediation attempts to accelerate the natural hydrocarbon degradation rates by overcoming factors that limit bacterial hydrocarbon degrading activities

  1. Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides: What it is and How itWorks

    McCullough, J.; Hazen, Terry; Benson, Sally

    1999-01-01

    This primer is intended for people interested in DOE environmental problems and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on physical environment, microbial communities, and nature of contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation) or the addition of nutrients (biostimulation).

  2. Research on accelerator-driven transmutation and studies of experimental facilities

    Takizuka, Takakazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on accelerator-driven transmutation systems under the national OMEGA Program that aims at development of the technology to improve efficiency and safety in the final disposal of radioactive waste. Research facilities for accelerator-driven transmutation experiments are proposed to construct within the framework of the planned JAERI Neutron Science Project. This paper describes the features of the proposed accelerator-driven transmutation systems and their technical issues to be solved. A research facility plan under examination is presented. The plan is divided in two phases. In the second phase, technical feasibility of accelerator-driven systems will be demonstrated with a 30-60 MW experimental integrated system and with a 7 MW high-power target facility. (author)

  3. Architecture and Civil Design Status of the Proton Accelerator Research Center in PEFP

    PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) is scheduled to administrate the conventional facilities design with Gyeongju and complement its unfit points. When construction work starts according to the construction schedule, a field work office will be installed to supervise the Proton Accelerator Conventional Facilities Construction. In this paper, we describe the geological investigation procedure for the construction of the proton accelerator conventional facilities of PEFP. By the geological investigation, data for the reasonable and economic construction work, such as stratum structure and geotechnical characteristics. In Site Plot Plan for PEFP, we classified center as 2 groups such as main facilities and support facilities. We also designed access road of the Proton Accelerator Research Center of PEFP. In architectural design for PEFP, we described the design procedure of the buildings and landscape architectures of the Proton Accelerator Research Center

  4. Computational Science Guides and Accelerates Hydrogen Research (Fact Sheet)

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in using computational science to enhance hydrogen-related research and development in areas such as storage and photobiology. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center and Biosciences Center.

  5. Research on cw electron accelerators using room-temperature rf structures: Annual report

    This joint NBS-Los Alamos project of ''Research on CW Electron Accelerators Using Room-Temperature RF Structures'' began seven years ago with the goal of developing a technology base for cw electron accelerators. In this report we describe our progress during FY 1986 and present our plans for completion of the project. First, however, it is appropriate to review the past contributions of the project, describe its status, and indicate its future benefits

  6. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. Annual report, October 1978-September 1979

    1980-03-01

    Topics covered include: Super HILAC and Bevalac operations; high intensity uranium beams line item; advanced high charge state ion source; 184-inch synchrocyclotron; VENUS project; positron-electron project; high field superconducting accelerator magnets; beam cooling; accelerator theory; induction linac drivers; RF linacs and storage rings; theory; neutral beam systems development; experimental atomic physics; neutral beam plasma research; plasma theory; and the Tormac project. (GHT)

  7. High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) Archives Office

    At KEK, there is a section named Archives Office since 2004. The mission of the Office is for collecting and preserving, as research materials and official documents which are understood to be important from historical point of view. The Office was originally proposed by the former Director General, Hirotaka Sugawara based on his experiences as the manager of the KEK laboratory. In this article, we sketch the activity of the Office. (author)

  8. Accelerating cancer systems biology research through Semantic Web technology.

    Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute's caBIG, so users can interact with the DMR not only through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers' intellectual property. PMID:23188758

  9. Analysis of conditions to safety and radiological protection of Brazilian research particle accelerators facilities

    Eleven institutions of education and research in Brazil use particle accelerators, which fulfill different functions and activities. Currently, these institutions employ a total of fifteen accelerators. In this paper, the object of study is the radiological protection of occupationally exposed individuals, the general public and the radiation safety of particle accelerators. Research facilities with accelerators are classified in categories I and II according to the International Atomic Energy Agency or groups IX and X in accordance with the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy. Of the 15 accelerators in use for research in Brazil, four belong to category I or group X and eleven belong to category II or group IX. The methodology presented and developed in this work was made through the inspection and assessment of safety and radiological protection of thirteen particle accelerators facilities, and its main purpose was to promote safer use of this practice by following established guidelines for safety and radiological protection. The results presented in this work showed the need to create a program, in our country, for the control of safety and radiological protection of this ionizing radiation practice. (author)

  10. Neutron physics and nuclear data measurements with accelerators and research reactors

    The report contains a collection of lectures devoted to the latest theoretical and experimental developments in the field of fast neutron measurements and in the studies of neutron interactions with nuclei. The possibilities offered by particle accelerators and research reactors for research and technological applications in these fields are pointed out

  11. Neutron physics and nuclear data measurements with accelerators and research reactors

    The report contains a collection of lectures devoted to the latest theoretical and experimental developments in the field of fast neutron physics and nuclear data measurements. The possibilities offered by particle accelerators and research reactors for research and technological applications in these fields are pointed out. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Microbial bioremediation of a uranium(VI) contaminated aquifer

    Leigh, M. B.; Cardenas, E.; Wu, W. M.; Uhlík, Ondřej; Carley, J.; Carroll, S.; Gentry, T.; Marsh, T. L.; Zhou, J.; Jardine, P.; Criddle, C. S.; Tiedje, J. M.

    Praha: VŠCHT Praha, 2007 - (Macková, M.; Macek, T.; Demnerová, K.; Pazlar, V.). s. 16 ISBN 978-80-7080-025-6. [Symposium on Biosorption and Bioremediation /4./. 26.08.2007-30.08.2007, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : stable isotope probing * uranium * biostimulation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  13. Genomic and physiological perspectives on bioremediation processes at the FRC

    Cardenas, Erick; Leigh, Mary Beth; Hemme, Christopher; Gentry, Terry; Harzman, Christina; Wu, Weimin; Criddle, Craig S.; Zhou, Jizhong; Marsh, Terence; Tiedje, James M.

    2006-04-05

    A suite of molecular and physiological studies, including metal reduction assays, metagenomics, functional gene microarrays and community sequence analyses were applied to investigate organisms involved in bioremediation processes at the ERSP Field Research Center and to understand the effects of stress on the makeup and evolution of microbial communities to inform effective remediation strategies.

  14. Ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation: extracellular enzyme production and degradation rate

    Novotný, Čeněk; Svobodová, Kateřina; Erbanová, Pavla; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kasinath, Aparna; Lang, E.; Šašek, Václav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2004), s. 1545-1551. ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/1303; GA MŠk 1P05ME828 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : ligninolytic fungi * bioremediation * organopollutants Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.234, year: 2004

  15. INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-IMPACTED WETLAND

    Following the 1994 San Jacinto River flood and oil spill in southeast Texas, a petroleum-contaminated wetland was reserved for a long-term research program to evaluate bioremediation as a viable spill response tool. The first phase of this program, presented in this paper, evalua...

  16. Bioremediation of fossil fuel contaminated soils

    Bioremediation involves the use of microorganisms and their biodegradative capacity to remove pollutants. The byproducts of effective bioremediation, such as water and carbon dioxide, are nontoxic and can be accommodated without harm to the environment and living organisms. This paper reports that using bioremediation to remove pollutants has many advantages. This method is cheap, whereas physical methods for decontaminating the environment are extraordinarily expensive. Neither government nor private industry can afford the cost to clean up physically the nation's known toxic waste sites. Therefore, a renewed interest in bioremediation has developed. Whereas current technologies call for moving large quantities of toxic waste and its associated contaminated soil to incinerators, bioremediation can be done on site and requires simple equipment that is readily available. Bioremediation, though, is not the solution for all environmental pollution problems. Like other technologies, bioremediation has limitations

  17. Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Research Applications and Utilization of Accelerators

    The IAEA has responded to Member States needs by implementing programmatic activities that provide interested Member States, particularly those in developing countries, forums to exchange information on new trends and applications in accelerator-based nuclear science and technology. Accelerator-based technologies are regarded by many Member States as a key element to serve social and economic development in a wide variety of applications in the energy, health, agriculture, environment, materials, natural resources and education sectors. Almost all of the more than 18 000 particle accelerators in the world today are dedicated machines used for commercial applications, being either in the medical sector (radiotherapy treatments) or in the industrial sector (materials modification). Only a few percent (a few hundred) of the worldwide inventory of accelerators is used for scientific research, mainly at universities, research institutes and international organizations. However, the knowledge and technological spin-offs gained from these research accelerators drive the development of commercial applications and support the research and development needs of researchers in a wide and diverse range of fields, including strategic and applied research, safety and security, environment, materials, analytical services, advanced nuclear fuel cycles, radioisotope production and radiation processing. The ongoing benefits afforded by accelerators derive principally from their ability to adapt to and keep pace with evolving changes in user demands. The trend in advanced countries is to utilize accelerators in a dedicated and optimized way to support a few specific high technology application areas. The main demand from researchers is for high quality X ray, neutron and ion beams to engage in cutting-edge research in energy, food and agriculture, biology, medicine and materials science. The enhancement of nuclear science education and research in all Member States, but in particular

  18. Legal and social concerns to the development of bioremediation technologies

    Bilyard, G.R.; McCabe, G.H.; White, K.A.; Gajewski, S.W.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Jaksch, J.A.; Kirwan-Taylor, H.A.; McKinney, M.D.

    1996-09-01

    The social and legal framework within which bioremediation technologies must be researched, developed, and deployed in the US are discussed in this report. Discussions focus on policies, laws and regulations, intellectual property, technology transfer, and stakeholder concerns. These discussions are intended to help program managers, scientists and engineers understand the social and legal framework within which they work, and be cognizant of relevant issues that must be navigated during bioremediation technology research, development, and deployment activities. While this report focuses on the legal and social environment within which the DOE operates, the laws, regulations and social processes could apply to DoD and other sites nationwide. This report identifies specific issues related to bioremediation technologies, including those involving the use of plants; native, naturally occurring microbes; non-native, naturally occurring microbes; genetically engineered organisms; and microbial products (e.g., enzymes, surfactants, chelating compounds). It considers issues that fall within the following general categories: US biotechnology policy and the regulation of field releases of organisms; US environmental laws and waste cleanup regulations; intellectual property and patenting issues; technology transfer procedures for commercializing technology developed through government-funded research; stakeholder concerns about bioremediation proposals; and methods for assuring public involvement in technology development and deployment.

  19. Legal and social concerns to the development of bioremediation technologies

    The social and legal framework within which bioremediation technologies must be researched, developed, and deployed in the US are discussed in this report. Discussions focus on policies, laws and regulations, intellectual property, technology transfer, and stakeholder concerns. These discussions are intended to help program managers, scientists and engineers understand the social and legal framework within which they work, and be cognizant of relevant issues that must be navigated during bioremediation technology research, development, and deployment activities. While this report focuses on the legal and social environment within which the DOE operates, the laws, regulations and social processes could apply to DoD and other sites nationwide. This report identifies specific issues related to bioremediation technologies, including those involving the use of plants; native, naturally occurring microbes; non-native, naturally occurring microbes; genetically engineered organisms; and microbial products (e.g., enzymes, surfactants, chelating compounds). It considers issues that fall within the following general categories: US biotechnology policy and the regulation of field releases of organisms; US environmental laws and waste cleanup regulations; intellectual property and patenting issues; technology transfer procedures for commercializing technology developed through government-funded research; stakeholder concerns about bioremediation proposals; and methods for assuring public involvement in technology development and deployment

  20. A new NEDO research project towards hospital based accelerator BNCT using advanced DDS system

    A new national project of developing a hospital based accelerator for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with advanced drug delivery system (DDS) has been started in 2005. In this paper, the outline of the new project will be introduced. The project includes two main topics: 1) a hospital based accelerator for BNCT will be developed by a research consortium of Universities and companies. A fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) type of accelerator with internal target is planned. 2) New boronated DDS using different methods including porphyrins, virus envelope vector, and liposome are planned. BNCT may become a first line charged particle therapy if the hospital based accelerator become feasible due to broadening the opportunity to use the neutron source. Due to such clinical convenience, there will be also possibility to spread the indication of BNCT for the diseases (cancer and other diseases) which has not been the candidate for BNCT in the nuclear-reactor era. (author)

  1. Research and development activities around the EUROTRANS accelerator for ADS applications

    An Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste typically requires a 600 MeV - 1 GeV accelerator delivering a proton flux of a few mAs for demonstrators, and of a few tens of mAs for large industrial systems. Such a machine belongs to the category of the high power proton accelerators, with an additional requirement for exceptional 'reliability': because of the induced thermal stress to the subcritical core, the number of unwanted 'beam-trips' should not exceed a few per year, a specification that is several orders of magnitude above usual performance. This paper briefly describes the reference solution adopted for such a machine, based on a linear superconducting accelerator, and presents the status of the Research and Development performed in this context. This work is performed within the 6th Framework Program EC project 'EUROTRANS' (EC Contract No: FI6W 516520, 'EUROTRANS')

  2. STUDIES ON BIOREMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS: BIOAVAILABILITY, BIODEGRADABILITY, AND TOXICITY ISSUES

    The widespread contamination of aquatic sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has created a need for cost-effective bioremediation processes, on which the bioavailability and the toxicity of PAHs often have a significant impact. This research investigated the biode...

  3. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    This paper reports on bioremediation, which offers a cost-competitive, effective remediation alternative for soil contaminated with petroleum products. These technologies involve using microorganisms to biologically degrade organic constituents in contaminated soil. All bioremediation applications must mitigate various environmental rate limiting factors so that the biodegradation rates for petroleum hydrocarbons are optimized in field-relevant situations. Traditional bioremediation applications include landfarming, bioreactors, and composting. A more recent bioremediation application that has proven successful involves excavation of contaminated soil. The process involves the placement of the soils into a powerscreen, where it is screened to remove rocks and larger debris. The screened soil is then conveyed to a ribbon blender, where it is mixed in batch with nutrient solution containing nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and surfactants. Each mixed soil batch is then placed in a curing pile, where it remains undisturbed for the remainder of the treatment process, during which time biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, utilizing biochemical pathways mediated by enzymes, will occur

  4. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility. Progress report, December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis, and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. Experiments performed from May 1991--April 1992 are described.

  5. Technical issues of accelerator-driven transmutation and a research facility

    In the late 1980s, Japan launched an ambitious long-term program on partitioning and transmutation (P-T), called OMEGA, aiming at development of the technology to improve efficiency and safety in the final disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and to recover useful elements from HLW. This paper describes the concept of double stratum nuclear fuel cycle and the concept of accelerator-driven transmutation systems, which are proposed by JAERI as the most efficient strategy and system for the deployment of P-T. Technical issues of accelerator-driven transmutation and a research facility plan under reviewing are summarized. More detail descriptions of technical issues and research facility plan are presented in the successive two companion papers. National and international R and D activities on accelerator-based transmutation are overviewed with emphasis placed on engineering experiment and demonstration test part of programs. (author)

  6. Research program for the 660 MeV proton accelerator driven MOX-plutonium subcritical assembly

    Barashenkov, V. S.; Buttsev, V. S.; Buttseva, G. L.; Dudarev, S. Ju.; Polanski, A.; Puzynin, I. V.; Sissakian, A. N.

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the research program of the Experimental Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel (25% PuO2+75% UO2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient keff=0.945, energetic gain G=30, and accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW.

  7. 典型POPs的生物降解修复技术研究与发展%Research and development of bioremediation technology for persistent organic pollutants degradation

    吴海珍; 韦朝海; 周盛

    2012-01-01

    engineered bacteria composed of multi-plasmids that are capable of degrading different pollutants due to the change of metabolic pathway; (iii) the technique of enzyme immobilization using carriers for improving enzyme stability, recycling and reuse; and (iv) the construction of biodegradation enzymes by subunit molecular replacement, enzyme-directed mutagenesis, and in vitro evolution of enzymes. In addition, the principles for improving POPs bioremediation by molecular biology are analyzed. The obstacles for the practical application of the genetically engineered microorganisms and immobilized enzymes are presented. Based on the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) degradation as a typical case of bioremediation of POPs, it is stressed that it is necessary to establish multi-scale functions for the strengthen of biodegradation process. The fundamental scientific issues to resolve POPs pollution problems by the combination of molecular biology and genetic engineering are also proposed. This means that the typical POPs bioremediation techniques emphasize the need to build a synergic degradation theory for degradation of both POPs and macro-pollutants, and the pursuit of more functions with respect to the gene level, molecular level, reactor level and project level.

  8. Letter report: Ari Patrinos -- Subsurface bioremediation

    During the past summer, the authors had the opportunity to examine aspects of the remediation program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The most important conclusion that they have come to is that there is an urgent need to mount a comprehensive research program in remediation. It is also clear to them that DOE does not have the funding to carry out a program on the scale that is required. On the other hand, Environmental Management could very well fund such activities. They would hope that in the future there would be close collaboration between Environmental Management and Energy Research in putting together a comprehensive and well thought-out research program. Here, the authors comment on one aspect of remediation: subsurface bioremediation

  9. Bioremediation of oil spills

    Sánchez-Palencia González, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand of petroleum everywhere, and the great amount of spills, accidents and disasters, there is an urgent need to find an effective, non-cost and harmless method to clean up the affected areas. There are microorganisms in nature (bacteria and fungi, mainly) that feed on hydrocarbons and transform them into others harmless chemical substances. These bacteria produce enzymes that degrade oil very effectively. This natural process can be accelerated by adding more bacteri...

  10. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  11. Artificial intelligence research in particle accelerator control systems for beam line tuning

    Pieck, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Tuning particle accelerators is time consuming and expensive, with a number of inherently non-linear interactions between system components. Conventional control methods have not been successful in this domain and the result is constant and expensive monitoring of the systems by human operators. This is particularly true for the start-up and conditioning phase after a maintenance period or an unexpected fault. In turn, this often requires a step-by-step restart of the accelerator. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to apply intelligent accelerator control techniques to help with beam tuning, fault detection, and fault recovery problems. The reason for that might be that accelerator facilities are rare and difficult to understand systems that require detailed expert knowledge about the underlying physics as well as months if not years of experience to understand the relationship between individual components, particularly if they are geographically disjoint. This paper will give an overview about the research effort in the accelerator community that has been dedicated to the use of artificial intelligence methods for accelerator beam line tuning.

  12. The history of development and applications of accelerators in the Institute of Nuclear Research and its ''daughter'' institutions

    In brief review, the general survey of particle accelerators' design, construction and applications in various fields of science and technology is given. The development of accelerator physics was initiated by Professor Soltan immediately after foundation of Institute of Nuclear Research. These works oriented initially on accelerator for research, were after extended on numerous applications of accelerator radiation sources in such important areas as medicine, radiation technology, nondestructive testing, agriculture and environmental protection. Due to this broad spectrum of different types of accelerators' design, it was necessary to master the fundamental directions of accelerator physics and technology: theory, computation methods, metrology and production basis. As the result of this efforts, nearly 90 of electron and ion accelerators were produced - half of them were exported. At present nearly 70 accelerators are operating in Poland, about 20 of them are of foreign origin. (author). 51 refs, 35 figs, 2 tabs

  13. A field experimentation on bioremediation: Bioren

    Most shoreline bioremediation strategies are based on the addition of limiting nutrients to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of the natural biodegradation process. Before approval for operational use, these products designed to be used in the environment, should be validated in field trials to assure their efficiency in reducing residual contaminant concentrations and toxicity. This paper describes the design, implementation and preliminary results of an experimental field study to evaluate the effectiveness of the bioremediation agents BIOREN 1 and BIOREN 2 of interest to the EUREKA BIOREN program. The agents BIOREN 1 and 2 are proprietary formulations of nutrients synthesised from fish meal and they were proven effective in laboratory studies of the two granular nutrient formulations. BIOREN 1 is unique in that it is augmented with a biosurfactant. To provide equivalent nitrogen concentrations the quantities of BIOREN 1 and 2 added were respectively 10 and 14.4% of the oil quantity. The results showed a 'starter effect' for the formulation BIOREN 1: biodegradation was significantly enhance during the first five weeks of the experiment; after that the enhancement was weaker and significant differences were not observed between treatments. These results may be attributed to the fact that significant nutrient depletion may not occur in small scale controlled spill experiments. In addition, it has been proven that oxygen availability limited biodegradation. There is a need to develop aeration techniques, such as raking, that aerate the sediment without further burying the pollutant. Final oil balance assessment proved to be very instructive as it is the main practical factor taken into consideration by the operational team: the aim of the shoreline cleaning operation remains to reduce oil sediment content. (Author)

  14. Accelerator research studies: Technical progress report, June 1, 1988--May 31, 1989

    This report discusses research progress in the following general topics: Study of transport and longitudinal compression of intense, high-brightness beams; study of collective ion acceleration by intense electron beams and pulse powered plasma focus; and study of microwave sources and parameter scaling for high-frequency electron-positron supercollider linacs

  15. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by cold-adapted microorganisms:Research advance%低温微生物修复石油烃类污染土壤研究进展

    王世杰; 王翔; 卢桂兰; 汪群慧; 李发生; 郭观林

    2011-01-01

    Cold-adapted microorganisms such as psychrotrophs and psychrophiles widely exist in the soils of sub-Arctic, Arctic, Antarctic, alpine, and high mountains, being the important microbial resources for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature. Using the unique advantage of cold-adapted microorganisms to the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in low temperature region has become a research hotspot. This paper summarized the category and cold-adaptation mechanisms of the microorganisms able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon at low temperature, biodegradation characteristics and mechanisms of different petroleum fractions under the action of cold-adapted microorganisms. bio-stimulation techniques for improving biodegradation efficiency, e. g. , inoculating petroleum-degrading microorganisms and adding nutrients or bio-surfactants. and the present status of applying molecular biotechnology in this research field,aimed to provide references to the development of bioremediation techniques for petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.%耐冷菌、嗜冷菌等低温微生物广泛存在于极地、高山以及高纬度等土壤环境中,是石油烃类污染物在低温条件下降解与转化的重要微生物资源.利用低温微生物的独特优势,石油污染土壤的低温生物修复技术的研究成为当前热点领域.本文系统综述了低温石油烃降解菌的分类及冷适机制,低温微生物对不同类型石油烃组分的降解特征和降解机理,低温环境中接种降解菌、添加营养物质和表面活性剂等强化技术在石油污染土壤中生物修复的应用.以及微生物分子生物学技术在低温微生物降解石油烃的研究现状,为拓展我国石油污染土壤生物修复技术提供参考.

  16. Research and application of accelerated ageing management for important and susceptible components in nuclear power plants

    This paper introduced the background of research on accelerated ageing management (AAM) technology for important and susceptible components in Daya Bay nuclear power plant (NPP) and Lingao NPP, and expounded the connotation of AAM, demonstrated the AAM technical route, work architecture and interfaces with existing operation and maintenance system in NPPs. Some representative application examples of AAM technology for verifying the rationality and effectiveness of relevant research achievements also were presented. Development prospect of AAM technology was proposed at the last. (authors)

  17. Priority research areas to accelerate the development of practical ultraconductive copper conductors

    Lee, Dominic F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burwell, Malcolm [International Copper Association, Washington, DC (United States); Stillman, H. [International Copper Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the findings at an Ultraconductive Copper Strategy Meeting held on March 11, 2015 in Washington DC. The aim of this meeting was to bring together researchers of ultraconductive copper in the U.S. to identify and prioritize critical non-proprietary research activities that will enhance the understanding in the material and accelerate its development into practical conductors. Every effort has been made to ensure that the discussion and findings are accurately reported in this document.

  18. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    During the academic year of 1978 to 1979, the 12 UD pelletron tandem accelerator has operated successfully. Ion species used were polarized p, polarized d, α(from the polarized ion source), p, d, 16O and 18O (from the direct extraction ion source), and C, O, Cu and Au (from the sputtering ion source). Improvements were made in the detector and data acquisition system. The data handling system 'SHINE' was completed and is in full operation. Research works are reported in individual summaries under the following chapters: accelerator and beam transport system, general equipments nuclear physics, atomic and solid-state physics, and biological and medical science and others. (Mori, K.)

  19. Research progress for accelerator driven sub-critical Transmutation system (ADS)

    The minimization of the nuclear waste is the key problem for the long term and sustainable nuclear energy development. Accelerator driven system (ADS) is a kind of high efficient nuclear waste transmutation machine (or incinerator), which is the key technique to solve the nuclear water problem. The basic theory of ADS and driven influence of ADS and driven influence of ADS on the advanced accelerator, advanced cooling technique, etc are introduced. Mean while the present research situations of ADS in some countries are compared. At last, the key problem of the ADS development and the relationship between ADS and the development of nuclear energy in China is discussed. (authors)

  20. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div., TN (United States); Abramowicz, D.A. [General Electric Co. Corporate Research and Development, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL`s effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site.

  1. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL's effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site

  2. Research and Development of Nb3Sn Wires and Cables for High-Field Accelerator Magnets

    Barzi, Emanuela [Fermilab; Zlobin, Alexander V. [Fermilab

    2016-02-18

    The latest strategic plans for High Energy Physics endorse steadfast superconducting magnet technology R&D for future Energy Frontier Facilities. This includes 10 to 16 T Nb3Sn accelerator magnets for the luminosity upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider and eventually for a future 100 TeV scale proton-proton (pp) collider. This paper describes the multi-decade R&D investment in the Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which was crucial to produce the first reproducible 10 to 12 T accelerator-quality dipoles and quadrupoles, as well as their scale-up. We also indicate prospective research areas in superconducting Nb3Sn wires and cables to achieve the next goals for superconducting accelerator magnets. Emphasis is on increasing performance and decreasing costs while pushing the Nb3Sn technology to its limits for future pp colliders.

  3. BESTIA - The next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last two decades, BNL's ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. Our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particle acceleration of ions and electrons.

  4. The COBRA accelerator pulsed-power driver for Cornell/Sandia ICF research

    Smith, D.L.; Ingwersen, P.; Bennett, L.F.; Boyes, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, D.E.; Greenly, J.B.; Sudan, R.N.; Hammer, D.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-07-01

    This paper introduces and describes the new Cornell Beam Research Accelerator, COBRA, the result of a three and one-half year collaboration. The flexible 4 to 5-MV, 100 to 250-kA, 46-ns pulse width accelerator is based on a four-cavity Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA) design. In addition to being a mix of new and existing components, COBRA is unique in the sense that each cavity is driven by a single pulse forming line, and the IVA output polarity may be reversed by rotating the cavities 1800 about their vertical axis. Our tests with negative high voltage on the inner MITL stalk indicate that the vacuum power flow has established reasonable azimuthal symmetry within about 2 ns (or 0.6 m) after the cavity output cap. Preliminary results with the accelerator, single cavity, and MITL are presented alone, with the design details and circuit model predictions.

  5. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  6. White rot fungi in bioremediation – Ecology in the soil environment

    Baldrian, Petr

    Chania: Technical University of Crete, 2008, s. 1-4. ISBN 978-960-8475-12-0. [European Bioremediation Conference /4./. Chania (GR), 03.09.2008-06.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 155; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : basidiomycetes * bioremediation * forest soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  7. Role of Microbial Enzymes in the Bioremediation of Pollutants: A Review

    Karigar, Chandrakant S.; Rao, Shwetha S.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of enzymes from bacteria, fungi, and plants have been reported to be involved in the biodegradation of toxic organic pollutants. Bioremediation is a cost effective and nature friendly biotechnology that is powered by microbial enzymes. The research activity in this area would contribute towards developing advanced bioprocess technology to reduce the toxicity of the pollutants and also to obtain novel useful substances. The information on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related...

  8. Research nuclear reactor and particle accelerator as complementary facilities in obtaining experimental nuclear data

    In the last decade a large amount of diverse and high precision nuclear data is in high demand to support both power applications (in nuclear fusion and fission reactors, fuel cycle in all its stages, nuclear safety) and non-power applications (radiation dosimetry, life sciences, ecology, industry, etc.) of atomic and nuclear techniques. The atomic and nuclear data are generated from experimental measurements, theoretical model calculations and data evaluation, which are finally validated internationally and included in data bases under standardized formats. Measuring of these data imply utilization of research reactors and charged particle accelerators, in complex experiments characterized by high degree of complementarity. Aspects of this complementarity in the nuclear data obtained from reactors and accelerators will be presented in this work. In Romania an advanced research reactor (TRIGA at INR Pitesti) and an electrostatic 4-5 MeV/nucleon accelerator (TANDEM Van de Graaff at IFIN - HH, Bucharest) are operational and a rich scientific expertise in the field of nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms is available. Consequently, the paper considers a project at a national scale for measuring and evaluating nuclear data. Having in view numerous signals launched by international organizations (IAEA-Vienna, NEA-OECD, NNDC-USA) such a project would have a powerful international support because of increasing world wide demand of atomic and nuclear data. Nuclear data are either structure and decay nuclear data or reaction nuclear data. The first class refers to nuclear state properties (masses, excitation energies, quantum numbers, lifetimes, etc.) as well as to their decay modes. Data from the second class refer to differential or integral cross sections. The paper presents comparatively the data obtainable at accelerators and reactors for the two above mentioned classes of nuclear data, particularly, the data required for building ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems

  9. Selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system

    38 theses are presented in this selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system. It includes reactor physics and experiment, accelerators physics and technology, nuclear physics, material research and partitioning. 13 abstracts, which has been presented on magazines home and abroad, are collected in the appendix

  10. Medical bioremediation of age-related diseases

    Rittmann Bruce E

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Catabolic insufficiency in humans leads to the gradual accumulation of a number of pathogenic compounds associated with age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and macular degeneration. Removal of these compounds is a widely researched therapeutic option, but the use of antibodies and endogenous human enzymes has failed to produce effective treatments, and may pose risks to cellular homeostasis. Another alternative is "medical bioremediation," the use of microbial enzymes to augment missing catabolic functions. The microbial genetic diversity in most natural environments provides a resource that can be mined for enzymes capable of degrading just about any energy-rich organic compound. This review discusses targets for biodegradation, the identification of candidate microbial enzymes, and enzyme-delivery methods.

  11. Research on cw electron accelerators using room-temperature rf structures. Annual report

    Highlights reported include: measurement of the 100 keV chopped beam emittance, completion of installation of the entire 5 MeV injector linac system with all rf power and drive, extensive field mapping of one end magnet, completion of construction of the 12 MeV linac for the racetrack microtron (RTM), installation of most of the control system, and first acceleration of beam to 5 MeV. Plans for completion of the project are discussed. When the RTM is operating, it is expected to have many unique performance characteristics, including the cw nature of the beam, high current, easily variable energy over a wide range, excellent emittance, and small energy spread. Plans for future uses in the areas of nuclear physics, dosimetry research and standards, accelerator development, and free electron laser research are discussed. 19 refs

  12. Current status of research and development of reactor noise analysis for accelerator-driven subcritical system

    This report presents a current status of the research and development of reactor noise analyses applicable to accelerator-driven subcritical reactor system. These research activities have been concentrated on the Feynman-α neutron correlation analysis on time domain and the power spectral analysis on frequency domain. At present, the latter power spectral analysis is of greater advantage than the former Feynman-α one, for periodic and pulsed neutron source. While Feynman-α formula for pulsed neutron source is too complicated to be fitted directly to variance-to-mean ratio data, the power spectral analysis has a simpler formula based on the first-order reactor transfer function. The Feynman-α should be improved to consider spatial effect of deeply subcritical system and instability of accelerator operation. Further subject of reactor noise analyses is an improvement for high power operation. (author)

  13. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document begins with a general description of the facility to include historical and up-to-date aspects of design and operation. A user`s guide and a review of research using the facility follows. Next the accelerator utilization and operation and the development of the facilities is given. Personnel currently working at the facility are listed. Lastly, recent publications and literature cited are presented.

  14. Survey of physics research with a high duty cycle electron accelerator

    The opportunities for nuclear physics research afforded by a CW electron linac with nominal energy 100 MeV and beam current >= 100 μA equipped with a bremsstrahlung monochromator and reaction product coincidence facilities are outlined. It is proposed that a program toward realization of an accelerator meeting these requirements and with provision for eventual extension to higher energies be undertaken at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. (author)

  15. Research and practice of accelerated ageing management for important and susceptible components in nuclear power plants

    This paper introduces the background for the ongoing research on accelerated ageing management (AAM) technology for important and susceptible components in Daya Bay nuclear power plant (NPP) and Lingao NPP. The technical procedure, the work architecture and the interfaces with existing operation and maintenance system in NPPs are also detailed. Finally, some representative examples of the use of AAM to solve practical operational issues are presented, before concluding on propositions for the future development of this technology. (author)

  16. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

  17. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  18. Introduction of design and construction electron linear accelerator project in Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences(IPM

    M Lamehi Rashti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly used types of accelerators is linear electron accelerator. There is a project is in progress in Institute for research in fundamental sciences (IPM aiming to design and build such an accelerator. It is defined in such a way that all parts to be built in Iran as possibly as it can. In this paper, after a brief explanation of the components of an electron linear accelerator; including the electron gun, accelerating tube, RF power supply, vacuum system, waveguide for transmitting RF power to accelerating tube, and cooling system; specification of each of these components are presented. The maximum beam energy of 15 MeV and RF pulse power of 2.5 MW with a traveling wave structure at a frequency of 2998 MHz which is acted in π /2 mode are the most important features of this accelerator

  19. Beam loss monitor system of the rapid cycling synchrotron of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    The 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) provides more than 300 kW beam to the Material and Life Science Facility (MLF) and the Main Ring (MR). In such high intensity hadron accelerator, the lost protons that are a fraction of the beam less than 0.1% cause many problems. Those particles bring about a serious radioactivation and a malfunction of the accelerator components. Therefore, the beam loss monitor (BLM) is one of the most important equipment to observe the state of the beam during operation, and to keep a steady operation. Moreover, if we set operation parameters of BLM adequately, it can detect the beam loss that is 10-6 fraction of the beam. Thus it enables fine-tuning of the accelerator. In the J-PARC RCS, a proportional counter and a plastic scintillation counter are used for the beam commission and the stable operation as BLM. We report present status of the BLM system in J-PARC RCS. (author)

  20. Radiobiological investigations of the accelerators at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    Full text: The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) has the different accelerators of heavy charged particles for various energies. The radiobiological investigations at these machines have been commenced some tens years ago. The main task of scientific research at the Laboratory of Radiation Biology of JINR is connected with investigations of genetic effects of accelerated charged particles with wide spectrum of energies. Using accelerated heavy ions with low energy, the following directions of researches in radiobiology and radiation genetics were performed: study of RBE problem in connection with DNA repair processes; investigation of the molecular mechanisms of point and structural mutation induction in prokaryotic cells and the influence of the repair systems on the mutagenic processes after irradiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET); study of the SOS-response of bacterial cells by using SOS-chromo test, SOS-lux test and by criteria of α-prophage induction in lysogenic bacteria after irradiation by heavy ions; study of the regularities of gene mutation inductions in yeast cells under action of ionizing radiation with different LET; investigations of the regularities of unstable and stable chromosomal aberrations (translocations) in human cells under action of ionizing radiation with wide LET range; study of mutagenic (HPRT gene) effects in mammalian cells in culture after heavy charged particle irradiation and chromosomal instability in HPRT-mutant clones after irradiation; study of the cytogenetic effects in mammalian cells irradiated by heavy ions in low doses. The radiobiological investigations with high energy are carried out at the Nuclotron - the new JINR accelerator. The programme involves the most vital tasks of modern radiobiology: study of the regularities and mechanisms of stable and unstable chromosome aberration induction in human cells; genetic control of check-point regulation in low eukaryotic cells; study of the

  1. Accelerator research studies. Final report, June 1, 1994--May 31, 1995

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy has completed the third year of its three-year funding cycle and an additional one-year, no-cost extension. The program consisted of the following three tasks: Task A -- Study of the transport and longitudinal compression of intense, high-brightness beams; Task B -- Study of high-brightness beam generation in pseudospark devices; Task C -- Study of a gyroklystron high-power microwave source for linear colliders. The research carried out for each task and progress made is reported.

  2. Accelerator research studies. Final report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1994

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy is currently in the third year of its three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: Task A -- Study of the transport and longitudinal compression of intense, high-brightness beams; Task B -- Study of high-brightness beam generation in pseudospark devices; Task C -- Study of a gyroklystron high-power microwave source for linear colliders. The research for each task is detailed in this report.

  3. Accelerator research studies. Final report, June 1, 1991 - May 31, 1994

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy is currently in the third year of its three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: Task A -- Study of the transport and longitudinal compression of intense, high-brightness beams; Task B -- Study of high-brightness beam generation in pseudospark devices; Task C -- Study of a gyroklystron high-power microwave source for linear colliders. The research for each task is detailed in this report

  4. Radiological Research Accelerator Facility. Progress report, April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985

    The aim of the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) was to provide a source of monoenergetic neutrons for studies in radiation biology, dosimetry and microdosimetry. The research has provided insight into the biological action of radiation and its relation to energy distribution in the cell as described by the theory of dual radiation action. This status report on the facility includes descriptions of the capabilities and layout, staffing, radiation safety, and a chronological account of the development and use of the facilities. 5 references, 2 figures

  5. Petroleum-Degrading Enzymes: Bioremediation and New Prospects

    R.S Peixoto; A.B. Vermelho; A.S. Rosado

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic forces, such as petroleum spills and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, have caused an accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. The accumulation of petroleum and its derivatives now constitutes an important environmental problem. Biocatalysis introduces new ways to improve the development of bioremediation strategies. The recent application of molecular tools to biocatalysis may improve bioprospecting research, enzyme yield recovery, and enzyme specific...

  6. Managing the future: the Special Virus Leukemia Program and the acceleration of biomedical research.

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2014-12-01

    After the end of the Second World War, cancer virus research experienced a remarkable revival, culminating in the creation in 1964 of the United States National Cancer Institute's Special Virus Leukemia Program (SVLP), an ambitious program of directed biomedical research to accelerate the development of a leukemia vaccine. Studies of cancer viruses soon became the second most highly funded area of research at the Institute, and by far the most generously funded area of biological research. Remarkably, this vast infrastructure for cancer vaccine production came into being before a human leukemia virus was shown to exist. The origins of the SVLP were rooted in as much as shifts in American society as laboratory science. The revival of cancer virus studies was a function of the success advocates and administrators achieved in associating cancer viruses with campaigns against childhood diseases such as polio and leukemia. To address the urgency borne of this new association, the SVLP's architects sought to lessen the power of peer review in favor of centralized Cold War management methods, fashioning viruses as "administrative objects" in order to accelerate the tempo of biomedical research and discovery. PMID:25459347

  7. Research of accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Background: 7Li (p, n) reaction of high neutron yield and low threshold energy has become one of the most important neutron generating reactions for Accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Purpose Focuses on neutron yield and spectrum characteristics of this kind of neutron generating reaction which serves as an accelerator-based neutron source and moderates the high energy neutron beams to meet BNCT requirements. Methods: The yield and energy spectrum of neutrons generated by accelerator-based 7Li(p, n) reaction with incident proton energy from 1.9 MeV to 3.0 MeV are researched using the Monte Carlo code-MCNPX2.5.0. And the energy and angular distribution of differential neutron yield by 2.5-MeV incident proton are also given in this part. In the following part, the character of epithermal neutron beam generated by 2.5-MeV incident protons is moderated by a new-designed moderator. Results: Energy spectra of neutrons generated by accelerator-based 7Li(p, n) reaction with incident proton energy from 1.9 MeV to 3.0 MeV are got through the simulation and calculation. The best moderator thickness is got through comparison. Conclusions: Neutron beam produced by accelerator-based 7Li(p, n) reaction, with the bombarding beam of 10 mA and the energy of 2.5 MeV, can meet the requirement of BNCT well after being moderated. (authors)

  8. Correction of static pressure on a research aircraft in accelerated flight using differential pressure measurements

    A. R. Rodi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geometric altitude data from a combined Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and inertial measurement unit (IMU system on the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft are used to estimate acceleration effects on static pressure measurement. Using data collected during periods of accelerated flight, comparison of measured pressure with that derived from GNSS/IMU geometric altitude show that errors exceeding 150 Pa can occur which is significant in airspeed and atmospheric air motion determination. A method is developed to predict static pressure errors from analysis of differential pressure measurements from a Rosemount model 858 differential pressure air velocity probe. The method was evaluated with a carefully designed probe towed on connecting tubing behind the aircraft – a "trailing cone" – in steady flight, and shown to have a precision of about ±10 Pa over a wide range of conditions including various altitudes, power settings, and gear and flap extensions. Under accelerated flight conditions, compared to the GNSS/IMU data, this algorithm predicts corrections to a precision of better than ±20 Pa. Some limiting factors affecting the precision of static pressure measurement on a research aircraft are examined.

  9. Experimental research on the feature of Talbot-Lau interferometer vs. tube accelerating voltage

    Wang, Shenghao; Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Zhang, Kai; Momose, Atsushi; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Talbot-Lau interferometer has been used most widely to perform X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a conventional low-brilliance X-ray source, it yields high-sensitivity phase and dark-field images of sample producing low absorption contrast, thus bearing tremendous potential for future clinical diagnosis. In this manuscript, while changing accelerating voltage of the X-ray tube from 35KV to 45KV, X-ray phase-contrast imaging of a test sample were performed at each integer KV position to investigate the characteristic of a Talbot-Lau interferometer (located in the Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Japan.) vs. tube voltage. Experimental results and data analysis show that this Talbot-Lau interferometer is insensitive to the tube accelerating voltage within a certain range, fringe visibility around 44% is maintained in the aforementioned tube voltage range. This experimental research is of guiding significance for choosing optimal tube accelerating voltage with thi...

  10. The Challenge and Promise of the New Research Tools: Solid-State Detectors, Computers and Accelerators

    Nuclear structure research has been the beneficiary of many recent technical advances and in turn directly stimulated some advances. The exciting possibilities of the lithium- drifted germanium detector in gamma spectroscopy have only begun to be realized. The large amounts of high resolution data have put a premium on developing more automation of data handling through more sophisticated electronics and computers. Trends in accelerators are discussed, and reference tables listing isochronous cyclotrons and Tandem Van de Graafs around the world are given. Attention is directed to new frontiers of research in heavier ion accelerators, and tables of characteristics of existing and proposed heavy ion accelerators are given. The difficulties of obtaining multiply charged ions from known types of ion sources are considered, and the high charges resulting from Auger cascades of a К-vacancy are noted. It is suggested that intensive research on decay schemes and charge states of recoil products of nuclear reactions could lead to a practical accelerator of very heavy ions. As an example is discussed a possible arrangement in a Tandem Van de Graaf, where a deuteron negative ion beam strikes a source foil in the positive terminal, with recoil products or fission products accelerated to ground. Studies on noble gas and halogen fission products by gas transport ystems and isotope separators are noted. Also reviewed are germanium gamma studies on unseparated 252Cf spontaneous fission products using tape-transport methods and К X-ray coincidence. Next are reviewed studies on gamma and conversion-electron spectra of recoils and fission products in flight. The use of solenoidal or fringing-field magnets for conversion electron studies is discussed. Some of the qualitatively new aspects of nuclear studies with very heavy ion beams are mentioned. Finally, it is stressed that the research here called for on gamma cascades and charge states of nuclear reaction products is most

  11. Initial assessment of intrinsic and assisted bioremediation potential for diesel fuel impacted soils at Eureka, NWT

    Two diesel fuel-impacted soil columns prepared to simulate in situ conditions for assessing intrinsic bioremediation were studied. The samples were from Eureka in the Northwest Territories. Two soil jars that were mixed periodically to simulate the ex situ land treatment bioremediation option, were also part of the treatability study. Results strongly suggest that bioremediation at Eureka is a viable option, although the slow rate of biodegradation and the short operating season will necessitate treatment over several years to achieve the remediation endpoint. The intrinsic bioremediation process can be accelerated using periodic addition of a water soluble nitrogen fertilizer, as shown by the nitrogen-amended soil column test. Ex situ bioremediation also appears to be possible judged by the response of the natural bacterial population to periodic mixing and oxygen uptake at 5 degrees C. The principal challenge will be to adequately mix the soil at the surface and to prevent it from drying out. The addition of organic bulking material may be required. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    Gallego, J.R. [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain); Gonzalez-Rojas, E.; Pelaez, A.I.; Sanchez, J [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain). Inst. de Biotecnologia de Asturias; Garcia-Martinez, M.J.; Llamas, J.F. [Univ. Polictenica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Laboratorio de Estratigrafia Biomolecular

    2006-07-01

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Accelerator research studies. Technical progress report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1993

    1993-03-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, ``Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,`` (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, ``Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,`` (Co-P.I.`s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, ``Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,`` (Co-P.I.`s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  15. Accelerating Research Productivity in Social Work Programs: Perspectives on NIH's Postdoctoral T32 Research Training Mechanism

    Matthieu, Monica M.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.; Pena, Juan B.; Scott, Lionel D., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of four social work researchers who pursued an alternative career path immediately following their doctorate in social work by accepting a postdoctoral training fellowship funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). As schools of social work look for creative ways to build research capacity, this…

  16. Acceleration of bioremediation of soil polluted with oil derivatives by using lad farming microorganisms from President Getulio Vargas refinery - REPAR/PETROBRAS, PR, Brazil; Aceleracao da biorremediacao de solo contaminado com derivados de petroleo com o uso de microorganismos do landfarming da Refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas - PETROBRAS/REPAR

    Krenczynski, Michele Cristine; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo]. E-mail: fjcampos@cce.ufpr.br

    1998-07-01

    This work is part of the studies on bioremediation criteria of the oil wastes contaminated soil, which are being performed by the Presidente Getulio Vargas refinery - REPAR - PETROBRAS, Brazil. (author)

  17. Walking softly : using bioremediation to reclaim sites leaves a smaller footprint than traditional dig-and-dump technologies

    Collison, M.

    2006-10-15

    Recent developments in the bioremediation industry in Alberta were outlined. The market for bioremediation services in the United States alone is estimated to hit $1 billion by 2010 and has become a staple of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's emergency management practices in the event of an oil spill. Alberta Environment has recently updated its policies and guidance documents on contaminated sites management, and is planning a manual that will include best bioremediation practices. Advances in the science and technology of bioremediation and a rise in environmental awareness have contributed to the sector's growth in recent years. In the past, oil companies in Alberta typically reclaimed sites by digging up contaminated soil and trucking it to landfills. Recent techniques developed by industry and bioremediation experts now mean that soil profiles can remain undisturbed, and biological treatment amendments are often introduced into the fractures to destroy contaminants where they lie. The National Research Council's Biotechnology Research Institute (NRC-BRI) is now conducting research to identify and profile unknown micro-organisms to improve conditions for the breakdown of toxins. Bioremediation techniques are also being used in urban redevelopment. It was concluded that while the environmental industry is regulatory-driven, many oil and mining companies are deciding to invest in remediation instead of waiting until a later date. A list of new bioremediation partnerships with industry, government and municipalities was also provided. 2 figs.

  18. Walking softly : using bioremediation to reclaim sites leaves a smaller footprint than traditional dig-and-dump technologies

    Recent developments in the bioremediation industry in Alberta were outlined. The market for bioremediation services in the United States alone is estimated to hit $1 billion by 2010 and has become a staple of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's emergency management practices in the event of an oil spill. Alberta Environment has recently updated its policies and guidance documents on contaminated sites management, and is planning a manual that will include best bioremediation practices. Advances in the science and technology of bioremediation and a rise in environmental awareness have contributed to the sector's growth in recent years. In the past, oil companies in Alberta typically reclaimed sites by digging up contaminated soil and trucking it to landfills. Recent techniques developed by industry and bioremediation experts now mean that soil profiles can remain undisturbed, and biological treatment amendments are often introduced into the fractures to destroy contaminants where they lie. The National Research Council's Biotechnology Research Institute (NRC-BRI) is now conducting research to identify and profile unknown micro-organisms to improve conditions for the breakdown of toxins. Bioremediation techniques are also being used in urban redevelopment. It was concluded that while the environmental industry is regulatory-driven, many oil and mining companies are deciding to invest in remediation instead of waiting until a later date. A list of new bioremediation partnerships with industry, government and municipalities was also provided. 2 figs

  19. Accelerating Progress in Eating Disorders Prevention: A Call for Policy Translation Research and Training.

    Austin, S Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of eating disorders is well documented, and over the past several decades, researchers have made important advances in the prevention of eating disorders and related problems with body image. Despite these advances, however, several critical limitations to the approaches developed to date leave the field far from achieving the large-scale impact that is needed. This commentary provides a brief review of what achievements in prevention have been made and identifies the gaps that limit the potential for greater impact on population health. A plan is then offered with specific action steps to accelerate progress in high-impact prevention, most compellingly by promoting a shift in priorities to policy translation research and training for scholars through the adoption of a triggers-to-action framework. Finally, the commentary provides an example of the application of the triggers-to-action framework as practiced at the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, a program based at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Boston Children's Hospital. Much has been achieved in the nearly 30 years of research carried out for the prevention of eating disorders and body image problems, but several critical limitations undermine the field's potential for meaningful impact. Through a shift in the field's priorities to policy translation research and training with an emphasis on macro-environmental influences, the pace of progress in prevention can be accelerated and the potential for large-scale impact substantially improved. PMID:25880718

  20. Bioremediation at a petroleum refinery

    This paper presents a summary of three projects at the Mobil Refinery in Torrance, California where bioremediation technologies were successfully employed for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The three projects represent variations of implementation of bioremediation, both in-situ and ex-situ. Soil from all of the projects was considered non-hazardous designated waste under the California Code of Regulations, Title 23, section 2522. The projects were permitted and cleanup requirements were defined with the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board. In all of the projects, different methods were used for supplying water, oxygen, and nutrients to the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria to stimulate growth. The Stormwater Retention Basin Project utilized in-situ mechanical mixing of soils to supply solid nutrients and oxygen, and a self-propelled irrigation system to supply water. The Tank Farm Lake project used an in-situ active bioventing technology to introduce oxygen, moisture, and vapor phase nutrients. The Tank 1340X247 project was an ex-situ bioventing remediation project using a drip irrigation system to supply water and dissolved nutrients, and a vapor extraction system to provide oxygen

  1. A research plan based on high intensity proton accelerator Neutron Science Research Center

    Mizumoto, Motoharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A plan called Neutron Science Research Center (NSRC) has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5GeV and an average current of 10mA. The research facilities will consist of Thermal/Cold Neutron Facility, Neutron Irradiation Facility, Neutron Physics Facility, OMEGA/Nuclear Energy Facility, Spallation RI Beam Facility, Meson/Muon Facility and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beams generated from the proton beam will be utilized for innovative researches in the fields on nuclear engineering and basic sciences. (author)

  2. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2012. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR, Tandem Accelerator and RI Production Facility

    The Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor No.3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor No.4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor), Tandem Accelerator and RI Production Facility. This annual report describes a summary of activities of services and technical developments carried out in the period between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2013. The activities were categorized into five service/development fields: (1) Operation and maintenance of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (2) Utilization of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (3) Upgrading of utilization techniques of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (4) Safety administration for department of research reactor and tandem accelerator, (5) International cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on laws and regulations concerning atomic energy, number of staff members dispatched to Fukushima for the technical assistance, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  3. Design studies and commissioning plans for plasma acceleration research station experimental program

    Mete, O.; Xia, G.; Hanahoe, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Warrington, Halton WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Dover, M.; Wigram, M.; Wright, J.; Zhang, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Smith, J. [Tech-X UK Ltd, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4FS (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Plasma acceleration research station is an electron beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration test stand proposed for CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory. In this paper, the interaction between the electron beam and the plasma is numerically characterised via 2D numerical studies by using VSIM code. The wakefields induced by a single bunch travelling through the plasma were found to vary from 200 MV/m to 3 GV/m for a range of bunch length, bunch radius, and plasma densities. Energy gain for the particles populating the bunch tail through the wakefields driven by the head of the bunch was demonstrated. After determining the achievable field for various beams and plasma configurations, a reference setting was determined for further studies. Considering this reference setting, the beam quality studies were performed for a two-bunch acceleration case. The maximum energy gain as well as the energy spread mitigation by benefiting from the beam loading was investigated by positioning the witness and driver bunches with respect to each other. Emittance growth mechanisms were studied considering the beam-plasma and beam-wakefield interactions. Eventually, regarding the findings, the initial commissioning plans and the aims for the later stages were summarised.

  4. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1987-September 30, 1987

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to access the suitabilty of heavy ion accelerators as iginiters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accerelator techonolgy, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawerence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the vadidation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. The papers in this report that address these goals are: MBE-4 mechanical progress, alignment of MBE-4, a compact energy analyzer for MBE-4, Cs+ injector modeling with the EGUN code, an improved emittance scanning system for HIFAR, 2-MV injector, carbon arc source development, beam combining in ILSE, emittance growth due to transverse beam combining in ILSE - particle simulation results, achromatic beam combiner for ILSE, additional elements for beam merging, quadrupole magnet design for ILSE, and waveforms and longitudinal beam-parameters for ILSE

  5. Analytical researches on the accelerating structures, wakefields, and beam dynamics for future linear colliders

    The research works presented in this memoir are oriented not only to the R and D programs towards future linear colliders, but also to the pedagogic purposes. The first part of this memoir (from Chapter 2 to Chapter 9) establishes an analytical framework of the disk-loaded slow wave accelerating structures with can be served as the advanced courses for the students who have got some basic trainings in the linear accelerator theories. The analytical formulae derived in this part describe clearly the properties of the disk-loaded accelerating structures, such as group velocity, shunt impedance, coupling coefficients κ and β, loss factors, and wake fields. The second part (from Chapter 11 to Chapter 13) gives the beam dynamics simulations and the final proposal of an S-Band Superconducting Linear Collider (SSLC) which is aimed to avoid the dark current problem in TESLA project. This memoir has not included all the works conducted since April 1992, such as beam dynamics simulations for CLIC Test Facility (CFT-2) and the design of High Charge Structures (HCS) (11π/12 mode) for CFT-2, in order to make this memoir more harmonious, coherent and continuous. (author)

  6. Design studies and commissioning plans for plasma acceleration research station experimental program

    Plasma acceleration research station is an electron beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration test stand proposed for CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory. In this paper, the interaction between the electron beam and the plasma is numerically characterised via 2D numerical studies by using VSIM code. The wakefields induced by a single bunch travelling through the plasma were found to vary from 200 MV/m to 3 GV/m for a range of bunch length, bunch radius, and plasma densities. Energy gain for the particles populating the bunch tail through the wakefields driven by the head of the bunch was demonstrated. After determining the achievable field for various beams and plasma configurations, a reference setting was determined for further studies. Considering this reference setting, the beam quality studies were performed for a two-bunch acceleration case. The maximum energy gain as well as the energy spread mitigation by benefiting from the beam loading was investigated by positioning the witness and driver bunches with respect to each other. Emittance growth mechanisms were studied considering the beam-plasma and beam-wakefield interactions. Eventually, regarding the findings, the initial commissioning plans and the aims for the later stages were summarised

  7. A proposal of reactor physics research of accelerator drive system using transmutation physics experimental Facility

    Reactor physics section of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) recognizes an accelerator driven system (ADS) as the next generation reactor and to promote researches using it. History of this section activity on ADS, outline of Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility in the 'High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project', a proposal of reactor physics section to the project and future actions of this section are explained. The Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility consists of a fast neutron subcritical system and a nuclear spallation neutron source. The contents of experiments are evaluation of nuclear properties of fast neutron subcritical system driven by nuclear spallation source, verification of operation and control of accelerator driven hybrid system and evaluation of nuclear transmutation characteristics of MA (Minor Actinides) and LLFP (Long-Lived Fission Product). Themes of R and D of ADS contain operation control of ADS, critical control of subcritical system, properties of reactor with nuclear spallation neutron source and nuclear transmutation characteristics. The experimental items are measurement of dynamic characteristics of reactor at beam change, R and D of method of output control and stop, R and D of contentious monitoring method of subcritical multiplication, measurement of dynamic characteristics of behaviors of reactivity, effects on reactor characteristics of high energy neutron, effects on reactor physics of beam duct and large target, nuclear transmutation efficiency and simulation of nuclear transmutation reactor core. (S.Y.)

  8. Application of accelerators in industry, medicine and for environmental research in Almaty Institute of Nuclear Physics

    cyclotron - The variable energy isochronous cyclotron in Almaty is a compact low energy cyclotron, K=50 MeV. It generates different beams of light ions: protons 6-30 MeV, deuterons 12.5-25 MeV, helium-3 ions 18.5-62 MeV, alpha particles 25-50 MeV. In the last years the accelerator is rather intensively used for radioisotope production. For this purpose the cyclotron is equipped with two target systems: High power (up to 10 kW) internal target facility intended for irradiation of the surfaces with very good heat conductivity. Normally it is thin metal layers on the copper backing; External isotope target system for irradiation by low power ion beam (10 n.cm-2.s-1 at the deuteron beam current of 12 μA and energy of 25 MeV. Heavy ion electrostatic tandem - Heavy ion electrostatic tandem with accelerating voltage range of 0.2-1 MV is mainly used as analytical instrument for material characterisation. Routine IBA techniques (RBS, NRA, PIXE) were developed to meet the needs of thin film technology, ecology, composite multi-layer targets technology for radioisotope production at the cyclotron. Micro beam facility is used in radio-ecological research for investigation of elements distribution in separate 'hot' radioactive particulates. (author)

  9. Accelerator-based research activities at 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores', Seville (Spain)

    Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: respaldiza@us.es; Ager, F.J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Carmona, A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Laboratoire de Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bioenvironnementale, Universite de Bordeaux (France); Ferrer, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Leon, M.; Garcia-Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Orellana, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Morilla, Y. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ontalba, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Caceres (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    In February 1998, almost 10 years ago, the set-up of the first IBA (ion beam analysis) facility in Spain took place with the arrival of a 3 MV tandem accelerator [J. Garcia-Lopez, F.J. Ager, M. Barbadillo-Rank, F.J. Madrigal, M.A. Ontalba, M.A. Respaldiza, M.D. Ynsa, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 161-163 (2000) 1137]. Since then, an intensive research program using IBA techniques has been carried out. Subsequently, a cyclotron for 18 MeV protons has been also installed at the 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores' (CNA), devoted mainly to isotope production for PET (positron emission tomography) techniques, but possibly applied to material analysis and damage studies on a dedicated beam line. Moreover, a 1 MV tandem has been recently installed for AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) {sup 14}C dating and environmental research with other isotopes. In the present paper we describe the new facilities and the developments of the 3 MV tandem beam lines occurred during the past years, as well as some examples of the most recent research activities in our Center in the fields of Material Science, Archaeometry, Biomedicine and Environment.

  10. Accelerator-based research activities at 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores', Seville (Spain)

    In February 1998, almost 10 years ago, the set-up of the first IBA (ion beam analysis) facility in Spain took place with the arrival of a 3 MV tandem accelerator [J. Garcia-Lopez, F.J. Ager, M. Barbadillo-Rank, F.J. Madrigal, M.A. Ontalba, M.A. Respaldiza, M.D. Ynsa, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 161-163 (2000) 1137]. Since then, an intensive research program using IBA techniques has been carried out. Subsequently, a cyclotron for 18 MeV protons has been also installed at the 'Centro Nacional de Aceleradores' (CNA), devoted mainly to isotope production for PET (positron emission tomography) techniques, but possibly applied to material analysis and damage studies on a dedicated beam line. Moreover, a 1 MV tandem has been recently installed for AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) 14C dating and environmental research with other isotopes. In the present paper we describe the new facilities and the developments of the 3 MV tandem beam lines occurred during the past years, as well as some examples of the most recent research activities in our Center in the fields of Material Science, Archaeometry, Biomedicine and Environment

  11. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m3 of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations

  12. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor

  13. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    Nitschke, J.M. (ed.)

    1984-04-01

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor.

  14. Building a common pediatric research terminology for accelerating child health research.

    Kahn, Michael G; Bailey, L Charles; Forrest, Christopher B; Padula, Michael A; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal observational clinical data on pediatric patients in electronic format is becoming widely available. A new era of multi-institutional data networks that study pediatric diseases and outcomes across disparate health delivery models and care settings are also enabling an innovative collaborative rapid improvement paradigm called the Learning Health System. However, the potential alignment of routine clinical care, observational clinical research, pragmatic clinical trials, and health systems improvement requires a data infrastructure capable of combining information from systems and workflows that historically have been isolated from each other. Removing barriers to integrating and reusing data collected in different settings will permit new opportunities to develop a more complete picture of a patient's care and to leverage data from related research studies. One key barrier is the lack of a common terminology that provides uniform definitions and descriptions of clinical observations and data. A well-characterized terminology ensures a common meaning and supports data reuse and integration. A common terminology allows studies to build upon previous findings and to reuse data collection tools and data management processes. We present the current state of terminology harmonization and describe a governance structure and mechanism for coordinating the development of a common pediatric research terminology that links to clinical terminologies and can be used to align existing terminologies. By reducing the barriers between clinical care and clinical research, a Learning Health System can leverage and reuse not only its own data resources but also broader extant data resources. PMID:24534404

  15. 砷污染土壤的生物修复研究进展%Research Advance in Bioremediation of Soil Polluted by Arsenic

    杨金红

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the research advance in the microbial remediation, phytoremediation and plant - microbial remediation of soil polluted by arsenic at home and abroad was summarized, and the existing problems and the developmental prospects in this field in the future were analyzed.%综述了国内外对砷污染土壤微生物修复、植物修复及微生物-植物修复技术的应用等方面的研究进展,并对该领域存在的问题和今后的发展趋势作了具体的分析.

  16. Diagnosis of In Situ Metabolic State and Rates of Microbial Metabolism During In Situ Uranium Bioremediation with Molecular Techniques

    Lovley, Derek R

    2012-11-28

    The goal of these projects was to develop molecule tools to tract the metabolic activity and physiological status of microorganisms during in situ uranium bioremediation. Such information is important in able to design improved bioremediation strategies. As summarized below, the research was highly successful with new strategies developed for estimating in situ rates of metabolism and diagnosing the physiological status of the predominant subsurface microorganisms. This is a first not only for groundwater bioremediation studies, but also for subsurface microbiology in general. The tools and approaches developed in these studies should be applicable to the study of microbial communities in a diversity of soils and sediments.

  17. Neutron research and facility development at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator 1970 to 1995

    This report reviews the accomplishments of the first decade of operation of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) and discusses the plans for the facility in the coming decade. Motivations for scientific and applied research during the next decade are included. In addition, ORELA is compared with competing facilities, and prospects for ORELA's improvement and even replacement are reported. Development efforts for the next few years are outlined that are consistent with the anticipated research goals. Recommendations for hardware development include improving the electron injection system to give much larger short-pulse currents on a reliable basis, constructing an Electron Beam Injector Laboratory to help make this improvement possible, continuing a study of possibly replacing the electron accelerator with a proton machine, and replacing or upgrading the facility's data-acquistion and immediate-analysis computer systems. Increased operating time and more involvement of nuclear theorists are recommended, and an effective staff size for optimum use of this unique facility is discussed. A bibliography of all ORELA-related publications is included

  18. Correction of static pressure on a research aircraft in accelerated flight using differential pressure measurements

    A. R. Rodi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A method is described that estimates the error in the static pressure measurement on an aircraft from differential pressure measurements on the hemispherical surface of a Rosemount model 858AJ air velocity probe mounted on a boom ahead of the aircraft. The theoretical predictions for how the pressure should vary over the surface of the hemisphere, involving an unknown sensitivity parameter, leads to a set of equations that can be solved for the unknowns – angle of attack, angle of sideslip, dynamic pressure and the error in static pressure – if the sensitivity factor can be determined. The sensitivity factor was determined on the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft by comparisons with the error measured with a carefully designed sonde towed on connecting tubing behind the aircraft – a trailing cone – and the result was shown to have a precision of about ±10 Pa over a wide range of conditions, including various altitudes, power settings, and gear and flap extensions. Under accelerated flight conditions, geometric altitude data from a combined Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and inertial measurement unit (IMU system are used to estimate acceleration effects on the error, and the algorithm is shown to predict corrections to a precision of better than ±20 Pa under those conditions. Some limiting factors affecting the precision of static pressure measurement on a research aircraft are discussed.

  19. Plasma-Surface Interaction Research At The Cambridge Laboratory Of Accelerator Studies Of Surfaces

    The material requirements for plasma-facing components in a nuclear fusion reactor are some of the strictest and most challenging facing us today. These materials are simultaneously exposed to extreme heat loads (20 MW/m2 steady-state, 1 GW/m2 in millisecond transients) and particle fluxes (>1024 m-2 s-1) while also undergoing high neutron irradiation (1018 neutrons/m2 s). At the Cambridge Laboratory of Accelerator Studies of Surfaces (CLASS), many of the most important issues in plasma-surface interaction research, such as plasma-driven material erosion and deposition, material transport and irradiation and hydrogenic retention are investigated with the use of a 1.7 MV tandem ion accelerator. Ion-Beam Analysis (IBA) is used to investigate and quantify changes in materials due to plasma exposure and ion irradiation is used as a proxy for neutron irradiation to investigate plasma-surface interactions for irradiated materials. This report will outline the capabilities and current research activities at CLASS.

  20. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    This is the fifth annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, as well as the third of the Nuclear and Solid State Research Project at the University of Tsukuba. It contains the short descriptions of the activities during the period from April, 1979, to March, 1980. The 12 UD Pelletron has worked well and was utilized over 2900 hours as the time of beam on targets. The performance of the polarized ion source has been quite good, and it produced the beams of polarized protons and deuterons as well as of alpha particles. The sputter ion source (TUNIS) replaced the direct extraction duoplasmatron in most cases, and it produced the beams of isotopes of O, F, Si, Cl, Ni, Cu, etc., without gas injection. The construction of the second measuring room has been completed, and four beam courses are equipped with a general purpose scattering chamber, the devices for perturbed angular correlation, inner and outer shell ionization, and biological studies. The beam pulsing system was installed on the accelerator, and will be in operation soon. Further efforts have been made to develop detection and data processing systems. The examples of the recent researches mainly under the program of the NSSRP in various fields are enumerated. The exchange and collaboration with other institutions were active. (Kako, I.)

  1. Particle accelerator physics and technology for high energy density physics research

    Interaction phenomena of intense ion- and laser radiation with matter have a large range of application in different fields of science, extending from basic research of plasma properties to applications in energy science, especially in inertial fusion. The heavy ion synchrotron at GSI now routinely delivers intense uranium beams that deposit about 1 kJ/g of specific energy in solid matter, e.g. solid lead. Our simulations show that the new accelerator complex FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at GSI as well as beams from the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) will vastly extend the accessible parameter range for high energy density states. A natural example of hot dense plasma is provided by our neighbouring star the sun, and allows a deep insight into the physics of fusion, the properties of matter at high energy density, and is moreover an excellent laboratory for astro-particle physics. As such the sun's interior plasma can even be used to probe the existence of novel particles and dark matter candidates. We present an overview on recent results and developments of dense plasma physics addressed with heavy ion and laser beams combined with accelerator- and nuclear physics technology. (authors)

  2. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  3. Microbial bioremediation of Uranium: an overview

    Uranium contamination is a worldwide problem. Preventing uranium contamination in the environment is quite challenging and requires a thorough understanding of the microbiological, ecological and biogeochemical features of the contaminated sites. Bioremediation of uranium is largely dependent on reducing its bioavailability in the environment. In situ bioremediation of uranium by microbial processes has been shown to be effective for immobilizing uranium in contaminated sites. Such microbial processes are important components of biogeochemical cycles and regulate the mobility and fate of uranium in the environment. It is therefore vital to advance our understanding of the uranium-microbe interactions to develop suitable bioremediation strategies for uranium contaminated sites. This article focuses on the fundamental mechanisms adopted by various microbes to mitigate uranium toxicity which could be utilized for developing various approaches for uranium bioremediation. (author)

  4. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. PMID:27354013

  5. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment following oil spills. These microorganisms naturally biodegrade numerous contaminating petroleum hydrocarbons, thereby cleansing the oceans of oil pullutants. Bioremediation, which is accomplished by adding exogenous microbial populations or stimulating indigenous ones, attempts to raise the rates of degradation found naturally to significantly higher rates. Seeding with oil degraders has not been demonstrated to be effective, but addition of nitrogenous fertilizers has been shown to increase rates of petroleum biodegradation. In the case of the Exxon Valdez spill, the largest and most thoroughly studied application of bioremediation, the application of fertilizer (slow release or oleophilic) increased rates of biodegradation 3-5 times. Because of the patchiness of oil, an internally conserved compound, hopane, was critical for demonstrating the efficacy of bioremediation. Multiple regression models showed that the effectiveness of bioremediation depended upon the amount of nitrogen delivered, the concentration of oil, and time. (author)

  6. Research on trace elements in biomedicine carried out in Italy using nuclear accelerators

    The present status and perspectives of research on trace elements in biomedicine carried out at Catania, Milan, Naples and Padua-Legnaro are discussed. In these researches, nuclear techniques such as Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton Nuclear Activation (PNA) and Prompt Radiation Analysis (PRA), involving the use of small accelerators, are employed as analytical methods. Different field of application such as dentistry, bone disease, pediatrics and oncology are covered by these activities. The PIXE method is employed for the analysis of serum, hair and bone. In particular, elements like zinc and selenium which play an important role in infancy and oncology, respectively, have been extensively studied. The proton activation method has been applied to investigate the ferrokinetics in plasma. The prompt radiation analysis of the reaction /sup 19/F(p,α) has been used for the determination of the fluorine depth distribution in dental enamel

  7. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  8. MYRRHA, a multipurpose accelerator driven system for research and development. February 2003 Progress status

    SCK-CEN in partnership with IBA s.a. is designing a 40 MWth multipurpose ADS (Accelerator Driven System) for R and D applications - MYRRHA - driven by a proton accelerator delivering a 1.75 MW beam (350 MeV x 5 mA). The spallation target is made of liquid Pb-Bi with a windowless concept in an isolated circuit from the sub-critical core coolant circuit. The sub-critical core is made out of typical fast reactor MOX fuel with a total Pu content limited to 30% in weight. The primary coolant chosen for the core is also liquid Pb-Bi. SCK CEN is conducting an associated R and D support programme for alleviating the most demanding topics as regards to the proposed design. In the first stage, the project focuses mainly on demonstration of the ADS concept and safety research on sub-critical hybrid systems. In a later stage, the device will also be used as an irradiation facility for research on structural materials, nuclear fuel, liquid metals and associated aspects and on sub-critical reactor physics. Subsequently, it will be used for research on applications such as nuclear waste transmutation and radioisotope production. The MYRRHA system is expected to become a major research infrastructure for the European partners involved in the ADS Demo development. The preliminary conceptual design of MYRRHA will be completed at the fall of 2003 and an intensive R and D programme is established. In this paper we will be presenting the MYRRHA concept and will report on the status of the MYRRHA project at the end of 2002 and on the methods and results of the R and D support programme presently conducted at SCK-CEN with a series of partners. (author)

  9. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil Containing Crude Oil

    Casimiro, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated soil containing crude oil is a technique process whereby biological systems are harnessed to affect the clean-up of environmental pollutants. Microbial systems are most widely employed in bioremediation programs, generally in the treatment of soil and water contaminants with organic pollutants. This thesis reports the experiment of treating the soil without use of any chemicals. Four treatments were used for this experiment. All of the treatments were containing...

  10. Solvent enhanced bioremediation of weathered oil contamination

    This paper describes a novel bioremediation process for the treatment of oil spills on land. The method was developed specifically to deal with long term oil contamination where the volatile fractions have evaporated leaving the more recalcitrant fractions. A model system of sand and Kuwaiti crude oil was used to test the system. A combined treatment which introduced an additional solvent component was found to enhance mobility and availability of oil, enhancing bioremediation. (author)

  11. Exploitation of bioremediation in the environment protection

    Alena Luptáková; Mária Praščáková

    2005-01-01

    Soils and waters contaminated with toxic metals pose a major environmental problem that needs an effective and affordable technological solution. Many areas remain contaminated with no remediation in sight because it is too expensive to clean them up with available technologies. Bioremediation may provide an economically viable solution for remediation of some of these sites. The bioremediation is an application of the biological treatment to the cleanup of hazardous chemicals and is an examp...

  12. Acceleration Tolerance: Effect of Exercise, Acceleration Training; Bed Rest and Weightlessness Deconditioning. A Compendium of Research (1950-1996)

    Chou, J. L.; McKenzie, M. A.; Stad, N. J.; Barnes, P. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Ghiasvand, F.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    This compendium includes abstracts and annotations of clinical observations and of more basic studies involving physiological mechanisms concerning interaction of acceleration, training and deconditioning. If the author's abstract or summary was appropriate, it was included. In other cases a more detailed annotation of the paper was prepared under the subheadings Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Author and keyword indices are provided, plus an additional selected bibliography of related work and of those papers received after the volume was prepared for publication. This volume includes material published from 1950-1996.

  13. In situ bioremediation strategies for oiled shoreline environments

    Despite advances in preventative measures, recent events have demonstrated that accidental oil spills at sea will still occur. While physical (e.g. booms and skimmers) and chemical (e.g. chemical dispersants) methods have been developed to recover and/or disperse oil spilled at sea, they are not 100% effective and are frequently limited by operational constraints attributed to sea state and/or nature of the contamination. As a result, oil spills frequently impact shoreline environments. In situ bioremediation, the addition of substances or modification of habitat at contaminated sites to accelerate natural biodegradation processes, is now recognised as an alternative spill response technology of the remediation of these sites. Recommended for use following the physical removal of bulk oil, this treatment strategy has an operational advantage in that it breaks down and/or removes the residual contamination in place. Laboratory experiments and field trials have demonstrated the feasibility and success of bioremediation strategies such as nutrient enrichment to enhance bacterial degradation of oil on cobble, sand beach and salt marsh environments. With improved knowledge of the factors that limit natural oil degradation rates, the feasibility of other strategies such as phytoremediation, enhanced oil-mineral fines interaction and the addition of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors are now being evaluated. Laboratory and field test protocols are being refined for the selection of effective bioremediation agents and methods of application. It is recommended that future operational guidelines include real time product efficacy test and environmental effects monitoring programs. Termination of treatment should be implemented when: 1) it is no longer effective; 2) the oil has degraded to acceptable biologically benign concentrations; or 3) toxicity due to the treatment is increasing. (Author)

  14. Annual report of Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2006. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and Tandem Accelerator

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor-3), JRR-4 (Japan Research Reactor-4) and NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. The following services and technical developments were achieved in Japanese Fiscal Year 2006: 1) JRR-3 was operated for 181 days in 7 cycles and JRR-4 for 149 days in 37 cycles to provide neutrons for research and development of in-house and outside users. 2) JRR-3 and JRR-4 were utilized through deliberate coordination as follows, a) Neutron irradiations of 628 materials, for neutron transmutation doping of silicon etc. b) Capsule irradiations of 3,067 samples, for neutron activation analyses etc. c) Neutron beam experiments of 6,338 cases x days. 3) Concerning to the 10 times increasing plan of cold neutron beams from JRR-3, a pressure resistant test model of the high-performance neutron moderator vessel which had been designed to increase cold neutrons twice as much as the present one was fabricated. Various developments for upgrading cold neutron guide tubes with super mirrors were in progress. 4) Boron neutron capture therapy was carried out 34 times using JRR-4. Improved neutron collimators were built to fit well to any irregular outline for cancer around the neck. 5) NSRR carried out 4 times of pulse irradiations of high burn-up MOX fuels and 9 times of un-irradiated fuels to contribute to fuel safety researches. 6) The Tandem Accelerator was operated for 201 days to contribute to the researches of nuclear physics and solid state physics with high energy heavy ions. The new utilization program of sharing beam times with outside users was performed by carrying out 45 days. The beam intensity increasing program with a high performance ion source, in place of the compact one which has been working in the high voltage terminal, has made great progress. (author)

  15. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1974--1977

    The Bevalac, a versatile high-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex, has been in operation for less than two years. A major purpose for which the Bevalac was constructed was to explore the possibility of heavy-ion teams for therapy for certain forms of cancer. Significant progress has been made in this direction. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the advantages that these and other accelerated particles offer, and heavy ions have been included in a long-term plan for particle therapy that will assess by means of controlled therapeutic tests the value of various modalities. Since accelerated heavy ions became available, the possibility of other contributions, not planned, became apparent. We are developig a new diagnostic method known as heavy-ion radiography that has greatly increased sensitivity for soft-tissue detail and that may become a powerful tool for localizing early tumors and metastases. We have discovered that radioactive beams are formed from fragmentation of stable deflected beams. Use of these autoradioactive beams is just beginning; however, we know that these beams will be helpful in localizing the region in the body where therapy is being delivered. In addition, it has been demonstrated that instant implantation of the radioactive beam allows direct measurements of blood perfusion rates in inaccessible parts of the body, and such a technique may become a new tool for the study of fast hot atom reactions in biochemistry, tracer biology and nuclear medicine. The Bevalac will also be useful for the continuation of previously developed methods for the control of acromegaly, Cushing's disease and, on a research basis, advanced diabetes mellitus with vascular disease. The ability to make small bloodless lesions in the brain and elsewhere with heavy-ion beams has great potential for nervous-system studies and perhaps later for radioneurosurgery

  16. Composting as a tool for bioremediation of contaminated soils: Correlation between bioavailability and prediction of bioremediation results by supercritical fluid extraction

    Cajthaml, Tomáš; Šašek, Václav

    Chania, 2005, s. 18-18. [European Bioremediation Conference /3./. Chania (GR), 04.07.2005-07.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/03/P078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : composting * bioremedation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. Medical research and multidisciplinary applications with laser-accelerated beams: the ELIMED netwotk at ELI-Beamlines

    Tramontana, A.; Anzalone, A.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.; Licciardello, T.; Maggiore, M.; Manti, L.; Margarone, D.; Musumarra, A.; Perozziello, F.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Stancampiano, C.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Torrisi, L.; Tudisco, S.

    2014-04-01

    Laser accelerated proton beams represent nowadays an attractive alternative to the conventional ones and they have been proposed in different research fields. In particular, the interest has been focused in the possibility of replacing conventional accelerating machines with laser-based accelerators in order to develop a new concept of hadrontherapy facilities, which could result more compact and less expensive. With this background the ELIMED (ELIMED: ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) research project has been launched by LNS-INFN researchers (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, IT) and ASCR-FZU researchers (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic-Fyzikální ústar, Prague, Cz), within the pan-European ELI-Beamlines facility framework. Its main purposes are the demonstration of future applications in hadrontherapy of optically accelerated protons and the realization of a laser-accelerated ion transport beamline for multidisciplinary applications. Several challenges, starting from laser-target interaction and beam transport development, up to dosimetric and radiobiological issues, need to be overcome in order to reach the final goals. The design and the realization of a preliminary beam handling and dosimetric system and of an advanced spectrometer for high energy (multi-MeV) laser-accelerated ion beams will be shortly presented in this work.

  18. Medical research and multidisciplinary applications with laser-accelerated beams: the ELIMED netwotk at ELI-Beamlines

    Laser accelerated proton beams represent nowadays an attractive alternative to the conventional ones and they have been proposed in different research fields. In particular, the interest has been focused in the possibility of replacing conventional accelerating machines with laser-based accelerators in order to develop a new concept of hadrontherapy facilities, which could result more compact and less expensive. With this background the ELIMED (ELIMED: ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) research project has been launched by LNS-INFN researchers (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, IT) and ASCR-FZU researchers (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic-Fyzikální ústar, Prague, Cz), within the pan-European ELI-Beamlines facility framework. Its main purposes are the demonstration of future applications in hadrontherapy of optically accelerated protons and the realization of a laser-accelerated ion transport beamline for multidisciplinary applications. Several challenges, starting from laser-target interaction and beam transport development, up to dosimetric and radiobiological issues, need to be overcome in order to reach the final goals. The design and the realization of a preliminary beam handling and dosimetric system and of an advanced spectrometer for high energy (multi-MeV) laser-accelerated ion beams will be shortly presented in this work

  19. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.

    Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

    2014-07-01

    There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios. PMID:24875868

  20. Integrated Learning and Research: The Accelerated Construction Self-Sensing Project

    CHEN Don; CHEN Shenen

    2011-01-01

    To minimize travel delay impact, the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) has been pushing for Accelerated Construction (AC) techniques for public transportation construction.Contrast to traditional construction techniques, AC technology involves extensive applications of pre-fabricated components.This change in construction philosophy offers a great opportunity to introduce the concept of integrating full monitoring of structural construction/aging processes with AC technology via embedded sensors.The resulting structure can be quickly built and is able to self-sense health conditions throughout its service life.In order to introduce the concept and encourage synergistic learning, a joint course between Construction Management course in Engineering Technology (ET) department and Nondestructive Testing course in Civil Engineering (CE) department, has been developed with the course content designed to engage students to research on the Smart Monitoring of Accelerated Construction (SMAC) in a two-stage (ET-CE-ET) project.This innovative approach generates synergies amongst students and encourages them to self-learn new techniques.

  1. Development of an H- ion source for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex upgrade

    A cesium (Cs) free H- ion source driven with a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) filament was adopted as an ion source for the first stage of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). At present, the maximum H- ion current produced by the ion source is 38 mA, using which J-PARC can produce a proton beam power of 0.6 MW by accelerating it with the 181 MeV linac and the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron. In order to satisfy the beam power of 1 MW required for the second stage of the J-PARC in the near future, we have to increase the ion current to more than 60 mA. Therefore, we have started to develop a Cs-seeded ion source by adding an external Cs-seeding system to a J-PARC test ion source that has a structure similar to that of the J-PARC ion source except for the fact that the plasma chamber is slightly larger. As a result, a H- ion current of more than 70 mA was obtained from the ion source using a tungsten filament instead of a LaB6 filament with a low arc discharge power of 15 kW (100 V, 150 A).

  2. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    During the academic year 1980 - 1981, the 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator in UTTAC has experienced several troubles. The accelerator tank had to be opened six times including the scheduled overhaul. Due to these troubles, both the beam time and the chain operation time were reduced by 20% as compared with the preceding year. However, the beam pulsing system was completed, and pulsed beam has been in use. The polarized ion source and the sputter ion source have worked well. A heavy ion booster with interdigital H-structure was designed, and has been under construction. Special efforts have been exerted on the detectors and detector systems. The examples of the achievements mainly associated with the Nuclear and Solid State Research Project are enumerated as follows. The complete experiment on d-p system provided the data on nuclear three body problem. The information about the mechanism of two-nucleon transfer reaction (p,t) was obtained. The mechanisms of (p,p) and (p,d) reactions were clarified. The experiment on the measurement of the magnetic moment of β-emitting products with polarized beam began. The properties of very highly excited states were clarified by the study of heavy ion-induced reactions. A new model for heavy ion fusion reaction was proposed. The mechanism of inner shell ionization was clarified by passing heavy ions through solids. (Kako, I.)

  3. Present state of works on development of electron accelerators for energy consuming processes at Efremov Research Institute

    Necessity to decrease anthropogenic environmental pollution puts a task of development of HV accelerators for introduction of nature conservation technologies in commercial scale. High efficiency and operation reliability in a power range noticeably higher than already mastered level are required. In design of the accelerators basic units, namely, HV generators, accelerating structures, electron beam irradiation field forming systems and extraction devices solutions that demonstrated already theirs operational capacity in the machines of a lesser power may be used. From the other hand, experience gained by already full-scale built powerful installations shows that a number of problems remain unsolved that put obstacles on a way of wide implementation of exhaust gases irradiation processing. Attempts to built the accelerator meeting all requirements in a frame of specific contracts, although already shown noticeable progress in a sense of the power grow, acquiring of very valuable experience, carry some risk caused by insufficient study of the problems connected with power increasing, lack of time and means for the thorough research works. It looks reasonable to suggest creation of full-scale pilot installation with HV accelerator of required power (1 MW, for example) not bound to a specific commercial contract, where researches and studies of the accelerator main systems, theirs optimization and longevity tests can be carried out thus providing development of the accelerator into really reliable and effective tool for applying to environmental tasks

  4. Institute of Electronic Systems in CARE and EuCARD Projects Accelerator and FEL Research, Development and Applications in Europe

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    There are described coordinating actions of the accelerator science in Europe in 2003-2009. The actions embrace basic science, as well as development and applications. The accelerator research was not coordinated in Europe at a global scale but was rather concentrated in a few centers owning large infrastructure. These centers include: CERN, DESY, GSI, INFN, LAL, PSI etc. Such coordinating actions enable a lot of positive processes including new possibilities for research centers in this country. It is much easier for them to extend, deepen or even start from the beginning their activities in the field of the accelerator technology. This field includes also free electron lasers. There are described two European framework projects CARE and EuCARD on accelerator technology, their extent and the participation of ISE WUT in them.

  5. Intercampus institute for research at particle accelerators. Final report, March 15, 1992--September 30, 1995

    NONE

    1997-09-22

    This is the final report to the DOE for the Intercampus Institute for Research at Particle Accelerators, or IIRPA, at least for the San Diego branch. Over the years that DOE supported IIRPA, we were told that yearly reports (and the final report) were not necessary because the previous year`s summary in our annual request for funds constituted those reports. Therefore, it has taken some effort, and a corresponding long time, to put something together, after the fact. The IIRPA was born as an idea that arose during discussions at the 1974 PEP summer study, and began to be funded by DoE during the early stages of PEP detector design and construction. The intent was for the members of the Institute to be responsible for the PEP-9 Facility; all of the PEP experiments were supposed to be facilities, rather than just experimental setups for a particular group or research goal. IIRPA was approved as a Multicampus Research Unit (MRU) in 1977 by the University of California, and it was active on the UCD, UCSB and UCSD campuses for 10 years. This report concentrates on the period of time when the Directorship of IIRPA was once again at the San Diego campus, 1989 to 1995. The collection of yearly reports consisting of research in different areas of particle physics, make up this report in the appendices.

  6. Intercampus institute for research at particle accelerators. Final report, March 15, 1992 - September 30, 1995

    This is the final report to the DOE for the Intercampus Institute for Research at Particle Accelerators, or IIRPA, at least for the San Diego branch. Over the years that DOE supported IIRPA, we were told that yearly reports (and the final report) were not necessary because the previous year's summary in our annual request for funds constituted those reports. Therefore, it has taken some effort, and a corresponding long time, to put something together, after the fact. The IIRPA was born as an idea that arose during discussions at the 1974 PEP summer study, and began to be funded by DoE during the early stages of PEP detector design and construction. The intent was for the members of the Institute to be responsible for the PEP-9 Facility; all of the PEP experiments were supposed to be facilities, rather than just experimental setups for a particular group or research goal. IIRPA was approved as a Multicampus Research Unit (MRU) in 1977 by the University of California, and it was active on the UCD, UCSB and UCSD campuses for 10 years. This report concentrates on the period of time when the Directorship of IIRPA was once again at the San Diego campus, 1989 to 1995. The collection of yearly reports consisting of research in different areas of particle physics, make up this report in the appendices

  7. A new LabVIEW-based control system for the Naval Research Laboratory Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometer

    A new LabVIEW-based control system for the existing tandem accelerator and new AMS components has been implemented at the Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) facility at the Naval Research Laboratory. Through the use of Device Interfaces (DIs) distributed along a fiber optic network, virtually every component of the accelerator system can be controlled from any networked computer terminal as well as remotely via modem or the internet. This paper discusses the LabVIEW-based control software, including remote operation, automatic calculation of ion optical component parameters, beam optimization, and data logging and retrieval

  8. Collaborative Research: Simulation of Beam-Electron Cloud Interactions in Circular Accelerators Using Plasma Models

    Katsouleas, Thomas [USC; Decyk, Viktor [UCLA

    2009-10-14

    Final Report for grant DE-FG02-06ER54888, "Simulation of Beam-Electron Cloud Interactions in Circular Accelerators Using Plasma Models" Viktor K. Decyk, University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 The primary goal of this collaborative proposal was to modify the code QuickPIC and apply it to study the long-time stability of beam propagation in low density electron clouds present in circular accelerators. The UCLA contribution to this collaborative proposal was in supporting the development of the pipelining scheme for the QuickPIC code, which extended the parallel scaling of this code by two orders of magnitude. The USC work was as described here the PhD research for Ms. Bing Feng, lead author in reference 2 below, who performed the research at USC under the guidance of the PI Tom Katsouleas and the collaboration of Dr. Decyk The QuickPIC code [1] is a multi-scale Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code. The outer 3D code contains a beam which propagates through a long region of plasma and evolves slowly. The plasma response to this beam is modeled by slices of a 2D plasma code. This plasma response then is fed back to the beam code, and the process repeats. The pipelining is based on the observation that once the beam has passed a 2D slice, its response can be fed back to the beam immediately without waiting for the beam to pass all the other slices. Thus independent blocks of 2D slices from different time steps can be running simultaneously. The major difficulty was when particles at the edges needed to communicate with other blocks. Two versions of the pipelining scheme were developed, for the the full quasi-static code and the other for the basic quasi-static code used by this e-cloud proposal. Details of the pipelining scheme were published in [2]. The new version of QuickPIC was able to run with more than 1,000 processors, and was successfully applied in modeling e-clouds by our collaborators in this proposal [3-8]. Jean-Luc Vay at Lawrence Berkeley

  9. Two-dimensional numerical research on effects of titanium target bombarded by TEMP Ⅱ accelerator

    Wu Di; Gong Ye; Liu Jin-Yuan; Wang Xiao-Gang; Liu Yue; Ma Teng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical research has been carried out on the ablation effects of titanium target irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) generated by TEMP Ⅱ accelerator. Temporal and spatial evolution of the ablation process of the target during a pulse time has been simulated. We have come to the conclusion that the melting and evaporating process begin from the surface and the target is ablated layer by layer when the target is irradiated by the IPIB. Meanwhile, we also obtained the result that the average ablation velocity in target central region is about 10 m/s, which is far less than the ejection velocity of the plume plasma formed by irradiation. Different effects have been compared to the different ratio of the ions and different energy density of IPIB while the target is irradiated by pulsed beams.

  10. Research Programme for the 660 Mev Proton Accelerator Driven MOX-Plutonium Subcritical Assembly

    Barashenkov, V S; Buttseva, G L; Dudarev, S Yu; Polanski, A; Puzynin, I V; Sissakian, A N

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a research programme of the Experimental Acclerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton acceletator operating at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of the JINR, Dubna. MOX fuel (25% PuO_2 + 75% UO_2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core of a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient k_eff = 0.945, energetic gain G = 30 and the accelerator beam power 0.5 kW.

  11. Big data and comparative effectiveness research in radiation oncology: synergy and accelerated discovery

    Daniel eTrifiletti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several advances in large data set collection and processing have the potential to provide a wave of new insights and improvements in the use of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The era of electronic health records, genomics, and improving information technology resources creates the opportunity to leverage these developments to create a learning healthcare system that can rapidly deliver informative clinical evidence. By merging concepts from comparative effectiveness research with the tools and analytic approaches of big data, it is hoped that this union will accelerate discovery, improve evidence for decision-making, and increase the availability of highly relevant, personalized information. This combination offers the potential to provide data and analysis that can be leveraged for ultra-personalized medicine and high quality, cutting-edge radiation therapy.

  12. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1

  13. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, October 1981-September 1982. Fiscal year 1982

    This report covers the activities of LBL's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) during 1982. In nuclear physics, the Uranium Beams Improvement Project was concluded early in the year, and experimentation to exploit the new capabilities began in earnest. Technical improvement of the Bevalac during the year centered on a heavy-ion radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) as part of the local injector upgrade, and we collaborated in studies of high-energy heavy-ion collision facilities. The Division continued its collaboration with Fermilab to design a beam-cooling system for the Tevatron I proton-antiprotron collider and to engineer the needed cooling components for the antiproton. The high-field magnet program set yet another record for field strength in an accelerator-type dipole magnet (9.2 T at 1.8 K). The Division developed the design for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring designed explicitly (with low beam emittance and 12 long straight sections) to generate high-brilliance synchrotron light from insertion devices. The Division's Magnetic Fusion Energy group continued to support major experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and General Atomic Co. by developing positive-ion-based neutral-beam injectors. Progress was made toward converting our major source-test facility into a long-pulse national facility, the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility, which was completed on schedule and within budget in 1983. Heavy Ion Fusion research focused on planning, theoretical studies, and beam-transport experiments leading toward a High Temperature Experiment - a major test of this promising backup approach to fusion energy

  14. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, October 1981-September 1982. Fiscal year 1982

    Johnson, R.K.; Bouret, C. (eds.)

    1983-05-01

    This report covers the activities of LBL's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) during 1982. In nuclear physics, the Uranium Beams Improvement Project was concluded early in the year, and experimentation to exploit the new capabilities began in earnest. Technical improvement of the Bevalac during the year centered on a heavy-ion radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) as part of the local injector upgrade, and we collaborated in studies of high-energy heavy-ion collision facilities. The Division continued its collaboration with Fermilab to design a beam-cooling system for the Tevatron I proton-antiprotron collider and to engineer the needed cooling components for the antiproton. The high-field magnet program set yet another record for field strength in an accelerator-type dipole magnet (9.2 T at 1.8 K). The Division developed the design for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring designed explicitly (with low beam emittance and 12 long straight sections) to generate high-brilliance synchrotron light from insertion devices. The Division's Magnetic Fusion Energy group continued to support major experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and General Atomic Co. by developing positive-ion-based neutral-beam injectors. Progress was made toward converting our major source-test facility into a long-pulse national facility, the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility, which was completed on schedule and within budget in 1983. Heavy Ion Fusion research focused on planning, theoretical studies, and beam-transport experiments leading toward a High Temperature Experiment - a major test of this promising backup approach to fusion energy.

  15. Neutronic Design of an Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical Research Reactor

    Conceptual design of an accelerator driven sub-critical research reactor (ADSRR), as a new project in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, is suggested for support to the Ministry of science, technologies and development of Republic Serbia, Yugoslavia. This paper show initial results of neutronic analyses of the proposed ADSRR carried out by Monte Carlo based MCNP and SHIELD codes. According to the proposal, the ADSRR would be constructed, in a later phase, at high-energy channel H5B of the VINCY cyclotron of the TESLA Accelerator Installation, that is under completion in the Vinca Institute. The fuel elements of 80%-enriched uranium dioxide dispersed in aluminium matrix, available in the Vinca Institute, are proposed for the ADSRR core design. The HEU fuel elements are placed in aluminium tubes filled by the 'primary moderator' - light water. These 'fuel tubes' are placed in a square lattice within lead matrix in a stainless steel tank. The lead is used as a 'secondary moderator' in the core and as the axial and radial reflector. Such design of the ADSRR shows that this small low neutron flux system can be used as an experimental 'demonstration' ADS with some neutron characteristics similar to proposed well-known lead moderated and cooled power sub-critical ADS with intermediate or fast neutron spectrum. The proposed experimental ADSRR, beside usage as a valuable research machine in reactor and neutron physics, will contribute to following and developing new nuclear technologies in the country, useful for eventual nuclear power option and nuclear waste incineration in future. (author)

  16. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric high-energy physics research

    Chilingarian, Ashot; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Mnatsakanyan, Eduard

    2016-03-01

    Observation of the numerous thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs), i.e., enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it, helped to establish a new scientific topic—high-energy physics in the atmosphere. Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiating high-energy processes in thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Mount Aragats in Armenia during the strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma-ray energy spectra proved that RREAs are a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the "beams" of "electron accelerators" operating in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking in May-June, and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at an altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. All relevant information is being gathered, including data on particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mount Aragats on August 28, 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes.

  17. Fungal Laccases and Their Applications in Bioremediation

    Buddolla Viswanath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are blue multicopper oxidases, which catalyze the monoelectronic oxidation of a broad spectrum of substrates, for example, ortho- and para-diphenols, polyphenols, aminophenols, and aromatic or aliphatic amines, coupled with a full, four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O. Hence, they are capable of degrading lignin and are present abundantly in many white-rot fungi. Laccases decolorize and detoxify the industrial effluents and help in wastewater treatment. They act on both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants, and they can be effectively used in paper and pulp industries, textile industries, xenobiotic degradation, and bioremediation and act as biosensors. Recently, laccase has been applied to nanobiotechnology, which is an increasing research field, and catalyzes electron transfer reactions without additional cofactors. Several techniques have been developed for the immobilization of biomolecule such as micropatterning, self-assembled monolayer, and layer-by-layer techniques, which immobilize laccase and preserve their enzymatic activity. In this review, we describe the fungal source of laccases and their application in environment protection.

  18. Bioremediation of PAHs and VOCs: Advances in clay mineral-microbial interaction.

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Rusmin, Ruhaida; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Bioremediation is an effective strategy for cleaning up organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Advanced bioremediation implies that biotic agents are more efficient in degrading the contaminants completely. Bioremediation by microbial degradation is often employed and to make this process efficient, natural and cost-effective materials can serve as supportive matrices. Clay/modified clay minerals are effective adsorbents of PAHs/VOCs, and readily available substrate and habitat for microorganisms in the natural soil and sediment. However, the mechanism underpinning clay-mediated biodegradation of organic compounds is often unclear, and this requires critical investigation. This review describes the role of clay/modified clay minerals in hydrocarbon bioremediation through interaction with microbial agents in specific scenarios. The vision is on a faster, more efficient and cost-effective bioremediation technique using clay-based products. This review also proposes future research directions in the field of clay modulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbons. PMID:26408945

  19. Research on Utilizing a Multivariate Feedback Algorithm to Maintain Stable Operation of Variable Energy Electron Accelerators

    Measurements performed utilizing particle accelerators rely on the stability and reproducibility of the accelerator operation, most notably for beam flux (beam current) and beam energy. This can be vital when the measurements rely on previous calibrations performed to establish a standard on which to base the end result of the measurement. The authors have designed a monitoring and control virtual instrument (VI) based on National Instruments LabVIEWTM which calls external modeling code that is written in a standard programming language. The LabVIEWTM virtual instrument allows the user to monitor multiple accelerator parameters while permitting user control of the most important four of these parameters which determine machine operation. The external modeling code, the Advanced Data Validation and Verification System (ADVVS), incorporates as a kernel the Universal Process Model (UPM) software from Triant Technologies, Inc. The kernel executes the accelerator modeling function based on previously acquired history data of the relevant parameters for accelerator operation for conditions of interest. This history data is stored as a reference set prior to subsequent operation. During accelerator operation, 11 accelerator parameters are input to ADVVS from the LabVIEWTM virtual instrument. The ADVVS uses the reference files to predict the eleven parameter values that would normally be expected for optimal accelerator operation. The set of 11 model values is the nearest model state. This multivariate modeling approach presented two principal advantages: 1. The ADVVS allowed rapid detection of anomalous accelerator behavior variant from normal accelerator behavior recorded in the reference set of the kernel. 2. The ADVVS presented a methodology to incrementally tune the accelerator back to optimal operation, thus maintaining highly stable and reproducible operation. In the future, this methodology may also be utilized to tune the accelerator initially or move efficiently

  20. Efficacy monitoring of in situ fuel bioremediation

    The wide-scale, multiple-purpose use of fossil fuels throughout the industrialized world has resulted in the inadvertent contamination of myriad environments. Given the scope and magnitude of these environmental contamination problems, bioremediation often represents the only practical and economically feasible solution. This is especially true when depth of contamination, magnitude of the problem, and nature of contaminated material preclude other remedial actions, short of the no-response alternative. From the perspective, the effective, safe and scientifically valid use of in situ bioremediation technologies requires cost-efficient and effective implementation strategies in combination with unequivocal approaches for monitoring efficacy of performance. Accordingly, with support from the SERDP program, the authors are field-testing advanced in situ bioremediation strategies and new approaches in efficacy monitoring that employ techniques instable carbon and nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry. One field demonstration has been initiated at the NEX site in Port Hueneme, CA (US Navy's National Test Site). The objectives are: (1) to use stable isotopes as a biogeochemical monitoring tool for in situ bioremediation of refined petroleum (i.e., BTEX), and (2) to use vertical groundwater circulation technology to effect in situ chemical containment and enhanced in situ bioremediation

  1. Performance parameters for ex situ bioremediation systems

    The potential of biotechnology to reduce the concentration of undesirable hydrocarbons, i.e. gasoline and diesel fuel pollution, is very attractive due to its apparent benign nature and potentially low cost. When good industrial practices are used in the design, construction, and administration of the bioremediation system, the performance of the technology can be predicted and monitored. Some of the principles behind the design, construction, and operation of ex situ bioremediation systems and facilities are described. Biological considerations include creation of a favorable environment for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the soils, selection of bacteria, and bacterial byproducts. Chemical considerations include nutrient augmentation, oxygen availability, and the use of surfactants and dispersants. Physical considerations include soil textures and structures, soil temperatures, moisture content, and the use of bulking agents. Experience has shown that indigenous microbes will usually be sufficient to implement bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons if encouraged through the application of fertilizers. The introduction of additional carbon sources may be considered if rapid bioremediation rates are desired or if soil conditions are poor. Adjustments to a bioremediation system may be made to enhance the performance of the bacterial community by introducing bulking agents and external temperature sources. Surfactants may be helpful in promoting bacteria-hydrocarbon contact and may be particularly useful for mobilization of free-phase hydrocarbons. 7 refs

  2. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites

    Balba, T. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most prevalent contaminants in subsurface soil and groundwater are petroleum hydrocarbons. This paper presented bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons as one of the most promising treatment technologies. Petroleum hydrocarbons are categorized into four simple fractions: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes. Bioremediation refers to the treatment process whereby contaminants are metabolized into less toxic or nontoxic compounds by naturally occurring organisms. The various strategies include: use of constitutive enzymes, enzyme induction, co-metabolism, transfer of plasmids coding for certain metabolic pathways, and production of biosurfactants to enhance bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds. Three case studies were presented: (1) bioremediation of heavy oils in soil at a locomotive maintenance yard in California, involving a multi-step laboratory treatability study followed by a field demonstration achieving up to 94 per cent removal of TPH in less than 16 weeks, (2) bioremediation of light oils in soil at an oil refinery in Germany where a dual process was applied (excavation and in-situ treatment), achieving an 84 per cent reduction within 24 weeks, and (3) bioremediation of oil-contaminated desert soil in Kuwait which involved landfarming, composting piles, and bioventing soil piles, achieving an 80 per cent reduction within 12 months. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  3. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  4. TL dosimetry in the new Tandetron ion accelerator site of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ)

    The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) acquired a positive ions accelerator type Tandetron 2 MV of the dutch company High Voltage Engineering, Europe B.V., which was finished its installation this year (2000) in an already existing building in the Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores Nuclear Centre, where it was prepared for the following purposes: the accelerator will be used to realize research through X-ray emission induced by charged particles, Rutherford backscattering analysis, nuclear reaction analysis, gamma ray emission induced by charged particles, resonant dispersion analysis, elastic backward detection analysis and by particle canalization analysis. The accelerator consists of an injection system with two ion sources, ion accelerator tank with voltage in terminal at 2 MV, recovery and recirculation system of charge interchange gas, iman selector analyzer system and with high energy focussing, control system through computer and management and recovery of isolator gas system. For the realization of operation tests of this accelerator, it was had the license authorizing by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS). During the test stage Tl dosemeters were arranged in the Tandetron accelerator area, and also in direction to the beam outlet. In this work, are presented the obtained results of the measurement of radiation levels, as in the area as in the beam outlet. (Author)

  5. Ex-situ bioremediation of Brazilian soil contaminated with plasticizers process wastes

    I. D. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with wastes from a plasticizers industry, located in São Paulo, Brazil. A 100-kg soil sample containing alcohols, adipates and phthalates was treated in an aerobic slurry-phase reactor using indigenous and acclimated microorganisms from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant of the plasticizers industry (11gVSS kg-1 dry soil, during 120 days. The soil pH and temperature were not corrected during bioremediation; soil humidity was corrected weekly to maintain 40%. The biodegradation of the pollutants followed first-order kinetics; the removal efficiencies were above 61% and, among the analyzed plasticizers, adipate was removed to below the detection limit. Biological molecular analysis during bioremediation revealed a significant change in the dominant populations initially present in the reactor.

  6. Throw it overboard: a commentary on coastal pollution and bioremediation

    Charlier, R.H.; Finkl, C.W.; Krystosyk-Gromadzinska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Charlier, R.H.; Finkl, C.W., and Krystosyk-Gromadzinska, A. 2012. Throw it Overboard: A Commentary on Coastal Pollution and Bioremediation. Journal of Coastal Research, 28(4), 881-890. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.The belief that rivers and oceans cleaned themselves faded as humanity expanded and wastes took on an ever more diversified character. The pollution of waterways, bays, inlets, and gulfs made many of them unusable for water transport. The solution commonly applied is to...

  7. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, October 1980-September 1981. Fiscal year, 1981

    Major accomplishments during fiscal year 1981 are presented. During the Laboratory's 50th anniversary celebrations, AFRD and the Nuclear Science Division formally dedicated the new (third) SuperHILAC injector that adds ions as heavy as uranium to the ion repertoire at LBL's national accelerator facilities. The Bevalac's new multiparticle detectors (the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System and the GSI-LBL Plastic Ball/Plastic Wall) were completed in time to take data before the mid-year shutdown to install the new vacuum liner, which passed a milestone in-place test with flying colors in September. The Bevalac biomedical program continued patient treatment with neon beams aimed at establishing a complete data base for a dedicated biomedical accelerator, the design of which NCI funded during the year. Our program to develop alternative Isabelle superconducting dipole magnets, which DOE initiated in FY80, proved the worth of a new magnet construction technique and set a world record - 7.6 Tesla at 1.8 K - with a model magnet in our upgraded test facility. Final test results at LBL were obtained by the Magnetic Fusion Energy Group on the powerful neutral beam injectors developed for Princeton's TFTR. The devices exceeded the original design requirements, thereby completing the six-year, multi-million-dollar NBSTF effort. The group also demonstrated the feasibility of efficient negative-ion-based neutral beam plasma heating for the future by generating 1 A of negative ions at 34 kV for 7 seconds using a newly developed source. Collaborations with other research centers continued, including: (1) the design of LBL/Exxon-dedicated beam lines for the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory; (2) beam cooling tests at Fermilab and the design of a beam cooling system for a proton-antiproton facility there; and (3) the development of a high-current betatron for possible application to a free electron laser

  8. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, October 1980-September 1981. Fiscal year, 1981

    Johnson, R.K.; Thomson, H.A. (eds.)

    1982-04-01

    Major accomplishments during fiscal year 1981 are presented. During the Laboratory's 50th anniversary celebrations, AFRD and the Nuclear Science Division formally dedicated the new (third) SuperHILAC injector that adds ions as heavy as uranium to the ion repertoire at LBL's national accelerator facilities. The Bevalac's new multiparticle detectors (the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System and the GSI-LBL Plastic Ball/Plastic Wall) were completed in time to take data before the mid-year shutdown to install the new vacuum liner, which passed a milestone in-place test with flying colors in September. The Bevalac biomedical program continued patient treatment with neon beams aimed at establishing a complete data base for a dedicated biomedical accelerator, the design of which NCI funded during the year. Our program to develop alternative Isabelle superconducting dipole magnets, which DOE initiated in FY80, proved the worth of a new magnet construction technique and set a world record - 7.6 Tesla at 1.8 K - with a model magnet in our upgraded test facility. Final test results at LBL were obtained by the Magnetic Fusion Energy Group on the powerful neutral beam injectors developed for Princeton's TFTR. The devices exceeded the original design requirements, thereby completing the six-year, multi-million-dollar NBSTF effort. The group also demonstrated the feasibility of efficient negative-ion-based neutral beam plasma heating for the future by generating 1 A of negative ions at 34 kV for 7 seconds using a newly developed source. Collaborations with other research centers continued, including: (1) the design of LBL/Exxon-dedicated beam lines for the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory; (2) beam cooling tests at Fermilab and the design of a beam cooling system for a proton-antiproton facility there; and (3) the development of a high-current betatron for possible application to a free electron laser.

  9. Nuclear and physical research planning on DC-60 accelerator of L.N. Gumilev Eurasian University

    The Eurasian University heavy ions accelerator was implemented first of all for the purposes of professional university education and advanced nuclear science technologies, but it could be successfully used in researches both in the field of radiation solid state physics and in the field of fundamental nuclear physics. Heavy ions beams with energy up 1.7 MeV/A at currents up to 100 μA and energetic resolution about 1 % of this cyclotron are suitable for nuclear and physical researches for processes running at low and super-low energies. First of all it is supposing to conducting of following researches: 1) Study of elastic and inelastic scattering of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen up to silicon on target nuclei. 2) Study of Coulomb dissociation of nuclei 6Li→α+d and 7Li→α+t in scattering on heavy nuclei which Coulomb field gives necessary photons for going of 6Li(γ,α)d and 7Li(γ,α)t reactions. 3) Measurement of 12C+12C reaction cross sections merging at energies below Coulomb barrier. 4) Measurement of resonance scattering excitation functions in reverse geometry. The indicated above research trends will be demanded for development and creation of special experimental methodic allowing to conduct precision measurements of reaction differential cross sections in subbarrier energy field. For these purposes it is necessary creating a new scattering chambers, systems of target cooling and beam current measurement. At registration of γ-quanta and charged particles the Ge(Li) silicon stripe and other precision-sensitive detectors will be used

  10. Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill

    Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were tested in a field experiment in Delaware, United States to determine the progress of natural and accelerated attenuation during a controlled oil spill. The four treatments studied were: no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum. During the first 14 weeks, microbial numbers were high but were steadily declining with no major differences among treatments. However, after the 14 week period, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results showed that the communities shifted from being composed mostly of eukaryotes to gram-negative bacteria. The dominant species diversity changed and increased significantly over 14 weeks. Nutrient addition and the addition of the indigenous inoculum altered the nature of this change. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of the oil analytes detected major differences in rates of biodegradation between the amended and unamended natural attenuation plots, but not between the nutrient and inoculum plots. 11 refs., 3 figs

  11. Enhanced bioremediation of oil spills in the sea.

    Ron, Eliora Z; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2014-06-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in the sea, including hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria that utilize hydrocarbons almost exclusively as carbon and energy sources. However, the rates at which they naturally degrade petroleum following an oil spill appear to be too slow to prevent oil from reaching the shore and causing environmental damage, as has been documented in the Exxon Valdez and Gulf of Mexico disasters. Unfortunately, there is, at present, no experimentally demonstrated methodology for accelerating the degradation of hydrocarbons in the sea. The rate-limiting factor for petroleum degradation in the sea is availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. Oleophilic fertilizers, such as Inipol EAP 22 and urea-formaldehyde polymers, have stimulated hydrocarbon degradation on shorelines but are less effective in open systems. We suggest uric acid as a potentially useful fertilizer enhancing bioremediation at sea. PMID:24657912

  12. Los Alamos transmutation research: heavy liquid metal coolant technology and accelerator-driven materials test station

    The US Department of Energy is developing technologies needed to reduce the quantity of high-level nuclear waste bound for deep geologic disposal. Los Alamos National Laboratory has a long history of transmutation research in support of this mission. This report summarises two research programmes in the portfolio development of lead-alloy coolant technology and materials, and the Materials Test Station (MTS) using an accelerator-driven spallation target. We have been developing lead and lead-bismuth coolant technology and materials for advanced transmutation and nuclear energy systems since the mid-1990. Our programme mainly consists of operating a medium-scale lead-bismuth eutectic materials and thermal-hydraulic test loop (DELTA), conducting tests and experiments, developing associated coolant chemistry and liquid metal flow measurement and control sensors, instrumentation and systems, building and validating system corrosion models. We are also building a high-temperature natural convection lead test loop using an advanced material (Al-rich oxide dispersion strengthened steel). Key activities and an assessment of the technological readiness level will be given. (authors)

  13. Waste management of radioactive residual material at a research center operating a heavy ion accelerator

    Since the 70th GSI in Darmstadt succesfully operates a large heavy ion accelerator. Limited amounts of Radioactive residual material and waste is produced in addition to great and numerous research results. These residual materials have to be measured, described and declared in order to safely reuse these materials or to dispose them in a controlled way. This is a challenge for the radioactive waste management group. The application areas at the research facility are divided in groups with similar radioactive inventory: - The ion sources with depleted uranium; - The beam line an the surrounding areas with mainly activation nuclides; - The caves for the experiments with activation products as well as contaminations from target material or open sources in rare occasions; - the radiochemical laboratories where all nuclides especially transuranium targets are handled. These nuclides are partially difficult to detect. One of the problems for radioactive waste management is the determination of nuclides and their activities. Another one is the chemical composition of the waste material. Materials with different properties must be strictly separated and described. In this paper the specific problems for all 4 groups are discussed and the characteristic solutions presented. In the future with the new facility FAIR higher beam energies and intensities will require an efficient radioactive waste management for optimised waste reduction and effective handling methods. (orig.)

  14. Pre-design of MYRRHA, A Multipurpose Accelerator Driven System for Research and Development

    One of the main SCKCEN research facility, namely BR2, is nowadays arriving at an age of 40 years just like the major materials testing reactors (MTR) in the world and in Europe (i.e. BR2 (B-Mol), HFR (EU-Petten), OSIRIS (F-Saclay), R2 (S-Studsvik)). The MYRRHA facility in planning has been conceived as potentially replacing BR2 and to be a fast spectrum facility complementary to the thermal spectrum RJH (Reacteur Jules Horowitz) facility, in planning in France. This situation would give Europe a full research capability in terms of nuclear R and D. Furthermore, the disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from industrial nuclear energy production has still to find a fully satisfactory solution, especially in terms of environmental and social acceptability. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce (by a factor of 100 or more) the radio-toxicity of the High Level Waste (HLW) to be stored in a deep geological repository. This can be achieved via burning of minor actinides (MA) and to a less extent of long-lived fission products (LLFP) in Accelerator Driven Systems. The MYRRHA project contribution will be in helping to demonstrate the ADS concept at reasonable power level and the demonstration of the technological feasibility of MA and LLFP transmutation under real conditions

  15. TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF DISPERSION TECHNOLOGY TO AUGMENT BIOREMEDIATION

    J. NEELY - 54GO

    2000-07-01

    The data obtained from this preliminary short-term project demonstrated that dispersants such as 54GO are effective in accelerating the bio-remediation of soils containing contamination from waste oils, diesel, creosote and manufactured gas plant waste. This acceleration appears to be in the observation that 54GO quickly separates the hydrocarbon wastes from the soil particles, thereby allowing closer contact with the microbes. The project time limitations impacted the scope of data but was able to demonstrate a general reduction in the levels of contaminates. In this project only Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons [TPH] and 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAH] were analyzed. These were chosen because they are standardized by EPA methodology. The raw data from these analytical methods indicate that there are many more intermediate metabolizes from the bio-remediation process that were not identified or measured [a limitation of the 17 analyte EPA Method 8270 protocol]. The limited data from these bio-reactors indicates that when both 54GO [dispersant] and stress selected microbes are used the reduction of contaminate metabolizes is the greatest. The use of microbes alone was also effective, but not consistent and to a lesser degree. An additional observation with 54GO, either alone or with microbes is that significant amounts of hydrocarbons were extracted or released from the test soils and became a separate phase floating on the surface of these bio-reactors. The levels of floating oil in these bio-reactors made mixing and sampling difficult tasks. This latter effect of, 54GO, indicates that this family of dispersants are excellent candidates for classic soil washing techniques and may be better served by pre-treating waste soils before mixing with microbes. It is estimated that 75% or more of the hydrocarbons were in the oil phase in these bio-reactors even in low water conditions [saturated soil].

  16. Preliminary research on safety and control characteristics of accelerator driven reactor

    The safety and control characteristics of accelerator driven reactor are studied with calculation and simulation running. The results show that the prompt criticality for accelerator driven reactor does not easily happen, its safety characteristics are better than critical reactor's, the higher the subcritical degree, the better the safety. The control loop of accelerator driven reactor has a little time constant, a little overshoot, and short regulating time, its control characteristics are also better than critical reactor's

  17. Cross-pollination of research findings, although uncommon, may accelerate discovery of human disease genes

    Duda Marlena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological leaps in genome sequencing have resulted in a surge in discovery of human disease genes. These discoveries have led to increased clarity on the molecular pathology of disease and have also demonstrated considerable overlap in the genetic roots of human diseases. In light of this large genetic overlap, we tested whether cross-disease research approaches lead to faster, more impactful discoveries. Methods We leveraged several gene-disease association databases to calculate a Mutual Citation Score (MCS for 10,853 pairs of genetically related diseases to measure the frequency of cross-citation between research fields. To assess the importance of cooperative research, we computed an Individual Disease Cooperation Score (ICS and the average publication rate for each disease. Results For all disease pairs with one gene in common, we found that the degree of genetic overlap was a poor predictor of cooperation (r2=0.3198 and that the vast majority of disease pairs (89.56% never cited previous discoveries of the same gene in a different disease, irrespective of the level of genetic similarity between the diseases. A fraction (0.25% of the pairs demonstrated cross-citation in greater than 5% of their published genetic discoveries and 0.037% cross-referenced discoveries more than 10% of the time. We found strong positive correlations between ICS and publication rate (r2=0.7931, and an even stronger correlation between the publication rate and the number of cross-referenced diseases (r2=0.8585. These results suggested that cross-disease research may have the potential to yield novel discoveries at a faster pace than singular disease research. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the frequency of cross-disease study is low despite the high level of genetic similarity among many human diseases, and that collaborative methods may accelerate and increase the impact of new genetic discoveries. Until we have a better

  18. Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and

  19. Stable isotope probing in the metagenomics era: a bridge towards improved bioremediation

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Strejcek, Michal; Musilova, Lucie; Mackova, Martina; Leigh, Mary Beth; Macek, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biodegradation and biotransformation reactions are essential to most bioremediation processes, yet the specific organisms, genes, and mechanisms involved are often not well understood. Stable isotope probing (SIP) enables researchers to directly link microbial metabolic capability to phylogenetic and metagenomic information within a community context by tracking isotopically labeled substances into phylogenetically and functionally informative biomarkers. SIP is thus applicable as a...

  20. Importance of rhizosperic bacteria for bioremediation and approaches for their studies

    Macek, Tomáš; Uhlík, Ondřej; Šanda, Miloslav; Hlaváčová, E.; Ječná, K.; Štursa, P.; Macková, M.

    Bratislava: Copycentrum PACI, 2008. s. 28-29. ISBN 978-80-969950-0-4. [Contaminants and nutrients: Availability, accumulation/exclusion and plant-microbia-soil interactions. 22.05.2008-24.05.2008, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : rhizosphere * bioremediation * metabolisation * xenebiotics Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  1. Ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil during bioremediation: a case study

    Hubálek, Tomáš; Vosáhlová, S.; Matějů, V.; Kováčová, Nora; Novotný, Čeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-7. ISSN 0090-4341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B030; GA AV ČR KJB600200514 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bioremediation * ecotoxicity * hydrocarbon-contaminated soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.620, year: 2007

  2. Ripening of PAH and TPH polluted sediments : determination and quantification of bioremediation parameters

    Vermeulen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, bioremediation parameters were determined and quantified for different clayey dredged sediments. The research described in this thesis increased the insight into the individual processes of physical ripening, biochemical ripening – including PAH and TPH degradation – that result from

  3. Bioremediation of PAH-Contaminated Soil by Composting: A Case Study

    Cajthaml, Tomáš; Bhatt, M.; Šašek, Václav; Matějů, V.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2002), s. 696-700. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : bioremediation * pah-contaminated * soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  4. BIOSTIMULATION CAN SOMETIMES ENHANCE ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP - An Editorial Viewpoint on Bioremediation

    The Exxon Valdex oil spill, which led to the enactment of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, gave rise to the largest bioremediation field trial ever attempted. A research sutdy was conducted by EPA in 1989 and 1990 to develop data to support the recommendation to go forward w...

  5. Bioremediation of oil spills in the United States

    The involvement of EPA in the cleanup of oil-contaminated beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, has generated a significant research effort in oil spill cleanup technology within EPA's Office of Research and Development. Because of the successful use of bioremediation in the Alaskan spill, a considerable portion of the research has been directed toward its further development, particularly as it might apply to other types of beaches and open water. In hindsight the problems faced in the application of bioremediation on the beaches of Prince William Sound appear relatively straightforward. First, the major obstacle of logistics on remote beaches was effectively overcome by using the operational capabilities created by the massive physical washing operation conducted from barges. Second, oil-degrading microbial communities were rapidly enriched in the oil-contaminated beach material, including subsurface, thereby precluding the need for any inoculation procedures. This situation, however, created a significant increased demand for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients that was met through the application of commercially available fertilizers. Natural biodegradation of the oil was enhanced by the addition of fertilizer, substantially aiding in the overall cleanup operation. Third, the extremely high porosity of the cobblestone and mixed sand and gravel beach material allowed oil to be spread over a large surface area, thereby improving availability to the oil-degrading microbial communities and allowing, through tidal and wave action, the constant replenishment of oxygen. In addition, it created a high dilution capability that effectively prevented the accumulation of ammonia

  6. Research coordination meeting of the coordinated research project on analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems. Working material

    The Technical Meeting hosted at the Belarus National Academy of Sciences in Minsk by the Joint Institute of Power Engineering and Nuclear Research 'SOSNY' from 5-9 December 2005 was the kick-off Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)'. The CRP had received proposals for research agreements and contracts from scientists representing the following 25 institutions: Centro Atomico Bariloche, SCK CEN Mol, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares Sao Paulo, Joint Institute of Power Engineering and Nuclear Research SOSNY Minsk, China Institute of Atomic Energy, CEA Cadarache, CNRS Paris, FZ Rossendorf, FZ Karlsruhe, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Politecnico di Torino, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) Petten, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AGH-University of Science and Technology Krakow, Institute of Atomic Energy Otwock/Swierk, ITEP Moscow, MEPHI Moscow, Kurchatov Institute, JINR Dubna, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, CIEMAT Madrid, Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute and Technology', and Argonne National Laboratory). These institutions represent 18 IAEA Member States (i.e., Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, USA), and one International Organization (JINR Dubna). The overall objective of the CRP is contributing to the generic R and D efforts in various fields common to innovative fast neutron system development, i.e., heavy liquid metal thermal hydraulics, dedicated transmutation fuels and associated core designs, theoretical nuclear reaction models, measurement and evaluation of nuclear data for transmutation, and development and validation of calculational methods and codes. Ultimately, the CRP

  7. Trajectories of Microbial Community Function in Response to Accelerated Remediation of Subsurface Metal Contaminants

    Firestone, Mary [Regents of the Univ. of Callifornia, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Objectives of proposed research were to; Determine if the trajectories of microbial community composition and function following organic carbon amendment can be related to, and predicted by, key environmental determinants; Assess the relative importance of the characteristics of the indigenous microbial community, sediment, groundwater, and concentration of organic carbon amendment as the major determinants of microbial community functional response and bioremediation capacity; and Provide a fundamental understanding of the microbial community ecology underlying subsurface metal remediation requisite to successful application of accelerated remediation and long-term stewardship of DOE-IFC sites.

  8. Accelerating the design and testing of LEU fuel assemblies for conversion of Russian-designed research reactors outside Russia

    This paper identifies proposed geometries and loading specifications of LEU tube-type and pin-type test assemblies that would be suitable for accelerating the conversion of Russian-designed research reactors outside of Russia if these fuels are manufactured, qualified by irradiation testing, and made commercially available in Russia. (author)

  9. A curated and standardized adverse drug event resource to accelerate drug safety research.

    Banda, Juan M; Evans, Lee; Vanguri, Rami S; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Ryan, Patrick B; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-01-01

    Identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the post-marketing phase is one of the most important goals of drug safety surveillance. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) data, which are the mainstay of traditional drug safety surveillance, are used for hypothesis generation and to validate the newer approaches. The publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data requires substantial curation before they can be used appropriately, and applying different strategies for data cleaning and normalization can have material impact on analysis results. We provide a curated and standardized version of FAERS removing duplicate case records, applying standardized vocabularies with drug names mapped to RxNorm concepts and outcomes mapped to SNOMED-CT concepts, and pre-computed summary statistics about drug-outcome relationships for general consumption. This publicly available resource, along with the source code, will accelerate drug safety research by reducing the amount of time spent performing data management on the source FAERS reports, improving the quality of the underlying data, and enabling standardized analyses using common vocabularies. PMID:27193236

  10. Numerical research on flow accelerated corrosion mechanism behind the orifice. Numerical simulation close to the wall

    The accident to which the secondary system piping of the Mihama Power Station Unit-3 was damaged in August, 2004 happened. This is due to thinning of the pipe, and it is thought to be flow accelerated corrosion mechanism (FAC). The turbulence kinetic energy is considered as one of the flow factors in FAC. This is because the location where the amount of thinning is large and the parts where the turbulence kinetic energy is high are corresponding comparatively well. However, the causal relation between both parts is not clarified enough and the research advances now. Then, the flow field in the orifice downstream is calculated by the numerical simulation. The numerical simulation of LES in flow field (Re=25000) in the orifice downstream is performed. The distribution of the turbulence kinetic energy indicates the maximum value at the position that depended on β of the open area ratio of the orifice. In the rough side shape, the position in which the turbulence kinetic energy shows the maximum changes depending on the distance from the wall. (author)

  11. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems'

    In December 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has started a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWGFR) of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department, is to increase the capability of interested Member States in developing and applying advanced reactor technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. The specific objective of the CRP is to improve the present understanding of the coupling of an external neutron source (e.g. spallation source) with a multiplicative sub-critical core. The participants are performing computational and experimental benchmark analyses using integrated calculation schemes and simulation methods. The CRP aims at integrating some of the planned experimental demonstration projects of the coupling between a sub-critical core and an external neutron source (e.g. YALINA Booster in Belarus, and Kyoto University's Critical Assembly (KUCA)). The objective of these experimental programs is to validate computational methods, obtain high energy nuclear data, characterize the performance of sub-critical assemblies driven by external sources, and to develop and improve techniques for sub-criticality monitoring. The paper summarizes preliminary results obtained to-date for some of the CRP benchmarks. (authors)

  12. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) half-year report: October 1, 1986-March 31, 1987

    For this report we have collected the papers presented by the HIFAR group at the IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference held in Washington, DC, on March 16-19, 1987, which essentially coincides with the end of the reporting period. In addition, we report on research to determine the cause of the failures of Re-X insulator that are used as the high-voltage feed-through for the electrostatic quadrupoles on MBE-4. This report contains papers on the following topics: LBL multiple beam experiments, pulsers for the induction linac experiment (MBE-4), HIF insulator failure, experimental measurement of emittance growth in mismatched space-charge dominated beams, the effect of nonlinear forces on coherently oscillating space-charge dominated beams, space-charge effects in a bending magnet system, transverse combining of nonrelativistic beams in a multiple beam induction linac, comparison of electric and magnetic quadrupole focusing for the low energy end of an induction-linac-ICF driver. Eight individual papers have been indexed separately

  13. Research on the Mechanism of Accelerator for Photocurable Resin in 3D Printing

    LIU Hai-tao; MO Jian-hua; HUANG Xiao-mao

    2009-01-01

    The photopolymerization kinetics of cycloaliphatic epoxide and oxetane with accelerators were investigated with Real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (RT-FTIR). The consumption rates of epoxy group and oxetane group as a function of time were obtained by monitoring of the absorption peaks in the 789 cm-1 and 981 cm-1. The effect of accelerators type and the accelerating mechanism were discussed. In general, benzyl alcohol and its analogues with electron-donating substituents are useful accelerators for the cationic polymerization of cycloaliphatic epoxide and oxetane. Activated monomer mechanism and free-radical chain-induced decomposition of onium salt cationic photoinitiator account for the observed accelerating effect on the polymerization rate.

  14. The status of fast reactor technology development and accelerator driven subcritical system researches in China

    Since last May in mainland China there are two nuclear power plants with total capacity of 2.1 GWe in operation and four NPPs in construction. It is envisaged that the total nuclear power capacity will be about 8.5 GWe in the year 2005. Recently the Government is considering four other new NPPs with a total capacity of about 4 GWe and starting their construction during 'tenth five years Plan' (2001-2005). The three new nuclear systems, FBR, ADS and Hybrid, have started to be developed with a rather moderate project and are all still in the early stage. For fast reactor engineering development, the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) of 65 MWt is the first step. After some additional accidents analysis, especially sodium spray fire accident analysis, the reactor building construction will be continued. The main components including of the reactor block, primary and secondary circuits, fuel handling system have been ordered. It is foreseen to have CEFR reaching first criticality at the end of 2005. The second step 300 MWe Modular Fast Reactor (MPFR) is under consideration, which will be a prototype for large size fast reactor. Based on the size of MPFR, the role of MA transmutation has been evaluated. For the Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS), we are making great efforts to accomplish the research tasks worked out in the first phase program (1998-2002) with emphasis on the system optimization, reactor physics and technology, accelerator physics and technology and nuclear and material data base, and are enthusiastically preparing to step to the second phase program which is marked by ADS concept verification study (2000-2007). As to the Fusion-Fission Hybrid System, in near-term the emphasis will be put on the experiments on two big testing facilities HL-1M and HT-7 on one hand, and on the other hand, we will determine the targets of medium-term and long-term development for Hybrid system and work out relative development program

  15. PLOCAN, an Off-shore environmentally sustainable infrastructure to accelerate ocean research, development and innovation at increasing depths.

    Hernández Brito, Joaquín; Delory, Eric; Llinás, Octavio

    2010-01-01

    The Canary Islands Oceanic Platform (PLOCAN) is a public infrastructure for research, development and innovation in the fields of ocean science and technology at increasing depths. Located East of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, Spain), PLOCAN will provide rapid access to great depths at short distance from the shore, accelerating research and the generation of water column and deep-ocean knowledge. Specifically, PLOCAN will host a permanent deep-sea observatory, be a t...

  16. Bioremediation of Copper Contaminated Soil Using Bacteria

    Parul Bhatt Kotiyal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is the use of living organisms (primarily microorganisms for removal of a pollutant from the biosphere. It relies on biological processes to minimize an unwanted environment impact of the pollutants. The microorganisms in particular have the abilities to degrade, detoxify and even accumulate the harmful organic as well as inorganic compounds. Five soil samples were collected from Selaqui industrial area, from different places at a depth of 0-15 cm. These soil samples were subjected to dilution (1:10, then from these dilution 4 and 5 were used for inoculation. Nutrient agar plates were prepared to be used as media. Replica of each dilution was prepared. After 24 hours of incubation at 28 degree centigrade bacterial colonies were observed on the plates. These cultures were purified to get 10 bacterial cultures. Further these cultures were inoculated in 10ml of nutrient broths each and after dense growth were inoculated in 10gm of soil samples in petriplates and were incubated for four days and then copper was estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique and compared with the levels of copper obtained that were not inoculated with bacterial strains. The soil samples collected are all alkaline in nature; all the 10 isolated bacteria are gram negative and are chained cocci in structure. Sample 1 and 2, both dilutions have shown reduction in the amount of copper as compared to original soil samples without bacterial inoculation. According to this research sample 1 and sample 2 have shown reduction in the copper levels as compared to the raw soil samples that is without bacterial inoculation in them.

  17. Enhancement of the microbial community biomass and diversity during air sparging bioremediation of a soil highly contaminated with kerosene and BTEX

    Kabelitz, N.; Macháčková, I.; Imfeld, G.; Brennerová, Mária; Pieper, D. H.; Heipieper, H. J.; Junca, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2009), s. 565-577. ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : btex * air sparging * bioremediation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2009

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYLACTIC ACID COLLOIDS FOR IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION

    Ashley N. Westbrook

    2003-07-01

    instead. Polylactic acid (PLA) is a polymer of lactic acid, C3H6O3 [3]. PLA is used in medicine and agriculture. In medicine, PLA is used in sutures because it degrades within the body after the incision has healed. In agriculture, PLA is used in combination with polyglycolic acid for the release of chemicals [4]. We expect PLA to degrade in the ground at a rate that allows bioremediation to occur as intended. Currently, bioremediation of chlorinated solvents involves injecting nutrient containing solvents into the ground to induce the expected activity of the microbes. The solution must have a proper amount of nutrients for the microbes to metabolize so that they can continue to degrade the contaminants. If too much nutrient is available, and the microbes multiply too fast and clog the injection point, the solution may not reach the area where the contaminants are. One way to slowly release the nutrients for bioremediation is to package them as colloids. Colloids are particles that are less than one micrometer in size, with surface chemical properties that allow them to remain suspended in water and, therefore, to travel with water. Our research addresses the problem of packaging nutrients as colloids to support bioremediation.

  19. Induction accelerators and free-electron lasers at LLNL: Beam Research Program

    Linear induction accelerators have been developed to produce pulses of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capabilities of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multistage induction machine. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high repetition rates practical, and high-average-power capability is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines. In Part A of this paper, we survey the US induction linac technology, emphasizing electron machines. We also give a simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam to illustrate many general issues that designers of high-brightness and high-average-power induction linacs must consider. We give an example of the application of induction accelerator technology to the relativistic klystron, a power source for high-gradient accelerators. In Part B we address the application of LIAs to free-electron lasers. The multikiloampere peak currents available from linear induction accelerators make high-gain, free-electron laser amplifier configurations feasible. High extraction efficiencies in a single mass of the electron beam are possible if the wiggler parameters are appropriately ''tapered'', as recently demonstrated at millimeter wavelengths on the 4-MeV ELF facility. Key issues involved in extending the technology to shorter wavelengths and higher average powers are described. Current FEL experiments at LLNL are discussed. 5 refs., 16 figs

  20. BIOREMEDIATION AT WOOD-PRESERVING SITES

    The removal of organic compounds from ground water during bioremediation at wood-preserving sites is a function of the stoichiometric demand for electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate) to metabolize the organic contaminants and the supply of the electron acceptors in th...

  1. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  2. States' attitudes on the use of bioremediation

    Results from a telephone survey of state government program coordinators and representatives from companies performing full-scale bioremediation shows differences among states in the use and degree of acceptance of bioremediation for environmental cleanup. The survey also found that states vary in the potential future direction of regulatory activity concerning bioremediation. The survey focused primarily on underground storage tank (UST) cleanups. Diminishing state UST cleanup funds have provided the impetus for many states to consider alternative cost-effective measures in order to continue with cleanups. In recent years, more than 30 states have either implemented programs that consider the cost-effectiveness of various cleanup measures, or are considering adoption of programs that are founded on risk-based corrective action. Less than a dozen states were considered as having made significant strides in innovative technology utilization. Forums whereby state groups can exchange ideas and experiences associated with the practical application of bioremediation will facilitate this nationwide movement towards cost-effective cleanup

  3. Bioremediation: Effectiveness in reducing the ecological impact

    Bioremediation becomes an important technique in oil spill combat programmes. The purpose is to shorten the exposure time of biota to oil compounds, in order to reduce long term environmental effects. Although bioremediation products have the advantage of stimulating the natural capacity to degrade oil, there are some limitations to be considered. Application as a technique for first emergency actions following an oil spill is not effective, and can therefore be no alternative for dispersion or mechanical removal of floating or freshly stranded oil slicks. Acute toxic effects are related to the short term exposure to unweathered oils. An immediate removal of oil is necessary to reduce the extent of the environmental impact of an oil spill. Physical processes (transport, dilution and evaporation) are determining the initial fate of environmentally released oil. Biodegradation only becomes important as a process of removing oil in the next phase. It is the only effective way to further reduce the concentration of oil that is left in (intertidal) coastal areas. Bioremediation thus reduces the duration of the environmental impact of an oil spill. This is especially important in ecosystems with a low recovery potential (e.g., salt marshes, rocky shores). The experimental evaluation of bioremediation products is mainly based on the capacity to reduce fresh oil and the acute toxicity of the product itself, rather than on the capacity to enhance the further reduction of weathered oil and the toxicological consequences of higher release rates of intermediate metabolites produced during the biotransformation processes

  4. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1985-September 30, 1985

    1985-10-01

    The heavy ion accelerator is profiled. Energy losses, currents, kinetic energy, beam optics, pulse models and mechanical tolerances are included in the discussion. In addition, computational efforts and an energy analyzer are described. 37 refs., 27 figs. (WRF)

  5. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1985-September 30, 1985

    The heavy ion accelerator is profiled. Energy losses, currents, kinetic energy, beam optics, pulse models and mechanical tolerances are included in the discussion. In addition, computational efforts and an energy analyzer are described. 37 refs., 27 figs

  6. Linear accelerator of All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics for neutron spectrometry

    The electron linear accelerator intended for neutron spectrometry with a nominal energy of about 55 MeV at currents of 10 A in electron pulse repetition rate of 2400 Hz started in 1985 is described. The special features of linac construction, the measuring complex assembly, the results of spectrum measurements and neutron yield of uranium target are given. The possibilities of accelerator development for increasing the pulse current and pulse length shortening are considered. (orig.)

  7. Report of the Subpanel on Accelerator Research and Development of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Accelerator R and D in the US High Energy Physics (HEP) program is reviewed. As a result of this study, some shift in priority, particularly as regards long-range accelerator R and D, is suggested to best serve the future needs of the US HEP program. Some specific new directions for the US R and D effort are set forth. 18 figures, 5 tables

  8. Report of the Subpanel on Accelerator Research and Development of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    1980-06-01

    Accelerator R and D in the US High Energy Physics (HEP) program is reviewed. As a result of this study, some shift in priority, particularly as regards long-range accelerator R and D, is suggested to best serve the future needs of the US HEP program. Some specific new directions for the US R and D effort are set forth. 18 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

  9. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    Jennifer L. Wood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediation strategy investigated for remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Although the efficiency of phytoextraction remains a limiting feature of the technology, there are numerous reports that soil microorganisms can improve rates of heavy metal extraction.This review highlights the unique challenges faced when remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils as compared to static aquatic systems and suggests new strategies for using microorganisms to improve phytoextraction. We compare how microorganisms are used in soil bioremediation (i.e. phytoextraction and water bioremediation processes, discussing how the engineering of microbial communities, used in water remediation, could be applied to phytoextraction. We briefly outline possible approaches for the engineering of soil communities to improve phytoextraction either by mobilizing metals in the rhizosphere of the plant or by promoting plant growth to increase the root-surface area available for uptake of heavy metals. We highlight the technological advances that make this research direction possible and how these technologies could be employed in future research.

  10. Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry using TANDEM accelerator in National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya

    Mizota, Takeshi; Nakao, Setsuo; Niwa, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazuo [Particle Beam Sceince Laboratory, Multi-Function Material Science Department, National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry (PDMS) analysis was studied using TANDEM accelerator. The heavy ions of MeV range emit the secondary ions of atoms, molecules, polymers and clusters from the irradiated samples without destruction. The analysis system of PDMS designed and set-up using a mass spectrometer of Time of Flight and the TANDEM accelerator. The system performance was tested for C-60 fullerene on the surface of the samples using 11.2 MeV {sup 28}Si beams produced by the TANDEM accelerator of 1.7MV. The result shows that the hydrogen and hydrocarbons can be analyzed in the range of 1amu unit. The resolution (M/{delta}M) of the Mass Spectrometry system is confirmed to be about 1000 from the separation of the 720 and 721amu peaks, which is attributed to the C-60 fullerene including {sup 13}C atoms. (H. Katsuta)

  11. Accelerator research studies: Technical progress report for the period June 1, 1986 to May 31, 1987

    Progress is reported in the study of instabilities and emittance growth in periodic focusing systems for intense beams, collective ion acceleration by intense electron beams and pulse-powered plasma focus, and microwave sources and parameter scaling for high-frequency linacs. Results of a solenoid lens realignment are reported. Theoretical work with particle simulation codes is underway. Laser-controlled collective ion acceleration was demonstrated, a time-resolved Thomson spectrometer was developed, and theoretical studies have led to the development of improved analytical and simulation models describing the equilibrium state and the collective acceleration mechanism in an electron beam with co-moving ions. Progress is reported in the development of a gyroklystron electron gun, and theoretical work on frequency scaling and wakefield effects resulting in codes for quick evaluation of different parameter regimes for electron-positron colliders is discussed. Studies of quadrupole wakefield effects have commenced

  12. Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): a biogerontological resource in aging research.

    Takeda, T

    1999-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), consisting of 14 senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) and 4 senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR) has been under development since 1970 through the selective inbreeding of AKR/J strain mice donated by the Jackson laboratory in 1968, based on the data of the grading score of senescence, life span, and pathologic phenotypes. The characteristic feature of aging common to all SAMP and SAMR mice is accelerated senescence and normal aging, respectively. Furthermore, SAMP and SAMR strains manifest various pathobiological phenotypes which include such neurobiological phenotypes as deficits in learning and memory, emotional disorders, abnormal circadian rhythms, brain atrophy, hearing impairment, etc., and are often characteristic enough to differentiate the strains. Various efforts are currently being made using the SAM model to clarify the underlying mechanisms in accelerated senescence as well as the etiopathogenic mechanisms in age-associated pathobiologies. Genetic background and significance of SAM development are discussed. PMID:10537019

  13. Bioremediation in Germany: Markets, technologies, and leading companies

    Bioremediation has become an internationally accepted remediation tool. Commercial bioremediation activities take place in many European countries, but Germany and the Netherlands are the clear European leaders, with both having a long history of public and private sector activity in biological technologies. The German bioremediation market has been driven by government regulation, in particular the waste laws that apply to contaminated soils. The 1994 German market for bioremediation is estimated at $70 to 100 million (US $). There are at least 150 companies active in bioremediation in Germany, most of which practice bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, either in situ or ex situ. Because of their predominance in the current European market, German firms are well positioned to expand into those nations in the European Union (EU) currently lacking an environmental business infrastructure

  14. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: are treatability and ecotoxicity endpoints related?

    To determine if there is a relationship between biotreatability and ecotoxicity endpoints in a wide range of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, including medium and heavy crude oil-contaminated flare pit wastes and lubrication oil contaminated soil, research was conducted. Each test material was analyzed for pH, water repellency, electrical conductivity, available N and P, total extractable hydrocarbons, oil and grease, and toxicity to seedling emergence, root elongation in barley, lettuce and canola, earthworm survival and luminescent bacteria (Microtox), prior to, and following three months of bioremediation in the laboratory. By monitoring soil respiration, progress of the bioremediation process and determination of a treatment endpoint were assessed. The time required to attain a treatment endpoint under laboratory conditions can range from 30 days to 100 days depending on the concentration of hydrocarbons and degree of weathering. Most flare pits are biotreatable, averaging a loss of 25-30% of hydrocarbons during bioremediation. Once a treatment endpoint is achieved, residual hydrocarbons contents almost always exceeds Alberta Tier I criteria for mineral oil and grease. As a result of bioremediation treatments, hydrophobicity is often reduced from severe to low. Many flare pit materials are still moderately to extremely toxic after reaching a treatment endpoint. (Abstract only)

  15. Beam trajectory simulation program at the National Institute of Nuclear Research Tandem Accelerator facility

    The main object of this thesis is to show in a clear and simple way to the people in general, the function of the Tandem Accelerator located on site the ININ facilities. For this presentation, a computer program was developed. The software written in C language in a structural form, simulates the ion production and its trajectory in a schematic and in an easy way to comprehend. According to the goals of this work, the simulation also shows details of some of the machine components like the source, the accelerator cavity, ,and the bombarding chamber. Electric and magnetic fields calculations are included for the 90 degrees bending magnet and quadrupoles. (Author)

  16. Improving Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soils by Thermal Pretreatment

    Bonten, L.T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous sites and large volumes of sediments in the Netherlands are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are of great concern because of their toxic and carcinogenic effects. Since PAH tend to sorb very strongly to the soil matrix, bioremediation is a slow process with often high residual concentrations after remediation. In this study it was tried to develop methods to improve bioremediation, this means to decrease residual concentrations after bioremediation. In ...

  17. Endophytic microorganisms—promising applications in bioremediation of greenhouse gases

    Z. Stępniewska; Kuźniar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation is a technique that uses microbial metabolism to remove pollutants. Various techniques and strategies of bioremediation (e.g., phytoremediation enhanced by endophytic microorganisms, rhizoremediation) can mainly be used to remove hazardous waste from the biosphere. During the last decade, this specific technique has emerged as a potential cleanup tool only for metal pollutants. This situation has changed recently as a possibility has appeared for bioremediation of other polluta...

  18. Induction accelerators

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  19. Molecular Tools for Monitoring and Validating Bioremediation

    Stenuit, Ben; Eyers, Laurent; Schuler, Luc; George, Isabelle; Agathos, Spiros N.

    Bioremediation is now in a position to take advantage of genomic-driven strategies to analyze, monitor and assess its course by considering multiple micro-organisms with various genomes, expressed transcripts and proteins. High-throughput methodologies, including microarrays, fingerprinting, real-time PCR, metagenomics and metaproteomics, show great promise in our environmental interventions against recalcitrant contaminants such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) that we have been studying for many years. The emerging genomic and metagenomic methodologies will allow us to promote or restore environmental health in impacted sites, monitor remediation activities, identify key microbial players and processes, and finally compile an intelligent database of genes for targeted use in bioremediation.

  20. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants

    Cameotra, S.S.; Makkar, R.S. [Inst. of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-01-15

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and - philic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures-lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crude on sludge, and pesticides call be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released into the environment as a result of oil spillage and by-products of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of these compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential hioremediation applications.

  1. Accelerator Research Studies. Annual report for June 1, 2003 - May 31, 2004

    O' Shea, P. G.; Reiser, M.; Granatstein, V. L.; Lawson, W.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R.

    2004-01-23

    The report provides a summary progress on three tasks: Task A: Study of the Physics of Space-Charge Dominated Beams for Advanced Accelerator Applications; Task B: Studies of High-Power Gyroklystrons and Application to Linear Colliders; and, Task C: Theory and Simulation of the Physics Space-Charge Dominated Beams

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Researches of a Resonator Concept of a Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator

    Wakefield excitation in a cylindrical dielectric waveguide or resonator by a regular sequence of electron bunches foe application to high-gradient particle acceleration has been investigated theoretically and experimentally using an electron linac 'ALMAZ-2' (4.5 MeV, 6.103 bunches of duration 60 ps and charge 0.32 nC each)

  3. Accelerator research studies. Final report, June 1, 1990--November 30, 1991

    The program consisted of the following three tasks: TASK A, ''Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' TASK B, ''Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' and TASK C, ''Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders.''

  4. CEBAF/SURA [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility]/[Southeastern Universities Research Association] 1987 summer workshop

    This report contains papers from the CEBAF accelerator facility summer workshop. Some topics covered are: baryon-baryon interactions, deuteron form factors; neutron detection; high resolution spectrometers; nuclear strangeness; parity violation; photon-deuteron interactions; chemical reactions in ion sources; quantum chromodynamics; hypernuclear magnetic moments; and photoproduction of π+ from 14N

  5. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A. (eds.)

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  6. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980

  7. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    Šabić, M.; Vuković Domanovac, M.; Findrik Blažević, Z.; Meštrović, E.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmente...

  8. Use of molecular techniques in bioremediation.

    Płaza, G; Ulfig, K; Hazen, T C; Brigmon, R L

    2001-01-01

    In a practical sense, biotechnology is concerned with the production of commercial products generated by biological processes. More formally, biotechnology may be defined as "the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agents to provide goods and services" (Cantor, 2000). From a historical perspective, biotechnology dates back to the time when yeast was first used for beer or wine fermentation, and bacteria were used to make yogurt. In 1972, the birth of recombinant DNA technology moved biotechnology to new heights and led to the establishment of a new industry. Progress in biotechnology has been truly remarkable. Within four years of the discovery of recombinant DNA technology, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were making human insulin, interferon, and human growth hormone. Now, recombinant DNA technology and its products--GMOs are widely used in environmental biotechnology (Glick and Pasternak, 1988; Cowan, 2000). Bioremediation is one of the most rapidly growing areas of environmental biotechnology. Use of bioremediation for environmental clean up is popular due to low costs and its public acceptability. Indeed, bioremediation stands to benefit greatly and advance even more rapidly with the adoption of molecular techniques developed originally for other areas of biotechnology. The 1990s was the decade of molecular microbial ecology (time of using molecular techniques in environmental biotechnology). Adoption of these molecular techniques made scientists realize that microbial populations in the natural environments are much more diverse than previously thought using traditional culture methods. Using molecular ecological methods, such as direct DNA isolation from environmental samples, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), PCR methods, nucleic acid hybridization etc., we can now study microbial consortia relevant to pollutant degradation in the environment. These techniques promise to

  9. Biomarkers of marine pollution and bioremediation

    Sarkar, A.

    pollution and bioremediation Anupam Sarkar Accepted: 1 February 2006 / Published online: 4 May 2006 C211 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006 This special issue of Ecotoxicology is dealt with selected papers presented at the ‘International Workshop... species of marine organisms and their bio-magnification across the food chain leading to serious threat to human health. In recent years, levels of contaminants in the marine environment have increased to a large extent as a consequence of vari- ous...

  10. The enzymatic basis for pesticide bioremediation

    Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Hartley, Carol J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Cheesman, Matthew J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Pandey, Rinku; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Teese, Mark; Coppin, Chris W; Weir, Kahli M.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Lal, Rup; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target organisms and incidentally exposed biota. Such enzymes are a source of significant biotechnological potential and form the basis of several bioremediation strategies intended to reduce the environmen...

  11. Bioremediation: Copper Nanoparticles from Electronic-waste

    D. R. MAJUMDER

    2012-01-01

    A single-step eco-friendly approach has been employed to synthesize copper nanoparticles. The superfast advancement in the field of electronics has given rise to a new type of waste called electronic waste. Since the physical and chemical recycling procedures have proved to be hazardous, the present work aims at the bioremediation of e-waste in order to recycle valuable metals. Microorganisms such as Fusarium oxysporum and Pseudomonas sp. were able to leach copper (84-130 nm) from integrated ...

  12. Pilot bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil

    This paper discusses bioremediation of various petroleum hydrocarbons accomplished during a 4-month period at the Carlow Road, Port Stanley site. Intensive biological and physical operations results in a decrease of all contaminants which were monitored including BTEX compounds, oil and grease, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Percentage reduction of 2- and 3-ring, and 4- and 5-ring PAHs decreased as molecular weight increased

  13. A review on slurry bioreactors for bioremediation of soils and sediments

    Poggi-Varaldo Héctor M

    2008-02-01

    hydrocarbons and some organochlorinated compounds. Characterization studies of microbial communities of SB are still in the early stages, in spite of their significance for improving reactor operation and design optimization. We have identified the following niches of research needs for SB in the near and mid term future, inter alia: (i application of SB with sequential and simultaneous electron acceptors to soils polluted with contaminants other than hydrocarbons (i.e., pesticides, explosives, etc., (ii evaluation of the technical feasibility of triphasic SB that use innocuous solvents to help desorbing pollutants strongly attached to soils, and in turn, to enhance their biodegradation, (iii gaining deeper insight of microbial communities present in SB with the intensified application of molecular biology tools such as PCR-DGGE, PCR-TGGE, ARDRA, etc., (iv development of more representative ecotoxicological assays to better assess the effectiveness of a given bioremediation process.

  14. Research on cubic polynomial acceleration and deceleration control model for high speed NC machining

    Hong-bin LENG; Yi-jie WU; Xiao-hong PAN

    2008-01-01

    To satisfy the need of high speed NC (numerical control) machining, an acceleration and deceleration (aec/dec) control model is proposed, and the speed curve is also constructed by the cubic polynomial. The proposed control model provides continuity of acceleration, which avoids the intense vibration in high speed NC machining. Based on the discrete characteristic of the data sampling interpolation, the acc/dec control discrete mathematical model is also set up and the discrete expression of the theoretical deceleration length is obtained furthermore. Aiming at the question of hardly predetermining the deceleration point in acc/dec control before interpolation, the adaptive acc/dec control algorithm is deduced from the expressions of the theoretical deceleration length. The experimental result proves that the acc/dec control model has the characteristic of easy implementation, stable movement and low impact. The model has been applied in multi-axes high speed micro fabrication machining successfully.

  15. Advanced accelerator concepts: Progress report and summary of proposed second-year research

    This report summarizes technical progress during the first year of the three-year proposal supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. FG02-88ER40465. Funds are requested to continue a vigorous theoretical program in critical problem areas related to advanced accelerator concepts and the basic equilibrium, stability, and radiation properties of intense charged particle beams and nonneutral plasmas. 52 refs

  16. Powerful RF electron accelerators and their applications in industry and research

    The brief descriptions of the various RF powerful electron beam machines type ILU designed in the BINP are given as well as the main areas of their application. These machines are compact in comparison with DC machines. The accelerators are working within the energy range of 0.5-4.0 MeV and beam power up to 50 kW. The different irradiation technologies for treatment of cables, wires, tubes, film materials, cellulose sheets are described. (author)

  17. Current research using the ANL High Voltage Electron Microscope-Tandem Accelerator Facility

    Recent work at the Argonne National Laboratory, (ANL), HVEM-Tandem Accelerator user facility is summarized: direct observation of cluster defects formed by in-situ ion irradiation at low temperature using the ion-beam interface has led to important fundamental results on defect production processes. Results on solute segregation at elevated temperatures induced by electron and ion irradiation are reported. Other published work is briefly summarized and/or referenced

  18. Current research using the ANL High Voltage Electron Microscope-Tandem Accelerator Facility

    Taylor, A.; Ryan, E.A.

    1984-11-01

    Recent work at the Argonne National Laboratory, (ANL), HVEM-Tandem Accelerator user facility is summarized: direct observation of cluster defects formed by in-situ ion irradiation at low temperature using the ion-beam interface has led to important fundamental results on defect production processes. Results on solute segregation at elevated temperatures induced by electron and ion irradiation are reported. Other published work is briefly summarized and/or referenced.

  19. The program of research at hadronic beams of ITEP accelerator. (Collection of experimental proposals)

    Editors; Vladimirski, V. V.; by, V. T. Smolyankin. Proposals presented; :; Alekseev, I. G.; Borisov, V. S.; Vorobiev, L. S.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Kanavets, V. P.; Kiselev, Yu. T.; Kolybasov, V. M.; Kosov, M. V.; Krutenkova, A. P.; Kulikov, V. V.; Leksin, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    This is a collection of proposals of experiments at hadronic beams of 10 GeV accelerator, situated at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow, Russia). The proposals were presented by the leaders of several ITEP experimental groups and include selected problems of hadron-hadron (exotic states, scalar mesons, electomagnetic form factors, polarization phenomena etc.) and hadron-nucleon interactions (flucton and nuclear matter properties, hadron properties inside nuclei, in...

  20. Annotated bibliography of Accelerator Technology Division research and development, 1978-1985

    A bibliography is presented of unclassified published and in-house technical material written by members of the Accelerator Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, since its inception in January, 1978. The author and subject concordances in this report provide cross-reference to detailed citations kept in a computer database and a microfilm file of the documents. The citations include an abstract and other notes, and can be searched for key words and phrases

  1. Using Patterns for Multivariate Monitoring and Feedback Control of Linear Accelerator Performance: Proof-of-Concept Research

    The report discusses preliminary proof-of-concept research for using the Advanced Data Validation and Verification System (ADVVS), a new INEEL software package, to add validation and verification and multivariate feedback control to the operation of non-destructive analysis (NDA) equipment. The software is based on human cognition, the recognition of patterns and changes in patterns in time-related data. The first project applied ADVVS to monitor operations of a selectable energy linear electron accelerator, and showed how the software recognizes in real time any deviations from the optimal tune of the machine. The second project extended the software method to provide model-based multivariate feedback control for the same linear electron accelerator. The projects successfully demonstrated proof-of-concept for the applications and focused attention on the common application of intelligent information processing techniques

  2. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    After the satisfactory and busy operation of the 12 UD tandem accelerator for five years, the accelerating tubes showed the symptom of deterioration mainly due to stain, so that a few tubes were changed. In spite of this trouble, the operation over 3000 hours was maintained. The development of peripheral apparatus around the tandem accelerator and detectors was made. Above all, a beam pulsing system was successfully installed. The experimental works on nuclear physics were directed to the studies on polarization phenomena and heavy ion-induced reactions. The importance of the two-step process in the reaction mechanism was established. As the remarkable theoretical progress, a self-consistent collective coordinate method for the large amplitude collective motion was successfully developed, and the boson expansion theory was refined. The yield of X-ray and radiative electron capture and the equilibrium charge state in the collision of heavy ions were studied in detail. By the back scattering of 18 MeV alpha particles channeled in solid state, the shift of resonant peak energy was clearly observed, thus the influence of lattice effect in crystals was shown. (Kako, I.)

  3. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Srama, Ralf [IRS, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Auer, Siegfried [A and M Associates, PO Box 421, Basye, Virginia 22810 (United States); Baust, Guenter; Matt, Guenter; Otto, Katharina [MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Kempf, Sascha; Munsat, Tobin; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltan [LASP, University of Colorado, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Fiege, Katherina; Postberg, Frank [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Stuttgart (Germany); MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gruen, Eberhard [MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); LASP, University of Colorado, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Heckmann, Frieder [Steinbeis-Innovationszentrum Raumfahrt, Gaeufelden (Germany); Helfert, Stefan [Helfert Informatik, Mannheim (Germany); Hillier, Jonathan [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Stuttgart (Germany); Mellert, Tobias [IRS, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); and others

    2011-09-15

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s{sup -1}. Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s{sup -1} and with diameters of between 0.05 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds

  4. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research

    Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian; Auer, Siegfried; Baust, Günter; Colette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Fiege, Katherina; Grün, Eberhard; Heckmann, Frieder; Helfert, Stefan; Hillier, Jonathan; Kempf, Sascha; Matt, Günter; Mellert, Tobias; Munsat, Tobin; Otto, Katharina; Postberg, Frank; Röser, Hans-Peter; Shu, Anthony; Sternovsky, Zoltán; Srama, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s-1. Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s-1 and with diameters of between 0.05 μm and 5 μm. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and charges, and is

  5. A 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as a tool for planetary and impact physics research

    Investigating the dynamical and physical properties of cosmic dust can reveal a great deal of information about both the dust and its many sources. Over recent years, several spacecraft (e.g., Cassini, Stardust, Galileo, and Ulysses) have successfully characterised interstellar, interplanetary, and circumplanetary dust using a variety of techniques, including in situ analyses and sample return. Charge, mass, and velocity measurements of the dust are performed either directly (induced charge signals) or indirectly (mass and velocity from impact ionisation signals or crater morphology) and constrain the dynamical parameters of the dust grains. Dust compositional information may be obtained via either time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the impact plasma or direct sample return. The accurate and reliable interpretation of collected spacecraft data requires a comprehensive programme of terrestrial instrument calibration. This process involves accelerating suitable solar system analogue dust particles to hypervelocity speeds in the laboratory, an activity performed at the Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, Germany. Here, a 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically accelerates charged micron and submicron-sized dust particles to speeds up to 80 km s-1. Recent advances in dust production and processing have allowed solar system analogue dust particles (silicates and other minerals) to be coated with a thin conductive shell, enabling them to be charged and accelerated. Refinements and upgrades to the beam line instrumentation and electronics now allow for the reliable selection of particles at velocities of 1-80 km s-1 and with diameters of between 0.05 μm and 5 μm. This ability to select particles for subsequent impact studies based on their charges, masses, or velocities is provided by a particle selection unit (PSU). The PSU contains a field programmable gate array, capable of monitoring in real time the particles' speeds and charges, and is

  6. An evaluation of in-situ bioremediation processes

    Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was the primary focus in the initial application of in-situ bioremediation which, from its development in the 1970s, has grown to become one of the most promising technologies for the degradation of a wide variety of organic contaminants. The degradation of contaminants in subsurface soils is the current new focus of the technology. While the need for improvements in the technology does exist, the indisputable fact remains that this technology is by far the least expensive and that it has the capability to provide long term reduced levels of contaminants or long term complete remediation of contaminated sites. The aim of this paper is to disclose pertinent information related to current conditions and current feelings in the area of new research, novel applications, new government regulations, and an overview of new topics on the horizon that relate to the overall technology

  7. Engineering microbial consortia to enhance biomining and bioremediation

    Karl Dietrich Brune

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In natural environments microorganisms commonly exist as communities of multiple species that are capable of performing more varied and complicated tasks than clonal populations. Synthetic biologists have engineered clonal populations with characteristics such as differentiation, memory and pattern formation, which are usually associated with more complex multicellular organisms. The prospect of designing microbial communities has alluring possibilities for environmental, biomedical and energy applications and is likely to reveal insight into how natural microbial consortia function. Cell signaling and communication pathways between different species are likely to be key processes for designing novel functions in synthetic and natural consortia. Recent efforts to engineer synthetic microbial interactions will be reviewed here, with particular emphasis given to research with significance for industrial applications in the field of biomining and bioremediation of acid mine drainage.

  8. An evaluation of in-situ bioremediation processes

    Cole, L.L. [Prairie View A and M Univ., TX (United States); Rashidi, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Programs Directorate

    1996-08-01

    Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was the primary focus in the initial application of in-situ bioremediation which, from its development in the 1970s, has grown to become one of the most promising technologies for the degradation of a wide variety of organic contaminants. The degradation of contaminants in subsurface soils is the current new focus of the technology. While the need for improvements in the technology does exist, the indisputable fact remains that this technology is by far the least expensive and that it has the capability to provide long term reduced levels of contaminants or long term complete remediation of contaminated sites. The aim of this paper is to disclose pertinent information related to current conditions and current feelings in the area of new research, novel applications, new government regulations, and an overview of new topics on the horizon that relate to the overall technology.

  9. Engineering microbial consortia to enhance biomining and bioremediation.

    Brune, Karl D; Bayer, Travis S

    2012-01-01

    In natural environments microorganisms commonly exist as communities of multiple species that are capable of performing more varied and complicated tasks than clonal populations. Synthetic biologists have engineered clonal populations with characteristics such as differentiation, memory, and pattern formation, which are usually associated with more complex multicellular organisms. The prospect of designing microbial communities has alluring possibilities for environmental, biomedical, and energy applications, and is likely to reveal insight into how natural microbial consortia function. Cell signaling and communication pathways between different species are likely to be key processes for designing novel functions in synthetic and natural consortia. Recent efforts to engineer synthetic microbial interactions will be reviewed here, with particular emphasis given to research with significance for industrial applications in the field of biomining and bioremediation of acid mine drainage. PMID:22679443

  10. Petroleum-Degrading Enzymes: Bioremediation and New Prospects

    R. S. Peixoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic forces, such as petroleum spills and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, have caused an accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. The accumulation of petroleum and its derivatives now constitutes an important environmental problem. Biocatalysis introduces new ways to improve the development of bioremediation strategies. The recent application of molecular tools to biocatalysis may improve bioprospecting research, enzyme yield recovery, and enzyme specificity, thus increasing cost-benefit ratios. Enzymatic remediation is a valuable alternative as it can be easier to work with than whole organisms, especially in extreme environments. Furthermore, the use of free enzymes avoids the release of exotic or genetically modified organisms (GMO in the environment.

  11. Experimental research on the feature of an x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer versus tube accelerating voltage

    Wang, Sheng-Hao; Margie, P. Olbinado; Atsushi, Momose; Hua-Jie, Han; Hu, Ren-Fang; Wang, Zhi-Li; Gao, Kun; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Pei-Ping; Wu, Zi-Yu

    2015-06-01

    X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer has been used most widely to perform x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a conventional low-brilliance x-ray source, and it yields high-sensitivity phase and dark-field images of samples producing low absorption contrast, thus bearing tremendous potential for future clinical diagnosis. In this work, by changing the accelerating voltage of the x-ray tube from 35 kV to 45 kV, x-ray phase-contrast imaging of a test sample is performed at each integer value of the accelerating voltage to investigate the characteristic of an x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer (located in the Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Japan) versus tube voltage. Experimental results and data analysis show that within a range this x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer is not sensitive to the accelerating voltage of the tube with a constant fringe visibility of ˜ 44%. This x-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer research demonstrates the feasibility of a new dual energy phase-contrast x-ray imaging strategy and the possibility to collect a refraction spectrum. Project supported by the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB825800), the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups, China (Grant No. 11321503), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11179004, 10979055, 11205189, and 11205157), and the Japan-Asia Youth Exchange Program in Science (SAKURA Exchange Program in Science) Administered by the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

  12. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    could advance our understanding of HMW PAHs biodegradation and help to develop successful bioremediation strategies. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41102148), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20110091120063).

  13. Ecogenomics of microbial communities in bioremediation of chlorinated contaminated sites

    Maphosa, Farai; Lieten, Shakti H.; Dinkla, Inez; Stams, Alfons J.; Smidt, Hauke; Fennell, Donna E.

    2012-01-01

    Organohalide compounds such as chloroethenes, chloroethanes, and polychlorinated benzenes are among the most significant pollutants in the world. These compounds are often found in contamination plumes with other pollutants such as solvents, pesticides, and petroleum derivatives. Microbial bioremediation of contaminated sites, has become commonplace whereby key processes involved in bioremediation include anaerobic degradation and transformation of these organohalides by organohalide respirin...

  14. Ecogenomics of microbial communities in bioremediation of chlorinated contaminated sites

    FaraiMaphosa; ShaktiHLieten; DonnaE.Fennell

    2012-01-01

    Organohalide compounds such as chloroethenes, chloroethanes and polychlorinated benzenes are among the most significant pollutants in the world. These compounds are often found in contamination plumes with other pollutants such as solvents, pesticides and petroleum derivatives. Microbial bioremediation of contaminated sites, has become commonplace whereby key processes involved in bioremediation include anaerobic degradation and transformation of these organohalides by organohalide respiring ...

  15. Research of photo-cathode RF gun and superconducting accelerator experiment

    Photo-cathode superconducting accelerator experiment system includes Nd: YAG mode-locked laser, Cs2Te cathode, 2 + 1/2 RF gun, L band 3.5 MW microwave source, 1.3 GHz superconducting cavity, 500 W continuous microwave source, coaxial input coupler, 4.2 K cryostat, helium liquefied system, control system, beam diagnosis system, and vacuum system. In June 2001, the experiment of this system was carried out in CAEP. The electron beam energy gained in the superconducting cavity is 0.58 MeV, and the micro-pulse current is 0.1A

  16. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    This report contains the following topics on heavy ion fusion: MBE-4 drifting beam quadrupole operating range; transverse emittance growth in MBE-4; an improved ion source for MBE-4; drifting beam studies on MBE-4; 2-MV injector; improvements in lifetime of the C+ source; injector control system; Maxwell spark gap test update; ILSE cosine 2θ quadrupole magnet development; electrostatic quadrupole prototype development activity; induction accelerator cell development; effect of a spread in beamlet currents on longitudinal stability; and heavy ion linac driver analysis

  17. Development of a large proton accelerator for innovative researches; development of high power RF source

    Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. O.; Shin, H. M.; Chung, I. Y. [KAPRA, Seoul (Korea); Kim, D. I. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea); Noh, S. J. [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Ko, S. K. [Ulsan University, Ulsan (Korea); Lee, H. J. [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea); Choi, W. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    This study was performed with objective to design and develop the KOMAC proton accelerator RF system. For the development of the high power RF source for CCDTL(coupled cavity drift tube linac), the medium power RF system using the UHF klystron for broadcasting was integrated and with this RF system we obtained the basic design data, operation experience and code-validity test data. Based on the medium power RF system experimental data, the high power RF system for CCDTL was designed and its performed was analyzed. 16 refs., 64 figs., 27 tabs. (Author)

  18. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1986-September 30, 1986

    Activities are reported on MBE-4, the four-beam proof-of-principle ion induction linear accelerator with the capability of beam-current amplification. Mechanical aspects of MBE-4, quadrupole insulator performance, and pulsers are discussed. The computer code, SLID, has been used to help understand the longitudinal beam dynamics in MBE-4. A computer-controlled emittance scanning system is in use in MBE-4. A systematic effort is under way to discover and correct all the defects peculiar to the low energy part of the linac design code

  19. CEBAF/SURA [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility]/[Southeastern Universities Research Association] 1988 summer workshop

    This report contains papers from a summer workshop of the continuous electron beam accelerator facility. Some topics of these papers are: spectrometers; electron scattering from deuterons; relativistic correlations in nuclear matter; pion production on 3He and 3H; quantum electrodynamic processes in crystals; 12C(e,e'p) x reaction; deuteron polarization tensor and relativistic spin rotation; electromagnetic excitation of nuclei; electron distortion and structure functions in (e,e'p) reactions; and reaction mechanism of 4He(e,e'p)3H

  20. Application and Prospect of Environmental Bioremediation at Marine Tideflat with Nereis%沙蚕在海洋滩涂生境修复中的应用与展望

    任可欣; 阎希柱

    2013-01-01

    近年来,大量废弃物正在污染近岸水域,水域富营养化加速,滩涂生态脆弱性日益明显,寻找适宜的修复滩涂的途径迫在眉睫.沙蚕为海洋底栖多毛类动物的优势类群和多样性最为丰富的科.本文介绍了常见沙蚕的分类地位、生态习性、生物学和生态学特点以及在滩涂修复中的地位,着重阐述了沙蚕增养殖技术研究及其发展现状、沙蚕修复生境的机制、实践效果与种类选择,展望了沙蚕修复海洋滩涂生境的前景.%In the past years, the coastal waters are polluted by huge wastes from industry, shipping, pesticides, domestic sewage and aquaculture, and the eutrophication has been accelerated, with more serious ecological vulnerability in marine beach. Therefore, suit able remediation ways for severely polluted beaches are imminently needed to meet the demand of sustainable utilization of the beach resources. This paper deals with the classification, ecological habits, biological and ecological characteristics of sluge worms which will take a role in environmental bioremediation in marine beach. The research and developmental status of enhancement and farming, the environmental bioremediation mechanism and application effects, and the selection of different species of sluge worms are espe cially summarized, and the prospect of environmental bioremediation at marine beaches by sluge worms is also discussed.

  1. Research proposal for development of an electron stripper using a thin liquid lithium film for rare isotope accelerator.

    Momozaki, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-03-06

    Hydrodynamic instability phenomena in a thin liquid lithium film, which has been proposed for the first stripper in the driver linac of Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), were discussed. Since it was considered that film instability could significantly impair the feasibility of the liquid lithium film stripper concept, potential issues and research tasks in the RIA project due to these instability phenomena were raised. In order to investigate these instability phenomena, a research proposal plan was developed. In the theoretical part of this research proposal, a use of the linear stability theory was suggested. In the experimental part, it was pointed out that the concept of Reynolds number and Weber number scaling may allow conducting a preliminary experiment using inert simulants, hence reducing technical difficulty, complexity, and cost of the experiments. After confirming the thin film formation in the preliminary experiment using simulants, demonstration experiments using liquid lithium were proposed.

  2. Research proposal for development of an electron stripper using a thin liquid lithium film for rare isotope accelerator

    Hydrodynamic instability phenomena in a thin liquid lithium film, which has been proposed for the first stripper in the driver linac of Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), were discussed. Since it was considered that film instability could significantly impair the feasibility of the liquid lithium film stripper concept, potential issues and research tasks in the RIA project due to these instability phenomena were raised. In order to investigate these instability phenomena, a research proposal plan was developed. In the theoretical part of this research proposal, a use of the linear stability theory was suggested. In the experimental part, it was pointed out that the concept of Reynolds number and Weber number scaling may allow conducting a preliminary experiment using inert simulants, hence reducing technical difficulty, complexity, and cost of the experiments. After confirming the thin film formation in the preliminary experiment using simulants, demonstration experiments using liquid lithium were proposed

  3. Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints

    Warr, Laurence N.; André Friese; Florian Schwarz; Frieder Schauer; Portier, Ralph J.; Basirico, Laura M.; Gregory M. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contai...

  4. High-efficiency combinatorial approach as an effective tool for accelerating metallic biomaterials research and discovery

    Zhang, X.D. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Liu, L.B., E-mail: lbliu.csu@gmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Zhao, J.-C. [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wang, J.L.; Zheng, F.; Jin, Z.P. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China)

    2014-06-01

    A high-efficiency combinatorial approach has been applied to rapidly build the database of composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta systems. A diffusion multiple of the Ti–Zr–Ta system was manufactured, then annealed at 1173 K for 1800 h, and water quenched to room temperature. Extensive interdiffusion among Ti, Zr and Ta has taken place. Combining nanoindentation and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), the elastic modulus, hardness as well as composition across the diffusion multiple were determined. The composition/elastic modulus/hardness relationship of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta alloys has been obtained. It was found that the elastic modulus and hardness depend strongly on the Ta and Zr content. The result can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys for different components in implant prosthesis. - Highlights: • High-efficiency diffusion multiple of Ti–Zr–Ta was manufactured. • Composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta systems have been obtained effectively, • The methodology and the information can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys.

  5. High-efficiency combinatorial approach as an effective tool for accelerating metallic biomaterials research and discovery

    A high-efficiency combinatorial approach has been applied to rapidly build the database of composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta systems. A diffusion multiple of the Ti–Zr–Ta system was manufactured, then annealed at 1173 K for 1800 h, and water quenched to room temperature. Extensive interdiffusion among Ti, Zr and Ta has taken place. Combining nanoindentation and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), the elastic modulus, hardness as well as composition across the diffusion multiple were determined. The composition/elastic modulus/hardness relationship of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta alloys has been obtained. It was found that the elastic modulus and hardness depend strongly on the Ta and Zr content. The result can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys for different components in implant prosthesis. - Highlights: • High-efficiency diffusion multiple of Ti–Zr–Ta was manufactured. • Composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta systems have been obtained effectively, • The methodology and the information can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys

  6. Bioremediation of offshore oil spills

    This research program was directed towards the enhancement of insitu biorestoration of open sea oil spills. Bacteria possessing petroleum degrading enzymes are capable of splitting even thick, viscous oils and tars into lighter fractions. This process will occur at the oil/bacterial interface and depends upon viscosity of the oil, bacterial species, availability of ancillary nutrients, residence times and extent of mixing/oxygenation. Through the enzymatic metabolism of bacteria, a wide range of petroleum oils can be converted almost completely into CO2, water, cell mass and harmless biological waste products, usually within 60 to 90 days under favorable conditions. Specifically, this research work focused on the selection and examination of a floating medium which enhances the biodegradation process through improvement of conditions necessary for the process to occur. An additional effort was made to update previous citations of the order of magnitude of oil biodegradation rates and to compare laboratory measurements of biodegradation rates with field or mesocosm measurements

  7. Successfully accelerating translational research at an academic medical center: The University of Michigan-Coulter Translational Research Partnership Program.

    Kenneth J Pienta

    2010-01-01

    Translational research encompasses the effective movement of new knowledge and discoveries into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. There are many roadblocks to successful bench to bedside research, but few have received as much recent attention as the “valley of death”. The valley of death refers to the lack of funding and support for research that moves basic science discoveries into diagnostics, devices, and treatments in humans, and is ascribed to be the re...

  8. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites

  9. Realization of CARE and EuCARD Projects in ISE-WUT, Accelerator and FEL Research, Development and Applications in Europe

    Romaniuk, R.

    2009-01-01

    There are described coordinating actions of the accelerator science in Europe in 2003-2009. The actions embrace basic science, as well as development and applications. The accelerator research was not coordinated in Europe at a global scale but was rather concentrated in a few centers owning large infrastructure. These centers include: CERN, DESY, GSI, INFN, LAL, PSI etc. Such coordinating actions enable a lot of positive processes including new possibilities for research centers in this coun...

  10. Potential of Penicillium Species in the Bioremediation Field

    Ana Lúcia Leitão

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the environment of pollution, particularly that caused by various industrial activities, have been responsible for the accelerated fluxes of organic and inorganic matter in the ecosphere. Xenobiotics such as phenol, phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and heavy metals, even at low concentrations, can be toxic to humans and other forms of life. Many of the remediation technologies currently being used for contaminated soil and water involve not only physical and chemical treatment, but also biological processes, where microbial activity is the responsible for pollutant removal and/or recovery. Fungi are present in aquatic sediments, terrestrial habitats and water surfaces and play a significant part in natural remediation of metal and aromatic compounds. Fungi also have advantages over bacteria since fungal hyphae can penetrate contaminated soil, reaching not only heavy metals but also xenobiotic compounds. Despite of the abundance of such fungi in wastes, penicillia in particular have received little attention in bioremediation and biodegradation studies. Additionally, several studies conducted with different strains of imperfecti fungi, Penicillium spp. have demonstrated their ability to degrade different xenobiotic compounds with low co-substrate requirements, and could be potentially interesting for the development of economically feasible processes for pollutant transformation.

  11. Bioremediation of nitroaromatic and haloaromatic compounds

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A. [eds.

    1999-10-01

    Sites contaminated with explosive compounds, pesticides, herbicides, PCBs, and other aromatic compounds present formidable technical, regulatory, and financial challenges. The application of bioremediation technologies at such sites offers the promise of cost-effective site remediation that can serve as a key component of a well-formulated strategy for achieving site closure. This volume presents the results of bench-, pilot-, and field-scale projects focused on the use of biological approaches to remediate problem compounds, such as RDX, HMX, TNT, DDT, 2,4-D, nitro- and chlorobenzenes, nitroaniline, chloroaniline, hexachlorobenzene, PCPs, PCBs, and dichlorophenol in soils and groundwater.

  12. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated Fernald soils

    This study investigated the use of microbial bioleaching for removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The ability of bacteria to assist in oxidation and solubilization of uranium was compared to the ability of fungi to produce complexing compounds which have the same effect. Biosorption of uranium by fungi was also measured. Soil samples were examined for changes in mineralogical properties due to these processes. On the basis of these laboratory scale studies a generalized flow sheet is proposed for bioremediation of contaminated Fernald soils

  13. Computer simulation of contaminated soil bioremediation

    A mathematical model has been developed and simulated to describe contaminated soil bioremediation. The model equations consist of a system of three nonlinear partial differential equations. Dimensional analysis of the model equations has been performed, and solution of these equations has been conducted by an implicit finite difference method. A computer program is ru ned for solving the model equations and by using this program, the influence of the principal parameters (porosity, soil aggregate radius, and partition coefficient of the substrate) on the fate of chemicals has been studied. The rates of substrate, Oxygen diffusion and biodegradation rate have been found to be the controlling mechanisms for remediation in the aggregates

  14. Motivation and development of ultrafast laser-based accelerator techniques for chemical physics research

    The products of radiation induced chemical reactions are determined by rapid primary processes such as energy transfer, thermalization and solvation. Ultrafast photoionization experiments on liquid water demonstrate that these initial events occur on time scales <5 ps and involve a complicated interplay between electronic relaxation and vibrational energy redistribution. These experiments also show that the chemical processes originating from ionizing radiation are unique and cannot be reproduced by laser photons alone. Due to the lack of a suitable femtosecond source of ionizing radiation, knowledge of the primary processes in radiation chemistry remains poor. To address this issue a 20 TW laser system has been constructed to obtain subpicosecond electron pulses with energies in the 1-10 MeV range. In addition to the production of femtosecond electron pulses, future efforts will be directed towards using this laser for accelerating heavier particles such as protons and generating hard X-rays

  15. Biosurfactant from red ash trees enhances the bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil at a former gasworks site.

    Blyth, Warren; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent contaminants that accumulate in soil, sludge and on vegetation and are produced through activities such as coal burning, wood combustion and in the use of transport vehicles. Naturally occurring surfactants have been known to enhance PAH-removal from soil by improving PAH solubilization thereby increasing PAH-microbe interactions. The aim of this research was to determine if a biosurfactant derived from the leaves of the Australian red ash (Alphitonia excelsa) would enhance bioremediation of a heavily PAH-contaminated soil and to determine how the microbial community was affected. Results of GC-MS analysis show that the extracted biosurfactant was significantly more efficient than the control in regards to the degradation of total 16 US EPA priority PAHs (78.7% degradation compared to 62.0%) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (92.9% degradation compared to 44.3%). Furthermore the quantification of bacterial genes by qPCR analysis showed that there was an increase in the number of gene copies associated with Gram positive PAH-degrading bacteria. The results suggest a commercial potential for the use of the Australian red ash tree as a source of biosurfactant for use in the accelerated degradation of hydrocarbons. PMID:26217887

  16. Planning the research and development necessary for accelerator transmutation of waste, leading to integrated proof of performance testing

    The Research and Development (R and D) Plan for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Program has been developed for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE/NE) to serve as a focus and progressional guide in developing critical transmutation technologies. It is intended that the Plan will serve as a logical reference considering all elements of an integrated accelerator-driven transmutation system, and will maximize the use of resources by identifying and prioritizing research, design, development and trade activities. The R and D Plan provides a structured framework for identifying and prioritizing activities leading to technically-justifiable integrated Proof of Performance testing within ten years and ultimate demonstration of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The Plan builds from the decision objectives specified for ATW, utilizes informational input from the ATW Roadmap and programmatic System Point Design efforts, and employs the knowledge and expertise provided by professionals familiar with ATW technologies. With the firm intent of understanding what, why and when information is needed, including critical interfaces, the Plan then develops a progressional strategy for developing ATW technologies with the use of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale. The TRL approach is first used to develop a comprehensive, yet generic, listing of experimental, analytical and trade study activities critical to developing ATW technologies. Technology-specific and concept-specific aspects are then laid over the generic mapping to gage readiness levels. Prioritization criteria for reducing technical uncertainty, providing information to decision points, and levering off of international collaborations are then applied to focus analytical, experimental and trade activities. (author)

  17. Engaging Learner Attribute Research in Dialogue with Classroom Practice: Predictors of Success in the Accelerated, Online Classroom

    B. Jean Mandernach

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Research examining student success in online education has focused extensively on internal learner attributes with little emphasis on external, controllable factors that may mediate a student’s ability to perform within the distinctive environment of the virtual classroom. The purpose of this study is to balance student characteristic research with external, direct data from the perspective of online instructors in order to provide a practice-oriented understanding of the unique factors predictive of student success in accelerated, online courses. Experienced online educators were surveyed to identify practical skills, strategies or factors most likely to lead to success for students enrolled in online courses. A content-analysis of open-ended responses revealed 23 relevant factors that clustered into six broad themes. Within these themes, four issues emerge as the most predictive of online learner success: time, technology, initiative, and competence. Discussion examines the practical, deliberate application of this information to facilitate students’ successful completion of online courses.

  18. The Influence of Soil Chemical Factors on In Situ Bioremediation of Soil Contamination

    Breedveld, Gijs D.

    1997-12-31

    Mineral oil is the major energy source in Western society. Production, transport and distribution of oil and oil products cause serious contamination problems of water, air and soil. The present thesis studies the natural biodegradation processes in the soil environment which can remove contamination by oil products and creosote. The main physical/chemical processes determining the distribution of organic contaminants between the soil solid, aqueous and vapour phase are discussed. Then a short introduction to soil microbiology and environmental factors important for biodegradation is given. There is a discussion of engineered and natural bioremediation methods and the problems related to scaling up laboratory experiments to field scale remediation. Bioremediation will seldom remove the contaminants completely; a residue remains. Factors affecting the level of residual contamination and the consequences for contaminant availability are discussed. Finally, the main findings of the work are summarized and recommendations for further research are given. 111 refs., 41 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated water resources: the challenge of low concentrations.

    Helbling, Damian E

    2015-06-01

    The use of pesticides in agricultural and urban environments has improved quality of life around the world. However, the resulting accumulation of pesticide residues in fresh water resources has negative effects on aquatic ecosystem and human health. Bioremediation has been proposed as an environmentally sound alternative for the remediation of pesticide-contaminated water resources, though full-scale implementation has thus far been limited. One major challenge that has impeded progress is the occurrence of pesticides at low concentrations. Recent research has improved our fundamental understanding of pesticide biodegradation processes occurring at low concentrations under a variety of environmental scenarios and is expected to contribute to the development of applied bioremediation strategies for pesticide-contaminated water resources. PMID:25765521

  20. Potential of bioremediation for buried oil removal in beaches after an oil spill.

    Pontes, Joana; Mucha, Ana P; Santos, Hugo; Reis, Izabela; Bordalo, Adriano; Basto, M Clara; Bernabeu, Ana; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-11-15

    Bioremediation potential for buried oil removal, an application still lacking thorough research, was assessed in a specifically designed system in which an artificially contaminated oil layer of sand was buried in a sand column subjected to tidal simulation. The efficiency of biostimulation (BS, fertilizer addition) and bioaugmentation (BA, inoculation of pre-stimulated indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms plus fertilizer) compared to natural attenuation was tested during a 180-day experimental period. The effect of BA was evident after 60 days (degradation of hydrocarbons reached 80%). BS efficacy was revealed only after 120 days. Microorganisms and nutrients added at the top of the sand column were able to reach the buried oil layer and contributed to faster oil elimination, an important feature for effective bioremediation treatments. Therefore, autochthonous BA with suitable nutritive conditions results in faster oil-biodegradation, appears to be a cost-effective methodology for buried oil remediation and contributes to the recovery of oil-impacted areas. PMID:24054785

  1. The Kwajalein bioremediation demonstration: Final technical report

    The US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base, located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) in the east-central Pacific Ocean, has significant petroleum hydrocarbon contamination resulting from years of military activities. Because of its remoteness, the lack of on-site sophisticated remediation or waste disposal facilities, the amenability of petroleum hydrocarbons to biodegradation, and the year-round temperature favorable for microbial activity, USAKA requested, through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), that a project be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using bioremediation for environmental restoration of contaminated sites within the atoll. The project was conducted in four distinct phases: (1) initial site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies, (2) selection of the demonstration area and collection of soil columns, (3) laboratory column biotreatability studies, and (4) an on-site bioremediation demonstration. The results of phases (1) and (3) have been detailed in previous reports. This report summarizes the results of phases (1) and (3) and presents phases (2) and (4) in detail

  2. The Kwajalein bioremediation demonstration: Final technical report

    Walker, J.R. Jr.; Walker, A.B.

    1994-12-01

    The US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base, located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) in the east-central Pacific Ocean, has significant petroleum hydrocarbon contamination resulting from years of military activities. Because of its remoteness, the lack of on-site sophisticated remediation or waste disposal facilities, the amenability of petroleum hydrocarbons to biodegradation, and the year-round temperature favorable for microbial activity, USAKA requested, through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), that a project be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using bioremediation for environmental restoration of contaminated sites within the atoll. The project was conducted in four distinct phases: (1) initial site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies, (2) selection of the demonstration area and collection of soil columns, (3) laboratory column biotreatability studies, and (4) an on-site bioremediation demonstration. The results of phases (1) and (3) have been detailed in previous reports. This report summarizes the results of phases (1) and (3) and presents phases (2) and (4) in detail.

  3. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Bioremediation of Carbendazim by Streptomyces albogriseolus

    Ridhima Arya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbendazim (methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate, or MBC is a benzimidazole fungicide which is used to protect crops against the attack of fungi. MBC has a half-life of about 3-12 months and remain persistent in the environment which may lead to many harmful consequences. Besides chemical and photo-catalytic degradation of pesticides, microbial degradation has now been evolved as a much effective and safer way to eliminate these harmful compounds from the environment. However, in the literature very few reports are available where microbial community is involved in degrading MBC. Hence, the present study was planned to investigate the role of microbes isolated from the field soils for the bioremediation of MBC. Soil samples were collected from wheat fields of northern regions of India. Enrichment culture technique was employed to isolate the bacterium which was found to be growing at higher concentrations of MBC up to 500µg/ml. After biochemical and morphological analysis, the bacterium was identified as Streptomyces albogriseolus. Streptomyces albogriseolus was found to degrade MBC in a time-dependent manner from the initial concentration of 29 ppm to 285.67ppb and 62.73ppb in 24hrs and 48hrs respectively. LCMS-MS analysis was carried out to detect 2-aminobenzimidazole, a metabolite formed after degradation in 10 hrs of growth which eventually disappeared after 24hrs of growth. The strain Streptomyces albogriseolus holds a promising potential to be an efficient MBC bioremediation agent.

  5. Influence of a precepitator on bioremedial processes

    Nježić Zvonko B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural environment represents a dynamic bioreactor with numerous chemical, biochemical and microbiological processes through which harmful materials are destroyed, so that living organisms and human beings are not endanger. Controlled anthropogenic actions can assist the natural ecosystem to become an efficient bioremedial unit and to reduce the level of effluents produced in the biotechnological transformations during massive food production. In this study, a monitoring system for the chemical oxygen demand (COD and the heavy metal levels in water was established, followed by construction and building of a precipitator in order to prevent discharging of sludge. The results contribute to the hypothesis of existence of in situ bioremedial processes in the observed ecosystem. The significant influence of the precipitator on the decrease of pollution was demonstrated: a decrease of both the COD value and the heavy metal levels downstream from the precipitator for about 15%. Therefore it can be concluded that the precipitator significantly contributes to the ecosystem by the reduction of pollutant level.

  6. Partial characterization of biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and comparison with sodium dodecyl sulphate for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Moldes, A B; Paradelo, R; Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Gudiña, E; Rodrigues, L; Teixeira, J A; Domínguez, J M; Barral, M T

    2013-01-01

    The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-). The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage), as well as CH2-CH3 and C-O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg(-1) of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment. PMID:23691515

  7. Accelerator operations

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  8. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    M. Šabić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmented activated sludge with isolated mixed bacterial culture. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor in submerged conditions, at initial concentration of organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater, expressed as COD, 5.01 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of activated sludge, which ranged from 1.16 to 3.54 g dm–3. During the experiments, the COD, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and biomass were monitored. Microscopic analyses were performed to monitor the quality of activated sludge. Before starting with the bioremediation in the batch reactor, toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater was determined by toxicity test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the pharmaceutical wastewater bioremediation process in the batch reactor are presented in Table 1. The ratio γXv ⁄ γX maintained high values throughout all experiments and ranged from 0.90 and 0.95, suggesting that the concentrations of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments. The important kinetic parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely μmax, Ks, Ki, Y and kd were calculated from batch experiments (Table 2. Figs. 1 and 2 show the experimental

  9. Toxicity trends during an oil spill bioremediation experiment on a sandy shore in Delaware, USA

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. Methods used in the experiment were described in detail. The oiling of the beach was intentional, and used a randomized complete block design. It was found that bioremediation did not accelerate toxicity reduction. Indeed, results of one high-frequency test suggested that toxicity reduction may have been substantially delayed due to treatment during the first few weeks. The most sensitive tests were found to be the 10-day sediment amphipod and grass shrimp embryo bioassays. Considerable interest in sediment bioassays has developed since the Exxon Valdez disaster. While experiments to date left many questions unanswered, there has been sufficient evidence to suggest that standardized sediment and water toxicity tests can be valuable in evaluating the effectiveness and effects of oil spill shoreline countermeasures. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Pilot-Scale In Situ Bioremediation of Uranium in a Highly Contaminated Aquifer. 1. Conditioning of a Treatment Zone

    To evaluate the potential for in situ bioremediation of U(VI) to sparingly soluble U(IV), we constructed a pilot test facility at Area 3 of the U.S. Department of Energy Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. The facility is adjacent to the former S-3 Ponds which received trillions of liters of acidic plating wastes. High levels of uranium are present, with up to 800 mg kg-1 in the soil and 84-210 (micro)M in the groundwater. Ambient groundwater has a highly buffered pH of ∼3.4 and high levels of aluminum (12-13 mM), calcium (22-25 mM), and nitrate (80-160 mM). Adjusting the pH of groundwater to ∼5 within the aquifer would deposit extensive aluminum hydroxide precipitate. Calcium is present in the groundwater at levels that inhibit U(VI) reduction, but its removal by injection of a high pH solution would generate clogging precipitate. Nitrate also inhibits U(VI) reduction and is present at such high concentrations that its removal by in situ denitrification would generate large amounts of N2 gas and biomass. To establish and maintain hydraulic control, we installed a four well recirculation system parallel to geologic strike, with an inner loop nested within an outer loop. For monitoring, we drilled three boreholes perpendicular to strike across the inner loop and installed multilevel sampling tubes within them. A tracer pulse with clean water established travel times and connectivity between wells and enabled the assessment of contaminant release from the soil matrix. Subsequently, a highly conductive region of the subsurface was prepared for biostimulation by removing clogging agents and inhibitors and increasing pH. For 2 months, groundwater was pumped from the hydraulically conductive zone; treated to remove aluminum, calcium, and nitrate, and supplemented with tap water; adjusted to pH 4.3-4.5; then returned to the hydraulically conductive zone. This protocol removed most of the aqueous

  11. Bioremediation, regulatory agencies and public acceptance of this technology

    The technology of bioremediation, i.e. the utilization of microorganisms to degrade environmental pollutants, the dangers and consequences inherent in the large-scale use of microbial organisms in such processes, and the role of regulatory agencies in the utilization and exploitation of bioremediation technologies, were discussed. Factors influencing public acceptance of bioremediation as a satisfactory tool for cleaning up the environment vis-a-vis other existing and potential rehabilitation techniques were also reviewed. The ambiguity of regulatory agencies in the matter of bioremediation was noted. For example, there are many regulatory hurdles relative to the testing, use and approval of transgenic microorganisms for use in bioremediation. On the other hand, the use and release of engineered plants is considered merely another form of hybrid and their endorsement is proceeding rapidly. With regard to public acceptance, the author considered bioremediation technology as too recent, with not enough successful applications to attract public attention. Although the evidence suggests that bioremediation is environmentally safe, the efficacy, reliability and predictability of the various technologies have yet to be demonstrated. 25 refs

  12. Optical alignment to set a skewed beamline for neutrino research at the LAMPF accelerator

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) consists of a linear accelerator with multiple target systems, where the particle beam is being switched into separate channels to be aimed at discrete terminals to perform a variety of functions. The beam is always enclosed in an evacuated pipe with directional changes following simple geometric patterns along vertical or horizontal reference lines. Beam steering and focusing is accomplished with magnets surrounding the evacuated beam tubes. In a novel application it was necessry to cut into an existing beam tube and add a line which was to be skewed in a compound angle to clear the existing equipment and fit into the limited space provided in the beam tunnel. Alignment of the skewed beamline was accomplished by setting optical reference lines and planes to calculated beam centerlines and positioning the beam pipes and most magnets to these references using special centering fixtures. This paper describes the combined use of the optical tooling and surveying technology as applied to the marking of the components and positioning of subassemblies in the reference grid. Auxiliary targets and alignment fixtures were developed to facilitate the unique procedures and are described. Design and measured alignment tolerances are compared

  13. A 12 GHZ 50 MW Klystron for Support of Accelerator Research

    Sprehn, Daryl; /SLAC; Haase, Andrew; /SLAC; Jensen, Aaron; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Nantista, Christopher; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC

    2011-05-31

    A 12 GHz 50MW X-band klystron is under development at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Klystron Department. The klystron will be fabricated to support programs currently underway at three European Labs; CERN, PSI, and INFN Trieste. The choice of frequency selection was due to the CLIC RF frequency changing from 30 GHz to the European X-band frequency of 11.99 GHz in 2008. Since the Klystron Department currently builds 50MW klystrons at 11.424 GHz known collectively as the XL4 klystrons, it was deemed cost-effective to utilize many XL4 components by leaving the gun, electron beam transport, solenoid magnet and collector unchanged. To realize the rf parameters required, the rf cavities and rf output hardware were necessarily altered. Some improvements to the rf design have been made to reduce operating gradients and increase reliability. Changes in the multi-cell output structure, waveguide components, and the window will be discussed along with testing of the devices. Five klystrons known as XL5 klystrons are scheduled for production over the next two years.

  14. Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium: Accelerating Evidence-Based Practice of Genomic Medicine.

    Green, Robert C; Goddard, Katrina A B; Jarvik, Gail P; Amendola, Laura M; Appelbaum, Paul S; Berg, Jonathan S; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biswas, Sawona; Blout, Carrie L; Bowling, Kevin M; Brothers, Kyle B; Burke, Wylie; Caga-Anan, Charlisse F; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Chung, Wendy K; Clayton, Ellen W; Cooper, Gregory M; East, Kelly; Evans, James P; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Garraway, Levi A; Garrett, Jeremy R; Gray, Stacy W; Henderson, Gail E; Hindorff, Lucia A; Holm, Ingrid A; Lewis, Michelle Huckaby; Hutter, Carolyn M; Janne, Pasi A; Joffe, Steven; Kaufman, David; Knoppers, Bartha M; Koenig, Barbara A; Krantz, Ian D; Manolio, Teri A; McCullough, Laurence; McEwen, Jean; McGuire, Amy; Muzny, Donna; Myers, Richard M; Nickerson, Deborah A; Ou, Jeffrey; Parsons, Donald W; Petersen, Gloria M; Plon, Sharon E; Rehm, Heidi L; Roberts, J Scott; Robinson, Dan; Salama, Joseph S; Scollon, Sarah; Sharp, Richard R; Shirts, Brian; Spinner, Nancy B; Tabor, Holly K; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Veenstra, David L; Wagle, Nikhil; Weck, Karen; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Wolf, Susan M; Wynn, Julia; Yu, Joon-Ho

    2016-06-01

    Despite rapid technical progress and demonstrable effectiveness for some types of diagnosis and therapy, much remains to be learned about clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) and its role within the practice of medicine. The Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) consortium includes 18 extramural research projects, one National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) intramural project, and a coordinating center funded by the NHGRI and National Cancer Institute. The consortium is exploring analytic and clinical validity and utility, as well as the ethical, legal, and social implications of sequencing via multidisciplinary approaches; it has thus far recruited 5,577 participants across a spectrum of symptomatic and healthy children and adults by utilizing both germline and cancer sequencing. The CSER consortium is analyzing data and creating publically available procedures and tools related to participant preferences and consent, variant classification, disclosure and management of primary and secondary findings, health outcomes, and integration with electronic health records. Future research directions will refine measures of clinical utility of CGES in both germline and somatic testing, evaluate the use of CGES for screening in healthy individuals, explore the penetrance of pathogenic variants through extensive phenotyping, reduce discordances in public databases of genes and variants, examine social and ethnic disparities in the provision of genomics services, explore regulatory issues, and estimate the value and downstream costs of sequencing. The CSER consortium has established a shared community of research sites by using diverse approaches to pursue the evidence-based development of best practices in genomic medicine. PMID:27181682

  15. European research programme for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste in an accelerator-driven system: Eurotrans

    The EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High-level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator-driven System) Integrated Project within the ongoing EURATOM 6. European Commission Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the assessment of the design and the feasibility of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of fuel development, structural materials, thermal-hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of technological feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS-based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS is integrating critical masses of resources (23 M euros contribution, 43 M euros total eligible costs) and activities of 29 partners from 14 countries, within industry (10 partners), national research centres (18 partners) and 17 universities in Europe. The universities are collectively represented by one partner, the European Nuclear Engineering Network (ENEN). EUROTRANS is the logical continuation of the three FP5 Clusters FUETRA, BASTRA and TESTRA together with the PDS-XADS Project. It takes credit from the Road-map on ADS of the Technical Working Group. EUROTRANS strengthens and consolidates the European research and development activities with regard to transmutation. The involvement of universities strengthens education and training in nuclear technologies. The involvement of industry assures a market-oriented and economic design development and an effective dissemination of the results. The four-year project started in April 2005

  16. Applications of particle accelerators

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  17. Research of irradiation effects on chicken feet with pickled peppers by 10 MeV linear accelerator

    The electronic accelerator has small investment and low production cost, it has no requirement of additional radioactive source, moreover there is no radiation after shutdown and its high dose rate and production speediness, so it has obvious advantages on price and economic in the market of radiation sterilization nowadays. Using high-energy electronic 10 MeV accelerator, we researched the radiation processing of chicken feet with pickled peppers. According to the dose test, we found that the absorption radiation dose of chicken feet packages (thickness is 149-millimeters), is almost uniform (the unevenness <2) after full power and two-side radiation with 10 MeV electron beam. After microbial detection, we found that the 10 kGy dose treatment can primly meet the sterilized requirement. However the one-side radiation process cannot meet the requirement, because we found that the dose of chicken feet in the 4th layer (the pack age has 6 layers) already had decreased for 10% and the downtrend of dose is more sharp in the 5th and the 6th layers after the dose test. (authors)

  18. Status of the Next European Dipole (NED) Activity of the Collaborated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) Project

    Devred, Arnaud; Baynham, D Elwyn; Boutboul, T; Canfer, S; Chorowski, M; den Ouden, A; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Fessia, P; Fydrych, J; Félice, H; Greco, Michela; Greenhalgh, J; Leroy, D; Loveridge, P W; Michel, F; Oberli, L R; Pedrini, D; Polinski, J; Previtali, V; Quettier, L; Rifflet, J M; Rochford, J; Rondeaux, F; Sanz, S; Sgobba, Stefano; Sorbi, M; Toral-Fernandez, F; Van Weelderen, R; Vincent-Viry, O; Volpini, G; Védrine, P

    2005-01-01

    Plans for LHC upgrade and for the final focalization of linear colliders call for large aperture and/or high-performance dipole and quadrupole magnets that may be beyond the reach of conventional NbTi magnet technology. The Next European Dipole (NED) activity was launched on January 1st, 2004 to promote the development of high-performance, Nb3Sn wires in collaboration with European industry (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T) and to assess the suitability of Nb3Sn technology to the next generation of accelerator magnets (aiming at an aperture of 88 mm and a conductor peak field of 15 T). It is integrated within the Collaborated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project, involves seven collaborators, and is partly funded by the European Union. We present here an overview of the NED activity and we report on the status of the various work packages it encompasses.

  19. Realization of CARE and EuCARD Projects in ISE-WUT, Accelerator and FEL Research, Development and Applications in Europe

    Romaniuk, R.

    2009-01-01

    There are described coordinating actions of the accelerator science in Europe in 2003-2009. The actions embrace basic science, as well as development and applications. The accelerator research was not coordinated in Europe at a global scale but was rather concentrated in a few centers owning large infrastructure. These centers include: CERN, DESY, GSI, INFN, LAL, PSI etc. Such coordinating actions enable a lot of positive processes including new possibilities for research centers in this country. It is much easier for them to extend, deepen or even start from the beginning their activities in the field of the accelerator technology. This field includes also free electron lasers. There are described two European framework projects CARE and EuCARD on accelerator technology, their extent and the participation of ISE WUT in them.

  20. Research in accelerator physics (theory). Technical progress report, March 11--August 31, 1995

    A brief description of the present status, expected effort during the remainder of the period of the project, and some of the main results for the work is presented here. The project covered the following areas of research: (1) tune modulation; (2) multi-parameter sorting of dipoles for large superconducting rings; and integrable polynomial factorization for symplectic map tracking

  1. Status and perspectives of atomic physics research at GSI : The new GSI accelerator project

    Stolker, T; Backe, H; Beyer, HF; Brauning-Demian, A; Hagmann, S; Ionescu, DC; Jungmann, K; Kluge, HJ; Kozhuharov, C; Kuhl, T; Liesen, D; Mann, R; Mokler, PH; Quint, W; Bosch, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    A short overview on the results of atomic physics research at the storage ring ESR is given followed by a presentation of the envisioned atomic physics program at the planned new GSI facility. The proposed new GSI facility will provide highest intensities of relativistic beams of both stable and uns

  2. Harnessing person-generated health data to accelerate patient-centered outcomes research: the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America PCORnet Patient Powered Research Network (CCFA Partners).

    Chung, Arlene E; Sandler, Robert S; Long, Millie D; Ahrens, Sean; Burris, Jessica L; Martin, Christopher F; Anton, Kristen; Robb, Amber; Caruso, Thomas P; Jaeger, Elizabeth L; Chen, Wenli; Clark, Marshall; Myers, Kelly; Dobes, Angela; Kappelman, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    The Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America Partners Patient-Powered Research Network (PPRN) seeks to advance and accelerate comparative effectiveness and translational research in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Our IBD-focused PCORnet PPRN has been designed to overcome the major obstacles that have limited patient-centered outcomes research in IBD by providing the technical infrastructure, patient governance, and patient-driven functionality needed to: 1) identify, prioritize, and undertake a patient-centered research agenda through sharing person-generated health data; 2) develop and test patient and provider-focused tools that utilize individual patient data to improve health behaviors and inform health care decisions and, ultimately, outcomes; and 3) rapidly disseminate new knowledge to patients, enabling them to improve their health. The Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America Partners PPRN has fostered the development of a community of citizen scientists in IBD; created a portal that will recruit, retain, and engage members and encourage partnerships with external scientists; and produced an efficient infrastructure for identifying, screening, and contacting network members for participation in research. PMID:26911821

  3. The Role of Provenance Management in Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Research

    Berriman, G. Bruce; Deelman, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    The availability of vast quantities of data through electronic archives has transformed astronomical research. It has also enabled the creation of new products, models and simulations, often from distributed input data and models, that are themselves made electronically available. These products will only provide maximal long-term value to astronomers when accompanied by records of their provenance; that is, records of the data and processes used in the creation of such products. We use the c...

  4. Accelerating science and innovation societal benefits of European research in Particle Physics

    Radford, Tim; Jakobsson, Camilla; Marsollier, Arnaud; Mexner, Vanessa; O'Connor, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The story so far. Collaborative research in particle physics. The lesson for Europe: co-operation pays. Medicine and life sciences. The body of knowledge: particles harnessed for health. Energy and the environment. Think big: save energy and clean up the planet. Communication and new technologies. The powerhouse of invention. Society and skills. Power to the people. The European Strategy for Particle Physics. Update 2013.

  5. Overview of on-farm bioremediation systems to reduce the occurrence of point source contamination.

    De Wilde, Tineke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Debaer, Christof; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Springael, Dirk; Jaeken, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Contamination of ground and surface water puts pressure on the use of pesticides. Pesticide contamination of water can often be linked to point sources rather than to diffuse sources. Examples of such point sources are areas on farms where pesticides are handled and filled into sprayers, and where sprayers are cleaned. To reduce contamination from these point sources, different kinds of bioremediation system are being researched in various member states of the EU. Bioremediation is the use of living organisms, primarily microorganisms, to degrade the environmental contaminants into less toxic forms. The systems available for biocleaning of pesticides vary according to their shape and design. Up till now, three systems have been extensively described and reported: the biobed, the Phytobac and the biofilter. Most of these constructions are excavations or different sizes of container filled with biological material. Typical overall clean-up efficiency exceeds 95%, realising even more than 99% in many cases. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of these bioremediation systems and discusses their construction, efficiency and drawbacks. PMID:17199234

  6. Laboratory modeling, field study, and numerical simulation of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    The use of bioremediation as an alternative remediation technology is fast becoming the technique of choice among many environmental professionals. This method offers substantial benefits not found in other remediation processes. Bioremediation is very cost effective, nondestructive, relatively uncomplicated in implementing, requires nonspecialized equipment, and can be extremely effective in removing recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. This study researched the availability of viable microbial populations in the arid climate in South Dakota. Exponential growth of the bacteria and the ability of bacteria to degrade long-chain hydrocarbons indicated that healthy populations do exist and could be used to mineralize organic hydrocarbons. Experimental results indicated that bioremediation can be effectively enhanced in landfills as well as in the subsurface using a supply of harmless nutrients. The biodegradation rate can be further enhanced with the use of edible surfactant that helped disperse the petroleum products. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide enhanced the oxygen availability and increased the degradation rate. Interestingly, the bacterial growth rate was found to be high in difficult-to-biodegrade contaminants, such as waste oil. A numerical simulation program was also developed that describes the bacterial growth in the subsurface along with the reduction in substrate (contamination). Results from this program were found to be consistent with laboratory results

  7. Proceedings of Japan-Germany Workshop of Bioremediation; Nichidoku bio remediation workshop hokokusho

    NONE

    1995-12-04

    This is a proceedings of Japan-Germany Workshop on Bioremediation held on December 4 and 5, 1995. The keynote lectures include `Environmental preservation using biotechnology` by Prof. Karube of University of Tokyo, and `Environmental technology in Germany: status, achievements, and problems` by Prof. R.D.Schmid of University of Stuttgart. In the oral session, 7 papers are presented in the microbiological aspects of bioremediation, 10 papers in the environmental monitoring, and 6 papers in the engineering aspects of bioremediation. This workshop was sponsored by the German Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Technology, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth. According to the lecture by Prof. Karube, key technologies for the environmental preservation include biotechnologies, such as the culture of fine algae with high CO2 concentration resistant properties using a solar light condenser, production of effective substances from CO2, and production of organic fertilizer from the sediments of lakes and sea. 19 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Status of accelerator design for Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility project

    Nagoya University had a project to construct a new synchrotron light facility, called Photo-Science Nanofactory, to develop a wide range research on basic science, industrial applications, life science and environmental engineering. The project is now developed to 'Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility' as the principal facility of the project of Aichi prefecture, 'Knowledge Hub', to establish a new research center for technological innovations. The key equipment of the facility is a small electron storage ring, which is able to supply hard x-rays. The energy of the stored electron beam is 1.2 GeV, the circumference is 62.4 m, the current is 300 mA, and natural emittance is about 53 nm-rad. The storage ring consists of four triple bend cells. Eight of the twelve bending magnets are normal conducting ones. Four of them are 5 T superconducting magnets (super-bends). The bending angle of the super-bend is 12 degrees and three hard x-ray beam lines can be extracted from each super-bend. Two insertion devices will be installed in the straight sections. The electron beam is injected from a booster synchrotron with the energy of 1.2 GeV as full energy injection. A 50 MeV linac is used as an injector to the booster synchrotron. The top-up operation is also planned. (author)

  9. ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER ACCEPTANCE OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Focht, Will; Albright, Matt; Anex, Robert P., Jr., ed.

    2009-04-21

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  10. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl4, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations

  11. Bioremediation: Copper Nanoparticles from Electronic-waste

    D. R. MAJUMDER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A single-step eco-friendly approach has been employed to synthesize copper nanoparticles. The superfast advancement in the field of electronics has given rise to a new type of waste called electronic waste. Since the physical and chemical recycling procedures have proved to be hazardous, the present work aims at the bioremediation of e-waste in order to recycle valuable metals. Microorganisms such as Fusarium oxysporum and Pseudomonas sp. were able to leach copper (84-130 nm from integrated circuits present on electronic boards under ambient conditions. Lantana camara, a weed commonly found in Maharashtra was also screened for leaching copper. The characteristics of the copper nanoparticles obtained were studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Tranform Infrared analysis, Transmission electron microscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis and Cyclic Voltammetry. Copper nanoparticles were found to be effective against hospital strain Escherichia coli 2065.

  12. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas

    A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells

  13. Bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in aquifer thermal energy storage

    Ni, Z.

    2015-01-01

      Subjects: bioremediation; biodegradation; environmental biotechnology, subsurface and groundwater contamination; biological processes; geochemistry; microbiology The combination of enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) and aquife

  14. Chemometric assessment of enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Farhoudi, Majid; Christensen, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting, and addi......Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting...... steranes were used for determining the level and type of hydrocarbon contamination. The same methods were used to study oil weathering of 2 to 6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Results demonstrated that bacterial enrichment and addition of nutrients were most efficient with 50% to 62% removal...

  15. Applied bioremediation of hazardous, petroleum, and industrial wastes

    Blasland and Bouck Engineers, P.C. (Blasland and Bouck) conducted a large-scale soil bioremediation pilot study at an inactive hazardous waste site in Upstate New York. Remediation of soils at the site is regulated in accordance with a Consent Order entered into with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. The chemicals of concern in soils at the site consist of a wide range of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds including: trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, methanol, aniline, and N,N-dimethylaniline. The large-scale soil Bioremediation Pilot Study consisted of evaluating the effectiveness of two bioremediation techniques: ex-situ solid phase treatment of excavation soils; and in-situ solid phase treatment with soil mixing. The feasibility of bioremediation for soils at this site was evaluated in the field at pilot scale due to the generally high sensitivity of the technology's effectiveness and feasibility from site to site

  16. DNAPL Bioremediation-RTDF. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    The Bioremediation Working Group of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum is a consortium including General Electric, Beak International, Ciba-Geigy, Dow, DuPont, ICI Americas, Novartis, Zeneca, DOE, the U.S. Air Force and the EPA. Each partner in the consortium brings expertise as well as resources to conduct studies on the effectiveness of bioremediation in degrading contaminants in soil. Reactive Transport in Three Dimensions (RT3D) software is based on the premise that bioremediation processes can be designed and controlled like other chemical processes and is now being using for natural attenuation evaluation at several government and industrial chlorinated ethenes contaminated sites. Users simply enter the site-specific information to simulate the contaminant plume in the ground water and can then evaluate various bioremediation options

  17. Bioremediation of toxic substances by mercury resistant marine bacteria

    De, J.; Sarkar, A.; Ramaiah, N.

    Bioremediation of toxic substances includes microbe-mediated enzymatic transformation of toxicants to non-toxic, often assimilable, forms. Mercury-resistant marine bacteria are found to be very promising in dealing with mercury, and a host of other...

  18. Intel Xeon Phi accelerated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF Goddard microphysics scheme

    J. Mielikainen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is a numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. The WRF development is a done in collaboration around the globe. Furthermore, the WRF is used by academic atmospheric scientists, weather forecasters at the operational centers and so on. The WRF contains several physics components. The most time consuming one is the microphysics. One microphysics scheme is the Goddard cloud microphysics scheme. It is a sophisticated cloud microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The Goddard microphysics scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. Compared to the earlier microphysics schemes, the Goddard scheme incorporates a large number of improvements. Thus, we have optimized the Goddard scheme code. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard microphysics scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The Intel MIC is capable of executing a full operating system and entire programs rather than just kernels as the GPU does. The MIC coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is one familiar to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discussed in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of Goddard microphysics scheme on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 4.7×. In addition, the optimizations reduced the Goddard microphysics scheme's share of the total WRF processing time from 20.0 to 7.5%. Furthermore, the same

  19. Intel Xeon Phi accelerated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Goddard microphysics scheme

    Mielikainen, J.; Huang, B.; Huang, A. H.-L.

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. The WRF development is a done in collaboration around the globe. Furthermore, the WRF is used by academic atmospheric scientists, weather forecasters at the operational centers and so on. The WRF contains several physics components. The most time consuming one is the microphysics. One microphysics scheme is the Goddard cloud microphysics scheme. It is a sophisticated cloud microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The Goddard microphysics scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. Compared to the earlier microphysics schemes, the Goddard scheme incorporates a large number of improvements. Thus, we have optimized the Goddard scheme code. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard microphysics scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The Intel MIC is capable of executing a full operating system and entire programs rather than just kernels as the GPU does. The MIC coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is one familiar to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discussed in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of Goddard microphysics scheme on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 4.7×. In addition, the optimizations reduced the Goddard microphysics scheme's share of the total WRF processing time from 20.0 to 7.5%. Furthermore, the same optimizations

  20. Annual report of joint research for using heavy ion accelerator for cancer therapy of the fiscal year 1996

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The heavy ion project consisted of 2 parts; clinical studies using HIMAC and joint basic researches using it. The clinical studies have been satisfactorily progressed and the number of patients treated by HIMAC reached 230 in total by the end of the fiscal year 1996. In Japan, HIMAC is the only apparatus for heavy ion acceleration. Thus, a lot of concerns from not only the medical and biological fields, but also other fundamental fields are paid to HIMAC. Further, the beam of HIMAC has been attracting international concerns, especially in the fields such as simulation of cosmic environment by heavy ion beam, dose determination using the beam, international comparison of its biological effects, etc. The operating times of HIMAC in 1996 was ca. 4800 hours in total and of those ca. 2700 hours were used for joint researches. This annual report include 12 reports of clinical research group, 4 of diagnosis one 64 of biology one and 42 of physical and engineering one. (M.N.)