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Sample records for accelerate intestinal invasion

  1. Listeria monocytogenes internalin B activates junctional endocytosis to accelerate intestinal invasion.

    Mickey Pentecost

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (Lm uses InlA to invade the tips of the intestinal villi, a location at which cell extrusion generates a transient defect in epithelial polarity that exposes the receptor for InlA, E-cadherin, on the cell surface. As the dying cell is removed from the epithelium, the surrounding cells reorganize to form a multicellular junction (MCJ that Lm exploits to find its basolateral receptor and invade. By examining individual infected villi using 3D-confocal imaging, we uncovered a novel role for the second major invasin, InlB, during invasion of the intestine. We infected mice intragastrically with isogenic strains of Lm that express or lack InlB and that have a modified InlA capable of binding murine E-cadherin and found that Lm lacking InlB invade the same number of villi but have decreased numbers of bacteria within each infected villus tip. We studied the mechanism of InlB action at the MCJs of polarized MDCK monolayers and find that InlB does not act as an adhesin, but instead accelerates bacterial internalization after attachment. InlB locally activates its receptor, c-Met, and increases endocytosis of junctional components, including E-cadherin. We show that MCJs are naturally more endocytic than other sites of the apical membrane, that endocytosis and Lm invasion of MCJs depends on functional dynamin, and that c-Met activation by soluble InlB or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF increases MCJ endocytosis. Also, in vivo, InlB applied through the intestinal lumen increases endocytosis at the villus tips. Our findings demonstrate a two-step mechanism of synergy between Lm's invasins: InlA provides the specificity of Lm adhesion to MCJs at the villus tips and InlB locally activates c-Met to accelerate junctional endocytosis and bacterial invasion of the intestine.

  2. Apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells after bacterial invasion.

    Kim, J. M.; Eckmann, L; Savidge, T. C.; Lowe, D C; Witthöft, T; Kagnoff, M F

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial cells that line the human intestinal mucosa are the initial site of host invasion by bacterial pathogens. The studies herein define apoptosis as a new category of intestinal epithelial cell response to bacterial infection. Human colon epithelial cells are shown to undergo apoptosis following infection with invasive enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. In contrast to the rapid onset of apoptosis seen after bacterial infection of mouse monocyte-ma...

  3. Carbenoxolone accelerates maturation of rat intestine

    Pácha, Jiří; Vagnerová, R.; Bryndová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2003), s. 808-813. ISSN 0031-3998 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA306/99/0210; GA ČR GA305/01/0281 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase * rat * intestine * carbenoxolone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2003

  4. Milk Modulates Campylobacter Invasion into Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Louwen, Rogier; van Neerven, R J Joost

    2015-09-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. Although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of Campylobacter species is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of cow, goat, horse, and formula milk on Campylobacter invasion into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, a pathogenic feature of this bacterial species, using a gentamicin exclusion invasion assay. We found that all milk products modulated the invasion of Campylobacter species into the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Control experiments showed that the milks were not toxic for the Caco-2 cells and that the effect on invasion is caused by heat labile (e.g., milk proteins) or heat stable (e.g., sugar/lipids) components depending on the Campylobacter species studied. This in vitro study shows for the first time that pasteurized and formula milk affect the invasion of Campylobacter. We recommend a prospective study to examine whether pasteurized and formula milk affect Campylobacteriosis. PMID:26495128

  5. Invasion of murine intestinal M cells by Salmonella typhimurium inv mutants severely deficient for invasion of cultured cells.

    Clark, M. A.; Reed, K A; Lodge, J; Stephen, J.; Hirst, B H; Jepson, M A

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the role of the Salmonella typhimurium inv locus in invasion of the murine intestine. Previous studies have demonstrated that M cells within the lymphoid-follicle-associated epithelia are the primary site of intestinal invasion by S. typhimurium. In this study, we show that mutants possessing defects in one of two inv genes, invA or invG, which render them severely deficient for invasion of polarized epithelial MDCK cells, retain their ability to actively invade mouse Peyer's...

  6. High-fat Diet Accelerates Intestinal Tumorigenesis Through Disrupting Intestinal Cell Membrane Integrity

    Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Min Young; Seo, Young Rok; Kim, Jong-Sang; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excess energy supply induces chronic low-grade inflammation in association with oxidative stress in various tissues including intestinal epithelium. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on intestinal cell membrane integrity and intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. Methods: Mice were fed with either normal diet (ND) or HFD for 12 weeks. The number of intestinal tumors were counted and biomarkers of endotoxemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation were determined. Changes in intestinal integrity was measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran penetration and membrane gap junction protein expression. Results: HFD group had significantly higher number of tumors compared to ND group (P < 0.05). Blood total antioxidant capacity was lower in HFD group, while colonic 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine level, a marker of oxidative damage, was higher in HFD group compared to that of ND group (P < 0.05). The penetration of FITC-dextran was substantially increased in HFD group (P < 0.05) while the expressions of membrane gap junction proteins including zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, and occludin were lower in HFD group (P < 0.05) compared to those in ND group. Serum concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor (CD14) and colonic toll-like receptor 4 (a LPS receptor) mRNA expression were significantly higher in HFD group than in ND group (P < 0.05), suggesting that significant endotoxemia may occur in HFD group due to the increased membrane permeability. Serum interleukin-6 concentration and myeloperoxidase activity were also higher in HFD group compared to those of ND group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: HFD increases oxidative stress disrupting intestinal gap junction proteins, thereby accelerating membrane permeability endotoxemia, inflammation, and intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:27390738

  7. No Holes Barred: Invasion of the Intestinal Mucosa by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Bannantine, John P; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2013-01-01

    The infection biology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has recently crystallized, with added details surrounding intestinal invasion. The involvement of pathogen-derived effector proteins such as the major membrane protein, oxidoreductase, and fibronectin attachment proteins have been uncovered. Mutations constructed in this pathogen have also shed light on genes needed for invasion. The host cell types that are susceptible to invasion have been defined, along with their transcr...

  8. Invasive intestinal myiasis in a young male presenting as fungating rectal mass: An unusual presentation

    Malti Kumari; Madhu M Goel; Devendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal myiasis is usually an accidental phenomenon which is transient and asymptomatic. It occurs due to intake of contaminated food or water containing fly larvae or eggs. We report a case of invasive intestinal myiasis presenting with complaint of pain, blood-mixed mucous discharge per rectum along with passage of maggots in stool. On proctoscopy an irregular fungating rectal growth with maggots was detected in rectum and anal canal. Excision of growth with diversion colostomy was done....

  9. Effect of gravitational acceleration, hypokinesia and hypodynamia on the structure of the intestinal vascular bed

    Nikitin, M. V.

    1980-01-01

    A series of experiments comparing single and combined effects of hypokinesia and gravitational acceleration on morphology of intestinal blood vessels are discussed. Results indicate that hypokinesia has a whole body nonspecific effect reflected even in an organ whose activity shows little or no change due to hypokinesia. In early hypokinetic stages blood redistribution caused anorexia, intestinal atonia, and secretory disruption. Destructive changes from further exposure include aneurisms, varicoses, extravascular movement of blood elements, and vascular wall muscle fiber degeneration. The effect of acceleration is greatest in the ventrodorsal direction. Changes due to acceleration then hypokinesia are like those due to hypokinesia alone; changes due to acceleration before and after hypokinesia are like those due to acceleration. Adaptation raises acceleration tolerance but the effects do not survive four-week hypokinesia.

  10. Intestinal invasion and disseminated disease associated with Penicillium chrysogenum

    Herchline Thomas E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium sp., other than P. marneffei, is an unusual cause of invasive disease. These organisms are often identified in immunosuppressed patients, either due to human immunodeficiency virus or from immunosuppressant medications post-transplantation. They are a rarely identified cause of infection in immunocompetent hosts. Case presentation A 51 year old African-American female presented with an acute abdomen and underwent an exploratory laparotomy which revealed an incarcerated peristomal hernia. Her postoperative course was complicated by severe sepsis syndrome with respiratory failure, hypotension, leukocytosis, and DIC. On postoperative day 9 she was found to have an anastamotic breakdown. Pathology from the second surgery showed transmural ischemic necrosis with angioinvasion of a fungal organism. Fungal blood cultures were positive for Penicillium chrysogenum and the patient completed a 6 week course of amphotericin B lipid complex, followed by an extended course oral intraconazole. She was discharged to a nursing home without evidence of recurrent infection. Discussion Penicillium chrysogenum is a rare cause of infection in immunocompetent patients. Diagnosis can be difficult, but Penicillium sp. grows rapidly on routine fungal cultures. Prognosis remains very poor, but aggressive treatment is essential, including surgical debridement and the removal of foci of infection along with the use of amphotericin B. The clinical utility of newer antifungal agents remains to be determined.

  11. Neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids of the stomach and intestines - early diagnosis and minimally invasive endoscopic procedures

    Kuryk O.G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach and intestines are rare diseases. Increasing incidence and complexity of diagnosis of these diseases cause acuteness of the problem. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of morphological examination of endoscopic biopsy material for diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors and for evaluation of completeness of minimally invasive endoscopic surgical interventions (endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection at neuroendocrine tumors. Methods. On the basis of Medical center "Oberig" in 2009 - 2013 in eight cases neuroendocrine tumors were diagnosed: 2 (25 % in the stomach, 2 (25% – in the duodenum, 2 (25% - in the small intestine, 1 (12.5 % - in the ascending colon, 1 (12.5% - in the rectum. Neuroendocrine tumors of stomach and ileum were removed by endoscopic mucosal resection, duodenal bulb and rectum neuroendocrine tumors – by endoscopic submucosal dissection, papillary duodenum, colon and jejunum neuroendocrine tumors – by surgical resection. Results. It was shown, that morphological evaluation of endoscopic mucosal biopsies is effective way to diagnose the neuroendocrine tumors. Conclusion. Endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection allows to get advanced material for morphological diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors and an adequate method of their removing Citation: Kuryk OG, Yakovenko VO, Bazdyrev VV, Bodnar LV. [Neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids of the stomach and intestines - early diagnosis and minimally invasive endoscopic procedures]. Morphologia. 2014;8(1:58-64. Ukrainian.

  12. Invasive intestinal myiasis in a young male presenting as fungating rectal mass: An unusual presentation

    Malti Kumari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal myiasis is usually an accidental phenomenon which is transient and asymptomatic. It occurs due to intake of contaminated food or water containing fly larvae or eggs. We report a case of invasive intestinal myiasis presenting with complaint of pain, blood-mixed mucous discharge per rectum along with passage of maggots in stool. On proctoscopy an irregular fungating rectal growth with maggots was detected in rectum and anal canal. Excision of growth with diversion colostomy was done. On histopathology numerous variable-sized larvae in different stages of development were detected throughout the inflamed and necrosed bowel wall. No tumor was seen. With maintenance of proper hygiene, vermicide anti inflammatory and purgatives were given. Patient became alright after colostomy closure. The symptomatic presentation as a mass lesion and necessity for surgical intervention prompted us to report this rare case.

  13. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation

  14. Invasion Genes Are Not Required for Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium To Breach the Intestinal Epithelium: Evidence That Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Has Alternative Functions during Infection

    Murray, Rose Ann; Lee, Catherine A.

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invasion genes are necessary for bacterial invasion of intestinal epithelial cells and are thought to allow salmonellae to enter and cross the intestinal epithelium during infection. Many invasion genes are encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1), and their expression is activated by HilA, a transcription factor also encoded on SPI1. We have studied the role of Salmonella invasion genes during infection of mice following intragastric inocula...

  15. Apical Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Salmonella typhimurium Requires Villin to Remodel the Brush Border Actin Cytoskeleton

    Lhocine, Nouara; Arena, Ellen T.; Bomme, Perrine; Ubelmann, Florent; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Robine, Sylvie; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Salmonella invasion of intestinal epithelial cells requires extensive, though transient, actin modifications at the site of bacterial entry. The actin-modifying protein villin is present in the brush border where it participates in the constitution of microvilli and in epithelial restitution after damage through its actin-severing activity. We investigated a possible role for villin in Salmonella invasion. The absence of villin, which is normally located at the bacterial entry site, l...

  16. Enhancement of the non-invasive electroenterogram to identify intestinal pacemaker activity

    Surface recording of electroenterogram (EEnG) is a non-invasive method for monitoring intestinal myoelectrical activity. However, surface EEnG is seriously affected by a variety of interferences: cardiac activity, respiration, very low frequency components and movement artefacts. The aim of this study is to eliminate respiratory interference and very low frequency components from external EEnG recording by means of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), so as to obtain more robust indicators of intestinal pacemaker activity from the external EEnG signal. For this purpose, 11 recording sessions were performed in an animal model under fasting conditions and in each individual session the myoelectrical signal was recorded simultaneously in the intestinal serosa and the external abdominal surface in physiological states. Various parameters have been proposed for evaluating the efficacy of the method in reducing interferences: the signal-to-interference ratio (S/I ratio), attenuation of the target and interference signals, the normal slow wave percentage and the stability of the dominant frequency (DF) of the signal. The results show that the S/I ratio of the processed signals is significantly greater than the original values (9.66 ± 4.44 dB versus 1.23 ± 5.13 dB), while the target signal was barely attenuated (−0.63 ± 1.02 dB). The application of the EMD method also increased the percentage of the normal slow wave to 100% in each individual session and enabled the stability of the DF of the external signal to be increased considerably. Furthermore, the variation coefficient of the DF derived from the external processed signals is comparable to the coefficient obtained using internal recordings. Therefore, the EMD method could be a very useful tool to improve the quality of external EEnG recording in the low frequency range and therefore to obtain more robust indicators of the intestinal pacemaker activity from non-invasive EEnG recordings

  17. Prolonged antibiotic treatment induces a diabetogenic intestinal microbiome that accelerates diabetes in NOD mice.

    Brown, Kirsty; Godovannyi, Artem; Ma, Caixia; Zhang, YiQun; Ahmadi-Vand, Zahra; Dai, Chaunbin; Gorzelak, Monika A; Chan, YeeKwan; Chan, Justin M; Lochner, Arion; Dutz, Jan P; Vallance, Bruce A; Gibson, Deanna L

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that the intestinal microbiome is involved in Type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis through the gut-pancreas nexus. Our aim was to determine whether the intestinal microbiota in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model played a role in T1D through the gut. To examine the effect of the intestinal microbiota on T1D onset, we manipulated gut microbes by: (1) the fecal transplantation between non-obese diabetic (NOD) and resistant (NOR) mice and (2) the oral antibiotic and probiotic treatment of NOD mice. We monitored diabetes onset, quantified CD4+T cells in the Peyer's patches, profiled the microbiome and measured fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The gut microbiota from NOD mice harbored more pathobionts and fewer beneficial microbes in comparison with NOR mice. Fecal transplantation of NOD microbes induced insulitis in NOR hosts suggesting that the NOD microbiome is diabetogenic. Moreover, antibiotic exposure accelerated diabetes onset in NOD mice accompanied by increased T-helper type 1 (Th1) and reduced Th17 cells in the intestinal lymphoid tissues. The diabetogenic microbiome was characterized by a metagenome altered in several metabolic gene clusters. Furthermore, diabetes susceptibility correlated with reduced fecal SCFAs. In an attempt to correct the diabetogenic microbiome, we administered VLS#3 probiotics to NOD mice but found that VSL#3 colonized the intestine poorly and did not delay diabetes. We conclude that NOD mice harbor gut microbes that induce diabetes and that their diabetogenic microbiome can be amplified early in life through antibiotic exposure. Protective microbes like VSL#3 are insufficient to overcome the effects of a diabetogenic microbiome. PMID:26274050

  18. Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Phenotype Displayed by Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli Strains from Cats, Dogs, and Swine ▿

    Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Garcia-Gil, Jesus; Barnich, Nicolas; Lothar H Wieler; Ewers, Christa

    2011-01-01

    The adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathotype, which has been associated with Crohn's disease, shows similar traits to human and animal extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) with respect to their phylogenetic origin and virulence gene profiles. Here, we demonstrate that animal ExPEC strains generally do not share the AIEC phenotype. In contrast, this phenotype is very frequent among animal intestinal pathogenic E. coli (InPEC) strains, particularly of feline and canine origin, ...

  19. Intestinal Cell Tight Junctions Limit Invasion of Candida albicans through Active Penetration and Endocytosis in the Early Stages of the Interaction of the Fungus with the Intestinal Barrier.

    Marianne Goyer

    Full Text Available C. albicans is a commensal yeast of the mucous membranes in healthy humans that can also cause disseminated candidiasis, mainly originating from the digestive tract, in vulnerable patients. It is necessary to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interaction of C. albicans with enterocytes to better understand the basis of commensalism and pathogenicity of the yeast and to improve the management of disseminated candidiasis. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of tight junction (TJ formation in parallel with the invasion of C. albicans into the Caco-2 intestinal cell line. Using invasiveness assays on Caco-2 cells displaying pharmacologically altered TJ (i.e. differentiated epithelial cells treated with EGTA or patulin, we were able to demonstrate that TJ protect enterocytes against invasion of C. albicans. Moreover, treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of endocytosis decreased invasion of the fungus into Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ, suggesting that facilitating access of the yeast to the basolateral side of intestinal cells promotes endocytosis of C. albicans in its hyphal form. These data were supported by SEM observations of differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ, which highlighted membrane protrusions engulfing C. albicans hyphae. We furthermore demonstrated that Als3, a hypha-specific C. albicans invasin, facilitates internalization of the fungus by active penetration and induced endocytosis by differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ. However, our observations failed to demonstrate binding of Als3 to E-cadherin as the trigger mechanism of endocytosis of C. albicans into differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ.

  20. Characterization of intestinal invasion by Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin and effect of a mutation in the invH gene.

    Watson, P. R.; Paulin, S M; Bland, A P; Jones, P W; Wallis, T S

    1995-01-01

    The relative levels of invasiveness of two bovine isolates each of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin and of invH mutants of S. typhimurium were determined in MDCK and Int 407 cultured-cell assays and in bovine ileal loops. S. dublin was found to be significantly less invasive in cultured cells than S. typhimurium, but this difference was not observed in bovine intestines. The invH mutants exhibited a significant reduction in invasion in both cultured cells and bovine intestines. Th...

  1. Differential diagnosis between functional and organic intestinal disorders: Is there a role for non-invasive tests?

    Francesco Costa; Maria Gloria Mumolo; Santino Marchi; Massimo Bellini

    2007-01-01

    Abdominal pain and bowel habits alterations are common symptoms in the general population. The investigation to differentiate organic from functional bowel disorders represents a considerable burden both for patients and public health service. The selection of patients who should undergo endoscopic and/or radiological procedures is one of the key points of the diagnostic process, which should avoid the abuse of invasive and expensive tests as well as the underestimation of potentially harmful diseases. Over the coming years,clinicians and researchers will be challenged to develop strategies to increase the patient's compliance and to reduce the economic and social costs of the intestinal diseases.

  2. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world’s most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers—precipitation and temperature—and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  3. Intestinal invasion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the avian host is dose dependent and does not depend on motility and chemotaxis

    Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Hoegh-Andersen, Kirsten Hobolt; Rosenkrantz, Jesper Tjørnholt;

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) can invade in the intestine of the avian host, and knowledge on the mechanisms that govern this is potentially important for prevention of disease. This study investigated the invasion of S. Typhimurium in the avian host and to which extent...... it depended on motility and chemotaxis.Wild type and previously well-characterized transposon mutants in flagella genes fliC and fljB and in chemotaxis genes cheA, cheB and cheR were used as challenge strains in intestinal loop experiments. Invasion was shown to be dose dependent, but did not require...... functional flagella or chemotaxis genes. In support of the results from intestinal loop experiments, flagella and chemotaxis genes were not significantly important to the outcome of an oral infection. The results showed that S. Typhimurium invasion in the avian host was dose dependent and was not affected by...

  4. Long-term Outcomes in Treatment of Invasive Bladder Cancer With Concomitant Boost and Accelerated Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    Canyilmaz, Emine, E-mail: dremocan@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Yavuz, Melek Nur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey); Serdar, Lasif [Department of Radiation Oncology, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Uslu, Gonca Hanedan; Zengin, Ahmet Yasar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kanuni Research and Education Hospital, Trabzon (Turkey); Aynaci, Ozlem; Haciislamoglu, Emel; Bahat, Zumrut; Yoney, Adnan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical efficacy and toxicity of concomitant boost and accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy (CBAHRT) in patients with invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Between October 1997 and September 2012, 334 patients with diagnoses of invasive bladder cancer were selected. These patients received CBAHRT as a bladder-conserving approach. The treatment consisted of a dose of 45 Gy/1.8 Gy to the whole pelvis with a daily concomitant boost of 1.5 Gy to the tumor. Total dose was 67.5 Gy in 5 weeks. A total of 32 patients (10.3%) had a diagnosis of stage T1, 202 (64.3%) were at stage T2, 46 (14.6%) were at stage T3a, 22 (7%) were at stage T3b, and 12 (3.8%) were at stage T4a. Results: The follow-up period was 33.1 months (range, 4.3-223.3 months). Grade 3 late intestinal toxicity was observed in 9 patients (2.9%), whereas grade 3 late urinary toxicity was observed in 8 patients (2.5%). The median overall survival (OS) was 26.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.4-31.2). The 5-, 10, and 15-year OS rates were 32.1% (standard error [SE], ± 0.027), 17.9% (SE, ± 0.025) and 12.5% (SE, ± 0.028), respectively. The median cause-specific survival (CSS) was 42.1 months (95% CI: 28.7-55.5). The 5-, 10-, and 15-year CSS rates were 43.2% (SE, ± 0.03), 30.3% (SE, ± 0.03), and 28% (SE, ± 0.04), respectively. The median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 111.8 months (95% CI: 99.6-124). The 5-, 10-, and 15-year RFS rates were 61.9% (SE, ± 0.03), 57.6% (SE, ± 0.04), and 48.2% (SE, ± 0.07), respectively. Conclusions: The CBAHRT technique demonstrated acceptable toxicity and local control rates in patients with invasive bladder cancer, and this therapy facilitated bladder conservation. In selected patients, the CBAHRT technique is a practical alternative treatment option with acceptable 5-, 10-, and 15-year results in patients undergoing cystectomy as well as concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  5. Dietary supplementation with soluble plantain non-starch polysaccharides inhibits intestinal invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the chicken.

    Bryony N Parsons

    Full Text Available Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp., have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1-99.7; P<0.0001. In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5-10 mg/ml inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64-81; P<0.001 and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75-90; P<0.001. Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was

  6. Development of an in vivo model for study of intestinal invasion by Salmonella enterica in chickens

    Aabo, Søren; Christensen, J.P.; Chadfield, M.S.;

    2000-01-01

    , followed by a 1-h incubation with gentamicin in order to kill noninvading bacteria. After euthanasia, Salmonella invasiveness was measured as tissue-associated counts relative to a reference strain. The ability of Salmonella invasion was 1 log(10) CFU higher per 42-mm(2) mucosal tissue in the anterior than...

  7. Transport and Non-Invasive Position Detection of Electron Beams from Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    Osterhoff, Jens; Sokollik, Thomas; Nakamura, Kei; Bakeman, Michael; Weingartner, R; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; DeSantis, Stefano; Byrd, John; Gruner, F; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-20

    The controlled imaging and transport of ultra-relativistic electrons from laser-plasma accelerators is of crucial importance to further use of these beams, e.g. in high peak-brightness light sources. We present our plans to realize beam transport with miniature permanent quadrupole magnets from the electron source through our THUNDER undulator. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of beam imaging by investigating the generated XUV-photon flux. In addition, first experimental findings of utilizing cavity-based monitors for non-invasive beam-position measurements in a noisy electromagnetic laser-plasma environment are discussed.

  8. The impact of hypoxia on intestinal epithelial cell functions: consequences for invasion by bacterial pathogens.

    Zeitouni, Nathalie E; Chotikatum, Sucheera; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y

    2016-12-01

    The maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in human tissues is mediated by several cellular adaptations in response to low-oxygen stress, called hypoxia. A decrease in tissue oxygen levels is initially counteracted by increasing local blood flow to overcome diminished oxygenation and avoid hypoxic stress. However, studies have shown that the physiological oxygen concentrations in several tissues are much lower than atmospheric (normoxic) conditions, and the oxygen supply is finely regulated in individual cell types. The gastrointestinal tract has been described to subsist in a state of physiologically low oxygen level and is thus depicted as a tissue in the state of constant low-grade inflammation. The intestinal epithelial cell layer plays a vital role in the immune response to inflammation and infections that occur within the intestinal tissue and is involved in many of the adaptation responses to hypoxic stress. This is especially relevant in the context of inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this review aims to describe the intestinal epithelial cellular response to hypoxia and the consequences for host interactions with invading gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. PMID:27002817

  9. Gastric Lgr5(+) stem cells are the cellular origin of invasive intestinal-type gastric cancer in mice.

    Li, Xiu-Bin; Yang, Guan; Zhu, Liang; Tang, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Chong; Ju, Zhenyu; Yang, Xiao; Teng, Yan

    2016-07-01

    The cellular origin of gastric cancer remains elusive. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is the first identified marker of gastric stem cells. However, the role of Lgr5(+) stem cells in driving malignant gastric cancer is not fully validated. Here, we deleted Smad4 and PTEN in murine gastric Lgr5(+) stem cells by the inducible Cre-LoxP system and marked mutant Lgr5(+) stem cells and their progeny with Cre-reporter Rosa26(tdTomato). Rapid onset and progression from microadenoma and macroscopic adenoma to invasive intestinal-type gastric cancer (IGC) were found in the gastric antrum with the loss of Smad4 and PTEN. In addition, invasive IGC developed at the murine gastro-forestomach junction, where a few Lgr5(+) stem cells reside. In contrast, Smad4 and PTEN deletions in differentiated cells, including antral parietal cells, pit cells and corpus Lgr5(+) chief cells, failed to initiate tumor growth. Furthermore, mutant Lgr5(+) cells were involved in IGC growth and progression. In the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) database, an increase in LGR5 expression was manifested in the human IGC that occurred at the gastric antrum and gastro-esophageal junction. In addition, the concurrent deletion of SMAD4 and PTEN, as well as their reduced expression and deregulated downstream pathways, were associated with human IGC. Thus, we demonstrated that gastric Lgr5(+) stem cells were cancer-initiating cells and might act as cancer-propagating cells to contribute to malignant progression. PMID:27091432

  10. Invasive Recurrence of an Intestinal-Type Mucinous Epithelial Neoplasm of Low Malignant Potential: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    S. Cosyns

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomyxoma peritonei is only rarely seen in conjunction with primary ovarian tumors. It has been suggested that only ruptured mucinous tumors arising in ovarian mature cystic teratomas can result in this clinical picture. We describe a case of a late invasive recurrence of a mucinous intestinal-type borderline ovarian tumor arising from a mature teratoma after complete surgical debulking. Borderline ovarian tumors behave indolently in the overwhelming majority of cases, and the prognosis is therefore usually outstanding.

  11. Contribution of Listeria monocytogenes RecA to acid and bile survival and invasion of human intestinal Caco-2 cells

    Veen, van der S.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is able to colonize the human gastro-intestinal tract and subsequently cross the intestinal barrier. Thus, for L. monocytogenes to become virulent, it must survive the low pH of the stomach, high bile concentrations in the small intestine, and invade th

  12. Minimally Invasive Techniques to Accelerate the Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies

    Irfan Qamruddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate various noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures for the enhancement of orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Materials and Methods. Literature was searched using NCBI (PubMed, PubMed Central, and PubMed Health, MedPilot (Medline, Catalogue ZB MED, Catalogue Medicine Health, and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, and Google Scholar from January 2009 till 31 December 2014. We included original articles related to noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures to enhance orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Extraction of data and quality assessments were carried out by two observers independently. Results. The total number of hits was 9195 out of which just 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nine articles were good and 5 articles were moderate in quality. Low level laser therapy (LLLT was among the most common noninvasive techniques whereas flapless corticision using various instruments was among the commonest minimally invasive procedures to enhance velocity of tooth movement. Conclusions. LLLT, low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS, mechanical vibration, and flapless corticision are emerging noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques which need further researches to establish protocols to use them clinically with conviction.

  13. Minimally Invasive Techniques to Accelerate the Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies

    Qamruddin, Irfan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli; Husein, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate various noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures for the enhancement of orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Materials and Methods. Literature was searched using NCBI (PubMed, PubMed Central, and PubMed Health), MedPilot (Medline, Catalogue ZB MED, Catalogue Medicine Health, and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE)), and Google Scholar from January 2009 till 31 December 2014. We included original articles related to noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures to enhance orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Extraction of data and quality assessments were carried out by two observers independently. Results. The total number of hits was 9195 out of which just 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nine articles were good and 5 articles were moderate in quality. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) was among the most common noninvasive techniques whereas flapless corticision using various instruments was among the commonest minimally invasive procedures to enhance velocity of tooth movement. Conclusions. LLLT, low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), mechanical vibration, and flapless corticision are emerging noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques which need further researches to establish protocols to use them clinically with conviction. PMID:26881201

  14. Global trade will accelerate plant invasions in emerging economies under climate change

    Seebens, H.; Essl, F.; Dawson, W.; Fuentes, N.; Moser, D.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; van Kleunen, M.; Weber, E.; Winter, M.; Blasius, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), s. 4128-4140. ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * climate change * trade Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.044, year: 2014

  15. MiR-145 expression accelerates esophageal adenocarcinoma progression by enhancing cell invasion and anoikis resistance.

    Mathieu Francois Derouet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the esophagus has a high case fatality ratio and is now the 6th most common cause of cancer deaths in the world. We previously conducted a study to profile the expression of miRNAs in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC pre and post induction therapy. Of the miRNAs differentially expressed post induction chemoradiation, miR-145, a known tumor suppressor miRNA, was upregulated 8-fold following induction therapy, however, its expression was associated with shorter disease-free survival. This unexpected result was explored in this current study. METHODS: In order to study the role of miR-145 in EAC, miRNA-145 was overexpressed in 3 EAC cell lines (OE33, FLO-1, SK-GT-4 and one ESCC cell line (KYSE-410. After validation of the expression of miR-145, hallmarks of cancer such as cell proliferation, resistance to chemotherapy drugs or anoikis, and cell invasion were analyzed. RESULTS: There were no differences in cell proliferation and 5 FU resistance between miR145 cell lines and the control cell lines. miR-145 expression also had no effect on cisplatin resistance in two of three cell lines (OE33 and FLO-1, but miR-145 appeared to protect SK-GT-4 cells against cisplatin treatment. However, there was a significant difference in cell invasion, cell adhesion and resistance to anoikis. All three EAC miR-145 cell lines invaded more than their respective controls. Similarly, OE33 and SK-GT-4 miR-145 cell lines were able to survive longer in a suspension state. DISCUSSION: While expression of miR-145 in ESCC stopped proliferation and invasion, expression of miR-145 in EAC cells enhanced invasion and anoikis resistance. Although more work is required to understand how miR-145 conveys these effects, expression of miR-145 appears to promote EAC progression by enhancing invasion and protection against anoikis, which could in turn facilitate distant metastasis.

  16. Prostaglandin E2 accelerates invasion by upregulating Snail in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hai; Cheng, Shanyu; Zhang, Dengcai; Xu, Yan; Bai, Xiaoming; Xia, Shukai; Zhang, Li; Ma, Juan; Du, Mingzhan; Wang, Yipin; Wang, Jie; Chen, Meng; Leng, Jing

    2014-07-01

    Our previous studies showed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) promotes hepatoma cell growth and migration, as well as invasion; however, the precise mechanism remains elusive. Snail and p65 protein levels were detected in human samples with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. HCC cell lines (Huh-7 and Hep3B) were used for in vitro experiments. PGE2/Akt/NF-κB pathway was investigated in Huh-7 and Hep3B cells after treatment with PGE2, EP4 receptor (EP4R) agonist, Akt inhibitor, and NF-κB inhibitor, respectively, by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence (IF) staining. In vitro cell invasion assay was performed to evaluate the effect of PGE2 on tumor invasiveness. Knockdown of EP4R was carried out in Huh-7 cells through plasmid-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach to confirm the regulation of PGE2 on Snail by EP4R. Dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to assess Snail promoter activity in Huh-7 cell after treatment with EP4R agonist. We found that the protein levels of Snail were higher in HCC tissues than those in control and that PGE2 and EP4R agonist treatment significantly increased Snail expression in Huh-7 and Hep3B cells. EP4R agonist also profoundly promoted invasiveness of Huh-7 cells. Knockdown of the EP4R by siRNA completely blocked the PGE2-induced upregulation of Snail expression and reduced invasiveness of Huh-7 cells. We failed to find that EP4R-induced upregulation of Snail was reversed by inhibition of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a canonical downstream target of EP4R. Alternatively, EP4R agonist treatment significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated EGFR and Akt both in Huh-7 and Hep3B cells. AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, blocked the phosphorylation of Akt. The levels of phosphorylated IκB increased in Huh-7 cells after treatment with EP4R agonist for 30 min. The levels of phosphorylated p65 started to increase in Huh-7 cells treated

  17. Regulation of DMBT1 via NOD2 and TLR4 in intestinal epithelial cells modulates bacterial recognition and invasion

    Rosenstiel, Philip; Sina, Christian; End, Caroline;

    2007-01-01

    -kappaB activation and cytokine secretion in vitro. Thus, DMBT1 may play an important role in the first line of mucosal defense conferring immune exclusion of bacterial cell wall components. Dysregulated intestinal DMBT1 expression due to mutations in the NOD2/CARD15 gene may be part of the complex pathophysiology......Mucosal epithelial cell layers are constantly exposed to a complex resident microflora. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) belongs to the group of secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich proteins and is considered to be involved in host defense by pathogen binding. This report describes...... intracellular pathogen receptor NOD2 via NF-kappaB activation. DMBT1 is strongly up-regulated in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of Crohn's disease patients with wild-type, but not with mutant NOD2. We show that DMBT1 inhibits cytoinvasion of Salmonella enterica and LPS- and muramyl dipeptide-induced NF...

  18. Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane vesicle-associated proteolytic activity promotes bacterial invasion by mediating cleavage of intestinal epithelial cell E-cadherin and occludin.

    Elmi, Abdi; Nasher, Fauzy; Jagatia, Heena; Gundogdu, Ozan; Bajaj-Elliott, Mona; Wren, Brendan; Dorrell, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) play an important role in the pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter jejuni produces OMVs that trigger IL-8, IL-6, hBD-3 and TNF-α responses from T84 intestinal epithelial cells and are cytotoxic to Caco-2 IECs and Galleria mellonella larvae. Proteomic analysis of 11168H OMVs identified the presence of three proteases, HtrA, Cj0511 and Cj1365c. In this study, 11168H OMVs were shown to possess proteolytic activity that was reduced by pretreatment with specific serine protease inhibitors. OMVs isolated from 11168H htrA, Cj0511 or Cj1365c mutants possess significantly reduced proteolytic activity. 11168H OMVs are able to cleave both E-cadherin and occludin, but this cleavage is reduced with OMVs pretreated with serine protease inhibitors and also with OMVs isolated from htrA or Cj1365c mutants. Co-incubation of T84 monolayers with 11168H OMVs results in a visible reduction in both E-cadherin and occludin. The addition of 11168H OMVs to the co-culture of live 11168H bacteria with T84 cells results in enhanced levels of bacterial adhesion and invasion in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Further investigation of the cleavage of host cell structural proteins by C. jejuni OMVs should enhance our understanding of the interactions of this important pathogen with intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:26451973

  19. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  20. Enteric bacterial invasion of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro is dramatically enhanced using a vertical diffusion chamber model.

    Naz, Neveda; Mills, Dominic C; Wren, Brendan W; Dorrell, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The interactions of bacterial pathogens with host cells have been investigated extensively using in vitro cell culture methods. However as such cell culture assays are performed under aerobic conditions, these in vitro models may not accurately represent the in vivo environment in which the host-pathogen interactions take place. We have developed an in vitro model of infection that permits the coculture of bacteria and host cells under different medium and gas conditions. The Vertical Diffusion Chamber (VDC) model mimics the conditions in the human intestine where bacteria will be under conditions of very low oxygen whilst tissue will be supplied with oxygen from the blood stream. Placing polarized intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) monolayers grown in Snapwell inserts into a VDC creates separate apical and basolateral compartments. The basolateral compartment is filled with cell culture medium, sealed and perfused with oxygen whilst the apical compartment is filled with broth, kept open and incubated under microaerobic conditions. Both Caco-2 and T84 IECs can be maintained in the VDC under these conditions without any apparent detrimental effects on cell survival or monolayer integrity. Coculturing experiments performed with different C. jejuni wild-type strains and different IEC lines in the VDC model with microaerobic conditions in the apical compartment reproducibly result in an increase in the number of interacting (almost 10-fold) and intracellular (almost 100-fold) bacteria compared to aerobic culture conditions. The environment created in the VDC model more closely mimics the environment encountered by C. jejuni in the human intestine and highlights the importance of performing in vitro infection assays under conditions that more closely mimic the in vivo reality. We propose that use of the VDC model will allow new interpretations of the interactions between bacterial pathogens and host cells. PMID:24192850

  1. Carrageenan Gum and Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli in a Piglet Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Impact on Intestinal Mucosa-associated Microbiota.

    Munyaka, Peris M; Sepehri, Shadi; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic conditions characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathotype has been increasingly implicated in the etiopathogenesis of IBD. In a 21-day study, we investigated the effects of AIEC strain UM146 inoculation on microbiota profile of the ileal, cecal, ascending and descending colon in a pig model of experimental colitis. Carrageenan gum (CG) was used to induce colitis in weaner piglets whereas AIEC strain UM146 previously isolated from a CD patient was included to investigate a cause or consequence effect in IBD. Treatments were: (1) control; (2) CG; (3) AIEC strain UM146; and (4) CG+UM146. Pigs in groups 2 and 4 received 1% CG in drinking water from day 1 of the study while pigs in groups 3 and 4 were inoculated with UM146 on day 8. Following euthanization on day 21, tissue mucosal scrapings were collected and used for DNA extraction. The V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was then subjected to Illumina sequencing. Microbial diversity, composition, and the predicted functional metagenome were determined in addition to short chain fatty acids profiles in the digesta and inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal tissue. CG-induced colitis decreased bacterial species richness and shifted community composition. At the phylum level, an increase in Proteobacteria and Deferribacteres and a decrease in Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were observed in CG and CGUM146 compared to control and UM146. The metabolic capacity of the microbiome was also altered in CG and CGUM146 compared to UM146 and control in the colon. We demonstrated that CG resulted in bacterial dysbiosis and shifted community composition similar to what has been previously observed in IBD patients. However, AIEC strain UM146 alone did not cause any clear changes compared to CG or control in our experimental IBD pig model. PMID:27092122

  2. Ephrin-B2 is differentially expressed in the intestinal epithelium in Crohn's disease and contributes to accelerated epithelial wound healing in vitro

    Christian Hafner; Michael Landthaler; Thomas Vogt; Stefanie Meyer; Thomas Langmann; Gerd Schmitz; Frauke Bataille; Ilja Hagen; Bernd Becker; Alexander Roesch; Gerhard Rogler

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane bound receptor-like ligands, the ephrins, represent a bi-directional cell-cell contact signaling system that directs epithelial movements in development. The meaning of this system in the adult human gut is unknown. We investigated the Eph/ephrin mRNA expression in the intestinal epithelium of healthy controls and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS: mRNA expression profiles of all Eph/ephrin family members in normal small intestine and colon were established by real-time RT-PCR. In addition, differential expression in IBD was investigated by cDNA array technology, and validated by both real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Potential effects of enhanced EphB/ephrin-B signaling were analyzed in an in vitro IEC-6 cell scratch wound model.RESULTS: Human adult intestinal mucosa exhibits a complex pattern of Eph receptors and ephrins. Beside the known prominent co-expression of EphA2 and ephrinA1,we found abundantly co-expressed EphB2 and ephrin-B1/2.Interestingly, cDNA array data, validated by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, showed upregulation of ephrin-B2 in both perilesional and lesional intestinal epithelial cells of IBD patients, suggesting a role in epithelial homeostasis. Stimulation of ephrin-B signaling in ephrinB1/2 expressing rat IEC-6-cells with recombinant EphB1Fc resulted in a significant dose-dependent acceleration of wound closure. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopy showed that EphB1-Fc induced coordinated migration of wound edge cells is associated with enhanced formation of lamellipodial protrusions into the wound, increased actin stress fiber assembly and production of laminin at the wound edge.CONCLUSION: EphB/ephrin-B signaling might represent a novel protective mechanism that promotes intestinal epithelial wound healing, with potential impact on epithelial restitution in IBD.

  3. Intestine Transplant

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Intestine Transplant Although it is possible for a living donor to donate an intestine segment, most intestine transplants involve a whole organ ...

  4. The Invasion of Coastal Areas in South China by Ipomoea cairica May Be Accelerated by the Ecotype Being More Locally Adapted to Salt Stress.

    Liu, Gang; Gao, Yang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Yuan, Ming-Yue; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are two alternative mechanisms used by invasive plants for range expansion. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the role of these mechanisms in the recent expansion of the invasive Ipomoea cairica from non-saline to salt-stressed coastal habitats. A comparison of the plant's photosynthetic traits and construction costs across habitats was conducted through a field survey. Meanwhile, a full factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with two ecotypes (non-saline and coastal) of I. cairica and two salinity gradients (water and 4 g L-1 NaCl solution) to evaluate the roles of the two strategies by comparing their main traits. The results revealed that the construction cost and Amax of I. cairica did not change with the habitat type. The ecotype and saline treatments, however, significantly influenced the plant growth. The non-saline ecotype (NE) generally showed higher or equal plasticity of biomass-allocation and functional traits compared to the coastal ecotype (CE). However, the fitness and biomass of the NE significantly decreased with salinity, whereas those aspects of the CE did not change. Our results indicate that the recent expansion of I. cairica into coastal areas may be accelerated by the local adaptation of the CE to salt stress. Additionally, in South China, the CE will most likely evolve adaptations to both saline and non-saline environments, which will further broaden the invasion range of I. cairica in the future. PMID:26867222

  5. Intestinal Cancer

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  6. A NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA BY EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY-PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    To explore the potential of exhaled breath analysis by Column Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) as a non invasive and sensitive approach to evaluate mesenteric ischemia in pigs. Domestic pigs (n=3) were anesthetized with Guaifenesin/ Fentanyl/ Ketamine/ Xylazine...

  7. Intestinal obstruction

    ... of the major causes of intestinal obstruction in infants and children. Causes of paralytic ileus may include: Bacteria or viruses that cause intestinal infections ( gastroenteritis ) Chemical, electrolyte, or mineral imbalances (such as decreased ...

  8. Endometriosis intestinal Intestinal endometriosis

    C.I. González; M. Cires; F. J. Jiménez; Rubio, T.

    2008-01-01

    La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad en el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada). En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuen...

  9. Endometriosis intestinal Intestinal endometriosis

    C.I. González

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad en el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada. En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuentemente afectado, sobre todo a nivel rectosigmodeo. La clínica de presentación es inespecífica, siendo lo más frecuente el dolor abdominal y/o pélvico de tipo cólico que coincide o se exacerba con la menstruación. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, diverticulitis, colitis isquémica y procesos neoplásicos, siendo el diagnóstico definitivo anatomopatológico. En cuanto al tratamiento, éste dependerá de la clínica y de la edad de la paciente, así como de sus deseos de embarazo.Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnormality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation. In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment

  10. Current perioperative management of radical cystectomy with intestinal urinary reconstruction for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and reduction of the incidence of postoperative ileus.

    Maffezzini, Massimo; Campodonico, Fabio; Canepa, Giorgio; Gerbi, Guido; Parodi, Donatella

    2008-07-01

    Major abdominal surgery, and also radical cystectomy, is followed by a delayed return of bowel function attributable to postoperative ileus (POI), which, in addition, stands out as one of the most frequent complications that causes increased length of stay (LOS). Some variability exists in the definition of POI since time to return of peristalsis and time to first passage of flatus, which are commonly referred to as indicators of bowel activity, have their own weaknesses, observer dependent and time dependent, among other variables. A number of causes have been recognized to induce or maintain the condition of ileus. Some among them are part of the perioperative period. The practices of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) and of fasting before surgery have been challenged and can be safely abandoned. The perception of pain is an acknowledged promoter of POI; therefore, providing complete pain control constitutes the rationale in favor of administering anesthesia and analgesia combined, both in the form of concurrent general and epidural anesthesia (i.e., at the thoracic level, T9, T11), and represents the mainstay of intraoperative measures. Hypovolemia is also associated with an increased risk of POI. The use of nasogastric tubing (NGT) has been associated with increased pulmonary complications; moreover, bowel resection can be performed safely without postoperative NGT. Early postoperative provision of artificial nutrients has shown beneficial effects, both in the form of total parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN, EN). We devised a perioperative care regimen, adopting a multimodality approach aimed at minimizing the effects of the above listed factors to ascertain if they could contribute to preventing or reducing POI and the complications associated with radical cystectomy and intestinal urinary diversion. In addition, we investigated the impact of early artificial nutrition, combining PEN and EN via a jejunal nutrition cannula. Time to return of bowel

  11. Intestinal steroidogenesis.

    Bouguen, Guillaume; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Brunner, Thomas; Bertin, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Steroids are fundamental hormones that control a wide variety of physiological processes such as metabolism, immune functions, and sexual characteristics. Historically, steroid synthesis was considered a function restricted to the adrenals and the gonads. In the past 20 years, a significant number of studies have demonstrated that steroids could also be synthesized or metabolized by other organs. According to these studies, the intestine appears to be a major source of de novo produced glucocorticoids as well as a tissue capable of producing and metabolizing sex steroids. This finding is based on the detection of steroidogenic enzyme expression as well as the presence of bioactive steroids in both the rodent and human gut. Within the intestinal mucosa, the intestinal epithelial cell layer is one of the main cellular sources of steroids. Glucocorticoid synthesis regulation in the intestinal epithelial cells is unique in that it does not involve the classical positive regulator steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) but a closely related homolog, namely the liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1). This local production of immunoregulatory glucocorticoids contributes to intestinal homeostasis and has been linked to pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases. Intestinal epithelial cells also possess the ability to metabolize sex steroids, notably estrogen; this mechanism may impact colorectal cancer development. In this review, we contextualize and discuss what is known about intestinal steroidogenesis and regulation as well as the key role these functions play both in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25560486

  12. Human tetraspanin transmembrane 4 superfamily member 4 or intestinal and liver tetraspan membrane protein is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and accelerates tumor cell growth

    Ying Li; Leiming Wang; Jie Qiu; Liang Da; Pierre Tiollais; Zaiping Li; Mujun Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The human transmembrane 4 superfamily member 4 or intestinal and liver tetraspan membrane protein (TM4SF4/il-TMP) was originally cloned as an intestinal and liver tetraspan membrane protein and mediates density-dependent cell proliferation.The rat homolog of TM4SF4 was found to be up-regulated in regenerating liver after two-thirds hepatectomy and overexpression of TM4SF4 could enhance liver injury induced by CCl4.However,the expression and significance of TM4SF4/il-TMP in liver cancer remain unknown.Here,we report that TM4SF4/il-TMP is frequently and significantly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis showed that TM4SF4/il-TMP mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in ~80% of HCC tissues,Immunohistochemical analysis of a 75 paired HCC tissue microarray revealed that TM4SF4/il-TMP was significantly overexpressed in HCC tissues (P < 0.001),and high immunointensity of TM4SF4/iI-TMP tended to be in well-to-moderately differentiated HCC compared with poorly differentiated tumors.Functional studies showed that overexpression of TM4SF4/il-TMP in QGY-7701 and BEL-7404 HCC cell lines through stable transfection of TM4SF4 expression plasmid significantly promoted both cell growth and colony formation of HCC cells.Reduction of TM4SF4/il-TMP expression in QGY-7701 and BEL-7404 cells by stably transfecting TM4SF4 antisense plasmid caused great inhibition of cell proliferation.Our findings suggest that TM4SF4/il-TMP has the potential to be biomarker in HCC and plays a crucial role in promotion of cancer cell proliferation.

  13. Intestinal Obstruction

    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... inflammation and infection of the abdominal cavity ( peritonitis ). Causes Causes of intestinal obstruction differ depending on the ...

  14. Intestinal Malrotation

    ... to maintain adequate nutrition (a condition known as short bowel syndrome). They may be dependent on intravenous nutrition for a time after surgery (or even permanently if too little intestine remains) ...

  15. Intestinal Coccidia

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycl...

  16. Small Intestine Disorders

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  17. Small & Large Intestine

    ... the large intestine produces no digestive enzymes. Chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine before the chyme reaches the large intestine. Functions of the large intestine include the absorption of water and electrolytes and the elimination of ...

  18. Non-invasive physiological measurements

    This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nondestructive type for monitoring the physiology of various organ systems. The topics covered are: non-invasive assessment of gastric activity; uterine activity, intestinal activity; monitoring of fetal cardiovascular system and bilirubin physiology of infants. Respiratory system of infants is monitored and ultrasonography of heart is discussed

  19. Investigating Invasives

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  20. [Intestinal endometriosis].

    González Rodríguez, C I; Cires, M; Jiménez, F J; Rubio, T

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnormality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation). In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment, this will depend on the clinical features and the age of the patient, as well as her wishes with regard to pregnancy. PMID:18953367

  1. Intestinal steroidogenesis

    Bouguen, Guillaume; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Brunner, Thomas; Bertin, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Steroids are fundamental hormones that control a wide variety of physiological processes such as metabolism, immune functions, and sexual characteristics. Historically, steroid synthesis was considered a function restricted to the adrenals and the gonads. In the past 20 years, a significant number of studies have demonstrated that steroids could also be synthesized or metabolized by other organs. According to these studies, the intestine appears to be a major source of de novo produced glucoc...

  2. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  3. Intestinal Coccidia

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycle that has 20% thin layer and 80% thick layer. Oocyst with thick layer is able to live a long time in nature. They are the third or forth of gastroentritis disease that have digestive disorder like anorexia, nausea, persistent diarrhoea, malabsorption and leanness. The disease forms choronic and acute stages and it is able to kill the immunodeficiency cases. Sometimes it has HIV symptoms similar to pneumonia and respiratory track infection. Laboratory diagnosis is based on Oocyst finding in stool exam and that shitter floatation and Cr (KOH2 are the best methods. Modified zyh-lnelson and fleocroum are the best staining methods too. This parasite is transmitted by zoonotic and Antroponotic origin. Molecular studies have shown two Genotypes (I&II. Genotype I is aquatic and II is zoonotic. The prevalence rate is 3% in infants and 10% in calves. Cyclospora: This parasite is novel and is bigger than cryptosporidium.It isn't known a clear life cycle but is transmitted by water, vegetables and fruits as raspberries. and mulberries. Human is a specific host. When a parasite is in the intestine it causes inflammatory reaction in Entrocyte.The patient shows watery diarrhoea with nausea, vomitting, pain, Stomach cramp, anorexia, malabsorption and cachexia. The disease period is 3 monthes in immunodeficiency cases but it is selflimited in normal cases. Autofluorescence characteristic is differential diagnosis, prevalence rate of disease is unknown. Isospora: This

  4. Large intestine (colon) (image)

    The large intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of water from the indigestible ... the ileum (small intestine) passes material into the large intestine at the cecum. Material passes through the ...

  5. Plant invasions

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    Ed. 2. Waltham: Academic Press Inc, 2013 - (Levin, S.), s. 90-102. (vol. 6). ISBN 978-0-12-384719-5 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species invasiveness * habitat invasibility * impact Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  6. Invasive Candidiasis

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  7. Invasive species

    Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.

    Vol. 5. Great Barrington : Berkshire Publishing Group, 2012 - (Craig, R.; Nagle, J.; Pardy, B.; Schmitz, O.; Smith, W.), s. 211-219 ISBN 978-1-933782-16-4 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * invasibility * invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  8. Non-Lytic, Actin-Based Exit of Intracellular Parasites from C. elegans Intestinal Cells

    Estes, Kathleen A.; Szumowski, Suzannah C.; Troemel, Emily R.

    2011-01-01

    The intestine is a common site for invasion by intracellular pathogens, but little is known about how pathogens restructure and exit intestinal cells in vivo. The natural microsporidian parasite N. parisii invades intestinal cells of the nematode C. elegans, progresses through its life cycle, and then exits cells in a transmissible spore form. Here we show that N. parisii causes rearrangements of host actin inside intestinal cells as part of a novel parasite exit strategy. First, we show that...

  9. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    Mitsuoka, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the int...

  10. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].

    Ohkubo, Hidenori; Inoh, Yumi; Fuyuki, Akiko; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction(CIPO) is a rare severe digestive disease in which clinical symptoms of intestinal obstruction appear without any mechanical cause. Pathophysiologically, CIPO shows ineffective intestinal propulsion due to an impairment of intestinal smooth muscle, enteric nervous system, and interstitial cells of Cajal(ICC). Sustained increased intra-bowel pressure often causes small intestinal malabsorption and bacterial translocation, and leads to malnutrition and blood stream infection (sepsis). Key points of the medical approach for CIPO are to improve nutritional status and reduce abdominal symptoms. Dietary cure and defecation control are the main options in mild cases, whereas home-parenteral-nutrition(HPN) and decompression therapy are often needed in severe cases. Stimulant laxatives, prokinetics and herbal medicine are usually used but often in fail. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy(PEG-J) tube may be burdenless compared to conventional ileus tube. Most important points in the management of this disease are to make a correct diagnosis as early as possible and avoid unnecessary surgery. However, no clear diagnostic criteria have been established so far. Manometry, scintigraphy, and full-thickness biopsy are the major examination for the CIPO diagnosis in the Western countries; however these specialized examinations are not popular in Japan. Therefore the Research Group(chief investigator, Atsushi Nakajima) proposed Japanese diagnostic criteria in 2009 to facilitate the diagnosis of this rare disease by the general physician. In 2013, we have reported that cine-MRI is a non-invasive diagnostic method for CIPO. Although further data are eagerly awaited, it can become a promising diagnostic tool in CIPO patients. Furthermore the Japanese criteria have been revised, and in 2014, the comprehensive criteria from a child to an adult have been devised. In 2015, CIPO is newly certified as Specified Rare and Intractable Disease which is

  11. Imaging of intestinal fibrosis: current challenges and future methods.

    Stidham, Ryan W; Higgins, Peter Dr

    2016-08-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) activity assessments are dominated by inflammatory changes without discrete measurement of the coexisting fibrotic contribution to total bowel damage. Intestinal fibrosis impacts the development of severe structural complications and the overall natural history of CD. Measuring intestinal fibrosis is challenging and existing methods of disease assessment are unable to reliably distinguish fibrosis from inflammation. Both the immediate clinical need to measure fibrosis for therapeutic decision-making and the near-future need for tools to assess pipeline anti-fibrotic medications highlight the demand for biomarkers of fibrosis in CD. Developing non-invasive technologies exploit changes in intestinal perfusion, mechanical properties, and macromolecular content to provide quantitative markers of fibrosis. In this review of existing and experimental technologies for imaging intestinal fibrosis, we discuss the expanding capabilities of quantitative MR and ultrasound imaging, encouraging developments in non-invasive elastography, and emerging novel methods including photoacoustic imaging. PMID:27536361

  12. Results of the phase II EORTC 22971 trial evaluating combined accelerated external radiation and chemotherapy with 5FU and cisplatin in patients with muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Introduction. We prospectively evaluated concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer in a phase II EORTC trial to test whether it could be further studied as a potential treatment of bladder cancer. Patients and methods. Patients up to 75 years of age with invasive transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder up to 5 cm, stage pT2 to pT3b, N0M0, without residual macroscopical tumour after transurethral excision were eligible. Radiotherapy consisted of 2 fractions of 1.2 Gy daily up to 60 Gy delivered in a period of 5 weeks. During the first and the last week, cisplatin 20 mg/m2/day and 5 FU 375 mg/m2/day were given concomitantly. Results. The study was interrupted early due to poor recruitment. Nine patients of the originally 43 planned were treated. Mean age was 63 years. Five patients had tumour stage pT2, 1 stage pT3a and 3 stage pT3b. All patients completed radiotherapy and chemotherapy as scheduled. Only one grade 3 and no grade 4 toxicity was seen. All patients were evaluated 3 months after treatment: eight patients had no detectable tumour and one had para-aortic lymph nodes. During further follow-up, a second patient got lymph node metastases and two patients developed distant metastases (lung in the patient with enlarged lymph nodes at the first evaluation and abdominal in one other). Those three patients died at respectively 19, 14, and 18 months after registration. Late toxicity was limited and often temporary. After 26 to 57 months of follow-up, no local recurrences were seen. Six patients remained alive without disease. Discussion. Despite the small cohort, this combination of concomitant chemotherapy and accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer seemed to be well tolerated and to result in satisfactory local control with limited early and late toxicity. It could therefore be considered for study in further clinical trials

  13. Results of the phase II EORTC 22971 trial evaluating combined accelerated external radiation and chemotherapy with 5FU and cisplatin in patients with muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Poortmans, Philip M. (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Inst., Tilburg (NL)); Van Der Hulst, Marleen; Richaud, Pierre (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Inst. Bergonieacute, Bordeaux (France)); Collette, Laurence; Pierart, Marianne (Statistics Dept., EORTC Data Center, Brussels (Belgium)); Ho Goey, S. (Dept. of Medical Oncology, TweeSteden Hospital, Tilburg (NL)); Bolla, Michel (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, CHU, Grenoble (France))

    2008-06-15

    Introduction. We prospectively evaluated concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer in a phase II EORTC trial to test whether it could be further studied as a potential treatment of bladder cancer. Patients and methods. Patients up to 75 years of age with invasive transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder up to 5 cm, stage pT2 to pT3b, N0M0, without residual macroscopical tumour after transurethral excision were eligible. Radiotherapy consisted of 2 fractions of 1.2 Gy daily up to 60 Gy delivered in a period of 5 weeks. During the first and the last week, cisplatin 20 mg/m2/day and 5 FU 375 mg/m2/day were given concomitantly. Results. The study was interrupted early due to poor recruitment. Nine patients of the originally 43 planned were treated. Mean age was 63 years. Five patients had tumour stage pT2, 1 stage pT3a and 3 stage pT3b. All patients completed radiotherapy and chemotherapy as scheduled. Only one grade 3 and no grade 4 toxicity was seen. All patients were evaluated 3 months after treatment: eight patients had no detectable tumour and one had para-aortic lymph nodes. During further follow-up, a second patient got lymph node metastases and two patients developed distant metastases (lung in the patient with enlarged lymph nodes at the first evaluation and abdominal in one other). Those three patients died at respectively 19, 14, and 18 months after registration. Late toxicity was limited and often temporary. After 26 to 57 months of follow-up, no local recurrences were seen. Six patients remained alive without disease. Discussion. Despite the small cohort, this combination of concomitant chemotherapy and accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer seemed to be well tolerated and to result in satisfactory local control with limited early and late toxicity. It could therefore be considered for study in further clinical trials

  14. Invasive species

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of management activities and research related to invasive species on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. As part of the...

  15. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium Invasion by Host Cell Expression of Secreted Bacterial Invasion Proteins

    Carlson, Steve A.; Jones, Bradley D.

    1998-01-01

    Pathogenic Salmonella species initiate infection of a host by inducing their own uptake into intestinal epithelial cells. An invasive phenotype is conferred to this pathogen by a number of proteins that are components of a type III secretion system. During the invasion process, the bacteria utilize this secretion system to release proteins that enter the host cell and apparently interact with unknown host cell components that induce alterations in the actin cytoskeleton. To investigate the ro...

  16. Characterizing intestinal strictures with acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    Lei, Hao; Xu, Guan; Liu, Shengchun; Johnson, Laura A.; Moons, David S.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Rice, Michael D.; Ni, Jun; Wang, Xueding

    2016-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease, which may cause obstructing intestinal strictures due to inflammation, fibrosis (deposition of collagen), or a combination of both. Identifying the different stages of the disease progression is still challenging. In this work, we indicated the feasibility of non-invasively characterizing intestinal strictures using photoacoustic imaging (PAI), utilizing the uniquely optical absorption of hemoglobin and collagen. Surgically removed human intestinal stricture specimens were investigated with a prototype PAI system. 2D PA images with acoustic resolution at wavelength 532, 1210 and 1310 nm were formulated, and furthermore, the PA histochemical components images which show the microscopic distributions of histochemical components were solved. Imaging experiments on surgically removed human intestinal specimens has demonstrated the solved PA images were significantly different associated with the presence of fibrosis, which could be applied to characterize the intestinal strictures for given specimens.

  17. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  18. Invasion of epithelial cells by Trichinella spiralis: in vitro observations

    Romarís F.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for many years that Trichinella spiralis initiates infection by penetrating the columnar epithelium of the small intestine, however, the mechanisms used by the parasite in the establishment of its intramulticellular niche in the intestine are unknown. The recent demonstration that invasion also occurs in vitro when infective larvae of T. spiralis are inoculated onto cultures of epithelial cells provides a model that allows the direct observation of the process by which the parasite recognizes, invades and migrates within the epithelium. The finding that penetration of the cell membrane or Induction of plasma membrane wounds by larvae do not always result in invasion argue in favor of some kind of host-parasite communication in successful invasion. In this sense, the in vitro model of invasion provides a readily manipulated and controlled system to investigate both parasite, and host cell requirements for invasion.

  19. Jejunum ileal intestinal atresia.

    Claudio J. Puente Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal atresia is one of the most important causes of intestinal obstruction in newborn. They constitute aorund 95% of total intestinal obstructions in this age group. Most of intestinal atresias are jejunoieal atresia. Although it is not frequent their relationship with other congenital anomalies, has been described the association in some cases with defects of intestine rotation, meconium peritonitis, with meconium ileus and rarely with the Hirschsprung diseases. The hereditary character has also been described in certain multiple intestinal atresias. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Jejunoileal atresia, approved by consensus in the 1st National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Cienfuegos, Cuba, March 7 – 9, 2002.

  20. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable...

  1. Plasma accelerators

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  2. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    ... underlying illness, stop the medication, or do both. Nutritional Support People with intestinal pseudo-obstruction often need nutritional support to prevent malnutrition and weight loss. Enteral nutrition ...

  3. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications.

  4. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics.

  5. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

  6. Intestinal solute carriers

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Eriksson, André Huss; Andersen, Rikke; Frokjaer, Sven

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  7. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia

    Popović Dušan Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Case report. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and suportive therapy. Conclusion. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  8. Pathological and therapeutic significance of cellular invasion by Proteus mirabilis in an enterocystoplasty infection stone model

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv); D.J. Kok (Dirk); C.M. Verduin (Cees); R.J.M. Nijman (Rien)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProteus mirabilis infection often leads to stone formation. We evaluated how bacterium-mucin adhesion, invasion, and intracellular crystal formation are related to antibiotic sensitivity and may cause frequent stone formation in enterocystoplasties. Five intestinal (Cac

  9. Intestinal invagination Invaginación intestinal.

    Dayamnelys Aguilar Atanay

    Full Text Available Intestinal intussusceptions are the most frequent cause of acute surgical occlusive syndrome in infants; it is idiopathic in more than 90% of cases. Their treatment can be conservative, with reduction by means of imaging and hydrostatic procedures, or surgical. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Intestinal intussusceptions, approved by consensus in the 3th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Camagüey, Cuba; February 23 – 26, 2004.
    La invaginación intestinal es la causa más frecuente del síndrome de abdomen agudo quirúrgico oclusivo en lactantes y es idiopática en más del 90 % de los casos. Su tratamiento puede ser conservador, con reducción mediante procedimientos hidrostáticos combinados con vigilancia imaginológica, o quirúrgico. Se presenta la Guía de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas para invaginación intestinal, aprobada por consenso en el 3er Taller Nacional de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas en Cirugía Pediátrica (Camagüey, 23 al 26 de febrero de 2004.

  10. Defining invasiveness and invasibility in ecological networks

    C. Hui; Richardson, D. M.; Landi, P; H.O. Minoarivelo; Garnas, J.; Roy, H.E.

    2016-01-01

    The success of a biological invasion is context dependent, and yet two key concepts—the invasiveness of species and the invasibility of recipient ecosystems—are often defined and considered separately. We propose a framework that can elucidate the complex relationship between invasibility and invasiveness. It is based on trait-mediated interactions between species and depicts the response of an ecological network to the intrusion of an alien species, drawing on the concept of community satura...

  11. Deciphering Interplay between Salmonella Invasion Effectors

    Cain, R. J.; Hayward, R D; Koronakis, V.

    2008-01-01

    Author Summary Critical to the onset of Salmonella infection is the ability of bacteria to force their own entry (‘invade’) into intestinal cells of their mammalian host from where they replicate, spread and cause damage. To achieve this invasion, Salmonella deliver a cocktail of proteins directly into host target cells. These proteins override host cell communications and remodel cell structure, tricking the normally dormant cells into engulfing the invaders. Although we are beginning to und...

  12. Quantitative analysis of lactose and lactulose in urine by high performance liquid chromatography for determination of intestinal lactase activity

    Nani Dharmasetiawani; Herman Suryadi; Agus Firmansyah

    2003-01-01

    Determination of intestinal lactase activity is directly done by measuring its activity in intestinal epithelium. This is an invasive method and ethically can not be done in healthy infants. Indirectly, determination of lactase activity, stated as excretion and ingestion ratio of lactose and lactulose, needs 30 hours hospitalized infants. The aim of this study was to look for a method for determination of lactase activity which is not invasive and not necessary hospitalized. Using this method...

  13. Future accelerators (?)

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made

  14. Future accelerators (?)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  15. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    ... syndrome). Special diets often do not work. However, vitamin B12 and other vitamin supplements should be used for ... JM, Blackshaw LA. Small intestinal motor and sensory function and dysfunction. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ...

  16. Transplantation of intestinal microbiota

    I. Yu. Chicherin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented of evaluation of the efficiency of the filtered aqueous suspension of white mice (donors feces and microorganisms of indigenous microflora in the correction of intestinal microbiocenosis of conventional white mice with antibiotic-associated dysbacteriosis with administration of suspension and microorganisms per os and per rectum. After the start of administration of suspension and microorganisms of fecal microflora to experimental animals the dynamics of the total content of microorganisms and the number of some representatives of intestinal microflora in 1 g of feces were evaluated in comparison with self-recovery of intestinal microflora in the control group animals. Results showed that the supernatant of an aqueous suspension of white mice (donors feces, containing microbial exometabolites and other biologically active compounds, has in a short time the most pronounced effect on the recovery of the normal intestinal microflora in experimental animals.

  17. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...

  18. The intestinal stem cell

    Barker, Nick; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The epithelium of the adult mammalian intestine is in a constant dialog with its underlying mesenchyme to direct progenitor proliferation, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation, and, ultimately, cell death. The epithelium is shaped into spatially distinct compartments that are dedicated to each of these events. While the intestinal epithelium represents the most vigorously renewing adult tissue in mammals, the stem cells that fuel this self-renewal process have been identified only rec...

  19. Radionuclide Small Intestine Imaging

    Jiri Dolezal; Marcela Kopacova

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this overview article is to present the current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells labelled by means of 99mTc for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel's diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, radionuclide somatostatin receptor imaging for carcinoid, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Video capsule or deep enteroscop...

  20. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but i...

  1. Graded effects of unregulated smooth muscle myosin on intestinal architecture, intestinal motility and vascular function in zebrafish.

    Abrams, Joshua; Einhorn, Zev; Seiler, Christoph; Zong, Alan B; Sweeney, H Lee; Pack, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Smooth muscle contraction is controlled by the regulated activity of the myosin heavy chain ATPase (Myh11). Myh11 mutations have diverse effects in the cardiovascular, digestive and genitourinary systems in humans and animal models. We previously reported a recessive missense mutation, meltdown (mlt), which converts a highly conserved tryptophan to arginine (W512R) in the rigid relay loop of zebrafish Myh11. The mlt mutation disrupts myosin regulation and non-autonomously induces invasive expansion of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report two newly identified missense mutations in the switch-1 (S237Y) and coil-coiled (L1287M) domains of Myh11 that fail to complement mlt Cell invasion was not detected in either homozygous mutant but could be induced by oxidative stress and activation of oncogenic signaling pathways. The smooth muscle defect imparted by the mlt and S237Y mutations also delayed intestinal transit, and altered vascular function, as measured by blood flow in the dorsal aorta. The cell-invasion phenotype induced by the three myh11 mutants correlated with the degree of myosin deregulation. These findings suggest that the vertebrate intestinal epithelium is tuned to the physical state of the surrounding stroma, which, in turn, governs its response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli. Genetic variants that alter the regulation of smooth muscle myosin might be risk factors for diseases affecting the intestine, vasculature, and other tissues that contain smooth muscle or contractile cells that express smooth muscle proteins, particularly in the setting of redox stress. PMID:26893369

  2. The intestine is a blender

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  3. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  4. Intestinal Ultrasound in Rare Gastrointestinal Diseases, Update, Part 2.

    Dietrich, C F; Lembcke, B; Jenssen, C; Hocke, M; Ignee, A; Hollerweger, A

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal ultrasound has become an established and valid diagnostic method for inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, appendicitis, bowel obstruction, perforation and intussusception. However, little is known about sonographic findings in other rarer intestinal diseases. Ultrasound may display the transformation of the intestinal wall from a normal to a pathological state both in inflammatory and neoplastic disease. Besides demonstrating the transmural aspect, it also shows the mesenteric reaction as well as complications such as fistula, abscesses, stenosis, or ileus. Furthermore, in some diseases intestinal ultrasound may serve as a diagnostic clue if typical patterns of the bowel wall and impaired peristalsis can be demonstrated. This may lead to an important reduction of invasive and expensive (follow-up) procedures. The information gained by ultrasound regarding intestinal disease, however, is as important and valid as e. g. in case of focal lesions of the liver. Serving as tertiary referral centers for a broad spectrum of intestinal diseases, we therefore report some aspects of ultrasound in patients with less often recognized diseases. The article is divided into two parts, the first focusing on examination techniques, infectious diseases and celiac sprue and the second on hereditary, vascular and neoplastic diseases and varia. PMID:26091002

  5. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis

    The objective is to carry out a review of the national and international literature as of the XXth century in order to update the advances for the diagnosis of complex odd Entamoeba histolytic / Entamoeba dispar and that of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis that may be of use to the scientific community. As well as to unify the diagnostic criteria of this parasitosis known as a public health problem, and as a consequence of that, optimize the quality of population care. Data source: there was a systematic search for the scientific literature Publisher in Spanish and English since 1960 until today, this selection started on the first semester of 2006 until 2007, in the development of the line on intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis of the Medical School of the National University of Colombia. A retrospective search process was carried out, systematically reviewing the most relevant articles as well as the products of this research line. In deciding how to make this article, there was a continuous search in different data bases such as Medline, SciELO and other bases in the library of the National University of Colombia, as well as other classical books related to the subject. For that purpose the terms amoebiasis, odd Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba, diagnosis, epidemiology, dysentery, amoebic liver abscess, were used. Studies selection: titles and abstracts were reviewed to select the original publications and the most representative ones related to this article's subject. Data extraction: the articles were classified according to the subject, the chronology and the authors according to the scientific contribution to solve the problem. Synthesis of the data: in the fi rst instance, a chronological critical analysis was carried out to order and synthesize the progress made in the diagnosis until confirmation of the experts' agreements in the field of amoebiasis was obtained throughout the world. Conclusion: this article summarizes what has taken place

  6. Intestinal Malrotation: A Rare Cause of Small Intestinal Obstruction

    Mesut Sipahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The diagnosis of intestinal malrotation is established by the age of 1 year in most cases, and the condition is seldom seen in adults. In this paper, a patient with small intestinal malrotation-type intraperitoneal hernia who underwent surgery at an older age because of intestinal obstruction is presented. Case. A 73-year-old patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction underwent surgery as treatment. Distended jejunum and ileum loops surrounded by a peritoneal sac and located between the stomach and transverse colon were determined. The terminal ileum had entered into the transverse mesocolon from the right lower part, resulting in kinking and subsequent segmentary obstruction. The obstruction was relieved, and the small intestines were placed into their normal position in the abdominal cavity. Conclusion. Small intestinal malrotations are rare causes of intestinal obstructions in adults. The appropriate treatment in these patients is placement of the intestines in their normal positions.

  7. Laser accelerator

    Vigil, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1979,W. B. Colson and S. K. Ride proposed a new kind of electron accelerator using a uniform magnetic field in combination with a circularly-polarized laser field. A key concept is to couple the oscillating electric field to the electron’s motion so that acceleration is sustained. This dissertation investigates the performance of the proposed laser accelerator using modern high powered lasers and mag-netic fields that are significan...

  8. [Small intestine bacterial overgrowth].

    Leung Ki, E L; Roduit, J; Delarive, J; Guyot, J; Michetti, P; Dorta, G

    2010-01-27

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition characterised by nutrient malabsorption and excessive bacteria in the small intestine. It typically presents with diarrhea, flatulence and a syndrome of malabsorption (steatorrhea, macrocytic anemia). However, it may be asymptomatic in the eldery. A high index of suspicion is necessary in order to differentiate SIBO from other similar presenting disorders such as coeliac disease, lactose intolerance or the irritable bowel syndrome. A search for predisposing factor is thus necessary. These factors may be anatomical (stenosis, blind loop), or functional (intestinal hypomotility, achlorydria). The hydrogen breath test is the most frequently used diagnostic test although it lacks standardisation. The treatment of SIBO consists of eliminating predisposing factors and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. PMID:20214190

  9. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections. PMID:27168147

  10. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  11. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  12. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    ... the area where the intestine was reconnected N Kidney stones or gallstones due to poor absorption of calcium or bile How is intestinal failure treated? The diet needs to be adjusted according to the intestine’s ...

  13. Location and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis in the porcine intestine.

    Wenqi Wang

    Full Text Available Blastocystis is an ubiquitous, enteric protozoan of humans and many other species. Human infection has been associated with gastrointestinal disease such as irritable bowel syndrome, however, this remains unproven. A relevant animal model is needed to investigate the pathogenesis/pathogenicity of Blastocystis. We concluded previously that pigs are likely natural hosts of Blastocystis with a potentially zoonotic, host-adapted subtype (ST, ST5, and may make suitable animal models. In this study, we aimed to characterise the host-agent interaction of Blastocystis and the pig, including localising Blastocystis in porcine intestine using microscopy, PCR and histopathological examination of tissues. Intestines from pigs in three different management systems, i.e., a commercial piggery, a small family farm and a research herd (where the animals were immunosuppressed were examined. This design was used to determine if environment or immune status influences intestinal colonisation of Blastocystis as immunocompromised individuals may potentially be more susceptible to blastocystosis and development of associated clinical signs. Intestines from all 28 pigs were positive for Blastocystis with all pigs harbouring ST5. In addition, the farm pigs had mixed infections with STs 1 and/or 3. Blastocystis organisms/DNA were predominantly found in the large intestine but were also detected in the small intestine of the immunosuppressed and some of the farm pigs, suggesting that immunosuppression and/or husbandry factors may influence Blastocystis colonisation of the small intestine. No obvious pathology was observed in the histological sections. Blastocystis was present as vacuolar/granular forms and these were found within luminal material or in close proximity to epithelial cells, with no evidence of attachment or invasion. These results concur with most human studies, in which Blastocystis is predominantly found in the large intestine in the absence of

  14. Combined assessment of intestinal disaccharidases in congenital asucrasia by differential urinary disaccharide excretion.

    Maxton, D G; Catt, S.D.; Menzies, I S

    1990-01-01

    Investigation of intestinal disaccharide hydrolysis and permeability by means of a non-invasive differential sugar absorption test was performed in a family containing two siblings with primary sucrase-isomaltase deficiency. The procedure, which depends on measurement of urinary excretion ratios after the oral administration of lactose, sucrose, palatinose, lactulose and L-rhamnose, is capable of simultaneous determination of intestinal lactase, sucrase, and isomaltase activity and lactulose:...

  15. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    Jan; Bures; Jiri; Cyrany; Darina; Kohoutova; Miroslav; Frstl; Stanislav; Rejchrt; Jaroslav; Kvetina; Viktor; Vorisek; Marcela; Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymi-crobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO).SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. There...

  16. LIBO accelerates

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  17. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Ladd's Procedure for Intestinal Malrotation

    Vassaur, John; Vassaur, Hannah; Buckley, F. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The potential of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) as a less invasive and more cosmetically appealing technique has prompted the expansion of its adoption. SILS has been shown to be a safe and feasible alternative to traditional multiport cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, and many other laparoscopic procedures. The objective of this study is to provide an initial report of the feasibility of correcting intestinal malrotation via a single-incision laparoscopic t...

  18. Non-invasive assessment of gastric activity

    There have been many suggestions for the routine clinical use of the electro-enterogram, but with the exception of the reported usage in the USSR no significant penetration into medical practice has been reported elsewhere. Amongst the many suggestions have been the possible application of electrical stimulation via surface electrodes to overcome post-operative inhibition of intestinal electrical activity, which can be recorded via surface electrodes. Gastric emptying studies have shown that duodenal ulceration is associated with changes in the rate and pattern of emptying of solid meals. Identifiable patterns in the electro-gastrogram following a metal might have diagnostic application. There is some evidence of correlations of electrical activity and pathology in the large intestine. In the colon diverticular disease has been shown to change the frequency content of the slow wave electrical activity and there is some evidence that this might be recorded from surface electrodes. A major obstacle to progress remains the inability to relate non-invasive recordings to intestinal motility. The best hope may be the use of direct and yet non-invasive methods of obtaining motility and in this context real-time ultrasound imaging is probably the most promising technique. The electro-gastrogram has certainly been shown to allow recording of gastric slow wave activity and there is a reasonable hope that further methods of analysis will allow inferential information on motility to be obtained. The following section makes brief mention of these techniques

  19. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection in the small intestine. ... A sample of fluid from the small intestine is needed. A procedure ... done to get the sample. The fluid is placed in a special dish in ...

  20. Induction accelerators

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  1. The intestinal stem cell.

    Barker, N.; van de Wetering, M.L.; Clevers, H.

    2008-01-01

    The epithelium of the adult mammalian intestine is in a constant dialog with its underlying mesenchyme to direct progenitor proliferation, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation, and, ultimately, cell death. The epithelium is shaped into spatially distinct compartments that are dedicated to ea

  2. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans.

    Begeman, L; St Leger, J A; Blyde, D J; Jauniaux, T P; Lair, S; Lovewell, G; Raverty, S; Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Staggs, S L; Martelli, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-07-01

    Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findings were similar to those described in other animal species and humans, and consisted of intestinal volvulus and a well-demarcated segment of distended, congested, and edematous intestine with gas and bloody fluid contents. Associated lesions included congested and edematous mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes, and often serofibrinous or hemorrhagic abdominal effusion. The volvulus involved the cranial part of the intestines in 85% (11 of 13). Potential predisposing causes were recognized in most cases (13 of 18, 72%) but were variable. Further studies investigating predisposing factors are necessary to help prevent occurrence and enhance early clinical diagnosis and management of the condition. PMID:23150643

  3. Aging and the intestine

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Over the lifetime of the animal, there are many changes in the function of the body's organ systems. In the gastrointestinal tract there is a general modest decline in the function of the esophagus, stomach, colon,pancreas and liver. In the small intestine, there may be subtle alterations in the intestinal morphology, as well as a decline in the uptake of fatty acids and sugars.The malabsorption may be partially reversed by aging glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) or dexamethasone.Modifications in the type of lipids in the diet will influence the intestinal absorption of nutrients: for example, in mature rats a diet enriched with saturated as compared with polysaturated fatty acids will enhance lipid and sugar uptake, whereas in older animals the opposite effect is observed. Thus, the results of studies of the intestinal adaptation performed in mature rats does not necessarily apply in older animals. The age-associated malabsorption of nutrients that occurs with aging may be one of the several factors which contribute to the malnutrition that occurs with aging.

  4. Congenital intestinal atresia.

    Davenport, M; Bianchi, A

    1990-09-01

    Surgery for infants with intestinal atresia has evolved along with the development of specialized neonatal surgical units. This once fatal condition now carries a better than 85% chance of survival and an excellent long-term prognosis. Recent advances in bowel preservation techniques have reduced morbidity and improved gut function in both the long and the short term. PMID:2257399

  5. Intestinal ischemia and infarction

    ... cases, the condition needs to be treated with surgery. The section of intestine that has died is removed, and the healthy ... outcome. Possible Complications Damage or death of the bowel tissue may require a colostomy or ileostomy. This may be short-term or permanent. Peritonitis is common in these ...

  6. Mucoadhesive intestinal devices for oral delivery of salmon calcitonin.

    Gupta, Vivek; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Lee, Joohee; Anselmo, Aaron C; Doshi, Nishit; Mitragotri, Samir

    2013-12-28

    One of the major challenges faced by therapeutic polypeptides remains their invasive route of delivery. Oral administration offers a potential alternative to injections; however, this route cannot be currently used for peptides due to their limited stability in the stomach and poor permeation across the intestine. Here, we report mucoadhesive devices for oral delivery that are inspired by the design of transdermal patches and demonstrate their capabilities in vivo for salmon calcitonin (sCT). The mucoadhesive devices were prepared by compressing a polymeric matrix containing carbopol, pectin and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (1:1:2), and were coated on all sides but one with an impermeable and flexible ethyl cellulose (EC) backing layer. Devices were tested for in vitro dissolution, mucoadhesion to intestinal mucosa, enhancement of drug absorption in vitro (Caco-2 monolayer transport) and in vivo in rats. Devices showed steady drug release with ≈75% cumulative drug released in 5h. Devices also demonstrated strong mucoadhesion to porcine small intestine to withstand forces up to 100 times their own weight. sCT-loaded mucoadhesive devices exhibited delivery of sCT across Caco-2 monolayers and across the intestinal epithelium in vivo in rats. A ≈52-fold (pharmacokinetic) and ≈44-fold (pharmacological) enhancement of oral bioavailability was observed with mucoadhesive devices when compared to direct intestinal injections. Oral delivery of devices in enteric coated capsules resulted in significant bioavailability enhancement. PMID:24035976

  7. Clinical study on the computed tomographic diagnosis of intestinal diseases

    The CT diagnosis of intestinal diseases was evaluated in 140 patients. The results were as follows. 1) In the basic study on the contrast material for CT of intestinal tract examined by using experimental tumor model and cow's colon, olive oil showed highest evaluation as a contrast material. 2) Clinically, It was suggested that olive oil was most useful as a contrast material for CT of rectum and sigmoid colon and tepid water was available for small intestine, large intestine except for sigmoid colon and rectum. 3) CT examination of colon was done on 94 patients with colon malignant tumor. CT findings were compared with pathological findings, and diagnostic criteria of CT for the detection of the degree colon wall invasion was made. 4) Diagnostic accuracy of CT for swollen lymphonodes showed high rate in the para-rectal and para-aortic lymphonodes region. On the other hand, diagnostic accuracy for mesenteric dissemination of malignant tumor was low except for massive ascites. 5) CT was also useful for detection of the extraluminal lesion in inflammatory intestinal disease. (author) 51 refs

  8. E. coli Nissle 1917 Affects Salmonella Adhesion to Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Schierack, P.; Kleta, S; Tedin, K.; Babila, J.T.; Oswald, S.; Oelschlaeger, T A; Hiemann, R.; Paetzold, S; Wieler, L H

    2011-01-01

    Background The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been shown to interfere in a human in vitro model with the invasion of several bacterial pathogens into epithelial cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of EcN on Salmonella Typhimurium invasion of porcine intestinal epithelial cells, focusing on EcN effects on the various stages of Salmonella infection including in...

  9. Intestinal sugar transport

    Laurie A Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet.The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucraseisomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine.

  10. Small intestinal transplantation.

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  11. Intestinal Malakoplakia in Children

    Fatemeh Mahjoub

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disease, related to enterobacterial infection in the context of a disorder of cell-mediated immunity. Malakoplakia is exceptional in children and usually involves the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis is exclusively based on histological analysis.Cases Presentation: In this paper we have reported 3 children with intestinal malakoplakia which were enrolled during a period of 6 years between 2001 to 2006 at Childrens Medical Center. Two were male, and one female. The main clinical manifestations were: chronic bloody and mucosal diarrhea, abdominal pain and polypoid masses detected by diagnostic colonoscopy. Histological diagnosis proved to be definite in these cases. The response to drug treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole in all three patients was good. Conclusion: The presence of intestinal malakoplakia must be ruled out in every child having chronic bloody mucosal diarrhea.

  12. Intestinal lipodystrophy (Whipple's disease)

    The case of a 48 years old man who has fallen ill with intestinal lipodystrophy (Whipple's disease) is presented. His case is clinically, roentgenologically, endoscopically and histologically documented. The diagnosis got secured by endoscopic biopsy and by laparatomy. The patho-histologic changes of the mucosa of the proximal small bowel are pathognomonic. Roentgenologically the characteristic mucosal and lymphadenoid changes can be demonstrated as well as the range of the process. (orig.)

  13. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans

    Begeman, L.; St. Leger, J.; Blyde, D.; Jauniaux, Thierry; Lair, S; Lovewell, G.; Raverty, S; Seibel, H.; Siebert, U; Staggs, S.; Martelli, P.; Keesler, R.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findi...

  14. Intestinal Phosphate Transport

    Sabbagh, Yves; Giral, Hector; Caldas, Yupanqui; Levi, Moshe; Schiavi, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed in the small intestine by at least two distinct mechanisms: paracellular phosphate transport which is dependent on passive diffusion and active transport which occurs through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters. Despite evidence emerging for other ions, regulation of the phosphate specific paracellular pathways remains largely unexplored. In contrast, there is a growing body of evidence that active transport through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporte...

  15. Sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal: An update Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    Rodrigo Quera P; Eamonn MM Quigley; Ana María Madrid S

    2005-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is characterized by nutrient malabsorption, associated with an excessive number of bacteria in the proximal small intestine. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth presents several difficulties and limitations, and as yet there is not a widespread agreement on the best diagnostic test. SIBO occurs when there are alterations in intestinal anatomy, gastrointestinal motility, or a lack of gastric acid secretion. The true association betw...

  16. Tandem accelerators

    After the installation of Ti-acceleration tubes and substantial modifications and additions to the EN tandem accelerator the performance of the machine has stabilized. The voltage behaviour of the tubes obviously improves as conditioning times necessary to run up to 6 MV decrease. A gridded lens has been added at the entrance of the first acceleration tube, and a second foil stripper is now installed in the short dead section between the high-energy tubes. The MP tandem also has been running stably during most of the year. However, beam instabilities originating from the last tube section and wear problems at the low-energy set of pelletron-chains caused some loss of beam time. During the fall, one set of pelletron charging chains has to be replaced after 49,000 hours of operation. In the course of the year, the MP and the EN tandem accelerators finished their 100,000th and 150,000th hours of operations, respectively. Preparations for the installation of the 3 MV negative heavy ion injector for the MP are progressing steadily. External beam transport, terminal ion optics, and data acquisition and control systems are to a major extent completed; the integration of the terminal power supplies has started. After the final assembly of the accelerator column structure, first voltage runs can be performed. (orig.)

  17. Papel de la flora intestinal en la salud y en la enfermedad Role of intestinal flora in health and disease

    F. Guarner

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El término "microflora" o "microbiota" intestinal hace referencia al ecosistema microbiano que coloniza el tracto gastrointestinal. Los instrumentos de biología molecular desarrollados recientemente sugieren que todavía se ha de describir una parte sustancial de las comunidades bacterianas del intestino humano. No obstante, están bien documentados la relevancia y el impacto de las bacterias residentes en la fisiología y la patología del huésped. Las principales funciones de la microflora intestinal incluyen (1 actividades metabólicas que se traducen en recuperación de energía y nutrientes, y (2 protección del huésped frente a invasión por microorganismos extraños. Las bacterias intestinales desempeñan un papel esencial en el desarrollo y la homeostasis del sistema inmunitario. Los folículos linfoides de la mucosa intestinal son áreas principales para la inducción y la regulación del sistema inmune. Por otra parte, se dispone de evidencias que implican a la microbiota intestinal en ciertos procesos patológicos, incluyendo el fallo multi-orgánico, el cáncer de colon y la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal.The terms intestinal "microflora" or "microbiota" refer to the microbial ecosystem colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. Recently developed molecular biology instruments suggest that a substantial part of bacterial communities within the human gut still have to be described. The relevance and impact of resident bacteria on the host physiology and pathology are, however, well documented. The main functions of intestinal microflora include (1 metabolic activities translating into energy and nutrients uptake, and (2 host protection against invasion by foreign microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria play an essential role in the development and homeostasis of the immune system. Lymphoid follicles within the intestinal mucosa are the main areas for immune system induction and regulation. On the other hand, there is evidence

  18. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    Jan Bures, Jiri Cyrany, Darina Kohoutova, Miroslav Förstl, Stanislav Rejchrt, Jaroslav Kvetina, Viktor Vorisek, Marcela Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestina...

  19. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome.

    Bures, J.; Cyrany, J.; Kohoutova, D.; Förstl, M.; Rejchrt, S.; Kvetina, J.; Vorisek, V.; Kopacova, M.

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestina...

  20. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine.

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M R; Kemp, Matthew W; Hornef, Mathias W; Payne, Matthew S; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P; Janssen, Leon E W; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 10(7) colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3(+) lymphocytes, MPO(+) cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  1. Imaging features of gastric invasive aspergillosis: A report of two cases

    Yang, Dong Jin; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Ji Yeol; Lee, Yil Gi [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Invasive aspergillosis is an opportunistic infection that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. Although there are a few rare reports of isolated invasive aspergillosis affecting the small intestine, isolated or disseminated gastric invasive aspergillosis is extremely rare. Herein, we report 2 cases of gastric invasive aspergillosis in a 72 year old woman and a 43 year old man; the woman had been recovering from ruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm, which presented as emphysematous gastritis and the man from acute subdural haemorrhage in the intensive care unit, which presented as a pseudoaneurysm on CT imaging.

  2. Imaging features of gastric invasive aspergillosis: A report of two cases

    Invasive aspergillosis is an opportunistic infection that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. Although there are a few rare reports of isolated invasive aspergillosis affecting the small intestine, isolated or disseminated gastric invasive aspergillosis is extremely rare. Herein, we report 2 cases of gastric invasive aspergillosis in a 72 year old woman and a 43 year old man; the woman had been recovering from ruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm, which presented as emphysematous gastritis and the man from acute subdural haemorrhage in the intensive care unit, which presented as a pseudoaneurysm on CT imaging

  3. Can abdominal NIRS detect changes in intestinal blood flow and risk of NEC in premature piglets?

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is major gut disease in preterm newborns. Intestinal ischemia may be an early contributing factor that precipitates NEC. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method of measuring local tissue oxygen saturation and indicator of blood flow. Our aim was t...

  4. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis

    Koeth, Robert A.; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Org, Elin; Sheehy, Brendan T.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline/phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein we demonstrate that intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis. Omnivorous subjects are shown to produce significantly more TMAO than vegans/vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a micr...

  5. Computed tomography of the intestinal tract, usage, advantages and disadvantages of this metod

    SMOLÁKOVÁ, Eva

    2007-01-01

    In presented essay author tries to offer comprehensive overview of possibilities of computer tomography (CT) in examination of the intestinal tract at her radiologic department. Introduction of Multidetector CT represents outstanding advance in spatial resolution in z - axis and accelerated data acquisition wihout increase of radiation dose. All these advantages of Multidetector CT project strongly onto examination of the intestines. At author´s department CT enterography and CT colonography ...

  6. Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.

    Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

  7. Accelerator design

    The feasibility of constructing a TeV region electron-positron linear collider in Japan is discussed. The design target of the collider is given as follows: Energy, 1 TeV + 1 TeV; luminosity, 1032-1033/cm2/s; total length, 25km; electric power, 250MW; energy dispersion, 1%-10%; the start of the first experiment, early 1990s. For realizing the above target, the following research and developmental works are necessary. (a) Development of an acceleration tube with short filling time and high shunt resistance. (b) Short pulse microwave source with high peak power. (c) High current, single bunch linac. (d) Beam dynamics. As for the acceleration tube, some possibility is considered: For example, the use of DAW (Disk and Washer) which is being developed for TRISTAN as a traveling-wave tube; and the Jungle Gym-type acceleration tube. As a promising candidate for the microwave source, the Lasertron has been studied. The total cost of the collider construction is estimated to be about 310 billion yen, of which 120 billion yen is for the tunnel and buildings, and 190 billion yen for the accelerator facilities. The operation cost is estimated to be about 3 billion yen per month. (Aoki, K.)

  8. Particle acceleration

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  9. Accelerator operations

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  10. Beneficial effects of naloxone in a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction

    A 15-day course of Naloxone treatment was given to a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction who had previously undergone subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy for invalidating constipation. The effects of the drug were assessed according to symptoms, by recording the myoelectric activity of the stomach, and by measuring gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid-liquid meal and the intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers. All tests were performed 1) at baseline; 2) after 2 wk with Naloxone 1.6 mg subcutaneous per day; and 3) after 8 days of placebo. Results showed that before treatment gastric emptying of solids was delayed, emptying of liquids was normal, myoelectric activity of the stomach was normal, small intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers was considerably increased while ileal output was markedly decreased. After Naloxone, gastric emptying of solids was markedly accelerated, emptying of liquids remained normal, gastric electrical spiking activity increased, small intestinal transit time strikingly decreased, and ileal output increased. After placebo, a tendency to return to pretreatment values was observed. This observation suggests that Naloxone may be helpful in the treatment of some patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction

  11. Intestinal transplantation: living related.

    Pollard, S G

    1997-01-01

    The use of live donors in intestinal transplantation could potentially both reduce the severity of rejection responses against this highly immunogenic organ by better tissue matching and also reduce cold ischaemia times. These two advantages over cadaveric grafts could preserve mucosal integrity and reduce the risk of systemic sepsis from bacterial translocation. The disadvantages of live donation are the inherent risk to the donor and the compromise of using a shorter graft. Although only a handful of such cases have been performed, the success rate has been high and this is a therapeutic modality which should be explored further. PMID:9536535

  12. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN IRAN

    Mohammad, K; M.R. Zalie; S. Sirous; Masjedi, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Iran. The information was driven from an extensive Health Survey which was done by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, deputy of Research Affairs in 1990-92. Sampling fraction was 1 per 1000 of individuals aged between 2 and 69, the sampling method was cluster sampling and each cluster consisted of 7 families. Formal-ether was the method of finding parasites which included: Oxior, Asc...

  13. Advanced accelerators

    This report discusses the suitability of four novel particle acceleration technologies for multi-TeV particle physics machines: laser driven linear accelerators (linac), plasma beat-wave devices, plasma wakefield devices, and switched power and cavity wakefield linacs. The report begins with the derivation of beam parameters practical for multi-TeV devices. Electromagnetic field breakdown of materials is reviewed. The two-beam accelerator scheme for using a free electron laser as the driver is discussed. The options recommended and the conclusions reached reflect the importance of cost. We recommend that more effort be invested in achieving a self-consistent range of TeV accelerator design parameters. Beat-wave devices have promise for 1-100 GeV applications and, while not directly scalable to TeV designs, the current generation of ideas are encouraging for the TeV regime. In particular, surfatrons, finite-angle optical mixing devices, plasma grating accelerator, and the Raman forward cascade schemes all deserve more complete analysis. The exploitation of standard linac geometry operated in an unconventional mode is in a phase of rapid evolution. While conceptual projects abound, there are no complete designs. We recommend that a fraction of sponsored research be devoted to this approach. Wakefield devices offer a great deal of potential; trades among their benefits and constraints are derived and discussed herein. The study of field limitation processes has received inadequate attention; this limits experiment designers. The costs of future experiments are such that investment in understanding these processes is prudent. 34 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Liver Cirrhosis and Intestinal Bacterial Translocation

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction, facilitating translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal defense system including microbial barrier, immunologic barrier, mechanical barrier, chemical barrier, plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal function. Under normal circumstances, the intestinal barrier can prevent intestinal bacteria through the intestinal wall from spreading to the body. Severe infection, trauma, shock, cirrhosis, malnutrition, immune suppression conditions, intestinal bacteria and endotoxin translocation, can lead to multiple organ dysfunction. The intestinal microlfora is not only involved in the digestion of nutrients, but also in local immunity, forming a barrier against pathogenic microorganisms. The derangement of the gut microlfora may lead to microbial translocation, deifned as the passage of viable microorganisms or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes and other extraintestinal sites. In patients with cirrhosis, primary and intestinal lfora imbalance, intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction, endotoxemia is associated with weakened immunity.

  15. Faecal biomarkers of intestinal health and disease in children

    Tamara ePang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of various faecal biomarkers has provided insight into the intestinal milieu. Most of these markers are associated with the innate immune system of the gut, apart from the more novel M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK. The innate immunity of the gut plays a role in maintaining a fine balance between tolerance to commensal bacteria and immune response to potential pathogens. It is a complex system, which comprises of multiple elements, including antimicrobial peptides (e.g. defensins, cathelicidins, lactoferrin and osteoprotegerin, inflammatory proteins (e.g. calprotectin and S100A12, and microbial products (e.g. short-chain fatty acids. Dysfunction of any component can lead to the development of intestinal disease, and different diseases have been associated with different faecal levels of these biomarkers. Stool quantification of these biomarkers therefore provides a non- invasive method that can assist in the assessment and diagnosis of various gastrointestinal conditions. This can potentially reduce the need for invasive procedures such as endoscopy. The abovementioned faecal biomarkers and their role in intestinal health and disease will be reviewed in this paper with a paediatric focus.

  16. INVASIVE AMOEBIASIS COMPLICATING IFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Ziglam H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONAmoebiasis, which is caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, is a ubiquitous parasitic infection affecting approximately 10% of the world’s population and causing more deaths every year (100,000 deaths than any other parasitic infection, with the exception of malaria and schistosomiasis [1–3]. Most individuals with an E. histolytica infection are asymptomatic, but some develop severe invasive disease, such as amoebic colitis. Other manifestations, such as pulmonary, cardiac or brain involvement, are rare. Intestinal amoebiasis can probably also present as a chronic, non-dysenteric syndrome of diarrhoea, weight loss, and abdominal pain that can last for years and mimic inflammatory bowel disease. Fulminant colitis with bowel necrosis leading to perforation and peritonitis occurs in only about 0.5% of cases, but it is associated with a mortality rate of more than 40%. Patients with invasive amoebiasis living in the United Kingdom and other developed countries generally acquire the infection in another country in which the pathogenic species is endemic. Areas that have high rates of amoebic infection include India, Africa, Mexico and parts of Central and South America. Infection with pathogenic E. histolytica is not a common cause of travelers’ diarrhoea, and gastrointestinal infection is uncommon in travelers who have spent less than one month in endemic areas.

  17. Intestinal failure in obstructive jaundice

    Stelios F. Assimakopoulos; Constantine E. Vagianos; Aristides Charonis; Vassiliki N. Nikolopoulou; Chrisoula D. Scopa

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR We read with great interest the article by Ding LA and LiJS, which aimed to review the current knowledge on the physiology of normal intestinal barrier function and highlight the role of intestinal failure after various injurious insults in the development of septic complications or multiple organ failure with subsequent rapid clinical deterioration or even death.

  18. Exercise, Intestinal Absorption, and Rehydration

    2001-01-01

    @@ KEYPOINTS 1. The proximal small intestine (duodenum & jejunum) is the primary site of fluid absorption. It absorbs about 50% to 60% of any given fluid load. The colon or large intestine absorbs approximately 80 to 90% of the fluid it receives, but accounts for only about 15% of the total fluid load.

  19. Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate

    le Bouteiller, Marie Catherine M; Jensen, Kim Bak

    2015-01-01

    Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal...

  20. Candidate serum biomarkers for early intestinal cancer using 15N metabolic labeling and quantitative proteomics in the Apcmin/+ mouse

    Ivancic, Melanie M.; Huttlin, Edward L.; Chen, Xiaodi; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Irving, Amy A; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Dove, William F.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Current screening procedures for colorectal cancer are imperfect, highly invasive and result in increased mortality rates due to low compliance. The goal of the experiments reported herein is to identify potential blood-based biomarkers indicative of early-stage intestinal cancers using the ApcMin/+ mouse model of intestinal cancer as an experimental system. Serum proteins from tumor-bearing ApcMin/+ mice were quantitatively compared to tumor-free Apc+/+ wild-type mice via in anima metabolic ...

  1. MUON ACCELERATION

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  2. KEKB accelerator

    KEKB, the B-Factory at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) recently achieved the luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1. This luminosity is two orders higher than the world's level at 1990 when the design of KEKB started. This unprecedented result was made possible by KEKB's innovative design and technology in three aspects - beam focusing optics, high current storage, and beam - beam interaction. Now KEKB is leading the luminosity frontier of the colliders in the world. (author)

  3. Accelerating networks

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  4. Jejunum ileal intestinal atresia. Atresia intestinal yeyuno ileal.

    Claudio J. Puente Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal atresia is one of the most important causes of intestinal obstruction in newborn. They constitute aorund 95% of total intestinal obstructions in this age group. Most of intestinal atresias are jejunoieal atresia. Although it is not frequent their relationship with other congenital anomalies, has been described the association in some cases with defects of intestine rotation, meconium peritonitis, with meconium ileus and rarely with the Hirschsprung diseases. The hereditary character has also been described in certain multiple intestinal atresias. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Jejunoileal atresia, approved by consensus in the 1st National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Cienfuegos, Cuba, March 7 – 9, 2002.
    La atresia intestinal es una de las causas más importantes de la obstrucción intestinal en el recién nacido. Constituyen el 95 % del total de obstrucciones intestinales en este grupo de edad. La mayoría de las atresias del intestino son yeyunoileales. Aunque no es frecuente su relación con otras anomalías congénitas, se ha descrito la asociación en algunos casos con defectos de rotación del intestino, con peritonitis meconial, con íleo meconial y raras veces con la enfermedad de Hirschsprung. También se ha descrito el carácter hereditario de ciertas atresias intestinales múltiples. Se presenta la Guía de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas para atresia intestinal yeyunoileal, aprobada por consenso en el 1er Taller Nacional de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas en Cirugía Pediátrica (Cienfuegos, 7 al 9 de marzo del 2002.

  5. Resurrecting the intestinal microbiota to combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

    Pamer, Eric G

    2016-04-29

    The intestinal microbiota, which is composed of diverse populations of commensal bacterial species, provides resistance against colonization and invasion by pathogens. Antibiotic treatment can damage the intestinal microbiota and, paradoxically, increase susceptibility to infections. Reestablishing microbiota-mediated colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment could markedly reduce infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ongoing studies are identifying commensal bacterial species that can be developed into next-generation probiotics to reestablish or enhance colonization resistance. These live medicines are at various stages of discovery, testing, and production and are being subjected to existing regulatory gauntlets for eventual introduction into clinical practice. The development of next-generation probiotics to reestablish colonization resistance and eliminate potential pathogens from the gut is warranted and will reduce health care-associated infections caused by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:27126035

  6. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    ... Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the esophagus -esophagectomy - ...

  7. Autophagy and intestinal homeostasis.

    Patel, Khushbu K; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient absorption is the basic function that drives mammalian intestinal biology. To facilitate nutrient uptake, the host's epithelial barrier is composed of a single layer of cells. This constraint is problematic, as a design of this type can be easily disrupted. The solution during the course of evolution was to add numerous host defense mechanisms that can help prevent local and systemic infection. These mechanisms include specialized epithelial cells that produce a physiochemical barrier overlying the cellular barrier, robust and organized adaptive and innate immune cells, and the ability to mount an inflammatory response that is commensurate with a specific threat level. The autophagy pathway is a critical cellular process that strongly influences all these functions. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the components of this pathway and their influence on inflammation, immunity, and barrier function will facilitate our understanding of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23216414

  8. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN IRAN

    K. Mohammad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Iran. The information was driven from an extensive Health Survey which was done by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, deputy of Research Affairs in 1990-92. Sampling fraction was 1 per 1000 of individuals aged between 2 and 69, the sampling method was cluster sampling and each cluster consisted of 7 families. Formal-ether was the method of finding parasites which included: Oxior, Ascariasis, Giardiasis, Entamoeba-histolytica, Tinea, Strongyloidiasis, Ancylostoma, and Trichocephaliasis. The highest prevalence rate belonged to Giardiasis with 14.4% and the lowest one belonged to Tinea and Ancylostoma with 0.2%. The prevalence rate in rural area was significantly lower than urban area (p<0.0001.

  9. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  10. Non-lytic, actin-based exit of intracellular parasites from C. elegans intestinal cells.

    Estes, Kathleen A; Szumowski, Suzannah C; Troemel, Emily R

    2011-09-01

    The intestine is a common site for invasion by intracellular pathogens, but little is known about how pathogens restructure and exit intestinal cells in vivo. The natural microsporidian parasite N. parisii invades intestinal cells of the nematode C. elegans, progresses through its life cycle, and then exits cells in a transmissible spore form. Here we show that N. parisii causes rearrangements of host actin inside intestinal cells as part of a novel parasite exit strategy. First, we show that N. parisii infection causes ectopic localization of the normally apical-restricted actin to the basolateral side of intestinal cells, where it often forms network-like structures. Soon after this actin relocalization, we find that gaps appear in the terminal web, a conserved cytoskeletal structure that could present a barrier to exit. Reducing actin expression creates terminal web gaps in the absence of infection, suggesting that infection-induced actin relocalization triggers gap formation. We show that terminal web gaps form at a distinct stage of infection, precisely timed to precede spore exit, and that all contagious animals exhibit gaps. Interestingly, we find that while perturbations in actin can create these gaps, actin is not required for infection progression or spore formation, but actin is required for spore exit. Finally, we show that despite large numbers of spores exiting intestinal cells, this exit does not cause cell lysis. These results provide insight into parasite manipulation of the host cytoskeleton and non-lytic escape from intestinal cells in vivo. PMID:21949650

  11. Non-lytic, actin-based exit of intracellular parasites from C. elegans intestinal cells.

    Kathleen A Estes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestine is a common site for invasion by intracellular pathogens, but little is known about how pathogens restructure and exit intestinal cells in vivo. The natural microsporidian parasite N. parisii invades intestinal cells of the nematode C. elegans, progresses through its life cycle, and then exits cells in a transmissible spore form. Here we show that N. parisii causes rearrangements of host actin inside intestinal cells as part of a novel parasite exit strategy. First, we show that N. parisii infection causes ectopic localization of the normally apical-restricted actin to the basolateral side of intestinal cells, where it often forms network-like structures. Soon after this actin relocalization, we find that gaps appear in the terminal web, a conserved cytoskeletal structure that could present a barrier to exit. Reducing actin expression creates terminal web gaps in the absence of infection, suggesting that infection-induced actin relocalization triggers gap formation. We show that terminal web gaps form at a distinct stage of infection, precisely timed to precede spore exit, and that all contagious animals exhibit gaps. Interestingly, we find that while perturbations in actin can create these gaps, actin is not required for infection progression or spore formation, but actin is required for spore exit. Finally, we show that despite large numbers of spores exiting intestinal cells, this exit does not cause cell lysis. These results provide insight into parasite manipulation of the host cytoskeleton and non-lytic escape from intestinal cells in vivo.

  12. Tissue engineering the small intestine.

    Spurrier, Ryan G; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2013-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from the loss of a highly specialized organ, the small intestine. SBS and its current treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Production of tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from the patient's own cells could restore normal intestinal function via autologous transplantation. Improved understanding of intestinal stem cells and their niche have been coupled with advances in tissue engineering techniques. Originally described by Vacanti et al of Massachusetts General Hospital, TESI has been produced by in vivo implantation of organoid units. Organoid units are multicellular clusters of epithelium and mesenchyme that may be harvested from native intestine. These clusters are loaded onto a scaffold and implanted into the host omentum. The scaffold provides physical support that permits angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of the developing tissue. After a period of 4 weeks, histologic analyses confirm the similarity of TESI to native intestine. TESI contains a differentiated epithelium, mesenchyme, blood vessels, muscle, and nerve components. To date, similar experiments have proved successful in rat, mouse, and pig models. Additional experiments have shown clinical improvement and rescue of SBS rats after implantation of TESI. In comparison with the group that underwent massive enterectomy alone, rats that had surgical anastomosis of TESI to their shortened intestine showed improvement in postoperative weight gain and serum B12 values. Recently, organoid units have been harvested from human intestinal samples and successfully grown into TESI by using an immunodeficient mouse host. Current TESI production yields approximately 3 times the number of cells initially implanted, but improvements in the scaffold and blood supply are being developed in efforts to increase TESI size. Exciting new techniques in stem cell biology and directed cellular differentiation may generate additional sources of autologous intestinal

  13. accelerating cavity

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  14. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter. PMID:19932365

  15. Diagnostic Laparoscopy for Small Intestinal Intussusception in a Horse

    P. Holak, M. Jałyński, Z. Peczyński, Z. Adamiak, M. Jaskólska and W. Pesta*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopy is a low-invasive diagnostic and surgical technique for examining and performing surgical procedures in the equine peritoneal cavity. This article is a case study of a horse with weakly expressed, irregular symptoms of colic occurring over a period of four weeks. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed, and liver and spleen tissue samples were collected for a histopathological analysis. An endoscopic examination of the abdominal cavity ruled out small intestinal intussusception, and a histopathological analysis supported the identification of the causes of colic.

  16. Electron Accelerator Facilities

    Lecture presents main aspects of progress in development of industrial accelerators: adaptation of accelerators primary built for scientific experiments, electron energy and beam power increase in certain accelerator constructions, computer control system managing accelerator start-up, routine operation and technological process, maintenance (diagnostics), accelerator technology perfection (electrical efficiency, operation cost), compact and more efficient accelerator constructions, reliability improvement according to industrial standards, accelerators for MW power levels and accelerators tailored for specific use

  17. Intestinal microbiota in liver disease.

    Haque, Tanvir R; Barritt, A Sidney

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota have emerged as a topic of intense interest in gastroenterology and hepatology. The liver is on the front line as the first filter of nutrients, toxins and bacterial metabolites from the intestines and we are becoming increasingly aware of interactions among the gut, liver and immune system as important mediators of liver health and disease. Manipulating the microbiota with therapeutic intent is a rapidly expanding field. In this review, we will describe what is known about the contribution of intestinal microbiota to liver homeostasis; the role of dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of liver disease including alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; and the therapeutic manifestations of altering intestinal microbiota via antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation. PMID:27048904

  18. Intestinal disease in cystic fibrosis.

    Baxter, P S; Dickson, J. A.; Variend, S; Taylor, C J

    1988-01-01

    Three children with cystic fibrosis developed steatorrhoea unresponsive to changes in pancreatic supplements. The final diagnoses were chronic giardiasis, stagnant loop syndrome, and Crohn's disease. Refractory intestinal symptoms in cystic fibrosis merit further investigation.

  19. Intestinal contrasting in abdominal CT

    In 56 patients undergoing abdominal CT the gastro-intestinal tract was defined by negative contrast instead of the conventional positive contrast from an iodine containing contrast medium. The contrast material was a 2 1/2% mannitol solution and was used for filling the rectum. Filling of the gastro-intestinal tract was of similar quality to that obtained with positve contrast media. The number of artifacts due to high contrast boundaries was slightly greater with the negative contrast than if would have been with positive contrast. Differentiation of the gastro-intestinal tract from other abdominal organs was equally good for both methods. The negative contrast method was poor in diagnosing cystic tumours but proved much better than positive contrast for evaluating the wall of the gastro-intestinal tract. (orig.)

  20. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)

    Bellanger Jérôme; Vignes Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with ana...

  1. Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Chopra, Dharam P.; Dombkowski, Alan A.; Stemmer, Paul M.; Parker, Graham C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in the biology of stem cells has resulted in significant interest in the development of normal epithelial cell lines from the intestinal mucosa, both to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells in tissue regeneration and to develop treatment models of degenerative disorders of the digestive tract. However, the difficulty of propagating cell lines of normal intestinal epithelium has impeded research into the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation of stem/progeni...

  2. Intestinal actinomycosis: a case report

    Intestinal actinomycosis: a case report. The authors describe a case of intestinal actinomycosis, which was manisfestated by abdominal mass and suggested, clinical and radiologically, a bowel carcinoma. They discuss the pathogenesis, and the clinical and radiological manisfestations of this disease, and its differential diagnosis. This is an infrequent disease which must be considered whenever suggestive clinical aspects are associated with a radiological ''malignant pattern'' of a bowel lesion. (author)

  3. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  4. Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy

    Woo Sang Hyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule.

  5. Intestinal acariasis in Anhui Province

    Chao-Pin Li; Jian Wang

    2000-01-01

    The mites found in stored food and house comprise a large group of subclass Acari, belonging to the suborder Acardida of the order Acarifornes. They can be found in dust and vacuum samples from floors, furniture, mattresses, Chinese herbal medicine, dry fruit, grain, flour, sugar, and bedding. These mites are nidicolous and feed on organic debris, including sloughed human skin, fungi, spilled food, pollen, etc. These mites are particularly prevalent in Chinese herbal medicine, dry fruit, grain, flour, sugar, beds, though carpeted floors near beds or couches may also have large numbers. The most common species are Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae , Dermatophagoides farinae , D . pteronyssinus, Glycyphagus domesticus, G. Ornatus, Carpoglyphus lactis and Tarsonemus granarius, etc. The viability of mites in storage is quite strong and they can invade and parasitize the intestines of humans[1 -15]. They can cause pulmonary acariasis[16-25] , urinary acariasis[26-33] and so on. The dejecta of mites is a quite strong allergen and can cause different allergic diseases[34-44]. Intestinal acariasis can be caused by some mites related to the way of diet intake and invading against intestinal mucosa, intestinal muscle[45-5a]. The first report of intestinal acariasis caused by these mites was made by Hinman et al (1934)[45]. From then on, all kinds of studies on the disease have been reported gradually. In order to make an epidemiological survey of intestinal acariasis the investigation of the disease was taken in some areas of Anhui Province from 1989 to 1996.

  6. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  7. Adult intestinal failure

    Davidson, J., E-mail: Jdavidson@doctors.org.u [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom); Plumb, A.; Burnett, H. [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under-recognized. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions (both enteral and parenteral) and controlling sepsis (via drainage of collections) in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.

  8. Adult intestinal failure

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under-recognized. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions (both enteral and parenteral) and controlling sepsis (via drainage of collections) in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.

  9. Experimental study on induction of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa

    Attempts were made to learn about an optimal condition for the induction of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa. The gastric region of 5-week-old female A/HeJ mice or Wistar rats were irradiated with a total of 3,000 rad x-ray. In addition, the effect of immunization by allogenic stomach antigen on the intestinalization was studied in rats irradiated with 500 rads of x-ray daily for 6 times. Disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activities appeared but morphological intestinal metaplasia was not observed in A/HeJ mice irradiated with 500 rads x 6 of x-ray. The appearance of marker enzymes of small intestine preceeded that of crypts having a few goblet cell among normal gastric cells in rats irradiated with 500 rads of x-ray. In groups of rats injected with allogenic stomach antigen plus x-irradiation the process of intestinalization was accelerated. The similar results were obtained in rats irradiated with 1,000 rad of x-ray 3 times There was several glands with intestinal metaplasia in the intact pyloric mucosa, but not in the ulcerative mucosa. On the other hand, intestinal metaplasia developed more later in fundic mucosa which was usually atrophy due to the loss of parietal cell mass. There was an intimate association among the parietal cell loss in the fundic gland, a rise in pH value and the development of intestinal metaplasia. In above groups with a smaller divided dose no case of gastric adenocarcinoma was detected during observation period up to 52nd or 80th week. Although a larger divided dose (1,500 rads x 2) was effective in inducing gastric adenocarcinoma (57.1%) but less effective in inducing intestinalization of any kind. No evidence of direct association between intestinalization and cancerization in the glandular stomach was demonstrated in the present study. (author)

  10. Endoscopically diagnosed cavernous hemangioma in the deep small intestine: A case report

    Hsin-Hung Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a 27-year-old female with chronic iron deficiency anemia and unexplained fecal occult blood. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography disclosed a possible endoluminal lesion in the small intestine. Single-balloon enteroscopy detected the target lesion in the proximal ileum. The lesion was a 2.5-cm submucosal tumor that was purple-red, soft, had a narrow base, and exhibited superficial telangiectasia. After endoscopic marking, the tumor was resected with minimally invasive laparoscopy. It was histologically confirmed as a cavernous hemangioma. In this report, we discuss the endoscopic characteristics, surgical and pathological assessment, and management strategy of hemangiomas in the small intestine.

  11. PET-CT enteroclysis: a new technique for evaluation of inflammatory diseases of the intestine

    Jyoti Das, Chandan; Sharma, Raju [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Makharia, Govind; Goswami, Pooja [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Rakesh; Chawla, Madhavi; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India)

    2007-12-15

    While CT/MR enteroclysis provides excellent anatomical details, it fails to provide information on metabolic activity of the inflammatory lesions of the intestine. We conceptualized a fusion of metabolic imaging techniques such as PET and an anatomical imaging modality such as CT enteroclysis to derive information both on morphological details and functional activity of lesions at the same time. In a prospective study, we included 17 adult patients with newly diagnosed inflammatory diseases of the intestine. Low dose whole body PET-CT scan was obtained first, which began at approximately 60 min after injection of 10 mCi of {sup 18}fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG). Subsequently, PET-CT enteroclysis of the abdomen was performed after infusion of 2 l of 0.5% methylcellulose through a naso-jejunal catheter. Fourteen patients had abnormal and three had normal PET-CT enteroclysis studies. Twenty-three segments of small intestine and 27 segments of large intestine showed increased FDG uptake. The detection rate of PET-CT enteroclysis was significantly higher (total =50 segments, 23 segments of small intestine and 27 segments of large intestine) as compared with barium studies (16 segments of small intestine) and colonoscopy (17 segments of large intestine) combined together (total =33 segments). In addition PET-CT enteroclysis showed extra-luminal FDG uptake (lymph nodes in two, sacroilitis in two, and mesenteric fat proliferation in five). As a single investigation, PET-CT enteroclysis detects a significantly higher number of lesions both in the small and large intestine in comparison to that detected by conventional barium and colonoscopy combined together. This technique is non-invasive, feasible and very promising. (orig.)

  12. Microbial sphingomyelinase induces RhoA-mediated reorganization of the apical brush border membrane and is protective against invasion.

    Saslowsky, David E; Thiagarajah, Jay R; McCormick, Beth A; Lee, Jean C; Lencer, Wayne I

    2016-04-01

    The apical brush border membrane (BBM) of intestinal epithelial cells forms a highly structured and dynamic environmental interface that serves to regulate cellular physiology and block invasion by intestinal microbes and their products. How the BBM dynamically responds to pathogenic and commensal bacterial signals can define intestinal homeostasis and immune function. We previously found that in model intestinal epithelium, the conversion of apical membrane sphingomyelin to ceramide by exogenous bacterial sphingomyelinase (SMase) protected against the endocytosis and toxicity of cholera toxin. Here we elucidate a mechanism of action by showing that SMase induces a dramatic, reversible, RhoA-dependent alteration of the apical cortical F-actin network. Accumulation of apical membrane ceramide is necessary and sufficient to induce the actin phenotype, and this coincides with altered membrane structure and augmented innate immune function as evidenced by resistance to invasion by Salmonella. PMID:26864627

  13. Traditional invasive vs. minimally invasive esophagectomy: a multi-center, randomized trial (TIME-trial)

    Biere, S.S.A.Y.; Maas, K. W.; L. Bonavina; Garcia, J.; Henegouwen, M.I.V.B.; Rosman, C.; Sosef, M.N.; Lange, de, J.; Bonjer, H.J.; Cuesta, M.A.; Peet, van der, G.F.V.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a rise in incidence of esophageal carcinoma due to increasing incidence of adenocarcinoma. Probably the only curative option to date is the use of neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgical resection. Traditional open esophageal resection is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Furthermore, this approach involves long intensive care unit stay, in-hospital stay and long recovery period. Minimally invasive esophagectomy could reduce the morbidity and accelerate...

  14. Morphological and Functional Alterations of Small Intestine in Chronic Pancreatitis

    Natalya B Gubergrits

    2012-09-01

    digestion, decrease of absorption, accelerated desquamation of epithelium, fall in local immunity and development of bacterial overgrowth syndrome. Conclusions Existence of secondary enteritis and bacterial overgrowth syndrome validates lack of enzyme replacement therapy efficacy in some chronic pancreatitis patients with pancreatic insufficiency. To optimize treatment in such cases it is important to perform small intestine decontamination and escalate enzyme preparation dosage.

  15. Intestinal secretory mechanisms in irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea.

    Camilleri, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Although diarrhea is the predominant bowel dysfunction in as many as one-third of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it is unclear whether there is a specific disorder of intestinal fluid or electrolyte secretion in IBS. Diarrhea is generally considered a result of accelerated colonic transit in patients with IBS. Although a primary secretory diathesis has not been well-documented in patients with IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), several mechanisms that could potentially contribute to intestinal secretion have been reported. Some of these mechanisms also influence motor and secretory dysfunctions that contribute to the pathophysiology of IBS-D. We review the evidence supporting secretion in IBS-D caused by peptides and amines produced by enteroendocrine cells or submucosal neurons, enterocyte secretory processes, and intraluminal factors (bile acids and short-chain fatty acids). Understanding these mechanisms and developing clinical methods for their identification could improve management of patients with IBS-D. PMID:25041862

  16. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Full Text Available ... because obviously the surgeon is sort of the person that everybody focuses on. But minimally invasive surgery ... can do to safeguard. Probably the biggest risk factor, although we see plenty of these problems in ...

  17. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Full Text Available ... minimally invasive approach in terms of, you know, effectiveness of treating lumbar herniations? 2 Well, the minimally ... think it’s important to stress here that the effectiveness of this procedure is about the same as ...

  18. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Full Text Available ... during this non-invasive sort of approach. The word that we put in the operative record is ... compressed really are like cables, and there’s a short circuit in the cable of the nerve when ...

  19. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Full Text Available ... because obviously the surgeon is sort of the person that everybody focuses on. But minimally invasive surgery ... on a regular basis, you should sort of act like a baseball player in spring training. You ...

  20. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Full Text Available ... get in there; correct? Yes, it is. We use instruments that allow us to access the spine ... invasive approaches. Now you develop -- now usually they use a series of dilators to get to the ...

  1. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Full Text Available ... invasive microscopic lumbar discectomy.” Now this is a patient who a 46-year-old woman who had ... style, it is a very common procedure. Many patients throughout the country and the world have herniated ...

  2. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Full Text Available ... neurosurgeon going with that, or should patients be seeking out versed in the minimally invasive procedures? The ... right. 16 Okay. And the studies, do they support that, do they show that quicker recovery times, ...

  3. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease

    Bellanger Jérôme

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other

  4. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease).

    Vignes, Stéphane; Bellanger, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum) or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other inconsistently effective

  5. Regulation of APC and AXIN2 expression by intestinal tumor suppressor CDX2 in colon cancer cells.

    Olsen, Anders Krüger; Coskun, Mehmet; Bzorek, Michael; Kristensen, Michael Holmsgaard; Danielsen, Erik Thomas; Jørgensen, Steffen; Olsen, Jørgen; Engel, Ulla; Holck, Susanne; Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald

    2013-06-01

    Wnt signaling is often constitutively active in colorectal cancer cells. The expression of the intestinal specific transcription factor CDX2 is found to be transiently decreased in invasive cells at the tumor/stroma interface. A recent ChIP-Seq study has indicated that several Wnt signaling-related genes are regulated by CDX2. The aim was to investigate the role of decreased CDX2 level on the expression of APC, AXIN2 and GSK3β in migrating colon cancer cells at the invasive front. CDX2-bound promoter and enhancer regions from APC, AXIN2 and GSK3β were analyzed for gene regulatory activity and the expression pattern of APC and GSK3β at the invasive front was evaluated by immunohistochemical procedures. Transfection of intestinal and non-intestinal cell lines demonstrated that CDX2 activated APC and AXIN2 promoter activities via intestinal cell-specific enhancer elements. Suppressed CDX2 expression was associated with endogenous downregulation of APC and AXIN2 expression in Caco-2 cells but did not affect GSK3β expression. Furthermore, elevated levels of nuclear β-catenin and reduced levels of cytoplasmic APC were correlated to a low CDX2 expression in migrating colon cancer cells in vivo. These results suggest that a low CDX2 level has influence on the Wnt signaling in invasive colon cancer cells possibly promoting cellular migration. PMID:23393221

  6. 3-D intestinal scaffolds for evaluating the therapeutic potential of probiotics.

    Costello, Cait M; Sorna, Rachel M; Goh, Yih-Lin; Cengic, Ivana; Jain, Nina K; March, John C

    2014-07-01

    Biomimetic in vitro intestinal models are becoming useful tools for studying host-microbial interactions. In the past, these models have typically been limited to simple cultures on 2-D scaffolds or Transwell inserts, but it is widely understood that epithelial cells cultured in 3-D environments exhibit different phenotypes that are more reflective of native tissue, and that different microbial species will preferentially adhere to select locations along the intestinal villi. We used a synthetic 3-D tissue scaffold with villous features that could support the coculture of epithelial cell types with select bacterial populations. Our end goal was to establish microbial niches along the crypt-villus axis in order to mimic the natural microenvironment of the small intestine, which could potentially provide new insights into microbe-induced intestinal disorders, as well as enabling targeted probiotic therapies. We recreated the surface topography of the small intestine by fabricating a biodegradable and biocompatible villous scaffold using poly lactic-glycolic acid to enable the culture of Caco-2 with differentiation along the crypt-villus axis in a similar manner to native intestines. This was then used as a platform to mimic the adhesion and invasion profiles of both Salmonella and Pseudomonas, and assess the therapeutic potential of Lactobacillus and commensal Escherichia coli in a 3-D setting. We found that, in a 3-D environment, Lactobacillus is more successful at displacing pathogens, whereas Nissle is more effective at inhibiting pathogen adhesion. PMID:24798584

  7. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  8. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  9. Parenteral nutrition in intestinal failure

    Kurkchubasche AG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arlet G Kurkchubasche,1 Thomas J Herron,2 Marion F Winkler31Department of Surgery and Pediatrics, 2Department of Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 3Department of Surgery/Nutritional Support Service, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Intestinal failure is a consequence of extensive surgical resection resulting in anatomic loss and/or functional impairment in motility or absorptive capacity. The condition is clinically characterized by the inability to maintain fluid, energy, protein, electrolyte, or micronutrient balance when on a conventionally accepted, normal diet. Parenteral nutrition (PN is the cornerstone of management until intestinal adaptation returns the patient to a PN-independent state. Intestinal length, residual anatomic segments and motility determine the need for and duration of parenteral support. The goals of therapy are to provide sufficient nutrients to enable normal growth and development in children, and support a healthy functional status in adults. This review addresses indications for PN, the formulation of the PN solution, patient monitoring, and considerations for prevention of PN-associated complications. With the ultimate goal of achieving enteral autonomy, the important role of diet, pharmacologic interventions, and surgery is discussed.Keywords: intestinal failure, short-bowel syndrome, parenteral nutrition, home nutrition support, intestinal rehabilitation

  10. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  11. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  12. Sonography of the small intestine

    Kim Nylund; Svein (φ)degaard; Trygve Hausken; Geir Folvik; Gülen Arslan Lied; Ivan Viola; Helwig Hauser; Odd-Helge Gilja

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been substantial development in the diagnostic possibilities for examining the small intestine. Compared with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy, ultrasonography has the advantage of being cheap, portable, flexible and user- and patient-friendly, while at the same time providing the clinician with image data of high temporal and spatial resolution. The method has limitations with penetration in obesity and with intestinal air impairing image quality. The flexibility ultrasonography offers the examiner also implies that a systematic approach during scanning is needed. This paper reviews the basic scanning techniques and new modalities such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastography, strain rate imaging, hydrosonography, allergosonography, endoscopic sonography and nutritional imaging, and the literature on disease-specific findings in the small intestine. Some of these methods have shown clinical benefit, while others are under research and development to establish their role in the diagnostic repertoire. However, along with improved overall image quality of new ultrasound scanners, these methods have enabled more anatomical and physiological changes in the small intestine to be observed. Accordingly, ultrasound of the small intestine is an attractive clinical tool to study patients with a range of diseases.

  13. The gastrointestinal microbiome - functional interference between stomach and intestine.

    Lopetuso, Loris R; Scaldaferri, Franco; Franceschi, Francesco; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex and dynamic network with interplay between various gut mucosal cells and their defence molecules, the immune system, food particles, and the resident microbiota. This ecosystem acts as a functional unit organized as a semipermeable multi-layer system that allows the absorption of nutrients and macromolecules required for human metabolic processes and, on the other hand, protects the individual from potentially invasive microorganisms. Commensal microbiota and the host are a unique entity in a continuum along the GI tract, every change in one of these players is able to modify the whole homeostasis. In the stomach, Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world's population. In this scenario, H. pylori infection is associated with changes in the gastric microenvironment, which in turn affects the gastric microbiota composition, but also might trigger large intestinal microbiota changes. It is able to influence all the vital pathways of human system and also to influence microbiota composition along the GI tract. This can cause a change in the normal functions exerted by intestinal commensal microorganisms leading to a new gastrointestinal physiological balance. This review focuses and speculates on the possible interactions between gastric microorganisms and intestinal microbiota and on the consequences of this interplay in modulating gut health. PMID:25439066

  14. Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2009-01-01

    There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting,such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partⅠ, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors,epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part Ⅱ will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids.

  15. Extensive Intestinal Resection Triggers Behavioral Adaptation, Intestinal Remodeling and Microbiota Transition in Short Bowel Syndrome

    Camille Mayeur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive resection of small bowel often leads to short bowel syndrome (SBS. SBS patients develop clinical mal-absorption and dehydration relative to the reduction of absorptive area, acceleration of gastrointestinal transit time and modifications of the gastrointestinal intra-luminal environment. As a consequence of severe mal-absorption, patients require parenteral nutrition (PN. In adults, the overall adaptation following intestinal resection includes spontaneous and complex compensatory processes such as hyperphagia, mucosal remodeling of the remaining part of the intestine and major modifications of the microbiota. SBS patients, with colon in continuity, harbor a specific fecal microbiota that we called “lactobiota” because it is enriched in the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc group and depleted in anaerobic micro-organisms (especially Clostridium and Bacteroides. In some patients, the lactobiota-driven fermentative activities lead to an accumulation of fecal d/l-lactates and an increased risk of d-encephalopathy. Better knowledge of clinical parameters and lactobiota characteristics has made it possible to stratify patients and define group at risk for d-encephalopathy crises.

  16. Diabetes is predominantly an intestinal disease

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic, progressive, medically incurable disease and is poorly controlled in a vast majority, in spite of tremendous advancements in pharmacotherapy. Altered gut microbiome can predict diabetes. There is strong and consistent evidence regarding role of the gut and many gut hormones like incretins in energy and glucose homeostasis. Incretin group of agents including glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV inhibitors are efficacious therapeutic agents in diabetes treatment. A growing body of evidence, however, appears to indicate that type 2 DM (T2DM may be an operable intestinal illness-a novel revolutionary concept about an old disease. This may facilitate research that can better clarify our understanding of the etiology of the disease and provide a new opportunity to develop new and more effective therapies. Future research should focus on an approach to bypass the bypass, that is, to replace the gastric bypass by equally effective but less invasive treatments for majority of diabetics.

  17. The intestinal absorption of folates.

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  18. Plant invasions in the landscape

    Vilà, Montserrat; Ibáñez, Inés

    2011-01-01

    Biological invasions and changes in land- use are two components of global change affecting biodiversity worldwide. There is overriding evidence that invasions can dramatically change the landscape and that particular land-use types facilitate invasions. Still, these issues have not formally percolated into risk analysis of biological invasions, and only recently has the influence of the surrounding land- scape on invasive species spread started to be considered. In this paper we r...

  19. Adrenomedullin regulates intestinal physiology and pathophysiology.

    Martínez-Herrero, S; Martínez, A

    2016-07-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) are 2 biologically active peptides produced by the same gene, ADM, with ubiquitous distribution and many physiological functions. Adrenomedullin is composed of 52 amino acids, has an internal molecular ring composed by 6 amino acids and a disulfide bond, and shares structural similarities with calcitonin gene-related peptide, amylin, and intermedin. The AM receptor consists of a 7-transmembrane domain protein called calcitonin receptor-like receptor in combination with a single transmembrane domain protein known as receptor activity-modifying protein. Using morphologic techniques, it has been shown that AM and PAMP are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, being specially abundant in the neuroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa; in the enterochromaffin-like and chief cells of the gastric fundus; and in the submucosa of the duodenum, ileum, and colon. This wide distribution in the gastrointestinal tract suggests that AM and PAMP may act as gut hormones regulating many physiological and pathologic conditions. To date, it has been proven that AM and PAMP act as autocrine/paracrine growth factors in the gastrointestinal epithelium, play key roles in the protection of gastric mucosa from various kinds of injury, and accelerate healing in diseases such as gastric ulcer and inflammatory bowel diseases. In addition, both peptides are potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying; they regulate the active transport of sugars in the intestine, regulate water and ion transport in the colon, modulate colonic bowel movements and small-intestine motility, improve endothelial barrier function, and stabilize circulatory function during gastrointestinal inflammation. Furthermore, AM and PAMP are antimicrobial peptides, and they contribute to the mucosal host defense system by regulating gut microbiota. To get a formal demonstration of the effects that endogenous AM and

  20. Non-invasive investigation of inflammatory bowel disease

    JA Tibble; I Bjarnason

    2001-01-01

    The assessment of inflammatory activity in intestinal disease in man can be done using a variety of different techniques. These range from the use of non - invasive acute phase inflammatory markers measured in plasma such as C reactive protein (CRP) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (both of which give an indirect assessment of disease activity) to the direct assessment of disease activity by intestinal biopsy performed during endoscopy in association with endoscopic scoring systems. Both radiology and endoscopy are conventional for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).However these techniques have severe limitations when it comes to assessing functional components of the disease such as activity and prognosis. Here we briefly review the value of two emerging intestinal function tests. Intestinal permeability, although ideally suited for diagnostic screening for small bowel Crohns disease, appears to give reliable predictive data for imminent relapse of small bowel Crohns disease and it can be used to assess responses to treatment. More significantly it is now clear that single stool assay of neutrophil specific proteins (calprotectin, lactoferrin) give the same quantitative data on intestinal inflammation as the 4 - day faecal excretion of 111lndium labelled white cells. Faecal calprotectin is shown to be increased in over 95% of patients with IBD and correlates with clinical disease activity. It reliably differentiates between patients with IBD and irritable bowel syndrome. More importantly, at a given faecal calprotectin concentration in patients with quiescent IBD,the test has a specificity and sensitivity in excess of 85% in predicting clinical relapse of disease. This suggests that relapse of IBD is closely related to the degree of intestinal inflammation and suggests that targeted treatment at an asymptomatic stage of the disease may be indicated.

  1. Pulsed DC accelerator for laser wakefield accelerator

    For the acceleration of ultra-short, high-brightness electron bunches, a pulsed DC accelerator was constructed. The pulser produced megavolt pulses of 1 ns duration in a vacuum diode. Results are presented from field emission of electrons in the diode. The results indicate that the accelerating gradient in the diode is approximately 1.5 GV/m

  2. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Linear Accelerator A linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays to ... ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used ...

  3. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Small Intestine

    ... party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Small Intestine Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Or More after Being Diagnosed with Small Intestine Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  4. Chronic pancreatitis: Maldigestion, intestinal ecology and intestinal inflammation

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2009-01-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency caused by chronic pancreatitis results from various factors whichregulate digestion and absorption of nutrients. Pancreatic function has been extensively studied over the last 40 years, even if some aspects of secretion and gastrointestinal adaptation are not completely understood. The main clinical manifestations of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are fat malabsorption, known as steatorrhea, which consists of fecal excretion of more than 6 g of fat per day, weightloss, abdominal discomfort and abdominal swelling sensation. Fat malabsorption also results in a deficit of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) with consequent clinical manifestations. The relationships between pancreatic maldigestion, intestinal ecology and intestinal inflammation have not received particular attention, even if in clinical practice these mechanisms may be responsible for the low efficacy of pancreatic extracts in abolishing steatorrhea in some patients. The best treatments for pancreatic maldigestion should be re-evaluated, taking into account not only the correction of pancreatic insufficiency using pancreatic extracts and the best duodenal pH to permit optimal efficacy of these extracts, but we also need to consider other therapeutic approaches including the decontamination of intestinal lumen, supplementation of bile acids and, probably, the use of probiotics which may attenuate intestinal inflammation

  5. Alien invasive birds.

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  6. Porcine Ex Vivo intestinal segment model

    Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model. This includes the advantages and disadvantages of the segment model and a detailed description of the isolation and culture as well as the applications of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model in practice. Compared to the Ussing chamber (Chap. 24) the porcine ex vivo small intestinal segment model is a relatively simple to use intestinal tissue model. The main difference being that the tissue segment is not...

  7. Intestinal epithelial cells in inflammatory bowel diseases

    Giulia; Roda; Alessandro; Sartini; Elisabetta; Zambon; Andrea; Calafiore; Margherita; Marocchi; Alessandra; Caponi; Andrea; Belluzzi; Enrico; Roda

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) seems to involve a primary defect in one or more of the elements responsible for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and oral tolerance. The most important element is represented by the intestinal barrier, a complex system formed mostly by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). IECs have an active role in producing mucus and regulating its composition; they provide a physical barrier capable of controlling antigen traff ic through the intestinal muco...

  8. Experimental sepsis in pigs—effects of vasopressin on renal, hepatic, and intestinal dysfunction

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Yang, Jian-Jun; Wu, Jing; Li, Ren-Qi; Li, Guo-Min; Fan, Yun-Xia; Li, Wei-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Low-dose arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been proposed as an adjunctive vasopressor for the treatment of advanced vasodilatory shock. However, its effects on renal, hepatic, and intestinal dysfunction during sepsis remain controversial. Methods Fecal peritonitis was induced in 20 anesthetized, invasively monitored, mechanically ventilated female pigs. Following the time point of septic shock (defined as mean artery pressure (MAP) ≤65 mmHg), animals were randomly assigned to the fo...

  9. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a gut mucosal defense factor maintained by enteral nutrition

    Goldberg, Ross F; Austen, William G.; Zhang, Xiaobo; Munene, Gitonga; Mostafa, Golam; Biswas, Shaluk; McCormack, Michael; Eberlin, Kyle R.; Nguyen, John T.; Tatlidede, Hamit S.; Warren, H. Shaw; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, Jose L.; Hodin, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Under conditions of starvation and disease, the gut barrier becomes impaired, and trophic feeding to prevent gut mucosal atrophy has become a standard treatment of critically ill patients. However, the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of enteral nutrition have remained a mystery. Using in vitro and in vivo models, we demonstrate that the brush–border enzyme, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), has the ability to detoxify lipopolysaccharide and prevent bacterial invasion ac...

  10. Rapid Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasitic Protozoa, with a Focus on Entamoeba histolytica

    Anjana Singh; Eric Houpt; Petri, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an invasive intestinal pathogenic parasitic protozoan that causes amebiasis. It must be distinguished from Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii, nonpathogenic commensal parasites of the human gut lumen that are morphologically identical to E. histolytica. Detection of specific E. histolytica antigens in stools is a fast, sensitive technique that should be considered as the method of choice. Stool real-time PCR is a highly sensitive and specific technique but its high c...

  11. The TNO gastro-intestinal model (TIM)

    Minekus, M.

    2015-01-01

    The TNO Gastro–Intestinal Model (TIM) is a multi–compartmental model, designed to realistically simulate conditions in the lumen of the gastro–intestinal tract. TIM is successfully used to study the gastro–intestinal behavior of a wide variety of feed, food and pharmaceutical products. Experiments i

  12. Leiomyosarcoma in leiomyomatosis of the small intestine.

    EL-OMAR, M.; Davies, J.; Gupta, S.; Ross, H.; Thompson, R.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple leiomyomata of the small intestine are rare. We report one such case where a leiomyosarcoma had arisen from a leiomyoma in the small intestine 8 years after presentation. The possible origin of the leiomyomata is discussed and it is concluded that small intestinal leiomyomatosis should be regarded as a premalignant condition.

  13. Investigation of motility and biofilm formation by intestinal Campylobacter concisus strains

    Lavrencic Peter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motility helps many pathogens swim through the highly viscous intestinal mucus. Given the differing outcomes of Campylobacter concisus infection, the motility of eight C. concisus strains isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease (n=3, acute (n=3 and chronic (n=1 gastroenteritis and a healthy control (n=1 were compared. Following growth on solid or liquid media the eight strains formed two groups; however, the type of growth medium did not affect motility. In contrast, following growth in viscous liquid medium seven of the eight strains demonstrated significantly decreased motility. In media of increasing viscosities the motility of C. concisus UNSWCD had two marked increases at viscosities of 20.0 and 74.7 centipoises. Determination of the ability of UNSWCD to swim through a viscous medium, adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells showed that while adherence levels significantly decreased with increasing viscosity, invasion levels did not significantly change. In contrast, adherence to and invasion of UNSWCD to mucus-producing intestinal cells increased upon accumulation of mucus, as did bacterial aggregation. Given this aggregation, we determined the ability of the eight C. concisus strains to form biofilms, and showed that all strains formed biofilms. In conclusion, the finding that C. concisus strains could be differentiated into two groups based on their motility may suggest that strains with high motility have an increased ability to swim through the intestinal mucus and reach the epithelial layer.

  14. Intestinal haemorrhage in Turner's syndrome.

    Burge, D M; A. W. Middleton; Kamath, R; Fasher, B J

    1981-01-01

    A 13-year-old girl with Turner's syndrome and bleeding from intestinal venous ectasia is reported. The various types of vascular anomaly of the bowel associated with Turner's syndrome are discussed. Awareness of these anomalies may help prevent unnecessary laparotomy in children with this syndrome.

  15. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  16. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  17. [Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].

    Nikolić, A; Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a significant difference between the minimal and maximal values (p < 0.01). Of 91 settlements examined, intestinal parasites were found in all but one. However, the prevalence rates in 90 settlements varied significantly (p = 0.0004), from a low of 5.9% to a high of 66.7%. Thus, according to the World Health Organization criteria [19], infections with the four clinically relevant species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A

  18. Inhibitory effect of Ipomoea aquatica extracts on glucose absorption using a perfused rat intestinal preparation.

    Sokeng, S D; Rokeya, B; Hannan, J M A; Junaida, K; Zitech, P; Ali, L; Ngounou, G; Lontsi, D; Kamtchouing, P

    2007-12-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of Ipomoea aquatica aqueous and dichloromethane/methanol extracts on the glucose absorption using a rat intestinal preparation in situ. Extracts orally tested at the dose of 160 mg/kg exerted a significant inhibitory effect on glucose absorption when compared with control animals. The most pronounced effect was observed with the aqueous extract. Ouabain used as reference inhibitor strongly inhibited glucose absorption. On the other hand both plant extracts inhibited the gastrointestinal motility suggesting that the inhibition of glucose absorption is not due to the acceleration of intestinal transit. PMID:17651914

  19. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals

    Margulis, L.; Jorgensen, J. Z.; Dolan, S.; Kolchinsky, R.; Rainey, F. A.; Lo, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats.

  20. Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion

    Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes tha...

  1. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

  2. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Full Text Available ... part of the sciatic nerve. You know one good important thing to talk about is the concept of “I ... in the minimally invasive procedures? The most important thing is to have a good trusting relationship between your surgeon and yourself, and ...

  3. Aquatic invasive species

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

  4. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Full Text Available ... Miami’s Baptist Hospital. You’re going to be a seeing a procedure called a “minimally invasive microscopic lumbar discectomy.” Now this is a patient who a 46-year-old woman who ...

  5. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Full Text Available ... called a “minimally invasive microscopic lumbar discectomy.” Now this is a patient who a 46-year-old ... L-5, S-1. So that’s why she’s having this procedure. The man who is doing the procedure ...

  6. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Full Text Available ... invasive, very small, and patients have recuperated very well, and this patient will be very satisfied in about 45 minutes when the ... 45 minutes, once she she’s stable, she should be fine. Well if you want to have any consult with ...

  7. Minimally Invasive Stomas

    Hellinger, Michael D.; Al Haddad, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, stoma creation and end stoma reversal have been performed via a laparotomy incision. However, in many situations, stoma construction may be safely performed in a minimally invasive nature. This may include a trephine, laparoscopic, or combined approach. Furthermore, Hartmann's colostomy reversal, a procedure traditionally associated with substantial morbidity, may also be performed laparoscopically. The authors briefly review patient selection, preparation, and indications, and...

  8. Intestinal perfusion in the study of intestinal absorption

    Several techniques for studying absorption by means of intestinal perfusion have been developed. While the principle is simple, the practice is complicated by absorption of the solvent and by excretion of fluid into the lumen. To improve reliability a ''marker'' is incorporated into the system; it should behave as nearly as possible like the nutrient of interest, except that it should be unabsorbable. A great many markers, including several labelled with radionuclides, have been developed for use with numerous nutrients, and perfusion methods using double or triple tubes or occlusive balloons have been tested. The perfusion technique is too complicated for routine diagnostic use, but it offers at present the only possibility of studying the function of defined sections of the small intestine in the intact human. (author)

  9. Acceleration without Horizons

    Doria, Alaric; Munoz, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} < c$. The motion of the accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  10. Endoscopic miniprobe ultrasonography in diagnosis of carcinomas and submucosal tumors of large intestine

    周平红; 姚礼庆; 刘枫林; 秦新裕

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of endoscopic miniprobe ultrasonography in the diagnosis of carcinomas and submucosal tumors of the large intestine.Methods A total of 96 patients with carcinomas and submucosal tumors of the large intestine were given colonoscopic ultrasonography with a miniprobe (Olympus UM-2R, 12 MHz; UM-3R, 20 MHz) from December, 2000 to January, 2002. Results Carcinomas of the large intestine of 81 patients appeared as a hypoechoic mass under endoscopic ultrasonography, by which 67 patients (82.7%) were accurately diagnosed as having infiltrated colorectal carcinomas. The sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was 55.4%, while the specificity was 68.8%. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 0.88 and 0.28, respectively. All 15 cases with submucosal tumors were diagnosed correctly under endoscopic ultrasonography except for one leiomyoma, which was misdiagnosed as leiomyosarcoma. Conclusions Endoscopic miniprobe ultrasonography has a high accuracy in determining the invasion depth of carcinomas of the large intestine and the diagnosis of submucosal tumors. The pre-operative endoscopic ultrasonography may provide valuable information and influence the choice of therapy for carcinomas and submucosal tumors of the large intestine.