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Sample records for acartia tonsa brine

  1. Effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming velocity of the copepod Acartia tonsa, brine shrimp Artemia salina and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Madsen, C.V.; Riisgard, H.U.

    2008-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles for swimming in many zooplanktonic aquatic organisms, including many invertebrate larvae, rotifers and ciliates, but other planktonic organisms, such as copepods and brine shrimps, use muscle-powered swimming appendages. In recent studies we found that the...... of swimming velocity for a 10 degrees C temperature reduction) that is found to be largest for the brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplius (37 %) and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (26%), but negligible for the copepod Acartia tonsa (4%). We suggest that experimental data on change in swimming...... velocity (V) due to change in kinematic viscosity (v) be correlated in terms of a power law, V proportional to v(-m). The present data on swimming velocity of copepods, brine shrimps and rotifers show values of exponent m approximate to 1.5 to 3, with a trend of decreasing values for increasing size of...

  2. Collection and cultivation methods of Acartia tonsa for toxicity testing

    Hood, C.A. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Houston, TX (United States); Mayo, R.R. [ENSR Environmental Toxicology Lab., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acartia tonsa were located and collected from Galveston Bay, Texas in June 1995, using plankton nets and transported to the laboratory for culture. After literature searching and laboratory experimentation. A simple reliable method was designed to culture A. tonsa. This method requires a minimum of glassware and supplies. Adult A. tonsa are placed in one gallon bell jars filled with natural seawater. The jars are then maintained in a water bath at a constant temperature. Water changes are conducted twice weekly and organisms are fed daily with a mixture of algae, Skeletonema costatum, isocrysis galbana, and Thalassiosira sp. Gravid females are then isolated in generators for 24 hours to obtain known age neonates. The neonates are maintained up to a specific age and then are used in toxicity tests such as the ``Determination of the Acute Lethal Toxicity to Marine Copepods,`` required in the United Kingdom for all chemicals used for offshore drilling fluid applications.

  3. Collection and cultivation methods of Acartia tonsa for toxicity testing

    Acartia tonsa were located and collected from Galveston Bay, Texas in June 1995, using plankton nets and transported to the laboratory for culture. After literature searching and laboratory experimentation. A simple reliable method was designed to culture A. tonsa. This method requires a minimum of glassware and supplies. Adult A. tonsa are placed in one gallon bell jars filled with natural seawater. The jars are then maintained in a water bath at a constant temperature. Water changes are conducted twice weekly and organisms are fed daily with a mixture of algae, Skeletonema costatum, isocrysis galbana, and Thalassiosira sp. Gravid females are then isolated in generators for 24 hours to obtain known age neonates. The neonates are maintained up to a specific age and then are used in toxicity tests such as the ''Determination of the Acute Lethal Toxicity to Marine Copepods,'' required in the United Kingdom for all chemicals used for offshore drilling fluid applications

  4. Rhodomonas salinas & Acartia tonsas trivsel i kunstigt saltvand.

    Bennetsen, Mikkel Sakse; Kyhnauv, Ida; Hansen, Malte Jarlgaard; Hansen, Amanda; Paulsen, Jens-Peter; Læssøe, Casper Dannebrog; Frost, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Dette projekt omhandler hvorvidt vandloppen Acartia tonsa, kan opdrættes i den samme kunstige saltvandsblanding som algen Rhodomonas salina. Problemstillingen er blevet besvaret ved hjælp af et forsøg. Forsøget og projektet har omhandlet 3 forskellige slags saltvandsblandinger, hhv. Coral Pro, Red Sea og Blue Treasure. Der er også blevet undersøgt om saltindholdet henholdsvis 20 og 30 promille, har betydning for algernes vækst. For at få en bedre forståelse for problemet i problemformuleringe...

  5. Effects of food on bacterial community composition associated with the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    Tang, Kam; Dziallas, Claudia; Hutalle-Schmelzer, Kristine; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    The estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa naturally carried diverse strains of bacteria on its body. The bacterial community composition (BCC) remained very conservative even when the copepod was fed different axenic algal species, indicating that the food per se did not much affect BCC associated with...

  6. Resting egg production induced by food limitation in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni W.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Three populations of the copepod Acartia tonsa, two from the Baltic Sea and one from the U.S. East Coast, were compared for resting egg production at conditions of saturating and limiting food availability. All three populations produced eggs that hatched within 72 h when incubated at 17°C (subit...

  7. Dealing with the presence of the ciliate Euplotes sp. in cultures of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    Drillet, Guillaume; Dutz, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa fed with Rhodomonas salina. We found that at a concentration of 2 cells ml-1, Euplotes sp. had no effect on the production and hatching success of eggs but increased/decreased the mortality/quality of non-subitaneous eggs. Euplotes sp. had a good fatty acid profile containing high proportion...

  8. Predatory and suspension feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa in turbulent environments

    Saiz, E.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The copepod Acartia tonsa exhibits 2 different feeding modes: When feeding on small phytoplankton cells it sets up a feeding current and acts as a suspension feeder; when feeding on motile prey it acts as an ambush feeder. We examined experimentally the effects of small-scale turbulence on feedin...... is numerically scarce relative to phytoplankton in the environment...

  9. Temperature impact on the trophic transfer of fatty acids in the congeneric copepods Acartia tonsa and Acartia clausi

    Werbrouck, Eva; Tiselius, Peter; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Cervin, Gunnar; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-06-01

    Copepods of the genus Acartia occur worldwide and constitute an important link to higher trophic levels in estuaries. However, biogeographical shifts in copepod assemblages and colonization of certain European estuaries by the invader A. tonsa, both driven or enhanced by increasing ocean temperature, raise the pressure on autochthonous copepod communities. Despite the profound effect of temperature on all levels of biological organization, its impact on the fatty acid (FA) dynamics of Acartia species is understudied. As certain FAs exert a bottom-up control on the trophic structure of aquatic ecosystems, temperature-induced changes in FA dynamics of Acartia species may impact higher trophic levels. Therefore, this study documents the short-term temperature responses of A. tonsa and A. clausi, characterized by their warm- versus cold-water preference respectively, by analyzing the FA profiles of their membrane and storage lipids under 5 and 15 °C. Copepods that were fed an ad libitum diet of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (bloom conditions) under 15 °C increased their storage FA content substantially. Furthermore, the membrane FA composition of A. tonsa showed a more profound temperature response compared with A. clausi which might be linked with the eurythermal character of the former.

  10. Defecation of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) by the copepod Acartia tonsa as functions of ambient food concentration and body DMSP content

    Tang, K.W.

    2001-01-01

    The dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) defecation rate of Acartia tonsa (calanoid copepod)feeding on Tetraselmis impellucida (prasinophyte) was correlated with food concentration and copepod body DMSP content. Copepod fecal pellets represent a highly concentrated source of DMSP and thus play an...

  11. Influence of algal diet on feeding and egg-production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    Støttrup, Josianne; Jensen, Johanne

    Threshold concentration, retention efficiency and egg-production in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were examined using the algal species Isochrysis galbana clone T-iso, Dunalietta tertiolecta Butcher, Rhodomonas baltica Karsten, Ditylum brightwellii Grunow and Thalassiosira weissflogii...

  12. Prey switching behaviour in the planktonic copepod Acartia tonsa

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Saiz, E.; Viitasalo, M.

    . tonsa adopts the feeding mode that generates the highest energy intake rate; i.e. that prey selection changes according to the relative concentrations of alternative prey (prey switching) and that the copepods spend disproportionately more time in the feeding mode that provides the greatest reward...... (Strombidium sulcatum). Our data demonstrate prey switching in A. tonsa, both in terms of behaviour and in terms of feeding rates on the alternative prey. The time allocated to ambush and suspension feeding changed with the composition of the food, and clearance of diatoms was, accordingly, negatively related...

  13. Inclusion of copepod Acartia tonsa nauplii in the feeding of Centropomus undecimalis larvae increases stress resistance

    Wanessa de Melo-Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research represents the first result of studies of the common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae from broodstock matured in captivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii improves stress resistance of common snook larvae. The larvae were fed with: rotifers Brachionus plicatilis (10 to 15 mL-1; A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5 mL-1 and rotifers (5 to 7.5 mL-1, and A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25 mL-1. The average percentage of survival of the treatments was 11.9%. At 20 days of age, larvae were subjected to thermal stress. Subsequently, the stress resistance was evaluated. Common snook larvae fed B. plicatilis+A. tonsa reached a higher weight and length (7.5 ± 0.00 mg and 9.1 ± 0.23 mm, respectively and resisted more heat stress (87.4% than larvae fed other foods, indicating that the feed mixture is satisfactory as a starter diet for larvae of common snook. However, more research is needed to confirm these results.

  14. Do Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs regulate their volume and osmolality as salinity changes?

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Pedersen, Morten Foldager;

    2012-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs from an euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were challenged by changes in salinity within the range from full strength salinity, down to zero and up to >70 psu. Egg volume changed immediately, increasing from 2.8 × 105 μm3 at full strength salinity (35 psu) to 3.8 × 105 μm3...

  15. Microbial characterization and influence on copepod (Acartia tonsa) nauplii and egg production in water treatment systems with and without membrane filtration

    Phan Hung, Anh

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is a pelagic calanoid copepod with a diverse distribution, a wide tolerance of temperature and salinities, has short generation time, can produce resting eggs, and has been considered as an excellent feed for marine fish larvae. The current study included two experiments: nauplii production (NP) and egg production (EP). In the NP experiment, the nauplii copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were reared for 14 days in a flow-through aquaculture system (FTAS), a conventional recirculating aq...

  16. Microbial characterization and influence on copepod (Acartia tonsa) nauplii and egg production in water treatment systems with and without membrane filtration

    Phan Hung, Anh

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is a pelagic calanoid copepod with a diverse distribution, a wide tolerance of temperature and salinities, has short generation time, can produce resting eggs, and has been considered as an excellent feed for marine fish larvae. The current study included two experiments: nauplii production (NP) and egg production (EP). In the NP experiment, the nauplii copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were reared for 14 days in a flow-through aquaculture system (FTAS), a conventional recirculating aq...

  17. Do inactivated Microbial Preparations Improve Life History Traits of the Copepod Acartia tonsa?

    Drillet, Guillaume; Rabarimanantsoa, Tahina; Frouel, Stéphane;

    2011-01-01

    We have tested a microbial preparation with probiotic effects (PSI; Sorbial A/S DANISCO) on the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) development time and reproduction effectiveness in culture. The hypotheses were that PSI increases the productivity and quality of copepods in culture (increased egg...... production and hatching success, HS). This was carried out because the use of copepods as live prey in aquaculture could increase the number of fish successfully raised through their entire life cycle. However, the availability of copepods is limited by their difficulty to be effectively raised. Our results...... show that the addition of PSI to the algal food increased the individual size of the adult females and their egg production. The PSI, together with Rhodomonas salina, also increased the HS of the eggs produced by PSI-treated females. These effects were observed despite that the biochemical analysis of...

  18. Short term variations in feeding and metabolism of Acartia tonsa (pelagic copepod) in the Berre lagoon (France)

    Gaudy, R.; Pagano, M; Cervetto, G; Saintjean, L; Verriopoulos, G; Beker, B.

    1996-01-01

    Feeding, respiration, and ammonia excretion of Acartia tonsa were studied in a brackish lagoon, near Marseilles (Southern France). The experiments were performed during the same season in two successive years, using naturally occurring particles as food. Strong variations in both quantity and quality of food particles were recorded between the two series of experiments. The ingestion of particles according to their size was studied by means of the Coulter Counter technique. Females ingested m...

  19. The cultivation of Acartia tonsa Dana for use as a live food source for marine fish larvae

    Støttrup, Josianne; Richardson, Katherine; Kirkegaard, Eskild; Pihl, Niels Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    The marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa has been continuously cultivated in the laboratory at the Danish Institute for Fisheries and Marine Research for over 70 generations. A description of the cultivation procedures is presented in this paper. Adult copepods are maintained in 200–450-l tanks ...... and are fed the cryptophyte Rhodomonas baltica. The concentration of adult copepods is held between 50 and 100/l. Eggs are harvested daily and, on average, ca. 25 eggs are collected per female per day....

  20. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles.

    Zhou, C; Vitiello, V; Casals, E; Puntes, V F; Iamunno, F; Pellegrini, D; Changwen, W; Benvenuto, G; Buttino, I

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl2 and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the "sonicated experiment" (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the "non-sonicated experiment" (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50mgL(-1) and 1, 5 and 10mgL(-1) NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50mgL(-1) NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843nm after 48h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC50 values were similar for NON-SON (20.2mgL(-1)) and SON experiments (22.14mgL(-1)) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC50 of 7.45mgL(-1) and 6.97mgL(-1) for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl2 concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63mgL(-1), showed EC50 of 0.164 and 0.039mgL(-1), respectively. Overall, A. tonsa is more sensitive to NiCl2 than NiNPs with EC50 being one order of magnitude higher for NiNPs. Finally, we exposed adult copepods for 4 days to NiCl2 and NiNPs (chronic exposure) to study the effect on fecundity in terms of daily egg production and naupliar viability. Egg production is not affected by either form of nickel, whereas egg viability is significantly reduced by 0.025mgL(-1) NiCl2 and by 8.5mgL(-1) NiNPs. At NiNP concentration

  1. Climatic facilitation of the colonization of an estuary by Acartia tonsa.

    Chaalali, Aurélie; Beaugrand, Grégory; Raybaud, Virginie; Goberville, Eric; David, Valérie; Boët, Philippe; Sautour, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Global change has become a major driving force of both terrestrial and marine systems. Located at the interface between these two realms, estuarine ecosystems are probably the place where both direct and indirect effects of human activities conspire together to affect biodiversity from phytoplankton to top predators. Among European estuarine systems, the Gironde is the largest estuary of Western Europe and many studies have provided evidence that it has been affected by a variety of anthropogenic stressors such as thermal and chemical pollution, physical alterations and exploitation, especially for maritime traffic. In such a context, species introduction is also a current major issue with the establishment of strong competitive species that could lead to ecosystem reorganization with potential decrease or even disappearance of native species. In the Gironde estuary, this hypothesis was proposed for the invasive shrimp species Palaemon macrodactylus as a decrease in the native species abundance was observed at the same time. Although species introduction often takes place via ballast water, the influence of climate-driven changes on the establishment of new species remains a key issue. The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, observed in the Gironde estuary for the first time in 1983, have since colonized most part of the estuary, reaching a level of abundance comparable to the dominant native species Eurytemora affinis. In this study, using both the concept of the ecological niche sensu Hutchinson (fundamental and realized niches) and statistical models, we reveal that the dynamics of the colonization of A. tonsa was facilitated by environmental conditions that have become closer to its environmental optimum with respect to temperature and salinity. PMID:24098656

  2. Cold storage of Acartia tonsa eggs: a practical use in ecotoxicological studies.

    Vitiello, V; Zhou, C; Scuderi, A; Pellegrini, D; Buttino, I

    2016-07-01

    The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa has been recommended as a marine organism for ecotoxicological tests due to its wide distribution, short life cycle and high productivity. This species is used in acute and chronic toxicity tests to assess water and sediment quality; egg hatching success and the survival of the first larval stages are considered endpoints. Toxicity test protocols require a large number of organisms and an appropriate culture system. Eggs stored under conditions that delay hatching could ensure sufficient quantities of biological materials for ecotoxicological tests. In the current study early-spawned eggs were stored at 3 °C (±1) up to 240 days and their hatching success was evaluated on a monthly basis. Our results showed that the percentage of hatching success for eggs stored for 30 days was >80 % and decreased by about 8 % for every 20 days of storage, up to 120 days. A further increase of time in cold storage brought about a significant reduction, in statistical term, of hatching success compared with the control group (43.69 ± 22.19 %). Almost 50 % of eggs hatched or died during the cold storage period, with more than 80 % lost after periods longer than 150 days. To verify the suitability of stored eggs for toxicity test, 48 h acute tests were performed using nickel chloride as a referent toxicant. Eggs stored for 30, 60, 90 and 120 days gave EC50 values ranging from 0.130 to 0.221 mg L(-1), similar to the value recorded for early-spawned eggs, suggesting that these eggs can be used for ecotoxicological tests. Our results open new possibilities for a wider use of the Mediterranean strain of A. tonsa copepod for ecotoxicological tests. PMID:27106013

  3. Genetic responses of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) to heat shock and epibiont infestation

    Petkeviciute, Egle; Kania, Per Walter; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Expression of stress-related genes was investigated in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to heat shock at two different salinities (10 and 32‰), and it was furthermore investigated whether experimentally induced epibiont infestation led to elevated expression of stress-related genes....... Expression of the genes ferritin, Hsp90 and Hsp70 were analyzed in adult copepods by conducting reverse transcription-quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). The expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 was significantly up-regulated after heat shock and the expression levels were higher in copepods cultivated at 10......‰ salinity seawater than in copepods cultivated at 32‰. Significant up-regulation of ferritin (3.3 fold increase) was observed as a response to infestation with the epibiotic euglenid Colacium vesiculosum. Results suggest that (i) A. tonsa responds more pronounced to thermal shock when cultivated in low...

  4. Influence of two different green algal diets on specific dynamic action and incorporation of carbon into biochemical fractions in the copepod Acartia tonsa

    Thor, P.; Cervetto, G.; Besiktepe, S.;

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the two green algae Tetraselmis sp. (Prasinophyceae) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae) induce high and low egg production rates in Acartia tonsa. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate if this is attributable to differences in the specific....... Acartia tonsa incorporated relatively more carbon into proteins when feeding on T. impellucida than on D. tertiolecta. Since protein synthesis is energetically very demanding this is probably the reason for the higher SDA coefficient in those feeding on T. impellucida....

  5. Diet influence on egg production of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana, 1896

    Priscila F. Teixeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Egg production in the copepod Acartia tonsa was evaluated using different densities of the microalgae Thalassiosira weissflogii, Chaetoceros muelleri and Isochrysis galbana. Male and female were kept under controlled conditions (salinity 30, 20°C, photoperiod 12L:12D, acclimated to the experimental conditions and left over a period of 24 h to allow copulation. Algal densities tested were equivalent in biovolume and corresponded to 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60.10³ cells.mL-1 of T weissflogii. Ten acclimated female were separated, transferred to glass bottles and exposed for further 24 h to the corresponding experimental medium. After this period, the eggs were fixed and counted. Copepod egg production reached a threshold value when T weissflogii, C. muelleri and I. galbana were supplied at 10.10³, 140.10³ and 640.10³ cells.mL-1, respectively. Mean egg production corresponded to 28.0 ± 0.5, 20.1 ± 1.0 and 22.0 ± 3.5 eggs.female-1 .day-1, respectively. Copepods fed T weissflogii showed the highest mean egg production while those fed I. galbana reached a maximum egg production when the algae were supplied at a density two- to fourfold higher, considering the biovolume of T weissflogii and C. muelleri. These differences are explained considering the different sizes of the microalgae used to feed the copepods.A produção de ovos do copépode Acartia tonsa foi avaliada utilizando diferentes densidades das microalgas Thalassiosira weissflogii, Chaetoceros muelleri e Isochrysis galbana. Machos e fêmeas foram colocados sob condições controladas (salinidade 30, 20°C, fotoperíodo 12L:12D, aclimatados às condições experimentais e mantidos juntos por 24 h para permitir a copula. As densidades de algas foram equivalentes em biovolume e corresponderam a 0, 2,5, 5, 10, 20, 40 e 60,10³ células.mL-1 de T. weissflogii. Dez fêmeas aclimatadas foram separadas, transferidas para frascos de vidro e expostas por mais 24 h ao meio experimental

  6. Comparative oxygen consumption rates of subitaneous and delayed hatching eggs of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    nanorespirometry to monitor initial oxygen consumption rate of individual eggs of the ubiquitous neritic calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa to distinguish between subitaneous and DHE. We hypothesized that subitaneous eggs exhibit higher initial oxygen consumption rates than DHE, and that initial egg oxygen consumption...... rate is correlated to the time for the individual egg to hatch. Subitaneous eggs exhibited higher initial oxygen consumption rates than DHE and there were no pattern in initial oxygen consumption rates vs. time to hatch or die from the eggs. Variability in initial oxygen consumption rates within...... batches of both subitaneous and DHE, as well as between these egg types, is prevalent. There was a continuum from sluggish- to fast metabolising eggs considering initial oxygen consumption rates most likely reflecting phenotypic variation within cohorts. No matter the individual initial egg oxygen...

  7. Recirculating aquaculture system for high density production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    Vu, Minh Thi Thuy; Øie, Gunvor; Reinertsen, Helge

    . Both RAS and FTAS (3 replicates per system) were set up in the same room to ensure the equal condition. The initial densities of copepods were 20000 nauplii L-1 for investigation of growth and development in the early phase and 5000 ind L-1 in the copepodite and adult stages for testing reproduction...... similar survival, growth, and reproduction, yet the nauplii developed into copepodites faster in RAS (110h) compared to FTAS (158h). This can be an indication for the potential for culturing or maintaining A. tonsa nauplii and early copepodite stages at higher densities before feeding larvae of marine...... fish larvae. Yet, the biomass and egg production of A. tonsa has been limited mainly due to the challanges to culture them at high density. The development of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) in recent decades has opened a new culturing system that is expected to provide more stable environmental...

  8. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  9. Can we use laboratory reared copepods for experiments - a comparison of feeding behavior and reproduction between a field and a laboratory population of Acartia tonsa

    Tiselius, P.; Hansen, B.; Jonsson, P.;

    1995-01-01

    Motility patterns and egg production were investigated in two populations of Acartia tonsa, field animals from the Oresund and laboratory animals from a 12-year-old (approximate to 120 generations) culture. When observed in aquaria with a layer of Thalassiosira weissflogii in the middle, laboratory...... animals displayed weak aggregation behaviour, while field animals did not aggregate at all. Both populations made longer and more frequent feeding bouts inside the patch. Egg production measurements were in accordance with the behaviour of the laboratory population if no diel feeding rhythm was assumed....... The held population produced fewer eggs than predicted from activity measurements, probably due to a diel feeding rhythm. It is concluded that laboratory reared A. tonsa can be used for experiments involving behaviour, but that the possible loss of diel rhythms should be a concern. Both populations...

  10. Effects of copepod density and water exchange on the egg production of Acartia tonsa Dana (Copepoda: Calanoida) feeding on Rhodomonas baltica

    Salveson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the objective was to investigate the effect of different copepod densities and the water exchange rate day-1 on the egg production of Acartia tonsa feeding on Rhodomonas baltica. It was a main task to find the best conditions for a maximum egg production in a large scale production system. The egg production under 3 different copepod densities (5, 8-10 and 20-53 ind/ml) and with water exchange rates of 100 and 500 % day-1 were tested. In ad...

  11. Effects of methyltestosterone, letrozole, triphenyltin and fenarimol on histology of reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa.

    Watermann, Burkard T; Albanis, Triantafyllos A; Dagnac, Thierry; Gnass, Katarina; Ole Kusk, K; Sakkas, Vasilios A; Wollenberger, Leah

    2013-07-01

    The marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa was exposed to methyltestosterone (MET, 1.6-126 μg L(-1)), letrozole (LET, 10-1000 μg L(-1)), triphenyltin chloride (TPT, 0.0014-0.0088 μg L(-1) TPT-Sn) and fenarimol (FEN, 2.8-105 μg L(-1)) for 21 d covering a full life-cycle. All four compounds investigated are known to act as androgens in vertebrates. The digestive tract, musculature, nervous system, reproductive organs, gonad and accessory sexual glands were examined by light microscopy after routine staining and immune-labelling for detection of apoptosis and determination of proliferation activities. MET induced an inhibition of oogenesis, oocyte maturation and yolk formation, respectively, which was most pronounced at the lowest concentrations tested. In LET exposed males, spermatogenesis was enhanced with very prominent gamete stages; in some stages apoptosis occurred. The spermatophore was hypertrophied and displayed deformations. In females, LET induced a disorder of oogenesis and disturbances in yolk synthesis. TPT stimulated the male reproductive system at 0.0014 and 0.0035 μg TPT-SnL(-1), whereas inhibiting effects were observed in the female gonad at 0.0088 μg TPT-SnL(-1). In FEN exposed females proliferation of gametes was reduced and yolk formation showed irregular features at 2.8-105 μgL(-1). In FEN exposed males an elevated proliferation activity was observed. No pathological alterations in other organ systems, e.g. the digestive tract including the hindgut acting as respiratory organ, the nervous system, or the musculature were seen. This indicates that the effects on gonads might be caused rather by disturbance of endocrine signalling or interference with hormone metabolism than by general toxicity. PMID:23664474

  12. Effects of salinity on egg and fecal pellet production, development and survival, adult sex ratio and total life span in the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa: a laboratory study

    Shayegan, Majid; Esmaeili Fereidouni, Abolghasem; Agh, Naser; Jani Khalili, Khosrow

    2016-01-01

    The effects of salinity on the copepod, Acartia tonsa in terms of daily egg production rate (EPR), hatching success, fecal pellet production rate (FPR), naupliar development time and survival, sex ratio, and total life span were determined in laboratory conditions through three experiments. In experiment 1, EPR, hatching success, and FPR of individual females were monitored at salinities of 13, 20, 35 and 45 during short-periods (seven consecutive days). Results show EPR was affected by salinity with the highest outputs recorded at 20 and 35, respectively, which were considerably higher than those at 13 and 45. Mean FPR was also higher in 35 and 20. In experiment 2, the same parameters were evaluated over total life span of females (long-term study). The best EPR and FPR were observed in 35, which was statistically higher than at 13 and 20. In experiment 3, survival rates of early nauplii until adult stage were lowest at a salinity of 13. The development time increased with increasing of salinity. Female percentage clearly decreased with increasing salinity. Higher female percentages (56.7% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly observed at two salinities of 13 and 20 compared to that at 35 (25%). Total longevity of females was not affected by salinity increment. Based on our results, for mass culture we recommend that a salinity of 35 be adopted due to higher reproductive performances, better feeding, and faster development of A. tonsa.

  13. Effects of salinity on egg and fecal pellet production, development and survival, adult sex ratio and total life span in the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa: a laboratory study

    Shayegan, Majid; Esmaeili Fereidouni, Abolghasem; Agh, Naser; Jani Khalili, Khosrow

    2016-07-01

    The effects of salinity on the copepod, Acartia tonsa in terms of daily egg production rate (EPR), hatching success, fecal pellet production rate (FPR), naupliar development time and survival, sex ratio, and total life span were determined in laboratory conditions through three experiments. In experiment 1, EPR, hatching success, and FPR of individual females were monitored at salinities of 13, 20, 35 and 45 during short-periods (seven consecutive days). Results show EPR was affected by salinity with the highest outputs recorded at 20 and 35, respectively, which were considerably higher than those at 13 and 45. Mean FPR was also higher in 35 and 20. In experiment 2, the same parameters were evaluated over total life span of females (long-term study). The best EPR and FPR were observed in 35, which was statistically higher than at 13 and 20. In experiment 3, survival rates of early nauplii until adult stage were lowest at a salinity of 13. The development time increased with increasing of salinity. Female percentage clearly decreased with increasing salinity. Higher female percentages (56.7% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly observed at two salinities of 13 and 20 compared to that at 35 (25%). Total longevity of females was not affected by salinity increment. Based on our results, for mass culture we recommend that a salinity of 35 be adopted due to higher reproductive performances, better feeding, and faster development of A. tonsa.

  14. Influence of algal diet on feeding and egg-production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    Støttrup, Josianne; Jensen, Johanne

    1990-01-01

    Grun. Feeding and egg-production in A. tonsa was shown to be influenced by the size, quantity and quality of the food particles. The small I. galbana (4.8 μm) were inefficiently retained by A. tonsa and maximum ingestion rates on this species were first obtained at algal concentrations s> 1 μg C · ml−1....... However, the highest maximum rate of egg-production was obtained when feeding on this algal species with gross efficiencies of 22 and 38% in terms of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Egg-production in A. tonsa ceased entirely within 4 days of feeding on a sole diet of D. tertiolecta. D. tertiolecta is...

  15. Improving cold storage of subitaneous eggs of the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida, USA)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Lindley, L.C.; Michels, A.;

    2007-01-01

    . We consider that the use of antibiotics at the right dosage to be a means to increase the storage capacity of the Gulf of Mexico strain of A. tonsa eggs, which do not show any capacity to be stored for long periods of time, compared with some other strains. In addition eggs that were between 5 and 7...

  16. Acartia tonsa eggs as a biomonitor to evaluate bioavailability/toxicity of persistent contaminants in anoxic/sulfidic conditions: The case of cadmium and nickel.

    Sei, Sandra; Invidia, Marion; Giannetto, Marco; Gorbi, Gessica

    2016-10-01

    The evaluation of toxicity due to persistent pollutants in anoxic aquatic environments has met with various problems, as most test organisms can not withstand oxygen lack and exposure to free sulfide. We evaluated the suitability of the eggs of the brackish copepod Acartia tonsa for bioassays in anoxic/sulfidic conditions: when exposed to deep hypoxia and free sulfide, the eggs become quiescent and are able to resume hatching after restoring normoxic conditions. Tests with cadmium and nickel were performed in normoxic and deeply hypoxic conditions and in anoxic water containing H2S or H2S+FeSO4 on an equimolar basis. Active and quiescent eggs showed equivalent sensitivity to the metals, both suffering significant reductions in hatching success at 89μM Cd and 17μM Ni. As expected on the basis of the SEM/AVS model, Cd toxicity was almost completely suppressed in presence of sulfides. Dissolved Cd concentration drastically dropped and hatching success was generally >80%, as against values contaminants in anoxic conditions and the role of sulfides in reducing metal bioavailability/toxicity. PMID:27235834

  17. The fate of lipids during development and cold-storage of eggs in the laboratory-reared calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa Dana, and in response to different algal diets

    Støttrup, Josianne; Bell, J.G.; Sargent, J.R.

    The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa was sampled throughout one generation to examine the fate of lipids during development in culture. Effects of dietary input were examined by feeding A. tonsa for at least one generation with specific monoalgal cultures. Four different algae were tested: the...... cryptophyte Rhodomonas baltica, the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana clone T- iso, the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra. Further, the effect of cold storage of eggs on the lipid composition of the newly hatched nauplii was examined. During development, the fatty acid...... acids can be influenced by the dietary input. The highest ratio of 22:6n - 3/20:5n - 3 was achieved using H, triquetra or I. galbana. Higher levels of 20:5n - 3 were achieved by feeding with R. baltica or T. weissflogii. I. galbana and T. weissflogii were particularly suitable for increasing levels of...

  18. Effects of copepod density and water exchange on the egg production of Acartia tonsa Dana (Copepoda: Calanoida) feeding on Rhodomonas baltica

    Salveson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the objective was to investigate the effect of different copepod densities and the water exchange rate day-1 on the egg production of Acartia tonsa feeding on Rhodomonas baltica. It was a main task to find the best conditions for a maximum egg production in a large scale production system. The egg production under 3 different copepod densities (5, 8-10 and 20-53 ind/ml) and with water exchange rates of 100 and 500 % day-1 were tested. In ad...

  19. A comprehensive and precise quantification of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) for intensive live feed cultures using an automated ZooImage system

    Vu, Minh Thi Thuy; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2014-01-01

    ignored. In this study, we propose a novel method for highly precise classification of development stages and biomass of A. tonsa, in intensive live feed cultures, using an automated ZooImage system, a freeware image analysis. We successfully created a training set of 13 categories, including 7 copepod...... and 6 non-copepod (debris) groups. ZooImage used this training set for automatic discrimination through a random forest algorithm with the general accuracy of 92.8%. The ZooImage showed no significant difference in classifying solitary eggs, or mixed nauplii stages and copepodites compared to personal...... microscope observation. Furthermore, ZooImage was also adapted for automatic estimation of A. tonsa biomass. This is the first study that has successfully applied ZooImage software which enables fast and reliable quantification of the development stages and the biomass of A. tonsa. As a result, relevant...

  20. Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Avdolli, Manola; Wollenberger, Leah

    2011-01-01

    -stage development study. Since developmental endpoints depend on environmental conditions, a preceding study of A. tonsa development was performed at three temperatures, four salinities, four light:dark regimes, six food densities, and four culture densities. Times elapsed until 50% of the population had reached a...... copepodite stage (DT(½) ) at the different conditions were calculated. The DT(½) values decreased from 296 h at 15°C to 89 h at 25°C and were also affected by salinity (126 h at 15‰ and 167 h at 30‰), whereas the light:dark regime and culture density influenced development only to a minor extent. BP1 was...

  1. Dynamics of the Acartia genus (Calanoida: Copepoda) in a temperate shallow estuary (the Mondego estuary) on the western coast of Portugal

    Azeiterio, Ulisses Miranda; Maques, Sónia Cotrim; Viera, Luís Miguel Russo; Pastorinho, Manuel Ramiro Dias; Ré, Pedro Alfaia Barcia; Pereira, Mário Jorge; Morgado, Fernando Manuel Raposo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to review the dynamics of the Acartia species in the Mondego estuary (a temperate North-Atlantic shallow estuary in Western Portugal) in a genus integrated perspective. The Acartia genus is represented in the system by the species Acartia clausi and Acartia tonsa; the samples were taken between July 1999 and June 2000, with 63 and 125 µm mesh size nets, and between January 2003 and January 2004, with a 335 µm mesh size net, in the downstream and upstream areas of ...

  2. Hydrodynamic signal perception in the copepod Acartia tonsa

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Saiz, E.; Visser, Andre

    1999-01-01

    Copepods may remotely detect predators from the velocity gradients these generate in the ambient water. Each of the different components and characteristics of a velocity gradient (acceleration, vorticity, longitudinal and shear deformation) can cause a velocity difference between the copepod and...... such threshold deformation rates are just sufficient to allow efficient predator detection while at the same time just below maximum turbulent deformation rates, thus preventing inordinate escapes....

  3. DMSP-consuming bacteria associated with the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    Tang, K.W.; Visscher, P.T.; Dam, H.G.

    2001-01-01

    efficiency was 25- 41% for DCB from copepod body, and 99% for DCB from fecal pellets. Our study demonstrated that copepods and their fecal pellets may harbour dense populations of DCB, and that the copepod-bacteria coupling represents a novel mechanism for DMSP consumption in the water column. (C) 2001...

  4. Recent advances within intensive Recirculated Aquaculture System cultivation of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Højgaard, Jacob Kring; Drillet, Guillaume;

    2014-01-01

    interesting trait with the species is that the eggs can be provoked into a resting stage, where the egg can be stored for one year, similar to Artemia cysts. This is the most promising storage technique for distribution of copepod eggs to aquaculture facilities worldwide. The eggs can be hatched and the...... nauplii can be feed to marine fish larvae. A restriction is that copepod cultures for producing eggs are after 30 years of research still not stable and in large enough scale for bulk production of eggs. Recently a unique copepod Recirculated Aquaculture System (RAS) at Roskilde University (Denmark) was...... constructed as a part of the IMPAQ project “IMProvement of AQuaculture high quality fish fry production”. We present recent advance within RAS culture for copepods, and lesson learned from rearing the specie. Further we present physical and biological culture restrictions in terms of water quality (NH3...

  5. Inhibition of larval development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa by four synthetic musk substances

    Wollenberger, Leah; Breitholtz, M.; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Bengtsson, B.-E.

    synthetic musks, for which there is little published ecotoxicological information available regarding Crustacea. It is suggested that subchronic and chronic copepod toxicity tests should be used more frequently for risk assessment of environmental pollutants. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights...

  6. Comparison of fatty acid profiles in Acartia tonsa nauplii after grazing on five different Rhodomonas strains

    Hansen, Aske; Thomasen, Rasmus Edin; Ganes, Mikkel Coff

    2015-01-01

    Breeding of fish species is a growing industry, since humans need the fatty acids that the fishes provide. We have known this since the 1930, when the couple Burr published two articles that changed the field of nutritional biology for good, setting in stone that fatty acids are important for the health of humans as well as other living organisms. As humans we get our fatty acids mostly from fishes, which is why this industry is in such growth. The fishes need their fatty acids from their ...

  7. A parameter for detecting estrogenic exposure in the copepod Acartia tonsa

    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    1999-01-01

    estrogenic than 17 beta-estradiol, the nonestrogen 2,3-dichlorophenole was tested at 13.6 mu g/L (molar concentration equal to 23 mu g/L 17 beta-estradiol) to test if the response is a general nonestrogenic toxic stress effect. The 2,3-dichlorophenole produced no effect. (C) 1999 Academic Press....

  8. Effects of methyltestosterone, letrozole, triphenyltin and fenarimol on histology of reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    Watermann, Burkard T.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.; Dagnac, Thierry;

    2013-01-01

    and displayed deformations. In females, LET induced a disorder of oogenesis and disturbances in yolk synthesis. TPT stimulated the male reproductive system at 0.0014 and 0.0035μg TPT-SnL−1, whereas inhibiting effects were observed in the female gonad at 0.0088μg TPT-SnL−1. In FEN exposed females proliferation......, or the musculature were seen. This indicates that the effects on gonads might be caused rather by disturbance of endocrine signalling or interference with hormone metabolism than by general toxicity....

  9. Tolerance of un-ionized ammonia in live feed cultures of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Andersen, Claus V. B.; Schjelde, Johannes; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2015-01-01

    Optimal water quality is considered as being a restriction for marine copepod cultures for live feed. There is a lack of knowledge on the water-quality conditions in copepod cultures and the effect on copepods. Few studies have investigated the effect of ammonia on copepods, and fewer reports No ...

  10. Food size spectra, ingestion and growth of the copepod Acartia tonsa during development: implications for the determination of copepod production

    Berggren, U.; Hansen, B.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    g C l-1 ofRhodomonas baltica). The lower size limit for particle capture was between 2 and 4 m for all developmental stages. Optimum particle size and upper size limit increased during development from 7 m and 10 to 14 m for NII to NIII to 14 to 70 m and 250 m for adults, respectively. When food...

  11. A new egg type from the marine live feed calanoid copepo Acartia tonsa (Dana) - Perspectives for selective breeding of designer feed for hatcheries

    Halsen Hammervold, Stian; Glud, Ronnie N.; Evjemo, Jan Ove;

    2015-01-01

    . The next generations' eggs were not as large as the ones they originated from suggesting that the rare large eggs represent a maternal effect. The large size eggs do however pose an interesting selection potential for designing large species-specific live feed products in aquaculture...

  12. Effect of heterotrophic versus autotrophic food on feeding and reproduction of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa : relationship with prey fatty acid composition

    Broglio, E.; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Calbet, A.; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Saiz, E.

    2003-01-01

    ) and ingestion rates, or as the quotient: EPR/ingestion rate. The diets, offered in monoculture, were the heterotrophic ciliates Strombidium sulcatum or Mesodinium pulex, the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium dominans, the autotrophic cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina and the autotrophic...

  13. Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin esters in the copepod Acartia bifilosa (Copepoda, Calanoida) during ontogenetic development

    Maria £otocka; Ewa Styczynska-Jurewicz

    2001-01-01

    The contents of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin esters were studied in natural populations of the copepod Acartia bifilosa from the Pomeranian Bay and Gulf of Gdansk in the southern Baltic Sea. Samples dominated by any one of three developmental groups: (1) nauplii, (2) copepodids I-III and (3) copepodids IV-V and adults of Acartia bifilosa were analysed by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). As ontogenetic development progressed, significant changes occurre...

  14. Population genetics of drifting (Calanus spp.) and resident (Acartia clausi) plankton in Norwegian fjords

    Bucklin, A.; Kaartvedt, S.; Guarnieri, M.; Goswami, U.

    isolation and restricted gene flow (Wright, 1969). Conversely, genetic homogenization of the species’ population reflects high rates of exchange among populations. We have used population genetic analysis to provide some insight into the degree to which... genetics of drifting (Calanus spp.) and resident (Acartia clausi) plankton in Norwegian fjords A.Bucklin 1,2 , S.Kaartvedt 3 , M.Guarnieri 1 and U.Goswami 4 1 Ocean Process Analysis Laboratory and 2 Department of Zoology, University of New Hampshire...

  15. Brine Distribution after Vacuum Saturation

    Hedegaard, Kathrine; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with the vacuum saturation method for brine in plugs of chalk showed that a homogeneous distribution of brine cannot be ensured at saturations below 20% volume. Instead of a homogeneous volume distribution the brine becomes concentrated close to the surfaces of the plugs......Experiments with the vacuum saturation method for brine in plugs of chalk showed that a homogeneous distribution of brine cannot be ensured at saturations below 20% volume. Instead of a homogeneous volume distribution the brine becomes concentrated close to the surfaces of the plugs...

  16. Silica in alkaline brines

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  17. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  18. Soil washing for brine removal

    During the exploration for oil and thereafter, brine transfer lines get ruptured releasing the brine which contaminates the surrounding soil. The salinity level in brine is very high, sometimes approaching or exceeding that of sea water. Soils contaminated with brine are unproductive and unsuitable for plant growth. Several investigators have documented the pollution of surface water and groundwater due to brine disposal from oil and needed to clean up such sites. The objective of this study is to develop a soil washing technique that can be used to remove brine sites were collected and used in the study. This paper reports on results which indicate that soil washing using various surface active agents is effective in removing the brine

  19. A new large egg type from the marine live feed calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) – Perspectives for selective breeding of designer feed for hatcheries

    Halsen Hammarvold, Stian; Glud, Ronnie N.; Evjemo, Jan Ove;

    2015-01-01

    . The next generations' eggswere not as large as the ones they originated from suggesting that the rare large eggs represent a maternal effect. The large size eggs do however pose an interesting selection potential for designing large species-specific live feed products in aquaculture....

  20. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) Phase II Report is an interim report which updates the data released in the BSEP Phase I Report. Direct measurements and observations of the brine that seeps into the WIPP repository excavations were continued through the period between August 1986 and July 1987. That data is included in Appendix A, which extends the observation period for some locations to approximately 900 days. Brine observations at 87 locations are presented in this report. Although WIPP underground workings are considered ''dry,'' small amounts of brine are present. Part of that brine migrates into the repository in response to pressure gradients at essentially isothermal conditions. The data presented in this report is a continuation of moisture content studies of the WIPP facility horizon that were initiated in 1982, as soon as underground drifts began to be excavated. Brine seepages are manifested by salt efflorescences, moist areas, and fluid accumulations in drillholes. 35 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Gonad morphology, oocyte development and spawning cycle of the calanoid copepod Acartia clausi

    Eisfeld, Sonja M.; Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    Information on gonad morphology and its relation to basic reproductive parameters such as clutch size and spawning frequency is lacking for Acartia clausi, a dominant calanoid copepod of the North Sea. To fill this gap, females of this species were sampled at Helgoland Roads from mid March to late May 2001. Gonad structure and oogenesis were studied using a combination of histology and whole-body-analysis. In addition, clutch size and spawning frequency were determined in incubation experiments, during which individual females were monitored at short intervals for 8 and 12 h, respectively. The histological analysis revealed that the ovary of A. clausi is w-shaped with two distinct tips pointing posteriorly. It is slightly different from that of other Acartia species and of other copepod taxa. From the ovary, two anterior diverticula extend into the head region, and two posterior diverticula extend to the genital opening in the abdomen. Developing oocytes change in shape and size, and in the appearance of the nucleus and the ooplasm. Based on these morphological characteristics, different oocyte development stages (OS) were identified. Mitotically dividing oogonia and young oocytes (OS 0) were restricted to the ovary, whereas vitellogenic oocytes (OS 1 4) were present in the diverticula. The development stage of the oocytes increased with distance to the ovary in both, anterior and posterior diverticula. Most advanced oocytes were situated ventrally, and their number varied between 1 and 18, at a median of 4. All oocyte development stages co-occur indicating that oogenesis in A. clausi is a continuous process. These morphological features reflect the reproductive traits of this species. In accordance with the low numbers of mature oocytes in the gonads, females usually produced small clutches of one to five eggs. Clutches were released throughout the entire observation period at intervals of 90 min (median) resulting in mean egg production rates of 18 28 eggs female

  2. Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin esters in the copepod Acartia bifilosa (Copepoda, Calanoida during ontogenetic development

    Maria £otocka

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin esters were studied in natural populations of the copepod Acartia bifilosa from the Pomeranian Bay and Gulf of Gdansk in the southern Baltic Sea. Samples dominated by any one of three developmental groups: (1 nauplii, (2 copepodids I-III and (3 copepodids IV-V and adults of Acartia bifilosa were analysed by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. As ontogenetic development progressed, significant changes occurred in the proportion of particular pigments in the total pigment pool of the various developmental groups. Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin occurred in all the groups, the former being clearly dominant. However, an increasing percentage of astaxanthin esters was recorded in the copepodids I-III, and even more in the copepodids IV-V and adults group. Most probably, astaxanthin is the main pigment active in copepod lipid metabolism. Carotenoid pigments in copepods very likely act as efficient free-electron quenchers and may be involved as antioxidants in rapid lipid metabolism. The exogenously feeding stages (late nauplii and copepodids transform plant carotenoids taken from food and are evidently capable of metabolising astaxanthin by esterification and further degradation. It is emphasised that, according to literature data, astaxanthin esters may have an even higher quenching ability. It is suggested that crustacean carotenoid pigments, with their electron donor-acceptor abilities, may replace oxygen in peroxidation processes connected with lipid metabolism. The consequences of such a physiological role of astaxanthin for present-day estimations of energy balances in zooplankton communities are mentioned.

  3. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  4. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  5. SURFACE CONTAINMENT FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINES

    This report examines the probability of significant releases of geothermal brine to the surface environment through unplanned or accidental events. It then evaluates the containment measures that may be used to prevent environmental damage. The results indicate that major spills ...

  6. Reduction of recruitment of Acartia pacifica nauplii from benthic resting eggs due to organochlorine pesticides

    JIANG Xiao-dong; WANG Gui-zhong; LI Shao-jing

    2006-01-01

    Many estuarine and coastal planktonic copepods depend on the hatching of benthic resting eggs for recruitment of nauplii to the water column population. The potential effects of two organochlorine pesticides, hexchloriobinzene (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), on the recruitment of Acartia pacifica nauplii from benthic resting eggs in the seabed of Xiamen Bay were experimentally investigated. The abundance of A. pacifica nauplii hatched from the sediment significantly decreased with the increase of pesticide concentration. Trimmed Spearman-Karber analysis gave sediment 96-h LC50 values were84.81 ng/g for HCH, and 157.94 ng/g for DDT. The median AI (AI50) was -0.77, which suggested that the combined effect of HCH and DDT showed a weak effect than individual effects. There was a positive relationship between mortality and exposure time in DDT treatment, while the relationship was not significant in HCH treatment. The results suggest that organochlorine pesticides can reduce recruitment ofA. pacifica nauplii from benthic resting eggs to planktonic population.

  7. Energy storage in evaporated brine

    MacDonald, R. Ian

    2010-09-15

    We propose storage of electrical energy in brine solutions by using the energy to enhance natural evaporation. Using properties of existing industrial evaporation technologies and estimates of power regeneration from brine by pressure retarded osmosis, efficiency near 100% is calculated. Modelling indicates that systems ranging from 50kW to 50MW output may be practical, with storage capacities of hours to days. The method appears to have potential to be economically competitive with other technologies over a wide range of capacity. It may present a large new application area that could aid the development of salinity-based power generation technology.

  8. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  9. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  10. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry

  11. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  12. The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke

    Johnson, Brennan; Garrity, Deborah; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the begin...

  13. Denitrification of Spent Regenerated Brine Using Molasses

    Tepuš, Brigita; Simonič, Marjana; Petrovič, Aleksandra; Filipič, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Spent BRINE from the regeneration of exhausted resins has to be properly treated before its disposal. The heterotrophic denitrification of regenerated brine was studied in present work. Molasses which served as a carbon source has until now not been applied during brine denitrification. The nitrate and nitrite consumptions were observed according to different ratios between total organic carbon and nitrate (TOC / NO3 ratios) and the influence of NaCl was studied during batch experiments. ...

  14. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to life support consumables. The project assessed the use of ion-exchange resins to selectively remove salts from wastewater treatment brines. The resins were then regenerated for additional use. The intention would be to generate a Na/K and CI rich or purified brine that would then be processed into high value chemicals, such as acids, bases, and/or bleach.

  15. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  16. Origin of the yellow brine and the black brine in Sichuan Basin

    The spring water, geothermal water and Cretaceous brine in the outer zone of the Sichuan Basin has the Craig relationship, and they are cycling waters. The brine in the inner zone is mainly metasedimentary water. A basic feature of them is poor in 2H, but rich in 18O. The δD-values of the yellow brine in Jurassic and Upper Triassic aquifer of continental facies varies from -62.25 to -22.4, and the δ18O-values are -6.72 - +6.02. The δD-values of the black brine in marine aquifer (T2,T1,P,C,O and so on) varies from -49 to -25.1, and the 18O values are +3.89 - +6.14. The δD of yellow brine is similar to that of meteoric water, and the δD of the black brine is around that of crystallization water expelled from gypsum by anhydritization. Increases of salinity in Jurassic yellow brine result primarily from the evapotranspiration process. The salinity in Upper Triassic yellow brine in Aa sub-area originated from underlying rock salt which was leached by paleometeoric water. Triassic black brine derived from the mixing of the crystallization water leached from rock salt with the residual sea water after salt crystallization. In Zhigong, the composition of yellow brine has mainly been changed by the mixing of the yellow brine with the black brine. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  17. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  18. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  19. Effect of Brine Solution Containing Ginger Extracts on the Properties of Egyptian White Brined Cheese

    M. Abd El-Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the physico-chemicals properties of white cheese pickled in brine solution containing ginger extracts. After cows milk coagulation and whey drained, fresh white cheese block was cut and divided into 3 equal portions. The first portion covered with 16.0% brine aqueous ginger extract and the second portion was covered with 16.0% brine ethanol ginger extract. The later was covered with 16.0% plain brine serves as a control. All white brined cheese treatments were stored at 5±2°C for the ripening period of 60 days. The results revealed that brine solution containing aqueous ginger extract or ethanol ginger extract enhances the growth of starter culture, protein proteolysis (WSN/TN, total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs, oxidative stability (reduced TBA and sensory properties of white brined cheese compared with control cheese. In addition, brine solution containing aqueous ginger extract or ethanol ginger extract caused an increase in reddish and yellowish color degree and decrease in hardness of white cheese. However, most of these observations were more pronounced in white cheese pickled in brine aqueous ginger extract compared with that pickled in brine ethanol ginger extract; the differences were not significant.

  20. The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke

    Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

  1. Effects of high CO2 seawater on the copepod (Acartia tsuensis) through all life stages and subsequent generations

    We studied the effects of exposure to seawater equilibrated with CO2-enriched air (CO2 2380 ppm) from eggs to maturity and over two subsequent generations on the copepod Acartia tsuensis. Compared to the control (CO2 380 ppm), high CO2 exposure through all life stages of the 1st generation copepods did not significantly affect survival, body size or developmental speed. Egg production and hatching rates were also not significantly different between the initial generation of females exposed to high CO2 and the 1st and 2nd generation females developed from eggs to maturity in high CO2. Thus, the copepods appear more tolerant to increased CO2 than other marine organisms previously investigated for CO2 tolerance (i.e., sea urchins and bivalves). However, the crucial importance of copepods in marine ecosystems requires thorough evaluation of the overall impacts of marine environmental changes predicted to occur with increased CO2 concentrations, i.e., increased temperature, enhanced UV irradiation, and changes in the community structure and nutritional value of phytoplankton

  2. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  3. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    Bolet, Lars

    of interpreting this information. The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. Major challenges in the process have been to verify the higher quality...... of the nozzles spread pattern, to ensure maximum utilization of volume of brine carried by the spreading vehicles and to control the mixing of brine without getting stratification in the mixture. Moreover, of course, to ensure political approval of abandoning a well-served technology and to organize...

  4. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA): A New Approach to Recovering Water from Wastewater Brines

    Pensinger, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Brine water recovery represents a current technology gap in water recycling for human spaceflight. The role of a brine processor is to take the concentrated discharge from a primary wastewater processor, called brine, and recover most of the remaining water from it. The current state-of-the-art primary processor is the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) that currently achieves 70% water recovery. Recent advancements in chemical pretreatments are expected to increase this to 85% in the near future. This is a welcome improvement, yet is still not high enough for deep space transit. Mission architecture studies indicate that at least 95% is necessary for a Mars mission, as an example. Brine water recovery is the technology that bridges the gap between 85% and 95%, and moves life support systems one step closer to full closure of the water loop. Several brine water recovery systems have been proposed for human spaceflight, most of them focused on solving two major problems: operation in a weightless environment, and management and containment of brine residual. Brine residual is the leftover byproduct of the brine recovery process, and is often a viscous, sticky paste, laden with crystallized solid particles. Due to the chemical pretreatments added to wastewater prior to distillation in a primary processor, these residuals are typically toxic, which further complicates matters. Isolation of crewmembers from these hazardous materials is paramount. The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) is a recently developed concept from the Johnson Space Center that offers solutions to these challenges. CoBRA is centered on a softgoods evaporator that enables a passive fill with brine, and regeneration by discharging liquid brine residual to a collection bag. This evaporator is meant to be lightweight, which allows it to be discarded along with the accumulated brine solids contained within it. This paper discusses design and development of a first CoBRA prototype, and reports

  5. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions....

  6. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for extended missions. It is...

  7. Echinoderms as indicators of brine discharge impacts

    Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; González-Correa, José Miguel; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Echinoderms are osmoconformer organisms and are expected to be very sensitive to brine discharges. The objective of this study is to examine the use of echinoderms as early warning indicators of the impact of brine discharges and its application in the management of desalination discharges. We sampled using visual census along transect lines, for nine consecutive years and in three different stations, i.e. before the seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant began operating and thereafter. ...

  8. Grazer-induced chain lenght plasticity reduces grazing risk in a marine diatom

    Bergkvist, Johanna; Thor, Peter; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Wängberg, Sten-Åke; Selander, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We show that Skeletonema marinoi suppresses chain formation in response to copepod cues. The presence of three different copepod species (Acartia tonsa, Centropages hamatus, or Temora longicornis) significantly reduced chain length. Furthermore, chain length was significantly reduced when S. mari...

  9. Comparison of brines relevant to nuclear waste experimentation

    The ionic compositions of 18 brines used in nuclear waste-related laboratory tests or obtained from field tests are described and compared. Also described are the origin of each brine, its predominant use for laboratory testing, and its relavancy for future testing. The brines include Brines A and B (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)/generic), Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) Composite Permian Brine P and Equilibrated Permian P No. 2, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)-Sandia High-Level Waste (HLW) package interactions test brines (flow and downhole), ERDA-6 brines (flow and downhole), WIPP Inclusions No. 1 and No. 2, Materials Characterization Center (MCC) brine, German quinare Brine Q, US Geological Survey bittern NBT-6a, saturated NaCl (200 and 1000C), and standard seawater

  10. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  11. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

    1998-09-20

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  12. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

    1998-08-01

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  13. Calcite solubility in simulated geothermal brines

    Pool, K.H.; Raney, P.J.; Shannon, D.W.

    1987-02-01

    The deposition of scale on geothermal piping surfaces has been recognized as a cause of increased pressure drop and diminished fluid flow. The two most common scales encountered in the geothermal energy field are silica and calcite. The main purpose of this study was to obtain accurate, reliable calcite solubility data in brines similar to natural geothermal brines over the temperature range of most known exploitable geothermal resources. In addition, geothermal fluid equilibrium modeling efforts and data bases can be refined and fine-turned with respect to the commercially important calcite-geothermal fluid stability problem with these data. The effect of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the solubility of CaCO/sub 3/ (calcite) in high temperature solutions was measured over the 100 to 300/sup 0/C temperature range. The brines studied contained 0 to 5 wt % NaCl, 0 to 5 mM NaHCO/sub 3/, and 0.003 to 0.1 M CO/sub 2/. The data detailing calcite solubility at various temperatures are presented in tabular, graphical, and regression-equation form for each brine composition tested.

  14. Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems

    Pales, Ashley; Kinsey, Erin; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems Ashley R. Pales, Erin Kinsey, Chunyan Li, Linlin Mu, Lingyun Bai, Heather Clifford, and Christophe J. G. Darnault Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Laboratory of Hydrogeoscience and Biological Engineering, L.G. Rich Environmental Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Nanofluids are suspensions of nanometer sized particles in any fluid base, where the nanoparticles effect the properties of the fluid base. Commonly, nanofluids are water based, however, other bases such as ethylene-glycol, glycerol, and propylene-glycol, have been researched to understand the rheological properties of the nanofluids. This work aims to understand the fundamental rheological properties of silica nanoparticles in brine based and brine-surfactant based nanofluids with temperature variations. This was done by using variable weight percent of silica nanoparticles from 0.001% to 0.1%. Five percent brine was used to create the brine based nanofluids; and 5% brine with 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant (Sigma-Aldrich) was used to create the brine-surfactant nanofluid. Rheological behaviors, such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity, were compared between these nanofluids at 20C and at 60C across the varied nanoparticle wt%. The goal of this work is to provide a fundamental basis for future applied testing for enhanced oil recovery. It is hypothesized that the addition of surfactant will have a positive impact on nanofluid properties that will be useful for enhance oil recovery. Differences have been observed in preliminary data analysis of the rheological properties between these two nanofluids indicating that the surfactant is having the hypothesized effect.

  15. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  16. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    S. B. Joye

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, two thermoclines were observed, one directly below the brine-seawater interface and a second about one meter below the first. At the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being either slightly (~2°C in 1997 or substantially (19°C in 1998 elevated above bottom water temperature. Geochemical samples were obtained using a device called the "brine trapper" and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined using standard techniques. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggests that the fluids are derived from different sources or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano than the brine pool. Substantial concentrations of methane and ammonium were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of methane and dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the surrounding environment.

  18. Evolution of hydrologic systems and brine geochemistry in a deforming salt medium: Data from WIPP brine seeps

    Deal, D.E. (I. T. Corp., Carlsbad, NM (USA)); Roggenthen, W.M. (South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (USA). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) is a formalized continuation of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program. The program was established in 1985. The mission was to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and the seepage of that brine into the WIPP excavations. This document focuses on the cumulative data obtained from the BSEP. The overall activities of the BSEP described and quantified the brine. It includes documentation and study of brine inflow into boreholes in the facility. The BSEP investigated the occurrence and development of brine weeps, crusts, and brine geochemistry. The presence of salt-tolerant bacteria in the workings was recorded and their possible interactions with experiments and operations, was assessed. The formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine was characterized. The determination of formation properties included the water content of various geologic units, direct examination of these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measurement of electrical properties relatable to the brine contents. Modeling examined the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and the flow of brine through the deforming rocks. 34 refs.

  19. Evolution of hydrologic systems and brine geochemistry in a deforming salt medium: Data from WIPP brine seeps

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) is a formalized continuation of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program. The program was established in 1985. The mission was to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and the seepage of that brine into the WIPP excavations. This document focuses on the cumulative data obtained from the BSEP. The overall activities of the BSEP described and quantified the brine. It includes documentation and study of brine inflow into boreholes in the facility. The BSEP investigated the occurrence and development of brine weeps, crusts, and brine geochemistry. The presence of salt-tolerant bacteria in the workings was recorded and their possible interactions with experiments and operations, was assessed. The formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine was characterized. The determination of formation properties included the water content of various geologic units, direct examination of these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measurement of electrical properties relatable to the brine contents. Modeling examined the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and the flow of brine through the deforming rocks. 34 refs

  20. OUT Success Stories: Chemical Treatments for Geothermal Brines

    DOE research helped develop the large, untapped geothermal resource beneath the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. The very hot brines under high pressure make them excellent for electric power production. The brines are very corrosive and contain high concentrations of dissolved silica. DOE worked with San Diego Gas and Electric Company to find a solution to the silica-scaling problem. This innovative brine treatment eliminated scaling and made possible the development of the Salton Sea geothermal resource

  1. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    Joye, S. B.; Macdonald, I. R.; Montoya, J. P.; Peccini, M.

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom w...

  2. Geophysical and geochemical signatures of Gulf of Mexico seafloor brines

    S. B. Joye

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical, temperature, and discrete depth-stratified geochemical data illustrate differences between an actively venting mud volcano and a relatively quiescent brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico along the continental slope. Geophysical data, including laser-line scan mosaics and sub-bottom profiles, document the dynamic nature of both environments. Temperature profiles, obtained by lowering a CTD into the brine fluid, show that the venting brine was at least 10°C warmer than the bottom water. At the brine pool, thermal stratification was observed and only small differences in stratification were documented between three sampling times (1991, 1997 and 1998. In contrast, at the mud volcano, substantial temperature variability was observed, with the core brine temperature being slightly higher than bottom water (by 2°C in 1997 but substantially higher than bottom water (by 19°C in 1998. Detailed geochemical samples were obtained in 2002 using a device called the 'brine trapper' and concentrations of dissolved gases, major ions and nutrients were determined. Both brines contained about four times as much salt as seawater and steep concentration gradients of dissolved ions and nutrients versus brine depth were apparent. Differences in the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and potassium between the two brine fluids suggest that the fluids are derived from different sources, have different dilution/mixing histories, or that brine-sediment reactions are more important at the mud volcano. Substantial concentrations of methane, ammonium, and silicate were observed in both brines, suggesting that fluids expelled from deep ocean brines are important sources of these constituents to the surrounding environment.

  3. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; Howard, Kevin; Harris, Linden; Parodi, Jurek; Kawashima, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  4. Modeling of brine migration in halite

    Four different models of the migration process have been reviewed to determine their suitability as a working model. While there are several common factors in the models additional factors are included to account for several possible effects. The detail of each model leads to a certain degree of difficulty in applying the model to the problem at hand. One model predicts that inclusions smaller than 0.1 mm dimension probably will not migrate. The other models do not consider size as a factor. Thermal diffusion (Soret effect) is considered insignificant in three models, while in the fourth model it is added to the concentration diffusion term. The following conclusions are made: (1) Temperature is the most significant parameter in all models and must be known as a function of time, and distance from the canister. (2) All four models predict about the same migration velocity for a given set of conditions. For 1000C and 10C/cm thermal gradient, the individual values are 3.0, 4.8, 5.6 and 6.4 mm/y. (3) The diffusion of ions through the brine inclusions is the rate controlling mechanism. (4) The difference between the thermal gradients in the liquid and in the solid should always be considered, and is a function of droplet shape. (5) The model based upon work by Nernst is easiest to use since all necessary parameters are readily available in the literature. However, of the four models is predicts the lowest migration rate. (6) The maximum volume of pure brine accumulated at the canister surface would be less than 20-40 liters in 50 years, for a canister initial thermal power of 3.5 kW. Bitterns would migrate proportionately less volume. A compuber code, BRINE, was developed to make these calculations by means of any of the four models

  5. Power production via North Sea Hot Brines

    Traditionally the power demand of offshore oil platforms is delivered by on-platform gas turbines. Natural gas to fuel these turbines is usually separated from the produced oil. However, in ageing fields as oil production declines so does the associated gas. Ultimately gas supply becomes insufficient; in order to continue producing fuel is imported at great expense. This study proposes the power demand of a platform could be met or supplemented by an on-platform ORC (organic Rankine cycle ) fuelled by coproduced hot brines. This could extend the operating life of oil platforms and reduce both cost and emissions. The potential power output of an ORC is modelled for fields in the North Sea's Brent Province. Results show 6 fields have the potential to generate more than 10 MW via an organic Rankine cycle fuelled by hot brines, with a maximum of 31 MW predicted for the Ninian field. Analysis of simulations for the Eider field shows that ORC plants can scale to size constraints. The cost of a 10 MW ORC is compared to cost of continued use of gas turbines. Payback times of between 3.09 and 4.53 years are predicted for an ORC, without accounting for greenhouse gas emissions levies. - Highlights: • We model organic Rankine cycles fuelled by hot brines produced in the North Sea. • Organic Rankine cycles could provide all an off-shore platform's power demand. • 6 fields in the Brent province have the potential to produce >10 MW via an ORC system. • Payback time calculated for a 10 MW organic Rankine cycle is 3.09–4.53 years

  6. Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine

    Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

  7. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  8. Pressure-driven brine migration in a salt repository

    The traditional view is that salt is the ideal rock for isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and probably ''impermeable.'' The existence of salt through geologic time is prima facie evidence of such properties. Experiments and experience at potential salt sites for geologic repositories have indicated that while porosity and permeability of salt are low, the salt may be saturated with brine. If this hypothesis is correct, then it is possible to have brine flow due to pressure differences within the salt. If there is pressure-driven brine migration in salt repositories then it is paramount to know the magnitude of such flow because inward brine flow would affect the corrosion rate of nuclear waste containers and outward brine flow might affect radionuclide transport rates. Brine exists in natural salt as inclusions in salt crystals and in grain boundaries. Brine inclusions in crystals move to nearby grain boundaries when subjected to a temperature gradient, because of temperature-dependent solubility of salt. Brine in grain boundaries moves under the influence of a pressure gradient. When salt is mined to create a waste repository, brine from grain boundaries will migrate into the rooms, tunnels and boreholes because these cavities are at atmospheric pressure. After a heat-emitting waste package is emplaced and backfilled, the heat will impose a temperature gradient in the surrounding salt that will cause inclusions in the nearby salt to migrate to grain boundaries within a few years, adding to the brine that was already present in the grain boundaries. The formulation of brine movement with salt as a thermoelastic porous medium, in the context of the continuum theory of mixtures, has been described. In this report we show the mathematical details and discuss the results predicted by this analysis

  9. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when ...

  10. Moisture variations in brine-salted pasta filata cheese.

    Kindstedt, P S

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the moisture distribution in brine-salted pasta filata cheese. Brine-salted cheeses usually develop reasonably smooth and predictable gradients of decreasing moisture from center to surface, resulting from outward diffusion of moisture in response to inward diffusion of salt. However, patterns of moisture variation within brine-salted pasta filata cheeses, notably pizza cheese, are more variable and less predictable because of the peculiar conditions that occur when warm cheese is immersed in cold brine. In this study, cold brining resulted in less moisture loss from the cheese surface to the brine. Also it created substantial temperature gradients within the cheese, which persisted after brining and influenced the movement of moisture within the cheese independently of that caused by the inward diffusion of salt. Depending on brining conditions and age, pizza cheese may contain decreasing, increasing, or irregular gradients of moisture from center to surface, which may vary considerably at different locations within a single block. This complicates efforts to obtain representative samples for moisture and composition testing. Dicing the entire block into small (e.g., 1.5 cm) cubes and collecting a composite sample after thorough mixing may serve as a practical sampling approach for manufacturers and users of pizza cheese that have ready access to dicing equipment. PMID:11324629

  11. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of 3H, /sup 95m/Tc, and 85Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for 85Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for 85Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta

  12. Improved brine recycling during nitrate removal using ion exchange.

    Bae, Byung-Uk; Jung, Yoo-Hoon; Han, Woon-Woo; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2002-07-01

    Ion exchange technology is currently the best for removing nitrate from drinking water. However, problems related to the disposal of spent brine from regeneration of exhausted resins must be overcome so that ion exchange can be applied more widely and economically, especially in small communities. For this purpose, a novel spent brine recycling system using combined biological denitrification and sulfate reduction processes was developed for more efficient reuse of brine. A granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption column was introduced as an additional step to prevent contamination of resins by bio-polymers and dissolved organics present in the bio-reactor effluent. Two upflow sludge blanket reactors (USBRs) were operated in series for 166 days to provide denitrification and sulfate reduction. The denitrification reactor provided a nitrate removal efficiency of 96% at a nitrate-N loading rate of 5.4 g NO3(-)-N/l d. The sulfate reduction efficiency of the sulfate reduction reactor remained approximately 62% at a sulfate loading rate of 1.8 g SO4(2-)/l d. Five ion exchange columns containing A520E resins were repeatedly operated in up to 25 cycles of service and regeneration using five kinds of brine: one virgin 3% NaCl and four differently recycled spent brines. Throughput decreased remarkably when the biologically recycled brine was not treated with the GAC column, probably due to the presence of bio-polymers and dissolved organic compounds. The sulfate reduction reactor placed after the denitrification step increased the bicarbonate concentration, which could be used as a co-regenerant with chloride. The inclusion of the sulfate reduction reactor into the conventional brine recycling system allowed more efficient reuse of brine, resulting in both reduced salt consumption and brine discharge. PMID:12188132

  13. Brine migration in hot-pressed polycrystalline sodium chloride

    This report describes experiments designed to provide data on brine migration in polycrystalline salt. Polycrystalling samples of various grain sizes, density, and purity were prepared from several commercial-grade salts by hot-pressing. Three distinct experimental set-ups were used to place salt billets in an induced thermal gradient in contact with brine source. The test designs varied primarily in the way in which the thermal gradient was applied and monitored and the way in which brine migration was determined. All migration was in enclosed vessels which precluded visual observation of brine movement through the microstructure. Migration velocities were estimated either by the timed appearance of brine at the hot face of the sample, or by determination of the penetration distance of migration artifacts in the microstructure after tests of fixed duration. For various reasons both of these methods were subject to a large degree of error. Our results suggest, however, that the migration velocity in dense polycrystalline salt may be at least an order of magnitude greater than that suggested by single-crystal experiments. Microstructural analysis shows that brine prefers to migrate along paths of high crystalline activity such as grain and subgrain boundaries and is dispersed rather quickly in the microstructure. A series of tests were performed using various types of tracers in brine in order to flag migration paths and locate brine in the microstructure more decisively. These attempts failed and it appears that only the aqueous portion of the brine moves through the microstructure with the dissolved ions being lost and replaced rather quickly. This suggests the use of deuterium as a tracer in future work

  14. Empirical formula for the refractive index of freezing brine

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    The refractive index of freezing brine is important for example in order to estimate oceanic scattering as sea ice develops. Previously, no simple continuous expression was available for estimating the refractive index of brine at subzero temperatures. I show that extrapolation of the empirical f...... formula for the refractive index of seawater by Quan and Fry [Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3477-3480 (1995)] provides a good fit to the refractive index of freezing brine for temperatures above -24 degrees celsius and salinities below 180 parts per thousand....

  15. Electromagnetic mapping of brine contamination in petroleum producing areas

    Geophysical electromagnetic devices are well suited to mapping soil and groundwater contamination by oilfield brines. Frequency domain devices such as ground conductivity meters are used for quick assessment of the lateral extent of contamination in the near surface. Time domain devices can accurately define the depth and thickness of the contaminated horizons. Three cases are reviewed which involve the use of geophysical electromagnetic mapping to evaluate brine contamination around a disused drilling pit and an evaporation pond, and to investigate the occurrence of brine relative to local geology in the Michigan Basin. 11 refs., 8 figs

  16. Occurrence of aspartyl proteases in brine after herring marinating.

    Szymczak, Mariusz; Lepczyński, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Herrings are marinated in a brine consisting of salt and acetic acid. During marinating, various nitrogen fractions diffuse from fish flesh to the brine, causing significant nutritional quality losses of the raw material. In this study, it has been demonstrated for the first time that proteases diffuse from the fish to the marinating brine. Using ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography on pepstatin-A agarose bed the aspartyl proteases were purified and concentrated over 2600-fold from a marinating brine. Pepstatin-A completely inhibited the activity of the purified preparation. The preparation was active against fluorogenic substrates specific for cathepsin D and E and inactive against substrates specific for cysteine cathepsins. Depending on incubation time, the preparation showed pH-optimum at 2.0 or 4.5. The 2D SDS-PAGE separation demonstrated the presence of a few proteins with molecular weights and pI values typical of cathepsin D, E and pepsin. PMID:26471581

  17. Migration of brine and nitrogen in creeping salt

    Although the excavations in bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are, for all practical purposes, dry, small amounts of brine have been observed to weep from exposed surfaces in the repository horizon and seep into drill holes in the underground excavations. As part of the Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) at the WIPP, this study has been made to formulate the complex problem of brine and nitrogen flow through deforming salt as completely as possible. The derived equations are coupled where appropriate in order to closely describe the natural phenomena. The main objective of this paper is to suggest a method by which the formulation might be solved in order to estimate the brine inflow rate into the excavated rooms at the WIPP repository level. The suggested solution method requires the modification and combination of two finite element codes which may necessitate a large amount of computer memory for data storage

  18. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and...

  19. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  20. Efecto del dinoflagelado tóxico Gymnodinium catenatum sobre el consumo, la producción de huevos y la tasa de eclosión del copépodo Acartia clusi

    Ricardo Palomares-García; José Bustillos-Guzmán; Band-Schmidt, Christine J.; David López-Corté; Bernd Luckas

    2006-01-01

    En este estudio se analiza la influencia de Gymnodinium catenatum Graham sobre la reproducción del copépodo Acartia clausi Giesbrecht. Se seleccionaron hembras maduras de A. clausi y se alimentaron con una mezcla de fitoplancton natural y G. catenatum en proporciones de 100:0%, 75:25%, 50:50%, 25:75% y 0:100%, respectivamente. Se evaluó el tipo y concentración de toxinas en la cepa de G. catenatum utilizada. No se detectaron efectos adversos ni parálisis de los copépodos alimentados con el di...

  1. Dense, viscous brine behavior in heterogeneous porous medium systems.

    Wright, D Johnson; Pedit, J A; Gasda, S E; Farthing, M W; Murphy, L L; Knight, S R; Brubaker, G R; Miller, C T

    2010-06-25

    The behavior of dense, viscous calcium bromide brine solutions used to remediate systems contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is considered in laboratory and field porous medium systems. The density and viscosity of brine solutions are experimentally investigated and functional forms fit over a wide range of mass fractions. A density of 1.7 times, and a corresponding viscosity of 6.3 times, that of water is obtained at a calcium bromide mass fraction of 0.53. A three-dimensional laboratory cell is used to investigate the establishment, persistence, and rate of removal of a stratified dense brine layer in a controlled system. Results from a field-scale experiment performed at the Dover National Test Site are used to investigate the ability to establish and maintain a dense brine layer as a component of a DNAPL recovery strategy, and to recover the brine at sufficiently high mass fractions to support the economical reuse of the brine. The results of both laboratory and field experiments show that a dense brine layer can be established, maintained, and recovered to a significant extent. Regions of unstable density profiles are shown to develop and persist in the field-scale experiment, which we attribute to regions of low hydraulic conductivity. The saturated-unsaturated, variable-density groundwater flow simulation code SUTRA is modified to describe the system of interest, and used to compare simulations to experimental observations and to investigate certain unobserved aspects of these complex systems. The model results show that the standard model formulation is not appropriate for capturing the behavior of sharp density gradients observed during the dense brine experiments. PMID:20444520

  2. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Javid Ali; Bashir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution) were transferred to specific concentration of each extrac...

  3. Brine Shrimp Ecology In The Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersaline lakes are noted for their simple communities which facilitate understanding ecological interactions (Williams et al. 1990; Wurtsbaugh 1992; Jellison and Melack 1988). Nevertheless, we still cannot easily predict how environmental changes will effect the population dynamics in these lakes, at least in part because even these simple ecosystems may be more complex than we .realize. Many hypersaline lakes are dominated by the brine shrimp Artemia spp. The production of brine shrimp is...

  4. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST.

    Michael Finiguerra

    Full Text Available The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST. Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI or wild-type isoforms (PWI, while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI. There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR, ingestion rate (I, and gross growth efficiency (GGE for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed.

  5. Characterization of brines and evaporites of Lake Katwe, Uganda

    Kasedde, Hillary; Kirabira, John Baptist; Bäbler, Matthäus U.; Tilliander, Anders; Jonsson, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Lake Katwe brines and evaporites were investigated to determine their chemical, mineralogical and morphological composition. 30 brine samples and 3 solid salt samples (evaporites) were collected from different locations of the lake deposit. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical composition of the samples including Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS), ion chromatography, and potentiometric titration. The mineralogical composition and morphology of the evaporites was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Physical parameters of the lake brines such as density, electrical conductivity, pH, and salinity were also studied. The results show that the lake brines are highly alkaline and rich in Na+, Cl-, CO32-, SO42-, and HCO3- with lesser amounts of K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Br-, and F- ions. The brines show an intermediate transition between Na-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types. Among the trace metals, the lake brines were found to be enriched in B, I, Sr, Fe, Mo, Ba, and Mn. The solid salts are composed of halite mixed with other salts such as hanksite, burkeite and trona. It was also observed that the composition of the salts varies considerably even within the same grades.

  6. Brine: a computer program to compute brine migration adjacent to a nuclear waste canister in a salt repository

    This report presents a mathematical model used to predict brine migration toward a nuclear waste canister in a bedded salt repository. The mathematical model is implemented in a computer program called BRINE. The program is written in FORTRAN and executes in the batch mode on a CDC 7600. A description of the program input requirements and output available is included. Samples of input and output are given

  7. Effects of brine migration on waste storage systems. Final report

    Processes which can lead to mobilization of brine adjacent to spent fuel or nuclear waste canisters and some of the thermomechanical consequences have been investigated. Velocities as high as 4 x 10-7 m s-1 (13 m y-1) are calculated at the salt/canister boundary. As much as 40 liters of pure NaCl brine could accumulate around each canister during a 10-year storage period. Accumulations of bittern brines would probably be less, in the range of 2 to 5 liters. With 0.5% water, NaCl brine accumulation over a 10-year storage cycle around a spent fuel canister producing 0.6 kW of heat is expected to be less than 1 liter for centimeter-size inclusions and less than 0.5 liter for millimeter-size inclusions. For bittern brines, about 25 years would be required to accumulate 0.4 liter. The most serious mechanical consequence of brine migration would be the increased mobility of the waste canister due to pressure solution. In pressure solution enhanced deformation, the existence of a thin film of fluid either between grains or between media (such as between a canister and the salt) provides a pathway by which the salt can be redistributed leading to a marked increase in strain rates in wet rock relative to dry rock. In salt, intergranular water will probably form discontinuous layers rather than films so that they would dominate pressure solution. A mathematical model of pressure solution indicates that pressure solution will not lead to appreciable canister motions except possibly in fine grained rocks (less than 10-4 m). In fine grained salts, details of the contact surface between the canister and the salt bed may lead to large pressure solution motions. A numerical model indicates that heat transfer in the brine layer surrounding a spent fuel canister is not conduction dominated but has a significant convective component

  8. Effects of a brine discharge over soft bottom Polychaeta assemblage

    Pilar-Ruso, Yoana del [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: yoana.delpilar@ua.es; Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio de la; Gimenez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sanchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Desalination is a growing activity that has introduced a new impact, brine discharge, which may affect benthic communities. Although the role of polychaetes as indicators to assess organic pollution is well known, their tolerance to salinity changes has not been examined to such a great extent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of brine discharge over soft bottom polychaete assemblage along the Alicante coast (Southeast Spain) over a two year period. Changes in the polychaete assemblage was analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques. We compared a transect in front of the discharge with two controls. At each transect we sampled at three depths (4, 10 and 15 m) during winter and summer. We have observed different sensitivity of polychaete families to brine discharges, Ampharetidae being the most sensitive, followed by Nephtyidae and Spionidae. Syllidae and Capitellidae showed some resistance initially, while Paraonidae proved to be a tolerant family. - The Polychaete assemblage is affected by the brine discharge of the Alicante desalination plant and we detect different sensitivity levels in polychaete families to brine impact.

  9. Chemistry of glass corrosion in high saline brines

    Corrosion data obtained in laboratory tests can be used for the performance assessment of nuclear waste glasses in a repository if the data are quantitatively described in the frame of a geochemical model. Experimental data were obtained for conventional pH values corrected for liquid junction, amorphous silica solubility and glass corrosion in concentrated salt brines. The data were interpreted with a geochemical model. The brine chemistry was described with the Pitzer formalism using a data base which allows calculation of brine compositions in equilibrium with salt minerals at temperatures up to 200C. In MgCl2 dominated brines Mg silicates form and due to the consumption of Mg the pH decreases with proceeding reaction. A constant pH (about 4) and composition of alteration products is achieved, when the alkali release from the glass balances the Mg consumption. The low pH results in high release of rare earth elements REE (rare earth elements) and U from the glass. In the NaCl dominated brine MgCl2 becomes exhausted by Mg silicate formation. As long as there is still Mg left in solution the pH decreases. After exhaustion of Mg the pH rises with the alkali release from the glass and analcime is formed

  10. Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

  11. Prospects of the complex development of highly parameter geothermal brines

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The high efficiency of complex processing of high-temperature hydrothermal brines with utilization of heat energy in a binary geothermal power plant and subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds is shown. Promising technological schemes are given, where electric power, which is generated in the binary geothermal power plant, is used in a block to recover chemistry components. The technology for integrated processing of geothermal brines of the chloride-sodium-calcium type is developed, which provides the manufacture not only of marketable products but also of practically overall reagents of processed water that are necessary to realize the technology. Priority areas for development are indicated, and the preliminary estimates for a Berikey geothermal deposit are given. It is shown that only established resources of thermal brines of the Berikey deposit make it possible to produce more than 2000 t of lithium carbonate and, thereby, to completely provide Russian industry requirements for it.

  12. Swimming and escape behavior of copepod nauplii: implications for predator-prey interactions among copepods

    Titelman, Josefin

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on how prey behavior may affect predation risk through encounter rates and the escape success of the prey given an encounter. Temora longicornis nauplii require stronger hydrodynamic signals to elicit escape than Acartia tonsa nauplii (critical fluid deformation rates, Delta* o...... behavior of A. tonsa acts predominantly at the post-encounter stage where its sensitivity to hydrodynamic signals (i,e., low Delta*) effectively compensates for the high predator encounter rate generated by its motility....

  13. Heat gradient induced migration of brine inclusions in rock salt

    A mathematical model for the brine migration in rock salt around an infinite line heat source is set up. The temperature field around the time dependent heat source is calculated by use of Green functions. Numerical solutions are obtained by the computer PSAMA and results are compared with hand calculations for certain simple cases. By general considerations of the migration field approximate values of the brine inflow, which are independent of the source shape, is obtained and these results are used to estimate the agreement with the experimental results from Project Salt Vault. (author)

  14. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  15. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole

  16. Guidelines for using HEC polymers for increasing viscosity of solids-free completion and workover brines

    Scheuerman, R.F.

    1983-02-01

    Solids-free brines are used increasingly in well completion and workover operations. One technique to minimize downhole losses of expensive, high-density brine is to spot a pill of thickened brine across the thief zone. Hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) is the polymer used most frequently for this purpose. This report discusses the properties of HEC-thickened brines and presents guidelines for their use for completion and workover fluid-loss control.

  17. Guidelines for using HEC polymers for viscosifying solids free completion and workover brines

    Scheuerman, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Solids free brines are increasingly used in well completion and workover operations. One technique to minimize downhole losses of expensive, high density brine is to spot a pill of viscosified brine across the thief zone. Hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) is the polymer most frequently used for this purpose. This report discusses the properties of HEC thickened brines and presents guidelines for their use for completion and workover fluid loss control. 2 refs.

  18. Effect of alternative mediums on production and proximate composition of the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri as food in culture of the copepod Acartia sp. Efecto de medios alternativos sobre la producción y composición proximal de la microalga Chaetoceros muelleri como alimento en cultivo del copépodo Acartia sp.

    Luis R Martínez-Córdova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri was cultured in three different mediums consisting on an agricultural fertilizer (Agr-F, aquacultural fertilizer (Aq-F and a conventional medium (F/2, control. These microalgae were later used as natural food to culture the copepod Acartia sp. The productive response and chemical proximate composition of microalgae and copepods were monitored. Growth rate and final cell concentration were higher in microalgae cultured in Agr-F compared to the control. In addition, the final biomass and cellular concentration were also the highest in Agr-F. Microalgae from Agr-F and Aq-F had higher carbohydrate and lower protein contents than those in the control. No differences in lipid and ash contents were observed. Regarding copepod production, higher densities and fecundity indexes were observed for those fed with microalgae previously cultured in Agr-F and Aq-F, compared to the control. The adult-nauplii ratio was also higher in copepods fed on microalgae from Agr-F compared to Aq-F and control. Copepods fed on Agr-F and Aq-F microalgae, had higher protein content compared to those fed on control microalgae; carbohydrates were higher in copepods fed on Agr-F as compared to Aq-F microalgae. No differences in lipid and ash contents were registered. Agr-F and Aq-F were adequate alternative mediums to produce C. muelleri, which produced higher quality microalgae that increased the copepod production.La microalga Chaetoceros muelleri fue cultivada en tres medios diferentes basados en un fertilizante agrícola (Agr-F, un fertilizante acuícola (Aq-F y un medio convencional (F/2, control. Éstas microalgas fueron posteriormente utilizadas como alimento natural para cultivar el copépodo Acartia sp. La respuesta productiva y la composición proximal de las microalgas y copépodos fueron monitoreadas. La tasa de crecimiento y concentración final de células fueron mayores en la microalga cultivada en Agr-F, comparada con el control

  19. UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING RISKS POSED BY BRINES CONTAINING DISSOLVED CARBON DIOXIDE

    Geologic disposal of supercritical carbon dioxide in saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas fields will cause large volumes of brine to become saturated with dissolved CO2 at concentrations of 50 g/l or more.  As CO2 dissolves in brine, the brine de...

  20. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produce...

  1. Selective oxidation of bromide in wastewater brines from hydraulic fracturing.

    Sun, Mei; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-07-01

    Brines generated from oil and natural gas production, including flowback water and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of shale gas, may contain elevated concentrations of bromide (~1 g/L). Bromide is a broad concern due to the potential for forming brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Conventional treatment processes for bromide removal is costly and not specific. Selective bromide removal is technically challenging due to the presence of other ions in the brine, especially chloride as high as 30-200 g/L. This study evaluates the ability of solid graphite electrodes to selectively oxidize bromide to bromine in flowback water and produced water from a shale gas operation in Southwestern PA. The bromine can then be outgassed from the solution and recovered, as a process well understood in the bromine industry. This study revealed that bromide may be selectively and rapidly removed from oil and gas brines (~10 h(-1) m(-2) for produced water and ~60 h(-1) m(-2) for flowback water). The electrolysis occurs with a current efficiency between 60 and 90%, and the estimated energy cost is ~6 kJ/g Br. These data are similar to those for the chlor-alkali process that is commonly used for chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide production. The results demonstrate that bromide may be selectively removed from oil and gas brines to create an opportunity for environmental protection and resource recovery. PMID:23726709

  2. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27. 75 - 36.27 x 103 during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64) The volumes of brine as well as those of bitterns...

  3. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27.75-36.27 x 10 super(3) during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64). The volumes of brine as well as those...

  4. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTMA SALINA) LETHALITY OF SOME FERULAGO SPECIES

    F. HIRLAK, S. DOĞANCA, E. GÜRKAN, O.T. TÜZÜN,

    2015-01-01

    In this work the bio-activities of the extracts obtained from F. asparagifoliaBoiss., F. humilis Boiss., F. aucheri Boiss. (Umbelliferae) are investigatedusing the Brine shrimp method.Key words: Ferulago aucheri, F. humilis, F. asparagifolia, Brineshrimp (Artemia salina).

  5. Treatment of RO brine-towards sustainable water reclamation practice.

    Ng, H Y; Lee, L Y; Ong, S L; Tao, G; Viawanath, B; Kekre, K; Lay, W; Seah, H

    2008-01-01

    Treatment and disposal of RO brine is an important part in sustaining the water reclamation practice. RO brine generated from water reclamation contains high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds. Cost-effective technologies for treatment of RO brine are still relatively unexplored. Thus, this study aim to determine a feasible treatment process for removal of both organic and inorganic compounds in RO brine generated from NEWater production. The proposed treatment consists of biological activated carbon (BAC) column followed by capacitive deionization (CDI) process for organic and inorganic removals, respectively. Preliminary bench-scale study demonstrated about 20% TOC removal efficiency was achieved using BAC at 40 mins empty bed contact time (EBCT) while the CDI process was able to remove more than 90% conductivity reducing it from 2.19 mS/cm to only about 164 microS/cm. More than 90% cations and anions in the BAC effluent were removed using CDI process. In addition, TOC and TN removals of 78% and 91%, respectively were also attained through this process. About 90% water recovery was achieved. This process shows the potential of increased water recovery in the reclamation process while volume for disposal can be further minimized. Further studies on the sustainable operation and process optimization are ongoing. PMID:18776632

  6. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation

  7. Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

  8. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  9. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Structures Lab.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation.

  10. Progress on radiometric dating of Wolfcamp brines using 4He and 40Ar

    Ground water samples (brines) from deep wells in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas are being analyzed for noble gases in an attempt to obtain radiometric ages for these brines. The brines contain radiogenic 4He and 40Ar produced from the radioactive decay of U, Th, and K. Consideration of hydrochemical data for the brines, various isotopic, chemical, and mineralogical data for the aquifer rocks and noble gas production rates allow estimating the age of the brines to be about 130 million years at two wells. At a third well interaquifer mixing has occurred and the age is presently indeterminate. 9 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  11. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references

  12. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

  13. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions......-, HPO42-, and HCO3- (anions), were studied through gas chromatographic analysis. Crude oil from the North Sea was doped with various fractions of organic acids to mimic different polar behavior. Increased brine concentration showed up to 15% upsurge of polar fractions on the oil-water emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  14. Stabilization of high mercury contaminated brine purification sludge.

    Zhuang, J Ming; Lo, Tony; Walsh, Tony; Lam, Tak

    2004-09-10

    The highly leachable mercury contaminants of brine purification sludge (BPS) generated from the Hg-cell electrolysis process in chlorine production can be stabilized in the treatment procedure employing ferric-lignin derivatives (FLD) (Ligmet binder) and Portland cement (PC). The stabilization effectiveness has been examined by time-based multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests and sequential TCLP tests. In a period of 50 days, the multiple TCLP tests showed a variation of less than 90 microg l(-1) for the leachable mercury level, and the sequential TCLP tests for the same sample displayed a declining TCLP mercury level. Based on this study, the stabilization of approximately 2000 t of brine purification sludge has been successfully processed with the ferric-lignin derivatives treatment. PMID:15363526

  15. Linear polarization measurements at high temperatures in hypersaline geothermal brines

    Cramer, S.D.; Needham, P.B. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines conducted a series of in situ linear polarization measurements in high-temperature, high-pressure hypersaline geothermal brines at the Bureau of Mines Geothermal Test Facility in the Imperial Valley of California. The measurements represented an evaluation of the linear polarization technique for obtaining instantaneous corrosion rates of materials of construction in flowing hypersaline hydrothermal fluids that rapidly form scales on exposed surfaces. A special method was devised for use with the linear polarization technique that resulted in obtaining corrosion rates for 1020 carbon steel, 316 and 430 stainless steel, titanium, various nickel-based alloys, and aluminum 6061 under strong scale-forming conditions. The measurements also provided information on scale-deposition rates in various geothermal environments. Exploratory in situ potentiostatic polarization measurements were made in the flowing brines to qualitatively determine scale-deposition effects on the electrochemical measurements.

  16. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...... the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) compared to neighbouring counties was less than fifty percent per square meter. Successful pre-salting is, of course, dependent on reliable weather forecasts and on staff well trained in the art of interpreting this information....... The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. The spread pattern for every spreader, tested in The County of Funen, has been meassured 3 hours after...

  17. Dispersion of brine discharge from seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants

    Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; González-Correa, José Miguel; Loya-Fernández, Angel; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis Miguel; Díaz Valdés, Marta; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2008-01-01

    Desalination of seawater has been considered as a potential solution for the water shortage problem in coastal areas and the number of projected and constructed desalination plants has significantly increased in recent years. The challenge of the desalination industry is to produce new water resources without increasing the pressure on the marine environment. Environmental impact of SWRO desalination plants is mainly associated with the discharge into the sea of the brine produced. To estimat...

  18. Modelling of lactic fermentation of carrot slices in salted brines

    Nabais, R.M.; Malcata, F. X.

    1997-01-01

    Increases in suspended biomass and variation in the concentrations of reducing sugars, salt, and lactic acid in brine containing sliced carrots were followed for a period of several days. A tentative unstructured, unsegregated model for the metabolism of suspended Lactobacillus plan tarum coupled with Fick's second law of diffusion for the transport of solutes within the carrot material was postulated. This general model was fitted by non-linear multiresponse regression analysis to an extensi...

  19. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent

  20. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent

  1. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae)

    Janaćković P.; Tešević V.; Marin P.D.; Milosavljević S.; Duletić-Laušević Sonja; Janaćković Slavica; Veljić M.

    2008-01-01

    Ether extracts of 15 Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae) methanol extracts of 12species, and cnicin isolated from C. derventana were tested for general bioactivity using the brine shrimp lethality test. Cnicin showed the most potent activity with LC50 0.2. Also, ether extract of C. splendens showed significant activity with LC50 7.3, as did methanol extract of C. arenaria with LC50 12.4.

  2. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina

    Hisem, D.; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, P.; Tomšíčková, J.; Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, K.; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2011), s. 76-83. ISSN 0041-0101 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/1501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Secondary metabolites * Brine shrimp bioassay * Health risk assessment Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.508, year: 2011

  3. Inhibition of Weld Corrosion in Flowing Brines Containing Carbon Dioxide

    Alawadhi, Khaled

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of a typical oilfield corrosion inhibitor, which is considered to be a green inhibitor (non toxic to the environment) in controlling internal corrosion of welded X65 pipeline steel in brines saturated with carbon dioxide at one bar pressure, under dynamic flowing conditions, over a range of temperatures. Several experimental configurations were used ranging from a simple flat plate design to a novel rotating cylinder electrode, to all...

  4. Long term corrosion of glasses in salt brines

    Roggendorf, Hans; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1989-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses are supposed to be a suitable matrix for the fixation of calcined radioactive wastes. For the safety assessment of the disposal of these glasses in geological formations like carnallite or rock salt, their chemical durability in saturated salt brines has been investigated. Temperatures up to 200° C, pressures up to 130 bar, and corrosion times up to 5 years were applied. Special attention was given to the long term corrosion which is mainly characterized by the saturation...

  5. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Sonnenthal Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual

  6. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine.

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting by-product selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N(2), N(2)O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 10(24) photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH(4)(+). To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. PMID:23276425

  7. Survival of foodborne pathogens in natural cracked olive brines.

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the survival (challenge tests) of foodborne pathogen species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica) in Aloreña de Málaga table olive brines. The inhibitions were fit using a log-linear model with tail implemented in GInaFIT excel software. The olive brine had a considerable inhibitory effect on the pathogens. The residual (final) populations (Fp) after 24 h was below detection limit (monocytogenes and S. enterica, respectively. Brine dilutions increased Fp and 4Dr, while decreased kmax. A cluster analysis showed that E. coli had an overall quite different behaviour being the most resistant species, but the others bacteria behaved similarly, especially S. aureus and S. enterica. Partial Least Squares regression showed that the most influential phenols on microbial survival were EDA (dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid), HyEDA (EDA linked to hydroxytyrosol), hydroxytyrosol 4-glucoside, tyrosol, and oleoside 11-methyl ester. Results confirm the adverse habitats of table olives for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27375250

  8. Brine migration test - Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany

    This document is the final report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that were performed at the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Columbus, Ohio, and the Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IfT), Braunschweig, of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF). Final test and equipment design as well as manufacturing and installation was carried out by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The tests were designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. The performance of an array of candidate waste package materials, test equipment and procedures under repository conditions will be evaluated with a view towards future in-depth testing of potential repository sites. (orig./RB)

  9. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution) were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  10. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways:Implementation of Brine Spreading Technologies in Denmark

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) compared to neighbouring counties was less than fifty percent per square meter.Successful pre-salting is, of course, dependent on...

  11. The Effect Of Picking Period And Brining Applications On Fungicide Residue Levels In Brined Vine Leaves Production

    CANGİ, Rüstem; YANAR, Yusuf; YAĞCI, Adem; TOPÇU, Neval; SUCU, Seda; DÜLGEROĞLU, Yağmur

    2014-01-01

    Especially at the time then the leaves are harvested contact and systemic fungicides are applied frequently to protect the grapevine agaist downy mildew and powdery mildew. Intensive pesticide use in vineyard resulted in residue problem on brined vine leaves that are used as food. This study was aimed at development of a proper chemical control program to reduce the pesticide residue problem on vine (Vitis vinifera) leaves in vineyards during the growing period. In this study two fungicides ...

  12. Parameterization of and Brine Storage in MOR Hydrothermal Systems

    Hoover, J.; Lowell, R. P.; Cummings, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    Single-pass parameterized models of high-temperature hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers use observational constraints such as vent temperature, heat output, vent field area, and the area of heat extraction from the sub-axial magma chamber to deduce fundamental hydrothermal parameters such as total mass flux Q, bulk permeability k, and the thickness of the conductive boundary layer at the base of the system, δ. Of the more than 300 known systems, constraining data are available for less than 10%. Here we use the single pass model to estimate Q, k, and δ for all the seafloor hydrothermal systems for which the constraining data are available. Mean values of Q, k, and δ are 170 kg/s, 5.0x10-13 m2, and 20 m, respectively; which is similar to results obtained from the generic model. There is no apparent correlation with spreading rate. Using observed vent field lifetimes, the rate of magma replenishment can also be calculated. Essentially all high-temperature hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers undergo phase separation, yielding a low chlorinity vapor and a high salinity brine. Some systems such as the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the 9°50’N sites on the East Pacific Rise vent low chlorinity vapor for many years, while the high density brine remains sequestered beneath the seafloor. In an attempt to further understand the brine storage at the EPR, we used the mass flux Q determined above, time series of vent salinity and temperature, and the depth of the magma chamber to determine the rate of brine production at depth. We found thicknesses ranging from 0.32 meters to ~57 meters over a 1 km2 area from 1994-2002. These calculations suggest that brine maybe being stored within the conductive boundary layer without a need for lateral transport or removal by other means. We plan to use the numerical code FISHES to further test this idea.

  13. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Lactic acid bacteria species in chill brine

    Meadows, Bridget Archibald

    2004-01-01

    SURVIVAL OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES, LISTERIA INNOCUA, AND LACTIC ACID BACTERIA SPECIES IN CHILL BRINES Bridget Archibald Meadows (ABSTRACT) Listeria monocytogenes is the major pathogen in ready-to-eat meat products such as deli meats and frankfurters. Contamination can occur via the salt brines that are used to cool thermally processed meats. Both L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria can grow and thrive under these brine conditions, and may become competitive with each ot...

  14. The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean

    Amat, Francisco; Hontoria, Francisco; Ruiz, Olga; Green, Andy J.; Sánchez, Marta I.; Figuerola, Jordi; Hortas, F.

    2005-01-01

    The hypersaline environments and salterns present in the western Mediterranean region (including Italy, southern France, the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco) contain autochthonous forms of the brine shrimp Artemia, with parthenogenetic diploid and tetraploid strains coexisting with the bisexual species A. sal- ina. Introduced populations of the American brine shrimp A. franciscana have also been recorded in these Mediterranean environments since the 1980s. Based on brine shrimp cyst samples...

  15. Potentials of converting microalgae into brine shrimp Artemia

    Sorgeloos, P

    1985-01-01

    High densities of brine shrimp Artemia can be cultured in flow-through systems using the effluent of microalgae cultures as a combined source of culture medium and food. It has been proven at the "St. Croix Artificial Upwelling Mariculture Project" that in comparison with the fast growing clam Tapes japonica, brine shrimp assure a much more efficient conversion of plant into animal biomass. It appears from the given examples that microalgae conversion into brine shrimp Artemia offers efficien...

  16. Biological processes in the North Sea: vertical distribution and reproduction of neritic copepods in relation to environmental factors

    Koski, Marja; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Bagøien, Espen

    2011-01-01

    Sea. We observed a higher egg production of cultured Acartia tonsa when fed with the seston from chlorophyll maximum, but no evidence of a higher copepod abundance in this layer. Secondary production was highest at the station closest to the upwelling of new nutrients, although seasonal differences in...

  17. Copepod recruitment and food composition : Do diatoms affect hatching success?

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to differentiate between factors controlling the hatching success of copepod eggs. Factors that could affect viability of eggs; viz food quality, female condition and external factors were investigated. In a series of experiments the copepod Acartia tonsa Dan...

  18. Diatom production in the marine environment : implications for larval fish growth and condition

    St. John, Michael; Clemmesen, C.; Lund, T.; Köster, Fritz

    2001-01-01

    ) the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra (c) the flagellate Rhodomonas baltica: (d) a diet composed of both Skeletonema and Heterocapsa food chains (1: 1), and (e) a starvation group. These algae were fed to cultures of adult Acartia tonsa. Copepod eggs were collected, hatched. and the NI nauplii...

  19. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole;

    2011-01-01

    (WEA) to identify problematic urban discharges, e.g. stormwater, municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflow (CSO), industrial wastewater. Samples from around Copenhagen were therefore tested in the Larval Development Ratio (LDR) test using the marine crustacean Acartia tonsa. The number of non...

  20. Fight and flight in dinoflagellates?

    Selander, Erik; Fagerberg, Tony; Wohlrab, Sylke;

    2012-01-01

    We monitored the kinetics of grazer-induced responses in the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Chemical cues from each of three calanoid copepods (Calanus sp., Centropages typicus, and Acartia tonsa) induced increased toxicity and suppressed chain formation in A. tamarense. Both chemic...

  1. Modeling the interaction of mine brines with chloride minerals of potassium-magnesium deposits

    Fetisov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article is devoted to study of dynamics of saturation degree of suprasalt brines with respect to major chloride minerals of salt strata in the initial phase of an accident related to discontinuity of waterproof stratum in the mine of the Verkhnekamskoe salt deposit (Berezniki-3 mine, 1986). Physicochemical modeling has showed that the brines discharged into mine are in equilibrium with halite during all period of observation. At the same time, their degree of saturation with respect to sylvite and carnallite regularly decreases with the increase in inflow of the suprasalt Cl-Na brines. The initial stage of suprasalt brine penetration into mine is characterized by an increase in the saturation degree with respect to the considered chloride minerals, which is showed on the chart presented in the article. However, there are brines oversaturated with respect to halite, which occurs over a brief period. In contrast to the mine brines of different genesis being in equilibrium or close to equilibrium with sylvite, saturation index (SI) for this mineral decreases in the suprasalt brine. This allows one to recommend the use of this parameter in the study of the mine brines to timely detect suprasalt brines entering the mine.

  2. Diverse methane concentrations in anoxic brines and underlying sediments, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    of the brines are extremely high, 2692]103 nM at 3493m, and are 20 times higher than the Bannock Basin values. Thus, based on available physical pro"les (oxygen, temperature and salinity) of water masses in these brines, the approximate boundary of the brine... Atlantis II (mer Rouge). Oceanologica Acta 13, 187}197. Boldrin, A., Rabitti, S., 1990. Hydrography of the brines in the Bannock and Tyro anoxic basins (Eastern Mediterranean). Marine Chemistry 31, 21}33. Camerlenghi, A., Cita, M.B., Hieke, W., Ricchuito, T...

  3. Pressure-induced brine migration in consolidated salt in a repository

    This report describes a mathematical model for brine migration through intact salt near a radioactive waste package emplaced in salt. Solutions indicate limited movement following ten years emplacement

  4. Strontium isotope evidence on the history of oilfield brines, Mediterranean Coastal Plain, Israel

    Starinsky, A.; Bielski, M.; Lazar, B. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Geology); Steinitz, G.; Raab, M. (Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem)

    1983-04-01

    The isotopic composition of Sr in oil field brines from the Mediterranean Coastal Plain was determined in 18 drillholes. The brines are characterized by salinities ranging from 35 to 93 g/l (TDS), Sr from 28 to 350 mg/l, Sr/Ca molar ratios from 0.011 to 0.053 and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios from 0.7075 to 0.7090. E and A = 0.7081 +- 0.0004 (2sigma). The brines are classified into two groups: (a) Mavqi'im group - brines with relatively high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios, sampled from clastics, dolomites and anhydrites of Upper Miocene age. (b) Heletz group - brines with relatively low /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios, sampled from sandstones and dolomites of Lower Cretaceous age. Equations were derived to show the relations between /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio of the brines and the processes through which they evolved. It is suggested that both groups of brines originated from Mediterranean evaporated seawater during the Messinian desiccation. The strontium isotope composition of the seawater is reflected in that of both groups of brines, the Mavqi'im group containing the original /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio. The Heletz group evolved later on, through exchange reactions of those primary brines with a carbonate sequence of Cretaceous age and consequently new /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios could have been developed.

  5. Atlantis II Deep geothermal brine system. Hydrographic situation in 1977 and changes since 1965

    Hartmann, M.

    1980-02-01

    The geothermal brine system of the Atlantis II Deep in the Red Sea was reinvestigated hydrographically and chemically in November 1977. A comparison with results from earlier investigations confirms an increase of the hot brine volume, as suggested by the 1972 measurements ( SCHOELL, Bundesanstalt für Bodenforschung, Hannover, 1063 pp. 1974). The rate of increase is evidently parallel to the rate of temperature increase. The salinity of the lower brine was nearly constant during this period. The nearby Discovery Deep brine is evidently unaffected by the changes in the Atlantis II Deep as its temperature was constant within ±0.1°C during this time.

  6. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO2 geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation

  7. Transition and separation process in brine channels formation

    Berti, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.berti@unibs.it [Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università e-Campus, Via Isimbardi 10, 22060 Novedrate, CO (Italy); Bochicchio, Ivana, E-mail: ibochicchio@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universitá degli Studi di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Fabrizio, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.fabrizio@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Bologna, Piazza di Porta S. Donato, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of brine channels in sea ice. The model includes a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the solid-liquid phase change, a diffusion equation of the Cahn-Hilliard kind for the solute dynamics, and the heat equation for the temperature change. The macroscopic motion of the fluid is also considered, so the resulting differential system couples with the Navier-Stokes equation. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  8. Ice Control with Brine on Highways:Implementation of Brine Spreading Technologies in County of Funen, Denmark

    Bolet, Lars

    2008-01-01

    During the years 1996-2006, the Division of Highways and Transportation in the former county of Funen gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine as de-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) in the pre-salting operations was cut back by more than one third. Compared to neighbouring counties the use of sa...

  9. Analysis of radiolabelled thiocyanate tracer in oil field brines

    Thiocyanate (SCN-) labelled with 14C or 35S is applicable for the tracing of the water flow in water-driven oil production. This work describes two improved methods for increasing the concentration of S14CN- with sample sizes up to 1000 ml of sampled brine. The radioactivity detection is carried out by low-background liquid scintillation counting using standard-size counting vials of 20 ml. The first method is based on solvent extraction: two extraction/strip steps reduce the volume by the required factor of 100 down to 10 ml. The extraction agent is 0.5M tri-isooctylamine (TiOA) in Solvesso-150 and the stripping agent is 5M NH3. A chemical yield of 70-75%, a somewhat unfavourable quenching factor and a moderate reproducibility lead to a detection limit LD of 0.04 Bq/1. The second method is based on anion exchange. 1000 ml tracer-containing brine may be loaded onto 6.1 ml of the anion-exchange resin AG1-x8 before significant breakthrough of the tracer. More than 98.4% is absorbed. By elution with 2.8M sodiumperchlorate, more than 99.5% of the absorbed tracer is concentrated in a sharp elution peak of 10 ml. With a total chemical yield of 98%, a lower quenching factor and higher reproducibility than for the solvent extraction method, an LD-value of 0.005 Bq/1 is obtained. (orig.)

  10. Selection of a Brine Processor Technology for NASA Manned Missions

    Carter, Donald L.; Gleich, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    The current ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) reclaims water from crew urine, humidity condensate, and Sabatier product water. Urine is initially processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) which recovers 75% of the urine as distillate. The remainder of the water is present in the waste brine which is currently disposed of as trash on ISS. For future missions this additional water must be reclaimed due to the significant resupply penalty for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). NASA has pursued various technology development programs for a brine processor in the past several years. This effort has culminated in a technology down-select to identify the optimum technology for future manned missions. The technology selection is based on various criteria, including mass, power, reliability, maintainability, and safety. Beginning in 2016 the selected technology will be transitioned to a flight hardware program for demonstration on ISS. This paper summarizes the technology selection process, the competing technologies, and the rationale for the technology selected for future manned missions.

  11. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Water Recovery from Brine in the Short and Long Term: A KSC Approach

    Lunn, Griffin; Melendez, Orlando; Anthony, Steve

    2014-01-01

    KSC has spent many years researching Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors as well as research encompassing: Alternate ammonia removal, Advanced oxidation, Brine purification technologies. KSC-ISRU has built an electrolysis cell for the removal of acids in ISRU mining brines. Our goal is to combine all such technologies.

  13. The isotopic composition of strontium in brines from petroleum fields of southeastern Ohio

    87Sr/86Sr ratios were determined for one oil and fourteen brines collected from three petroleum reservoirs in southeastern Ohio: the North Logan and Triadelphia fields, both of which are contained within the Clinton sandstone; and the Macksburg field which is contained within the Berea and Macksburg sandstones. Only the Clinton sandstone yields brines that could reasonably be assumed to be uncontaminated with other fluids. The data suggest that in the North Logan field this brine has a characteristic value of 0.7103 +- 0.0005 which persists for distances of at least several kilometers. This persistence, however, does not extend to the Triadelphia field 125 km away where the brine from the Clinton sandstone has a somewhat lower ratio of 0.7092. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio in one sample of oil from the Clinton sandstone in the North Logan field is identical to that in the associated brine. The data from the brines collected from the Macksburg and Berea sandstones in the Macksburg field indicate that these brines are severely contaminated with other fluids. The ratios in all the brines are generally similar to those in the local ground and stream waters, so that the ratios in all the fluids may be governed by the same factors. In southeastern Ohio, the presence of carbonate minerals in the enclosing rocks seems to be the dominant factor in controlling the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the fluids. (Auth.)

  14. Bag-in-box technology: Membrane filtration of cucumber fermentation brine

    A major goal in producing process-ready, brined cucumbers is the reclaiming of the brine obtained from the fermentation for use in other products. This article summarizes research results obtained from the use of membrane filtration technology to remove microbial cells and other sediments from cucu...

  15. Corrosion and hydrogen permeation of A216 Grade WCA steel in hydrothermal magnesium-containing brines

    Corrosion rates determined at 1 month in 150/degree/C brine increased with magnesium concentration. The structure of the corrosion product, as determined by x-ray diffraction, depended upon the magnesium concentration. In brines with less than 10,000 ppM magnesium, the primary corrosion product had a spinel structure characteristic of magnetite or magnesioferrite. In brines containing magnesium concentrations greater than 20,000 ppM, the primary corrosion product had the amakinite structure characteristic of a complex iron-magnesium hydroxide. The high corrosion rates observed in brines containing high magnesium concentrations suggest that the corrosion products having the amakinite structure is less protective than corrosion products having the spinel structure. Corrosion rates in high-magnesium (inclusion) brine determined over a 6-month test duration were essentially constant. Hydrogen permeation rates observed in exposing mild steel to high-Mg/sup 2/plus// brine at 150/degree/C could be potentially damaging to a mild steel waste package container. The rate of hydrogen permeation was proportional to the brine flow rate in the autoclave. Thiourea additions to the brine increased the hydrogen permeation rate; sulfate and bromide ion additions did not. The maximum gaseous hydrogen pressure attainable is not known (based on 3Fe /plus/ 4H2O /plus/ Fe(sub 3)O /plus/ 4H2, would be /approximately/900 atmospheres), and the dependence of permeation rate on temperature is not known. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Indoor tests to investigate the effect of brine depth on the performance of solar still

    Marwah AW. Ali, Abdul Jabbar N. Khalifa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental and numerical studies have been done on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by examining the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the most important of the operational parameters that has received a considerable attention in the literature is the brine depth. This paper reports indoor experimental investigations on the effect of brine depth on the productivity and efficiency of the solar stills at four different brine depths of 1.5, 2, 4 and 5.5 cm. Indoor tests were used by simulating the solar input by proper electric heaters located at the bottom of the still for heating the water contained in the basin of the still. The present study validated the decreasing trend in productivity with the increase of brine depth and showed that the still productivity could be influenced by the brine depth by up to 24%.

  17. Indoor tests to investigate the effect of brine depth on the performance of solar still

    Ali, Marwah A.W.; Jabbar N. Khalifa, Abdul [Nahrain University, College of Engineering, Jadiriya, P.O. Box 64040, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Many experimental and numerical studies have been done on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by examining the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the most important of the operational parameters that has received a considerable attention in the literature is the brine depth. This paper reports indoor experimental investigations on the effect of brine depth on the productivity and efficiency of the solar stills at four different brine depths of 1.5, 2, 4 and 5.5 cm. Indoor tests were used by simulating the solar input by proper electric heaters located at the bottom of the still for heating the water contained in the basin of the still. The present study validated the decreasing trend in productivity with the increase of brine depth and showed that the still productivity could be influenced by the brine depth by up to 24%.

  18. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  19. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    over climate change and energy security. This work is an experimental and modeling study of two fundamental properties in high pressure CO2–NaCl brine equilibrium, i.e., CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density. A literature review of the available data was presented first to......Phase equilibrium for CO2–NaCl brine is of general interest to many scientific disciplines and technical areas. The system is particularly important to CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers and CO2 enhanced oil recovery, two techniques discussed intensively in recent years due to the concerns...... illustrate the necessity of experimental measurements of the two properties at high pressures. An experimental method for measuring high pressure CO2 solubility in NaCl brine was then developed. With the method, CO2 solubilities in 0, 1, and 5m NaCl brines were measured at 323, 373, and 413K from 5 to 40MPa...

  20. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage of white brined cheese.

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Shaker, Reyad R; Taha, Mohammad; Holley, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 during processing and storage of white brined cheese was investigated. Cheeses were prepared using pasteurized milk inoculated with a 4 strain E. coli O157:H7 cocktail (7 log(10) CFU/g) with or without yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus) and stored in 10% or 15% NaCl brine at 10 and 21 ºC for 28 d. NaCl concentration, water activity (a(w)), pH, and numbers of E. coli O157:H7 and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined in cheese and brine. E. coli O157:H7 was able to survive in cheese stored in both brines at 10 and 21 ºC regardless of the presence of starter LAB, although the latter significantly enhanced E. coli O157:H7 reduction in cheese or its brine at 10 ºC. E. coli O157:H7 numbers were reduced by 2.6 and 3.4 log(10) CFU/g in cheese stored in 10% and 15% NaCl brine, respectively, in the presence of starter LAB and by 1.4 and 2.3 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, in the absence of starter LAB at 10 ºC. The pathogen survived, but at lower numbers in the brines. The salt concentration of cheese stored in 10% brine remained about 5% during ripening, but in 15% brine, the NaCl level increased 1.6% to 8.1% (w/w) by 28 d. Values of pH and a(w) slightly decreased 1 d after exposure to brine and reached 5.5 to 6.6 and 0.88 to 0.94, respectively, in all treatments. PMID:25134419

  1. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources

  2. Effect of electroosmotic flow on brine imbibition in porous media

    Rui WANG; Xiang-an YUE; Xu WEI; Wei ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on Darcy's Law and the Helmholta-Smoluchowski equation, an imbibition velocity formula for the water phase with an electric field was deduced, showing that the imbibition velocity with an electric field is to various extents not only-related to the rock permeability and characteristic length, the fluid viscosity, the oil-water interface tension and the gravity of the imbibing brine, but also to the fluid dielectric permittivity, zeta potential, applied electric field direction, and strength. Imbibition experiments with electric fields that are different in direction and strength were conducted, showing that application of a positive electric field enhances the imbibition velocity and increases the imbibition recovery ratio, while application of a negative electric field reduces the imbibition velocity and decreases the imbibition recovery ratio. The imbibition recovery ratio with a positive electric field increases with the strength of the electric field, and the imbibition recovery ratio with a negative electric field is lower than that without an electric field.

  3. Study of photon attenuation coefficient in brine using MCNP code

    Barbosa, Caroline M.; Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: carolmattosb@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In petroleum industry, multiphase flows are common and the relative salt content of the water component depends on the location of oil extraction. The salt present in the water component causes incrustations in the pipeline and may interfere in the flow measurement. This paper presents an elaborate model using MCNP code to simulate a narrow beam gamma ray source, a brine sample and a NaI(Tl) detector, with beam energies ranging from 59,54 keV to 662 keV. Through this model, we can relate the photon attenuation coefficient to the salinity of water. This model can be experimentally reproduced, and used to measure the salinity in situ without affecting the medium. (author)

  4. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Kennedy, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)]. E-mail: j.kennedy@gns.cri.nz; Mautner, M.N. [Soil, Plant and Ecological Sciences Division, Lincoln University (New Zealand) and Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8001 (New Zealand)]. E-mail: m.mautner@solis1.com; Barry, B. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Markwitz, A. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2007-07-15

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  5. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  6. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  7. CO2/ brine substitution experiments at simulated reservoir conditions

    Kummerow, Juliane; Spangenberg, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Capillary properties of rocks affect the mobility of fluids in a reservoir. Therefore, the understanding of the capillary pressure behaviour is essential to assess the long-term behaviour of CO2 reservoirs. Beyond this, a calibration of the petrophysical properties on water saturation of reservoir rocks at simulated in situ conditions is crucial for a proper interpretation of field monitoring data. We present a set-up, which allows for the combined measurements of capillary pressure, electric resistivity, and elastic wave velocities under controlled reservoir conditions (pconf = 400 bar, ppore = 180 bar, T = 65 ° C) at different brine-CO2 saturations. The capillary properties of the samples are measured using the micropore membrane technique. The sample is jacketed with a Viton tube (thickness = 4 mm) and placed between two current electrode endcaps, which as well contain pore fluid ports and ultrasonic P and S wave transducers. Between the sample and the lower endcap the hydrophilic semi-permeable micro-pore membrane (pore size = 100 nm) is integrated. It is embedded into filter papers to establish a good capillary contact and to protect the highly sensitive membrane against mechanical damage under load. Two high-precision syringe pumps are used to displace a quantified volume of brine by CO2 and determine the corresponding sample saturation. The fluid displacement induces a pressure gradient along the sample, which corresponds to the capillary pressure at a particular sample saturation. It is measured with a differential pressure sensor in the range between 0 - 0.2 MPa. Drainage and imbibition cycles are performed to provide information on the efficiency of capillary trapping and to get a calibration of the petrophysical parameters of the sample.

  8. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  9. Composition of brine discharge from tunisian desalination plants

    Use of unconventional water resources such as desalination is becoming inevitable sources to alleviate water scarcity in the world. Desalination of brackish water is one of the non conventional water resources that the Tunisian government developed in order to enhance the quality of water distributed in the south. Despite the many benefits desalination technology has to offer a list of potential environmental like the emissions of air pollutant, the energy demand, land use but the main impact of desalination plant is caused by the discharge of an effluent of very high salinity. The constant discharge of reject streams with high salinity and temperature can be fatal for marine life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition of reject brine from Gabes desalination plant and Jerba desalination plant. Both desalination plants are planted to securing the fresh water supply for consumer consumption to the respectively government Gabes and Jerba when the level of salinity is exceeded 3g /l. The average capacity of these plants varied between 25000m3/d and 30 000m3/d. Water samples were collected from several locations at reject site of both desalination plant Jerba and Gabes. All samples have been analysed for major, nutritive and minor constituents The analyses reveal a difference between the compositions of brine of the both stations, The comparison between quality of the effluent discharged and Tunisian norms of reject in hydraulic areas (NT 106 002) showed that the concentration of calcium, chlorides sodium sulphates are higher than the allowable limits the norms.

  10. Buoyancy-driven CO2/brine flow at reservoir conditions

    Oh, J.; Kim, K.; Han, W.; Kim, T.; Kim, J.; Park, E.

    2013-12-01

    Suitable geological formations should guarantee a long-term safe and reliable storage of the injected supercritical CO2. In this study we targeted the cases of gravity-driven CO2 plume migration in a storage formation and the resulting CO2 leakage to overlying formation through a possible fractures or abandoned wells. A laboratory experiment and numerical model for two-phase core-flooding tests were designed to understand the buoyancy effect on supercritical CO2 migration under reservoir conditions. A series of core flooding tests were performed with Berea sandstone cores which have 20 % porosity and 1.7×10-13 m2 permeability. Unlike the normal core-flooding tests, the core was set up in a vertical direction and the CO2 was released at the bottom of the core to investigate the gravity effect on CO2 migration. During the test, the downstream pressure was maintained at 10 MPa, and the confining pressure was kept at 20 MPa. The temperature was set to be 40 °C to reflect the 1 km subsurface environment. The CO2-flooding (drainage) tests with brine-saturated core were performed with various CO2-release periods. The CO2 saturation was measured with a linear X-ray scanner. In addition to laboratory experiments, numerical simulations were performed to provide further insight into the CO2 migration behavior. TOUGH2 with ECO2N module was used to simulate CO2/brine core-flooding tests. Dimensionless numbers (Capillary number and Bond number) were calculated with the simulation results at various time points covering both the release and monitoring period.

  11. Multimeric hemoglobin of the Australian brine shrimp Parartemia.

    Coleman, M; Matthews, C M; Trotman, C N

    2001-04-01

    The hemoglobin molecule of the commercially important brine shrimp Artemia sp. has been used extensively as a model for the study of molecular evolution. It consists of nine globin domains joined by short linker sequences, and these domains are believed to have originated through a series of duplications from an original globin gene. In addition, in Artemia, two different polymers of hemoglobin, called C and T, are found which differ by 11.7% at the amino acid level and are believed to have diverged about 60 MYA. This provides a set of data of 18 globin domain sequences that have evolved in the same organism. The pattern of amino acid substitution between these two polymers is unusual, with pairs of equivalent domains displaying differences of up to 2.7-fold in total amino acid substitution. Such differences would reflect a similar range of molecular-clock rates in what appear to be duplicate, structurally equivalent domains. In order to provide a reference outgroup, we sequenced the cDNA for a nine-domain hemoglobin (P) from another genus of brine shrimp, Parartemia zietziana, which differs morphologically and ecologically from Artemia and is endemic to Australia. Parartemia produces only one hundredth the amount of hemoglobin that Artemia produces and does not upregulate production in response to low oxygen partial pressure. Comparison of the globin domains at the amino acid and DNA levels suggests that the Artemia globin T gene has accumulated substitutions differently from the Parartemia P and Artemia C globin genes. We discuss the questions of accelerated evolution after duplication and possible functions for the Parartemia globin. PMID:11264409

  12. On the viscosity of natural hyper-saline solutions and its importance: The Dead Sea brines

    Weisbrod, Noam; Yechieli, Yoseph; Shandalov, Semion; Lensky, Nadav

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the density, temperature and viscosity of hypersaline solutions, both natural and synthetic, is explored. An empirical equation of the density-viscosity relationship as a function of temperature was developed for the Dead Sea brine and its dilutions. The viscosity levels of the Dead Sea brine (density of 1.24 ṡ 103 kg/m3; viscosity of 3.6 mPa s at 20 °C) and of the more extremely saline natural brine (density of 1.37 ṡ 103 kg/m3) were found to be ∼3 and ∼10 times greater than that of fresh water, respectively. The combined effect of the above changes in viscosity and density on the hydraulic conductivity is reduction by a factor of 3-7. The chemical composition significantly affects the viscosity of brines with similar densities, whereby solutions with a higher Mg/Na ratio have higher viscosity. This explains the extremely high viscosity of the Dead Sea and related Mg-rich brines in comparison with the much lower values of NaCl and KCl brines with similar density. Possible impacts of the results include reduced settling velocity of grains in hypersaline viscous brines and changing hydraulic dynamics at the freshwater-saltwater and the vicinity of sinkholes.

  13. Capillarity and wetting of carbon dioxide and brine during drainage in Berea sandstone at reservoir conditions

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behavior of this system to pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. We report observations of the impact of reservoir conditions on the capillary pressure characteristic curve and relative permeability of a single Berea sandstone during drainage—CO2 displacing brine—through effects on the wetting state. Eight reservoir condition drainage capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5-20 MPa), temperatures (25-50°C), and ionic strengths (0-5 mol kg-1 NaCl). A ninth measurement using a N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The capillary pressure curves from each of the tests were found to be similar to the N2-water curve when scaled by the interfacial tension. Reservoir conditions were not found to have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system during drainage through a variation in the wetting state. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is water wetting and multiphase flow properties invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  14. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  15. Wettability from Capillarity of CO2-Brine-Rock Systems at Reservoir Conditions

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behaviour of this system to pressure, temperature and brine salinity. We report results of an investigation into the impact of reservoir conditions on wetting through direct observations of their impact on the capillary strength of the system. Eight capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5 to 20 MPa), temperatures (25 to 50 °C) and ionic strengths (0 to 5 M kg-1 NaCl) representative of subsurface reservoirs. A ninth measurement using an N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The semi-dynamic capillary pressure core flooding technique was used with in situ saturation monitoring. In all cases, the capillarity of the system, scaled by the interfacial tension, were equivalent to the N2-water system within measurement uncertainty. Thus reservoir conditions did not have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system through a variation in wetting. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is strongly water wetting and invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  16. Deep well injection of brine from Paradox Valley, Colorado: Potential major precipitation problems remediated by nanofiltration

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Ambats, G.; Thordsen, J.J.; Davis, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Groundwater brine seepage into the Dolores River in Paradox Valley, Colorado, increases the dissolved solids load of the Colorado River annually by ~2.0 x 108 kg. To abate this natural contamination, the Bureau of Reclamation plans to pump ~3540 m3/d of brine from 12 shallow wells located along the Dolores River. The brine, with a salinity of 250,000 mg/L, will be piped to the deepest (4.9 km) disposal well in the world and injected mainly into the Mississippian Leadville Limestone. Geochemical modeling indicates, and water-rock experiments confirm, that a huge mass of anhydrite (~1.0 x 104 kg/d) likely will precipitate from the injected brine at downhole conditions of 120??C and 500 bars. Anhydrite precipitation could increase by up to 3 times if the injected brine is allowed to mix with the highly incompatible formation water of the Leadville Limestone and if the Mg in this brine dolomitizes the calcite of the aquifer. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that nanofiltration membranes, which are selective to divalent anions, provide a new technology that remediates the precipitation problem by removing ~98% of dissolved SO4 from the hypersaline brine. The fluid pressure used (50 bars) is much lower than would be required for traditional reverse osmosis membranes because nanofiltration membranes have a low rejection efficiency (5-10%) for monovalent anions. Our results indicate that the proportion of treatable brine increases from ~60% to >85% with the addition of trace concentrations of a precipitation inhibitor and by blending the raw brine with the effluent stream.

  17. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  18. Hydrological and geochemical monitoring for a CO2 sequestration pilot in a brine formation

    Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Freifeld, Barry M.; Gunter, William D.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrological and geochemical monitoring are key components of site characterization and CO2 plume monitoring for a pilot test to inject CO2 into a brine-bearing sand of the fluvial-deltaic Frio formation in the upper Texas Gulf Coast. In situ, injected CO2 forms a supercritical phase that has gas-like properties (low density and viscosity) compared to the surrounding brine, while some CO2 dissolves in the brine. The pilot test employs one injection well and one monitor well, with contin...

  19. Examination of brine contamination risk to aquatic resources from petroleum development in the Williston Basin

    Gleason, Robert A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Chesley-Preston, Tara; Preston, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey scientists and cooperating partners are examining the potential risk to aquatic resources (for example, wetlands, streams) by contamination from saline waters (brine) produced by petroleum development in the Williston Basin of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The primary goals of this study are to provide a science-based approach to assess potential risk of brine contamination to aquatic systems and to help focus limited monitoring and mitigation resources on the areas of greatest need. These goals will be accomplished through field investigations that quantify brine movement and risk assessments using remotely-sensed and other spatial datasets.

  20. Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution.

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Balfour, Gillian; Gitari, Wilson M; Hums, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47 ° C for 48 hours, and while the hydrothermal treatment temperature was set at 140 ° C for 48 hours. The use of brine as a solvent resulted in the formation of hydroxy sodalite zeolite although unconverted mullite and hematite from the fly ash feedstock was also found in the synthesis product. PMID:22175873

  1. Buoyancy effects on upward brine displacement caused by CO2 injection

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Rinaldi, A.

    2010-01-15

    Upward displacement of brine from deep reservoirs driven by pressure increases resulting from CO{sub 2} injection for geologic carbon sequestration may occur through improperly sealed abandoned wells, through permeable faults, or through permeable channels between pinch-outs of shale formations. The concern about upward brine flow is that, upon intrusion into aquifers containing groundwater resources, the brine may degrade groundwater. Because both salinity and temperature increase with depth in sedimentary basins, upward displacement of brine involves lifting fluid that is saline but also warm into shallower regions that contain fresher, cooler water. We have carried out dynamic simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7 of upward displacement of warm, salty water into cooler, fresher aquifers in a highly idealized two-dimensional model consisting of a vertical conduit (representing a well or permeable fault) connecting a deep and a shallow reservoir. Our simulations show that for small pressure increases and/or high-salinity-gradient cases, brine is pushed up the conduit to a new static steady-state equilibrium. On the other hand, if the pressure rise is large enough that brine is pushed up the conduit and into the overlying upper aquifer, flow may be sustained if the dense brine is allowed to spread laterally. In this scenario, dense brine only contacts the lower-most region of the upper aquifer. In a hypothetical case in which strong cooling of the dense brine occurs in the upper reservoir, the brine becomes sufficiently dense that it flows back down into the deeper reservoir from where it came. The brine then heats again in the lower aquifer and moves back up the conduit to repeat the cycle. Parameter studies delineate steady-state (static) and oscillatory solutions and reveal the character and period of oscillatory solutions. Such oscillatory solutions are mostly a curiosity rather than an expected natural phenomenon because in nature the geothermal gradient prevents the

  2. Deep brine recognition upstream the EBE syndicate. Geochemical and isotopic investigations. Final report

    The authors report and discuss the results obtained after performing a drilling upstream the drinkable water harnessing field of a water supply syndicate in Alsace (Ensisheim, Bollwiller and surroundings), in order to confirm the existence of a deep brine source. This brine is diluted by recent waters. The first isotopic investigations do not allow the origin of this brine to be identified, but fractures due to some seismic events are suspected. The report presents the drilling and the various aspects of the chemical and isotopic studies (sampling, physico-chemical analysis, dating, identification of various isotopes)

  3. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  4. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  5. Self-oscillations in large storages of highly mineralized brines

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Tsiberkin, Kirill; Parshakova, Yanina

    2014-05-01

    One of the stages of the production process at large enrichment plants is settling of aqueous solutions in large technological storages. The present work is devoted to the modeling of hydrodynamic regimes of large storage of highly mineralized brines. The density of brines in these objects depends not only on the content of dissolved macrocomponents, but also on the concentration of fine particulate matter. This leads to the need to consider the dynamics of the suspended sediment under significant density stratification, which greatly complicates the problem. Because of that it is important to develop hydrodynamical models of these objects. A peculiarity of these systems is the possibility of self-oscillatory regimes the mechanism of which is as follows. In warm sunny days, with high solar insolation, the heating of the sediments and bottom water takes place. The bottom water warming and the decrease of its density give rise to flow. The slurry particles composing the sediments are involved in the flow. The heated particles entrained by the flow transfer the heat to the surrounding liquid and increase the absorption of the solar radiation in the volume, which leads to equalization of temperature and convective flow damping. After the particle settling on the bottom the process is repeated. We study the stability of equilibrium of the horizontal liquid layer containing heavy insoluble particles in the presence of evaporation from the free surface and solar radiation absorption by insoluble particles. The time-dependent solution of heat transfer problem is obtained and used for estimate of time of instability onset. It is found that for the layer of saturated brines of potassium chloride of the thickness about 10 m the time for instability onset is about one hour. By using analytical estimates based on the empirical model of turbulence by Prandtl we confirmed the time for the onset of instability and obtained the estimates for the period of self

  6. Interim report for defining brine and oil threats in the Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge [2001

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following interim report is a list of activities being performed in conjunction with the study of oil brine effects on crayfish in the Patoka River National...

  7. Corrosion studies of A216 grade WCA steel in hydrothermal magnesium-containing brines

    The US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP) is investigating the general corrosion resistance of cast mild steel as a candidate material for waste package containers. Evaluation of this material is being performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in environments simulating expected repository conditions. General corrosion studies of mild steel (ASTM A216 grade WCA) in the as-cast and normalized conditions were conducted in hydrothermal halite-saturated (saturated at ambient temperature) brine environments simulating a ''dissolution'' and an ''inclusion'' brine. Corrosion tests were also performed in brines similar to the inclusion brine but containing magnesium concentrations ranging from 1000 to 30,000 ppM to investigate the effect of magnesium on the corrosion behavior. Corrosion rates of the cast mild steel were found to increase with increasing temperature and with increasing magnesium concentration. Some possible mechanisms that explain the observed behavior are presented. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Antioxidative low molecular weight compounds in marinated herring (Clupea harengus) salt brine

    Gringer, Nina; Safafar, Hamed; du Mesnildot, Axelle;

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at unravelling the antioxidative capacity of low molecular weight compounds (LMWC) (peptides, amino acids and phenolic acids) present in salt brines from the marinated herring production. Brines were fractionated into <10 kDa fractions using dialysis and further into 94 fractions...... salt brines contain LMWC holding ABTS-radical scavenging activity, reducing power and iron chelating activity. Generally, a strong correlation between TPC and ABTSradical scavenging was found. In contrast, reducing power and iron chelating activity seemed to be caused by peptides. Protein....../peptide sequencing revealed 1 kDa peptides with the presence of HDFmotif which could be responsible for some of the antioxidant capacity observed in marinated herring salt brine....

  9. Interim report for defining brine and oil threats in the Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge [2002

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following interim report is a list of activities being performed in conjunction with the study of oil brine effects on crayfish in the Patoka River National...

  10. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  11. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  12. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Laxman Pokhrel; Bigyan Sharma; Gan B Bajracharya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  13. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  14. Production dynamics of Brine Shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Abundance, stage structure and population dynamics of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in pond M4 of the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge were documented...

  15. Bead Evaporator for Complete Water and Salt Recovery from Brine Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Brine Evaporation and Mineralization System (BEMS) is proposed for 100% water recovery from highly contaminated wastewater as well as...

  16. An experimental study of diopside- CO2 -brine interaction

    Zhou, Bing; Liu, Li; Ming, Xiaoran; Guo, Yanjun

    2014-05-01

    Diopside is one of the main minerals that consist igneous rock. It is characterized by high content of divalent cations like Ca, Mg, and Fe and relatively fast dissolution rate. These features make it an expected mineral of releasing metal ions for mineral carbonation during the research of mineral trapping of CO2. This study focus on the dissolution amount and micro-scale observing of diopside after the reaction with CO2 and brine under 100, 150, and 200°C. Each of the three experiments are carried out with 2 pieces of diopside (10mm*10mm*4mm) and 500ml Nacl (1mol/L) for 72h, and the pressure inside is 7Mp after injecting of CO2. SEM analysis of the surface of diopside before and after the experiments shows that the degree of corrosion increase with the rising of temperature. The slices of diopside lose 0.8% of its weight at the end of the experiments of 100°C, about 1.8% at 150°C, and about 3.92% at 200°C. Silicon concentrations after reaction are 14.55 mg/L (100°C), 47.02 mg/L (150°C), and 65.32 mg/L (200°C), which also prove the elevated temperature has a positive influence on dissolution of solid. Concentration of calcium and bicarbonate increase with temperature, while magnesium and iron are not. This may due to the heterogeneity of the composition in each piece of solid, or the precipitation of some compounds during the experiments. There are some amorphous compounds are found under SEM, which are mostly consisted of C, O, Na, Mg, Si, and Ca. A simple numerical simulation of CO2-diopside-brine interaction is carried out by TOUGHREACT. The setting of parameters are based on the experiments. Diopside reacts with 1mol/L Nacl under the CO2 partial pressure of 10Mp and the temperature keeps 100°C. The results present that the volume percent of precipitated carbonates (calcite and magnesite) reaches 1.23% after 100 years, which means 1m3 diopside could capture 16.76kg CO2 after 100 years by the means of mineral carbonation. This study reveals the

  17. Field evaluation of membrane distillation technologies for desalination of highly saline brines

    Minier-Matar, J.; Hussain, A; Janson, A; Benyahia, F.; Adham, S.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is a hybrid thermal-membrane desalination process that uses low-grade waste heat and hydrophobic membrane to produce high quality distillate. The MD process can treat highly saline brines that other conventional desalination processes cannot treat. These unique features of the MD process make it an ideal candidate to desalinate concentrated brines from thermal desalination plants to augment fresh water production from existing facilities. A consortium consisting of ...

  18. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed

  19. BRINE SHRIM LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF METHANOLIC CRUDE EXTRACTS OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA

    Maruf Anayet and Mohammad Musarraf Hussain

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the cytotoxic activities of Terminalia arjuna (Family: Combretaceae) by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The leaves of Terminalia arjuna were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was fractionated into three fractions by using organic solvents like n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble fractions of methanolic crude extract were screened for antitumor properties using brine shrimp lethality b...

  20. Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract

    Geethaa Sahgal; Surash Ramanathan; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Mohd. Nizam Mordi; Sabariah Ismail; Sharif Mahsufi Mansor

    2010-01-01

    Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high co...

  1. Comparing the potential for dispersal via waterbirds of a native and an invasive brine shrimp

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Hortas, F.; Figuerola, Jordi; Green, Andy J.

    2012-01-01

    Migratory waterbirds are likely to have a major role in the spread of many exotic aquatic invertebrates by passive dispersal. However, in the field, this has so far only been confirmed in the case of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, which is spreading quickly around the Mediterranean region. We compared experimentally the capacity of A. franciscana and the native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica to disperse via migratory shorebirds. After Artemia resting eggs (cysts) were f...

  2. A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products

    Pérez Pilar; Hernández-Inda Zaira L; Carballo José; García-Grávalos María D

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. It has also been suggested for screening pharmacological activities in plant extracts. However, we think that it is necessary to evaluate the suitability of the brine shrimp methods before they are used as a general bio-assay to test natural marine products for pharmacological activity. Material and Methods The bioactivity of the isopropanolic (2-PrOH) extracts of 14 specie...

  3. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg

    Ali, Niaz; Aleem, Umer; Ali Shah, Syed Wadood; Shah, Ismail; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ghayour; Ali, Waqar; Ghias, Mehreen

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed. Methods Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on sh...

  4. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  5. New aspects of the use of inert diets for high density culturing of brine shrimp

    Dobbeleir, J.; Adam, N.(Princeton University, Princeton, U.S.A); Bossuyt, E.; Bruggeman, E.; Sorgeloos, P

    1980-01-01

    Brine shrimp being non-selective filter-feeders, cheap agricultural waste products should be evaluated as potential food sources for their controlled mass culturing. Preliminary results of screening tests performed with wheat bran, soybean meal , rice bran and whey powder in culturing systems of various size are reported. Wheat bran appears to be unsuitable as monodiet for brine shrimp. The other products tested support good growth although specific precautions have to be taken with some food...

  6. Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations

    Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mitchell, K. (Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

  7. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    Noda, Fumio; HAYASHI, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  8. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, October--December 1985

    The tenth brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through December 1985. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report includes test data for 31 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. 3 refs., 118 figs., 93 tabs

  9. Quarterly brine migration data report, May-September 1983: Nuclear Waste Repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany

    The first quarterly brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1983. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 4 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 83 figs., 55 tabs

  10. A review of degradation modes of low carbon steel in brine environments

    A literature search was conducted to review information on degradation modes of low carbon steel in brine solutions. A computer search was used to obtain articles from 1970 to present while a manual search was conducted for articles published prior to 1970. The published articles and reports indicated that uniform corrosion occurred in sea water, geothermal brines and simulated repository brines. The uniform corrosion rate increased with decreasing pH, increasing oxygen contest of brine and increasing temperature. Pitting of low carbon steel in brine solutions was related to scale formation due to presences of sulfur and heavy metal ions or mill scale present prior to exposure. Low carbon steel did not appear to be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking, but data was limited. The presence of anaerobic bacteria greatly increased the rate of corrosion of low carbon steel as compared to sterile conditions. If sufficient hydrogen is present, low carbon steel could fail due to hydrogen embrittlement in brine solutions. However, this is an area where experimental work needs to be done under more specific conditions related to salt repositories. Corrosion fatigue and stray current corrosion require specific conditions to occur which can be avoided during waste storage and were there fore not addressed. Also, galvanic effects were not addressed as it will be possible to minimize galvanic effects by design. 226 refs., 4 tabs

  11. About effect of magnesium chloride and some ions in brines on boron coprecipitation by iron hydroxide

    Studies were made of conditions of precipitation of boron with iron hydroxide from the brines of the mixing zone of the Kara-Bogaz Gol, the mother liquor after the precipitation of potassium salts and artificial manganese chloride solutions at a temperature of 7-45 dee C. The maximum extraction of boron from the brines investigated is observed both in a weakly acid and a weakly alkaline medium. The extraction intensity increases drastically in the range of the maximum with an increase in brine concentration. The anions Cl-, SO42-, and HCO3- present in the brines produce the maximum effect on boron precipitation at a definite pH. This effect depends on the nature of the anions and their ratio in the brine. With a rise in temperature the degree of boron precipitations from the magnesium chloride brine and the precipitate capacity increase as a result of the release of active magnesium hydroxide. When the ratio of Fe2O3 to 100 ml initial solution changes towards increase in precipitating agent at a constant temperature, the precipitate capacity for B2O3 decreases

  12. Chemical Analyses of Geothermal Waters and Strategic Petroleum Reserve Brines for Strategic and Precious Metals

    Harrar, Jackson E.; Raber, Ellen

    1983-06-01

    Water form seven hydrothermal-geothermal, one geopressured-geothermal, and six Strategic Petroleum Reserve wells have been surveyed for twelve metals of special strategic and economic importance using trace chemical analysis techniques. The elements sought were Cr, Co, Mn, Ta, Sn, V, Nb, Li, Sr, Pt, Au, and Ag. Platinum was found at a concentration of ~50 ppb in a brine from the Salton Sea geothermal area. Brine from this region, as has been known from previous studies, is also rich in Li, Sr, and Mn. Higher concentrations (~900) of Sr are found in the high-salinity geopressured brines. None of the fluids contained interesting concentrations of the other metals. Good recovery of precious metals at sub-ppm concentrations from synthetic high salinity brines was achieved using Amborane resin, but similar recovery in the laboratory using real brines could not be demonstrated. Several analytical techniques were compared in sensitivity for the determination of the precious metals; neutron activation analysis with carrier separation is the best for gold and platinum in geothermal brines. (DJE-2005)

  13. Evolution of Hydrate Dissociation by Warm Brine Stimulation Combined Depressurization in the South China Sea

    Zhao-Yang Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the gas production performance of the hydrate accumulations in the South China Sea, a numerical simulation with warm brine stimulation combined depressurization has been conducted. A dual horizontal well system is considered as the well configuration in this work. In order to reduce energy input and improve energy utilization, warm brine (50 °C is injected into the reservoir for hydrate dissociation. The effect of the intrinsic permeability of the hydrate reservoir, the salinity and the temperature of the injected brine to gas hydrate exploitation have been investigated. The numerical simulation results indicate that the average gas production rate Qavg is about 1.23 ´ 105 ST m3/day for the entire hydrate deposit, which has the same order of magnitude compared with the commercially viable production rate. The injected brine can be pumped out from the upper production well directly after the hydrate between the two wells is dissociated completely. Thus, the effective region of heat and inhibitor stimulation is limited. The sensitivity analyses indicate that the dissociation rate of hydrate can be enhanced by increasing the temperature of the injected brine and raising the salinity of the injected brine. The parametric study of permeability shows that the hydrate of the reservoir with the larger permeability has a higher dissociation rate.

  14. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982

    This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations

  15. Comparison of the Wear Behavior of UHMWPE Lubricated by Human Plasma and Brine

    WANG Shi-bo; GE Shi-rong; NORM Gitis; MICHAEL Vinogradov; XIAO Jun

    2007-01-01

    The effect of plasma and brine lubricants on the friction and wear behavior of UHMWPE were studied by using the geometry of a Si3N4 ball sliding on a UHMWPE disc under patterns of uni-directional reciprocation and bi-directional sliding motions. The worn surface and wear particles produced in these two lubricants were analyzed. Sliding motion pattern affected the friction coefficients lubricated with plasma, while seldom affected that lubricated with brine. UHMWPE lubricated with plasma showed about half of the wear rate of that lubricated with brine. The two rates were 0.75 pg/m and 2.19 pg/m for the two motion patterns, respectively. However, wear particles generated in plasma included a greater amount of small particles, compared to that in brine. In uni-directional reciprocation, the main wear mechanism is ploughing both in plasma and in brine. In bi-directional sliding modes, the significant characteristic is ripples on the worn surface in plasma, while there are oriented fibers on the worn surface in brine.

  16. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J. [I. T. Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office

    1995-04-01

    This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

  17. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide

  18. Long-term monitoring of arsenic, copper, selenium, and other elements in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) surface water, brine shrimp, and brine flies.

    Adams, William J; DeForest, David K; Tear, Lucinda M; Payne, Kelly; Brix, Kevin V

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents long-term monitoring data for 19 elements with a focus on arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se), in surface water (2002-2011), brine shrimp (2001-2011), and brine flies (1995-1996) collected from Great Salt Lake (GSL, Utah, USA). In open surface waters, mean (±standard deviation [SD]; range; n) As concentrations were 112 (±22.1; 54.0-169; 47) and 112 μg/L (±35.6; 5.1-175; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 16.3 μg/g (±5.6; 5.1-35.2; 62) dry weight (dw) in brine shrimp. Mean (±SD; range; n) Cu concentrations were 4.2 (±2.1; 1.3-12.5; 47) and 6.9 μg/L (±6.6; 1.9-38.1; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 20.6 μg/g (±18.4; 5.4-126; 62) dw in brine shrimp. Finally, mean (±SD; range; n) dissolved and total recoverable Se concentrations were 0.6 (±0.1; 0.4-1.2; 61) and 0.9 μg/L (±0.7; 0.5-3.6; 89), respectively, and 3.6 μg/g (±2.2; 1.1-14.9; 98) dw in brine shrimp. Thus, Se in open lake surface waters was most often in the range of 0.5-1 μg/L, and concentrations in both surface water and brine shrimp were comparable to concentrations measured in other monitoring programs for the GSL. Temporally, the statistical significance of differences in mean dissolved or total recoverable As, Cu, and Se concentrations between years was highly variable depending which test statistic was used, and there was no clear evidence of increasing or decreasing trends. In brine shrimp, significant differences in annual mean concentrations of As, Cu, and Se were observed using both parametric and nonparametric statistical approaches, but, as for water, there did not appear to be a consistent increase or decrease in concentrations of these elements over time. PMID:25690606

  19. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  20. Bioencapsulation of the antibacterial drug sarafloxacin in nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    Dixon, B.A.; Van Poucke, S; Chair, M; Dehasque, M.; Nelis, H J; Sorgeloos, P.; De Leenheer, A P

    1995-01-01

    Nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were enriched with the antibacterial drug sarafloxacin hydrochloride to determine if levels effective against four pathogenetic strains of Vibrio spp. would accumulate in brine shrimp. Three vibrio strains were Vibrio anguillarum; the fourth was V. vulnificus. Concentrations of sarafloxacin ranging from 1 to 40% (weight: volume) were incorporated into the oil phase of Super Selco brine shrimp diets. Enriched nauplii and controls were sampled at ...

  1. Modeling brine and nutrient dynamics in Antarctic sea ice: The case of dissolved silica

    Vancoppenolle, Martin; Goosse, Hugues; de Montety, Anne; Fichefet, Thierry; Tremblay, Bruno; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2010-02-01

    Sea ice ecosystems are characterized by microalgae living in brine inclusions. The growth rate of ice algae depends on light and nutrient supply. Here, the interactions between nutrients and brine dynamics under the influence of algae are investigated using a one-dimensional model. The model includes snow and ice thermodynamics with brine physics and an idealized sea ice biological component, characterized by one nutrient, namely, dissolved silica (DSi). In the model, DSi follows brine motion and is consumed by ice algae. Depending on physical ice characteristics, the brine flow is either advective, diffusive, or turbulent. The vertical profiles of ice salinity and DSi concentration are solutions of advection-diffusion equations. The model is configured to simulate the typical thermodynamic regimes of first-year Antarctic pack ice. The simulated vertical profiles of salinity and DSi qualitatively reproduce observations. Analysis of results highlights the role of convection in the lowermost 5-10 cm of ice. Convection mixes saline, nutrient-poor brine with comparatively fresh, nutrient-rich seawater. This implies a rejection of salt to the ocean and a flux of DSi to the ice. In the presence of growing algae, the simulated ocean-to-ice DSi flux increases by 0-115% compared to an abiotic situation. In turn, primary production and brine convection act in synergy to form a nutrient pump. The other important processes are the flooding of the surface by seawater and the percolation of meltwater. The former refills nutrients near the ice surface in spring. The latter, if present, tends to expell nutrients from the ice in summer.

  2. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10-11 to 10-5 M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10-8 to 10-5 M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week

  3. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    Winslow, C D

    1981-03-01

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -5/ M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week.

  4. Corrosion and hydrogen permeation of A216 grade WCA steel in hydrothermal magnesium-containing brines

    The US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP) is investigating the general corrosion resistance of cast mild steel as a candidate material for waste package containers. Evaluation of this material is being performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in environments simulating expected repository conditions. The present work addresses two potential failure modes of the reference waste package container: failure by general corrosion processes, and failure by internal hydrogen pressurization by permeation of corrosion product hydrogen. General corrosion studies of mild steel (ASTM A216 grade WCA) in the as-cast and normalized conditions were conducted in hydrothermal halite-saturated (saturated at ambient temperature) brine environments simulating a dissolution and an inclusion brine. Corrosion tests were also performed in brines similar to the inclusion brine but containing magnesium concentrations ranging from 1,000 to 30,000 ppm to investigate the effect of magnesium on the corrosion behavior. In addition, long-term (to 18 months) corrosion tests have been carried out using two-phase salt/brine environments (excess salt tests). Corrosion rates of the cast mild steel in brine were found to increase with increasing temperature and with increasing magnesium concentration. Some possible mechanisms that explain the observed behavior are presented. The corrosion rates observed in the excess-salt tests tend to decrease with time, at 200 degree and 150 degree C; and as-cast material corrodes more slowly than does normalized material. Corrosion-product hydrogen rapidly permeated a mild steel tubing corrosion/permeation specimen immersed in brine. The rate of permeation at 150 degree C was high enough to cause concern regarding potential container overpressurization

  5. Design Status of the Capillary Brine Residual in Containment Water Recovery System

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the AES Life Support System (LSS) Project is to achieve 98% water loop closure for long duration human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. To meet this objective, the AES LSS Project is developing technologies to recover water from wastewater brine; highly concentrated waste products generated from a primary water recovery system. The state of the art system used aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to recover up to 85% water from unine wastewater, leaving a significant amounts of water in the waste brine, the recovery of which is a critical technology gap that must be filled in order to enable long duration human exploration. Recovering water from the urine wastewater brine is complicated by the concentration of solids as water is removed from the brine, and the concentration of the corrosive, toxic chemicals used to stabilize the urine which fouls and degrades water processing hardware, and poses a hazard to operators and crew. Brine Residual in Containment (BRIC) is focused on solids management through a process of "in-place" drying - the drying of brines within the container used for final disposal. Application of in-place drying has the potential to improve the safety and reliability of the system by reducing the exposure to crew and hardware to the problematic brine residual. Through a collaboration between the NASA Johnson Space Center and Portland Status University, a novel water recovery system was developed that utilizes containment geometry to support passive capillary flow and static phase separation allowing free surface evaporation to take place in a microgravity environment. A notional design for an ISS demonstration system was developed. This paper describes the concept for the system level design.

  6. Carbonation of brine impacted fractionated coal fly ash: implications for CO2 sequestration.

    Nyambura, Muriithi Grace; Mugera, Gitari Wilson; Felicia, Petrik Leslie; Gathura, Ndungu Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Coal combustion by-products such as fly ash (FA), brine and CO(2) from coal fired power plants have the potential to impact negatively on the environment. FA and brine can contaminate the soil, surface and ground water through leaching of toxic elements present in their matrices while CO(2) has been identified as a green house gas that contributes significantly towards the global warming effect. Reaction of CO(2) with FA/brine slurry can potentially provide a viable route for CO(2) sequestration via formation of mineral carbonates. Fractionated FA has varying amounts of CaO which not only increases the brine pH but can also be converted into an environmentally benign calcite. Carbonation efficiency of fractionated and brine impacted FA was investigated in this study. Controlled carbonation reactions were carried out in a reactor set-up to evaluate the effect of fractionation on the carbonation efficiency of FA. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of fresh and carbonated ash were evaluated using XRF, SEM, and XRD. Brine effluents were characterized using ICP-MS and IC. A factorial experimental approach was employed in testing the variables. The 20-150 μm size fraction was observed to have the highest CO(2) sequestration potential of 71.84 kg of CO(2) per ton of FA while the >150 μm particles had the lowest potential of 36.47 kg of CO(2) per ton of FA. Carbonation using brine resulted in higher degree of calcite formation compared to the ultra-pure water carbonated residues. PMID:20970918

  7. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    Rehab Z. Abdallah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central rift of the Red Sea contains 25 brine pools with different physicochemical conditions, dictating the diversity and abundance of the microbial community. Three of these pools, the Atlantis II, Kebrit and Discovery Deeps, are uniquely characterized by a high concentration of hydrocarbons. The brine-seawater interface, described as an anoxic-oxic (brine-seawater boundary, is characterized by a high methane concentration, thus favoring aerobic methane oxidation. The current study analyzed the aerobic free–living methane-oxidizing bacterial communities that potentially contribute to methane oxidation at the brine-seawater interfaces of the three aforementioned brine pools, using metagenomic pyrosequencing, 16S rRNA pyrotags and pmoA library constructs. The sequencing of 16S rRNA pyrotags revealed that these interfaces are characterized by high microbial community diversity. Signatures of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria were detected in the Atlantis II Interface (ATII-I and the Kebrit Deep Upper (KB-U and Lower (KB-L brine-seawater interfaces. Through phylogenetic analysis of pmoA, we further demonstrated that the ATII-I aerobic methanotroph community is highly diverse. We propose four ATII-I pmoA clusters. Most importantly, cluster 2 groups with marine methane seep methanotrophs, and cluster 4 represent a unique lineage of an uncultured bacterium with divergent alkane monooxygenases. Moreover, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS based on the ordination of putative enzymes involved in methane metabolism showed that the Kebrit interface layers were distinct from the ATII-I and DD-I brine-seawater interfaces.

  8. The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of

  9. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  10. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea europea. L.)

    Olive fruits (Olea europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater (daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine

  11. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062)...

  12. Behavior of natural uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Wolfcamp brine aquifers, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    Previously reported results for Palo Duro deep brines show that Ra is highly soluble and not retarded. Relative to Ra, U and Th are highly sorbed. Uranium, like thorium, is in the +4 valence state, indicating a reducing environment. Additional data reported here support these results. However, one Wolfcamp brine sample gives somewhat different results. Radium appears to be somewhat sorbed. Uranium is largely in the +6 valence state, indicating a less reducing condition. In all brines, kinetics for sorption (228Th) and desorption (224Ra) are rapid. This Wolfcamp brine was tested for the effects of colloids for Ra, U, and Th concentrations. No effects were found

  13. Experimental Work Conducted on MgO Inundated Hydration in WIPP-Relevant Brines

    Deng, H.; Xiong, Y.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is being emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an engineered barrier to mitigate the effect of microbial CO2 generation on actinide mobility in a postclosure repository environment. MgO will sequester CO2 and consume water in brine or water vapor in the gaseous phase. Martin Marietta (MM) MgO is currently being emplaced in the WIPP. A fractional-factorial experiment has been performed to study the inundated-hydration of MM MgO as a function of its particle size, solid-to-liquid ratio, and brine type. MgO hydration experiments have been carried out with three MgO particle sizes and two solid-to-liquid ratios in three WIPP-related brines: ERDA-6, GWB and simplified GWB. ERDA-6 is a synthetic NaCl-rich brine typical of a Castile brine reservoir below the repository. GWB is a synthetic MgCl2- and NaCl-rich brine representative of intergranular brines from the Salado Formation at or near the stratigraphic horizon of the repository. Simplified GWB contains amounts of Mg, Na, and Cl similar to those in GWB without other minor constituents. The hydration products include brucite (Mg(OH)2) and phase 5 (Mg3(OH)5Cl4H2O). In addition to phase 5, MgO hydration in GWB or simplified GWB produces brucite, whereas MgO hydrated in ERDA-6 only produces brucite. The MgO particle size has had a significant effect on the formation of hydration products: small MgO particles have hydrated before the large particles. MgO has hydrated faster in simplified GWB than in the other two brines. In ERDA-6, the solid-to-liquid ratio has affected the brine pH due to the presence of CaO (~1 wt %) as an impurity in MM MgO. GWB has sufficient dissolved Mg to buffer pH despite small amounts of CaO. Both our results and thermodynamic modeling indicate that phase-5 is the stable Mg-OH-Cl phase in Mg-Na-Cl-dominated brines with ionic strengths and chemical compositions similar to that of GWB. In contrast, phase-3 (Mg2(OH)3Cl4H2O) is the stable phase in the MgCl2

  14. The origin of brines and salts in Chilean salars: a hydrochemical review

    Risacher, François; Alonso, Hugo; Salazar, Carlos

    2003-11-01

    Northern Chile is characterized by a succession of north-south-trending ranges and basins occupied by numerous saline lakes and salt crusts, collectively called salars. Fossil salt crusts are found to the west in the extremely arid Central Valley, while active salars receiving permanent inflows fill many intravolcanic basins to the east in the semiarid Cordillera. Sea salts and desert dust are blown eastward over the Cordillera, where they constitute an appreciable fraction of the solute load of very dilute waters (salt contentsalars. Saline lakes and subsurface brines are under steady-state regime. The average residence time of conservative components ranges from a few years to some thousands years, which indicates a permanent leakage of the brines through bottom sediments. The infiltrating brines are recycled in the hydrologic system where they mix with dilute meteoric waters. High heat flow is the likely driving force that moves the deep waters in this magmatic arc region. Active Chilean salars cannot be considered as terminal lakes nor, strictly speaking, as closed basin lakes. Almost all incoming salts leave the basin and are transported elsewhere. Moreover, the dissolution of fossil salt crusts in some active salars also carries away important fluxes of components in percolating brines. Evaporative concentration of inflow waters leads to sulfate-rich or calcium-rich, near-neutral brines. Alkaline brines are almost completely lacking. The alkalinity/calcium ratio of inflow waters is lowered by the oxidation of native sulfur (reducing alkalinity) and the deposition of eolian gypsum (increasing Ca concentration). Theoretically, SO 4-rich inflow waters and their derived SO 4-rich brines should be found in the intravolcanic basins of the Cordillera because of the ubiquity of native sulfur, while Ca-rich brines should prevail in sedimentary basins where Ca-rich minerals are abundant. This relation is perfectly observed in the salar de Atacama, the largest in Chile

  15. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, Artemia salina

    To determine the effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, nauplii and adults were exposed to different doses of radiation and maintained at different salinities and temperatures. The LD50 determination demonstrated that nauplii were thirty to forty times more sensitive than the adults and had a 25-day LD50 of 450 rads. Radiation and salinity reduced survival of adult female brine shrimp more than the males. The interaction of salinity, 5 and 50 ppt, temperature, 10, 20 and 300C, and radiation, 25 to 100 kilorads, decreased the survival of both male and female brine shrimp, with the males having the greater sensitivity. Brine shrimp nauplii irradiated with doses of 500 and 2,500 rads had accelerated growth and matured earlier than the controls. A test of the effect of crowding on growth showed that volume per individual was important, and a dose of 500 rads accelerated brine shrimp growth in all concentrations, with the greatest increase at 8 ml/nauplius

  17. Geochemical evaluation of flowback brine from Marcellus gas wells in Pennsylvania, USA

    Large quantities of highly saline brine flow from gas wells in the Marcellus Formation after hydraulic stimulation (“fracking”). This study assesses the composition of these flowback waters from the Marcellus shale in Pennsylvania, USA. Concentrations of most inorganic components of flowback water (Cl, Br, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Ra, Fe, Mn, total dissolved solids, and others) increase with time from a well after hydraulic stimulation. Based on results in several datasets reported here, the greatest concentration of Cl− in flowback water is 151,000 mg/L. For total Ra (combined 226Ra and 228Ra) in flowback, the highest level reported is 6540 pCi/L. Flowback waters from hydraulic fracturing of Marcellus wells resemble brines produced from conventional gas wells that tap into other Paleozoic formations in the region. The Br/Cl ratio and other parameters indicate that both types of brine formed by the evaporation of seawater followed by dolomitization, sulfate reduction and subsurface mixing with seawater and/or freshwater. Trends and relationships in brine composition indicate that (1) increased salt concentration in flowback is not mainly caused by dissolution of salt or other minerals in rock units, (2) the flowback waters represent a mixture of injection waters with highly concentrated in situ brines similar to those in the other formations, and (3) these waters contain concentrations of Ra and Ba that are commonly hundreds of times the US drinking water standards.

  18. Inhibitors of lactic acid fermentation in Spanish-style green olive brines of the Manzanilla variety.

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero, Concepción; de Castro, Antonio; Brenes, Manuel; García, Aranzazu

    2008-10-15

    Frequently, a delay or lack of lactic acid fermentation occurs during the processing of Spanish-style green olives, in particular of the Manzanilla variety. Many variables can affect the progress of fermentation such as temperature, nutrients, salt concentration, antimicrobials in brines, and others. In this study, it was demonstrated that an inappropriate alkaline treatment (low NaOH strength and insufficient alkali penetration) allowed for the presence of several antimicrobial compounds in brines, which inhibited the growth of Lactobacillus pentosus. These substances were the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid either free or linked to hydroxytyrosol and an isomer of oleoside 11-methyl ester. Olive brines, from olives treated with a NaOH solution of low concentration up to 1/2 the distance to the pit, contained these antimicrobials, and no lactic acid fermentation took place in them. By contrast, a more intense alkaline treatment (2/3 lye depth penetration) gave rise to an abundant growth of lactic acid bacteria without any antimicrobial in brines. Therefore, the precise cause of stuck fermentation in Manzanilla olive brines was demonstrated for the first time and this finding will contribute to better understand the table olive fermentation process. PMID:26047282

  19. Highly selective lithium recovery from brine using a λ-MnO2-Ag battery.

    Lee, Jaehan; Yu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Choonsoo; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2013-05-28

    The demand for lithium has greatly increased with the rapid development of rechargeable batteries. Currently, the main lithium resource is brine lakes, but the conventional lithium recovery process is time consuming, inefficient, and environmentally harmful. Rechargeable batteries have been recently used for lithium recovery, and consist of lithium iron phosphate as a cathode. These batteries feature promising selectivity between lithium and sodium, but they suffer from severe interference from coexisting magnesium ions, an essential component of brine, which has prompted further study. This study reports on a highly selective and energy-efficient lithium recovery system using a rechargeable battery that consists of a λ-MnO2 positive electrode and a chloride-capturing negative electrode. This system can be used to recover lithium from brine even in the presence of magnesium ions as well as other dissolved cations. In addition, lithium recovery from simulated brine is successfully demonstrated, consuming 1.0 W h per 1 mole of lithium recovered, using water similar to that from the artificial brine, which contains various cations (mole ratio: Na/Li ≈ 15.7, K/Li ≈ 2.2, Mg/Li ≈ 1.9). PMID:23595419

  20. Evaporative Evolution of Carbonate-Rich Brines from Synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff Pore Water, Yucca Mountain

    Sutton, M; Alai, M; Carroll, S A

    2004-04-14

    The evaporation of a range of synthetic pore water solutions representative of the potential high-level-nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV is being investigated. The motivation of this work is to understand and predict the range of brine compositions that may contact the waste containers from evaporation of pore waters, because these brines could form corrosive thin films on the containers and impact their long-term integrity. A relatively complex synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff pore water was progressively concentrated by evaporation in a closed vessel, heated to 95 C in a series of sequential experiments. Periodic samples of the evaporating solution were taken to determine the evolving water chemistry. According to chemical divide theory at 25 C and 95 C our starting solution should evolve towards a high pH carbonate brine. Results at 95 C show that this solution evolves towards a complex brine that contains about 99 mol% Na{sup +} for the cations, and 71 mol% Cl{sup -}, 18 mol% {Sigma}CO{sub 2}(aq), 9 mol%SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for the anions. Initial modeling of the evaporating solution indicates precipitation of aragonite, halite, silica, sulfate and fluoride phases. The experiments have been used to benchmark the use of the EQ3/6 geochemical code in predicting the evolution of carbonate-rich brines during evaporation.

  1. The effect of brine salinity on fill fraction and formation pattern of methane hydrates in sandstone

    Husebo, J.; Ersland, G.; Kvamme, B.; Graue, A. [Bergen Univ., Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Physics and Technology; Stevens, J. [ConocoPhillips, Bartlesville, OK (United States). Bartlesville Technology Center

    2008-07-01

    Methane hydrates were synthesized in sandstone cores partially saturated with brine at different salinity levels. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of salinity on hydrate filling fractions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to study the in-situ formation pattern of the hydrates. Results of the experimental study showed that salinity levels lower than sea water composition did not have a significant impact on the fill fractions of methane hydrates in porous media. However, when salinity levels higher than sea water were used, a significant drop in the hydrate's fill fraction was noted. Results suggested that methane hydrate fill fraction is dominated by the total brine salinity as opposed to the brine distribution within the sediment core. The MRI analysis showed that hydrate growth patterns are influenced by the initial brine distribution rather than brine salinity levels. It was concluded that the available methane in hydrate reserves can be predicted by identifying the salinity levels of the adjacent aqueous zone. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Measurement and modeling of CO₂ solubility in natural and synthetic formation brines for CO₂ sequestration.

    Zhao, Haining; Dilmore, Robert; Allen, Douglas E; Hedges, Sheila W; Soong, Yee; Lvov, Serguei N

    2015-02-01

    CO2 solubility data in the natural formation brine, synthetic formation brine, and synthetic NaCl+CaCl2 brine were collected at the pressures from 100 to 200 bar, temperatures from 323 to 423 K. Experimental results demonstrate that the CO2 solubility in the synthetic formation brines can be reliably represented by that in the synthetic NaCl+CaCl2 brines. We extended our previously developed model (PSUCO2) to calculate CO2 solubility in aqueous mixed-salt solution by using the additivity rule of the Setschenow coefficients of the individual ions (Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), and SO4(2-)). Comparisons with previously published models against the experimental data reveal a clear improvement of the proposed PSUCO2 model. Additionally, the path of the maximum gradient of the CO2 solubility contours divides the P-T diagram into two distinct regions: in Region I, the CO2 solubility in the aqueous phase decreases monotonically in response to increased temperature; in region II, the behavior of the CO2 solubility is the opposite of that in Region I as the temperature increases. PMID:25558883

  3. Use of phytoplankton pigments in estimating food selection of three marine copepods

    Oechsler-Christensen, B.; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Henriksen, P.; Hansen, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    , Temora longicornis and Acartia tonsa, as well as in their faecal pellets. The fate of the phytoplankton pigments was studied in A. tonsa fed a diatom and a cryptophyte at a low and a high prey concentration. The concentration of gut pigments generally declined rapidly within the first 5–10 min after...... feeding terminated. The decline in pigment concentration was faster in copepods fed high concentrations of phytoplankton and specially when fed the diatom. However, after 3h of no feeding only minor changes in gut pigment composition were found mainly in alloxanthin, chlorophyll a and diadinoxanthin...

  4. Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Swift, P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-10-01

    At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ``disposal-unit boundary`` or the Standard`s accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations.

  5. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Brine originating from the deep subsurface impairs parts of the freshwater resources in the North German Basin. Some of the deep porous formations (esp. Trias and Jurassic) exhibit considerable storage capacities for waste fluids (CO2, brine from oil production or cavern leaching), raising concerns among water providers that this type of deep subsurface utilization might impair drinking water supplies. On the one hand, overpressures induced by fluid injections and the geothermal gradient support brine migration from deep into shallow formations. On the other hand, the rising brine is denser than the surrounding less-saline formation waters and, therefore, tends to settle down. Aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which pressurized formation brine from deep formations can reach shallow freshwater resources. Especially, the role of intermediate porous formations between the storage formation and the groundwater is studied. For this, complex thermohaline simulations using a coupled numerical process model are necessary and performed in this study, in which fluid density depends on fluid pressure, temperature and salt content and the governing partial differential equations are coupled. The model setup is 2D and contains a hypothetic series of aquifers and barriers, each with a thickness of 200 m. Formation pressure is increased at depths of about 2000 m in proximity to a salt wall and a permeable fault. The domain size reaches up to tens of kilometers horizontally to the salt wall. The fault connects the injection formation and the freshwater aquifer such that conditions can be considered as extremely favorable for induced brine migration (worst case scenarios). Brine, heat, and salt fluxes are quantified with reference to hydraulic permeabilities, storage capacities (in terms of domain size), initial salt and heat distribution, and operation pressures. The simulations reveal the development of a stagnation point in the fault region in each

  6. Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ''disposal-unit boundary'' or the Standard's accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations

  7. CO2-Brine Rheology Could Suppress Leakage From Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    Wang, S.; Clarens, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) in the deep subsurface is an attractive means for storing large volumes of CO2 over the long term. GCS is predicated on there being minimal leakage of CO2 to the surface since this would negate the climate change benefits and could also create a human health risk. Despite the importance of understanding leakage processes to GCS deployment, the phenomena remain especially difficult to characterize because CO2, driven by buoyant forces out of host formations, must travel over long length scales, encountering varied geologic formations and endogenous brines, and experiencing a wide range of shear, temperature and pressure conditions that result in complex phase behavior. This study explores the rheology of CO2-brine mixtures in an effort to better characterize the geophysics of a rising parcel of CO2 in the subsurface. Experimental work in this area to date has assumed that CO2-brine mixtures will exhibit simple Newtonian behavior. The hypothesis of this work is that CO2-brine mixtures will move through porous media generating high shear rates, caused by the small pore sizes, that could result in more complex flow phenomena. The rheological properties of single and multiphase CO2-brine mixtures were measured over a range of GCS-relevant temperature, pressure, ionic strength, and shear conditions using a rotational rheometer fitted with a high-pressure vessel and a low viscosity measurement unit. Under liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) conditions CO2-brine mixtures were found to exhibit consistently Newtonian behavior with the effective viscosity generally increasing with respect to CO2(aq) concentration. A small dip in viscosity occurs at the pressure corresponding to the transition of CO2 from liquid to gas but this minor effect is not likely to have an appreciable impact on leakage rates. More significantly, under vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) conditions, CO2-brine suspensions exhibit complex viscoelastic behavior that could

  8. Influence of radiolytic products on the chemistry of uranium VI in brines

    In the near field of a salt repository of nuclear waste, ionizing radiations can strongly affect the chemistry of concentrated saline solutions. Radiolysis can locally modify the redox conditions, speciation, solubility and mobility of the actinide compounds. In the case of uranium VI, radiolytic products can not only reduce U(VI), but also react with uranium species. The net effect on the speciation of uranyl depends on the relative kinetics of the reactions and the buildup of molecular products in brine solutions. The most important molecular products in brines are expected to be hypochlorite ion, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide. Although U(VI) is expected not to be significantly affected by radiolysis, the combined effects of the major molecular radiolytic products on the chemistry of U(VI) in brines have not been experimentally established previously. (authors)

  9. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  10. FIELD IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR A WILLISTON BASIN BRINE EXTRACTION AND STORAGE TEST

    Hamling, John; Klapperich, Ryan; Stepan, Daniel; Sorensen, James; Pekot, Lawrence; Peck, Wesley; Jacobson, Lonny; Bosshart, Nicholas; Hurley, John; Wilson, William; Kurz, Marc; Burnison, Shaughn; Salako, Olarinre; Musich, Mark; Botnen, Barry; Kalenze, Nicholas; Ayash, Scott; Ge, Jun; Jiang, Tao; Dalkhaa, Chantsalmaa; Oster, Benjamin; Peterson, Kyle; Feole, Ian; Gorecki, Charles; Steadman, Edward

    2016-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) successfully completed all technical work of Phase I, including development of a field implementation plan (FIP) for a brine extraction and storage test (BEST) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin. This implementation plan was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a proxy for managing formation pressure plumes and measuring/monitoring the movement of differential pressure and CO2 plumes in the subsurface for future saline CO2 storage projects. BEST comprises the demonstration and validation of active reservoir management (ARM) strategies and extracted brine treatment technologies. Two prospective commercial brine injection sites were evaluated for BEST to satisfy DOE’s goals. Ultimately, an active saltwater disposal (SWD) site, Johnsons Corner, was selected because it possesses an ideal combination of key factors making it uniquely suited to host BEST. This site is located in western North Dakota and operated by Nuverra Environmental Solutions (Nuverra), a national leader in brine handling, treatment, and injection. An integrated management approach was used to incorporate local and regional geologic characterization activities with geologic and simulation models, inform a monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan, and to conduct a risk assessment. This approach was used to design a FIP for an ARM schema and an extracted brine treatment technology test bed facility. The FIP leverages an existing pressure plume generated by two commercial SWD wells. These wells, in conjunction with a new brine extraction well, will be used to conduct the ARM schema. Results of these tests will be quantified based on their impact on the performance of the existing SWD wells and the surrounding reservoir system. Extracted brine will be injected into an underlying deep saline formation through a new injection well. The locations of proposed

  11. Exposure and effects of oilfield brine discharges on western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J. [National Biological Survey, Laurel, MD (United States); Capizzi, J.L. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); King, K.A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ (United States); LeCaptain, L.J. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Spokane, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Discharge of oilfield brines into fresh and estuarine waters is a common disposal practice in Texas. Petroleum crude oil (PCO) extraction from underground stores includes the removal of a significant amount of water along with the oil. Several methods may be used to separate the oil and water fractions, including tank batteries, heat separation, and skimming ponds. Disposal of the resultant produced water (oilfield brine) may be accomplished by deep-well injection or discharge to surface waters. In Texas, an estimated 766,000 barrels of oilfield brine were discharged daily into tidal waters in 1979. The maximum concentration for oil and grease in these discharges permitted by the Texas Railroad Commission is 25 ppm. Several studies have shown that oilfield brines are toxic to a wide range of marine life, yet little is known about their effects on birds and mammals. Exposure to petroleum in oilfield wastes could evoke toxicological effects in some waterbird species. Avian responses to PCO exposure are highly variable, including cessation of growth, osmoregulatory impairment, endocrine dysfunction, hemolytic anemia, altered blood chemistry, cytochrome P450 induction, reduced reproductive success, and mortality. Oilfield brine discharges may soon be the largest and most pervasive source of contaminants entering Texas estuaries. Migratory and resident birds feeding in the vicinity of discharge sites may be ingesting food items contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts in sufficient quantities to evoke toxicity. The present study of wintering western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that feed and roost near discharge sites sought to examine oilfield brine exposure and effects through quantification of contaminant burdens, morphological characteristics, and cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Laboratory flow experiments for visualizing carbon dioxide-induced, density-driven brine convection

    Kneafsey, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-09-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers confined by low-permeability cap rock will result in a layer of CO{sub 2} overlying the brine. Dissolution of CO{sub 2} into the brine increases the brine density, resulting in an unstable situation in which more-dense brine overlies less-dense brine. This gravitational instability could give rise to density-driven convection of the fluid, which is a favorable process of practical interest for CO{sub 2} storage security because it accelerates the transfer of buoyant CO{sub 2} into the aqueous phase, where it is no longer subject to an upward buoyant drive. Laboratory flow visualization tests in transparent Hele-Shaw cells have been performed to elucidate the processes and rates of this CO{sub 2} solute-driven convection (CSC). Upon introduction of CO{sub 2} into the system, a layer of CO{sub 2}-laden brine forms at the CO{sub 2}-water interface. Subsequently, small convective fingers form, which coalesce, broaden, and penetrate into the test cell. Images and time-series data of finger lengths and wavelengths are presented. Observed CO{sub 2} uptake of the convection system indicates that the CO{sub 2} dissolution rate is approximately constant for each test and is far greater than expected for a diffusion-only scenario. Numerical simulations of our system show good agreement with the experiments for onset time of convection and advancement of convective fingers. There are differences as well, the most prominent being the absence of cell-scale convection in the numerical simulations. This cell-scale convection observed in the experiments is probably initiated by a small temperature gradient induced by the cell illumination.

  13. Biological screening of chitosan derivatives using Artemia spp. (brine shrimp test)

    The present study reported on the screening of six selected chitosan derivatives using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the irradiation effects towards the compounds at 25 kGy were also studied. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, extracted from the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects as well as walls of some bacteria and fungi. Brine shrimp test is employed for the screening of toxicity of chitosan derivatives. Toxicity test was carried out by adding different concentrations of tested samples to approximately 5 to 15 Artemia salina larvae. Biological activity using the brine shrimp bioassay was recorded as LC50 i.e. lethal concentration that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 hours of contact with the samples. Compounds are considered toxic when the LC50 value is lower than 1 mg/ml by brine shrimp bioassay and practically non-toxic when the value is larger. Of the samples tested, none were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC50 > 1 mg/ml). The LC50 values of all chitosan derivatives tested, control and irradiated at 25 kGy were above 1 mg/ml thus all tested samples are considered non-toxic. This study demonstrated that irradiation at 25 kGy showed no significant effects towards the toxicity of the chitosan derivatives. After irradiation, only NO-CMC exhibited marked decrease in LC50 value, reduced by 3-fold from 34.96 mg/ml to 11.07 mg/ml while O-CMC (5.45 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml) showed no clear differences based on rough estimation. This study suggested that brine shrimp bioassay is a simple, reliable and convenient method that could provide useful clues of the relative toxic potential of the sample tested. (Author)

  14. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone ''Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures'' (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria in sea ice brine sampled from the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in sea ice brine samples which collected from four stations located at the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean was analyzed by PCR-DGGE. Twenty-three 16S rDNA sequences of bacteria obtained from DGGE bands were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis clustered these sequences within γ-proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) group, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The phylotype of Pseudoalteromonas in the γ-proteobacteria was predominant and members of the CFB group and γ-proteobacteria were highly abundant in studied sea ice brine samples.

  16. Displacement propagators of brine flowing within different types of sedimentary rock.

    Verganelakis, Dimitris A; Crawshaw, John; Johns, Michael L; Mantle, Michael D; Scheven, Ulrich; Sederman, Andrew J; Gladden, Lynn F

    2005-02-01

    This paper explores the correlation between different microstructural characteristics of porous sedimentary rocks and the flow properties of a Newtonian infiltrating fluid. Preliminary results of displacement propagator measurements of brine solution flowing through two types of sedimentary rock cores are reported. The two types of rocks, Bentheimer and Portland, are characterized by different porosities, pore-size distributions and permeabilities. Propagators have been measured for brine flow rates of 1 and 5 ml/min. Significant differences are seen between the propagators recorded for the two rocks, and these are related to the spatial distribution of porosity within these porous media. PMID:15833644

  17. STUDY ON DECANTATION WAYS OF ROCK SALT BRINES AND THEIR EFFECTIVE USE

    E. Hodo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rock salt from Dhrovjani mine (Delvina is characterized by a very high content of insoluble in water matter (around 20%. Nevertheless, it has been used for more than 20 years in some industrial areas, particularly in soda ash production at the Vlora plant. The use of this kind of salt is accompanied by large amount generation of solid waste, and also by limited decantation rate of raw brines prepared, in particular during the wet seasons (when the salt moisture content exceeds 2.5%. The study was undertaken in relation to this rocky salt, as well as to the possibility of decantation rate increasing of the crude brines.

  18. Multiphase flow of carbon dioxide and brine in dual porosity carbonates

    Pentland, Christopher; Oedai, Sjaam; Ott, Holger

    2014-05-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide in subsurface formations presents a challenge in terms of multiphase flow characterisation. Project planning requires an understanding of multiphase flow characteristics such as the relationship between relative permeability and saturation. At present there are only a limited number of relative permeability relations for carbon dioxide-brine fluid systems, most of which are measured on sandstone rocks. In this study coreflood experiments are performed to investigate the relative permeability of carbon dioxide and brine in two dual porosity carbonate systems. Carbon dioxide is injected into the brine saturated rocks in a primary drainage process. The rock fluid system is pre-equilibrated to avoid chemical reactions and physical mass transfer between phases. The pressure drop across the samples, the amount of brine displaced and the saturation distribution within the rocks are measured. The experiments are repeated on the same rocks for the decane-brine fluid system. The experimental data is interpreted by simulating the experiments with a continuum scale Darcy solver. Selected functional representations of relative permeability are investigated, the parameters of which are chosen such that a least squares objective function is minimised (i.e. the difference between experimental observations and simulated response). The match between simulation and measurement is dependent upon the form of the functional representations. The best agreement is achieved with the Corey [Brooks and Corey, 1964] or modified Corey [Masalmeh et al., 2007] functions which best represent the relative permeability of brine at low brine saturations. The relative permeability of carbon dioxide is shown to be lower than the relative permeability of decane over the saturation ranges investigated. The relative permeability of the brine phase is comparable for the two fluid systems. These observations are consistent with the rocks being water-wet. During the experiment

  19. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanco-Martin, Laura [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  20. Processes of lithium chlorides purification from Salar de Atacama concentrated brines

    The results of research carried out to obtain lithium chloride, as a suitable electrolyte for the production of high purity lithium metal are presented. Concentrated lithium chloride brines from Salar de Atacama have been used as starting materials. The studied process requires the reduction of the boron content in the brines to levels below 5 ppm, followed by a crystallization process to obtain a crystallized lithium chloride. The elimination of the magnesium chloride co-crystallized with the lithium chloride, is achieved by a complementary washing step and the lixiviation of the impure LiCl crystals with ethanol. (author)

  1. Using brine extraction to isolate the pressure responses from CO2 injection operations

    Bandilla, K.; Court, B.; Celia, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Many potential carbon dioxide (CO2) injection sites are in large sedimentary basins, and it seems reasonable to expect that multiple operators will be injecting into the same formation. While the supercritical CO2 plumes are not expected to intersect, the pressure responses will most likely overlap. This will lead to overlapping Areas-of-Review (AoR), leading to complications for both the operators and the regulators. Also, existing injection operations will be impacted by new operations that come online at a later time, and as such existing AoRs will need to be updated to account for the pressure interference. One option to avoid pressure interference is to locate injection operations far from one other. However, this would greatly reduce the overall storage efficiency of the injection formation and increase the regulatory burden by requiring a basin-wide planning process. Active pressure management through brine production is one option to limit the spatial extent of the pressure responses, thereby avoiding pressure interference while also allowing for a greater spatial density of injection operations. For example, each injection operation could be surrounded by a ring of brine production wells, not dissimilar to an enhanced oil recovery operation, thereby limiting the far field impact of the CO2 injection. In this presentation we use a hypothetical model based on a section of the Illinois Basin to show the effectiveness of brine extraction in isolating the pressure responses of multiple injection operations. The model domain contains several injection wells, with the different injection operations brought on-line in a time-staggered fashion. The impact of factors such as brine extraction rates and extraction well spacing on the AoRs is investigated. A vertically integrated approach is used to numerically solve the two-phase flow problem, which greatly reduces the computational cost of the simulations. The results of this study show that brine extraction can be

  2. Determination of the protein content in brine from salted herring using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Svensson, V.T.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Bro, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in the spectral range of 1000-2500 nm, was measured directly on brine from barrel salted herring, to investigate the potential of NIR as a fast method to determine the protein content. A principal component analysis performed on the NIR spectra shows two...... clearly indicate that NIR spectroscopy has a potential as a fast and noninvasive method for assessing the protein content in brine from barrel salted herring, which again may be used as an indicator for the ripening quality of barrel salted herring....

  3. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  4. Phylogeography and local endemism of the native Mediterranean brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Gómez, Africa; Green, Andy J.;

    2008-01-01

    There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading to...... their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI or cox1) gene to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeography of A. salina, an extreme halophilic sexual brine shrimp, over its known distribution range (Mediterranean Basin and South...

  5. Mathematical Simulation of Evaporating Brine by Solar Radiation for the Production of Salt

    Y.Z.Zhang; C.D.Li; 等

    1993-01-01

    A computer simulation model of salt pan is presented.The transient behavior and the effects of various parameters of the salt pans,such as the depth of the brine layer,the absorptance of the soil surface,the thermal properties of the soil beneath the brine layer and the depth of the underground water table,on the evaporation process of salt pans are discussed.The effects of extra insulation layer and the intensity of solar radiation are also examined.

  6. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  7. U, Th, and Ra concentrations in brines from four deep wells in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: unanalyzed data

    This report contains analyzed samples of ground water (brines) collected from deep brine aquifers, and saline water collected from the uppermost salt at wells in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. These water samples were analyzed for natural radioactive isotopes in 238uranium and 232thorium decay series. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated

  8. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, July-September 1984

    The fifth brine migration data status report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1984. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 16 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. Annual reports have been prepared for the years 1983 and 1984, describing the test activities on a yearly basis (Rothfuchs et al., 1984, 1986). The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 2 refs., 118 figs., 91 tabs

  9. Brine release based on structural calculations of damage around an excavation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    In a large in situ experimntal circular room, brine inflow was measured over 5 years. After correcting for evaporation losses into mine ventilation air, the measurements gave data for a period of nearly 3 years. Predicted brine accumulation based on a mechanical ''snow plow'' model of the volume swept by creep-induced damage as calculated with the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model was found to agree with experiment. Calculation suggests the damage zone at 5 years effectively exends only some 0.7 m into the salt around the room. Also, because the mecahnical model of brine release gives an adequate explanation of the measured data, the hydrological process of brine flow appears to be rapid compared to the mechanical process of brine release

  10. VARIATIONS IN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF CHLORINE IN EVAPORATION-CONTROLLED SALT LAKE BRINES OF QAIDAM BASIN,CHINA

    2000-01-01

    The variations in the isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled saline lake brines were determined by using an improved procedure for precise measurement of chlorine isotopes based on Cs2Cl+ ion by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The results showed that variation in δ37Cl values in these evaporation-controlled brines are attributable to evaporation of brine accompanied by the deposition of saline minerals. The isotopic fractionation of chlorine between the deposited saline mineral and the co-existing brine caused the variation of δ37Cl values in the brine. In general the isotopic fractionation of chlorine in nature indicates enrichment of 37Cl in the solid phase relative to 35Cl. The reverse isotopic fractionation of chlorine in which 35Cl is enriched in the solid phase, was observed to some extent during quick deposition under laboratory conditions as well as in nature. The mechanism of isotopic fractionation of chlorine during evaporation deposition was studied.

  11. An Experimental Study of CO2-Brine Relative Permeability in Sandstone

    Chen, X.; DiCarlo, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate determinations of CO2-brine relative permeability are important for modeling potential CO2 storage scenarios. The most common assumption is that CO2-brine relative permeability is likely to be similar to oil-brine relative permeability for water-wet rocks. But recent measurements of CO2-brine relative permeability have differed greatly from oil-brine relative permeability; particularly, the measurements show a very low CO2 end point relative permeability (kr,CO2=0.1~0.2) and a relatively high residual water saturation (Swr>0.4) ( Lee et al. 2010, Zuo et al. 2012, Akbarabadi et al. 2013 and etc.). It has been hypothesized that the differences are related to CO2-brine having a different contact angle from oil-brine. In this study, we hypothesize that the differences are caused by large capillary end effects resulted from the very low CO2 viscosity. We conduct steady-state CO2-brine flow experiments in 2-foot-long and 2.8-inch-diamter Berea sandstone cores at 20 °C and 1500 psi. Four pressure taps drilled on a core allow both the total pressure drop and that across five individual sections to be measured. Three experiments, two drainage and one imbibition, have been conducted so far. Our results show: (1) The relative permeability to both brine and CO2 of the last section (downstream, 15 cm long) is significantly smaller than that of any of the middle three sections. This testifies that the capillary end effect makes the relative permeability under-measured at the end of a core. (2) The values of the middle three sections are very close to each other, which indicate the middle part of our core is free of capillary end effect. (3) The CO2 end point relative permeability is 0.3~0.5, which is much higher than the recent measurements. (4) The brine end point relative permeability during imbibition is about 0.08, which is close to literature data. Reference: Lee, Y.S, Kim, K. H. and Lee, T.H. et al. Analysis of CO2 Endpoint Relative Permeability and Injectivity

  12. Induced Seismicity of the Paradox Valley Brine Injection

    Bachmann, C. E.; Foxall, W.; Daley, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Paradox Valley Unit (PVU) is operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and is built to control the water quality of the Dolores River - a feeder of the Colorado River. Brine is extracted along the river from several shallow wells. Before it is injected into a 4.8km deep well for long-term storage, it is filtered at a surface-treatment facility. The target zone of the injection is a subhorizontal formation of a Mississippian-age limestone. The first injection test started in 1991, continuous injections started in 1996 and are still ongoing. The injection of the fluid in the underground induces micro-seismicity that is monitored by the USBR with the 15-station Paradox Valley Seismic Network. This network located more then 5700 events in the 20 years since the injection started. The locations of the seismic events give crucial insights to the pathways of the injected fluid. In this study we analyze the seismicity up to the end of 2011, which does not include the magnitude 3.9 event that caused a temporary shut down of the PVU in January 2013. The largest event included in our study period is an event with M4.3 of May 2000. The majority (75%) of events are micro-seismic events with magnitudes of 1 or smaller; only 74 events have magnitudes larger or equal to 2.5 of which only 4 are larger or equal to 3.5. Most of the seismicity is constrained to the vicinity of the injection well with roughly 80% of the events occurring within a 4km radius. However, there is one active zone more then 10 km away from the injection well that showed first activity in late 2010. More than 500 micro-seismic events occurred within several weeks in this new zone. The goal behind this study is to understand the processes behind a long-term injection of fluid into the underground where no circulation takes place. While other such projects exist, such as different wastewater injections, none of them has been monitored as well as the Paradox Valley seismicity and or has been going on

  13. Barite Crusts From A Brine Pool In The Gulf Of Mexico Entomb Filamentous Sulfur Bacteria

    Stevens, E. W.; Bailey, J. V.; Flood, B. E.; Jones, D. S.; Joye, S. B.; Teske, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Hypersaline environments offer the opportunity to study the preservation of cell material and the role of biology in catalyzing mineral precipitation under conditions where authigenic minerals are forming in the presence of microbial biomass. Mineral crusts collected from a brine pool in the Gulf of Mexico contain filamentous mineral structures of grossly similar morphology to extant Beggiatoa mats that can be found on and around the brine pool crusts. Mineralogical and molecular analyses were preformed in order to characterize the microbial and mineral assemblage associated with the crusts. Initial mineralogical analyses show the bulk composition of the crust to be barite (BaSO4). 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to provide insight into the overall microbial community composition. Sequencing results indicate the presence of phylotypes potentially involved in methane oxidation. Sequence-data produced with Beggiatoa specific primers also indicate Beggiatoa-derived DNA within the barite crusts. Barite precipitation has been linked with sulfide oxidation in non-marine settings, and we hypothesize that it may also be important in brine pool settings where low sulfate brine waters interface with sulfide produced via AOM. Ongoing experiments using several types of bacteria are being used to determine if the metabolic oxidation of sulfide to sulfate can induce the precipitation of barite, thus providing insight into the question of whether Beggiatoa can induce the precipitation of barite within a hypersaline setting.

  14. DISTINCTIVE LOCALIZATION OF GROUP 3 LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT SYNTHESIZING CELLS DURING BRINE SHRIMP DEVELOPMENT.

    Kim, Bo Yong; Song, Hwa Young; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Kyung Joo; Jo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Suhng Wook; Lee, Seung Gwan; Lee, Boo Hyung

    2015-07-01

    Despite numerous studies on late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, their functions, roles, and localizations during developmental stages in arthropods remain unknown. LEA proteins protect crucial proteins against osmotic stress during the development and growth of various organisms. Thus, in this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the crucial regions protected against osmotic stress as well as the distinctive localization of group 3 (G3) LEA(+) cells during brine shrimp development. Several cell types were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA, including neurons, muscular cells, APH-1(+) cells, and renal cells. The G3 LEA(+) neuronal cell bodies outside of the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles to the central body, but those inside the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles toward the deutocerebrum without innervating the central body. The cell bodies inside the mushroom body received axons of the G3 LEA(+) sensory cells at the medial ventral cup of the nauplius eye. Several glands were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA during the nauplius stages of brine shrimp, including the sinus, antennal I and II, salt, and three ectodermal glands. This study provides the first demonstration of the formation of G3 LEA(+) sinus glands at the emergence stages of brine shrimp. These results suggest that G3 LEA protein is synthesized in several cell types. In particular, specific glands play crucial roles during the emergence and nauplius stages of brine shrimp. PMID:25781424

  15. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants. PMID:25004074

  16. Construction of a cylindrical brine test room using a tunnel boring machine

    This paper discusses the construction of a horizontal cylindrical brine test room at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The room was constructed in the bedded salt formation at a depth of 655 meters with a tunnel boring machine. The machine leasing, technical and operational management, parameters involved, and successful completion of this effort are included. 3 figs

  17. Grain Size Data from the Brine Disposal Program, Gulf of Mexico

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of the Brine Disposal Program funded by NOAA in the US Gulf of Mexico, compiled by NOAA/CEAS and partially conducted by R. W. Hann of Texas A...

  18. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT...

  19. Bioencapsulation of Two Different Vibrio Species in Nauplii of the Brine Shrimp (Artemia franciscana)

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Herrera-Vega, Maria A.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Roque, Ana

    1998-01-01

    Two groups of nauplii from the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) were enriched with different bacteria, and the dynamics of bacterial uptake by the nauplii were observed. This study showed that the efficiency of Artemia nauplii in bioencapsulating bacteria strongly depends on the type of bacteria used, time of exposure, and status (live or dead) of the bacteria.

  20. Isolation and identification of oxidation products of guaiacol from brines and heated meat matrix.

    Bölicke, Sarah-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigated the formation of the oxidation products of guaiacol in brines and heated meat matrix: 6-nitrosoguaiacol, 4-nitroguaiacol and 6-nitroguaiacol. For this purpose we applied a newly developed HPLC-UV and LC-MS method. For the first time, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined in brine and meat (containing guaiacol and sodium nitrite), which had been heated to 80°C and subsequently subjected to simulated digestion. Application of 500mg/L ascorbic acid to the brines reduced guaiacol degradation at pH3 and simultaneously inhibited the formation of 6-nitrosoguaiacol compared to brines containing only 100mg/L of ASC. The oxidation products were isolated with a new extraction method from meat samples containing 400mg/kg sodium nitrite at pH3.6 following simulated digestion. When oxygen was added, 6-nitrosoguaiacol was determined even at legally allowed levels (150mg/kg) of the curing agent. Finally, we developed a new LC-MS method for the separation and qualitative determination of the four main smoke methoxyphenols. PMID:26937586

  1. Simulation of the high-pressure phase equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Guo, Tian-Min

    1996-01-01

    The major objectives of this work are: (1) extend the modified Patel-Teja (MPT) equation of state proposed for aqueous electrolyte systems (Zuo and Guo, 1991) to describe the liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems through introducing an unconventional ...

  2. 9 CFR 96.14 - Uncertified casings; disinfection with saturated brine solution.

    2010-01-01

    ... testing vat or a preliminary vat. By following this procedure the temperature will not vary unduly and thus cause unsatisfactory results. After removing the casings from the testing vat, it will be found... heating method. In order to keep the temperature of the brine in the testing vat of a uniform degree,...

  3. Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant and Enzymatic Activity of Brines from Scandinavian Marinated Herring Products

    Gringer, Nina; Osman, Ali; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Undeland, Ingrid; Baron, Caroline P.

    2014-01-01

    Brines generated during the last marination step in the production of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) were chemically characterized and analyzed for antioxidant and enzyme activities. The end-products were vinegar cured, spice cured and traditional barrel-salted herring with either salt or...

  4. Ion sensitive field effect transistors applied to the measurement of the pH of brines

    Chen, J.

    1991-12-31

    The ability to measure the pH (the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity) of harsh fluids such as geothermal oil field brines is important, since pH is a fundamental property; as one chemist stated: ``very often pH is a critical test because its accuracy lays the foundation for other measurements``. In our research, we focus on the analysis of brines similar to those found in underground geothermal reservoirs. Since the brines are deep under the ground, the values of the pressure and the temperature are high (up to 14 Mpa and 150{degrees}C); therefore the usual methods of pH measurement, e.g., glass electrode, are not applicable. The hydrogen ion sensitive ISFET (Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor) was studied as a pH sensor in this research. An ISFET can detect the electrochemical potential difference between the solution and the semiconductor due to the concentration of H{sup +} ions in the solution. Because of its solid state construction, an ISFET should work properly under high pressure and high temperature conditions. Earlier results, have indicated that it is possible to use ISFETs under the harsh conditions presented by geothermal brines.

  5. Ion sensitive field effect transistors applied to the measurement of the pH of brines

    Chen, J

    1991-07-01

    The ability to measure the pH (the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity) of harsh fluids such as geothermal oil field brines is important, since pH is a fundamental property; as one chemist stated: very often pH is a critical test because its accuracy lays the foundation for other measurements''. In our research, we focus on the analysis of brines similar to those found in underground geothermal reservoirs. Since the brines are deep under the ground, the values of the pressure and the temperature are high (up to 14 Mpa and 150[degrees]C); therefore the usual methods of pH measurement, e.g., glass electrode, are not applicable. The hydrogen ion sensitive ISFET (Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor) was studied as a pH sensor in this research. An ISFET can detect the electrochemical potential difference between the solution and the semiconductor due to the concentration of H[sup +] ions in the solution. Because of its solid state construction, an ISFET should work properly under high pressure and high temperature conditions. Earlier results, have indicated that it is possible to use ISFETs under the harsh conditions presented by geothermal brines.

  6. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  7. Precipitation of halite from supersaline brine from Tønder formation

    Arturi, Kasia; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    results, there is no precipitation of NaCl as a result of cooling. Neither the heat exchanger nor the system were afflicted by scaling problems, formation of coating or clogging. The were no problems with the flow of brine in the plant whatsoever. The absence of precipitation was confirmed by both...

  8. Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface

    Abdallah, Rehab Z.

    2014-09-23

    Abdallah RZ, Adel M, Ouf A, Sayed A, Ghazy MA, Alam I, Essack M, Lafi FF, Bajic VB, El-Dorry H and Siam R (2014) Aerobic methanotrophic communities at the Red Sea brine-seawater interface. Front. Microbiol. 5:487. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00487

  9. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi;

    2009-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a complex genus containing sexual species and parthenogenetic lineages. Artemia franciscana is native to America and its cysts (diapausing eggs) are used worldwide as a food source in aquaculture. As a consequence, this anostracan has become an invasive species in many...

  10. Depletion of a brine layer at the base of ridge-crest hydrothermal systems

    Schoofs, Stan; Hansen, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    The variable salinity of fluid venting from mid-ocean ridges is indicative of mixing between hydrothermal seawater and fluids that have undergone supercritical phase separation. In order to study the stability of a brine-saturated layer that may form in the lowermost part of the hydrothermal system,

  11. Origin of brine in the Kangan gasfield: isotopic and hydrogeochemical approaches

    Bagheri, R.; Nadri, A.; Raeisi, E.; Kazemi, G.A.; Eggenkamp, H.G.M.; Montaseri, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Kangan Permo-Triassic brine aquifer and the overlying gas reservoir in the southern Iran are located in Kangan and Dalan Formations, consisting dominantly of limestone, dolomite, and to a lesser extent, shale and anhydrite. The gasfield, 2,900 m in depth and is exploited by 36 wells, some of whi

  12. FIBER ROLLS AS A TOOL FOR RE-VEGETATION OF OIL-BRINE CONTAMINATED WATERSHEDS

    We found that fibrijute burlap cylinders filled with organic matter and inoculated with salt tolerant plants and mycorrhizal fungi promoted remediation of an historic brine scar devoid of vegetation since the 1960's. Soils in plots that received a surface treatment of hay, org...

  13. Brine saturation technique for extracting light filth from ground cinnamon: intralaboratory study.

    Freeman, C C

    1985-01-01

    An intralaboratory study was performed using the new brine saturation technique for isolating light filth from ground cinnamon. Recoveries of light filth averaged greater than or equal to 96.5%. The excellent recovery plus improvements in safety and simplicity give this new technique considerable advantage over the present official method. PMID:4086431

  14. A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells

    Keeley, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

  15. Man-induced hydrological changes, metazooplankton communities and invasive species in the Berre Lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)

    The Berre Lagoon has been under strong anthropogenic pressure since the early 1950s. The opening of the hydroelectric EDF power plant in 1966 led to large salinity drops. The zooplankton community was mainly composed of two common brackish species: Acartia tonsa and Brachionus plicatilis. Since 2006, European litigation has strongly constrained the input of freshwater, maintaining the salinity above 15. A study was performed between 2008 and 2010 to evaluate how these modifications have impacted the zooplankton community. Our results show that the community is more diverse and contains several coastal marine species (i.e., Centropages typicus, Paracalanus parvus and Acartia clausi). A. tonsa is still present but is less abundant, whereas B. plicatilis has completely disappeared. Strong predatory marine species, such as chaetognaths, the large conspicuous autochtonous jellyfish Aurelia aurita and the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, are now very common as either seasonal or permanent features of the lagoon.

  16. Brine production strategy modeling for active and integrated management of water resources in CCS

    Court, B.; Celia, M. A.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.; Elliot, T. J.; Bandilla, K.; Dobossy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Our society is at present highly dependent on coal, which will continue to play a major role in baseload electricity production in the coming decades. Most projected climate change mitigation strategies require CO2 Capture and Sequestration (CCS) as a vital element to stabilize CO2 atmospheric emissions. In these strategies, CCS will have to expand in the next two decades by several orders of magnitude compared to current worldwide implementation. At present the interactions among freshwater extraction, CO2 injection, and brine management are being considered too narrowly across CCS operations, and in the case of freshwater almost completely overlooked. Following the authors’ recently published overview of these challenges, an active and integrated management of water resources throughout CCS operations was proposed to avoid overlooking critical challenges that may become major obstacles to CCS implementation. Water resources management is vital for several reasons including that a coal-fired power plant retrofitted for CCS requires twice as much cooling water as the original plant. However this increased demand may be accommodated by brine extraction and treatment, which would concurrently function as large-scale pressure management and a potential source of freshwater. Synergistic advantages of such proactive integration that were identified led the authors to concluded that: Active management of CCS operations through an integrated approach -including brine production, treatment, use for cooling, and partial reinjection- can address challenges simultaneously with several synergistic advantages; and, that freshwater and brine must be linked to CO2 and pressure as key decision making parameters throughout CCS operations while recognizing scalability and potential pore space competition challenges. This work presents a detailed modeling investigation of a potential integration opportunity resulting from brine production. Technical results will focus solely on the

  17. Supercritical CO2/brine transport in a fractured rock under geologic sequestration conditions

    Kim, Kue-Young; Oh, Junho; Han, Weon Shik

    2013-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a promising technology for mitigating CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. In general, densely fractured natural reservoirs are rarely considered as suitable candidates due to issues related to safe and secure long-term storage. Nevertheless, assessment of CO2 storage processes in a storage medium with fractures is critical, as fractures occur in nearly all geological settings and play a major role in hydrocarbon migration as well as entrapment. We evaluated the impact of fractures on CO2/brine transport under geologic sequestration conditions by conducting both experimental and numerical studies. Laboratory experimental results showed a piston-like brine displacement with gravity over-run effects in the homogeneous core regardless of CO2 injection rates. In the fractured core, however, two distinctive types of brine displacements were observed; one showing brine displacement only in the fracture whereas the other shows brine displacement both in the fracture and matrix with different rates, depending on the magnitude of the pressure build-up in the matrix. In the experiments, the injectivity in the fractured core was twice greater than that in the homogeneous core at our experimental condition, while the estimated storage capacity was greater in the homogeneous core than in the fractured core by over 1.5 times. Capillary pressure curves were illustrated for both cores including entry pressures and irreducible brine saturation. The free-phase CO2 transfer in a fracture-matrix system was addressed by numerical simulation, and provided transient flux exchange processes during the brine displacement by CO2. The pressure gradient between the fracture and matrix induced CO2 transfer from fracture into matrix at the front of CO2 plume in fracture. In contrast, at the rear zone of CO2 plume, the reversal of pressure gradient resulted in a reverse CO2 flux. Additionally, the influence of fracture aperture on CO2 transfer between fracture

  18. Assessment of brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection

    Kissinger, Alexander; Class, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the growing usage of renewable energy sources has lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems which may create conflicts with essential public interests such as water supply from aquifers. For example, brine migration into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is perceived as a potential threat resulting from the Carbon Capture and Storage Technology (CCS). In this work, we focus on the large scale impacts of CO2 storage on brine migration but the methodology and the obtained results may also apply to other fields like waste water disposal, where large amounts of fluid are injected into the subsurface. We consider a realistic (but not real) on-shore site in the North German Basin with characteristic geological features. In contrast to modeling on the reservoir scale, the spatial scale in this work is much larger in both vertical and lateral direction, since the regional hydrogeology is considered as well. Structures such as fault zones, hydrogeological windows in the Rupelian clay or salt wall flanks are considered as potential pathways for displaced fluids into shallow systems and their influence needs to be taken into account. Simulations on this scale always require a compromise between the accuracy of the description of the relevant physical processes, data availability and computational resources. Therefore, we test different model simplifications and discuss them with respect to the relevant physical processes and the expected data availability. The simplifications in the models are concerned with the role of salt-induced density differences on the flow, with injection of brine (into brine) instead of CO2 into brine, and with simplifying the geometry of the site.

  19. Data report on gamma radiolysis tests on PBB1 and PBB3 brines: Salt Repository Project

    The tests described in this data report are described in the FY 1986 Technical Program Plan (TPP), WBS Element 0302 - Brine Radiolysis, for the Waste Package Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), conducted for the Salt Repository Project through the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Department of Energy. Two types of tests were outlined in the FY 1986 TPP, one in which PBB1 and PBB3 brines were to be irradiated in closed systems while the buildup of gas pressure was monitored, and the second in which the Eh of PBB1 and PBB3 brines was to be monitored continuously during irradiation. The first type of test was intended to simulate repository conditions by including coupons of mild steel to represent container material. Blank tests, which involved either no radiation or no steel coupons, were added to both of the test matrices to aid in understanding the radiolysis results. Hindsight shows that the tests that included steel coupons provided corrosion-relevant data but generated little useful radiolysis information. The second type of test was intended to use platinum electrodes to measure the effect of radiolysis on the redox potential of the brines. Eh measurements were to be made during irradiation because it was thought that the redox potential might change rapidly after the irradiation was terminated. If that were true, then Eh measurements made only after irradiation would be misleading. However, platinum electrodes were found to be ill-suited for measuring the redox potential of PBB1 and PBB3 brines; therefore, a different method is needed. Some exploratory testing is being conducted, and results obtained to date are reported here along with the more extensive gas pressure and corrosion results. This data report will be followed at a later date by a summary or topical report, which will include analysis of the data. The data in this data report are preliminary; they have been neither analyzed nor evaluated

  20. RO brine treatment and recovery by biological activated carbon and capacitive deionization process.

    Tao, Guihe; Viswanath, Bala; Kekre, Kiran; Lee, Lai Yoke; Ng, How Yong; Ong, Say Leong; Seah, Harry

    2011-01-01

    The generation of brine solutions from dense membrane (reverse osmosis, RO or nanofiltration, NF) water reclamation systems has been increasing worldwide, and the lack of cost effective disposal options is becoming a critical water resources management issue. In Singapore, NEWater is the product of a multiple barrier water reclamation process from secondary treated domestic effluent using MF/UF-RO and UV technologies. The RO brine (concentrates) accounts for more than 20% of the total flow treated. To increase the water recovery and treat the RO brine, a CDI based process with BAC as pretreatment was tested. The results show that ion concentrations in CDI product were low except SiO2 when compared with RO feed water. CDI product was passed through a RO and the RO permeate was of better quality including low SiO2 as compared to NEWater quality. It could be beneficial to use a dedicated RO operated at optimum conditions with better performance to recover the water. BAC was able to achieve 15-27% TOC removal of RO brine. CDI had been tested at a water recovery ranging from 71.6 to 92.3%. CDI based RO brine treatment could improve overall water recovery of NEWater production over 90%. It was found that calcium phosphate scaling and organic fouling was the major cause of CDI pressure increase. Ozone disinfection and sodium bisulfite dosing were able to reduce CDI fouling rate. For sustainable operation of CDI organic fouling control and effective organic fouling cleaning should be further studied. PMID:22053461

  1. The Effect of CO2-Saturated Brines on the Hydraulic and Mechanical Behavior of Dunite

    Lisabeth, H. P.; Zhu, W.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is increasingly being used as an industrial chemical, both in enhanced oil and gas recovery and in pilot and proposed carbon capture and storage projects. Due to the high reactivity of carbon dioxide, particularly with mafic and ultramafic minerals, a better understanding of the effects of CO2-rock interaction is necessary for the safe and effective implementation of these technologies. In order to explore the effect of CO2-rock interaction on the hydraulic and mechanical behavior of ultramafic rocks, we performed hydrostatic creep tests on thermally cracked dunites saturated with distilled water and CO2-saturated brines of varying composition to observe the effect of the presence of CO2 in pore fluid on the compaction behavior and permeability evolution of the samples. Pore fluids used in these tests were distilled water, CO2-saturated 0.6 M NaHCO3 brine, and CO2-saturated 1.5 M NaHCO3 brine. Experiments were performed at room temperature and 423 K, with a confining pressure of 15 MPa and a pore fluid pressure of 10 MPa. In-situ permeability measurements were taken throughout the experiment. At the end of three day hydrostatic tests, samples were axially deformed at a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1 to the point of failure to assess the effects of compaction and reaction on the mechanical behavior of the samples. Samples saturated with distilled water compact with a monotonic decrease in compaction rate throughout the tests, while samples saturated with CO2-brine display an increase in compaction rate toward the end of tests. All samples exhibit a modest reduction in permeability throughout the compaction. Samples saturated with CO2-brine appear to accommodate more axial shortening before the onset of dilatancy in axial deformation tests. Optical microscopy and SEM analyses were performed on the samples and reveal interplay between dissolution, precipitation and mechanical cracking.

  2. Particle measurement and brine chemistry at the Salton Sea Deep Well

    Robertus, R.J.; Kindle, C.H.; Sullivan, R.G.; Shannon, D.W.

    1991-09-01

    The Advanced Brine Chemistry Project, a part of the US Department of Energy's Geothermal Energy Program, is addressing operating problems associated with scaling and corrosion at geothermal power plants. Under this project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of tests at the Salton Sea Deep Well, which has one of the highest solids contents in the world. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate monitoring instrumentation under field conditions and relate particulate formation to the brine chemistry. The instrumentation, was evaluated under scaling geothermal conditions using two different principles: ultrasonic reflection and laser light scattering. The following conclusions were drawn from the instrumentation testing and brine chemistry and particulate analyses. (1) Using reflected ultrasonic impulses to detect suspended particles has been demonstrate for on-line application in a geothermal brine with strong scaling tendencies. Advantages over laser light scattering include improved high-temperature durability for the transducer and longer operation with less maintenance. (2) Counting and sizing particles using laser light scattering requires constant maintenance in geothermal applications. (3) Silica is the dominant scale species and appears in amounts orders of magnitude greater than other minor species such as barium sulfate. (4) The silica that formed at high temperatures and short residence times is very gelatinous and difficult to filter out of the brine. (5) Correlation of instrument readings with particle collection data was difficult because conditions on the filter (i.e., temperature, flowrate, and pressure) could not be maintained constant for long enough intervals to obtain comparable information. 5 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Shelf life determination of the brined golden mullet Liza aurata during vacuum refrigerated storage using some quality aspect

    Mariyam Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Salted fish products are popular in many countries around the world. Salting is one of the oldest techniques for fish preservation, and is essentially intended to increase the shelf-life of the product depressing water activity by means of dehydration and salt uptake by the fish muscle. However, the current demand for salted fish is driven more by the flavour of the product than for preservation purposes. Vacuum-packaging represents a static form of hypobaric storage. It is widely used in the food industry because of its effectiveness in reducing oxidative reactions in the product at relatively low cost. Low temperature storage is one of the primary methods to maintain fish quality, based on the reduction in the rates of microbiological, chemical and biochemical changes. Material  and methods. Fresh Golden mullets were rapidly beheaded, scaled, gutted and immediately washed with tap water then, samples were taken to the laboratory in ice box for chemical and microbial analysis of fresh fish, other samples were put in the brine (6 liter water and 2160 g salt was used for brine solution. After 14 days of brining, fish were taken out of brine solution and drained, then they were Vacuum Packed and labelled (each pack contained two fish about 1500 g weight. All the packs were stored in a refrigerator 4°C. Some quality aspects including Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN, Peroxide Value (PV, Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA, Total Viable Count (TVC, Halophilic Bacteria (HB and presence of Clostridium Botulinum were determined in fresh mullets, fresh brined mullets after 14 days of brining, and in (Vacuum Packed VP samples stored at 4°C at intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days. Results.  TVN increased from ten mg/100 g in fresh brined after 14 days to 30.80 mg/100 g in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4°C, PV increased after brining from 1.50 meq/kg in fresh brined to 28.90 meq/kg in VP brined Golden mullet after 90 days of storage at 4

  4. A review of theories on the origins of saline waters and brines in the Canadian Precambrian Shield

    Groundwater at depths greater that 500 m in the Canadian Precambrian Shield is typically saline with a sodium-calcium/chloride chemical composition. Brines with dissolved solid concentrations exceeding 100 g/L have been encountered in several deep mines (>1000 m) on the Shield. Theories on the origins of these deep saline waters and brines can be grouped into two general categories: (1) autochthonous (in situ) origins attributable to silicate mineral hydrolysis over geologic time scales, leaching of fluid inclusions or radiolysis effects, and (2) allochthonous (external) sources caused by the infiltration of brine of modified seawater origins in the geologic past. Although the chemical and isotopic compositions of these waters clearly reflect the effects of reaction between the water and their silicate host rocks, it is unlikely that the high chlorinity of the brines is in an autochthonous attribute. It is proposed that the compositions of these brines are most compatible with the Paleozoic residual brine hypothesis of Spencer (1987). This theory invokes deep infiltration of a high-density residual brine, formed by the evaporation of seawater during Devonian time, into underlying Precambrian basement rocks where subsequent chemical modifications occurred. (author) 39 refs., 2 figs

  5. Liquid-vapor partitioning of NaCl(aq) from concentrated brines at temperatures to 350{degrees}C

    Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, Donald A.; Carter, R.W.

    1994-01-20

    Compositions of coexisting liquid and vapor phases have been determined at temperatures from 250 to 350°C for brines containing NaCl and either HCI or NaOH by direct sampling of both phases from a static phase-equilibration apparatus. In these experiments, NaCl concentrations in the liquid phase ranged to 6.5 mol-kg{sup -1}, with corresponding vapor-phase NaCl concentrations varying strongly with temperature and brine composition. Acid or base was added to the brines to suppress unknown contributions of NaCl(aq) hydrolysis products to the observed volatilities. Thermodynamic partitioning constants for NaCl have been determined from the observed compositions of the coexisting phases combined with the known activity coefficients of NaCl(aq) in the liquid phase. An apparent dependence of the values of these partitioning constants on brine concentration is explained by considering the effect of decreasing pressure on the density of the vapor phase. Concentrations of HCI and NaCl in steam produced from various natural brines may be calculated as hnctions of temperature and brine composition based on these new results coupled with our previous determinations of the partitioning constants for HCl(aq). Application of these results to The Geysers will be discussed in terms of the composition of postulated brines which could be in equilibrium with observed steam compositions at various temperatures.

  6. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  7. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated

  8. Host-specific and pH-dependent microbiomes of copepods in an extensive rearing system

    Skovgaard, Alf; Castro Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg;

    2015-01-01

    gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, a clear difference was found between the microbiomes of the two copepod species, Acartia tonsa and Centropages hamatus, present in the system. This pattern was corroborated through 454/FLX-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of copepod microbiomes, which...... furthermore showed that the abiotic parameters pH and oxygen concentration in rearing tank water were the key factors influencing composition of copepod microbiomes....

  9. Measuring selectivity of feeding by estuarine copepods using image analysis combined with microscopic and Coulter counting

    Tackx, M.L.M.; Zhu, L.; De Coster, W.; Billones, R.G.; Daro, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although estuarine zooplankters are generally believed to be detritivorous, high clearance rates by the estuarine copepods Eurytemora affinis and Acartia tonsa on natural estuarine microplankton have been reported in the literature. In order to enable detection of possible selectivity for these microplankton organisms over detritus, a method that measures clearance rates on total particulate matter is proposed. Image analysis is used to measure copepod gut contents, and combined with Coulter ...

  10. Use of Ultraviolet Light for the Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactic Acid Bacteria Species in Recycled Chill Brines

    Gailunas, Karol Marie

    2003-01-01

    Ready-to-eat meat products have been implicated in several foodborne listeriosis outbreaks. Microbial contamination of these products can occur after the product has been thermally processed and is being rapidly chilled using salt brines. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in a model brine chiller system. Two concentrations of brines (7.9%w/w or 13.2%w/w) were inoculated w...

  11. Ion association in concentrated NaCI brines from ambient to supercritical conditions: results from classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Collings Matthew D; Sherman David M

    2002-01-01

    Highly concentrated NaCl brines are important geothermal fluids; chloride complexation of metals in such brines increases the solubility of minerals and plays a fundamental role in the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits. There is experimental evidence that the molecular nature of the NaCl–water system changes over the pressure–temperature range of the Earth's crust. A transition of concentrated NaCl–H2O brines to a "hydrous molten salt" at high P and T has been argued to stabilize an aqueo...

  12. Effect of injection wells with partially perforated completion on CO2/brine flow distribution and injectivity

    Guyant, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Jung, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration is a viable technology to reduce the concentration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. The success of an injection project requires large amounts of dry supercritical CO2 to be injected into brine saturated aquifers within the subsurface. However, solid salt precipitation causes a reduction of permeability, having adverse effects on well injectivity as well as pressure build-up. This study evaluated the accumulation of precipitated salt, brine flux patterns, and pressure build-up for two well constructions, 1) partially completed with 4 injection intervals and 2) fully completed throughout the thickness of the target formation. This study found that when a partially completed well is implemented, precipitation of solid salt experiences a greater radial extent then a fully completed well. Both well designs showed non-localized salt precipitation in low permeability formations (5 and 50 mD) and localized salt precipitation at high permeability (250 and 500 mD). It was also found that two different brine flux patterns occurred; under low-k conditions the brine flux was primarily outward and parallel to the direction of the CO2 migration and salt precipitation became limited. While under high-k conditions there developed back-flow of the brine to the tail of the plume as the plume experienced greater vertical movement, and the counter-flowing brine sustained the precipitation process amplifying salt precipitation. When this process occurred the permeability reduction factor became orders of magnitude less then when non-localized salt precipitation occurred, and formed an impermeable barrier around the injection well. The formation of this barrier was found to have the effect of increasing the pressure build-up near the well in regions of the reservoir in which it occurred. A sensitivity analysis on the anisotropic/isotropic nature of the reservoir and the value of the critical porosity was also conducted. The

  13. Co-Sequestration Geochemical Modeling: Simple Brine Solution + CO2-O2-SO2

    Verba, C.; Kutchko, B. G.; Reed, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Class H well cement (LaFarge) was exposed to supercritical CO2 to evaluate the impact of brine chemistry on the well cement. Simulated experimental downhole conditions include a pressure of 28.6 MPa and a temperature of 50oC. Brine composition was formulated from the NETL NATCARB database, resulting in a simple solution of 1 M (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2). It was determined that the brine chemistry plays a vital role in determining the degree and type of alteration of cement in carbon sequestration conditions. The implications of co-sequestration (CO2/O2/SO2 mixtures) from of oxy-fueled combustion, coal gasification and sour gas have been considered. Geochemical modeling was conducted to understand the interaction between formation brine, cement and co-contaminant gases, using a gas composition of 95.5% CO2, 4% O2, and 1.5% SO2. The modeling results are significant in determining the validity of co-sequestering coal flue gas containing SOx gases or sour hydrocarbon gas which could potentially produce pyrite or other sulfur-bearing species in the cement via mineralization trapping. Thermodynamic components of aqueous species, gases, and minerals were used to calculate the pH and mineral saturation indices using CHIM-XPT. The computed pH of the solution is 4.34. The total sulfate molality within the brine is 0.0095 M. In experimental conditions of 600 mL of brine, 0.0057 moles of sulfate will be converted into 5.7 mL of sulfuric acid. The modeling shows that an excess of 31% O2 forms, indicating that H2S from SO2 disporportionation is oxidized to sulfate, thus no gaseous H2S will form. Remaining SO2 in the experimental headspace has a predicted mole fraction is 10-46. Additional SO2 gas added to the system produces the reaction to precipitate gypsum. Additional gas reactions precipitate gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, and dolomite.

  14. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea Europea. 1.)

    Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater 9 daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine. (author)

  15. NASA TechPort Entry for Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) CL IR&D Project

    Pensinger, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable solution to brine water recovery. The heart of CoBRA is an evaporator that produces water vapor from brine. This evaporator leverages a novel design that enables passive transport of brine from place to place within the system. While it will be necessary to build or modify a system for testing the CoBRA concept, the emphasis of this project will be on developing the evaporator itself. This project will utilize a “test early, test often” approach, building at least one trial evaporator to guide the design of the final product.

  16. Variations in isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled salt lake brines of Qaidam Basin, China

    Xiao, Ying-kai; Liu, Wei-guo; Zhou, Y.M.; Wang, Yun-hui; Shirodkar, P.V.

    The variations in the isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled saline lake brines were determined by using an improved procedure for precise measurement of chlorine isotopes based on Cs sub(2) Cl sup(+) ion by thermal ionization...

  17. The effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, assume a perfectly horizontal repository and stratigraphy. With the addition of buoyancy forces due to the dip, brine and gas flow patterns can be affected. Brine inflow may increase due to countercurrent flow, and gas may preferentially migrate up dip. This scoping study has used analytical and numerical modeling to evaluate the impact of the dip on brine inflow and gas-migration distances at the WIPP in one, two, and three dimensions. Sensitivities to interbed permeabilities, two-phase curves, gas-generation rates, and interbed fracturing were studied

  18. An attempt to concentrate new natural spontaneously fissioning nuclide from geothermal brine of Cheleken peninsula

    In order to concentrate a new not yet identified spontaneously fissioning nuclide (NSFN) discovered in geothermal brines of Cheleken Peninsula various heterogenic processes were used in the brine-solid phase systems (ionites, inorganic sorbents, metals, etc.). Besides, natural inorganic collectors selected on the borehole mouths were analysed. Concentrates with approx. 105 enrichment coefficient have been obtained. It is shown that NSFN has a low degree of coprecipitation with sulfides and metal hydroxydes. It is not reduced by neither iron, nor by aluminium, is sorbed on cationites and anionites. The results obtained allow one to draw a conclusion that NSFN is not an isotope of transuranium elements. NSFN is near by its chemical properties to gold and mercury. According to the experimental data, its standard electrode potential equals (1.3+-0.2) B

  19. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  20. Efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in environmentally benign brine solution using acetyl chloride

    Kaushik Basu; Suchandra Chakraborty; Achintya Kumar Sarkar; Chandan Saha

    2013-05-01

    Acetyl chloride is one of the most commonly available and cheap acylating agent but its high reactivity and concomitant instability in water precludes its use to carry out acetylation in aqueous medium. The present methodology illustrates the efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in brine solution by means of acetyl chloride under weakly basic condition in the presence of sodium acetate and/or triethyl amine followed by trituration with aqueous saturated bicarbonate solution. This effort represents the first efficient use of this most reactive but cheap acetylating agent to acetylate amines in excellent yields in aqueous medium. This is a potentially useful green chemical transformation where reaction takes place in environment-friendly brine solution leading to easy work-up and isolation of the amide derivatives. Mechanistic rationale of this methodology is also important.

  1. CYTOTOXIC (BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY AND ANTIOXIDANT INVESTIGATION OF BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA (L.”

    Md. Asaduzzaman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Barringtonia acutangula (L. gaertn. (Family: Barringtoniaceae, a medicinal small to medium evergreen tree known as ‘Hijal’, is used in diarrhoea, dysentery, colic, flatulence, cooling, aperients expectorant, stimulating emetic, astringents to the bowel, antihelminthic, bronchitis, lumber pain, hallucinations, seminal weakness, gonorrhoea and many other ailments in rural areas of Bangladesh It is also used as traditional medicine in other countries. But till to date, sporadic attempts have been made for the scientific and methodical validation of these traditional claims. In Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, all the extracts produced dose dependent cytotoxicity effect to brine shrimp nauplii with methanol extract of leaf exhibiting highest toxicity having LC50 value 46.24 μg/ml where standard vincristine sulphate had the LC50 value of 0.69 μg/ml. & In antioxidant attempt by reducing power and CUPRAC assays, pet. ether extract of leaf were found to exhibit moderate but concentration dependent reducing power respectively.

  2. Microbiology of the Red Sea (and other) deep-sea anoxic brine lakes

    Antunes, Andre

    2011-05-30

    Summary: The Red Sea harbours approximately 25 deep-sea anoxic brine pools. They constitute extremely unique and complex habitats with the conjugation of several extreme physicochemical parameters rendering them some of the most inhospitable environments on Earth. After 50 years of research mostly driven by chemists, geophysicists and geologists, the microbiology of the brines has been receiving increased interest in the last decade. Recent molecular and cultivation-based studies have provided us with a first glimpse on the enormous biodiversity of the local microbial communities, the identification of several new taxonomic groups, and the isolation of novel extremophiles that thrive in these environments. This review presents a general overview of these unusual biotopes and compares them with other similar environments in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on their microbial ecology. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Rapid porosity and permeability changes of calcareous sandstone due to CO2-enriched brine injection

    Lamy-Chappuis, Benoit; Angus, Doug; Fisher, Quentin; Grattoni, Carlos; Yardley, Bruce W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir injectivity and storage capacity are the main constraints for geologic CO2 sequestration, subject to safety and economic considerations. Brine acidification following CO2 dissolution leads to fluid-rock interactions that alter porosity and permeability, thereby affecting reservoir storage capacity and injectivity. Thus, we determined how efficiently CO2-enriched brines could dissolve calcite in sandstone cores and how this affects the petrophysical properties. During computerized tomography monitored flow-through reactor experiments, calcite dissolved at a rate largely determined by the rate of acid supply, even at high flow velocities which would be typical near an injection well. The porosity increase was accompanied by a significant increase in rock permeability, larger than that predicted using classical porosity-permeability models. This chemically driven petrophysical change might be optimized using injection parameters to maximize injectivity and storage.

  4. Corrosion Behavior of Titanium Grade 7 in Fluoride-Containing NaCl Brines

    Lian, T; Whalen, M T; Wong, L

    2004-10-25

    The effects of fluoride on the corrosion behavior of Titanium Grade 7 (0.12-0.25% Pd) have been investigated. Up to 0.1 mol/L fluoride was added to the NaCl brines at 95 C, and three pH values of 4, 8, and 11 were selected for studying pH dependence of fluoride effects. It was observed that fluoride significantly altered the anodic polarization behavior, at all three pH values of 4, 8, and 11. Under acidic condition fluoride caused active corrosion. The corrosion of Titanium grade 7 was increased by three orders of magnitude when a 0.1 mol/L fluoride was added to the NaCl brines at pH 4, and the Pd ennoblement effect was not observed in acidic fluoride-containing environments. The effects of fluoride were reduced significantly when pH was increased to 8 and above.

  5. West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  6. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  7. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine.

    Sulaiman, Joanita; Gan, Han Ming; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the 6 months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein. PMID:25400624

  8. Methanotrophy and sulfate reduction at the interface between Mediterranean seawater and the MgCl2-dominated Kryos brine basin

    Steinle, Lea; Felber, Nicole; Casalino, Claudia; de Lange, Gert J.; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S.; Tessarolo, Chiara; Treude, Tina; Zopfi, Jakob; Niemann, Helge

    2014-05-01

    The Kryos brine basin is located at ˜3000m water depth in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The anoxic brine originates from subsurface Messinian evaporites and is dominated by very high concentrations of MgCl2-equivalents (˜5M), making this environment challenging for live. The strong density difference between the brine and the overlying Mediterranean seawater impedes mixing, and the seawater-brine interface is thus characterized by a strong redox gradient. In the redoxcline, we observed sharp sulfate, sulfide and methane concentration gradients, from seawater background concentrations to high concentrations in the brine (˜150 mM sulfate, ˜250 μM sulfide, ˜50 μM methane). Right at the interface, under micro-oxic conditions, we determined methane oxidation rates of up to 60 nM/day, and sulfate reduction rates of up to 15 μM/day. Our findings of 13C-depleted biomarkers typical for aerobic methanotrophs (diplopterol, fatty acid C16:1ω8) indicate an aerobic mode of methane oxidation independent of sulfate reduction. Below the interface (within the anoxic brine), the presence of both methane and sulfate would make the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate (AOM) thermodynamically feasible. However, while sulfate reduction rates were very high (500 μM/day), methane oxidation rates were not detectable suggesting inhibition of AOM. In the brine, we detected high concentrations of an unusual fatty acid (10Me-C16:0) indicative for sulfate reducing bacteria, which might be responsible for the high sulfate reduction rates. In addition, we also found archaeal lipids (archaeol, PMI) moderately depleted in 13C. Considering the absence of AOM activity, these lipids suggest a methanogenic, rather than methanotrophic origin of the archaea within the brine. All these results provide new and exciting insight into life in an extreme environment.

  9. Performance evaluation of a once-through multi-stage flash distillation system: Impact of brine heater fouling

    Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) system modeling involves a number of process variables. An estimation of all these process variables requires both analytical solutions and experimental/field analysis. However, the accurate estimate of variables related to the brine heater operation in a MSF system is very important for a reliable operation of the system. For example, steam operating conditions as well as the brine properties including fouling of the brine heater tubes have a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics of the brine heater, which in turn influence the distillate output from the system. In this study, the effect of various design as well as operating conditions on the performance ratio (PR), brine temperature and salinity as it leaves the last flash stage are investigated in a once-through system. Increasing the number of stages from 24 to 32 has a significant effect on the PR, it ranges between 79% (for ΔT = 1.5) and 327% (for ΔT = 2.3) for a top-brine temperature of 106 oC. This value increase as the top-brine temperature increases. Increasing the stage-to-stage temperature difference increases the water salinity as it leaves the final stage and reduces its temperature that would imply better energy utilization within the plant. Results show that brine side heat exchanger fouling has a significant effect in decreasing the overall heat transfer coefficient, which reduces the production rate as the fouling increases with time. A sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters, which can have a significant influence on the desalination plant performance, is carried out in an attempt to contribute a better understanding and operation of MSF desalination processes.

  10. Valorisation of Ca and Mg by-products from mining and seawater desalination brines for water treatment applications

    Casas Garriga, Sandra; Aladjem, Carlos; Larrotcha, Enric; Gibert Agulló, Oriol; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDBrines from the drainage of potash mine tailings and from seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination were previously evaluated as sources of NaCl for the chlor-alkali industry. Valorisation of NaCl as raw material is required to meet the membrane electrolysis specifications of NaCl saturation and control of interferences (Ca, Mg and sulphate). Brines concentration in NaCl was previously achieved for SWRO brines using electrodialysis (ED). In this work, valorisation of Ca and Mg by...

  11. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO4 values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines

  12. Inland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System

    Qurie, Mohannad; Abbadi, Jehad; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Bufo, Sabino A.; Khamis, Mustafa; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO43−, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment. PMID:23823802

  13. Analysis of low-level 129I in brine using accelerator mass spectrometry

    An improved solvent extraction procedure for iodine separation from brine samples has been applied at Xi'an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) center. Oil in the brine sample has to be removed to avoid appearance of the third phase during solvent extraction and to improve the chemical yield of iodine. The small amount of oil remained in the water phase was first removed by phase separation through settling down sufficiently based on their immiscibility, and then by filtration through a cellulose filter, on which oil was absorbed and removed. After oil removed, extraction recovery of iodine could achieve more than 90 %. The sodium bisulfite as an effective reductant should be added before acidification to avoid loss of iodine by formation of I2 in sample via reaction of iodate and iodide at pH 1-2, and then pH was adjusted to 1-2 to reduce the iodate to iodide followed by oxidation of iodide to I2 and solvent extraction to separate all inorganic iodine. As a pre-nuclear era sample, 129I/127I ratio in brine is normally more than two orders of magnitude lower than that in present surface environmental samples, so prevention of cross-contamination and memory effect in apparatus during processing procedure are very critical for obtaining reliable results, and monitoring the procedure blank is very important for analytical quality of 129I. The 129I/127I isotopic ratio in the brine samples and procedure blank of iodine reagents were measured to be (1.9-2.7) × 10-13 and 2.08 × 10-13, respectively, 3-4 orders of magnitudes lower than that in environmental samples in Xi'an, and the result of procedure blank is in the same level as the previous experiments in past 3 years, indicating contamination is not observed in our method. (author)

  14. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf) Methanol Extract

    Yeng Chen; Lai Ngit Shin; Yee Ling Lau; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Yuet Ping Kwan; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Soundararajan Vijayarathna; Abdul Rani Muhamad Syahmi

    2010-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal be...

  15. TOXICITY TESTING OF RESTORATIVE DENTAL MATERIALS USING BRINE SHRIMP LARVAE (ARTEMIA SALINA)

    Milhem, Manar M.; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad S.; Homa Darmani

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GIC)s and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy), a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer), two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP), and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspe...

  16. Use of brine shrimp, Artemia spp., in larval crustacean nutrition: a review

    Sorgeloos, P.; Coutteau, P.; Dhert, Ph.; Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.

    1998-01-01

    Because of convenience in production and their suitable biochemical composition, brine shrimp Artemia spp. nauplii have been adopted as a standard diet in the commercial larviculture of several crustacean species. The nutritional value of Artemia, however, is not constant, but varies both geographically and temporally. During the past decade both the causes of Artemia nutritional variability and methods to improve poor-quality Artemia have been identified. Enriching Artemia spp. with emulsifi...

  17. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Laxman Pokhrel; Bigyan Sharma; Bajracharya, Gan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’...

  18. Evaluation of larvicidal activity and brine shrimp toxicity of rhizome extracts of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith

    Augusto Bucker; Nadia Cristina Falcao-Bucker; Cecilia Veronica Nunez; Carlos Cleomir de Souza Pinheiro; Wanderli Pedro Tadei

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we used dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the Zingiber zerumbet rhizome to evaluate brine shrimp lethality and larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari mosquitoes. Methods Bioassays were performed by exposing third-instar larvae of each mosquito species to the DCM or MeOH extracts. Results Probit analysis with DCM and MeOH extracts demonstrated efficient larvicidal activity against A. aegypti and A. nuneztovari larvae. ...

  19. Evaluation Of Corrosion Resistance Of A Duplex Stainless Steel "Ferralium" In Dead Sea Brine

    Mohamed, Z

    1992-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of Ferralium Alloy 255 during service in the environment of concentrated Dead Sea brine has been investigated. It was found that, the corrosion attack is intergranular and exists only in the weld heat effected zone (HAZ). It starts at ferrite/austenite grain boundaries and in the ferrite matrix, where chromium nitride precipitates and then propagates with acceleration in the rest of the metal due to the abrasive action of the slurry.

  20. Integrated molecular, physiological and in silico characterization of two Halomonas isolates from industrial brine.

    Carlson, Ross P; Oshota, Olusegun; Shipman, Matt; Caserta, Justin A; Hu, Ping; Saunders, Charles W; Xu, Jun; Jay, Zackary J; Reeder, Nancy; Richards, Abigail; Pettigrew, Charles; Peyton, Brent M

    2016-05-01

    Two haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from industrial brine solutions were characterized via molecular, physiological, and in silico metabolic pathway analyses. Genomes from the organisms, designated Halomonas BC1 and BC2, were sequenced; 16S ribosomal subunit-based phylogenetic analysis revealed a high level of similarity to each other and to Halomonas meridiana. Both strains were moderate halophiles with near optimal specific growth rates (≥60 % μ max) observed over Halomonas. PMID:26888357

  1. Experiments of CO2 Solubility in the Synthetic Brine from the Erdos Basin, China

    Wang, L.; Yu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Solubility trapping of CO2 in saline aquifers is accepted to be the promising method in terms of carbon capture and storage (CCS). CO2 solubility at geological sequestration conditions is of great significance in evaluating the carbon capture potential of brine formation. Unfortunately, most CO2 solubility studies focus mainly on single-salt solutions, and only sparse literature exist for the data of CO2 solubility in aqueous solutions containing the mixture of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. To fill the research gap, an experimental investigation on the CO2 solubility in the synthetic brine is carried out. The samples were extracted through the injection wells of the Shenhua Carbon Capture and Storage project in the Erdos Basin located in northern China. The proportion of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ was determined by chemical analysis of the samples in the aquifers. The synthetic brine is used in this study, and the experimental process were improved to lower the risk of penetration of the supercritical fluid. Solubility data were measured over the temperature and pressure ranges of 318-348 K and 8-11 MPa. In the range studied, the average absolute deviation of CO2 solubility between literature and experimental results was 2.7%, and the maximum absolute deviation was less than 5.4%. Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky (KK) equation was established to analyze the experimental data and the effect of different ions on CO2 solubility was quantified using an optimization process. The liner fit between the CO2 solubility and mixed ion concentration is satisfied with correlation coefficient of 0.91. The proposed model and experimental data therefore possess broad adaptability to geological carbon storage. This ambiguity in the mechanism of the ion effect drives our efforts toward a better understanding of the factors controlling CO2 solubility in formation brine.

  2. Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Benalu Kopi (Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb.) dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT)

    Bratisca, Sonya Citra

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity assaythe methanol extract of leaves parasite coffee (Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb.) Has been performed using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Coffee parasite leaves that have been dried and crushed, extracted by using methanol for 2 days, and the methanol extract coffee parasite concentrated by rotary vacuum evaporator. The methanol extract coffee parasiteleavesderived phytochemical screening to identify secondary metabolite coumpounds. Extracts of leaves parasite coffee made in a c...

  3. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay.

    Karchesy, Yvette M; Kelsey, Rick G; Constantine, George; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50  1000 µg/ml). Our subsequent studies of conifer heartwoods with strong activity confirm the assay's value for identifying new investigational leads for materials with insecticidal and fungicidal activity. PMID:27186474

  4. Yeasts as Ripening Adjunct Cultures in Turkish White Brined Cheese Production

    Kesenkaş, Harun; Akbulut, Necati

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the possibility of using yeasts as adjunct cultures in the production of white brined cheese, which is quite important to the Turkish dairy industry, and to evaluate the effects of these yeasts on cheese ripening. In addition to starter culture (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis + Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris), adjunct yeast cultures of Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Kluyveromyces marxianus were separately co-inoculated to each cheese...

  5. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 x 10-3) and low Na/Cl (-3); and (3) recharge of anthropogenic effluents, primarily derived from evaporated agricultural return flow that has interacted (e.g., base-exchange reactions) with the overlying soil. It is shown that shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies

  6. Effects of Water or Brine Immersion Thawing Combined with Ultrasound on Quality Attributes of Frozen Pork Loin

    Hong, Geun-Pyo; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Jo, Yeon-Ji

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the effects of water or brine (2% NaCl, w/v) immersion thawing combined with ultrasound treatment (40 kHz, 150 W) on the quality characteristics of pork. Ultrasound treatment of pork was conducted in two cold media (at 4℃), water and 2% (w/v) brine, respectively. Because the ultrasound treatment caused temperature increase in the media from 4℃ to 16℃, the qualities of pork thawed by ultrasound were compared with those thawed by immersion either in water or brine where the temperature was being maintained at either 4℃ (low temperature control) or 17℃ (high temperature control). The ultrasound treatment resulted in rapid thawing of pork where the thawing rate was similar to those thawed in the 17℃ media. For quality characteristics, ultrasound-treated pork in brine had an advantage of less cooking losses when comparing to the control. In particular, ultrasound treatment in brine exhibited the lowest shear force (or highest tenderness) among the freezing/thawing treatments. Although the ultrasound processing in brine caused discoloration of the pork, this thawing technique had potential to be applied as a commercial thawing technology for frozen foods. PMID:26760753

  7. Conceptual design of the Truscott brine lake solar-pond system, volume 1: Utility-independent scenario

    1981-06-01

    A conceptual design was performed for a series of solar pond systems to provide pumping power for chloride control in the Red River Basin. In the chloride control project, briny waters are diverted so as not to pollute portable water. The diverted brine is stored in a dammed natural basin where, with the aid of natural evaporation, the brine is concentrated to the salinities required for the solar ponds. The brine is transferred to the ponds and injected at the proper levels to establish the gradients and storage layers. The solar ponds are to be located within the Truscott, Texas brine impoundment lake. Heat will be extracted from the ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle turbine generators. The electricity produced will serve the pumping needs of the chloride control project, pump brine from the natural source to the evaporation ponds, pump concentrated brine from the evaporation ponds to the solar ponds, maintain the solar ponds, and supply all system parasitic loads. It was found that five solar ponds with eight organic Rankine-cycle turbine-generators would serve both the average and peaking power requirements of the pumping stations in the Truscott area as they come on-line.

  8. Experimental Study of Cement - Sandstone/Shale - Brine - CO2 Interactions

    Carroll Susan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive-transport simulation is a tool that is being used to estimate long-term trapping of CO2, and wellbore and cap rock integrity for geologic CO2 storage. We reacted end member components of a heterolithic sandstone and shale unit that forms the upper section of the In Salah Gas Project carbon storage reservoir in Krechba, Algeria with supercritical CO2, brine, and with/without cement at reservoir conditions to develop experimentally constrained geochemical models for use in reactive transport simulations. Results We observe marked changes in solution composition when CO2 reacted with cement, sandstone, and shale components at reservoir conditions. The geochemical model for the reaction of sandstone and shale with CO2 and brine is a simple one in which albite, chlorite, illite and carbonate minerals partially dissolve and boehmite, smectite, and amorphous silica precipitate. The geochemical model for the wellbore environment is also fairly simple, in which alkaline cements and rock react with CO2-rich brines to form an Fe containing calcite, amorphous silica, smectite and boehmite or amorphous Al(OH3. Conclusions Our research shows that relatively simple geochemical models can describe the dominant reactions that are likely to occur when CO2 is stored in deep saline aquifers sealed with overlying shale cap rocks, as well as the dominant reactions for cement carbonation at the wellbore interface.

  9. USE OF REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION ON DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF HYDROPONIC LETTUCE

    NILDO DA SILVA DIAS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluated the impact of the high salinity reject brine from reverse osmosis desalination on hydroponics lettuce cultivated in greenhouse an investigation was carried out in Mossoro, Northeast of Brazil (5º11'S, 37º20'O and 18m above sea. Two lettuce cultivars ('Verônica' and 'Babá de verão' were cultivated with a basic nutrient solution with 1.1 dS m-1 (control during the crop cycle (1-28 days after transplanting - DAT - T0 and with basic nutrient solution containing 50% of the reject water from desalinization with 4.8 dS m-1 exposed during 1-7, 21-28, 7-14 e 1-28 DAT (T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The addition of 50% of brine reject from desalination into the hydroponic nutrient solution allows grow only 'Verônica' lettuce with no reduction in fresh biomass. This lettuce cultivar shows to be more tolerant to salinity for all exposure time with reject brine in the nutrition solution, despite the fact that 'Babá de Verão' cultivar is more productive.

  10. Density-Thermal-Driven Groundwater Flow and Brine Transport Near Salt Domes

    Jamshidzadeh, Z.; Tsai, F. T.; Mirbagheri, S.; Ghasemzadeh, H.

    2012-12-01

    A major environmental and economic concern in many parts of the world is progressive salinization of groundwater system. Therefore, understanding the sources and flow patterns of encroachment of saline or brine water into freshwater aquifers is necessary for groundwater resources management. Flow patterns near salt domes in deep formation is of interest in this study because of complexity of different driving forces from salt concentration, thermal, and fluid pressure gradients. Because of rock formation and relative high temperature in the vicinity of salt domes, fluid salinity is much higher than seawater and density variation in the brine waters exceeds 20% with respect to fresh water. Groundwater flow, salt transport and heat transport equations are strongly coupled. Moreover, it is necessary to include the dispersive flux of total fluid mass in the flow equation. In this study, a two-dimensional density-thermal-driven groundwater flow induced by salt mass fraction gradient and temperature gradient near a hypothetical salt dome is considered. A fully implicit finite difference method has been developed to solve three coupled governing equations. The classical Elder problems and the Henry problem were used as benchmarks to verify the numerical code for solving the coupled flow and heat equations and the coupled flow and transport equations. Then, the numerical model is applied to a hypothetical salt dome problem to simulate upward density-thermal-driven groundwater flow and brine transport.

  11. A study of the reduction of brine permeability in Berea sandstone with the aluminum citrate process

    Parmeswar, R.; Willhite, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    A systematic study of permeability modification of Berea sandstone by the injection of alternate slugs of polymer and aluminum citrate is described. The research included brine permeabilities from 10 to 300 md. Results of treatments with Pusher 700/sup TM/ showed that permeability reduction was limited to the front end of the core (0 to 4 in. (0 to 10 cm)). The effective mobility of the treated region was so low that in-depth treatment of the remainder of the core was prevented. The amount and distribution of permeability reduction is related to both polymer and aluminum retention. The retention of aluminum was found to be a nonequilibrium process, varying with the flow rate and thus residence time in the core. Aluminum was retained in large quantities in Berea core in the absence of polymer. Changing the treatment sequence to aluminum citrate/brine/polymer/brine yielded in-depth treatment of cores 12 to 48 in. (30 to 121 cm) in length. Both magnitude and persistence of permeability reduction were comparable to or better than those obtained with the combination process. Permeability increased with distance from the core inlet in most runs. This is believed to be caused by nonuniform distribution of retained aluminum.

  12. Effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer

    Kituu, G.M.; Shitanda, D.; Kanali, C.L.; Mailutha, J.T. [Jomo Kenyatta Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Kenya). BEED

    2008-07-01

    In addition to being a source of protein, fish is an important source of local and foreign currency earnings in Kenya. A substantial amount of fish production is exported. Approximately 30 per cent is exported to the European Union, the United States, and countries in the Middle East, but nearly half of the total annual fish harvest in Kenya goes to waste due to poor processing and preservation. Measures must be taken to ensure the fish industry is protected and waste is minimized, since the livelihood of over 500,000 people depends on fish as a source of proteins and employment. Therefore, it is necessary to implement appropriate and affordable processing and preservation techniques for fish at the artisanal landing sites in order to reduce the wastage and spoilage of fish during oversupply, and to enhance long storage. This paper presented studies that were conducted to determine the effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer. The paper discussed the materials and methods, including a description of the solar tunnel dryer system; the brining process of fish; the fish drying process; and data analysis. It was concluded that limiting the amount of salt used in brining, and subsequently dehydrating fish with a solar tunnel dryer achieves a more stable and suitable dried fish product than osmotic dehydration or solar drying process separately. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  13. Antimicrobial, antitumor and brine shrimp lethality assay of Ranunculus arvensis L. extracts.

    Bhatti, Muhammad Zeeshan; Ali, Amjad; Saeed, Asma; Saeed, Ahmad; Malik, Salman Akbar

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the antitumor activity, brine shrimp lethality assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity of Methanol Extract (ME), Water Extract (WE), Acetone Extract (AE), Chloroform Extract (CE), Methanol-Water Extract (MWE), Methanol-Acetone Extract (MAE), Methanol-Chloroform Extract (MCE) of Ranunculus arvensis (L.). Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At10) induced potato disc assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with brine shrimp lethality assay. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with six bacterial strains including Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus and Streptococcus anginosus and antifungal screening was done against five fungal strains including Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. fumigates, Fusarium solani and Mucor species by using disc diffusion method. Best antitumor activity was obtained with ME and WE, having highest IC50 values 20.27 ± 1.62 and 93.01 ± 1.33μg/disc. Brine shrimp lethality assay showed LC50 values of AE, MAE and ME were obtained as 384.66 ± 9.42μg/ml, 724.11 ± 8.01μg/ml and 978.7 ±8.01 μg/ml respectively. WE of R. arvensis revealed weak antimicrobial result against the tested microorganisms. On the other hand, the antifungal activity of the plant extracts was found to be insignificant. These findings demonstrate that extracts of R. arvensis possesses significant antitumor activity. Further extensive study is necessary to assess the therapeutic potential of the plant. PMID:26004705

  14. Interactions between concrete and brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, New Mexico

    A concrete liner emplaced in 1984 in a shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has served as a natural laboratory for observing interactions among concrete, evaporite rocks, and brine. During a routine inspection of the liner in the spring of 1990, discoloration, deposition of secondary salts, wet areas with exposed aggregate grains, softening of paste, surficial spalling, and cracking were observed locally on the concrete surface of the liner. Some construction joints showed apparent leakage of brine from behind the liner, which was nominally 50 cm thick. Seepage brines were nearly saturated relative to CaCl2 and contained lesser amounts of MgCl2 and KCl, and minor NaCl. The liner surface was locally altered to a 1--2 cm friable hygroscopic layer containing little cement paste; concrete cores (7 or 10 cm diameter) through the liner at depths of 248, 254, 255, and 271 m showed similar degrees of alteration at the liner/rock interface. The most profound alteration of concrete was developed in a ∼7 cm zone subparallel to and straddling the construction joint cored at a depth of ∼254.5 m. This zone was extensively microfractured, transected aggregate grains, and contained brucite, gypsum, magnesium hydroxychloride hydrate, and locally calcium chloroaluminate instead of the usual phases of hydrated portland cement. Several mechanisms of chemical degradation have been proposed, the most likely being attack by magnesium ions

  15. Downstream processing of reverse osmosis brine: Characterisation of potential scaling compounds.

    Zaman, Masuduz; Birkett, Greg; Pratt, Christopher; Stuart, Bruce; Pratt, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) brine produced at a full-scale coal seam gas (CSG) water treatment facility was characterized with spectroscopic and other analytical techniques. A number of potential scalants including silica, calcium, magnesium, sulphates and carbonates, all of which were present in dissolved and non-dissolved forms, were characterized. The presence of spherical particles with a size range of 10-1000 nm and aggregates of 1-10 microns was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Those particulates contained the following metals in decreasing order: K, Si, Sr, Ca, B, Ba, Mg, P, and S. Characterization showed that nearly one-third of the total silicon in the brine was present in the particulates. Further, analysis of the RO brine suggested supersaturation and precipitation of metal carbonates and sulphates during the RO process should take place and could be responsible for subsequently capturing silica in the solid phase. However, the precipitation of crystalline carbonates and sulphates are complex. X-ray diffraction analysis did not confirm the presence of common calcium carbonates or sulphates but instead showed the presence of a suite of complex minerals, to which amorphous silica and/or silica rich compounds could have adhered. A filtration study showed that majority of the siliceous particles were less than 220 nm in size, but could still be potentially captured using a low molecular weight ultrafiltration membrane. PMID:26001825

  16. Core-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring of CO2-brine mixture in Fontainebleau sandstone

    Bosch, David; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Bellmunt, Fabian; Luquot, Linda; Gouze, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of the monitoring stage of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is to obtain an accurate estimation of the subsurface CO2 accumulation and to detect any possible leakage. Laboratory experiments are necessary to investigate the small scale processes governing the CO2-brine-rock interaction. They also provide a means to calibrate the results coming from field scale geophysical methods. In this work we set up an experimental system which is able to perform Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) measurements on centimeter-scale rock samples at various P-T conditions. We present the results of two new experiments related to CO2 monitoring, performed on a cylindrical (4 × 8 cm) Fontainebleau rock sample. In the first one, we have quantified the CO2 saturation at different volume fractions, representing zones from a deep saline aquifer with varying degrees of saturation. In the second one, we have monitored and quantified the effect of CO2 dissolution in the brine at a pressure of 40 bar during eight days, emulating the invasion of CO2 into a shallow aquifer. Results highlight the importance of accounting for the contribution of surface conductivity in highly CO2-saturated regions, even in clay-free rocks, and also for brine conductivity variation due to CO2 dissolution. Ignoring any of these effects will end up in a CO2 saturation underestimation. We present a modified CO2 saturation equation to account for these two influences.

  17. Ground-water hydraulics of the deep-basin brine aquifer, Palo Duro Basin, Texas panhandle

    The Deep-Basin Brine aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin (Texas Panhandle) underlies thick Permian bedded evaporites that are being evaluated as a potential high-level nuclear waste isolation repository. Potentiometric surface maps of 5 units of the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer were drawn using drill-stem test (DST) pressure data, which were analyzed by a geostatistical technique (kriging) to smooth the large variation in the data. The potentiometric surface maps indicate that the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer could be conceptually modeled as 5 aquifer units; a Lower Permian (Wolfcamp) aquifer, upper and lower Pennsylvanian aquifers, a pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer, and a Pennsylvanian to Wolfcampian granite-wash aquifer. The hydraulic head maps indicate that ground-water flow in each of the units is west to east with a minor northerly component near the Amarillo Uplift, the northern structural boundary of the basin. The Wolfcamp potentiometric surface indicates the strongest component of northerly flow. Inferred flow direction in Pennsylvanian aquifers is easterly, and in the pre-Pennsylvanian aquifer near its pinch-out in the basin center, flow is inferred to be to the north. In the granite-wash aquifer the inferred flow direction is east across the northern edge of the basin and southeast along the Amarillo Uplift

  18. The solubility of gases in NaCl brine and a critical evaluation of available data

    Knowledge of the solubility of gases in pure water and sodium chloride brine is required for the evaluation of gas-liquid behavior associated with numerous processes in the chemical, biological, and geological sciences and in chemical engineering. Modelling of multiphase flow and transport processes used to simulate fluid behavior in geological media requires suitable and accurate gas solubility data, especially when applied to potential nuclear waste repositories such as WIPP. This report contains a critical evaluation of data available in the literature and provides compiled data sets for the solubility of hydrogen, nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide gases in pure water and in sodium chloride brine. Mole fraction gas solubilities are presented as functions of temperature and pressure. To evaluate the influence of electrolyte content of the aqueous solution upon the gas solubility, Sechenov coefficients are provided for several concentrated sodium chloride solution. An estimate of the solubility of hydrogen in 5 N sodium chloride brine as a function of pressure exhibits a solubility at 40 MPa that is one fifth the value observed for pure water at the same pressure. 64 refs., 37 figs

  19. The solubility of noble gases in water and in NaCl brine

    A direct-sampling, mass-spectrometric technique has been used to measure simultaneously the solubilities of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in fresh water and NaCl brine from 0 deg to 65 deg C, and at 1 atm total pressure of moist air. The argon solubility in the most concentrated brines is 4 to 7 times less than in fresh water at 65 deg C and 0 deg C, respectively. From the solubility data, we calculated the values of the thermodynamic properties for the transfer of noble gases from fresh water to 1 molar NaCl solutions. At low temperatures δS0sub(tr) is positive, but decreases and becomes negative at temperatures ranging from about 25 deg C for He to 45 deg C for Xe. At low temperatures, the dissolved electrolyte apparently interferes with the formation of a cage of solvent molecules about the noble gas atom. At higher temperatures, the local environment of the gas atom in the brine appears to be slightly more ordered than in pure water. The measured solubilities can be used to model noble gas partitioning in two-phase geothermal systems at low temperatures. The data can also be used to estimate the temperature and concentration dependence of the salt effect for other alkali halides. (author)

  20. Toxicological investigations of Aloe ferox Mill. extracts using Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) assay.

    Abosede, Wintola Olubunmi; Sunday, Arowosegbe; Jide, Afolayan Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Cytotoxicity of the extracts of Aloe ferox using brine shrimp was evaluated. Effects of the extracts on hatchability and lethality of brine shrimps were reported in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and LD(50) respectively. The hatching success was in the order: aqueous root extract (39.8%) >aqueous leaf (26.5%) >acetone leaf (13.7%) > ethanol leaf extracts (2.5%). Hatchability in incubations of ethanol and acetone extracts was found to be dose - dependent, with hatching success decreasing as the concentration of the extracts increased. The lethality of extracts was in the order: aqueous leaf extract (4.7%) >aqueous root extract (4.2%) >acetone leaf extract (3.5%) >ethanol root extract (2.6%) > ethanol leaf extract (1.8%) >acetone root extract (0.7%). Mean mortality of nauplii in the control was higher (6.7%) than that of all the extracts. Based on Meyer's index of toxicity, the acetone leaf extract with LD(50) >1.0mg/mL could be considered as non toxic, while the ethanol root extract (LD(50) toxic to the brine shrimp. Since the extracts of A. ferox have consistently exhibited significant pharmaceutical properties in-vitro, the non-toxic extracts could further be exploited for the development of plant-based pharmaceuticals. PMID:25730795

  1. Imaged brine inclusions in young sea ice—Shape, distribution and formation timing

    Galley, R.J.; Else, B.G.T.; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier;

    2015-01-01

    quantification of the morphology and vertical dis- tribution of brine inclusions in sea ice. Using a magnetic (3.0 T) resonance (MR) imager using constructive inter- ference steady state gradient echo sequence, we show that it is possible to image brine channels and pockets in an 18.5 cm young sea ice core in......Liquid inclusions in sea ice are variable and dependent on the myriad of physical conditions of the atmosphere– sea ice environment in which the sea ice was grown, and whether or not melting processes affected the sea ice. In that light, there exist relatively few observations and resultant...... three-dimensions in only four and a half minutes following core storage at − 20 °C. We present a three-dimensional image of a brine drainage channel feature in a young sea ice core, give the phys- ical context for its formation by presenting the physical conditions of the atmosphere and water/sea ice...

  2. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of

  3. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on

  4. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  5. Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2012-01-01

    The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus...... aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined. The effect of brine composition and pH was determined in 12 screening experiments without addition of shrimp. Sixteen challenge tests with shrimp were then carried out to examine the effect of brine composition and storage temperature on survival and...... growth during processing and subsequent storage of brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Different brines with (i) acetic and lactic acids (AL) or (ii) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids (BCS) were studied. V. parahaemolyticus was inactivated in brine AL without shrimp whereas...

  6. Development of a Rapid, Nondestructive Method to Measure Aqueous Carbonate in High Salinity Brines Using Raman Spectroscopy

    McGraw, L.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Elwood Madden, A. S.; Parnell, S.; Elwood Madden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical contact with the fluid and is not affected by many ionic brines. Developing methods to study aqueous carbonates is vital to future study of brines on Mars and other planetary bodies, as they can reveal important information about modern and ancient near-surface aqueous processes. Both sodium carbonate standards and unknown samples from carbonate mineral dissolution experiments in high salinity brines were analyzed using a 532 nm laser coupled to an inVia Renishaw spectrometer to collect carbonate spectra from near-saturated sodium chloride and sodium sulfate brines. A calibration curve was determined by collecting spectra from solutions of known carbonate concentrations mixed with a pH 13 buffer and a near-saturated NaCl or Na2SO4 brine matrix. The spectra were processed and curve fitted to determine the height ratio of the carbonate peak at 1066 cm-1 to the 1640 cm-1 water peak. The calibration curve determined using the standards was then applied to the experimental data after accounting for dilutions. Concentrations determined based on Raman spectra were compared against traditional acid titration measurements. We found that the two techniques vary by less than one order of magnitude. Further work is ongoing to verify the method and apply similar techniques to measure aqueous carbonate concentrations in other high salinity brines.Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical

  7. Closed basin brine evolution and the influence of Ca-Cl inflow waters : Death Valley and Bristol Dry Lake California, Qaidam Basin, China, and Salar de Atacama, Chile

    Lowenstein, T. K.; Risacher, François

    2009-01-01

    Diagenetic-hydrothermal brines, here called "hydrothermal Ca-Cl brines," have compositions that reflect interactions between groundwaters and rocks or sediments at elevated temperatures. Hydrothermal Ca-Cl brines reach the surface by convection-driven or topographically driven circulation, and discharge as springs or seeps along fault zones to become important inflow waters in many tectonically active closed basins. Case studies from (1) Qaidam Basin, China, (2) Death Valley, California, (3) ...

  8. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie;

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses....... The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil–brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil–brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition...... of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs....

  9. Origin of the brines near WIPP from the drill holes ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 based on stable isotope concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen

    Pathways which might alter the isotopic compositions of deuterium and oxygen-18 meteoric water, seawaters, and in hydration waters in gypsum to the isotopic compositions of brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are discussed. Present geologic conditions do not favor the alteration of the isotopic compositions of waters that exist near the WIPP site to those of the brines by these pathways. It is concluded that the brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are probably derived from ancient ocean waters that have been isotopically enriched in oxygen-18 by exchange interaction with rock. The dehydration of gypsum as a process of origin of these brines cannot be ruled out

  10. On the brine drainage and algal uptake controls of the nutrient supply to the sea ice interior

    Vancoppenolle, M.; Goosse, H.; de Montety, A.; Fichefet, T.; Tison, J.-L.

    2009-04-01

    Sea ice ecosystems are important components of the biogeochemical cycles (including carbon) and hence have a potential impact on climate. They are characterized by large stocks of micro-algae. Those algae (mostly diatoms) live in liquid inclusions of saline brine, which are encased within the solid ice matrix and require sustained nutrient supply to grow. In this study, we investigate the interactions between nutrients, brine motion and algal growth, using a one-dimensional (1D) sea ice model. The model includes (i) a classical formulation for snow and ice thermodynamics with explicit, reformulated brine physics and (ii) an idealized sea ice biological component, characterized by one single nutrient, namely dissolved silica (DSi), which stocks are reduced by a prescribed primary production. DSi is considered as a passive tracer dissolved within brine following fluid motion. The brine flow regime (advective, diffusive or turbulent) is computed as a function of environmental ice conditions. In winter, a Rayleigh number proposed by Notz and Worster (2008) is used to differentiate diffusion and convection. Ice salinity and DSi concentrations within the ice are solutions of 1D advection-diffusion equations over the variable volume brine network domain. The model is configured for a typical year of seasonal Weddell Sea ice. The simulated vertical salinity and tracer profiles as well as ice-ocean salt fluxes realistically agree with observations. Complex bio-physical interactions are simulated by the model. Analysis highlights the role of convection in the lowermost 5-10 cm of ice (gravity drainage), mixing highly saline, nutrient-depleted brine with comparatively fresh, nutrient-rich seawater. Hence, gravity drainage rejects salt to the ocean and provides nutrients to the ice interior. In turn, primary production and brine convection act synergetically to form a nutrient pump, which enhances the net ocean-to-ice DSi flux by 20-115%, compared to an abiotic situation. The

  11. PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    Burnett, David

    2012-12-31

    The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field

  12. Effective Wettability Measurements of CO2-Brine-Sandstone System at Different Reservoir Conditions

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The wetting properties of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of CO2 injection processes. The wettability of a system controls the flow and trapping efficiency during the storage of CO2 in geological formations as well as the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery operations. Despite its utility in EOR and the continued development of CCS, little is currently known about the wetting properties of the CO2-brine system on reservoir rocks, and no investigations have been performed assessing the impact of these properties on CO2 flooding for CO2 storage or EOR. The wetting properties of multiphase fluid systems in porous media have major impacts on the multiphase flow properties such as the capillary pressure and relative permeability. While recent studies have shown CO2 to generally act as a non-wetting phase in siliciclastic rocks, some observations report that the contact angle varies with pressure, temperature and water salinity. Additionally, there is a wide range of reported contact angles for this system, from strongly to weakly water-wet. In the case of some minerals, intermediate wet contact angles have been observed. Uncertainty with regard to the wetting properties of CO2-brine systems is currently one of the remaining major unresolved issues with regards to reservoir management of CO2 storage. In this study, we make semi-dynamic capillary pressure measurements of supercritical CO2 and brine at reservoir conditions to observe shifts in the wetting properties. We utilize a novel core analysis technique recently developed by Pini et al in 2012 to evaluate a core-scale effective contact angle. Carbon dioxide is injected at constant flow rate into a core that is initially fully saturated with water, while maintaining a constant outlet pressure. In this scenario, the pressure drop across the core corresponds to the capillary pressure at the inlet face of the core. When compared with mercury intrusion capillary pressure measurements

  13. The impact of interfacial tension on multiphase flow in the CO2-brine-sandstone system

    Reynolds, C. A.; Blunt, M. J.; Krevor, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Two dominant controls on continuum scale multiphase flow properties are interfacial tension (IFT) and wetting. In hydrocarbon-brine systems, relative permeability is known to increase with decreasing IFT, while residual trapping is controlled by the wetting properties of a permeable rock and the hysteresis between drainage and imbibtion (Amaefule & Handy, 1982; Bardon & Longeron, 1980; Juanes et al., 2006). Fluid properties of the CO2-brine system, such as viscosity, density and interfacial tension, are well characterised and have known dependencies on temperature, pressure and brine salinity. Interest in this particular fluid system is motivated by CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery. Despite increased interest in CO2 storage, the response of the CO2-brine relative permeability to varying IFT has yet to be comprehensively evaluated. Additionally the wide range of thermophysical properties (density, viscosity etc.) that exist across a relatively small range of pressures and temperatures makes it an ideal system with which to investigate the physics of multiphase flow in general. This is the first systematic study to investigate the impact of IFT on drainage and imbibition relative permeability for the CO2-brine-sandstone system. The experimental design has been adapted from a traditional steady state core flood in two ways. First, while conditions may be easily selected to obtain a range of interfacial tensions, isolating the independent impact of interfacial tension on relative permeability is less simple. Thus experimental conditions are selected so as to vary interfacial tension, while minimising the variation in viscosity ratio between CO2 and brine. Second, in order to attribute the impacts of changing conditions, it is necessary to have precise results such that small shifts in observations can be identified. Multiphase flow theory is used to both design the conditions of the test and interpret the observations, leading to a much higher precision in

  14. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  15. Integrated modeling and experimental programs to predict brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Evaluation of the performance of the WIPP repository involves modeling of brine and gas flow in the host rocks of the Salado Formation, which consist of halite and anhydrite interbeds. Numerous physical, chemical, and structural processes, must be understood to perform this modeling. Gas generation within the repository is strongly coupled to the amount of brine inflow to the repository because brine aids in the corrosion of metals and associated generation of hydrogen gas. Increasing gas pressure in the repository decreases the rate of brine inflow. Ultimately, the gas pressure may exceed the brine pressure and gas may flow out of the repository. Relative-permeability curves and a correlation between threshold pressure and permeability taken from studies reported in the literature were used in PA models prior to being experimentally verified as appropriate for WIPP. In addition, interbed permeabilities were treated as constant and independent of effective stress in early models. Subsequently, the process of interbed fracturing (or fracture dilation) was recognized to limit gas pressures in the repository to values below lithostatic, and assumed (and unverified) relationships between porosity, permeability, and pore pressure were employed. Parameter-sensitivity studies performed using the simplified models identified important parameters for which site-specific data were needed. Unrealistic modeling results, such as room pressures substantially above lithostatic, showed the need to include additional processes in the models. Field and laboratory experimental programs have been initiated in conjunction with continued model development to provide information on important processes and parameters

  16. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  17. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  18. Liquid-vapor partitioning of NaCl(aq) from concentrated brines at temperatures to 350{degrees}C

    Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.; Carter, R.W.

    1994-03-01

    Compositions of coexisting liquid and vapor phases have been determined at temperatures from 250 to 350{degree}C for brines containing NaCl and either HCl or NaOH by direct sampling of both phases from a static phase-equilibration apparatus. Thermodynamic partitioning constants for NaCl have been determined from the observed compositions of the coexisting phases combined with the known activity coefficients of NaCl(aq) in the liquid phase. An apparent dependence of the values of these partitioning constants on brine concentration is explained by considering the effect of decreasing pressure on the density of the vapor phase. Concentrations of HCl and NaCl in steam produced from various natural brines may be calculated as functions of temperature and brine composition based on these new results coupled with our previous determinations of the partitioning constants for HCl(aq). Application of these results to The Geysers will be discussed in terms of the composition of postulated brines which could be in equilibrium with observed steam compositions at various temperatures.

  19. Oil removal and effects of spilled oil on active microbial communities in close to salt-saturation brines.

    Corsellis, Yannick Y; Krasovec, Marc M; Sylvi, Léa L; Cuny, Philippe P; Militon, Cécile C

    2016-05-01

    Abiotic and biotic processes associated with the degradation of a light petroleum in brines close to the salt-saturation (~31 %) and the effect of labile organic matter (LOM) supply (casaminoacids/citrate; 0.2 and 0.1 % w/v, respectively) were followed during an incubation of 30 days. After 4-week incubation at 40 °C under light/dark cycles, a 24 % of abiotic degradation was observed in untreated brines. The stimulation of native brines community with LOM addition allowed an additional 12.8 % oil attenuation due to biodegradation processes. Successional changes in the active microbial community structure due to the oil contamination (16S rRNA DGGE approach) showed the selection of one phylotype affiliated to Salinibacter and the disappearance of Haloquadratum walsbyi in untreated brines. In LOM-amended microcosms, phylotypes related to Salinibacter, Haloarcula, Haloterrigena and Halorhabdus were selected. An effect of hydrocarbon contamination was only observed in the bacterial community with the inhibition of two dominant proteobacterial phylotypes. This study further confirms that short-term and moderate oil biodegradation is possible in LOM-stimulated brines. Biodegradation should be much more reduced under in situ conditions. Self-cleaning capacities of close to saturation hypersaline lakes appears, therefore very limited compared to non-extreme haline environments. PMID:26955981

  20. Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Sea Brine Disposal by Coupling Desalination Plants with Solar Saltworks: A Case Study for Greece

    Stylianos Gialis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage issues and have resorted to solutions such as transporting water by ships from the mainland to islands, a practice that is expensive, energy-intensive and unsustainable. Desalination of sea-water is suitable for supplying arid regions with potable water, but extensive brine discharge may affect marine biota. To avoid this impact, we explore the option of directing the desalination effluent to a solar saltworks for brine concentration and salt production, in order to achieve a zero discharge desalination plant. In this context, we conducted a survey in order to evaluate the potential of transferring desalination brine to solar saltworks, so that its disposal to the sea is avoided. Our analysis showed that brine transfer by trucks is prohibitively expensive. In order to make the zero discharge desalination plant economically feasible, efforts should be directed into developing a more efficient technology that will result in the production of only a fraction of the brine that is produced from our systems today.

  1. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  2. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  3. Chemical and isotopic constrains on the origin of brine and saline groundwater in Hetao plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Zongyu; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Yilong; Li, Zhenghong; Xu, Jiaming; Peng, Yurong

    2016-08-01

    The origin and evolution of brine and saline groundwater have always been a challenged work for geochemists and hydrogeologists. Chemical and isotopic data of brine and saline waters were used to trace the sources of salinity and therefore to understand the transport mechanisms of groundwater in Xishanzui, Inner Mongolia. Both Cl/Br (molar) versus Na/Br (molar) and Cl (meq/L) versus Na (meq/L) indicated that salinity was from halite dissolution or at least a significant impact by halite dissolution. The logarithmic plot of the concentration trends of Cl (mg/L) versus Br (mg/L) for the evaporation of seawater and the Qinghai Salt Lake showed that the terrestrial halite dissolution was the dominated contribution for the salinity of this brine. The stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen suggested that the origin of brine was from paleorecharge water which experienced mixing of modern water in shallow aquifer. δ(37)Cl values ranged from -0.02 to 3.43 ‰ (SMOC), and reflecting mixing of different sources. The Cl isotopic compositions suggest that the dissolution of halite by paleometeoric water had a great contribution to the salinity of brine, and the contributions of the residual seawater and the dissolution of halite by the Yellow River water could be excluded. PMID:27080408

  4. Advanced oxidation of iodinated X-ray contrast media in reverse osmosis brines: the influence of quenching.

    Azerrad, Sara P; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2014-10-01

    Among the main restrictions for the implementation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for removal of micropollutants present in reverse osmosis (RO) brines of secondary effluents account the quenching performed by background organic and inorganic constituents. Natural organic matter (NOM) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the main effluent organic matter constituents. The inorganic fraction is largely constituted by chlorides and bicarbonate alkalinity with sodium and calcium as main counterions. The quenching influence of these components, separately and their mixture, in the transformation of model compounds by UVA/TiO2 was studied applying synthetic brines solutions mimicking 2-fold concentrated RO secondary effluents brines. The results were validated using fresh RO brines. Diatrizoate (DTZ) and iopromide (IOPr) were used as model compound. They have been found to exhibit relative high resistance to oxidation process and therefore represent good markers for AOPs techniques. Under the conditions applied, oxidization of DTZ in the background of RO brines was strongly affected by quenching effects. The major contribution to quenching resulted from organic matter (≈70%) followed by bicarbonate alkalinity (≈30%). NOM displayed higher quenching than SMP in spite of its relative lower concentration. Multivalent cations, i.e., Ca(+2), were found to decrease effectiveness of the technique due to agglomeration of the catalyst. However this influence was lowered in presence of NOM. Different patterns of transformation were found for each model compound in which a delayed deiodination was observed for iopromide whereas diatrizoate oxidation paralleled deiodination. PMID:24945978

  5. Heat pump for purification of geothermal brines; Bomba de calor para purificacion de salmuera geotermica

    Santoyo-Gutierrez, S; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Holland, F.A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx

    2007-01-15

    Integrated use of geothermal resources is one of the most important goals for the future. Presently geothermal heat pumps offer two benefits: using heat from residual brines and converting these brines into very pure water. Designs and descriptions are presented of an experimental system to purify geothermal brines integrated to an adsorption heat-pump. The system was constructed and tested in the IIE (Institute for Electrical Research) facilities. During the experimental stage, pure water was obtained. Maximum capacity for pure water was 4.3 kg per hour, presenting an Actual Coefficient of Performance (COP)A of 1.4. The results are encouraging to project units at an industrial level for operating with geothermal and/or solar heat. [Spanish] El aprovechamiento integral de los recursos geotermicos en todas sus formas es una de las metas importantes a lograr en los proximos anos. Hoy en dia, el uso de las bombas de calor en la geotermia ofrece un doble beneficio: aprovechan el calor de los fluidos de desecho y tienen la capacidad de transformar la salmuera geotermica en agua de alta pureza. Se presenta el diseno y descripcion de un sistema experimental para purificacion de salmuera geotermica integrado a una bomba de calor por absorcion, el cual fue construido y probado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. En toda la etapa de experimentacion se obtuvo agua pura. La capacidad maxima alcanzada de produccion de agua pura de este sistema fue de 4.3 kg por hora, mostrando un rendimiento en terminos del Coeficiente Real de Rendimiento (COP)A de 1.4. Estos resultados se consideran alentadores para la proyeccion de unidades a escala industrial que puedan ser operadas con calor geotermico y/o solar.

  6. Self-healing of cement fractures under dynamic flow of CO2-rich brine

    Cao, Peilin; Karpyn, Zuleima T.; Li, Li

    2015-06-01

    Fractures and defects in wellbore cement can lead to increased possibilities of CO2 leakage from abandoned wells during geological carbon sequestration. To investigate the physicochemical response of defective wellbore cement to CO2-rich brine, we carried out a reactive flow-through experiment using an artificially fractured cement sample at a length of 224.8 mm. A brine solution with dissolved CO2 at a pH of approximately 3.9 was injected through the sample at a constant rate of 0.0083 cm3/s. Surface optical profilometry analysis and 3-D X-ray microtomography imaging confirmed fracture closure and self-healing behavior consistent with the measured permeability decrease. Visual inspection of the reacted fracture surface showed the development of reactive patterns mapping the flow velocity field inside the fracture, as well as restricted flow toward the sample outlet. The postexperiment permeability of the core sample was measured at half of its initial permeability. A reactive transport model was developed with parameters derived from the experiment to further examine property evolution of fractured cement under dynamic flow of CO2-rich brine. Sensitivity analysis showed that residence time and the size of initial fracture aperture are the key factors controlling the tendency to self-healing or fracture opening behavior and therefore determine the long-term integrity of the wellbore cement. Longer residence time and small apertures promote mineral precipitation, fracture closure, and therefore flow restriction. This work also suggests a narrow threshold separating the fracture opening and self-sealing behavior.

  7. The Effect of adjusting PH on Stretchability and Meltability to White Brined Nabulsi Cheese

    Ayman S. Mazahreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boiled white brined (Nabulsi cheese is the mostly consumed in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries.The most outstanding characteristic of Nabulsi cheese is the long keeping ability (more than one year without cooling, since it is preserved in concentrated brine (up to 25%. Approach: This work was based on the hypothesis that it would be possible to imply meltability and stretchability to the cheese by adjusting pH to the original brine that may specifically act on cross linking bonds of casein. A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheeses proved its validity and reliability to measurement stretchability up to 80cm. Detailed treatments revealed the success of the proposed assumption in inducing meltability and stretchability to cheese processed and preserved according to the traditional methods. Results: The following results were obtained: It is possible to imply a low but acceptable level of stretchability and meltability through adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.4-5.8 by adding calculated amount of citric acid considering the buffering capacity of the cheese and storing it for few weeks to reach equilibrium. Conclusion: Conformational experiments proved the applicability of the new method on commercial Nabulsi cheese samples. Sensory evaluation revealed the superiority of pH adjusting treatment specifically at pH 5.4 and 5.8 as well as commercial Mashmouleh cheese that has high meltability and stretchability when used in Kunafa making.

  8. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

    Kapingu Modest C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1, methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml, while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15 μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  9. Confounding response of macrofauna from a confluence of impacts:brine and sewage pollution

    Rodrigo Riera; Fernando Tuya; Myriam Rodrguez; scar Monterroso; Eva Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the shores of the world, a confluence of different sources of pollution is common, e.g., through outlets releasing brine, industrial, and domestic sewage. In this study, we assessed whether a combined disposal of domestic sewage and brine altered the patterns of abundance and assemblage structure of sub-tidal macrofauna inhabiting sandy seabeds on the south coast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, NE Atlantic Ocean). Samples were collected in two surveys (May 2008 and January 2009) at three distances (0, 15, and 30 m) away from the discharge point. Macrofaunal abundances showed different patterns with varying proximity from the disposal point in the two surveys. In May 2008, lower abundances were observed at 0 m (53.89±46.82 ind.) than at 15 m (120±91.7 ind.) and 30 m (283.89±189.33 ind.) away from the dis-posal point. In January 2009, however, higher abundances were observed at 0 m (131.33±58.69 ind.) than at 30 m (100±24.44 ind.) and 15 m (84.78±58.39 ind.) away from the disposal point. Significant differ-ences in macrofaunal assemblage structure were found with varying proximity from the discharge point in both surveys. The effect of proximity from the disposal point was confounded by changes in sedimen-tary composition between surveys, which contributed to explain differences in macrofaunal abundances and assemblage structure with varying proximity from the discharge point. As a result, confounding driver-s of macrofaunal assemblage structure, here, changes in sediment composition, accounted for changes in macrofaunal abundances and assemblage structure with varying proximity from a combined disposal point of brine and sewage.

  10. First results of an integrated monitoring concept to detect brine migration processes in freshwater aquifers

    Möller, M.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Wagner, F.; Schröder, S.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of new carbon dioxide emissions is an important contribution to realise climate change mitigation solutions. One possibility consists in the long-term storage of industrial produced greenhouse gas in deep saline aquifers. The most important research focus of the multidisciplinary integrated project BRINE is to ensure the safe storage operation. This research work refers to an area in eastern Brandenburg (Germany). However, the analysis can be applied to regions with comparable geological characteristics. The relevant reservoir horizon is located within a classic anticlinal structure, generated by salt tectonic processes. Due to the local geological site specifics, the CO2 injection could cause a pressure build-up and thus a brine migration in the reservoir layer. For this reason, an adequate monitoring system for the observation of possible brine displacement into upper freshwater aquifers is essential. For both the qualitatively and quantitatively investigation a combination of several geophysical methods is needed. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a measurement method with a comparatively high spatial resolution on small scales. Therefore it will be generally used for borehole and near subsurface investigations. The presented monitoring concept focusses on three potential pathways. Beside regional fault-zones, also formation defects in the upper aquitards and leakages around the wellbore could promote a saltwater migration. The main objective is to find an optimal combination of several electrode arrays like surface, surface-downhole and cross-borehole configurations to detect time-lapse effects of the resistivity distribution in the subsurface. By means of numerical modelling studies of different salinisation scenarios, we have tested several standard and several adapted electrode arrays. In order to further improve the results, an inversion code based on the measured resistance ratios is used. Parallel to the large-scale modelling

  11. Terrestrial Testing of the CapiBRIC, a Microgravity Optimized Brine Processor

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Callahan, Michael R.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing geometry based static phase separation exhibited in the radial vaned capillary drying tray, a system was conceived to recover water from brine. This technology has been named the Capillary BRIC; abbreviated CapiBRIC. The CapiBRIC utilizes a capillary drying tray within a drying chamber. Water is recovered from clean water vapor evaporating from the free surface leaving waste brine solids behind. A novel approach of optimizing the containment geometry to support passive capillary flow and static phase separation provides the opportunity for a low power system that is not as susceptible to fouling as membranes or other technologies employing physical barriers across the free brine surface to achieve phase separation in microgravity. Having been optimized for operation in microgravity, full-scale testing of the CapiBRIC as designed cannot be performed on the ground as the force of gravity would dominate over the capillary forces. However, subscale units relevant to full-scale design were used to characterize fill rates, containment stability, and interaction with a variable volume reservoir in the PSU Dryden Drop Tower (DDT) facility. PSU also using tested units scaled such that capillary forces dominated in a 1-g environment to characterize evaporation from a free-surface in 1-g upward, sideways and downward orientations. In order to augment the subscale testing performed by PSU, a full scale 1-g analogue of the CapiBRIC drying unit was initiated to help validate performance predictions regarding expected water recovery ratio, estimated processing time, and interface definitions for inlets, outlets, and internal processes, including vent gas composition. This paper describes the design, development and test of the terrestrial CapiBRIC prototypes.

  12. Toxicity Testing of Restorative Dental Materials Using Brine Shrimp Larvae (Artemia salina

    Manar M. Milhem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GICs and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy, a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP, and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the composite groups by Tukey's pairwise multiple-comparison test (α =0.05 showed that the extract of Synergy was significantly less toxic than the extracts of all the other materials except that of Solitaire 2. The compomers showed 100% lethality, while the percentage of viable larvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the groups by Tukey's test (α = 0.05 showed that the toxic effect of the extracts of the compomers were significantly greater than that of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer. The differences in the toxic effects of Vitremer and Ketac-Fil were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the toxicity of composite materials varied according to their chemical composition. Compomers were the most lethal materials to brine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  13. Brine/CO2 Interfacial Properties and Effects on CO2 Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers

    It has been long recognized that interfacial interactions (interfacial tension, wettability, capillarity and interfacial mass transfer) govern fluid distribution and behaviour in porous media. Therefore the interfacial interactions between CO2, brine and reservoir oil and/or gas have an important influence on the effectiveness of any CO2 storage operation. There is a lack of experimental data related to interfacial properties for all the geological storage options (oil and gas reservoirs, coal-beds, deep saline aquifers). In the case of deep saline aquifers, there is a gap in data and knowledge of brine-CO2 interfacial properties at storage conditions. More specifically, experimental interfacial tension values and experimental tests in porous media are necessary to better understand the wettability evolution as a function of thermodynamic conditions and it's effects on fluid flow in the porous media. In this paper, a complete set of experimental values of brine-CO2 Interfacial Tension (IFT) at pressure, temperature and salt concentration conditions representative of those of a CO2 storage operation. A correlation is derived from experimental data published in a companion paper [Chalbaud C., Robin M., Lombard J.-M., Egermann P., Bertin H. (2009) Interfacial Tension Measurements and Wettability Evaluation for Geological CO2 Storage, Adv. Water Resour. 32, 1, 1-109] to model IFT values. This paper pays particular attention to core flooding experiments showing that the CO2 partially wets the surface in a Intermediate-Wet (IW) or Oil-Wet (OW) limestone rock. This wetting behavior of CO2 is coherent with observations at the pore scale in glass micro-models and presents a negative impact on the storage capacity of a given site. (authors)

  14. Influences of the Basin Brines on Extractable Bitumen of Kupferschiefer from southwestern Poland

    孙玉壮

    2000-01-01

    A study of the influences of the basin brines on hydrocarbon generation of the Kupferschiefer in southwestern Poland has been carried out.The samples from the Konrad and Polkowics mines were analyzed by orgainc geochemical,microscopic and FTIR methods.The results indicate that organic matter of Kupferschiefer tends to decrease with the ascending,oxidizing brines,In the Konrad profile,the Kupferschiefer was strongly oxidized.The extract yields were depleted up to 50mg Ext/g Corg.Gas chromatography(GC) and gas chromatography-mass spctrometry(GC/MS) data indicate that the depletion occureed predominantly in saturated hydrocarbon compounds.The identified n-alkanes in smpale KD1 were depleted at least to 5000μg/g Corg.The aromatic compounds show a fidderent trend of variation.The concentrations of phenanthrene+ alkylphenanthrenes(Ph-PAH) and naphthalene+alkylnaphthalenes(Na-PAH) show a decrease,whereas sulfur polyaromatic hydrocarbons(S-PAH)and oxygen polyaromatic hydrocarbons(O-PAH) show an incrase under the influences of oxidizing brines,In the Polkowice profile,organic matter under the influences of oxidizing fluids shows a simlar trend of varation as in the Konrad mine.Analyses of polar compounds shed light on the oxidation processes at the molecule level.The dominant products of oxidation are aliphatic acid.alcohol and ester.FTIR results indicate that the oxidation of organic matter led to a decrease in aliphatic CH3 and an increase in C-O,C=O bands.

  15. Attempt of concentrating a new natural spontaneously fissile nuclide from geothermal brine of the Cheleken peninsula

    The study is aimed at concentration of yet nonidentified spontaneous fission nuclide (NSFN), discovered in geothermal brines of the Cheleken peninsula, when coprecipitation with inorganic collectors (metal hydroxides, ZnS, FeS, BaSO4; ionic exchange on organic and inorganic sorbents, as well as reduction by metals (Fe, Al) are used. The NSFN enrichment level turns out to be insufficient to identify its atomic number by physical methods. However, using the obtained data and measurement results of NSFN spontaneous fission activity in different concentrates, some of its chemical properties are studied. A certain analogy in chemical behaviour of NSFN and noble metals like Au and Hg is noted

  16. Characterization of dissolved organic material in the interstitial brine of Lake Vida, Antarctica

    Cawley, Kaelin M.; Murray, Alison E.; Doran, Peter T.; Kenig, Fabien; Stubbins, Aron; Chen, Hongmei; Hatcher, Patrick G.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2016-06-01

    Lake Vida (LV) is located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (Victoria Valley, East Antarctica) and has no inflows, outflows, or connectivity to the atmosphere due to a thick (16 m), turbid ice surface and cold (<-20 °C) subsurface alluvium surrounding the lake. The liquid portion of LV has a salinity about seven times that of seawater and is entrained in ice and sediment below the ice cap. This subzero (-13.4 °C), anoxic brine supports a microbial community, which has low levels of activity and has been isolated from the atmosphere for at least 2800 14C years before present. The brine has high dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC; 580 mg-C L-1 or greater); the study of which provides a unique opportunity to better understand biological and/or abiotic processes taking place in an isolated saline ecosystem with no external inputs. We isolated two sub-fractions of LV dissolved organic matter (DOM) by chemical separation using XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins in series. This separation was followed by physical separation using ultrafiltration to isolate a higher molecular weight (HMW) fraction that was retained by the membrane and a salty, dilute low molecular weight fraction. This analytical path resulted in three, low salt sub-fractions and allowed comparison to other Antarctic lake DOM samples isolated using similar procedures. Compared to other Antarctic lakes, a lower portion of the DOC was retained by XAD-8 (∼10% vs. 16-24%) resin, while the portions retained by XAD-4 (∼8%) resin and the 1 kDa ultrafiltration membrane (∼50%) were similar. The 14C radiocarbon ages of the XAD-8 (mean 3940 ybp), XAD-4 (mean 4048 ybp) and HMW (mean 3270 ybp) fractions are all older than the apparent age of ice-cover formation (2800 ybp). Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry showed that compounds with two and three nitrogen atoms in the molecular formulas were common in both the LV-XAD8 and LV-XAD4 fractions, consistent with microbial production and processing. The long-term oxidation

  17. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    1983-07-01

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany.

  18. Brines in Crustal Processes: Important Roles Inferred From Experimental Studies (Invited)

    Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    Concentrated salt solutions are increasingly implicated as active agents in many fluid-mediated deep- and mid-crust processes, including rock-melting, charnockitic alteration, trace-element depletion and enrichment, regional metasomatism including dehydration and rehydration, albitization, deep-crustal oxidation, and formation of economic mineral deposits. Unique properties of saline aqueous fluids at high P and T, recently revealed by experimental work, provide new explanations for these metasomatic features and encourage further search for a brine connection in other outstanding problems of metamorphism. Specific properties of high P-T NaCl solutions favorable for deep-crustal metasomatism are high solubility for some rock-forming components, especially CaO and FeO, even at high salt concentration, very low H2O activity as a consequence of pressure-induced dissociation, allowing compatibility with anhydrous (granulite facies) mineral assemblages, and high ability to infiltrate mineral grain boundaries. The high affinity of alkali chloride brines for CaO can explain trace element mobility in high grade metamorphism, by virtue of the high solubility of apatite, and the puzzling phenomenon of subsolidus charnockitic alteration, as in South India, in which orthopyroxene is formed from the incongruent dissolution of calcic amphibole. The great pressure effect on lowering H2O activity in concentrated pore-fluid brines causes fluid-present melting points of crustal rocks to swerve sharply to higher temperatures with increasing depth, in contrast to the behavior in the presence of pure H2O. This fact could account for the formation of swarms of granite intrusions in shear-zone-related settings, such as the Caledonide granites of Scotland and northern Ireland. It is postulated that salty solutions of deep-seated origin inhibit melting as they rise through the lower crust, but induce large-scale melting at mid-crust levels because of increase of H2O activity by release of

  19. The primary structure of elongation factor EF-1 alpha from the brine shrimp Artemia.

    Hemert, F.J. van; Amons, R; Pluijms, W J; van Ormondt, H; Möller, W.

    1984-01-01

    cDNA as well as amino acid sequencing has revealed the complete primary structure of elongation factor EF-1 alpha from the brine shrimp Artemia. A comparison with the published sequences of bacterial EF-Tu, mitochondrial EF-Tu and chloroplastic EF-Tu shows that distinct areas of these polypeptide chains are conserved in evolution. The evolutionary distance between prokaryotic and eukaryotic types of EF-Tu is larger than among bacterial and organellar EF- Tus . A number of regions present in b...

  20. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation of Some Tanzanian Plants Used Traditionally for the Treatment of Fungal Infections.

    Moshi, Mainen J.; van den Beukel, Carolien J P; Hamza, Omar J M; Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Nondo, Ramadhani O S; Masimba, Pax J; Matee, Mecky I N; Kapingu, Modest C; Mikx, Frans; Verweij, Paul E.; van der Ven, André J. A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC(50) values below 20 microg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl. (Aloaceae) [19.1 microg/ml], Cassia abbreviata Oliv. (Caesalpiniaceae) [12.7 microg/ml], Croton scheffleri Pax (Euphorbiaceae) [13.7 microg/ml], Hymenodactyon parvifoli...

  1. Tribological Behavior of Electroless Ni-P Coating in Brine Environment

    Panja, B.; Das, S. K.; Sahoo, P.

    2014-10-01

    The present paper reports an experimental study of tribological behaviour of electroless Ni-P coating in brine environment sliding against alumina. The study of wear and friction behaviour is carried out using different load and sliding velocity with the help of a pin-on-disk wear and friction monitor. The friction coefficient decreases with increase in applied load and sliding velocity. The wear rate increases with increase in sliding velocity and also gradually increases with the increase in applied load. The surface morphology, composition of coatings and crystalline structure are studied with the help of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersed X-ray analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis respectively.

  2. Impact of brine-induced stratification on the glacial carbon cycle

    N. Bouttes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During the cold period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, about 21 000 years ago atmospheric CO2 was around 190 ppm (Monnin et al., 2001, much lower than the pre-industrial concentration of 280 ppm. The causes of this substantial drop remain partially unresolved, despite intense research. Understanding the origin of reduced atmospheric CO2 during glacial times is crucial to comprehend the evolution of the different carbon reservoirs within the Earth system (atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere and ocean. In this context, the ocean is believed to play a major role as it can store large amounts of carbon (Sigman and Boyle, 2000, especially in the abyss, which is a carbon reservoir that is thought to have expanded during glacial times. To create this larger reservoir, one possible mechanism is to produce very dense glacial waters, thereby stratifying the deep ocean and reducing the carbon exchange between the deep and surface ocean (Paillard and Parrenin, 2004. The existence of such very dense waters has been inferred in the LGM deep Atlantic from sediment pore water salinity (Adkins et al., 2002. Based on these observations, we study the impact of a brine mechanism on the glacial carbon cycle. This mechanism relies on the formation and rapid sinking of brines, very salty water released during sea ice formation, which brings salty dense water down to the bottom of the ocean. It provides two major features: a direct link from the surface to the deep ocean along with an efficient way of setting a strong stratification. We show with the CLIMBER-2 coupled carbon-climate model (Petoukhov et al., 2000 that such a brine mechanism can account for a significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 and contribute to the glacial-interglacial change. This mechanism can be amplified by low vertical diffusion resulting from the brine-induced stratification. The results obtained substantially improve the modeled glacial distribution of oceanic

  3. Impact of brine-induced stratification on the glacial carbon cycle

    N. Bouttes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the cold period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, about 21 000 years ago atmospheric CO2 was around 190 ppm, much lower than the pre-industrial concentration of 280 ppm. The causes of this substantial drop remain partially unresolved, despite intense research. Understanding the origin of reduced atmospheric CO2 during glacial times is crucial to comprehend the evolution of the different carbon reservoirs within the Earth system (atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere and ocean. In this context, the ocean is believed to play a major role as it can store large amounts of carbon, especially in the abyss, which is a carbon reservoir that is thought to have expanded during glacial times. To create this larger reservoir, one possible mechanism is to produce very dense glacial waters, thereby stratifying the deep ocean and reducing the carbon exchange between the deep and upper ocean. The existence of such very dense waters has been inferred in the LGM deep Atlantic from sediment pore water salinity and δ18O inferred temperature. Based on these observations, we study the impact of a brine mechanism on the glacial carbon cycle. This mechanism relies on the formation and rapid sinking of brines, very salty water released during sea ice formation, which brings salty dense water down to the bottom of the ocean. It provides two major features: a direct link from the surface to the deep ocean along with an efficient way of setting a strong stratification. We show with the CLIMBER-2 carbon-climate model that such a brine mechanism can account for a significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 and contribute to the glacial-interglacial change. This mechanism can be amplified by low vertical diffusion resulting from the brine-induced stratification. The modeled glacial distribution of oceanic δ13C as well as the deep ocean salinity are substantially improved and better agree with reconstructions from

  4. The study of aluminium anodes for high power density AL-air batteries with brine electrolytes

    Nestoridi, Maria

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis aluminium alloys containing small additions of both tin (~ 0.1 wt %) and gallium (~ 0.05 wt %) dissolve anodically at high rates in brine media; at room temperature, current densities > 0.2 A cm-2 can be obtained at potentials close to the open circuit potential, ~ -1.5 V vs SCE. Alloys without both tin and gallium do not dissolve at such a negative potential. The tin exists in the alloys as a second phase, typically as ~ 1 ?m inclusions throughout the aluminium structure. Anod...

  5. Assessment of brine migration risks along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection

    Kissinger, Alexander; Class, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the growing usage of renewable energy sources has lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems. Among these competing uses are Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), geothermal energy, nuclear waste disposal, 'renewable' methane or hydrogen storage as well as the ongoing production of fossil resources like oil, gas and coal. Additionally, these technologies may also create conflicts with essential public interests such as water supply. For example, the injection of CO2 into the subsurface causes an increase in pressure reaching far beyond the actual radius of influence of the CO2 plume, potentially leading to large amounts of displaced salt water. In this work we focus on the large scale impacts of CO2 storage on brine migration but the methodology and the obtained results may also apply to other fields like waste water disposal, where large amounts of fluid are injected into the subsurface. In contrast to modeling on the reservoir scale the spatial scale required for this work is much larger in both vertical and lateral direction, as the regional hydrogeology has to be considered. Structures such as fault zones, hydrogeological windows in the Rupelian clay or salt domes are considered as potential pathways for displaced fluids into shallow systems and their influence has to be taken into account. We put the focus of our investigations on the latter type of scenario, since there is still a poor understanding of the role that salt diapirs would play in CO2 storage projects. As there is hardly any field data available on this scale, we compare different levels of model complexity in order to identify the relevant processes for brine displacement and simplify the modeling process wherever possible, for example brine injection vs. CO2 injection, simplified geometries vs. the complex formation geometry and the role of salt induced density differences on flow. Further we investigate the impact of the

  6. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany

  7. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that

  8. Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates. [Gamma radiation

    Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl/sub 2/ solutions and MgCl/sub 2/ hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180/sup 0/C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H/sub 2/ (G(H/sub 2/)) and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H/sub 2/) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143/sup 0/C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45/sup 0/C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl/sub 2/ and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O/sub 2/ into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H/sub 2/ was present as O/sub 2/. We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H/sub 2/ from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85/sup 0/C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143/sup 0/C and 30 to 45/sup 0/C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. The values found in this work for G(H/sub 2/) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H/sub 2/ in pure H/sub 2/O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H/sub 2/) in 2 M NaCl solutions

  9. Brine saturation technique for extraction of light filth from rubbed and ground sage: intralaboratory study.

    Freeman, C C

    1981-05-01

    An intralaboratory study was made of a new and widely applicable technique for isolating light filth from rubbed and ground sage. The technique eliminated the hazardous, costly, and lengthy pretreatment and isolation procedures of the current methodology and resulted in considerably better recoveries. Overall recovery of all filth elements introduced as spikes was 99.3% on the first trapping. The basic principle of the procedure is product saturation with brine, followed by trapping of the filth elements from tap water with oliver oil. PMID:7240080

  10. Modeling geological brines in salt-dome high level nuclear waste isolation repositories by artificial neural networks

    In order to study the influence of various parameters on the acidity of simulated geological brines, an artificial intelligence technique based on neural network modelling has been developed. It has been found that the pH of simulated salt repository brines lies within the range of 3.2-5 as the temperature of the brine decays from 250oC to 125oC. This environment might cause severe corrosion damage to canisters fabricated from carbon steel, particularly under slightly oxidizing conditions because of autocatalytical attack. It has also been demonstrated that artificial neural networks are efficient tools for analysing complex chemical systems, especially when conventional modelling is precluded by a lack of knowledge of the species and equilibria involved in the system. (Author)

  11. Minimizing chemical interference errors for the determination of lithium in brines by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis

    WEN Xianming; MA Peihua; ZHU Geqin; WU Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    Chemical interferences (ionization and oxide/hydroxide formation) on the atomic absorbance signal of lithium in FAAS analysis of brine samples are elaborated in this article. It is suggested that inadequate or overaddition of deionization buffers can lead to loss of sensitivities under particular operating conditions. In the analysis of brine samples, signal enhancing and oxide/hydroxide formation inducing signal reduction resulting from overaddition of deionization buffers can be seen with varying amounts of chemical buffers. Based on experimental results, the authors have arrived at the op timized operating conditions for the detection of lithium, under which both ionization and stable compound formation can be suppressed. This is a simplified and quick method with adequate accuracy and precision for the determination of lithium in routine brine samples from chemical plants or R&D laboratories, which contain comparable amounts of lithium with some other components.

  12. Relative permeability hysteresis and capillary trapping characteristics of supercritical CO2/brine systems: An experimental study at reservoir conditions

    Akbarabadi, Morteza; Piri, Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    We present the results of an experimental study on the effects of hysteresis on capillary trapping and relative permeability of CO2/brine systems at reservoir conditions. We performed thirty unsteady- and steady-state drainage and imbibition full-recirculation flow experiments in three different sandstone rock samples, low- and high-permeability Berea and Nugget sandstones. The experiments were carried out at various flow rates with both supercritical CO2 (scCO2)/brine and gaseous CO2 (gCO2)/brine fluid systems. The unsteady-state experiments were carried out with a wide range of flow rates to establish a broad range of initial brine saturations (Swi). This allowed investigation of the sensitivity of residual trapped CO2 saturation (S) to changes in Swi. The values were successfully compared with those available in the literature. For a given Swi, the trapped scCO2 saturation was less than that of gCO2 in the same sample. This was attributed to brine being less wetting in the presence of scCO2 than in the presence of gCO2. Post-imbibition dissolution of trapped CO2 and formation of dissolution front was also investigated. During the steady-state experiments, scCO2 and brine were co-injected with monotonically increasing or decreasing fractional flows to perform drainage and imbibition processes. We carried out seven sets of steady-state flow tests with various trajectories generating a comprehensive group of relative permeability hysteresis curves. The scanning curves revealed distinct features with potentially important implications for storage of scCO2 in geological formations. For both series of experiments, the ratio of S to initial CO2 saturation (1- Swi) was found to be much higher for low initial CO2 saturations. The results indicate that very promising fractions (about 49 to 83%) of the initial CO2 saturation can be stored through capillary trapping.

  13. Hydrochemistry on the Yilgarn Block, Western Australia: Ferrolysis and mineralisation in acid brines

    McArthur, J.M.; Osborn, A.O. (University College, London (England)); Turner, J.V. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Wembley (Australia)); Lyons, W.B. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States)); Thirlwall, M.F. (Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham (England))

    1991-05-01

    In the southeastern part of Western Australia internal drainage and a semi-arid climate have resulted in extensive development of playas. The brines beneath the playas wedge outwards and force local infiltration to crop out at playa margins as discharge zones. The discharging water contains dissolved Fe{sup 2+}, oxidation and hydrolysis (ferrolysis) of which generates very acidic water (pH {ge}2.8). At least some of the alkalinity generated by the original reduction of Fe{sup 3+} has been sequestered as subsurface calcrete within local soils. The acidity causes the dissolution of kaolinite, which is abundant in playa sediments and as a thick capping on weathered bedrock, giving water with a low pH and high concentrations of dissolved Al and Si. Evaporation, and mixing with playa brines containing high concentrations of K and SO{sub 4}, causes alunite to precipitate as pH rises from a minimum of 2.8, at chlorinites of 1 to 2 M, to > 6 at chlorinites of 4.8 M. The alunite deposits formed by this process are many orders of magnitude larger than occurrences elsewhere in the world. The large-scale mobilization of Si during the process may be one mechanism for the formation of silica-cemented rocks (silcrete) that are widespread in the Australian regolith.

  14. Lithium recovery from brine using a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system.

    Kim, Seoni; Lee, Jaehan; Kang, Jin Soo; Jo, Kyusik; Kim, Seonghwan; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-01

    Lithium is one of the most important elements in various fields including energy storage, medicine manufacturing and the glass industry, and demands for lithium are constantly increasing these days. The lime soda evaporation process using brine lake water is the major extraction method for lithium, but this process is not only inefficient and time-consuming but also causes a few environmental problems. Electrochemical recovery processes of lithium ions have been proposed recently, but the better idea for the silver negative electrodes used in these systems is required to reduce its cost or increase long term stability. Here, we report an electrochemical lithium recovery method based on a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system. In this system, lithium ions and counter anions are effectively captured at each electrode with low energy consumption in a salt solution containing various cationic species or simulated Salar de Atacama brine lake water in Chile. Furthermore, we designed this system as a flow process for practical applications. By experimental analyses, we confirmed that this system has high selectivity and long-term stability, with its performance being retained even after repetitive captures and releases of lithium ions. PMID:25681679

  15. Antimicrobial, antityrosinase and brine shrimp lethality test of Bauhinia rufescens Lam (Fabaceae

    Aminu Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate leaves and stem bark extracts of Bauhinia rufescens for antimicrobial activities, tyrosinase enzyme inhibition potentials and lethality to brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina. Methods: The plant materials were extracted based on polarity gradient of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were investigated for their antimicrobial, antityrosinase and cytotoxicity potentials. Results: The antimicrobial results indicated that the extracts inhibited the microbial growth in the range of 6.00-12.57 mm (450-1 800 µg/mL for bacterial strains and 7.33-14.03 mm (225-1 800 µg/mL for fungal strains. While the tyrosinase enzyme inhibition assay of the extracts showed that both the petroleum ether leaves and stem bark extracts exhibited a moderate inhibition (39.60% and 39.89% towards the action of mushroom tyrosinase enzyme on L-DOPA. In the brine shrimp lethality assay, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves of the plant were found toxic to the Artemia salina with IC 50 values of 0.059 mg/mL and 0.389 mg/mL. However, both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark were nontoxic to the larvae. Conclusions: The result of the present study suggest the presence of phytochemicals possessing antimicrobial and antityrosinase activity as well as cytotoxic agents.

  16. Physical properties of cryovolcanic brines: Applications to the evolution of Ganymede

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain abundant veins of water soluble salts, including carbonates and hydrated sulfates of Mg, Ca, Na, Ni, and Fe. These constitute over 1/4 of the mass of the meteorite Orgueil. Magnesium sulfate is the most abundant salt, constituting nearly half the mass of all salt components combined (anhydrous), and 73 pct. of the highly water soluble salts. The assumption that icy satellites and asteroids contain rock compositionally similar to carbonaceous chondrites suggests that salts may be important in the cryoigneous evolution of icy satellites and asteroids. Ordinary chondrites, an alternative rock component of icy satellites, lack abundant salts, although their anhydrous silicate assemblages are unstable with respect to water and would react to produce salts upon initial melting of ice. Some basic physiochemical properties are reviewed of likely cryovolcanic brines and how the existence of soluble salts in Ganymede might affect its structure and evolution is considered. Observations indicate late stage (post heavy bombardment and post tectonic) volcanism on Ganymede. The highly fluid character of Ganymedian volcanism is consistent with extrusions of either water or salt water brines.

  17. YIELD AND FORAGE QUALITY OF SALTBUSH IRRIGATED WITH REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION PLANT BY REVERSE OSMOSIS

    EDYMARA SINTHIA ROCHA DE MOURA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural communities located in the Brazilian Northeast, especially in the semiarid zone, live with water shortages resulting from erratic rainfall. This work proposes the cultivation of saltbush ( Atriplex nummularia in the Rural Settlement Project of Boa Fé, Mossoró/RN as alternative to the disposal of reject brine from desalination plant on yield of forage. The statistical design was a split - plot design, being four treatments at the plots, related to irrigation with reject brine water, at different levels of soil moisture by moisture from Field Capacity (FC (100, 85, 70 and 50% of FC and in subplots and two levels of organic manure (without fertilized and fertilized with four replications. The variables of yield and forage quality of saltbush were analyzed. It was observed that saltbush has a great production capacity in terms of fresh matter and drought for saltbush under a level of 85% soil moisture in relation to the field capacity of soil, presenting minimal loss of yield; however, this proved to be productive even with the dry soil. The total yield was satisfactory, showing its viability for forage production.

  18. Metabolic traits of an uncultured archaeal lineage -MSBL1- from brine pools of the Red Sea

    Mwirichia, Romano

    2016-01-13

    The candidate Division MSBL1 (Mediterranean Sea Brine Lakes 1) comprises a monophyletic group of uncultured archaea found in different hypersaline environments. Previous studies propose methanogenesis as the main metabolism. Here, we describe a metabolic reconstruction of MSBL1 based on 32 single-cell amplified genomes from Brine Pools of the Red Sea (Atlantis II, Discovery, Nereus, Erba and Kebrit). Phylogeny based on rRNA genes as well as conserved single copy genes delineates the group as a putative novel lineage of archaea. Our analysis shows that MSBL1 may ferment glucose via the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway. However, in the absence of organic carbon, carbon dioxide may be fixed via the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, Wood-Ljungdahl pathway or reductive TCA cycle. Therefore, based on the occurrence of genes for glycolysis, absence of the core genes found in genomes of all sequenced methanogens and the phylogenetic position, we hypothesize that the MSBL1 are not methanogens, but probably sugar-fermenting organisms capable of autotrophic growth. Such a mixotrophic lifestyle would confer survival advantage (or possibly provide a unique narrow niche) when glucose and other fermentable sugars are not available.

  19. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs

  20. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  1. Ozone-biological activated carbon as a pretreatment process for reverse osmosis brine treatment and recovery.

    Lee, Lai Yoke; Ng, How Yong; Ong, Say Leong; Hu, Jiang Yong; Tao, Guihe; Kekre, Kiran; Viswanath, Balakrishnan; Lay, Winson; Seah, Harry

    2009-09-01

    Ozonation was used in this study to improve biodegradability of RO brine from water reclamation facilities. An ozone dosage ranging from 3 to 10 mg O(3)/L and contact times of 10 and 20 min in batch studies were found to increase the biodegradability (BOD(5)/TOC ratio) of the RO brine by 1.8-3.5 times. At the same time, total organic carbon (TOC) removal was in the range of 5.3-24.5%. The lab-scale ozone-biological activated carbon (BAC) at an ozone dosage of 6.0mg O(3)/L with 20-min contact time was able to achieve 3 times higher TOC removal compared to using BAC alone. Further processing with Capacitive Deionization (CDI) process was able to generate a product water with better water quality than the RO feed water, i.e., with more than 80% ions removal and a lower TOC concentration. The ozone-BAC pretreatment has the potential of reducing fouling in the CDI process. PMID:19580984

  2. Brine-induced advection of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons to arctic bottom waters

    Extruded brine, generated during sea ice formation in nearshore arctic waters, will sink to the bottom and can form a stable bottom boundary layer. This layer can persist for periods of up to 4-6 months. Limited quantities of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons resulting from a spill of crude oil or refined petroleum distillate products during periods of ice growth can be transported as conservative components to the benthos with sinking brine. Once incorporated into the stable bottom boundary layer, these aromatic components are no longer subject to loss by evaporative processes, and they only can be diluted by ultimately mixing with uncontaminated water masses, a process that proceeds slowly throughout the ice-covered period. This mechanism for the transport of dissolved hydrocarbons has been demonstrated through a laboratory test-tank simulation and a chemical/physical oceanographic field program conducted in the Chukchi Sea near Pt. Frankline, AK (March 1985). The results are pertinent to shallow nearshore oil and gas exploration, development, production, and transportation activities in high latitude marine systems

  3. A microfluidic flow focusing platform to screen the evolution of crude oil-brine interfacial elasticity.

    Morin, Brendon; Liu, Yafei; Alvarado, Vladimir; Oakey, John

    2016-08-01

    Multiphase fluid flow dynamics dominate processes used to recover the majority of hydrocarbon resources produced by global energy industries. Micromodels have long been used to recapitulate geometric features of these processes, allowing for the phenomenological validation of multiphase porous media transport models. Notably, these platform surrogates typically preserve the complexity of reservoir conditions, preventing the elucidation of underlying physical mechanisms that govern bulk phenomena. Here, we introduce a microfluidic flow focusing platform that allows crude oil to be aged against brines of distinct composition in order to evaluate the pore-level effects of chemically-mediated interfacial properties upon snap-off. Snap-off is a fundamental multiphase flow process that has been shown to be a function of aqueous phase chemistry, which in turn establishes the limits of crude oil recovery during enhanced oil recovery operations. Specifically, this platform was used to evaluate the hypothesis that low salinity brines suppress crude oil snap-off, thus enhancing recovery. This hypothesis was validated and conditions that promote the effect were shown to, unexpectedly, develop over a matter of minutes on the pore scale. Microfluidic snap-off experiments were complemented by finite element fluid dynamics modeling, and further validated against a classical instability framework. PMID:27241440

  4. Analysis of Exoelectrogenic Bacterial Communities Present in Different Brine Pools of the Red Sea

    Ortiz Medina, Juan F.

    2014-05-01

    One contemporary issue experienced worldwide is the climate change due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Microbial Electrochemical Systems pose as an alternative for energy generation. In this technology, microorganisms are primarily responsible for electricity production. To improve the performance it is reasonable to think that bacteria from diverse environments, such as the brine pools of the Red Sea, can be utilized in these systems. Samples from three brine pools: Atlantis II, Valdivia, and Kebrit Deeps, were analyzed using Microbial Electrochemical Cells, with a poised potential at +0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and acetate as electron donor, to evaluate the exoelectrogenic activity by the present microorganisms. Only samples from Valdivia Deep were able to produce a noticeable current of 6 A/m2. This result, along with acetate consumption and changes on the redox activity measured with cyclic voltammetry, provides arguments to con rm the presence of exoelectrogenic bacteria in this environment. Further characterization using microscopy and molecular biology techniques is required, to obtain the most amount of information about these microorganisms and their potential use in bioelectrochemical technologies.

  5. Metabolic traits of an uncultured archaeal lineage -MSBL1- from brine pools of the Red Sea

    Mwirichia, Romano; Alam, Intikhab; Rashid, Mamoon; Vinu, Manikandan; Ba-Alawi, Wail; Anthony Kamau, Allan; Kamanda Ngugi, David; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Bajic, Vladimir; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The candidate Division MSBL1 (Mediterranean Sea Brine Lakes 1) comprises a monophyletic group of uncultured archaea found in different hypersaline environments. Previous studies propose methanogenesis as the main metabolism. Here, we describe a metabolic reconstruction of MSBL1 based on 32 single-cell amplified genomes from Brine Pools of the Red Sea (Atlantis II, Discovery, Nereus, Erba and Kebrit). Phylogeny based on rRNA genes as well as conserved single copy genes delineates the group as a putative novel lineage of archaea. Our analysis shows that MSBL1 may ferment glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. However, in the absence of organic carbon, carbon dioxide may be fixed via the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, Wood-Ljungdahl pathway or reductive TCA cycle. Therefore, based on the occurrence of genes for glycolysis, absence of the core genes found in genomes of all sequenced methanogens and the phylogenetic position, we hypothesize that the MSBL1 are not methanogens, but probably sugar-fermenting organisms capable of autotrophic growth. Such a mixotrophic lifestyle would confer survival advantage (or possibly provide a unique narrow niche) when glucose and other fermentable sugars are not available.

  6. Primary proteolysis of white brined goat cheese monitored by high molarity Tris buffer SDS- PAGE system

    Milenko Smiljanić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate primary proteolysis of white brined goat cheese prepared from raw milk and to correlate with the results obtained with high-molarity Tris buffer electrophoretic system. Proteolytic changes of white brined cheese were monitored by three parameters, the total protein, the water soluble proteins and the degree of proteolysis, whereas the change of major casein fractions was followed by electrophoresis in reducing conditions. Ripening caused a decrease of the total protein content, whereas in the first forty days the water soluble protein and the degree of proteolysis increased. Both casein fractions (αs- and β-casein of goat cheese were susceptible to primary proteolysis but to the different extent. αs1- casein disappeared during processing, whereas during 60-days of ripening the content of αs2 and β-casein was reduced by 38.90 %, and 30.72 %, respectively. Such trends of major casein fractions were strongly correlated with the degree of proteolysis and the moisture content, whereas no correlation was found between them and the water soluble protein content. The results of our investigation clearly suggested that SDS-PAGE method based on high-molarity Tris-buffer system could be a very useful for purposes of monitoring the white goat cheese proteolysis.

  7. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon and brine contaminated topsoil : annual report (1992-93)

    This report presents the results of a study which examined the remediation of hydrocarbon and brine contaminated topsoil in a field-based bioreactor at a gas processing plant in Nevis, Alberta during 1992 and 1993. The hydrocarbon and brine contaminated topsoil was placed in the Bio-Reactor and treated for eleven months. Four treatments were applied to eight Bio-Reactor cells: (1) ambient temperature/no forced aeration, (2) ambient temperature/forced aeration, (3) optimum temperature/no forced aeration and (4) optimum temperature/forced aeration. The ninth cell was filled with 30 cm contaminated topsoil and maintained under optimum temperature/forced aeration. The contaminated topsoil was kept moist throughout the experiment by an automatic irrigation system. The contaminated topsoil in the heated cells lost 40 per cent of its original hydrocarbon content in one year; the soil in the non-heated cells lost between 25 and 29 per cent in the same period. Results showed that the Bio-Reactor offered an inexpensive means for promoting a natural process for degrading organic compounds by microorganisms in soil. Equally important, it is capable of handling the large volumes of waste produced by the oil and gas industry. 64 refs., 35 tabs., 46 figs

  8. Molecular simulation of carbon dioxide, brine, and clay mineral interactions and determination of contact angles.

    Tenney, Craig M; Cygan, Randall T

    2014-01-01

    Capture and subsequent geologic storage of CO2 in deep brine reservoirs plays a significant role in plans to reduce atmospheric carbon emission and resulting global climate change. The interaction of CO2 and brine species with mineral surfaces controls the ultimate fate of injected CO2 at the nanoscale via geochemistry, at the pore-scale via capillary trapping, and at the field-scale via relative permeability. We used large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to study the behavior of supercritical CO2 and aqueous fluids on both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic basal surfaces of kaolinite, a common clay mineral. In the presence of a bulk aqueous phase, supercritical CO2 forms a nonwetting droplet above the hydrophilic surface of kaolinite. This CO2 droplet is separated from the mineral surface by distinct layers of water, which prevent the CO2 droplet from interacting directly with the mineral surface. Conversely, both CO2 and H2O molecules interact directly with the hydrophobic surface of kaolinite. In the presence of bulk supercritical CO2, nonwetting aqueous droplets interact with the hydrophobic surface of kaolinite via a mixture of adsorbed CO2 and H2O molecules. Because nucleation and precipitation of minerals should depend strongly on the local distribution of CO2, H2O, and ion species, these nanoscale surface interactions are expected to influence long-term mineralization of injected carbon dioxide. PMID:24410258

  9. Expression and functioning of retinal-based proton pumps in a saltern crystallizer brine.

    Oren, Aharon; Abu-Ghosh, Said; Argov, Tal; Kara-Ivanov, Eliahu; Shitrit, Dror; Volpert, Adi; Horwitz, Rael

    2016-01-01

    We examined the presence of bacteriorhodopsin and other retinal protein pigments in the microbial community of the saltern crystallizer ponds in Eilat, Israel, and assessed the effect of the retinal-based proton pumps on the metabolic activity. The biota of the hypersaline (~309 g salts l(-1)) brine consisted of ~2200 β-carotene-rich Dunaliella cells and ~3.5 × 10(7) prokaryotes ml(-1), most of which were flat, square or rectangular Haloquadratum-like archaea. No indications were obtained for massive presence of Salinibacter. We estimated a concentration of bacteriorhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin-like pigments of 3.6 nmol l(-1). When illuminated, the community respiration activity of the brine samples in which oxygenic photosynthesis was inhibited by 3-(3-4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, decreased by 40-43 %. This effect was interpreted to be the result of competition between two energy yielding systems: the bacteriorhodopsin proton pump and the respiratory chain. The results presented have important implications for the interpretation of many published data on photosynthetic and respiratory activities in hypersaline environments. PMID:26507954

  10. Isolation and identification of oxidation products of syringol from brines and heated meat matrix.

    Bölicke, Sarah-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed new extraction and detection methods (using HPLC-UV and LC-MS), making it possible to analyze the smoke phenol syringol and its oxidation products nitrososyringol, nitrosyringol, and the syringol dimer 3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol, which were identified in heated meat for the first time. Preliminary brine experiments performed with different concentrations of ascorbic acid showed that high amounts of this antioxidant also resulted in almost complete degradation of syringol and to formation of the oxidation products when the brines were heated at low pH values. Heat treatment (80°C) and subsequent simulated digestion applied to meat samples containing syringol, ascorbic acid and different concentrations of sodium nitrite produced 3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol even at a low nitrite level in the meat matrix, while nitroso- and nitrosyringol were isolated only after the digestion experiments. Increasing amounts of oxygen in the meat matrix decreased the syringol concentration and enhanced the formation of the reaction products in comparison to the samples without added oxygen. PMID:27085115

  11. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  12. Antimicrobial, antityrosinase and brine shrimp lethality test of Bauhinia rufescens Lam (Fabaceae)

    Aminu Muhammad; Hasnah Mohd Sirat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate leaves and stem bark extracts of Bauhinia rufescens for antimicrobial activities, tyrosinase enzyme inhibition potentials and lethality to brine shrimp larvae (Artemiasalina ). Methods: The plant materials were extracted based on polarity gradient of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were investigated for their antimicrobial, antityrosinase and cytotoxicity potentials.Results:The antimicrobial results indicated that the extracts inhibited the microbial growth in the range of 6.00-12.57 mm (450-1 800 µg/mL) for bacterial strains and 7.33-14.03 mm (225-1 800 µg/mL) for fungal strains. While the tyrosinase enzyme inhibition assay of the extracts showed that both the petroleum ether leaves and stem bark extracts exhibited a moderate inhibition (39.60%and 39.89%) towards the action of mushroom tyrosinase enzyme on L-DOPA. In the brine shrimp lethality assay, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves of the plant were found toxic to the Artemia salina with IC50 values of 0.059 mg/mL and 0.389 mg/mL. However, both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark were nontoxic to the larvae.Conclusions:The result of the present study suggest the presence of phytochemicals possessing antimicrobial and antityrosinase activity as well as cytotoxic agents.

  13. Radiolysis and corrosion of 238Pu-doped UO2 pellets in chloride brine

    M Kelm; E Bohnert

    2002-12-01

    Deaerated 5 M NaCl solution is irradiated in the presence of UO2 pellets with a-radiation from 238Pu. Experiments are conducted with 238Pu doped pellets and others with 238Pu dissolved in the brine. The radiolysis products and yields of mobilized U and Pu from the oxidative dissolution of UO2 are determined. Results found for radiolysis products and for the oxidation/dissolution of pellets immersed in Pu containing brine are similar to results for Pu doped pellets, where the radiation chemical processes occur only in the liquid layer of some 10 m thickness adjacent to the pellet. The yield of radiolysis products is comparable to earlier results, that of mobilized U from the pellets is < 1% of the total amount of oxidized species. Thus, the radiation chemical yield (-value) for mobilized hexavalent U is < 0.01 ions/100 eV. In spite of the low radiation yield for the corrosion, the rate of UO2 dissolution is higher than expected for the concentrations of long-lived oxidizing radiolysis compounds found in the solutions.

  14. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  15. Estimation of cytotoxic potency by brine shrimp lethality bioassay application of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.

    Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah; Akter MstYeasmin; Ashraful MdAlam; Wahedul Md Islam; Parvez Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To learn a scientific and systematic knowledge of anticancer, antimicrobial and pharmacological activities of natural products and estimate cytotoxic potency by using ethanol and chloroform extracts of root, leaf and stem of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae) due to its random use in customary and traditional medicine to cure common ailments such as intestinal disorder, diarrhea, tuberculosis and respiratory problems etc. Methods: The in vitro application was carried out with the bench-top bioassay method by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: All of the crude extracts were found to be lethal and effective. The LC50 value of ethyl alcohol fraction of root was 20.845 mg/L compared to the standard drug tetracycline of 14.675 mg/L to brine shrimp nauplii, indicating that the extracts were biologically active. Conclusions: The cytotoxic study of LC50 value showed that a good correlation with the antibiotic tetracycline. From the comparative correlation error bars and percentage, we understood that ethyl alcohol fraction of root extract was very effective. This study serves as a basis for further research to lead compounds to be isolated so that it may be as a template for the implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of herbal products.

  16. Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.

    2007-02-07

    In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.

  17. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.

  18. Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 in milk on the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae

    Lejla Duraković; Mihaela Blažinkov; Andrea Skelin; Sanja Sikora; Frane Delaš; Mirna Mrkonjić-Fuka; Katarina Huić-Babić; Sulejman Redžepović

    2011-01-01

    Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were studied using the brine shrimp Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator in the temperature range from 20 °C to 40 °C. Increase in the incubation temperature resulted in sensitivity increase by the brine shrimp to AFM1. Optimum sensitivity occured at 30 °C. Positive results were obtained at 0.18 μg AFM1 x L-1 of whole pasteurized milk with a mortality of over 15%. Greater than 90 % mortality occurred at dose levels of 0.9 μg ...

  19. Determining CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure simultaneously: an insight to capillary entrance and end effects

    Chen, X.; Kianinejad, A.; DiCarlo, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    CO2-brine relative permeability relations are important parameters in modeling scenarios such as CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers and CO2 enhanced recovery in oil reservoir. Many steady-state experimental studies on CO2-brine relative permeability showed that the CO2-brine relative permeability differs greatly from typical oil-brine relative permeability. Particularly, they reported a very small endpoint CO2 relative permeability of 0.1~0.2 at a relative high residual water saturation of 0.4~0.6. In this study, we hypothesize the measured low endpoint CO2 relative permeability in previous studies was an experimental artifact that is primary due to low CO2 viscosity. We conducted steady-state CO2 drainage experiments by co-injecting equlibrated CO2 and brine into a long (60.8 cm) and low permeability (116-mD) Berea sandstone core at 20 °C and 1500 psi. During every experiment, both the overall pressure drop across the core and the pressure drops of the five independent and continuous sections of the core were monitored. The in-situ saturation was measured with a medical X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scanner. In the center three sections where saturation was uniform, we determined the relative permeability to both brine and CO2 phases. In the entrance and exit sections, both measured pressure gradients and saturation were non-uniform. To cope with this, we make several self-consistent assumptions that reveal the nature of capillary entrance and effect in steady-state two-phase core flooding experiments. Based on these assumptions we determined the relative permeability to CO2 and CO2-brine capillary pressure simultaneously using measured pressure drops. We found: (1) a much higher endpoint CO2 relative permeability of 0.58 at a water saturation of 48%, (2) the entrance region with non-uniform saturation expanded CO2 relative permeability data to much lower water saturation, (3) the determined CO2-brine capillary pressure curve is self-consistent and matches

  20. Experimental Investigations into the Production Behavior of Methane Hydrate in Porous Sediment under Ethylene Glycol Injection and Hot Brine Stimulation

    Li, Xiaosen; Li, Gang

    2010-01-01

    1 2 3 The flowing of hot water or hot brine injected in the vessel can be regarded as the moving of a piston from the inlet to the outlet. The hydrate dissociation process is divided into three stages: free gas production, hydrate dissociation and residual gas production. The process of the hydrate dissociation is a process of the temperature decrease in the presence of the brine solution. The duration of the hydrate dissociation is shortened and the degree of the depth of the temperature dro...

  1. Biochemical and toxicological effects of organic (herbicide Primextra(®) Gold TZ) and inorganic (copper) compounds on zooplankton and phytoplankton species.

    Filimonova, Valentina; Gonçalves, Fernando; Marques, João C; De Troch, Marleen; Gonçalves, Ana M M

    2016-08-01

    In Europe, mainly in the Mediterranean region, an intensive usage of pesticides was recorded during the past 30 years. According to information from agricultural cooperatives of the Mondego valley (Figueira da Foz, Portugal), Primextra(®) Gold TZ is the most used herbicide in corn crop fields and one of the 20 best-selling herbicides in Portugal. Copper is mainly used in pesticide formulations. This study aims to determine the ecotoxicological and biochemical (namely fatty acid profiles) effects of the herbicide Primextra(®) Gold TZ and the metal copper on marine plankton. The organisms used in this study are three planktonic species: the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa and nauplii of the marine brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Fatty acids (FAs) are one of the most important molecules transferred across the plant-animal interface in aquatic food webs and can be used as good indicators of stress. The conducted lab incubations show that T. weissflogii is the most sensitive species to the herbicide followed by A. tonsa (EC50=0.0078mg/L and EC50=0.925mg/L, respectively), whereas the copepod was the most sensitive species to the metal followed by T. weissflogii (EC50=0.234mg/L and EC50=0.383mg/L, respectively). A. franciscana was the most tolerant organism both to the herbicide and to the metal (EC50=20.35mg/L and EC50=18.93mg/L, respectively). Changes in the FA profiles of primary producer and primary consumers were observed, with the increase of saturated FA and decrease of unsaturated FA contents, especially of highly unsaturated FAs that can be obtained mainly from food and therefore are referred to as 'essential FA'. The study suggests that discharges of Primextra(®) Gold TZ or other pesticides mainly composed by copper may be a threat to plankton populations causing changes in the FA contents and thus in their nutritive value, with severe repercussions for higher trophic levels and thus the entire food web. PMID

  2. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in different marine trophic levels.

    Pavlaki, Maria D; Araújo, Mário J; Cardoso, Diogo N; Silva, Ana Rita R; Cruz, Andreia; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Calado, Ricardo; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium ecotoxicity and genotoxicity was assessed in three representative species of different trophic levels of marine ecosystems - the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, the decapod shrimp, Palaemon varians and the pleuronectiform fish Solea senegalensis. Ecotoxicity endpoints assessed in this study were adult survival, hatching success and larval development ratio (LDR) for A. tonsa, survival of the first larval stage (zoea I) and post-larvae of P. varians, egg and larvae survival, as well as the presence of malformations in the larval stage of S. senegalensis. In vivo genotoxicity was assessed on adult A. tonsa, the larval and postlarval stage of P. varians and newly hatched larvae of S. senegalensis using the comet assay. Results showed that the highest sensitivity to cadmium is displayed by A. tonsa, with the most sensitive endpoint being the LDR of nauplii to copepodites. Sole eggs displayed the highest tolerance to cadmium compared to the other endpoints evaluated for all tested species. Recorded cadmium toxicity was (by increasing order): S. senegalensis eggs < P. varians post-larvae < P. varians zoea I < S. senegalensis larvae < A. tonsa eggs < A. tonsa LDR. DNA damage to all species exposed to cadmium increased with increasing concentrations. Overall, understanding cadmium chemical speciation is paramount to reliably evaluate the effects of this metal in marine ecosystems. Cadmium is genotoxic to all three species tested and therefore may differentially impact individuals and populations of marine taxa. As A. tonsa was the most sensitive species and occupies a lower trophic level, it is likely that cadmium contamination may trigger bottom-up cascading effects in marine trophic interactions. PMID:27203468

  3. Effect of brine flow rate on the performance of a spiral-jacketed thermal storage tank used for SDHW systems: A computational fluid dynamics study

    This study numerically investigates the effect of the brine flow rate on the thermal performance of a spiral-jacketed thermal storage tank (TST) installed in a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system. The spiral-jacketed TST is a TST with a mantle heat exchanger, consisting of a vertical, cylindrical water tank for energy storage and a spiral brine flow path attached to the tank wall for heat transfer. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was constructed based on the actual geometry of a spiral-jacketed TST. In addition, the boundary conditions were defined by considering solar radiation and ambient temperature data that were measured during experimental operation of the SDHW system. The numerical results demonstrated that an increase in the brine flow rate enhances the thermal efficiency of the TST due to higher heat transfer coefficients in the spiral path, and also leads to reduced thermal stratification in the TST. On the other hand, a lower brine flow rate increased the heat transfer rate at the inlet of the spiral path near the top of the TST, which resulted in enhanced thermal stratification. The optimal range for the rate of brine flow rate is discussed with respect to the thermal efficiency of the TST and the required pumping power for brine circulation in the spiral flow path. - Highlights: → A CFD model was developed for a spiral-jacketed thermal storage tank (TST) installed in a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system. → Effects of brine flow rate on the overall performance of the spiral-jacketed TST were numerically investigated. → Higher brine flow rates slightly increased the solar energy acquired by the TST, but it also increased the pump power required to circulate the brine. → Lower brine flow rates were found to be a better option for the spiral-jacketed TST, by maximizing the exergy of the SDHW system.

  4. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a

  5. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a

  6. Experimental method for determining mixed-phase precipitation kinetics from synthetic geothermal brine

    Highlights: • Sulfate precipitation rates are studied in a saline solution at 75 °C and 150 °C. • Strontium and calcium bearing barite precipitates at both temperatures. • Precipitation proceeds faster at the lower temperature. • More calcium and strontium are in the barite crystals at higher temperatures. • Crystal growth proceeds according the Ostwald ripening model. - Abstract: A batch reactor design for determining precipitation kinetics from an experimental (i.e. laboratory made) geothermal brine is presented. The purpose of the method is to improve techniques for predicting scaling risks in basin-hosted, enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The method is applied to determining kinetic rate laws for alkali-earth metal sulfate precipitation in the Na–Ca–Ba–Sr–Cl–SO4–H2O system, which are a set of components commonly found in sedimentary basin brines, worldwide. The method of integral rates was used to determine alkali-earth metal precipitation kinetic rate laws for solutions reacting over 4 h at 75 °C and 150 °C. At 75 °C, the rate law for total sulfate precipitation is rate = 0.0137 * [SO42−]2. At 150 °C, the rate law for total sulfate precipitation is rate = 0.011 * [SO42−]2. All precipitants are found to be barite, with minor amounts of calcium and strontium incorporated into the barite structure. If only barite precipitation is considered, the rate coefficients become 0.045 and 0.025 at 75 °C and 150 °C, respectively. The precipitants’ specific reactive surface areas are estimated for each time step and temperature and are qualitatively observed to decrease as the reactions progress. The (1) the reaction order, (2) the rate coefficient and (3) the change in specific reactive surface area over time are the three parameters required to develop reactive transport models of mineral precipitation in a geothermal power plant. All three of these parameters can be determined with the method employed in this study. Results from

  7. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    Charlotte Dafni Vavourakis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still uncultured poly-extremophiles compared to neutral brines of similar salinities. We present the first ‘metagenomic snapshots’ of microbial communities thriving in the brines of four shallow soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia covering a salinity range from 170 to 400 g/L. Both amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments and direct metagenomic sequencing showed that the top-level taxa abundance was linked to the ambient salinity: Bacteroidetes, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant below a salinity of 250 g/L, Euryarchaeota at higher salinities. Within these taxa, amplicon sequences related to Halorubrum, Natrinema, Gracilimonas, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter and Rhodobaca and chemolithotrophic sulfur oxidizers (Thioalkalivibrio were highly abundant. Twenty-four draft population genomes from novel members and ecotypes within the Nanohaloarchaea, Halobacteria and Bacteroidetes were reconstructed to explore their metabolic features, environmental abundance and strategies for osmotic adaptation. The Halobacteria- and Bacteroidetes-related draft genomes belong to putative aerobic heterotrophs, likely with the capacity to ferment sugars in the absence of oxygen. Members from both taxonomic groups are likely involved in primary organic carbon degradation, since some of the reconstructed genomes encode the ability to hydrolyze recalcitrant substrates, such as cellulose and chitin. Putative sodium-pumping rhodopsins were found in both a Flavobacteriaceae- and a Chitinophagaceae-related draft genome. The predicted proteomes of both the latter and a Rhodothermaceae-related draft genome were indicative of a

  8. [Determination of Iodine and Iodate in Brine and Seafood Simultaneously by Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrometry].

    Tan, Jun; Zhu, Xia-ping; Liu, Miao-miao; Wei, Zhi-cheng; Sang, Shi-hua

    2015-06-01

    The iodide in samples was oxidized to iodate by bromine water, which could be removed by formic acid, and iodate could be transformed to I3- with excess of I- in phosphoric acid, the iodate in samples could be transformed directly to I3- with excess of I- in phosphoric acid. The I3- solution had strong absorption at 350 and 288 nm, and the absorbance had a linear relationship to the concentration of I3- in a certain range. Total content of iodide and iodate had been detected after samples were oxidized by bromine water and the content of iodate had been detected directly, and the content of iodide was obtained by difference of the two results. Based on this, the method had been established to detect iodide and iodate in brine and seafood simultaneously by ultraviolet absorption spectrometry. The volumes of bromine water, formic acid, phosphoric acid and potassium iodide had been optimized. The effect of illumination, temperature and time also had been discussed. The optional reagents condition for iodide was: 2 drops of 3% bromine water, 0.5 mL of 10% formic acid, 4 mL of 20% phosphoric acid and 1 mL of 100 g x L(-1 KI. The optional reagents condition for iodate was: 0. 2 mL of 20% phosphoric acid and 1 mL of 100 g x L(-1) KI. The absorbance were determined after reacting for 30 min at room temperature and natural light conditions. Under the optimized conditions, the concentration of iodide and iodate in the range of 0 - 1.2 and 0 -1.5 mg x L(-1) were well agreed with Lambert Beer law. The sample blank was detected for twelve times and the detection limit of iodide and iodate were 1.54 and 14.8 μg x L(-1) respectively. The RSD of twelve times determination of 0.8 mg x L(-1) of iodide and iodate were 0.097% and 0.067%, respectively. The iodide and iodate in Zhabuye brine, Hong Feng underground brine, kelp, seaweed and sea cabbage had been detected, the recovery experiments also had been conducted at the same time, the recovery of iodide and iodate were between 80

  9. Metagenomic Insights into the Uncultured Diversity and Physiology of Microbes in Four Hypersaline Soda Lake Brines

    Vavourakis, Charlotte D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still uncultured poly-extremophiles compared to neutral brines of similar salinities. We present the first “metagenomic snapshots” of microbial communities thriving in the brines of four shallow soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) covering a salinity range from 170 to 400 g/L. Both amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments and direct metagenomic sequencing showed that the top-level taxa abundance was linked to the ambient salinity: Bacteroidetes, Alpha-, and Gamma-proteobacteria were dominant below a salinity of 250 g/L, Euryarchaeota at higher salinities. Within these taxa, amplicon sequences related to Halorubrum, Natrinema, Gracilimonas, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter, and Rhodobaca) and chemolithotrophic sulfur oxidizers (Thioalkalivibrio) were highly abundant. Twenty-four draft population genomes from novel members and ecotypes within the Nanohaloarchaea, Halobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were reconstructed to explore their metabolic features, environmental abundance and strategies for osmotic adaptation. The Halobacteria- and Bacteroidetes-related draft genomes belong to putative aerobic heterotrophs, likely with the capacity to ferment sugars in the absence of oxygen. Members from both taxonomic groups are likely involved in primary organic carbon degradation, since some of the reconstructed genomes encode the ability to hydrolyze recalcitrant substrates, such as cellulose and chitin. Putative sodium-pumping rhodopsins were found in both a Flavobacteriaceae- and a Chitinophagaceae-related draft genome. The predicted proteomes of both the latter and a Rhodothermaceae-related draft genome were indicative of a “salt-in” strategy of

  10. Treatment of the Cerro Prieto I brines for use in reinjection. 2. Results of the pilot plant tests

    Hurtado J, R. (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Mexicali, Mexico); Mercado G, S.; Rocha C, E.; Gamino O, H.; Garibaldi P, F.

    1981-01-01

    Silica removal experiments have been carried out both in the laboratory and in pilot scale tests. The results obtained to date are presented, with special emphasis on the pilot tests with or without the use of flocculants. Previous studies on brine treatment are described briefly.

  11. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea

    Antunes, Andre

    2015-10-31

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique environments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine-seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine-seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies.

  12. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON ARTEMIA XXII: NUTRITION IN AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY--DIET QUALITY OF GEOGRAPHICAL STRAINS OF THE BRINE SHRIMP, ARTEMIA

    A reference and four geographical strains of brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) nauplii were evaluated as diets for the larvae of a marine fish, the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia). The survival of fish fed the various strains was significantly different and ranged from 82 to 57 p...

  13. Isolasi Dan Uji Bioaktivitas Kandungan Kimia Utama Puding Merah (Graptophyllum pictum L. Griff) Dengan Metode Uji Brine Shrimp

    Sovia Lenny; Cut Fatimah Zuhra

    2009-01-01

    Telah diisolasi suatu senyawa flavonoid dari ekstrak etanol daun puding merah (Graptophyllum pictum L. Griff) dengan cara maserasi dan pemisahan dengan menggunakan kromatografi kolom. Struktur senyawa hasil isolasi dielusidasi berdasarkan data spektroskopi IR dan H-NMR. Senyawa hasil isolasi merupakan senyawa bioaktif dengan LC sebesar 124,08/ml pada uji brine shrimp lethality assay.

  14. The impact of climatic and atmospheric teleconnections on the brine inventory over the Laptev Sea shelf between 2007 and 2011

    Thibodeau, Benoit; Bauch, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Export of brine-enriched water from Siberian shelves is thought to be a key parameter in maintaining the Arctic Halocline, which isolates the fresh and cold surface water from the warm Atlantic water and thus prevent dramatic change in the Arctic sea-ice thermodynamic. In this study, we used 5 years of oxygen isotope and hydrological summer surveys to better understand the factors controlling the brine inventory and distribution over the Laptev Sea shelf. The inventory was maximal in 2011 and 2007 and minimal in 2010. The brine inventory interannual variations are coherent with the winter Arctic Oscillation index that was maximal in 2011 and 2007 and minimal in 2010, which is known to modulate Arctic winds and sea-ice export pattern. While we should remain cautious since our record is limited to 5 years, our results suggest that the combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and of the Arctic Dipole is the main factor controlling the annual variations in the inventory of brine-enriched waters from the Laptev Sea shelf between 2007 and 2011, especially during extreme negative Arctic Oscillation and Arctic Dipole conditions as in 2010.

  15. Effect of acidification and salt concentration on two black brined olives from Sicily (cv moresca and giarraffa)

    Romeo, F. V.; Piscopo, A.; Poiana, M.

    2010-07-01

    In the present work the effects of different brining treatments on mature table olives during natural fermentation were evaluated. The considered olive cultivars are typical of Sicily: Moresca and Giarraffa. They were harvested at pigmented state. The carpological data revealed their good quality as table olives. Natural fermentation was performed with or without acidification up to pH 4, and at 8% and 15% salt concentrations. The physical, chemical and microbiological changes in olives and brines were monitored throughout the processing period. The acidification affected and selected the microbial population and maintained the low pH necessary for the hygienic safety of the product. In fact, in Moresca brines,the lactic acid bacteria totally disappeared after 60 days of fermentation while in Giarraffa they maintained their presence in the brines up to 180 days with a value between 10{sup 4} UFC/mL and 106 UFC/mL, depending on the salt concentration. The microbial population was also affected by the polyphenol content, which was different between the cultivars. The color of olive fruits was greatly influenced by acidification and less by salt concentration. The addition of salt showed a different influence on the studied cultivars, in fact only the chemical analyses of Giarraffa showed a significant difference between the two levels of salt concentration. (Author) 19 refs.

  16. Diversity and characterization of mercury-resistant bacteria in snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine from the High Artic

    Møller, Annette K.; Barkay, Tamar; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed Mohamad Abdel F;

    2011-01-01

    It is well-established that atmospheric deposition transports mercury from lower latitudes to the Arctic. The role of bacteria in the dynamics of the deposited mercury, however, is unknown. We characterized mercury-resistant bacteria from High Arctic snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine. Bacterial ...

  17. Cytotoxic and apoptotic evaluations of marine bacteria isolated from brine-seawater interface of the Red Sea.

    Sagar, Sunil

    2013-02-06

    High salinity and temperature combined with presence of heavy metals and low oxygen renders deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea as one of the most extreme environments on Earth. The ability to adapt and survive in these extreme environments makes inhabiting bacteria interesting candidates for the search of novel bioactive molecules.

  18. Intracrystalline brine inclusion motion for Palo Duro Unit 5 salt from the Mansfield No. 1 borehole in Oldham County, Texas

    A microscope equipped with a hot stage was used to monitor intracrystalline migration of natural fluid inclusions in Palo Duro Basin Unit 5 salt from the Mansfield No. 1 borehole in Oldham County, Texas. Steady-state velocities are determined for 65 inclusions between 0.04 mm and 0.82 mm in size subjected to temperature gradients between 200 K/m and 1440 K/m at temperatures of 3180K to 4750K. Inclusion velocity increases with increasing inclusion size, mean salt temperature, and temperature gradient. Two models that predict brine inclusion velocity as a function of temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion size are used to analyze the data. The models are simplified due to uncertainties in properties that depend on brine chemistry and temperature, such as the equilibrium salt concentration of the brine. These simplified models are then fitted to the data and the fitted parameters are used to estimate the threshold temperature gradient below which inclusions do not migrate. The threshold temperature gradients determined in this study are in reasonable agreement with other values reported in the literature. Since values of the fitted parameters depend on the chemical composition of the brine, it is necessary to determine the model parameters and threshold temperature gradient for each repository site. 14 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  19. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

  20. Hydrological and Chemical Assessment of Groundwater Flow and Quality in Costal Brine Aquifers of Laizhou Bay, China

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Hu, Bill X.; Miao, Jinjie

    2016-04-01

    In geological time, seawater had been intruded groundwater several times since Late Pleistocene in the coastal area of Laizhou Bay, china. This unique phenomenon caused freshwater and brine water interbedded each other in the aquifers and forged Laizhou Bay became a multiple sources dynamic coastal area. In the last two decades, massive exploitation of fresh groundwater and brine water has significantly increased seawater intrusion and strengthened mixture of brine water and freshwater in the coastal area, which threatens local groundwater resources and severely impacts local ecological geo-environment. In this study, the hydrological and chemical (HC) process was studied according to the monitoring wells and chemical ionic constituents. The groundwater level continuously decreasing rather than showing a typical seasonal variation in areas close to the depression cone. A groundwater divide was formed along Yingli-Houzhen-Yangzi accounted for the exploitation of fresh water in the south and brine extraction in the north. This divide prevented the saltwater intrusion to fresh groundwater further south in study area. The results also showed that during concentration process, a series of complex reactions including water chemistry metamorphic role and evolution took place, such as mineral precipitation, cation ion exchange, dedolomitization and silicate alteration, etc. This work highlighted hydrological-chemical coupling process and provided a better insight into hydrogeological system.