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Sample records for acanthina monodon pallas

  1. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the

  2. The effects of temperature and oxygen availability on intracapsular development of Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae El efecto de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre el desarrollo intracapsular de Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    MIRIAM FERNÁNDEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater and marine organisms show similar models of parental care and are faced with similar constraints to brood, which suggest that comparable environmental limits drive the evolution of parental care in aquatic systems. In fact, the low diffusion coefficient and solubility of oxygen in aquatic environments affect oxygen acquisition and therefore the capacity to aggregate embryos. The effect of other critical environmental variables, such as temperature, is less clear. We assessed the effects of temperature and oxygen availability on (1 the number of developed and undeveloped encapsulated embryos, (2 the proportion of embryos reaching advanced stages during intracapsular development (counting not only developed and undeveloped embryos but also abnormal embryos, (3 asynchrony in development (estimated only in capsules in which development occurred, and (4 final embryo size, as the first step toward identifying the main factors constraining parental care in the ocean. We used the gastropod Acanthina monodon as a model because it has an extended latitudinal range of distribution and exhibits feeding larvae during intracapsular development. The latter factor is relevant because previous studies have suggested that sibling cannibalism could be triggered by intracapsular competition for oxygen. Freshly laid egg capsules were collected and incubated until embryos hatched under different experimental temperatures (7, 11, 15 and 19 °C and oxygen conditions (hypoxia: 50-60 % air saturation; normoxia; and hyperoxia: 150-160 %. More embryos remained in early stages at the end of the experimental period under hypoxia and at the highest experimental temperature. The mean number of developed embryos was significantly lower under hypoxia conditions than under normoxia and hyperoxia, but was not influenced by temperature. However, temperature negatively affected embryo size of developed embryos and the level of asynchrony (number of different developmental

  3. The effects of temperature and oxygen availability on intracapsular development of Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae) El efecto de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre el desarrollo intracapsular de Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    MIRIAM FERNÁNDEZ; PAULA PAPPALARDO; KATHERINE JENO

    2006-01-01

    Freshwater and marine organisms show similar models of parental care and are faced with similar constraints to brood, which suggest that comparable environmental limits drive the evolution of parental care in aquatic systems. In fact, the low diffusion coefficient and solubility of oxygen in aquatic environments affect oxygen acquisition and therefore the capacity to aggregate embryos. The effect of other critical environmental variables, such as temperature, is less clear. We assessed the ef...

  4. Physical Properties of (2) Pallas

    Carry, Benoit; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Berthier, Jerome; Merline, William J; Erard, Stephane; Conrad, Al; Drummond, Jack D; Hestroffer, Daniel; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Fusco, Thierry; 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.08.007

    2009-01-01

    We acquired and analyzed adaptive-optics imaging observations of asteroid (2) Pallas from Keck II and the Very Large Telescope taken during four Pallas oppositions between 2003 and 2007, with spatial resolution spanning 32-88 km (image scales 13-20 km/pix). We improve our determination of the size, shape, and pole by a novel method that combines our AO data with 51 visual light-curves spanning 34 years of observations as well as occultation data. The shape model of Pallas derived here reproduces well both the projected shape of Pallas on the sky and light-curve behavior at all the epochs considered. We resolved the pole ambiguity and found the spin-vector coordinates to be within 5 deg. of [long, lat] = [30 deg., -16 deg.] in the ECJ2000.0 reference frame, indicating a high obliquity of ~84 deg., leading to high seasonal contrast. The best triaxial-ellipsoid fit returns radii of a=275 km, b= 258 km, and c= 238 km. From the mass of Pallas determined by gravitational perturbation on other minor bodies [(1.2 +/-...

  5. Complete regeneration of ablated eyestalk in penaeid prawn, Penaeus monodon

    Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Ablation of one eyestalk is generally practised in all commercial prawn hatcheries to induce gonad maturation and spawning. An observation was made that the ablated eyestalk of spent females of the tiger prawn Penaeus monodon was completely...

  6. The Pallas business case between dreams and reality; De Pallas business case tussen droom en werkelijkheid

    Van der Keur, H.

    2013-04-15

    This report provides an overview of government policies in Canada and the Netherlands and international policies for securing the supply of medical isotopes. LAKA comments these policies with findings from own research. LAKA also identifies production methods - accelerators or research reactor - for the short and longer term that show the most benefit for recovery and ensure continuity in the supply of medical isotopes. This report also is an attempt to restart the debate on the future of medical isotope production in the Netherlands. According to LAKA the business case for the Pallas reactor is based on unrealistic positive assumptions and concludes that the Pallas reactor should not secure the supply of medical isotopes but the future of nuclear energy in the Netherlands [Dutch] Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van zowel het overheidsbeleid in Canada als in Nederland, en het internationale beleid voor het veiligstellen van de aanvoer van medische isotopen. Het voorziet deze van commentaar met bevindingen uit eigen onderzoek en stelt vast welke productiemethode - versnellers of onderzoeksreactor - op de korte en de langere termijn het meeste profijt biedt voor herstel en waarborging van de continuïteit in de aanvoer van medische isotopen. Met dit rapport wil de stichting Laka een poging doen om alsnog een debat op gang te brengen over de toekomst van medische isotopenproductie in Nederland. Volgens Laka is de business case voor de Pallas reactor gebaseerd op onrealistische positieve aannames en concludeert dan ook dat de Pallas reactor niet de aanvoer van medische isotopen maar de toekomst van kernenergie in Nederland veilig moet stellen.

  7. Safe Management and Effective Utilization of the PALLAS Research Reactor. (PALLAS: HFR's Successor for the Future)

    Full text: The High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, The Netherlands, is one of the world's main isotope production and research reactors. Given the advanced age of this reactor (50 years of operation in 2011), the Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) has taken the initiative to build PALLAS, a flexible and high capacity research reactor. PALLAS will become part of the dense network of adjacent facilities on the Petten research site - for instance the hot-cell laboratories used for post irradiation examination and a Mo-production facility. The paper will address the safe management and foreseen effective utilization of the PALLAS research reactor which realisation is based on 50 years of experience in operating, maintaining and using the HFR as well as an integrated project organisation for the design and build phases of PALLAS. The design and safety demonstration comply with the IAEA safety requirements and guidelines and take into account the lessons learned and stress test approach following the Fukushima accident. Bases for the design and safety analyses are: - Tank-in-pool reactor type, power range 30 to 80 MW; - Flexible core design in view of market development and fuel utilization efficiency; - Radio-isotope production and fuel and materials' research in core and reflector zone; - Uranium silicide fuel in proven plate configuration with the option to convert to uranium molybdenum fuel; - Long autarchy period in view of loss of power and/or ultimate heat sink and logistic obstacles; - Wide variety of DBA (postulated internal and external) and BDBA based on requirements for NPP using a graded approach; - Level 1 to 3 PSA. The project is executed fully transparent with the national press, the local community and the different governmental institutions involved; regular meetings with the competent authorities and the local communities are in place to increase both awareness and support. The project is also supported by the latest NEA and OECD reports on

  8. The PALLAS research and isotope reactor project status

    In the European Union the first generation research reactors is nearing their end of life condition. Several committees recommend a comprehensive set of reactors in the EU, amongst them the replacement for the HFR research and isotope reactor in Petten: PALLAS. The business case for PALLAS supports a future for a research and isotope reactor in Petten as a perfect fit for the future EU set of test reactors. The tender for PALLAS started in 2007, following the EU rules for tendering complex objects with the competitive dialogue. This procedure involved an extensive consultation phase between individual tendering companies and NRG, resulting in definitive specifications in summer 2008. The evaluation of offers, including conceptual designs, took place in summer 2009. At present NRG is still active in the acquisition of the funding for the project. The licensing path has been started in autumn 2009 with a initiation note on the environmental impact assessment, EIA. The public hearings held in the lead to the advice from the national EIA committee for the approach of the assessment. The PALLAS project team in Petten will guide the design and build processes. It is also responsible for the licensing of the building and operation of PALLAS. The team also manages the design and construction for the infrastructure, such as cooling devices, including remnant heat utilization, and utility provisions. A particular responsibility for the team is the design and construction of experimental and isotope capsules, based on launch customer requirements. (author)

  9. A Circo-Like Virus Isolated from Penaeus monodon Shrimps.

    Pham, Hanh T.; Yu, Qian; Boisvert, Maude; Van, Hanh T; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A virus with a circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genome (PmCV-1) was isolated from Penaeus monodon shrimps in Vietnam. The gene structure of the 1,777-nucleotide (nt) genome was similar to that of circoviruses and cycloviruses, but the nucleic acid and protein sequence identities to these viruses were very low.

  10. Interaction between digoxin and dronedarone in the PALLAS trial

    Hohnloser, Stefan H; Halperin, Jonathan L; Camm, A John;

    2014-01-01

    4 on placebo (P value for interaction 0.002). There was no interaction between baseline digoxin use and the adverse effect of dronedarone on heart failure events. CONCLUSIONS: In PALLAS, there was a strong effect of concurrent digoxin use on the adverse effect of dronedarone on cardiovascular death...

  11. A Circo-Like Virus Isolated from Penaeus monodon Shrimps.

    Pham, Hanh T; Yu, Qian; Boisvert, Maude; Van, Hanh T; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A virus with a circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genome (PmCV-1) was isolated from Penaeus monodon shrimps in Vietnam. The gene structure of the 1,777-nucleotide (nt) genome was similar to that of circoviruses and cycloviruses, but the nucleic acid and protein sequence identities to these viruses were very low. PMID:24435870

  12. Pallas: the new nuclear reactor in the Netherlands

    In the European Union, the first generation research reactors are approaching necessary operational retirement. Maintenance costs are increasing and continuity of operations is compromised by the aging of materials and components. The High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, The Netherlands, is one such reactor. Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), the current licence holder and operator of the HFR, therefore plans to build a new research reactor called PALLAS. This will be a state-of-the-art reactor equipped to meet the growing world demand for both nuclear knowledge and services and the production of essential medical isotopes. It will have the capacity to be the world's biggest producer of such isotopes. The tender process for PALLAS began in 2007 and will continue through 2010- 2011, following the EU rules for competitive tendering of complex, one-off design and construction projects. NRG is currently still actively pursuing the acquisition of the funding for the project. In the exploitation of PALLAS there will be both public and private interests. Public interests have to do with research for sustainable energy and with guaranteed availability of medical isotopes for the treatment of patients. Private interests are focused on commercial irradiations and the production of isotopes. Currently it is expected that the design phase will have to be almost fully public funded NRG welcomes the cabinet-council's recent support for the building of a new reactor and is fortunate in having fast growing public acceptance and support for it too. The licensing process began in autumn 2009 with a, so called, Notification of Intent to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for PALLAS. Public hearings have been held to inform the national EIA committee's approach to consideration of the Impact Assessment. The PALLAS project team in Petten will guide the design and construction processes, is responsible for the licensing and commissioning and will manage the design

  13. Feeding behavior and food preference of Penaeus monodon Fabricius with scrap tilapia

    Apud, F.D.; Deatras, N.; Gonzales, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    The time of day during which P. monodon feeds at different depth levels in earthen ponds, and its preference for three types of tilapia feeds (dry, fresh and fermented) were determined. It was observed that P. monodon concentrated at the bottom beds during the day and along the periphery of dikes during night-time, with a slight tendency to swim and feed towards the surface as darkness increased. P. monodon showed special preference for dried tilapia compared to fresh and fermented tilapia. P...

  14. Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus detection using an immunochromatographic strip test.

    Wangman, Pradit; Longyant, Siwaporn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Sridulyakul, Pattarin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2012-08-01

    An immunochromatographic strip test is described for detection of the polyhedrin protein of Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV). The test employs one monoclonal antibody (MAb MBV5) conjugated to colloidal gold to bind to polyhedrin protein and a 1:1:1 mixture of 3 other MAbs (MBV8, 14 and 21) to capture colloidal-gold MAb-protein complexes at a test (T) line on the nitrocellulose strip. A downstream control (C) line of goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G (GAM) antibody is used to capture excess free colloidal-gold conjugated MBV5 to validate test performance. Heating of homogenates of PemoNPV-infected P. monodon postlarvae prepared in PBS for 30min was necessary to maximize T line color intensity, and homogenates of infected postlarvae could still be scored as PemoNPV-positive when diluted 1:64. A strip test result was obtained within 15min of sample application, and although about 200-fold lower than a one-step PCR test for PemoNPV, its detection sensitivity was comparable to a dot blot. Due to its simplicity not reliant on sophisticated equipment or specialized skills, the strip test could be adopted to screen easily for PemoNPV infections at shrimp hatcheries and farms. PMID:22580094

  15. Life history parameters of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland

    Garde, Eva; Hansen, Steen H; Ditlevsen, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007......–2010. Age estimates were based on the racemization of L-aspartic acid to D-aspartic acid in the nucleus of the eye lens. The ratio of D- and L-enantiomers was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The age equation used, 420.32X − 24.02·year where X is the D/L ratio, was determined from data...... assessed based on data from reproductive organs and was estimated to be 8–9 years for females and 12–20 years for males. Pregnancy rates for East and West Greenland were estimated to be 0.38–0.42 and 0.38, respectively. Maximum life span expectancy was found to be approximately 100 years. A population...

  16. Past and present population dynamics of narwhals Monodon monoceros

    Garde, Eva

    The narwhal, Monodon monoceros, is a medium-sized odontocete whale, endemic to the Atlantic sector of the Arctic and sub-Arctic. In both Canada and Greenland, subsistence hunting of narwhals by the Inuit has existed for centuries and still today the narwhals are hunted for their precious tusks...

  17. Effect of pond aeration on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon Fab.

    R. K. Mohanty

    2001-01-01

    The effect of paddle wheel aeration on shrimp growth and survival were studied at a commercial farm at Chandipur coast of Orissa, India, at different stocking densities of Penaeus monodon. Four different aeration patterns were adopted and evaluated. Influence of individual aeration pattern on average survival rate was not highly significant (p

  18. Effect of new aeration technology on the bacteriology of shrimp ponds growing Penaeus monodon

    Karekar, S.V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Bergheim, A.; Vogelsang, C.

    baculovirus and white spot syndrome virus in apparently healtl-])I Penaeus monodon post-lmae from India by polynlerasc chsin reaction. Aquaculture 220. 59-67. IJarsons, T.R.. h'laita, Y.. Lalli. C.M., 1984. A Manual oj Chemical and Biological Ilfcthcxk...

  19. Food preference in the cultured species, Penaeus monodon Fabricius (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    S. Khanum; Tirmizi, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    The study of food preference is necessitated by the need to promote coastal culture of shrimps in Pakistan. The cultured Penaeus monodon was selected for study. Food preferences have been examined through the analysis of the gut contents. The shrimp shows a seasonal variation in its preference to food and feeding.

  20. Organochlorine contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) from the Canadian Arctic.

    Muir, D C; Ford, C A; Grift, N P; Stewart, R E; Bidleman, T F

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (DDT, chlordane, polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), dieldrin, hexachloroheclohexanes (SigmaHCH), mirex), polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and chlorobenzenes (SigmaCBz) were determined in blubber and liver of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) collected during 1982-1983 from Pond Inlet on northern Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. PCCs were the predominate organochlorines in narwhal blubber, ranging in concentration from 2990 to 13 200 ng g(-1) (wet wt) in males and from 1910 to 8390 ng g(-1) in females. PCCs consisted of two major components, an octachlorobornane and a nonachlorobornane with gas chromatographic retention times of 1.05 and 1.22, relative to 4,4'-DDE. SigmaPCB concentrations in blubber ranged from 2250 to 7290 ng g(-1) in males and from 894 to 5710 ng g(-1) in females. Seven PCB congeners (tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls) accounted for 45% of total PCB (SigmaPCB) in narwhal blubber. Narwhal had 1.4- to 8.6-fold higher ratios of tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls to PCB-153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl), lower 4,4'-DDE/SigmaDDT ratios and lower proportions of trans-nonachlor to total chlordane components than reported for odontocetes living in more contaminated environments. Mean SigmaPCB concentrations in narwhal were 6- to 15-fold lower than in dolphins from the Canadian east coast and belugas from the St Lawrence River estuary, respectively, while PCC levels were from 4- to about 2-fold lower, and SigmaHCH, dieldrin and SigmaCBz differed by <2-fold. The pattern of organochlorines in narwhal tissues suggests they are exposed to proportionally more volatile compounds, and may have less capacity to metabolize some of these compounds, relative to odontocetes living nearer sources of these contaminants. PMID:15092019

  1. Diseases of the eye of farmed shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Smith, P T

    2000-12-21

    Lesions were found in the eyes of cultured shrimp Penaeus monodon that displayed non-specific signs of disease, including lethargy, dark pigmentation, brown gills, empty midgut, anorexia, white tail muscle, necrosis of uropods and fouled cuticle. Eye lesions were associated with sexual development in moribund shrimp in at least 1 disease event. Suppurative inflammation, granuloma and malacia were observed in histological examination of the eye and the causative agents of lesions appear to be Vibrio spp. and a rod-shaped virus (similar to Lymphoid Organ Virus, Gill-Associated Virus [GAV] and Yellow-Head Virus). Suppurative inflammation was characterised by edema, infiltration of haemocytes and local sites of abscesses. Eyes with granuloma usually appeared white in pond-side examinations, and histology showed that fibrous tissue replaced ommatidia, ganglia and internal structures of the eye. Malacia of the eye was characterised by necrosis of nervous tissue, vacuolation and vascular proliferation in the medulla ganglia. Levels of presumptive Vibrionaceace were high in moribund specimens and Gram-negative rods were observed in some specimens as free particles in the interstitial fluid and haemolymph in the eye. Transmission electron microscopy showed that nerve cells in the fasciculated zone (near the basement membrane) contained cytoplasmic vesicles (1 to 3 microm in diameter) with particles (15 to 26 nm in diameter) and rod-shaped nucleocapsids. The rods were similar to those of GAV and were 130 to 260 nm long, 10 to 16 nm in diameter and had helical symmetry with a screw-like thread (2.4 to 3.5 nm pitch). Also, unidentified enveloped virions, averaging 74 nm in diameter, were observed in cytoplasmic vesicles in the fasciculated zone. In conclusion, it is suggested that bacterial and viral infections of the eye could result in impaired neuroendocrine functions, which may cause a range of clinical signs of disease. PMID:11206731

  2. Water, heat, bombardment: The evolution and current state of (2) Pallas

    Schmidt, Britney Elyce; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2012-03-01

    Using recent constraints on the shape and density of (2) Pallas, we model the thermal evolution of the body as a function of possible formation scenarios that differ in the time of formation and composition assumed for the protoplanet. We develop possible evolution scenarios for Pallas and compare these to available observations. Our models imply two distinct types of end states: those with a hydrosphere and silicate core, and those where the body is dominated by hydrated silicates. We show that for an initial ice-rock mixture with density 2400 kg/m3, Pallas is likely to differentiate and form a rocky core and icy shell. If Pallas accreted from material with lower initial ice content, our models indicate that Pallas’s interior is dominated by hydrated silicates, possibly with a core of anhydrous silicates. We also investigate the possibility that Pallas’s initial density was similar to Ceres’, i.e., that it formed from an ice-rock mixture of density 2100 kg/m3. This implies that the object lost a significant fraction of its hydrosphere as a consequence of thermal oscillations and impacts, a distinct possibility given its density, evidence for impact excavation and current orbital parameters. Its blue spectral slope and observed surface variation may also be evidence for such a process (e.g. Jewitt, D.C. [2002]. Astron. J. 123, 1039-1049; Schmidt, B.E. et al. [2009]. Science 326, 275-279; Yang, B., Jewitt, D. [2010]. Astron. J. 140, 692-698). If Pallas still contains a thin layer of water ice, then that layer corresponds to the bottom of a former icy shell, and as such, could be enriched in non-ice materials such as organics. We evaluate the likeliness of each scenario and show the general magnitude of water loss processes for Pallas. Given a balance of observational and theoretical constraints, we favor a water-rich accretion for Pallas that implies that Pallas has lost a significant fraction of its initial water content through exogenic processes since its

  3. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is facilitated by housekeeping molecules

    Vinayak Biradar; Santosh Narwade; Mandar Paingankar; Deepti Deobagkar

    2013-12-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed one-dimensional and two-dimension virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the host proteins of Penaeus monodon that could interact with WSSV. The VOPBA results suggest that WSSV interacted with housekeeping proteins such as heat shock protein 70, ATP synthase subunit , phosphopyruvate hydratase, allergen Pen m 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, actin and 14-3-3-like protein. Our findings suggest that WSSV exploits an array of housekeeping proteins for its transmission and propagation in P. monodon.

  4. Protective Efficacy of Clinacanthus nutans on Yellow-head Disease in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    Direkbusarakom, S.; Ruangpan, L.; Ezura, Y.; Yoshimizu, M.

    1998-01-01

    The leaves of Clinacanthus nutans Lindua, a well-known Thai traditional medicine against viral disease in human being, were used to extract antiviral substances by ethanol using soxhlet apparatus. The extract was tested for its activity against yellow-head rhabdovirus (YRV) in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Virucidal effect was investigated by observation of mortality of the shrimp injected with the extract-treated virus. The results showed that extract of C. nutans inhibited YRV in vi...

  5. Gene Expression Profiling of the Cephalothorax and Eyestalk in Penaeus Monodon during Ovarian Maturation

    Philip Brady, Abigail Elizur, Richard Williams, Scott F. Cummins, Wayne Knibb

    2012-01-01

    In crustaceans, a range of physiological processes involved in ovarian maturation occurs in organs of the cephalothorax including the hepatopancrease, mandibular and Y-organ. Additionally, reproduction is regulated by neuropeptide hormones and other proteins released from secretory sites within the eyestalk. Reproductive dysfunction in captive-reared prawns, Penaeus monodon, is believed to be due to deficiencies in these factors. In this study, we investigated the expression of gene transcrip...

  6. Characterisation of Some Immune Genes in the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2001-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the immune system in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, are completely unknown, despite its economic importance as an aquaculture species, especially in Asia and Latin America. The genes and their gene products involved in the prophenoloxidase activating system, which is considered to be a non-self recognition and defence system in many invertebrates, have been isolated and characterised in shrimp. These include a zymogen of this cascade, prophenoloxidase (proPO); a cell adh...

  7. Studies on luminous, Vibrio harveyi associated with shrimp culture system rearing Panaeus monodon

    Kannapiran, E.; Ravindran, J.; Chandrasekar, R.; Kalaiarasi, A.

    and V. harveyi density were low at that time. Vaseeharan and Ramasamy (2003) also reported that the growth of pathogenic V. harveyi isolated from Penaeus monodon with black gill disease was controlled by non-pathogenic B. subtilis BT23 as probiotic...: Vibrios associated with Penaeus chinensis (Crustacea: Decapoda) larvae and post-larvae in Chinese shrimp hatcheries. Aquaculture 169, 121-132 (1998). Vaseeharan, B. and P. Ramasamy: Control of pathogenic Vibrio spp. by Bacillus subtilis BT23, a possible...

  8. Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)

    P. Soundarapandian; Babu, R

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental) for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics). The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. ...

  9. Preliminary Study of BAC Library Construction in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Suwit WUTHISUTHIMETHAVEE; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2009-01-01

    Availability of shrimp genome information is necessary for shrimp genetic studies and large-insert DNA clones, bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs) serve as valuable tools for obtaining genomic sequences. The construction of a BAC library was achieved from this preliminary study of P. monodon. High molecular weight (HMW) genomic DNA was isolated from abdominal muscle and the resulting hemocytes were of high quality and sufficient quantity for a BAC library construction. This BAC library was...

  10. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.

    de la Peña, Leobert D; Cabillon, Nikko Alvin R; Catedral, Demy D; Amar, Edgar C; Usero, Roselyn C; Monotilla, Wilberto D; Calpe, Adelaida T; Fernandez, Dalisay Dg; Saloma, Cynthia P

    2015-10-27

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp. PMID:26503780

  11. Survey on the role of brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) as carriers of zoonotic dermatophytes

    Francesca Mancianti; Ranieri Verin; Maria Grazia Gallo; Simona Nardoni; Roberto Papini

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi was investigated by hair-brush technique on the coat of 986 apparently healthy brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) caught in 9 restocking and capture zones in Central Italy. Overall, 7.5% hair samples gave positive results. Trichophyton terrestre (2.1%), Chrysosporium sp, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton gloriae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.6% each), Trichophyton erinacei and Scopulariopsis br...

  12. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  13. Distribution of Bacteria Injected in Body of Giant Black Shrimp, Penaeus Monodon

    GUO Zhixun(郭志勋); Karin van de Braak; Magriet Botterbloom

    2004-01-01

    Distribution of injected Vibrio anguillarum in body of Penaeus monodon was studied with immunohistochemical method. Bacteria could be detected throughout the experiment in some individuals; however in lymphoid tissue, gill, heart and haemolymph of all vibrio injected shrimp, the bacteria could be observed only 5 min after injection. The bacteria density in haemolymph, haemolymph of the hepatopancreas and gills decreased with time. In the lymphoid organ and heart, the bacteria density was the highest 48 h after injection, then decreased. Nodules could be formed in the heart, lymphoid organ and injection site.

  14. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Tassanee Eamkamon; Sirawut Klinbunga; Kumthorn Thirakhupt; Piamsak Menasveta; Narongsak Puanglarp

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L) and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L) concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in sh...

  15. Effect of farm made feeds on polyculture of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and three brackishwater finfish species

    Shofiquzzoha, A.F.M; Islam, M.L; Ahmed, S.U.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed made from locally available ingredients on polyculture of shrimp and three brackishwater finfish species. Hatchery produced post-larvae (PL) of shrimp Penaeus monodon (0.005g) were stocked at the rate of 15,000 PLs/ha. Brackishwater finfish species Liza parsia, Mugil cephalus and Rhinomugil corsula of 0.63-1.4lg collected from local rivers were stocked at the rate 8,000, 1,000 and 2,000/ha, respectively in four treatments. Shrimp and fi...

  16. Impaired telomerase activity hinders proliferation and in vitro transformation of Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells.

    Jayesh, P; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2016-08-01

    Retaining terminal transferase activity of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme which add telomeric repeats on chromosome end is thought to be required to prevent cellular ageing. Additionally, telomerase considered as a marker for cell proliferation and immortalization in eukaryotes. We examined telomerase activity in tissues and lymphoid cell culture of Penaeus monodon. Along with telomerase activity, telomere repeats and an attempt on identification of telomerase reverse transcriptase (PmTERT) were made. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol revealed that telomerase-dependent telomeric lengthening has been taking place in P. monodon and the adult tissues were retaining this capacity throughout their lifespan with the highest activity in ovary, testis and lymphoid organ. However, telomerase activity could not be detected in lymphoid cells in culture. The canonical telomeric repeats added by telomerase of lymphoid tissue extract were identified as TTAGG, but pentameric repeats GGTTA and AGGTT were also added by the telomerase. PmTERT protein sequence (partial) shared 100 % identity with the TERT sequence of Daphnia pulex, 27 % sequence identity with Purple sea urchin and 24-25 % with Zebra fish. Undetectable telomerase activity in lymphoid cell culture supports the hypothesis that the inadequate telomerase activity or gene expression may be a reason that prevents neoplastic transformation and spontaneous immortalization of the cells in vitro. Thus, it is envisaged that telomerase activation in lymphoid cells may surmount cellular ageing for in vitro transformation and cell line establishment. PMID:26084784

  17. Melanosis in Penaeus monodon: Involvement of the Laccase-like Activity of Hemocyanin.

    Bris, Cédric Le; Cudennec, Benoit; Dhulster, Pascal; Drider, Djamel; Duflos, Guillaume; Grard, Thierry

    2016-01-27

    In shrimp, the development of postmortem melanosis resulting from phenoloxidase activities leads to important economic losses. Phenoloxidase enzymes include catechol oxidases, laccases, and tyrosinases, but hemocyanin is also capable of phenoloxidase activities. These activities have been explored in Penaeus monodon, using different substrates. Results highlighted that tyrosinase-specific substrates were little oxidized, whereas hydroquinone (laccase-specific substrate) was more highly oxidized than l-DOPA (nonspecific substrate) in the pereopods and pleopods. Global phenoloxidase activity, assayed with l-DOPA, did not appear thermally stable over time and probably resulted from phenoloxidase enzymes. Conversely, the laccase-like activity assayed with hydroquinone was thermally stable over time, reflecting the thermal stability of hemocyanin. Independently of the anatomical compartment, the temperature, or the substrate, the highest activities were assayed in the cuticular compartments. This study demonstrates the complexity of phenoloxidase activities in P. monodon, and the importance of considering all the activities, including laccase-like activities such as that of hemocyanin. PMID:26671070

  18. STUDY OF PROBIOTICS ON THE SEED PRODUCTION OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon

    M. Abdul Kader

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, antibiotics are widely used in shrimp hatcheries to control bacterial infections. Appearance of antibiotic resistant pathogens and restriction on the use of antibiotics have led to the development of alternatives to antibiotics in hatchery systems. In light of this, an attempt was undertaken to investigate the effects of probiotics on the larval rearing of Penaeus monodon, compared with control tanks (without probiotics. The results showed that several issues significantly improved with administering probiotics in the experimental tanks compared with the tanks without probiotics. For example, the concentration of ammonia was estimated to be 1.25 mg/L that was less than half of what was measured in the control tanks. The size variation was observed more in the control tanks than in the experimental tanks. Moreover, the muscle gut ratio of PL15 was about 85 to 92% in the probiotic treated tank and 70 to 80% in the control tank during the eight cycles of production. The fouling organisms were more in the control tank compared to the experimental tanks. The average length of PL15 was maximum when reared in the experimental tanks compared to the control tanks. The final survival rate of PL15 from the control and experimental tank was 35 and 52%, respectively. The present investigation indicated that probiotics played an important role in the growth, survival and health status of P. monodon larvae.

  19. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV, Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  20. Ammonia and salinity tolerance of Penaeus monodon across eight breeding families

    Chen, Jinsong; Zhou, Falin; Huang, Jianhua; Ma, Zhenhua; Jiang, Shigui; Qiu, Lihua; Jian G Qin

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia nitrogen and salinity tolerance of Penaeus monodon from eight selected breeding families were evaluated at the concentration of 67.65 mg L−1 ammonia-N and reducing salinity from 15 to 0 ‰. The final survival of family A (88.67 ± 9.81 %) was highest, and the final survival of family B was lowest (24.33 ± 14.01 %) after the ammonia tolerance test. Upon completing the sudden drop salinity test from 15 to 0 ‰, the highest survival was observed in family B (98.00 ± 1.73 %), and the lowest ...

  1. Deep-diving by narwhals Monodon monoceros: differences in foraging behavior between wintering areas?

    Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Dietz, R.;

    2003-01-01

    -depth recorders (SLTDRs) were used to examine differences in narwhal Monodon monoceros diving behavior and habitat selection among 3 sub-populations in Canada and West Greenland (n = 16 individuals). The number of dives to different depths and time allocation within the water column was investigated in 3 seasons......, with a focus on 2 discrete wintering grounds in Baffin Bay. Diving parameters were calculated from binned dive data and analyzed using repeated-measures mixed models accounting for temporal autocorrelation and individual variability. The number of surface dives (0 to 50 m) and time at the surface...... declined between summer and winter. Clear differences were observed between 2 wintering grounds. Whales occupying one wintering ground spent most of their time diving to between 200 and 400 m (25 dives per day, SE 3), confirmed by both depth and temperature recording tags. In contrast, narwhals in a...

  2. Low-molecular weight metalloproteins in tissues of the narwhal (Monodon monoceros).

    Wagemann, R; Hobden, B

    1986-01-01

    Narwhal (Monodon monoceros) liver and kidney cytosol were fractionated by gel chromatography, anion-exchange chromatography and electrophoresis. Cadmium was associated largely with low molecular weight proteins, while mercury was associated also with high molecular weight proteins, but apparently not because of saturation of the metallothionein mechanism. Eight different electrophoretic bands, four of which were metalloproteins, were found under the "metallothionein" peak. Anion-exchange chromatography yielded five metal peaks while further fractionation on G-50 gave two peaks, one containing almost pure metallothionein (Mt-1) and the other a metalloprotein having twice the molecular weight of metallothionein. Mt-2 was observed, at a much lower concentration than Mt-1, in liver but not kidney. PMID:2874949

  3. A feasibility study of gamma irradiation on Thailand frozen shrimps (Penaeus monodon)

    Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thailand ''PENAEUS MONODON'' Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and the organoleptic properties of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the extension of shelf-life based on mesophiles content was from 33 days for the control to more than 47 days for the irradiated shrimps stored at 3 ± 1oC. The results of sensory evaluation gave slightly fresher odor for the control than the irradiated shrimps. On day one, this effect was more apparent. The results of hedonic tests showed that the irradiated shrimps were acceptable during storage. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combined treatments (freezing plus irradiation) of precooked shrimps are useful for increasing the storage life of shrimps without affecting consumer acceptability. (Author)

  4. Crustin protein Amk1 from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon inhibits Vibrio harveyi and Staphylococcus aureus

    Moltira Tonganunt1*

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A crustin gene (Amk1 was identified from a haemocyte library of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA consists of 411 bp encoding a deduced precursor of 136 amino acids with a signal peptide of 17 aminoacids. Amk1 contains a hydrophobic and a Gly-rich region at the N-terminus and a 12 conserved cysteine domain (6-DSC at the C-terminus. Transcripts of Amk1 are mainly detected in haemocytes and gills by RT-PCR analysis. A recombinant Amk1was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli. This has a molecular mass of 43.66 kDa with a predicted pI of 8.23. Antibacterial assays demonstrated that recombinant Amk1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegativebacteria with strong inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio harveyi.

  5. The effect of gamma irradiation on physical and nutritional quality of Penaeus Monodon shrimps

    Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thailand ''PENAEUS MONODON'' Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the chemical and physical qualities of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the color measurement expressed in terms of lightness (L*) showed a relative stability during storage of processed shrimps. However, based on the value (θ) a more intense red color was observed for the control and the reference. The cooked irradiated and nonirradiated shrimps presented a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.01) of 22% in firmness during the first week of storage. Thus, irradiation did not impair the firmness of shrimps after treatment or during storage. Also, based on the statistical analysis, the irradiation treatment did not affect the content of amino acids of precooked shrimps. (Author)

  6. Vibrio harveyi modulated gene expression in Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Nayak, S.

    (Saulnier et al., 2000). Major epizootics of vibriosis have been reported for P. monodon from the Indo-Pacific region, P. japonicus from Japan, and P. vannamei from Ecuador, Peru, Colombia and Central America (Lightner, 1996). For a long time many... and termination sites, 5�� and 3�� untranslated regions, promoter regions, and exon-intron splice sites. �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� Chapter 2 Review of Literature �� �� 2.1 Introduction Shrimps are among the most economically...

  7. Low-input Modified Extensive Shrimp Culture Systems for Penaeus monodon Restrain Vibriosis

    Sheryl Oliveira Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It was hypothesized that an outbreak of vibriosis can be restrained in ponds with a low stocking density (~5 post-larvae m-2 till harvest. Therefore, during a 135 day production cycle of Penaeus monodon at an aquaculture facility, we monitored (i physico-chemical parameters (ii abundance of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB, total Vibrio like organisms (TVLO and luminescent bacteria (LB (iii alterations in environmental factors controlling Vibrio abundance and (iv changes in composition of the Vibrio community. Physico-chemical parameters were within the optimum range recommended for culture of P. monodon. In source and pond water, THB abundance remained steady at 103 CFU mL-1 throughout the culture period whereas in sediments, they varied between 102-4 CFU g-1. The abundance of TVLO and LB in pond components were below the threshold levels of 104 CFU mL-1 and 102 CFU mL-1 respectively. THB, TVLO and LB were more abundant in the shrimp hepatopancreas (105 CFU g-1 yet apparently below the threshold for the outbreak of vibriosis in the current set up. Changes in bacterial abundance were seemingly independent of changes in environmental parameters suggesting that the systems maintained TVLO below disease-causing threshold. The Vibrio community was represented mainly by V. metschnikovii, V. fluvialis, V. mimicus and the closely related Aeromonas spp.. The vibrios in shrimp hepatopancreas were similar to other pond components with no dominance of particular species. A disease-free environment prevailed and shrimp yield was sustainable within the set framework perhaps due to the low abundance of vibrios represented by innocuous strains.

  8. Untersuchungen am Kopf des fetalen Narwals Monodon monoceros: Ein Atlas zur Entwicklung und funktionellen Morphologie des Sonarapparates

    Comtesse-Weidner, Pia

    2007-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt und dokumentiert am Beispiel des Narwals (Monodon monoceros) die Morphologie und Entwicklung der in der Kopfregion gelegenen potentiell sonarrelevanten Strukturen. Hierzu wurde anhand der einmaligen, lückenlosen histologischen Schnittserie eines Narwalfetus von 137 mm (NEF1) die gesamte Kopfregion als Entität lichtmikroskopisch untersucht und die hier interessierenden Details erfaßt. Der so entstandene Atlas bietet auf 86 ausgewählten Abbildungen die Möglichk...

  9. Oxidative stress response of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to enrofloxacin and to culture system

    Thi Tu, H.; Silvestre, F.; A. Bernard; Douny, C.; Thanh Phuong, N.; Tai Tao, C.; Maghuin-Rogister, G; KESTEMONT P.

    2008-01-01

    In Vietnam, enrofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in shrimp farms. Although the European Union set a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 µg/kg for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in edible tissues of aquatic animals for human consumption, only few data are available on its potential deleterious effects on shrimp. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of enrofloxacin on oxidative stress in hepatopancreas and gills of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). ...

  10. Benthic Faunal Composition of Penaeus monodon Fabricius Culture Pond in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Abu Hena M.K.; O. Hshamuddin; K. Misri; Abdullah, F.; Loo, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    The present study deals with the results on benthic faunal abundance and diversity of tiger shrimp P. monodon culture ponds in Perak, West coast of Peninsular Malaysia. To observe the abundance and composition of benthic organisms, sampling was carried out every three weeks interval throughout the culture period. In addition, observations on water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, transparency, pH and organic matter of soil were also made. The major groups of macro-benthos comprised of...

  11. Abundance and composition of benthic fauna in Penaeus monodon Fabricius culture pond on the west coast of Malaysia peninsular

    M.K. Abu Hena; Hishamuddin, O.; K. Misri

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the benthic faunal abundance and diversity of tiger shrimp P. monodon culture ponds in Perak, west coast of Malaysia Peninsular. Sampling was carried out at three weeks interval throughout the 116 days culture period. In addition, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, transparency, pH and organic matter of soil were also measured. Results showed that the major groups of macro-benthos comprised of gastropod, foraminifera, polychaetes, bivalve and insects;...

  12. Comparison of ovarian maturation and spawning after unilateral eyestalk ablation of wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon

    Weigeng Wen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares the efficiency of ovarian maturation and spawning success between wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon females after unilateral eyestalk ablation. The earliest spawning time after eyestalk ablation was 5.9 days in wild-caught females, which is significantly shorter than the spawning time in pond-reared females (10.5 days. Both wild-caught and pond-reared females repeatedly spawned after eyestalk ablation. On average, each wild-caught female spawned 2.94 times while each pond-reared female spawned only 1.09 times. The spawning induction rate, egg hatching rate, and the number of eggs per spawning were significantly greater in wild-caught females than in pond-reared females. However, the egg size was not significantly different between wild-caught and pond-reared females. Four shrimp sizes (60, 80, 100 and 120 (± 1.0 g were tested in this study and body weight significantly affected ovarian induction in pond-reared females but not in wild-caught females. Within the same body-weight class, the egg number per spawn in wild-caught females was significantly greater than that in pond-reared females. The egg production per spawn of the pond-reared females in the 120-g size group was two times higher than that in the pond-reared females in the 80-g size group. In conclusion, the fecundity of wild-caught P. monodon females is significantly higher than that of pond-reared P. monodon females. In breeding pond-reared P. monodon, the recommended minimum body weight of females is over 80 g, and the desirable body weight is over 100 g.

  13. Moult-inhibiting fusion protein augments while polyclonal antisera attenuate moult stages and duration in Penaeus monodon.

    Vrinda, S; Jasmin, C; Sivakumar, K C; Jose, Blessy; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-07-01

    Moulting in crustaceans is regulated by moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH) of the CHH family neuropeptides. The inhibitory functions of MIH have pivotal roles in growth and reproduction of Penaeus monodon. In this study, we report the expression of a thioredoxin-fused mature MIH I protein (mf-PmMIH I) of P. monodon in a bacterial system and its use as antigen to raise polyclonal antiserum (anti-mf-PmMIH I). The mature MIH I gene of 231bp, that codes for 77 amino acids, was cloned into the Escherichia coli thioredoxin gene fusion expression system. The translation expression vector construct (mf-PmMIH I+pET32a+) upon induction produced 29.85kDa mature MIH I fusion protein (mf-PmMIH I). The purified fusion protein was used as exogenous MIH I and as antigen to raise polyclonal antisera. When fusion protein (mf-PmMIH I) was injected into D2 and D3 stages of juvenile shrimp, the moult cycle duration was extended significantly to 16.67±1.03 and 14.67±1.03days respectively compared to that of 11.67±1.03days in controls. Moult duration was further reduced to 8.33±0.82days when polyclonal antiserum (anti-mf-PmMIH I - 1:500 dilutions) was injected. Anti-mf-PmMIH I immunolocalized MIH I producing neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk of P. monodon. In short, the present manuscript reports an innovative means of moult regulation in P. monodon with thioredoxin fused MIH I and antisera developed. PMID:27179884

  14. Survival and changes in the fine structure of selected tissues of Penaeus monodon Fabricius juveniles fed various carbohydrates

    Pascual, F.P.; Coloso, R.M.; Tamse, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Penaeus monodon juveniles were reared on semipurified diets containing various carbohydrates (maltose, sucrose, dextrin, molasses, cassava starch, corn starch or sago palm starch). Significant differences were observed between the type as well as the level of carbohydrate in the diet on the survival of the juveniles. Results indicate that there does not seem to be any correlation between survival and the complexity of the carbohydrates.

  15. Effect of the anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALFPm3) from Penaeus monodon on Vibrio harveyi cells.

    Jaree, Phattarunda; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya

    2012-12-01

    The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 from Penaeus monodon (ALFPm3) has previously been shown to have very active in vitro antimicrobial activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, certain fungi and viruses, including known pathogens of P. monodon shrimp. With respect to the strong bactericidal effect on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the ALFPm3 binds to their principal cell wall components, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), with a high affinity. The aim of this study was, therefore, to reveal the effects of treating ALFPm3 on membrane of Vibrio harveyi, a P. monodon pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium. The recombinant (r)ALFPm3 protein was found to localize on the V. harveyi cells in vivo, followed by inducing membrane permeabilization and leakage of cytoplasmic components. Moreover, the effect of rALFPm3 treatment on the bacterial cell morphology was confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Membrane disruption and damage, bleb and pore formation, and the leakage of cytoplasmic contents were all clearly observed. Taken together, these results suggested that ALFPm3 effectively kills bacteria through bacterial membrane permeabilization. PMID:23000267

  16. INVASION OF ROUND GOBY NEOGOBIUS MELANOSTOMUS (PALLAS, 1814 – ECO-THREAT OR ENVIROMENTAL ENRICHMENT?

    Katarzyna Stepanowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814 is a fish species of Ponto-Caspian basin origin. However, since the second part of the 80’s of the last century has observed spreading of this species in European waters, including in Polish waters. In the last two decades, from 1990 when it was first caught of round goby near the fishing port in Hel, takes a massive and rapid spread of this fish throughout the Gulf of Gdańsk, Vistula Lagoon, along the southern Baltic coastal zone and the Pomeranian Bay and also the River Odra estuary. In 2009, first round goby in commercial catches conducted in Lake Dąbie was recorded. In this situation the question is that invasion can be a eco-threat or even enrichment of the environment to the human being?

  17. [Genetic structure of the populations of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) reforested in extreme conditions].

    Korshikov, I I; Krasnoshtan, O V

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on an intensive reforestation of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in post-fire sites in the native Mountainous Crimean populations and around the previously planted seed-producing trees in ore-mining dumps of the Krivoy Rog region. Self-sown progeny growing in the dump is characterized by a better growth and comes to the reproductive development phase earlier compared to that one growing in post-fire forest. Allele variability at 20 allozyme loci is less in self-sown progeny than in the native populations whereas its heterozygosity level is similar. Genetic distance (D(N)) among self-sown progenies in post-fire sites and ore-mining dump is comparable to that of the natural populations. PMID:20608157

  18. [Genetic passportization and identification of Siberian cranes (Grus leucogeranus Pallas) in captivity].

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Gamburg, E A; Politov, D V

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the founders of an artificial population of the Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus Pallas (rare species of cranes) was characterized using 10 microsatellite loci. It was established that the allelic diversity (on average, 5.9 alleles per locus) and genic (H(o) = 0.739) diversity of the Siberian crane is rather high and comparable with the estimations for natural populations of different crane species. Genetic passportization of the birds (119 individuals) from the register of the Siberian crane International Studbook was carried out at the initial stage. The efficiency of genetic passportization for individual identification, identification of the origin, paternity analysis, and exclusion of inbreeding was demonstrated in Siberian cranes under natural mating and artificial insemination. Cases of natural reproduction in pairs of Siberian cranes imprinted to the human and continuous storage of spermatozoa in the female reproductive ducts were registered. PMID:25731031

  19. PALLAS-2DCY-FX: a code for direct integration of transport equation in two-dimensional (R, Z) geometry

    The PALLAS-2DCY-FX program is the revised version of the PALLAS-2DCY code, which was designed in 1973 and revised in 1980, based on a method of direct integration of the Boltzmann transport equation to describe the radiation transport in (r,z) two-dimensional geometry. It has been developed for shielding problems involving the transport of neutrons and photons. A special feature of the present code is inclusion of the routine for analytical calculation of uncollided flux for accurate calculation of duct and void streaming or skyshine. The document gives a full description of input and output data, as well as code implementation information and a description of several demonstration problems. (author)

  20. Habitat diversity of the Multicolored Asian ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in agricultural and arboreal ecosystems: a review

    Vandereycken, Axel; Durieux, Delphine; Joie, Emilie; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    The Multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), native to Asia, is an invasive species in many European and American countries. Initially introduced as a biological control agent against aphids and coccids in greenhouses, this alien species rapidly invaded many habitats such as forests, meadows, wetlands, and agricultural crops. This paper reviews the habitats (forests, crops, herbs, gardens and orchards) where H. axyridis has been observed, either during insect samplings or as...

  1. Population structure and seasonal movements of narwhals, Monodon monoceros, determined from mtDNA analysis.

    Palsbøll, P J; Heide-Jørgensen, M P; Dietz, R

    1997-03-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequence of the first 287 base pairs in the mitochondrial control region from 74 narwhals, Monodon monoceros, collected in the North-west Atlantic. We detected four polymorphic sites that defined five haplotypes, two of which were found in single specimens. The same DNA sequence was characterized in an additional 353 specimens by digestion with two restriction endonucleases. In this manner each specimen could be assigned to one of the three most common haplotypes. The nucleotide diversity for the total sample (as well as the sequenced subset) was estimated as 0.0017 and pairwise genetic distances between haplotypes ranged from 0.0035-0.0070. The low nucleotide diversity and the low average pairwise genetic distance between haplotypes suggest a recent expansion in abundance from a small founding population. Despite the low degree of variation, frequencies of the common haplotypes differed markedly between areas. The results indicate isolation, even between geographically close areas, as well as fidelity to specific summer and autumn feeding grounds. Heterogeneity within a presumed single breeding ground suggests mixing of pods with different haplotypic composition. PMID:9119704

  2. Two plasmolipins from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon and their response to virus pathogens.

    Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Pongsomboon, Siriporn; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2012-10-01

    Two isoforms of plasmolipin were initially identified from the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) EST database and completed using 50 RACE to reveal complete cDNAs of 558 bp (PmPLP1) and 537 bp(PmPLP2) with 87% nucleotide sequence identity. The deduced amino acid sequences contained four-transmembrane domains and showed the highest amino acid identity (49% and 51%, respectively) to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) chemokine-like factor (CKLF), with a very similar hydrophobic pattern to other plasmolipins. Transcripts of PmPLP1 and PmPLP2 were observed in all tested shrimp tissues with the highest expression levels in the gill and epipodite for PmPLP1 and in the hemocytes and antennal gland for PmPLP2. PmPLP1 transcript levels were significantly upregulated in hemocytes at 24 and 72 h post infection (hpi) with yellow head virus (YHV) (7.4- and 14.7- fold, respectively), but only after 72 hpi by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In contrast, PmPLP2 was only slightly (but statistically significant)up-regulated with YHV and WSSV. Thus, PmPLPs have the potential to be a part of viral infection mechanisms or defense response. This is the first characterization of a plasmolipin gene in crustaceans. PMID:22766100

  3. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Tassanee Eamkamon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in shrimp exposed to 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L of chlorpyrifos were significantly lower (1.7 and 3.3 times than that of control shrimp after 30 min of exposure (p<0.05. In sub-lethal exposure tests, the AChE activity of shrimp was significantly lower (1.9 times than that of control shrimp after exposure to 1.942 nmol/L of chlorpyrifos for 72 h (p<0.05. The sensitive reduction of AChE activity at the sub-lethal concentration, which was 30 times lower than 96 h LC50 value found in this study, indicates the potential use as a biomarker of chlorpyrifos exposure.

  4. Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius

    P. Soundarapandian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics. The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. The pH of the control tank w as 8.4 and the experimental tank was 8.2.The dissolved oxygen was higher in experimental tank (6.12ml/litre and lower in control tanks (5.75ml/litre. Likewise, the ammonia was higher in control tanks (0.19 mg/litre rather than experimental tanks (0.15mg/litre. The survival rate of different larval stages (nauplii, zoea and mysis were maximum in the present study than that of control tanks. The final survival rate of the post larvae from the control and experimental tank was 70 and 30% respectively. The average length of all post larvae was maximum when reared in experimental tank than control tanks. The general conclusion obtained from the present study is that the probiotics plays a vital role in maintaining water quality parameters throughout the larval cycle. It is clear from the microbial load data that vibrio sp. is dominant in the control tanks than in experimental tanks.

  5. Aspectos reproductivos del langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon H. Milne Edwards, 1837), frente a la costa de Concepción, Chile Reproductive aspects of the squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon H. Milne Edward, 1837), off Concepción, Chile

    Sergio Palma G.; Patricio Arana E

    1997-01-01

    Se describen diversos aspectos reproductivos del langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon) frente a la costa de Concepción (Chile), donde esta especie constituye una de las principales pesquerías de crustáceos del país. En esta zona se realizaron 15 cruceros entre agosto de 1988 y octubre de 1989, con 250 lances de 30 min de duración cada uno. Las capturas se efectuaron con redes de arrastre de fondo, en estaciones predefinidas a 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 y 300 m de profundidad. En este período...

  6. Molecular cloning and expression of chitin deacetylase 1 gene from the gills of Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp).

    Sarmiento, Katreena P; Panes, Vivian A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-08-01

    Chitin deacetylases have been identified and studied in several fungi and insects but not in crustaceans. These glycoproteins function in catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan by the hydrolysis of N-acetamido bonds of chitin. Here, for the first time, the full length cDNA of chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene from crustaceans was fully cloned using a partial fragment obtained from a transcriptome database of the gills of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that survived White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection employing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR. The shrimp CDA, named PmCDA1, was further characterized by in silico analysis, and its constitutive expression determined in apparently healthy shrimp through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Results revealed that the P. monodon chitin deacetylase (PmCDA1) is 2176 bp-long gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1596 bp encoding for 532 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmCDA1 belongs to Group I CDAs together with CDA1 and CDA2 proteins found in insects. Moreover, PmCDA1 is composed of a conserved chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain (CBD), a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain (LDL-A) and a catalytic domain that is part of CE4 superfamily, all found in group I CDAs, which are known to serve critical immune function against WSSV. Finally, high expression of PmCDA1 gene in the gills of apparently healthy P. monodon was observed suggesting important basal function of the gene in this tissue. Taken together, this is a first report of the full chitin deacetylase 1 (CDA1) gene in crustaceans particularly in shrimp that exhibits putative immune function against WSSV and is distinctly highly expressed in the gills of shrimp. PMID:27335260

  7. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate produced by alcalase hydrolysis from shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus)

    Dey, Satya Sadhan; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus) for 90 min. using Alcalase enzyme following pH-stat method. Antioxidative activities of SWPH were assessed determining FRAP, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities, which increased linearly with increasing concentration of protein hydrolysate upto 5 mg/ml maintaining good correlation. SWPH showed high stability over wide ranges of pH (2–11) and temperature (up to 100 °C for 150 min), in whic...

  8. PALLAS-TS: a one-dimensional neutron transport code for analyzing fusion blanket neutronics

    The one-dimensional neutron transport code PALLAS-TS has been developed for solving the transport equation by direct numerical integration method. Group-transference kernels are accurately obtained from the double-differential cross section data using the energy and scattering angle correlation relation for elastic and inelastic (discrete levels) scattering. In addition, a usual multigroup model is adopted in calculation of spatial and angular flux distribution so as to make it possible to use iteration technique with neutron rebalancing in each group. This code uses a 120-group data library for 29 nuclides prepared temporarily by processing the ENDF/B-IV file, though the nuclear data file available now is incomplete for accounting fully the anisotropy of scattering. Results of test calculation for a 4-region system consisting of lithium and carbon were compared with the P5-S8 calculations by the ANISN code. The present code is the first trial of incorporating the multigroup to the direct integration method for solving the transport equation. It is observed that computing time by this code is shorter than that of the usual S sub(n) method by a factor of 2 or 3. (author)

  9. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity. PMID:26013743

  10. Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 represents a species complex based on ribosomal DNA.

    Calhoun, Dana M; Curran, Stephen S; Pulis, Eric E; Provaznik, Jennifer M; Franks, James S

    2013-10-01

    Digeneans in the genus Hirudinella de Blainville, 1828 (Hirudinellidae) from three species of pelagic fishes, Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier), Makaira nigricans Lacépède and Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre), and one benthic fish, Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier), from the Gulf of Mexico are investigated using comparison of ribosomal DNA. Four species are identified based on molecular differences: Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 from A. solandri, Hirudinella ahi Yamaguti, 1970 from T. albacares, and two unidentified but distinct species of Hirudinella, herein referred to as Hirudinella sp. A (from both M. nigricans and M. martinicus) and Hirudinella sp. B from M. nigricans. Additionally, H. ahi, based tentatively on morphological identification, is reported from Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus). This represents the first record of a hirudinellid from M. martinicus and the first record of H. ahi from T. thynnus. A phylogeny of some Hemiurata Skrjabin & Guschanskaja, 1954 using partial fragments of the 28S rDNA sequences is consistent with earlier phylogenies and the position of the Hirudinellidae Dollfus, 1932 is well-supported as a derived group most closely related to the Syncoeliidae Looss, 1899. PMID:24048751

  11. Survey on the role of brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 as carriers of zoonotic dermatophytes

    Francesca Mancianti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi was investigated by hair-brush technique on the coat of 986 apparently healthy brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 caught in 9 restocking and capture zones in Central Italy. Overall, 7.5% hair samples gave positive results. Trichophyton terrestre (2.1%, Chrysosporium sp, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton gloriae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.6% each, Trichophyton erinacei and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (0.4% each, Chrysosporium asperatum (0.3%, Arthroderma sp and Microsporum canis (0.1% each were identified in cultures with single isolates, whereas Chrysosporium sp/T. mentagrophytes (0.3%, Chrysosporium sp/T. terrestre and M. gypseum/T. terrestre (0.2% each, Chrysosporium tropicum/T. terrestre, M. canis/T. terrestre and T. ajelloi/T. terrestre (0.1% each were identified in cultures with mixed isolates. T. erinacei and M. canis have not previously been isolated from hares. M. canis, T. erinacei and T. mentagrophytes were the most clinically important dermatophytes found. Altogether, they were isolated only from 1.5% hair samples. Thus, it is concluded that brown hares may play a limited epidemiological role as carriers of zoonotic dermatophytes. Nevertheless, this should be taken into consideration as many people may be exposed to zoonotic agents from brown hares during hunting and trapping activities.

  12. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely. PMID:23440524

  13. PROPOSTE DI ALLENAMENTO MULTILATERALE CON PALLA IN DUE DISCIPLINE SPORTIVE: LA GINNASTICA RITMICA E LA PALLACANESTRO

    Maria Caire

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available La specializzazione precoce non garantisce il successo nello sport d’élite, ma comporta numerosi rischi (Malina, 2010. Una delle strategie per contrastare questi rischi nell’allenamento giovanile è la proposta di un carico motorio che presenti carattere di polivalenza e multilateralità. La multilateralità nella metodologia dell’allenamento è considerata un aspetto chiave per la formazione giovanile (AA.VV., 1987; AA.VV., 1987; Sotgiu & Pellegrini, 1989; Starosta, 2006; Weinek, 2009. Proposte di lavoro multilaterale possono essere costruite ispirandosi a differenti discipline sportive che presentano similitudini quali, ad esempio, gesti ed attrezzi. Nella pratica sportiva alcuni allenatori, alla continua ricerca di idee innovative per ampliare le proprie proposte di lavoro sul campo, talvolta si ispirano ad altre discipline sportive. Ma due discipline sportive molto diverse tra loro possono realizzare proposte di lavoro traversali per una formazione multilaterale?Objectives: L’obiettivo dello studio è formulare proposte di lavoro con la palla adatte a due discipline molto diverse, quali la Ginnastica Ritmica e la Pallacanestro che possano contribuire all’allenamento multilaterale di entrambe nella fase di formazione sportiva giovanile.

  14. Early investigations of Ceres and the discovery of Pallas historical studies in asteroid research

    Cunningham, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    An asteroid scholar, Cunningham in this book picks up where his Discovery of the First Asteroid, Ceres left off in telling the story of the impact created by the discovery of this new class of object in the early 1800s. The best and brightest minds of mathematics, science, and philosophy were fascinated by Ceres, and figures as diverse as Gauss, Herschel, Brougham, Kant, and Laplace all contributed something to the conversation. The first few chapters deal with the mathematical and philosophical aspects of the discovery, and the rivalry between Germany and France that so affected science and astronomy of that era. The jockeying for glory over the discovery of Ceres by both Piazzi and Bode is examined in detail, as is the reception given to Herschel’s use of the word 'asteroid.' Archival research that reveals the creator of the word 'asteroid' is presented in this book. Astronomy was a truly cosmopolitan field at the time, spanning across various disciplines, and the discovery of Pallas, a story completely t...

  15. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Penaeus monodon hemocytes after Vibrio harveyi infection

    2010-01-01

    Background Viral and bacterial diseases can cause mass mortalities in commercial shrimp aquaculture. In contrast to studies on the antiviral response, the responses of shrimps to bacterial infections by high throughput techniques have been reported only at the transcriptional level and not at the translational level. In this study, a proteomic analysis of shrimp hemocytes to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to a luminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi was evaluated for its feasibility and is reported for the first time. Results The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) patterns of the hemocyte proteins from the unchallenged and V. harveyi challenged shrimp, Penaeus monodon, at 24 and 48 h post infection were compared. From this, 27 differentially expressed protein spots, and a further 12 weakly to non-differentially regulated control spots, were selected for further analyses by the LC-ESI-MS/MS. The 21 differentially expressed proteins that could be identified by homologous annotation were comprised of proteins that are directly involved in the host defense responses, such as hemocyanin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, heat shock protein 90 and alpha-2-macroglobulin, and those involved in signal transduction, such as the14-3-3 protein epsilon and calmodulin. Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of hemocyanin expression upon bacterial infection. The expression of the selected proteins which were the representatives of the down-regulated proteins (the 14-3-3 protein epsilon and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and of the up-regulated proteins (hemocyanin) was further assessed at the transcription level using real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions This work suggests the usefulness of a proteomic approach to the study of shrimp immunity and revealed hemocyte proteins whose expression were up regulated upon V. harveyi infection such as hemocyanin, arginine kinase and down regulated such as alpha-2-macroglobulin, calmodulin and 14

  16. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Penaeus monodon hemocytes after Vibrio harveyi infection

    Fang Lo Chu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral and bacterial diseases can cause mass mortalities in commercial shrimp aquaculture. In contrast to studies on the antiviral response, the responses of shrimps to bacterial infections by high throughput techniques have been reported only at the transcriptional level and not at the translational level. In this study, a proteomic analysis of shrimp hemocytes to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to a luminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi was evaluated for its feasibility and is reported for the first time. Results The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE patterns of the hemocyte proteins from the unchallenged and V. harveyi challenged shrimp, Penaeus monodon, at 24 and 48 h post infection were compared. From this, 27 differentially expressed protein spots, and a further 12 weakly to non-differentially regulated control spots, were selected for further analyses by the LC-ESI-MS/MS. The 21 differentially expressed proteins that could be identified by homologous annotation were comprised of proteins that are directly involved in the host defense responses, such as hemocyanin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, heat shock protein 90 and alpha-2-macroglobulin, and those involved in signal transduction, such as the14-3-3 protein epsilon and calmodulin. Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of hemocyanin expression upon bacterial infection. The expression of the selected proteins which were the representatives of the down-regulated proteins (the 14-3-3 protein epsilon and alpha-2-macroglobulin and of the up-regulated proteins (hemocyanin was further assessed at the transcription level using real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions This work suggests the usefulness of a proteomic approach to the study of shrimp immunity and revealed hemocyte proteins whose expression were up regulated upon V. harveyi infection such as hemocyanin, arginine kinase and down regulated such as alpha-2-macroglobulin

  17. Bacterial population in intestines of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon under different growth stages.

    Wanilada Rungrassamee

    Full Text Available Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15, 1- (J1, 2- (J2, and 3-month-old (J3 juveniles using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length = 442±24 bases were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences, J1 (3,055 sequences, J2 (13,130 sequences and J3 (1,890 sequences. Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities.

  18. Application of Irradiated Pro biotic Microorganism in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) Culture

    Marine shrimp culture in Thailand has been developed continuously for the past two decades. This development will ensure the highest level of shrimp quality that will be suitable for the consumption of the people in the country and also aboard. The trend of culture system emphasizes on disease prevention more than treatment which will consequently limit the application of drug and chemicals. Application of pro biotic has been one means of this prevention that are commonly practiced by shrimp farmers. This research was conducted to compare the efficacy of normal Bacillus subtilis isolate from shrimp intestine and an irradiated B. subtilis as a pro biotic in shrimp feed. It was found that overall results were quite the same. These included the broth Co-culture assay. Effects on immune functions were conducted with Penaeus monodon with initial average weight of 17 gms by feeding with 3 gms/kg feed of spore of these two pro biotic for two mouths. The results indicated that both pro biotic caused significant improvement on percent phagocytosis only at the forth week of feeding trial and the overall enhancement of bactericidal activity. However, total haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were not altered. Total bacterial count in shrimp intestine was also conducted during the two month trial. the results indicated significant reduction of Vibrio spp. of both pro biotic groups when compared with the control. Number of Bacillus spp. in intestine were continuously high even after pro biotic treatment had been stopped Growth rate of experiment and control shrimp was not significantly different.

  19. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon

    Juan Hsueh-Fen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White spot syndrome (WSS is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results Sequencing of the complementary DNA clones of two libraries constructed from normal and WSSV-infected postlarvae produced a total of 15,981 high-quality ESTs. Of these ESTs, 46% were successfully matched against annotated genes in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant (nr database and 44% were functionally classified using the Gene Ontology (GO scheme. Comparative EST analyses suggested that, in postlarval shrimp, WSSV infection strongly modulates the gene expression patterns in several organs or tissues, including the hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalk and cuticle. Our data suggest that several basic cellular metabolic processes are likely to be affected, including oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, the glycolytic pathway, and calcium ion balance. A group of immune-related chitin-binding protein genes is also likely to be strongly up regulated after WSSV infection. A database containing all the sequence data and analysis results is accessible at http://xbio.lifescience.ntu.edu.tw/pm/. Conclusion This study suggests that WSSV infection modulates expression of various kinds of genes. The predicted gene expression pattern changes not only reflect the possible responses of shrimp to the virus infection but also suggest how WSSV subverts cellular functions for virus multiplication. In addition, the ESTs reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp.

  20. PALLAS-1D(VII): a code for direct integration of transport equation in one-dimensional plane and spherical geometries

    The PALLAS-1D (VII) program is the revised version of the PALLAS-PL, SP-Br code which has been developed in 1981 on the basis of a method of direct integration of the Boltzmann transport equation to neutron and gamma-ray transport in one-dimensional plane and spherical geometries. The PALLAS-1D (VII) code can treat transport of both neutrons and gamma rays, in particular of secondary gamma rays including the bremsstrahlung and annihilation photons or secondary photons from nuclear reactions of neutrons. The document gives a full description of theoretical calculation, input and output data, as well as code implementation information and the input description of several sample problems. (author)

  1. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan

    2016-08-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth. PMID:27503918

  2. ESTUDIO DE Harmonia axirydis Pallas (COLEOPTERA: COCINELIDAE) COMO BIOAGENTE DE CONTROL DE Aphis gossypii Glover (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE)

    Antonio Flores Macías; Silvia Rodríguez Navarro; M. Guadalupe Ramos-Espinosa; Fidel Payán Zelaya

    2010-01-01

    La relación entre la densidad de presa y el depredador es un elemento de gran importancia en los estudios de ecología de insectos. En el presente trabajo se estudió la interacción entre el depredador Harmonia axirydis Pallas y el áfido Aphis gossypii Glover. Se evaluaron cuatro densidades de presa (75, 150, 225 y 300) y la respuesta funcional se determinó mediante regresión logística. Los parámetros de la respuesta fueron estimados utilizando el modelo de Holling y la regresión no linear iter...

  3. Biometrijske značajke blavora (Pseudopus apodus, Pallas 1775) na području Splita i otoka Cresa

    Lovrić, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    Blavor (Pseudopus apodus Pallas, 1775) je najveći predstavnik porodice Anguidae. Rasprostranjen je na području Balkana, Kavkaza i dijelova Azije. U Hrvatskoj je uz sljepića jedini beznogi ali i najveći gušter koji obitava na području primorja, što je i sjeverozapadna granica rasprostranjenosti vrste. U svrhu istraživanja jedinke su ulovljene u okolici Splita (na Klisu) i na otoku Cresu, te sam odredila njihove biometrijske značajke pomoću pomične mjerke, užeta i dinamometra. Rezultati pokazu...

  4. Mosquito density forecast from flooding: population dynamics model for Aedes caspius (Pallas).

    Balenghien, T; Carron, A; Sinègre, G; Bicout, D J

    2010-06-01

    Insect population dynamics depend strongly on environmental factors. For floodwater mosquitoes, meteorological conditions are crucial in the rhythm of mosquito abundances. Indeed, rainfall triggers the egg hatching after flooding breeding sites, and temperature controls the duration of the aquatic immature development up to adult emergence. According to this, we have developed a simple mechanistic and tractable model that describes the population dynamics of floodwater mosquitoes as a function only of the most accessible meteorological variables, rainfall and temperature. The model involves three parameters: development duration tdev of the immature aquatic stages, the adult emergence rate function f(t) (characterized by the emergence time scale tau and shaping the profile of adult population abundance), and the depletion rate, alpha, of adult disappearance. The developed model was subsequently applied to fit experimental field data of the dynamics of Aedes caspius (Pallas), the main pest mosquito in southern France. First, it was found that the emergence rate function of adult mosquitoes very well reproduce experimental data of the dynamics of immature development for all sampled temperatures. The estimated values of tdev and tau both exhibit Arrhenius behaviour as a function of temperature. Second, using the meteorological records of rainfall and temperature as inputs, the model correctly fit data from a two-site CO2 trapping survey conducted in 2004 and 2005. The estimated depletion rates (summation of the mortality and the emigration rates) were found to be a concave quadratic function of temperature with a maximum of 0.5 per days at about 22 degrees C. PMID:20170592

  5. Comparative histological and histochemical studies on the pancreas of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822), Mystus vittatus (Bloch, 1790) and Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769)

    Padmanabha Chakrabarti; Saroj Kumar Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    The histological analysis, disposition and histochemical localization of tryptophan were investigated in the pancreas to compare the cellular organization and histochemical characterization in the pancreas of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822), Mystus vittatus (Bloch, 1790) and Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769) having different feeding habits. Histological analysis demonstrated that the exocrine pancreatic tissues were dispersed within the hepatic parenchyma and spleen in L. rohita. Thin septa ...

  6. Differences between the Pallas collisional family and similarly sized B-type asteroids

    Alí-Lagoa, V.; Licandro, J.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.; Delbo', M.; de León, J.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Kelley, M. S. P.; Hanuš, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. B-type asteroids constitute a peculiar spectral class within the C-complex. Previous work has pointed out the difference between the visible geometric albedos of B-types and those of the Pallas collisional family (PCF), whose few members with observed spectra are B-types (one exception out of eight objects). This has been interpreted as being due to compositional differences. However, the PCF members are typically smaller than the spectroscopically classified B-types, and the following possibilities have not been ruled out: the albedo differences might be related to a size-albedo dependence and/or to the generally larger errors of the WISE data and best-fitting values of the derived parameters expected for smaller objects. Aims: We compare albedos and beaming parameters of PCF members and B-types of similar sizes and re-examine our conclusion on the different composition of the PCF. Methods: By modelling their WISE/NEOWISE data, we derived sizes and albedos of all objects whose Sloan Digital Sky Survey reflectances are similar to the typical B-type reflectance spectra. In particular, we derived the so-called infrared beaming parameters (η), effective diameters (D), and corresponding visible geometric albedos (pV), and studied their value distributions. Results: We obtained the effective diameter and geometric visible albedo for ~600 B-type asteroids whose sizes range between 2 and 100 km, approximately half of which have fitted η-values that are inversely correlated to size. We found that the albedo distributions of the PCF is significantly different from that of other B-types in the same size range (2-20 km), and we rule out any size-albedo dependency or biases related to the lower quality of the pV-values of smaller objects. In addition, we also found differences between the η-value distribution of the PCF and the other similarly-sized B-types. Conclusions: The differences in the visible albedos of PCF members and the other B-types of similar sizes is

  7. Effect of dietary pigment on growth performance and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius

    Boonyaratpalin, M.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary pigment on survival and disease (white spot syndrome virus: WSSV resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius (PL15 for a 30-day period were studied. The results showed that not only was mean survival of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed with supplementation of Lucarotene or Betatene at 125 mg/kg diet significantly higher (P<0.05 but also the body color was increased. There were no effects of dietary pigment on mean weight, percent weight gain and WSSV resistance. However, mean WSSV resistance of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed diet containing Lucantin pink 50 mg/kg diet, Spirulina 30 g/kg diet or Betatene 125 mg/kg diet was higher than that of control.

  8. Development of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR Assay for the Detection of Philippine Isolates of the Penaeus monodon-type Baculovirus (MBV

    Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Penaeus monodon-type baculovirus (MBV is a DNA virus that infects postlarvae and early juveniles of shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Several variants of this virus occur through nucleotide analysis of its genomic DNA. In the present study, a one-step PCR method was developed for the detection of the Philippine isolates of MBV by designing PCR primers on the least conserved region of the Philippine MBV. Using genomic DNA of MBV-infected shrimp postlarvae, the PCR assay amplified a 193-bp PCR product. Its sensitivity was comparable to the published PCR assays. The strain-specific primers did not cross-react with other DNA viruses including White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV. This PCR assay could be used for regular monitoring and surveillance of MBV in shrimp as well as tracing the movement of the Philippine MBV in shrimp farms in different geographic regions.

  9. Twig extract of the apple mangrove affects the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and lipase in postlarval black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon at varying feeding frequencies

    Pedro Avenido

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of the twig extract of the apple mangrove Sonneratia caseolaris on the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and lipase in the postlarval black tiger shrimpPenaeus monodon. Incorporating twig extracts of the apple mangrove S. caseolaris increased the activityof trypsin in juvenile P. monodon when fed at three to four times daily. When fed twice daily, trypsinactivity was at the same level as that in shrimp fed the control diet (without medication. The extractresulted in the enhanced chymotrypsin activity starting when shrimps were fed medicated diet twice dailyuntil four times daily. Lipase activity was not at all affected by the apple mangrove extract. Thesefindings demonstrated that the twig apple mangrove extract could be used as aprophylactic/therapeutant and was not deleterious to the nutrition of the black tiger shrimp; in fact, itstimulated protein digestion.

  10. First record of Pontian Monkey Goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 in the Evros River (Greece; Is it an alien species?

    S. ZOGARIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pontian Monkey Goby,Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, was recorded for the first time in Greece in August 2011. Eight specimens were collected in the Greek-Turkish section of the Evros River, 65 kilometers upstream of its river-mouth. Although the species has been recently discovered in the Tundza, a tributary of the Evros in Bulgaria, it has never before been found in the Evros’ main stem.  Although the lower Evros has been poorly researched by ichthyologists, it is unlikely that a conspicuous medium-sized fish would go unnoticed in this river; and, it is therefore suggested to be a probable alien. However, since the Evros basin has had geological connections to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea in the past and it is immediately adjacent to native populations of N. fluviatilis, the species status is categorized as questionable until genetic and morphological studies are completed.

  11. Allozymic and biometric variation in Dryomys nitedula (Pallas, 1778

    Maria Grazia Filippucci

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biometric and genetic variation were analysed among populations of D. nitedula from Italy, Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor and Israel. The biometric analysis was carried out on 84 specimens using 13 linear skull measurements. Variations in metrical characters among samples were studied by standard and multivariate analyses. The genetic analysis was carried out on 29 specimens by electrophoresis of 40 gene loci. In both analyses the Israeli sample was the most distinct. Skulls of Israeli specimens are characterized by longer mandibular tooth row, higher rhamus mandibulae, longer bullae, and narrower braincase breadth, rostra1 breadth and interorbital constriction. Electrophoretically the Israeli sample can be discriminated from European populations by four loci (Ldh-1, G6pdh, Pep-1, and Lap-2 fixed for new alleles. The mean value of Nei's genetic distance between Israeli and European populations was D = 0.186, ranging from 0.153 to 0.227. The Israeli population, commonly attributed to the taxon phrygius, was different from this by biometric analysis. D. n. phrygius from the topotype locality in Asia Minor clustered with the European population from Turkish Thrace. In order to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the Israeli forest dormouse, a comparison with other populations from the Caucasus and Iran and with Dryomys laniger from Turkey is suggested. Riassunto Variabilità genetica e biometrica in Dryomys nitedula (Pallas, 1778 - Variabilità biometrica e genetica sono state analizzate tra popolazioni di D. nitetula provenienti da Italia, Penisola Balcanica, Asia Minore ed Israele. L'analisi biometrica è stata condotta su 84 esemplari mediante 13 misurazioni craniche lineari. La variazione nei caratteri metrici tra i campioni è stata studiata mediante analisi standard e multivariata

  12. Recent Technology for the Survival and Production of Giant Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon along South East Coast of India

    B. Gunalan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to culture the giant tiger shrimp, P. monodon in six ponds each with 0.8 ha near Alagankulam village of Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu. The salinity of the six ponds was ranging between 16-30 ppt and pH was 7.6 to 8.0. Minimum 3.9 ppm dissolved oxygen and maximum 4.2 ppm was recorded during the culture period. The temperature was ranging between 27 to 30C and the transparency was 35 to 50 cm. Harvesting was carried out in ponds 1, 2 at DOC 142 and 3, 4 at DOC 143 and 5,6 at DOC 149. Average body weights of the ponds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are 38.46, 40.00, 40.00, 37.00, 38.46 and 37.00, respectively. Highest survival 76% was recorded in pond 4 and the lowest survival 68% recorded in pond 1. The average survival for all six ponds was calculated as 72%. Maximum production was reported in pond 2 (2,154 kg and minimum was in the pond 1 (1,874 kg. The total production in all ponds was 11,998 tons. The average body weight and average daily growth was calculated as 38.49 and 0.26 g, respectively in all ponds. The maximum amount of feed was consumed by the shrimps in pond 2 (2,940 and minimum was in pond 1 (2,550. The FCR for all ponds were 1.36. Maximum net profit was obtained from pond 2 (Rs. 3,91,940 and minimum was in the pond 1 (Rs. 2, 69,492. So it is confirmed that 12 m-2 is an ideal stocking density for the culture of P. monodon as evidenced from the net profit Rs. 19,18,710. To get this profit, proper water quality management and feed management is essential.

  13. Cadmium concentrations in shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus and Penaeus monodon) caught from the coastal areas in Southern Iran.

    Rahimi, E; Zaker, Sh; Farfani, M H Dehghani; Araghi, M Roghani; Vafaei, M; Goudarzi, M A

    2013-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the concentration of cadmium in two shrimp species, namely, Penaeus semisulcatus and Penaeus monodon caught from the coastal areas in southern Iran. Cadmium concentration was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 91 shrimp samples after nitric acid/perchloric acid digestion. Accuracy of the analysis was checked by various methods including the use of reference material. The mean ± SD of cadmium concentrations in shrimp samples were 0.128 ± 0.144 (μg/g). The cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.010 to 0.96 μg/g of the muscle tissues of shrimp. Higher cadmium concentration in shrimp samples was found in summer (significant p cadmium in shrimp is lower than the maximum allowed levels according to International standards, although the concentration of cadmium in only one sample was more than the amount recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. Therefore, no risk to the consumer arises from the cadmium contents of the shrimp caught in these areas. PMID:22301817

  14. The effect of gamma irradiation and frozen storage time on the quality of tiger shrimps (Penaeus Monodon)

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 1, 2, 4 and kGy) and frozen storage (-100C) of 6 months on the microbiological, chemical and organoleptic qualities of whole (WSI) and peeled (PS2) tiger shrimps (Peneaus monodon) were studied. The qualities of the products were compared with blanched shrimps (PSI) ordinarily prepared at a factory. The irradiation dose up to 6 kGy reduced the total bacterial count (TBC) by at least 3 log cycles with D value = 2.13 kGy. The survival of pathogenic microbes was effectively retarded. Although blanching eliminated the pathogenic microbes, the TBC of PSI before storage is still in a range of 105/g. There was an increase in TBC of 1-2 log cycles during storage in all samples. Peeling effectively reduced the TBC of the shrimps. Gamma irradiation and shorter period of storage time did not influence the pH and protein contents of the products. Indole production was slowed down by irradiation at 1-4 kGy, which is comparable to blanching treatment. Organoleptic qualities (colour, ordour and texture) of the products were not effected by irradiation and storage time except for samples irradiated at 6 kGy in which the pink colour faded. There was no significant difference in the organoleptic qualities of irradiated (2 kGy) samples as compared to blanched products. (author)

  15. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the lymphoid organ of Vibrio harveyi-infected Penaeus monodon.

    Chaikeeratisak, Vorrapon; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Wang, Hao-Ching; Lo, Chu Fang; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2012-05-01

    The protein expression profiles of the lymphoid organ, taken from mock and systemic Vibrio harveyi-infected Penaeus monodon at 6 and 48 h post infection, were revealed. The considerable changes in the expression level of several proteins were observed between the mock and V. harveyi-infected shrimps. From 30 analyzed protein spots with 27 differentially expressed, 21 were known proteins with the most common of these being cytoskeleton proteins (33%) which were all down-regulated upon systemic bacterial infection. Other six proteins including four proteins that are involved in the shrimp immunity (alpha-2-macroglobulin, transglutaminase, heat shock protein 1 and hemocyanin subunit Y), and two proteins that are involved in metabolism (triosephosphate isomerase) and cell signaling (14-3-3 like protein), displayed significantly decreased expression levels. There was, however, an increase in the expression level of the ATP synthase beta subunit, a protein involved in energy balance. Transcription levels of ATP synthase beta subunit and 14-3-3 like protein were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in accord with the observed protein expression levels, but the alpha-2-macroglobulin transcript levels were significantly increased in contrast to the decreased protein expression levels. Interestingly, partial gene silencing of ATP synthase beta subunit revealed a high cumulative mortality of the knockdown shrimps (73.3%) and a dramatic reduction of the total hemocyte numbers in the survival shrimps. These altered proteins are likely to play essential roles in shrimp defense against the pathogenic bacterium V. harveyi. PMID:22302389

  16. Inhibition of Luminescence and Virulence in the Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Pathogen Vibrio harveyi by Intercellular Signal Antagonists

    Manefield, Michael; Harris, Lachlan; Rice, Scott A.; de Nys, Rocky; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated. In this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone antagonist produced by the marine alga Delisea pulchra on luminescence and toxin production in a virulent strain of V. harveyi were analyzed. Luminescence and toxin production were both inhibited by the signal antagonist at concentrations that had no impact on growth. Toxin production was found to be prematurely induced in V. harveyi cultures incubated in a 10% conditioned medium. Additionally, a significant reduction in the toxicity of concentrated supernatant extracts from V. harveyi cultures incubated in the presence of the signal antagonist, as measured by in vivo toxicity assays in mice and prawns, was observed. These results suggest that intercellular signaling antagonists have potential utility in the control of V. harveyi prawn infections. PMID:10788385

  17. Characterization and function analysis of Hsp60 and Hsp10 under different acute stresses in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    Shi, Jinxuan; Fu, Mingjun; Zhao, Chao; Zhou, Falin; Yang, Qibin; Qiu, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a class of highly conserved proteins produced in virtually all living organisms from bacteria to humans. Hsp60 and Hsp10, the most important mitochondrial chaperones, participate in environmental stress responses. In this study, the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of Hsp60 (PmHsp60) and Hsp10 (PmHsp10) were cloned from Penaeus monodon. Sequence analysis showed that PmHsp60 and PmHsp10 encoded polypeptides of 578 and 102 amino acids, respectively. The expression profiles of PmHsp60 and PmHsp10 were detected in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimps under pH challenge, osmotic stress, and heavy metal exposure, and results suggested that PmHsp60 and PmHsp10 were involved in the responses to these stimuli. ATPase and chaperone activity assay indicated that PmHsp60 could slow down protein denaturation and that Hsp60/Hsp10 may be combined to produce a chaperone complex with effective chaperone and ATPase activities. Overall, this study provides useful information to help further understand the functional mechanisms of the environmental stress responses of Hsp60 and Hsp10 in shrimp. PMID:26637414

  18. Study on the Toxicity of Three Drugs on Penaeus monodon Postlarvae%3种药物对斑节对虾仔虾的毒性研究

    白东清; 穆祥兆; 李玉华; 任东悦; 吴旋; 宁博

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The study aimed to discuss the acute toxicity and united toxicity of formaldehyde, potassium permanganate, povidone iodine on Penaeus monodon postlarvac. [Method] With 1 000 tails of health Penaeus monodon postlarvae as the tested objects, the acute toxicity test with single drug and the joint toxicity test with 2 kinds of drugs on Penaeus monodon postlarvae were conducted by using 3 kinds of drugs,namely, formaldehyde, potassium permanganate, povidone iodine. [ Result ] The half lethal concentration of 3 kinds of drugs to Penaeus monodon postlarvae at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were as follows: 80.67, 55.81,42.26, 33.56 mg/L of formaldehyde, respectively; 7.93, 6.31,5.14, 4.77mg/L of potassium permanganate, respectively; 6.95, 5.78, 5. 00, 4. 32 mg/L of povidone iodine, respectively. The safe concentration of formaldehyde, potassium permanganate and povidone iodine to Penaeus monodon postlarvae were 3.56, 0.48, 0.43 mg/L, respectively. The order of the toxicity of 3 drugs was as follows: povidone iodine > potassium permanganate > formatdehyde. [ Conclusion ] The toxicity of the mix of formaldehyde, potassium permanganate and povidone iodine showed a synergism on their toxicity to Penaeus monodon postlarvae.%[目的]探讨甲醛、高锰酸钾、聚维酮碘对斑节对虾仔虾的急性毒性和联合毒性作用.[方法]以1 000尾健康的斑节对虾仔虾为试验对象,用高锰酸钾、甲醛、聚维酮碘3种药物分别进行单一药物和任2种药物组合的急性毒性和联合毒性试验.[结果]3种药物对斑节对虾仔虾24、48、72、96 h的半致死浓度分别为:甲醛80.67、55.81、42.26、33.56 mg/L;高锰酸钾7.93、6.31、5.14、4.77 mg/L;聚维酮碘6.95、5.78、5.00、4.32 mg/L.对斑节对虾仔虾的安全浓度分别为甲醛3.56、高猛酸钾0.48、聚维酮碘0.43 mg/L.3种药物毒性大小依次为:聚维酮碘>高锰酸钾>甲醛.[结论]高锰酸钾和甲醛,与聚维酮碘混合后,对凡纳滨对虾仔虾的毒性表现为协同作用.

  19. In situ hybridization demonstrates that Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris and Penaeus monodon are susceptible to experimental infection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV).

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Poulos, Bonnie T; Redman, Rita M; Lightnere, Donald V

    2005-02-28

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) was recently found to be the cause of necrosis in the skeletal muscle of farm-reared Litopenaeus vannamei from northeastern Brazil. Nucleic acid extracted from semi-purified IMN virions showed that this virus contains a 7.5 kb RNA genome. A cDNA library was constructed, and a clone, designated as IMNV-317, was labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP and used as a gene probe for in situ hybridization (ISH). This probe specifically detected IMNV in infected tissues. To determine the susceptibility of 3 species of penaeid shrimp (L. vannamei, L. stylirostris, Penaeus monodon) to IMNV infection, juveniles were injected with purified virions and observed for clinical signs of infection and mortality over a 4 wk period. All L. vannamei exhibited typical lesions after 6 d, and lesions were visible in all L. stylirostris by Day 13. The clinical signs of opaque muscle were not seen in P. monodon, due to their highly pigmented exoskeleton precluding visual detection of lesions. Moderate mortality (20%) occurred in infected L. vannamei. No mortalities were observed in either L. stylirostris or P. monodon. Histological examination and ISH indicated that all 3 species are susceptible to IMNV infection. Using ISH, IMNV was detected in tissues including the skeletal muscle, lymphoid organ, hindgut, and phagocytic cells within the hepatopancreas and heart. In all 3 species, skeletal muscle cells produced the strongest ISH reactions. Based on the onset of clinical signs of infection and mortality, L. vannamei appears to be the most susceptible of these 3 species to IMNV infection. PMID:15819442

  20. Improved maturation of pond-reared, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using fish oil and astaxanthin feed supplements

    Paibulkichakul, C.; Piyatiratitivorakul, S.; Sorgeloos, P.; Menasveta, P.

    2008-01-01

    Penaeus monodon female (49 g) and male (37 g) shrimp were fed formulated diets supplemented with 3 or 8% fish oil and 100 or 500 mg kg- 1 astaxanthin, in addition to fresh squid during a 120 day trail using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Four formulated diets were provided with different combinations of high and low concentrations of lipid (fish oil) and astaxanthin. We found that fish oil addition, at the concentrations we used did not significantly (P < 0.05) affect shrimp growth, but there ...

  1. Habitat diversity of the Multicolored Asian ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in agricultural and arboreal ecosystems: a review

    Vandereycken, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, native to Asia, is an invasive species in many European and American countries. Initially introduced as a biological control agent against aphids and coccids in greenhouses, this alien species rapidly invaded many habitats such as forests, meadows, wetlands, and agricultural crops. This paper reviews the habitats (forests, crops, herbs, gardens and orchards where H. axyridis has been observed, either during insect samplings or as part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs. Studies have referenced H. axyridis on 106 plant taxa (35 arboreal species, 21 crop species, 27 herbaceous species, 11 ornamental species, and 12 orchard species and have identified 89 plant-prey relationships (34 arboreal species, 16 crop species, 13 herbaceous species, 10 ornamental species, and 16 orchard species in different countries. Harmonia axyridis is more abundant in forest areas, principally on Acer, Salix, Tilia and Quercus, than in agroecosystems. Some plant species, such as Urtica dioica L., which surround crops, contain large numbers of H. axyridis and could constitute important reserves of this alien species in advance of aphid invasions into crops. This review highlights the polyphagy and eurytopic aspect of H. axyridis.

  2. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively. PMID:22179264

  3. Food and Feeding Habits of the Mudskipper, Boleophthalmus boddarti (Pallas, 1770 from Pichavaram Mangroves, Southeast Coast of India

    V. Ravi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mudskipper, Boleophthalmus boddarti (Pallas (Order Perciformes: Family Gobiidae are found distributed along the mudflats of estuary and mangroves where they construct burrows. Being amphibious and locomotive in nature, mudskippers feed very actively in the mudflats during low tide. A total of 156 fishes (juveniles, males and females were randomly caught using cast net and hand nets and they were immediately preserved in formalin. In the present study, the food and feeding habits and feeding intensities of the mudskipper, B. boddarti from the Pichavaram mangroves were determined following points and volumetric methods. The results revealed that diatoms formed the major food item in the gut of B. boddarti and found around 55% of its diet throughout the year. Nematodes, polychaetes, algae and fish eggs were also found constituting lower percentage during the study period. Detritus and mud/sand particles were present in moderate percentages in all the seasons. Active feeding was noticed during January (post monsoon to May (summer but it was below 50% during June (summer to September (premonsoon, whereas during October and monsoon the feeding intensities were found very low. The poor feeding may be due to flood in the mudflats during monsoon season.

  4. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks

    Eva Garde

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals (Monodon monoceros because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks (n=9. Two racemization rates were estimated: one by linear regression (r2=0.98 based on the assumption that age was known without error, and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the uncertainty in the age estimation (r2 between 0.88 and 0.98. The two estimated 2kAsp values were identical up to two significant figures. The 2k Asp value from the bootstrap study was found to be 0.00229±0.000089 SE, which corresponds to a racemization rate of 0.00114−yr±0.000044 SE. The intercept of 0.0580±0.00185 SE corresponds to twice the (d/l0 value, which is then 0.0290±0.00093 SE. We propose that this species-specific racemization rate and (d/l0 value be used in future AAR age estimation studies of narwhals, but also recommend the collection of tusks and eyes of narwhals for further improving the (d/l0 and 2kAsp estimates obtained in this study.

  5. Cloning, characterization, and expression of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene from the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Xie, Bobo; Fu, Mingjun; Zhao, Chao; Shi, Jinxuan; Shi, Gongfang; Jiao, Zongyao; Qiu, Lihua

    2016-09-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an ancient cytokine that engages in innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the MIF gene homologue (PmMIF) was cloned from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmMIF was 838 bp and contained 78 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 397 bp 3' UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 363 bp which coded 120 amino acids (aa). Multiple alignment analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared 98% identities with MIF from closely related species of Litopenaeus vannamei. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmMIF was highly expression observed in hepatotpancreas and gills. After Vibrio harveyi challenge, PmMIF mRNA level in hepatopancreas and gills were sharply up-regulated at 6 h post-injection, and reached the maximum at 12 h. PmMIF expression level in the hepatopancreas and gills were up-regulated markedly under low (2.3%) and high (4.3%) salinity exposure, respectively. PmMIF expression level in gills increased significantly at 12 h and reached peak values (2.5- fold, 6.4-fold and 1.8-fold compared with the control) at 12 h, 48 h and 12 h after zinc, cadmium and copper exposure, respectively. In the hepatopancreas, the expression of PmMIF reached maximum levels (8.5- fold, 6.2-fold and 2.1-fold compared with the control) at 24 h, 6 h and 48 h after zinc, cadmium and copper exposure, respectively. All the results indicate that PmMIF plays an important role in responding in the innate immune system of shrimps. PMID:27514787

  6. Immune gene expression profile of Penaeus monodon in response to marine yeast glucan application and white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    Wilson, Wilsy; Lowman, Douglas; Antony, Swapna P; Puthumana, Jayesh; Bright Singh, I S; Philip, Rosamma

    2015-04-01

    Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. PL were fed 0.2% glucan incorporated diet once in seven days for a period of 45 days and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The immunostimulatory activity of yeast glucans were assessed pre- and post-challenge WSSV by analysing the expression profile of six antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and 13 immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, caspase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO), Rab-7, superoxide dismutase and transglutaminase. Expression of seven WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analysed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. The study revealed that yeast glucans (YG) do possess immunostimulatory activity against WSSV and also supported higher survival (40-70 %) post-challenge WSSV. Among the various glucans tested, YG23 showed maximum survival (70.27%), followed by YG20 (66.66%), YG28 (60.97%), YG89 (58.53%), YG100 (54.05%), YG63 (48.64%), YG305 (45.7%) and YG340 (43.24%). PMID:25555812

  7. Use of Streptomyces fradiae and Bacillus megaterium as probiotics in the experimental culture of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Penaeidae

    Sheikh Aftabuddin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp hatcheries often beset with diseases, mainly the bacterial infection and antibiotics arewidely used for prevention of disease. Presently, beneficial bacteria (probiotics are used to preventdiseases instead of antibiotics and increasing the production. In the present study, the two new microbialstrains Bacillus megaterium and Streptomyces fradiae isolated from mangrove sediments were applied(experimental culture for the post larval rearing of Penaeus monodon which is compared with controlculture tanks (without probiotics. The water quality condition such as temperature (27-29oC, salinity(26-28‰ and dissolved oxygen (4.7-5.0 mg L-1 of both control and experimental culture were more orless similar. Concentration of ammonia and pH were significantly different (p<0.05 between the controland experimental culture during the study period. The feed assimilation efficiency is higher (above 80%in experimental culture tank when compared to control tank (74.76%. The growth rate was higher -1.70 and 1.67 in S. fradiae, 1.66 and 1.63 in B. megaterium - through feed and water, respectively,while in control tank it was 1.4. The FCR values were 2.06 and 2.12 in S. fradiae treated tanks throughfeed and water, respectively, while 2.51 and 2.55 were observed in B. megaterium treated through feedand water respectively. The FCR value was found higher (4.02 in the control tank. The average totalheterotrophic bacteria (THB and total presumptive Vibrio bacteria both in culture water and post larvaewere lower during experimental culture in compared to control culture. The present study indicates thatthe probiotic treatment using two new microbial strains such as B. megaterium and S. fradiae would helpin better aquaculture production.

  8. Pengaruh getah pepaya (Carica papaya terhadap sintasan tokolan udang windu (Panaeus monodon pada kepadatan yang berbeda selama pengangkutan

    Sofyatuddin Karina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the possibility of papaya’s latex (Carica papaya as anti stress or larvaside for tiger shrimp (Panaeus monodon post larvae Pl 14-30 during transportation. The tiger shrimp post larvae was collected from BBAP Ujung Batee, Aceh Besar on September, 2012. Reseach method used the completely random design with two factors, density of post larvae with three treatments (1000; 1500 dan 2000 ind/l and concentration of papaya’s latex with four treatments (0; 100; 200 dan 300 ppm and three replications for each treatments. The effect of papaya’s latex on tiger shrimp post larvae was observed by calculating the percentage of post larvae’s survival rate. The calculation was only done after twelve hours of transportation, due to the everage of survival rate percentage of post larvae on all levels of density was less than 50%. The ANOVA test showed that the density and the concentration factors gave significance effect on survival rate of tiger shrimp post larvae (P<0,05. The results showed that survival rate of tiger shrimp post larvae (PL 14-30 were decreased with increasing of larvae density and concentration of papaya’s latex. However, Duncan’s test showed that the highest survival rate was obtained at 1.000 ind/l and 0 ppm of papaya’s latex. Hence, the effect of papaya’s latex concentration treatments in this study was larvaside on tiger shrimp post larvae.

  9. Expression and characterisation of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon penaeidin (mo-penaeidin) in various tissues, during early embryonic development and moulting stages.

    Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Lu, Jenn-Kan; Wu, Jen-Leih; Chen, Thomas T; Ko, Chi-Fong; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2007-01-01

    A penaeidin family, mo-penaeidin was cloned from the haemocytes of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon using genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by gene specific primers. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that this mo-penaeidin consists of 1348 bp containing one intron (680 bp) and two exons (210 and 458 bp). It has an open reading frame (ORF) of 222 p, which encodes a protein of 74 amino acids including a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (55 amino acids) is 6.059 kDa with an estimated pI of 9.3. The deduced amino acid sequence of mo-penaeidin has similarity to that of penaeidin from Fenneropenaeus chinensis (73%), Farfantepenaeus paulensis (66%), Litopenaeus schmitti (53-67%), L. stylirostris (50-67%), L. setiferus (50-62%), L. vannamei (44-66%), and Marsupenaeus japonicus (33%), respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that penaeidin (including mo-penaeidin, penaeidin, and penaeidin 5, 2, 3k, 3c1) of P. monodon is distinct from penaeidin 1, penaeidin 2, penaeidin 3 and penaeidin 4 of other penaeid shrimps. The mo-penaeidin mRNA was detected in various tissues including ovary and mandibular organ. The mo-penaeidin mRNA was present in one cell to postlarva stage with higher level at nauplius I (9h post hatching) and higher expression during the intermoult stage indicating an early innate immunity and different immunity at moulting stage. PMID:16820207

  10. GENETIC STATUS, SOURCE AND ESTABLISHMENT RISK OF THE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEIDAE: Penaeus monodon, AN INVASIVE SPECIES IN COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN WATERS

    J.C. AGUIRRE-PABÓN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is an Indo-Pacific species. Its global production between 1970 and 1980 exceeded all other shrimp species, which favored its introduction and cultivation outside its natural range in several countries of Africa, Europe, USA and South America. It is currently found in the coast of the Atlantic Ocean (Mexico, United States, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela and Colombia. Despite the risk involved, no studies have been conducted to evaluate their impact as a possible invasive species and their genetic condition. This study evaluated the genetic status and population origin of P. monodon in the northernmost Colombian Caribbean, analyzing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA-CR. 16 individuals were randomly collected from Golfo de Salamanca and 342 original Indo-Pacific sequences were obtained from GenBank. Parameters of genetic diversity and genetic relationships were analyzed. There were a total of 358 sequences compared and 303 haplotypes identified. Three haplotypes were identified in the Colombian population. This results showed lower genetic diversity compared with Indo-Pacific populations. These haplotypes were closely related to those found in samples from the Philippines and Taiwan. We discuss the need to create a regional network to characterize the established populations in the Great Caribbean, with the purpose of inferring colonization processes and the establishment of management measures.Estado genético, origen y riesgo de establecimiento del camarón tigre gigante (Penaeidae: Penaeus monodon, una especie inavasora en aguas del Caribe colombianoEl camarón tigre (Penaeus monodon es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del

  11. Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts.

    Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikuláš; Barčák, Daniel; Miklisová, Dana; Kirin, Diana; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-02-01

    Recent morphological and molecular data have shown that one of the most common parasites of freshwater fish in the Palaearctic Region, the cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Eucestoda: Caryophyllidea), is highly polymorphic. Five distinct morphotypes of C. laticeps, largely corresponding to different fish hosts and representing separate, yet closely related genetic lineages, have been recognised and they are characterised in the present paper. Morphotype 1 from breams, Abramis brama (L.) (type-host) and Ballerus spp., corresponds to the original Taenia laticeps Pallas, 1781 and its neotype (paragenophore ex A. brama in Russia) is designated. This morphotype is characterised by a slender body and flabellate scolex. Morphotype 2 was found in the Macedonian vimba Vimba melanops (Heckel) and the vimba bream V. vimba (L.); it is typified by a more robust body, with most anterior extent of the vitelline follicles near the scolex and the cirrus-sac situated more anteriorly than in other morphotypes. Morphotype 3 is represented by worms from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. that possess a cuneicrispitate scolex (having the form of a wedge with shallow indentations on anterior margin). Morphotype 4 from the common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) has a large, robust body and a wide scolex with numerous superficial grooves (wrinkles) in its anterior part. Morphotype 5 is represented by worms from the white-eye bream Ballerus sapa (Pallas); its typical characteristics are a festoon-like anterior margin of the scolex, the absence of vitelline follicles posterior to the cirrus-sac and the absence of a well-developed internal seminal vesicle. Discriminant analysis of 15 morphometric variables readily separated Morphotypes 3, 4 and 5 and confirmed the key discriminating power of traits related to the reproductive system, especially the terminal reproductive organs. Morphological polymorphism and the genetic divergence of different morphotypes of C. laticeps correspond

  12. Revisiting caryophyllidean type of spermiogenesis in the Eucestoda based on spermatozoon differentiation and ultrastructure of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781).

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Kostič, Borislav

    2012-01-01

    Spermiogenesis of the monozoic cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Caryophyllidea: Caryophyllaeidae), a parasite of Abramis brama (Pisces: Cyprinidae), has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. The process of spermatozoon formation corresponds in the basic pattern to that of Khawia armeniaca as described by Bruňanská and Poddubnaya (Parasitol Res 99:449-454, 2006). The dense material at the early stages of spermiogenesis, an intercentriolar body, the formation of a free flagellum and flagellar bud, the penetration of the nucleus into the spermatid body when the fusion of the free flagellum with the median cytoplasmic process has started, and a complete proximodistal fusion have been determined. In contrast to previous data on the caryophyllidean type spermiogenesis, the latter more recent observations show the presence and the rotation of a free flagellum and a flagellar bud. This pattern indicates clearly a derived stage of spermiogenesis in the Caryophyllidea, when the second shorter flagellum is greatly reduced comparing with that in the Spathebothriidea, Diphyllobothriidea, or Bothriocephalidea, thus forming a flagellar bud. The flagellar bud occurs in all stages of spermiogenesis and represents an evolved character in the Caryophyllidea. The mature spermatozoon of C. laticeps consists of one axoneme of the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan structure, parallel cortical microtubules, and a nucleus. Cell components are situated in a moderately electrondense cytoplasm, containing glycogen in the principal regions (II, III, and IV) of the spermatozoon. A crested body is absent. Similarities and differences between spermatozoa of caryophyllideans as well as other Eucestoda are discussed. PMID:21607690

  13. HYDRA VULGARIS PALLAS, 1766 (HYDROZOA: HYDRIDAE AS BIOINDICATOR OF THE WATER QUALITY OF THE RIVER CHILI, AREQUIPA, PERU

    Ronald Huarachi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766 (Hydrozoa: Hydridae as a bioindicator of water quality of the Chili River, Arequipa, Peru. The freshwater hydra were collected in the spring "Ojo del Milagro", Characato District, Arequipa, Peru. H. vulgaris was cultivated under standardized conditions and were fed Artemia sp. K2Cr2O7 was used as a positive control and as a reference toxin. Acute toxicity and morphological changes of H. vulgaris were evaluated on Tiabaya and Tingo, sampling points of the Chili River. The LC50 (median lethal concentration showed: Tingo (LC50-96h = 135.95% classifying it as non-toxic and Tiabaya (LC50 -24h = 61.83%, classifying it as moderately toxic; LC50-48h = 44.19% and LC50 -72h = 38.28% classifying them as toxic; LC50 -96h = 21.44% rating it as very toxic. Significant differences in the morphological changes of H. vulgaris were observed with regard to different concentrations and exposure time in waters sampled from Tingo from 48 h to 96 h and in Tiabaya, significant differences in morphological changes from 24 h to 96 h exposure. The results of the physicochemical parameters of the Chili River were compared with the Peruvian National Standards for Environmental Quality (ECA for water (categories 3 and 4 and recorded high values of biochemical oxygen demand BOD5, NH4 and PO4, and low dissolved oxigen OD values for Tiabaya. In Tingo, NH4 and phosphate were high. In Tiabaya, water was considered more toxic than at Tingo.

  14. Features of the karyotypes of Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 and Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Amphibia: Ranidae from Armenia

    A Martirosyan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Сhromosomal complements of Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 from 9 localities (Northern, Central and South Armenia and Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 from one locality (North-West Armenia have been analyzed. The chromosome sets of P. ridibundus collected from 8 localities showed 2n=26, (10m+12sm+4st; NF=52. A secondary constriction has been observed in all studied individuals on the 10-th chromosome pair showing NOR-positive reaction. C-positive heterochromatin blocks have been observed on long arms of the 2-nd and 10-th pairs of chromosomes (7 localities. In addition, C-heterochromatin blocks have been found on interstitial regions of short arms of the 12-th pairs, as well as in telomeric regions of long arms of the 9-th pairs and on short arms of the 5-th pair in the frogs from 2 localities. The karyotype of P. ridibundus from populations near Ejmiatsin differs from other populations (2n=26, 12m+10sm+4st. Diploid number of chromosomes of R. macrocnemis was also 26 (8m+12sm+6st, NF=52. Blocks of C-positive heterochromatin have been revealed in telomeric parts of the 1-st, 2-nd (p, 3-rd (q, 4-th (q, 6-th, 9-th (p, 10-th (p,q and 13-th (q pairs, as well as in interstitial regions of the 1-st and 2-nd pairs of chromosomes.  Intrapopulation and interpopulation geographic variations of karyotypes and C-heterochromatin banding patterns of P. ridibundus have been revealed. Karyotypically, morphotypes “macrocnemis” and “camerani” are closely related.

  15. Aspectos reproductivos del langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon H. Milne Edwards, 1837, frente a la costa de Concepción, Chile Reproductive aspects of the squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon H. Milne Edward, 1837, off Concepción, Chile

    Sergio Palma G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen diversos aspectos reproductivos del langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon frente a la costa de Concepción (Chile, donde esta especie constituye una de las principales pesquerías de crustáceos del país. En esta zona se realizaron 15 cruceros entre agosto de 1988 y octubre de 1989, con 250 lances de 30 min de duración cada uno. Las capturas se efectuaron con redes de arrastre de fondo, en estaciones predefinidas a 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 y 300 m de profundidad. En este período se analizó un total de 147.871 ejemplares; 81.978 machos (56,4% y 65.893 hembras (44,6%. Las hembras ovíferas totalizaron 26.632 individuos, con el 18,0% de la muestra total. Las longitudes cefalotorácicas (Lc estuvieron comprendidas en ambos sexos entre 7,1 y 52,8 mm. La proporción sexual total fluctuó con porcentajes mensuales que variaron entre 35,6 y 67,9% en los machos, siendo en general predominante este sexo tanto en las muestras mensuales por zona y totales. Se determinó que la reproducción ocurre una vez al año, con mayor incidencia de hembras ovíferas entre mayo y octubre. La talla en que el 50% de las hembras alcanza la madurez sexual fue de 25,6 mm de Lc. El diámetro de los huevos varió entre 0,47 y 0,78 mm, apreciándose un incremento de tamaño en función del avance del desarrollo embrionario. Este comprendió entre 90 y 120 días y la eclosión de los huevos se produjo entre junio y octubre. El potencial reproductivo fluctuó entre 1.808 y 33.966 huevos, en ejemplares comprendidos entre 22,0 y 43,9 mm. De los modelos utilizados para ajustar la relación talla (Lc y fecundidad (NTH, el modelo de poder explicó mejor esta relación: NTH = 0,015*Lc3,844. La mayor contribución de nuevas crías a la población (55%, la realizaron las hembras comprendidas entre 25 y 29 mm de LcDiverse reproductive aspects of the squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon from the coast off Concepción (Chile, are described. This species is one of the main

  16. Relationship of Broodstock Weight and Hatching Yield of III. Generation (F3 Black Sea Trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1814

    Hakan Baki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, this was the aimed to determine the reproduction and hatching yields in different weight groups in hatchery origin rootstocks (F3 Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1814. In this study, the female fishes which produced from natural rootstock were used average weight 1437±134.6 g (Group I 2737±210.2 g (Group II and 3785±162.3 g (Group III. After the stripping process; according to the groups, were determined respectively eggs absolute fecundity (number of eggs/broodfish is average 2353±205, 5361±506, 6603±491, relative fecundity (number of eggs/kg is average1687±166, 1968±194, 1744±114. The egg diameter (mm 4.89±0.16, 5.28±0.07, 5.31±0.06 egg weight (mg 77±6, 90±4, 96±3 groups I., II. and III. respectively was calculated. The fertilization ratio (% 95.49±1.23, 96.49±1.14, 98.39±0.52, browse rate (% 79.97±5.36, 84.20±5.23, 94.70±1.50, has been identified. The output rate (% 60.57±7.86, 67.66±6.42, 84.83±3.09, the hatchery efficiency (% 58.14±7.95, 69.77±6.25, 83.51±3.29 was found. relative fecundity average value 168±160, 1968±194, 1744±114.The existence of relationship among the weight of the brood-stock, absolute fecundity (0.0198, 0.0012, 0.3499, and relative egg fecundity (0.3415, 0.0494, 0.00 was tested by regression analysis and consequently the difference between groups were significant. This was determined that between fish weight and absolute fecundity relationship is weak directly proportional for each group, between fish weight and relative fecundity is weak inversely proportional in Group I and II, the Group III is weak for directly proportional.

  17. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Onoprienko V.

    2014-04-01

    physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86, 6.22 , 6

  18. Swollen hindgut syndrome (SHG) of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Penaeidae) post larvae: Identification of causing pathogenic bacteria and their sensitivity to some antibiotics

    Sheikh Aftabuddin; Naima Akter

    2011-01-01

    Swollen Hindgut syndrome (SHG) of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798post larvae has been reported from Bangladesh shrimp hatcheries in recent years. At present SHG is abudding problem causing significant economic loss to the shrimp hatcheries in Bangladesh. Unlike therapid mortalities associated with viral disease such as white spot syndrome and yellow head virus,progression of SHG is gradual leading to low level mortalities without affecting swimming activity. Thesign of SHG ...

  19. Purification of glutathione S-transferase from Van Lake fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas) muscle and investigation of some metal ions effect on enzyme activity.

    Aksoy, Mine; Ozaslan, M Serhat; Kufrevioglu, O Irfan

    2016-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are an important enzyme family which play a critical role in detoxification system. In our study, GST was purified from muscle tissue of Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas with 301.5-fold purification and 19.07% recovery by glutathione agarose affinity chromatography. The purity of enzyme was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, showing a two band, because of having heterodimer structure. KM values were 1.59 and 0.53 mM for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH), respectively. Vmax values for CDNB and GSH were also determined as 5.58 and 1.88 EU/mL, respectively. In addition, inhibition effects of Ag(+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Fe(3+), Pb(2+), Cr(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions were investigated on the enzyme activity and IC50, Ki values were calculated for these metal ions. PMID:26018419

  20. Parasites of South African wildlife. V. A. description of the males of Oesophagostomum mocambiquei Ortlepp, 1964 from warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas, 1766).

    Boomker, J

    1990-09-01

    Oesophagostomum mocambiquei Ortlepp, 1964 was described from 9 females recovered from a warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas, 1766), from northern Mozambique. Large numbers of O. mocambiquei were recovered during subsequent surveys of the parasites of warthogs from the Kruger National Park and the Hoedspruit Nature Reserve. The males, which have not yet been described, resemble those of Oesophagostomum santosdiasi Ortlepp, 1964 in the principal measurements. They can, however, be differentiated by the shape of the mouth capsule, which is round in O. mocambiquei and oval in O. santosdiasi. A simplified key for the identification of the Oesophagostomum species that occur in warthogs in South Africa and Namibia is provided and the differences between them tabulated. The names Oesophagostomum moçambiquei and Oesophagostomum santos-diasi are corrected to O. mocambiquei and O. santosdiasi respectively, since diacritic marks are not allowed under the Code of International Zoological Nomenclature. PMID:2234863

  1. Slight genetic differentiation between western and eastern limits of Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1776 (Anthozoa, Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae distribution inferred from COI and ITS sequences

    Merino-Serrais, P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding population genetic structure and differentiation among populations is useful for the elaboration of management and conservation plans of threatened species. In this study, we use nuclear and mitochondrial markers (internal transcribed spacers -ITS and cytochrome oxidase subunit one -COI for phylogenetics and nested clade analyses (NCA, thus providing the first assessment of the genetic structure of the threatened Mediterranean coral Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766, based on samples from 12 localities along its geographic distribution range. Overall, we found no population differentiation in the westernmost region of the Mediterranean; however, a slight differentiation was observed when comparing this region with the Tyrrhenian and Algerian basins.

    El estudio de la estructura de las poblaciones y su diferenciación a nivel genético es de gran utilidad para la elaboración de planes de manejo y conservación de especies amenazadas. En este estudio, utilizamos marcadores nucleares y mitocondriales (espaciadores internos de genes ribosomales -ITS y citocromo oxidasa, subunidad I -COI y métodos de análisis filogenéticos y de clados anidados (NCA, para realizar la primera valoración de la estructura genética del coral naranja Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766, una especie amenazada del Mediterráneo, a partir de muestras de 12 localidades a lo largo de su área de distribución. En las localidades situadas en la región más occidental del Mediterráneo se encontró cierta homogeneidad genética, mientras que al comparar estas localidades con las de las cuencas argelina y del mar Tirreno se observó una ligera diferenciación.

  2. 北方硕螽行为模式的研究%Research on behavior patterns in Deracantha onos Pallas

    王静; 赵敏; 安建梅; 芦荣胜

    2013-01-01

    本文采取饲养观察与相机捕捉相结合的方法对北方硕螽Deracantha onos Pallas的行为模式,如若虫行为、常见行为、鸣声行为和交配行为模式进行了观察描记.并应用分析软件对数据进行了处理.结果表明:若虫不鸣叫,午间取食;其蜕皮与温度和食性有关.成虫在各种环境条件下均出现清理触角、触角摆动、行进及取食等行为;但在营养不良空间狭小情况下,还会出现同类相食.对性成熟雄性个体的鸣声分别在独雄、双雄和一雌一雄3种情况下,以24 h为周期进行观察.独雄鸣叫时间最长,一昼夜鸣叫时间为(492.84±82.52) min,双雄时鸣叫时间最短,为(239.85±40.55) min,夜间鸣叫时间相对减少.食性和温度也对鸣叫时间有影响.鸣声是螽斯种内重要的通讯方式,在交配也会起到作用.交配时雌虫爬到雄虫的背部,雄虫尾部翘,雌虫尾部下弯,两性生殖孔相接,至雌虫生殖孔外挂精包为止.%The basic behavior patterns of laboratory raised Deracantha onos Pallas were recorded using digital media and analyzed with computer software.The results show that nymphs cannot call and that daily activity peaks at noon.Nymphal molt is related to temperature and diet.In various environmental conditions,adults perform moving,feeding and other behaviors but cannibalism can occur at high density and when there is insufficient food.Calling of different combinations of adults,single males,two males and male and female pairs,was recorded for 24 hours.Single males called the longest ;(492.84 + 82.52)min in circadian time.Two males called for the shortest time,(239.85 + 40.55)min,and the times of calling song had gone short at night.Feeding and temperature also affected calling time.Sound plays an important role in species to communication and mating patterns.When mating,females crawl onto the male's back,the male's tail is recurved upwards and the female' s tail bends down so that their

  3. Studies on the immunomodulatory effect of extract of Cyanodon dactylon in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its efficacy to protect the shrimp from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Balasubramanian, G; Sarathi, M; Venkatesan, C; Thomas, John; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2008-12-01

    The present study investigates the protection of shrimp Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using antiviral plant extract derived from Cyanodon dactylon and the modulation of the shrimp non-specific immunity. To determine the antiviral activity, the shrimp were treated by both in vitro (intramuscular injection) and in vivo (orally with feed) methods at the concentration of 2mg per animal and 2% of the plant extract incorporated with commercially available artificial pellet feed, respectively. The antiviral activity of C. dactylon plant extract was confirmed by PCR, bioassay and Western blot analysis. In the present study, anti-WSSV activity of C. dactylon plant extract by in vivo and in vitro methods showed strong antiviral activity and the immunological parameters such as proPO, O(2)(-), NO, THC and clotting time were all significantly (Pprice, we believe that oral administration of C. dactylon plant extract along with the pellet feed is a potential prophylactic agent against WSSV infection of shrimp. PMID:18834943

  4. Accumulation, metabolism, and food-chain transfer of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in subadult white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Svalbard, Norway.

    Wolkers, H; Lydersen, C; Kovacs, K M; Burkow, I; van Bavel, B

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were studied in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Svalbard, Norway. In addition, their main food items were included in the study. In the whales, a broad range of pollutants was found in relatively high concentrations. PCBs and pesticides were approximately 3000 and 8000 ng/g lipid, respectively, for white whales and three times higher for narwhals. PBDEs 47 were approximately 70 ng/g lipid for white whales and 170 ng/g lipid for narwhals. Compared with other marine mammals from the same area, contaminant levels are among the highest levels ever measured. These high levels are likely in part because of a decreased capacity to metabolize contaminants. Metabolic indices indicated that most compounds accumulate to the same degree in white whales and narwhals, but for some toxaphenes and chlordanes, narwhals might have a decreased metabolism and consequently a higher accumulation. The three-times-higher contaminant levels in blubber of narwhals was further explained by substantially higher contaminant levels in their more benthic diet. The high levels and broad pattern of accumulating pollutants make white whales and narwhals excellent indicators for a wide range of contaminants in the Arctic. PMID:16237494

  5. Foraging ecology of ringed seals (Pusa hispida, beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas and narwhals (Monodon monoceros in the Canadian High Arctic determined by stomach content and stable isotope analysis

    Jordan K. Matley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stomach content and stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N from liver and muscle were used to identify habitat and seasonal prey selection by ringed seals (Pusa hispida; n=21, beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas; n=13 and narwhals (Monodon monoceros; n=3 in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida was the main prey item of all three species. Diet reconstruction from otoliths and stable isotope analysis revealed that while ringed seal size influenced prey selection patterns, it was variable. Prey-size selection and on-site observations found that ringed seals foraged on smaller, non-schooling cod whereas belugas and narwhals consumed larger individuals in schools. Further interspecific differences were demonstrated by δ13C and δ15N values and indicated that ringed seals consumed inshore Arctic cod compared to belugas and narwhals, which foraged to a greater extent offshore. This study investigated habitat variability and interseasonal variation in the diet of Arctic marine mammals at a local scale and adds to the sparse data sets available in the Arctic. Overall, these findings further demonstrate the critical importance of Arctic cod to Arctic food webs.

  6. White Spot Syndrome Virus vulnerability of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon cultured in the coastal ponds of Cox’s Bazar region, Bangladesh

    Mohammad M. Monwar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon is the world’s most popular cultivable species for itsfast growth, hardy nature, delicious taste and market demand. During the last three decades shrimpculture has been expanded rapidly. White spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV is a great treat to this cultureexpansion. In this research, WSSV free fries were stocked in four coastal ponds with different salinities.The stocking density was kept low and constant. Water parameters, fish growth, and WSSVcontamination were recorded fortnightly. The WSSV contamination was primarily detected by using EnbioShrimp Virus Detection Test Kit, ‘Shrimple’ and further confirmed by the PCR test. Among the ponds,Pond A, B, and C were in completely controlled environmental condition where as pond D was traditionalone that exposed to tidal variations. Physico-chemical parameter varied from as, temperature 29 to32ºC, salinity 0 to 31‰, water pH 7.1 to 8.3, dissolved oxygen 3.8 to 6.3 mL L-1, alkalinity 80-122 mg L-1,ammonia 0 to 1.5 mg L-1 and transparency 23 to 50 cm. The WSSV was found positive in the pond D justafter hundred days, when the average weight of the shrimps was 26.69 g. It is observed that rapidchange in the salinity and temperature, poor environmental conditions and uncontrolled exchange ofwater made the shrimp more vulnerable to the WSSV.

  7. Swollen hindgut syndrome (SHG of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Penaeidae post larvae: Identification of causing pathogenic bacteria and their sensitivity to some antibiotics

    Sheikh Aftabuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swollen Hindgut syndrome (SHG of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798post larvae has been reported from Bangladesh shrimp hatcheries in recent years. At present SHG is abudding problem causing significant economic loss to the shrimp hatcheries in Bangladesh. Unlike therapid mortalities associated with viral disease such as white spot syndrome and yellow head virus,progression of SHG is gradual leading to low level mortalities without affecting swimming activity. Thesign of SHG are a bloated or swollen in hind gut area, with the posterior digestive tract convolutingthrough the last abdominal segment. This syndrome tends to occur at later PL stages, typically afterPL10. Two types of Vibrio spp. were isolated from the swollen hindgut syndrome post larvae, identified asVibrio harveyi (Johnson and Shunk 1936and Vibrio alginolyticus (Miyamoto, Nakamura & Takizawa1961. Among these V. alginolyticus was dominant to V. harveyi. The bacterial isolates showed sensitiveto oxytetracycline (OTC, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin and resistant to penicillin, ampicillin andamoxycillin. The luminous V. harveyi showed resistant to many antibiotics and susceptibility to only twodrugs. The cause of swollen hindgut syndrome (SHG was probably bacterial infections and poor waterquality, possibly heavy metal i.e. iron, the presence of toxic substances from chemical prophylactics andlow quality or diseased nauplii.

  8. Expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR, in lymphoid organ of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in response to Vibrio harveyi infection

    Mundanda Muthappa Dechamma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptors (TLR, being pattern recognition molecules, are a powerful first line of defense in response to pathogen invasion. They are known to play a crucial role in detecting and binding to the microbial molecule and triggering a non-specific immune response. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR expression of the TLR gene was studied in healthy and Vibrio harveyi infected black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Lymphoid tissue expression of TLR in V. harveyi infected animals 24 h post injection showed statistically significant up regulation of the gene as compared to the control animals sham injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The qPCR expression pattern of TLR at different time points in shrimp administered with the immunostimulant glucan for 6 days by oral feeding followed by challenge with V. harveyi showed statistically significant level at 48 h post bacterial challenge as compared to the control (immunostimulant treated animals sham injected with PBS. The novelty of the study is that it elicits the role of TLRs as important response proteins of the innate immune system in the shrimp.

  9. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  10. The impact of nature-based tourism on bird communities: a case study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park.

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations. PMID:24556796

  11. The Impact of Nature-Based Tourism on Bird Communities: A Case Study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  12. Comparative histological and histochemical studies on the pancreas of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822, Mystus vittatus (Bloch, 1790 and Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769

    Padmanabha Chakrabarti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The histological analysis, disposition and histochemical localization of tryptophan were investigated in the pancreas to compare the cellular organization and histochemical characterization in the pancreas of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822, Mystus vittatus (Bloch, 1790 and Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769 having different feeding habits. Histological analysis demonstrated that the exocrine pancreatic tissues were dispersed within the hepatic parenchyma and spleen in L. rohita. Thin septa of connective tissue separated parenchyma of liver and also the spleen from exocrine pancreatic cells. However, in M. vittatus, the discrete pancreatic tissue formed distinct oval or elongated acini interspersed with small area of islet of Langerhans and blood vessels. In N. notopterus, the rhomboidal acinar cells of discrete pancreatic tissue intercalated with comparatively clear and large islet of Langerhans. The exocrine acinar cells in all the three species were provided with prominent nuclei and densely packed zymogen granules. Histochemical localization revealed that the zymogen granules of exocrine acinar cells of all species exhibited varied intensities of tryptophan reaction, the precursor of various pancreatic enzymes which may be related to the food and feeding habits of the fishes under study.

  13. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Arbutin from Leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pallas ssp. elaeagnifolia (Rosaceae by Response Surface Methodology Mehtap

    DONMEZ SAHIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pallas. ssp. elaeagnifolia is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases in Turkey. The leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia ssp. elaeagnifolia are a rich source of arbutin, which is a naturally occurring derivative of hydroquinone. It is found in various plant species belonging to diverse families, such as Lamiaceae, Ericaceae, Saxifragaceae and Rosaceae. It inhibits tyrosinase and has been employed as a cosmetic skin whitening agent. In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM using a Box Behnken Design (BBD was employed to optimize the condition for extraction of arbutin from the leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia ssp. elaeagnifolia. Three influencing factors; methanol concentration, period of ultrasoundassisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. The Response Surface Methodology was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on arbutin content with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum arbutin content were established to be methanol concentration of 48.54 %, extraction time of 39.32 min. And extraction temperature of 43.71 0C. Under these conditions 5.37 % of arbutin content was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 5.30 %.

  14. Detection of a new microsporidium Perezia sp. in shrimps Penaeus monodon and P. indicus by histopathology, in situ hybridization and PCR.

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Lightner, Donald V; Redman, Rita M; Le Groumellec, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Samples of microsporidia-infected shrimps exhibiting clinical signs of cotton shrimp disease were collected from Madagascar, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2014. The tails of the infected shrimps appeared opaque and whitish; subsequent histological examination revealed the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions and mature spores in tissues of the muscle, hepatopancreas, gills, heart, and lymphoid organ. PCR analysis targeting the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) from infected samples resulted in the amplification of a 1.2 kbp SSU rDNA sequence fragment 94% identical to the corresponding region in the genome of the microsporidian Perezia nelsoni, which infects populations of Penaeus setiferus in the USA. Its SSU rDNA sequence was 100% identical among isolates from Madagascar and Saudi Arabia, indicating that shrimps from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean were infected with the same microsporidium, the novel Perezia sp. A 443 bp fragment of the SSU rDNA sequence was cloned, labeled with digoxigenin and subjected to an in situ hybridization assay with tissue sections of Perezia sp.-infected Penaeus monodon from Madagascar and Mozambique, and P. indicus from Saudi Arabia. The probe hybridized to the mature spores in the hepatopancreas and muscle from which the spores had been obtained for DNA isolation. This assay was specific, showing no reaction to another microsporidium, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), infecting the hepatopancreas of shrimp P. stylirostris cultured in SE Asian countries. We also developed an SSU rDNA-based PCR assay, specific for the novel Perezia sp. This PCR did not react to EHP, nor to genomic DNA of shrimp and other invertebrates. PMID:27409240

  15. Assessment of WSSV prevalence and distribution of disease-resistant shrimp among the wild population of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India.

    Chakrabarty, Usri; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Dutta, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2014-06-01

    Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by many diseases, among which white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the leading one. Information related to the geographical distribution and seasonal prevalence of WSD is necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the disease biology in shrimp. Identification of WSD-resistant individual shrimp with DNA markers is also an important technique to develop better WSD-free shrimp health management. The present study aim is to estimate the occurrence of WSSV in Penaeus monodon qualitatively and quantitatively during three different seasons during the years 2011 to 2013 along the west coast of India. Additionally, the disease resistance prevalence using previously developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA markers is also investigated. Samples were collected throughout the year from four locations along the west coast of India: Kochi, Kerala; Mangalore, Karnataka; Vasco-da-Gama, Goa; and Veraval, Gujarat. The results depicted that the average WSSV prevalence, as determined by the nested PCR method and taken cumulatively over the four locations, was the lowest (0%) during the post-monsoon season and the highest (31.6%) during the monsoon season. The WSD prevalence was observed to increase when the latitude was decreased along the west coast of India (from Veraval to Kochi). Out of the three different seasons, the average WSSV copy number was the highest (approximately 10(3) copies μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) during the monsoon season. The disease-resistant prevalence, as determined using the developed DNA markers, was found to be the highest in Vasco-da-Gama (59.5%) and the lowest in Kochi (40.9%). The present study suggests better options for the efficient collection of disease-free and disease-resistant brood stocks, which would be a more cost-effective and safer approach toward disease prevention over conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild brood stock. PMID:24681359

  16. Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei sp. nov. (Microsporida: Enterocytozoonidae), a parasite of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Decapoda: Penaeidae): Fine structure and phylogenetic relationships.

    Tourtip, Somjintana; Wongtripop, Somjai; Stentiford, Grant D; Bateman, Kelly S; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Chavadej, Jittipan; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm

    2009-09-01

    A new microsporidian species, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei sp. nov., is described from the hepatopancreas of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea: Decapoda). Different stages of the parasite are described, from early sporogonal plasmodia to mature spores in the cytoplasm of host-cells. The multinucleate sporogonal plasmodia existed in direct contact with the host-cell cytoplasm and contained numerous small blebs at the surface. Binary fission of the plasmodial nuclei occurred during early plasmodial development and numerous pre-sporoblasts were formed within the plasmodium. Electron-dense disks and precursors of the polar tubule developed in the cytoplasm of the plasmodium prior to budding of early sporoblasts from the plasmodial surface. Mature spores were oval, measuring 0.7x1.1microm and contained a single nucleus, 5-6 coils of the polar filament, a posterior vacuole, an anchoring disk attached to the polar filament, and a thick electron-dense wall. The wall was composed of a plasmalemma, an electron-lucent endospore (10nm) and an electron-dense exospore (2nm). DNA primers designed from microsporidian SSU rRNA were used to amplify an 848bp product from the parasite genome (GenBank FJ496356). The sequenced product had 84% identity to the matching region of SSU rRNA from Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Based upon ultrastructural features unique to the family Enterocytozoonidae, cytoplasmic location of the plasmodia and SSU rRNA sequence identity 16% different from E. bieneusi, the parasite was considered to be a new species, E. hepatopenaei, within the genus Enterocytozoon. PMID:19527727

  17. Effects of carotenoid sources on growth performance, blood parameters, disease resistance and stress tolerance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding trial were conducted to determine the effects of various sources of carotenoid on growth performance, disease resistance, blood parameters, stress tolerance and pigmentation in juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Trial I was performed in small shrimp (1 g average body weight. The shrimp were fed with control diet without carotenoid (diet 1 while diets 2 to 6 contained 50 mg/kg astaxanthin (Lucanthin Pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 200 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 125 mg/kg Betatene® extracted from Dunaliella and 3% dried Spirulina respectively. There was an improvement in color in all groups of shrimp fed caroteniod supplemented diets, but no significant differences in weight gain or survival among the shrimps fed each test diet (p>0.05. Resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection and stress tolerance (salinity stress, were not significantly different among treatments. Trial II was performed in juvenile shrimp (10 g average body weight fed test diets containing 100 ppm astaxanthin (Lucanthin pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg Betatene® and 3% dried Spirulina compared with those fed control diet without carotenoid. At the end of 6 weeks feeding period, shrimp fed control diet as well as astaxanthin and dried Spirulina supplemented diets had higher levels of total hemocyte counts than those of all β-carotene supplemented diets feeding group. However, phenoloxidase activity and clearance of pathogenic vibrio from the hemolymphwere not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05. Astaxanthin levels were highest in the shrimp fed all carotenoid-supplemented diets. In conclusion, a natural carotenoid i.e. dried Spirulina and carotenoid extracted from Dunaliella which have a lower production cost than analytical carotenoid showed beneficial effects on shrimp feed supplement.

  18. Primary hemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon as an in vitro model for white spot syndrome virus titration, viral and immune related gene expression and cytotoxicity assays.

    Jose, Seena; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2010-11-01

    Immortal cell lines have not yet been reported from Penaeus monodon, which delimits the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, a method of developing primary hemocyte culture from this crustacean has been standardized by employing modified double strength Leibovitz-15 (L-15) growth medium supplemented with 2% glucose, MEM vitamins (1×), tryptose phosphate broth (2.95 gl⁻¹), 20% FBS, N-phenylthiourea (0.2 mM), 0.06 μg ml⁻¹ chloramphenicol, 100 μg ml⁻¹ streptomycin and 100 IU ml⁻¹ penicillin and hemolymph drawn from shrimp grown under a bio-secured recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In this medium the hemocytes remained viable up to 8 days. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay revealed its incorporation in 22 ± 7% of cells at 24h. Susceptibility of the cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay using a monoclonal antibody against 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. A convenient method for determining virus titer as MTT(50)/ml was standardized employing the primary hemocyte culture. Expression of viral genes and cellular immune genes were also investigated. The cell culture could be demonstrated for determining toxicity of a management chemical (benzalkonium chloride) by determining its IC(50). The primary hemocyte culture could serve as a model for WSSV titration and viral and cellular immune related gene expression and also for investigations on cytotoxicity of aquaculture drugs and chemicals. PMID:20807537

  19. Estudio genético de la estructura poblacional y conectividad de dos corales endémicos del Mediterráneo: Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767)

    Casado-Amezúa, P.

    2012-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo general de la presente tesis es determinar la estructura genética y el alcance de la conectividad de las poblaciones de dos corales escleractinios del Mediterráneo, Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767). Estos procesos están generalmente ligados a diferentes características biológicas de las especies, tales como la densidad y distribución de las poblaciones, la fecundidad, el éxito reproductor, el tipo de desarrollo larvario, la capacida...

  20. Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization – Structure of Two Populations of the Balkan Wall Lizard Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 in the City of Plovdiv

    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the structure and some features of two urban metapopulations of the Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 from Nature Monument (NM “Mladezhki halm” and Nature Monument “Halm na osvoboditelite” in the city of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria. In both study sites, the Balkan Wall lizard inhabits exclusively the interior of the hills and prefers mainly open areas with rare grass and shrub vegetation. The recorded dominant plant species are not autochthonous for the hills, but gradually displaced with many decorative species, used widely in the gardening and thecity parks. The population abundance from both hills is relatively low, with higher values in NM “Mladezhki halm” and generally shows a decrease pattern for the two year period. In the hills of Plovdiv, the Balkan Wall lizard shows a bimodal diurnal and seasonal activity. Both metapopulations showed a sex ratio close to 1:1 with a slight superiority of the females (1:1.29, but with no statistically significant deviation. The age structure of both metapopulations is almost identical - the highest percentage takes the adults, followed by the subadults and juveniles, with no significant deviations from the normal ratio. The possible reasons for the contemporary distribution and population structure of the Balkan Wall lizard are discussed. Historic land use change and its effect on the populations are discussed as well. The main risks for this species in the city of Plovdiv are construction and forestation (destruction of open terrains. Nevertheless, the Balkan Wall lizard seems to have successfully overcome the risks of urbanization and its population seem stable and sustainable.

  1. Seasonal fluctuation in the population of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and co-occurrence with other Coccinellids in the Federal District of Brazil

    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773, was first recorded in Brazil in 2002 in Paraná state and subsequently observed in Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. This species can spread to new areas and become dominant in the local community, reducing the density and diversity of native species, mainly Coccinellidae. The objective of this work was to record for the first time the occurrence of H. axyridis in the Federal District and its co-occurrence with other Coccinellidae species. The individuals were collected directly from plants at an organic farm in Taguatinga and in experimental fields of Embrapa Hortaliças, located in the Federal District, from August 2008 to January 2010. We collected 881 Coccinelids, and of these, 110 belong to the species H. axyridis. These were found exclusively on the following plants of the succinea group: maize, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, cucumber, cotton, tomato and coriander. We also observed its co-occurrence with the following lady beetle species: Cycloneda sanguine (Linnaeus, 1763, Hippodamia convergens (Guerin-Meneville 1842, Eriopis connexa (German, 1824, Scymnus sp., Nephaspis sp., Azya luteipes (Mulsant, 1850, Hyperaspis festiva (Mulsant, 1850, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866, Psyllobora sp. and Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, 1775. So far, we have not found any negative interactions between H. axyridis and these species. This is the northernmost H. axyridis record in Brazil. Moreover, the region was previously considered to have a low probability of occurrence for this species. Therefore, this record confirms that H. axyridis presents great adaptive plasticity to new habitats.

  2. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2007-05-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms. PMID:17375348

  3. MOLECULAR CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF METALLOTHIONEIN FROM PENAEUS MONODON%斑节对虾金属硫蛋白基因cDNA 克隆与表达分析

    郑丽明; 周发林; 杨其彬; 黄建华; 邱丽华; 苏天凤; 江世贵

    2011-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight proteins (MW ranging from 500 to 14000 Da), which is the only kind of metal metabolism in a conspicuous role of small proteins in vivo. MT is concerned with trace elements in the storage, transport and metabolism, body growth and development, aging and certain diseases. In addition, it also has free radical scavenging, antagonism of ionizing radiation, toxic heavy metals and other unique biological functions. The MT widely distributes in the cells, where it exists almost tissues except the connective tissue. In the normal female animal reproductive system, the expression amount of MT might go change with the level of hormones of physiological cycles. In the aspect of the MT of vertebrates research reports showed, the mammals, like homo sapiens, guineas and Felis silvestris catus, the structure of gene, even the function of reproduction, were well studied. It revealed that Pm-MT might regulate the process of reproduction and afterborn, while in the aspect of Invertebrates, the research focus on its performance of detoxication of heavy metal. By so far, yet to see on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) MT(Pm-MT)gene structure and function of the coverage.We have cloned the full sequence of Penaeus monodon Metallothionein gene (Pm-MT) in this experiment. Firstly, we constructed a cDNA library by using the ovary and eyes stalks of mature Penaeus monodon as raw materials, through general T3 primer sequencing and BLAST analysis, we obtained the Penaeus monodon EST library. And then by the apply of the techniques of Rapid Amplification of cDNA ends, we cloned the Pm-MT gene, which complete gene sequence was consisting of 502 nucleotides, encoding corresponding 58 amino acids. The sequence of amino acids was rich in cysteine, free of aromatic amino acids. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of Pm-MT was Predicted about 6.05 KD and 7.75 respectively. Pm-MT owned a characteristic

  4. Monitoramento do maçarico-branco, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, através de recuperações de anilhas coloridas, na Coroa do Avião, Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil Monitoring of the sanderling, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, across recuperations of color band, in the Coroa do Avião, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Rachel M. de Lyra-Neves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Programas de marcação de espécies migratórias vêm sendo desenvolvidos desde a década de 1980, dentre eles o PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs, o qual, consistia na marcação de aves migratórias neárticas com anéis e bandeirolas coloridas possibilitando formação de códigos individuais permitindo a observação das aves marcadas sem que necessitasse capturar. Esta pesquisa objetivou a recuperação de códigos do PASP de indivíduos de Calidris alba (Pallas 1764 entre os anos de 1993 a 1995 na Coroa do Avião. Essas recuperações visuais demonstraram a fidelidade de Calidris alba ao seu sítio de invernada, a Coroa do Avião. O alto percentual de recuperações de Calidris alba, bem como, as recuperações de indivíduos anilhados na Lagoa do Peixe e em algumas áreas de invernada nos Estados Unidos, demonstram a utilização da rota do Atlântico e reforça a idéia de que bandos provenientes da costa leste do Alaska migram por esta rota. A idade máxima estimada para Calidris alba durante esta pesquisa foi de 11 anos, nada se tem sobre a idade desta espécie em bibliografias específicas no estudo de Scolopacidae.Marking programs for migratory species have been developed since the 1980 decade, among them the PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs which consisted in the marking of nearctic migratory birds with color bands and flags, enabling the development of individual codes, allowing the observation of the marked birds without the need of capture. The purpose of this study was the recuperation of PASP codes of individuals of Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 between 1993 and 1995 in the Coroa do Avião. These visual recuperations demonstrated the fidelity of this specie to its winter site, the Coroa do Avião. The high percentual of recuperations of Calidris alba, as well as the recuperations of marked individuals in the Lagoa do Peixe and in some wintering areas in the United States, demonstrated the use of the Atlantic route and

  5. Ekološki parametri populacije zeca običnog (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778) na području Međimurja nakon pada brojnosti posljednjih 40 godina

    Nina POPOVIĆ; Krunoslav PINTUR; Alegro, Antun; Slavica, Alen; Lacković, Mladen; Sertić, Dražen

    2008-01-01

    U razdoblju od 2004.-2006. god. provedeno je istraživanje zeca običnog (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778) na tri lovna područja Međimurja (Mala Subotica, Hodošan, Čakovec). Nakon odstrjela obrađena su 383 zeca. Temeljem mase očnih leća određivana je dobna struktura zečeva. Za istraživana lovna područja prosječan udio mladih jedinki iznosio je 46.7 % od ukupne populacije zečeva. Reprodukcijski indeks varirao je od 0.62 do 3.40, a koeficijent reprodukcije od 0.62 do 1.54. Proljetna gustoća populaci...

  6. 泰国输华斑节对虾传染性皮下和造血器官坏死病毒的检测与分析%Test and Analysis of Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus on Penaeus monodon Imported from Thailand

    于力; 刘莹; 郑晓聪; 王津津; 贾鹏; 何俊强; 刘荭

    2016-01-01

    为研究进口斑节对虾传染性皮下和造血器官坏死病毒(Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus, IHHNV)的风险,本文采用了世界动物卫生组织(OIE)2015版手册中推荐的PCR方法,对2015年从泰国输华的329批次斑节对虾进行了IHHNV检测分析。结果发现,其阳性率高达36.8%,且主要是感染1型和2型,以及风险不明的未知型。因此,来自泰国的斑节对虾具有较高的IHHNV传入风险,应加强针对IHHNV的进口监测,减少其对我国对虾养殖的影响。%In order to study the risks of Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus(IHHNV) of importedPenaeus monodon,PCR methods recommended by OIE manual(2015)were used to test IHHNV on 329 batches ofPenaeus monodon imported from Thailand. The results showed that positive rate was 36.8%,and major genotypes were genotype 1,2 and unknown type with unclear risk. Therefore,the IHHNV risk ofP. monodon imported from Thailand is high. Suggestions of reinforcing the surveillance of 1HHNV to control this disease and limit the negative effect on shrimp aquaculture of China were put forward.

  7. 斑节对虾腺苷酸转移酶(PmANT)基因的cDNA克隆与表达分析%Molecular cloning and expression analysis of adenine nucleotide translocase (PmANT) in Penaeus monodon

    孙文文; 周发林; 黄建华; 邱丽华; 杨其彬; 江世贵

    2013-01-01

    利用RACE技术获得了斑节对虾(Penaeus monodon)ANT基因(PmANT)的cDNA序列.该序列全长1 388 bp,开放阅读框(ORF)为930 bp,3’非编码区(UTR)为393 bp,5 '非编码区(UTR)为65 bp.ORF可编码309个氨基酸,分子量大约为33.622 ku.与所有ANT家族成员一样,PmANT蛋白具有3个重复同源的线粒体跨膜结构域,但不含信号肽和糖基化位点.相似性、同源性及系统进化树分析显示,斑节对虾的ANT基因与凡纳滨对虾的同源性和相似性最高,并与其聚为一支.采用荧光定量的方法研究了ANT基因在雌雄个体不同组织、卵巢不同发育阶段及未成熟和成熟精巢的差异表达情况.结果表明:PmANT的mRNA在各组织中都有表达,其中,在雄性个体的肌肉中表达量最高,其次为雌性肌肉,在精巢的表达量最低,且未成熟精巢低于成熟精巢.PmANT的mRNA在卵巢的表达量高于精巢,且在Ⅲ期卵巢表达量最高,Ⅳ期最低.为今后进一步研究该基因在斑节对虾性腺发育中的作用提供基础材料.%The adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is the most abundant mitochondrial inner membrane protein, which catalyzes the exchange of ADP and ATP between cytosol and mitochondria and participates in many models of mitochondrial apoptosis. In the present study, the full sequence of P. Monodon ANT gene was cloned and named PmANT. The full length cDNA of PmANT contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 65 bp, a 3' UTR of 393 bp and an ORF of 930 bp encoding a polypeptide of 309 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 33. 622 ku. Like other animal ANTs, the structure of the PmANT protein consists of three homologous repeated domains. But there are no signal peptide and glycosylation sites in PmANT protein. Sequence alignment analysis showed that the PmANT with the ANT of Litopenaeus vannamei shared a similarity of 98. 7% and the homology of 97. 4%. Analysis of the tissue expression pattern of the PmANT showed that the PmANT m

  8. The incomings and outgoings budget of dissolved oxygenin Penaeus monodon desalting culture ponds in estuarine area%河口区斑节对虾淡化养殖塘溶氧收支平衡状况

    王为东; 臧维玲; 戴习林; 江敏; 徐桂荣

    2000-01-01

    The paper reported incomings and outgoings budget of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) desalting culture ecosystem in estuarine area in 1997 and 1998. The gross oxygen production (GOP) of water column in the surface layer was more (even significantly) than the oxygen consumption of aquatic respiration (AR),but the GOP in the bottom was less evidently than the corresponding AR,which was the common "oxygen debt" phenomenon. Among the oxygen consuming factors, AR was the largest oxygen consumer, which made up more than 70% of the total oxygen consumption of water column; benthic respiration (BR) was the second and accounted for about 20% of the total oxygen consumption; the proportion of prawn respiration (PR) was lower and increased remarkably with culture period. The ratio (B/P) of mean compensation depth (B) to mean transparency (P) in Giant tiger prawn pond, 1.42±0.53, was lower than that in fishpond (1.5~2.5). Therefore, the oxygen production in the depths of pond was reduced. DO in the Giant tiger prawn desalting culture pond was in disequilibrium, the outgoings outweighed the incomings.%本文报道了1997年与1998年河口区斑节对虾淡化养殖塘生态系中溶氧收支平衡状况。表层水水柱毛产氧量均大于或显著大于水呼吸耗氧量,底层水毛产氧量却显著小于水呼吸耗氧量,呈现常有的"氧债"现象。在池塘氧耗因子中,水呼吸是最大的溶解氧消耗者,占水柱总耗氧量的70%以上;其次是底泥耗氧量,约占20%;虾呼吸耗氧量所占比例较小,但随养殖时间的延长明显上升。斑节对虾塘平均补偿深度(B)和平均透明度(P)之比(B/P)与通常鱼池所具有的比值(1.5~2.5)相比偏低,为1.42±0.53。说明池塘深层的产氧能力受到限制。斑节对虾淡化养殖塘溶氧处于支大于收的不平衡状态。

  9. Une réponse ovidienne à Asclépiade ? Hypothèse d’une allusion à l’épigramme sur la Lydé d’Antimaque (AP IX, 63 dans le certamen de Pallas et Arachné (Met. VI

    Florence Klein

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La compétition artistique entre Pallas et Arachné au livre VI des Métamorphoses oppose une déesse, qui représente l’auguste noblesse divine (augusta grauitas, à une tisserande d’origine sociale fort modeste – précise Ovide – mais que son art a rendue célèbre dans toute la Lydie. Cette valorisation de son ars a d’ailleurs valu à cette dernière d’être apparentée par la critique à une figure callimachéenne. Cet article propose d’aller plus loin en ce sens, en suggérant que le passage contient une allusion à l’épigramme AP IX, 63 qui semble avoir été au cœur de la querelle opposant Callimaque aux « Telchines » : Asclépiade y faisait l’éloge de la σεµνότης de Lydé en jouant sur le double sens du terme, entre noblesse stylistique et noblesse sociale. L’hypothèse d’une « réponse ovidienne à Asclépiade » apporte alors un nouvel éclairage sur l’opposition esthétique qui est en jeu dans le certamen et, en particulier, sur son issue.  

  10. Embryonic development, experimental starvation, and the point of no return of Hemibarbus labeo (Pallas) in YaLu River%鸭绿江水系唇(鱼骨)胚胎发育、仔鱼饥饿及其不可逆点

    骆小年; 李军; 刘刚; 夏大明; 金广海; 吴瑞兰; 杜华

    2011-01-01

    Hemibarbus labeo Pallas in the Yalu River and its tributaries is a promising and emerging aquaculture population in northeast China. However, the wild population of H. Labeo in the river has declined recently. We studied embryonic development, the effects of starvation, and the point of no return (PNR) of H. Labeo brood-stocks selected from the Yalu River and its tributaries. Three batches of fertilized eggs were produced by artificial spawning. Mature eggs were spherical, ecru, and (1.94±0.13) mm in diameter. Fertilized eggs were spherical, adhesive, and (3.07±0.12) mm in diameter. At 14-24.5°C, normal embryonic development using 94 h and 2 min to progress through one-cell, cell division, blastula, gastrula, neurula, and organ formation stages. Newly-hatched larvae were (8.07±0.27) mm in total length and the yolk sac was (0.55±0.12) mm3 in volume. The yolk sac had absorbed completely at 6 days post-hatch (dph). The total length and body weight of the control group (feeding 2 times everyday ) had increased to(12.58±1.03) mm and (0.010 8±0.002 2) g, respectively by 13 dph and by 24 dph to (17.21±0.99) mm and (0.023 7±0.005 4) g, respectively. Total length (R2=0.982 6) and body weight (R2=0.963 6) in experimental groups were both positively correlated to dph in the control group. In contrast, both total length and weight of the starved larvae began to decrease after absorption of the yolk sac at 6 dph, declining to (9.32±0.47) mm and (0.0022±0.0005) g, respectively, at 13 dph. Control larvae started to feed at 5 dph, at which time the feeding rate was 65%; 100% were feeding at 7 to 10 dph. Starved larvae suffered from PNR at 12-13 dph, and all died by 14 dph. Understanding embryonic development and knowing the effects of starvation will be important to artificially propagating H. Labeo and in fish ecology and fisheries biology. Our research will play a key role in artificially propagating large numbers of individuals to augment the wild population and its

  11. Bolboschoenus (Ascherson) Palla (Cyperaceae) from Pliocene of China

    Xiu-Qun LIU; Cheng-Sen LI; Yu-Fei WANG

    2005-01-01

    Tubers, culms, rhizomes, and leaves of Bolboschoenus cf. yagara (Ohwi) YC Yang et M Zhan were reported from the sediments of Zhangcun Formation, Late Pliocene in Shanxi Province, China. The fossil species possesses trigonous culms. And tubers are cordiform, spindle shaped, or round, and are covered by roots in internodes and often connected by rhizomes. This is the first convincing fossil record of Cyperaceae in China.

  12. Third PAllas Cloud Experiment (PACE III): Campaign Description

    Hyvärinen, A-P.; Komppula, M.; Miettinen, P.; Spiegel, J.K.; Noziére, B.; Ekström, S.; Neitola, K.; Brus, David; Asmi, E.; Kivekäs, N.; Leskinen, A.; Portin, H.

    Helsinki : -, 2010, P2H12. ISBN N. [International Aerosol Conference IAC 2010. Helsinki (FI), 29.08.2010-03.09.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aerosols * aerosol-cloud interactions * pallastunturi Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry www.iac2010.fi

  13. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 μg g-1 dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 μg g-1 dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/108 nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 μg g-1 dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 μg g-1 dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/108 nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor PAH-exposure and evaluate genotoxicity in fresh water ecosystems

  14. Evaluating atmospheric methane inversion model results for Pallas, northern Finland

    Tsuruta, Aki; Aalto, Tuula; Backman, Leif; Peters, Wouter; Krol, Maarten; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Hatakka, Juha; Heikkinen, Pauli; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Spahni, Renato; Paramonova, Nina N.

    2015-01-01

    A state-of-the-art inverse model, CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS), was used to optimize estimates of methane (CH4) surface fluxes using atmospheric observations of CH4 as a constraint. The model consists of the latest version of the TM5 atmospheric chemistry-transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter based data assimilation system. The model was constrained by atmospheric methane surface concentrations, obtained from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). Pri...

  15. Stress evaluation in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas captured for traslocation

    Antonio Lavazza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the capturing techniques some haematic and physiological parameters were studied to discrim- inate stressed hares from non stressed hares. A total of 66 wild hares (experimental group were sampled in 14 different non-hunting areas, where hares are usually captured for later release in low-density areas. In the same season a total of 30 hares (about 1 year old, reared in cages and thus showing a reduced fear of man, were sampled (control group. In each area the hares were captured by cours- ing with 3-4 dogs (greyhounds or lurches. The dogs were released by the different hunter teams to find and drive into trammel nets any hare that was seen running. After capture, the hares remained inside darkened, wooden capture-boxes for a variable period of time before blood drawing. For blood sample collection all the hares were physically restrained and their eyes immediately covered. Blood, always collected within 1-2 minutes, was drawn from the auricular vein. Blood samples (plasma were analysed for glucose, AST, ALT, CPK and cortisol concentrations. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rate, sex, and age were evaluated in each hare. The effect of origin, sex and age on haematic and physiolog- ical parameters was analysed by ANOVA. Every measured parameter of the hares bearing to the capture group or the control group (reared was then subjected to stepwise and to discriminant analysis, in order to select the groups of stressed (discriminated by the controls and non-stressed hares. CPK, AST and glucose were found to be the best parameters for distinguishing stressed from non-stressed hares. The intensive exercise suffered by the wild hares induced a depletion of energetic reserves, so that most of the captured hares showed lower glucose and higher CPK activity in the plasma, probably due to muscle damage (P< 0.05. After reclassi- fying the hares in the two groups of stressed and non stressed hares, the reference values (means ± SE resulted as fol- lows: estimated non-stressed hares, glucose 234 ± 9 .4 mg/dl, AST 112 ± 22.2 U/l, CPK 1334 ± 734 U/l; estimated stressed hares, glucose 128 ± 7 mg/dl, AST 164 ± 13 U/l, CPK 4658 ± 454 U/l. These three cheap and quickly analysable analytes can be useful to the game manager in detecting stressed and non stressed hares, in order to improve the capturing techniques by the evaluation of the following relationship: (number of stressed hares + number of the dead hares during the capture/number of total captured hares.

  16. Vestigial tooth anatomy and tusk nomenclature for monodon monoceros.

    Nweeia, Martin T; Eichmiller, Frederick C; Hauschka, Peter V; Tyler, Ethan; Mead, James G; Potter, Charles W; Angnatsiak, David P; Richard, Pierre R; Orr, Jack R; Black, Sandie R

    2012-06-01

    Narwhal tusks, although well described and characterized within publications, are clouded by contradictory references, which refer to them as both incisors and canines. Vestigial teeth are briefly mentioned in the scientific literature with limited descriptions and no image renderings. This study first examines narwhal maxillary osteoanatomy to determine whether the erupted tusks are best described as incisiform or caniniform teeth. The study also offers evidence to support the evolutionary obsolescence of the vestigial teeth through anatomic, morphologic, and histologic descriptions. Examination of 131 skull samples, including 110 museum skull specimens and 21 harvested skulls, revealed the erupted tusks surrounded by maxillary bone over the entire length of their bone socket insertion, and are thus more accurately termed caniniform or canine teeth. The anatomy, morphology, and development of vestigial teeth in five skull samples are more fully described and documented. Vestigial tooth samples included 14 embedded pairs or individual teeth that were partially exposed or removed from the maxillary bone. Their location was posterior, ventral, and lateral to the tusks, although male vestigial teeth often exfoliate in the mouth lodging between the palatal tissue and underlying maxillary bone. Their myriad morphologies, sizes, and eruption patterns suggest that these teeth are no longer guided by function but rather by random germ cell differentiation and may eventually cease expression entirely. The conclusions reached are that the narwhal tusks are the expression of canine teeth and that vestigial teeth have no apparent functional characteristics and are following a pattern consistent with evolutionary obsolescence. PMID:22467529

  17. Immune defence White Spot Syndrome Virus infected shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Arts, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial discovery of the virus inTaiwanin 1992, it has spread to shrimp farming regions in Southeast Asia, theAmericas, Europe and theMiddle Eastcausing major economic losses. The virus has a wide host range among crustaceans and induces distinctive clinical signs (white spots)on the inner surface of the exoskeletonof penaeid shrimps.Limited data is available about the immune ...

  18. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    Braak, van de C.B.T.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays for the eva

  19. Sodium, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in molluscs from the Magellan Strait (Chile): their contribution to dietary intake.

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2005-08-01

    The concentrations of the essential metals Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined in 126 specimens of molluscs belonging to five different species: Mytilus chilensis, n=47; Nacella deaurata, n=65; Aulacomya ater, n=4; Fissurella picta, n=4; Acanthina monodon, n=6, collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait. Significant differences were obtained among the mean metal concentrations in the mollusc species considered. The contribution to the dietary daily intake of these metals for the consumption of one serving of these molluscs was high, especially the contribution to the Fe intake for the consumption of N. deaurata. Some significant differences were observed among the mean concentrations for the studied metals according to the zone of sampling. The influence of the zone of sampling on the mean concentration of metals in N. deaurata was higher than in M. chilensis. The application of lineal discriminant analysis (LDA) made it possible to differentiate statistically between specimens according to the mollusc species. Within the each mollusc species, the LDA helped to identify specimens according to the zone of sampling and weight/length ratio. PMID:16236595

  20. Environ: E00643 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available E00643 Monodon monoceros maxillary incisor Crude drug Monodon monoceros [TAX:40151]... Physeteridae Monodon monoceros left side maxillary incisor Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals E00643 Monodon monoceros maxillary incisor ...

  1. ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПОЛИМОРФИЗМА ПО ПРИЗНАКУ STRIATA В ПОПУЛЯЦИЯХ ОЗЕРНОЙ ЛЯГУШКИ R ANA RIDIBUNDA PALLAS, 1771 (ANURA, AMPHIBIA) РЕСПУБЛИКИ БАШКОРТОСТАН

    Файзулин, Александр; Зарипова, Фалия; Хусаинова, Ильнара

    2013-01-01

    В 2006 – 2012 гг. исследован полиморфизм по признаку striata популяций озерной лягушки ( Rana ridibunda Pallas, 1771) на территории Республики Башкортостан для районов со средним – Предуралье и высоким – Зауралье природным фоновым содержанием тяжелых металлов в среде (меди, цинка, кадмия). Установлено, что в условиях техногенного загрязнения особи с признаком striata отличаются меньшим накоплением тяжелых металлов в Предуралье – меди в 1,9, кадмия в 1,4, цинка в 1,2 раза; для Зауралья – кадми...

  2. ПРОСТРАНСТВЕННО-ТЕРРИТОРИАЛЬНОЕ РАЗМЕЩЕНИЕ И ГНЕЗДОВАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ RECURVIROSTRA AVOSETTA LINNAEUS, 1758 И LARUS ICHTHYAETUS PALLAS, 1773 (AVES, CHARADRIIFORMES) В УСЛОВИЯХ ЮЖНОЙ ЧАСТИ СРЕДНЕЙ СИБИРИ

    МЕЛЬНИК О.Н.; ГЕЛЬД Т.А.; ЗЛОТНИКОВА Т.В.

    2015-01-01

    Проведено обобщение многолетних наблюдений авторов, а также опубликованных данных. Собственные материалы получены в ходе стационарных работ на двух водоёмах в Минусинской котловине и при маршрутных учётах на степных водоёмах южных районов Красноярского края и Тывы в 2003–2014 годах. Приведены сведения о местах встреч и гнездования Recurvirostra avosetta Linnaeus, 1758 и Larus ichthyaetus Pallas, 1773. Для R. avosetta на примере двух участков, а для L. ichthyaetus на примере одного участка рас...

  3. Isolation and characterization of 10 microsatellite loci for Pallas' long-tongued bat Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomidae).

    Oprea, M; Peixoto, F P; Resende, L V; Collevatti, R G; Telles, M P C

    2012-01-01

    Glossophaga soricina is a widespread Neotropical nectarivorous bat. We characterized 10 microsatellite loci isolated from a shotgun genomic library. We analyzed tissues from wing membrane of 67 individuals collected from two populations of Central Brazil (Brasília and Alto Paraíso). The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 20, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.015 to 0.666 and from 0.016 to 0.915, respectively. The high combined probability of genetic identity (4.369 x 10(-8)) and probability of paternity exclusion (0.996) showed that these microsatellite loci would be useful for population genetic structure and parentage studies in natural populations of G. soricina. PMID:23079846

  4. Bioconcentration and localization of lead in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1677 (Rotifera: Monogononta)

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesus, E-mail: jalvaflo@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Rico-Martinez, Roberto, E-mail: rrico@correo.uaa.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Ventura-Juarez, Javier, E-mail: jventur@correo.uaa.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Morfologia, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Silva-Briano, Marcelo, E-mail: msilva@correo.uaa.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Departamento de Biologia, Avenida Universidad 940, Aguascalientes, Ags., CP 20131 (Mexico); Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro, E-mail: rubio_reyes@hotmail.com [Instituto de Servicios de Salud del Estado de Aguascalientes, Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Av. Siglo XXI 105, Ciudad Satelite Morelos, C.P. 20270, Aguascalientes, Ags. (Mexico)

    2012-03-15

    We studied how lead is bioconcentrated and distributed in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus using metal histochemistry to locate lead granules, Leadmium Green{sup Registered-Sign} analysis to establish the route of uptake, atomic absorption to determined the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and detected the presence of microelements in the cuticle by X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate: (a) the digestive system is the main route of lead uptake in the rotifer B. calyciflorus, (b) after 24-h lead is deposited in granules in the mastax and vitellarium, (c) our energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicates decalcification taking place in the cuticle of the rotifer after a 24-h lead exposure, and (d) we determined a BCF = 115 for lead after a 24 h exposure. However, the route of mobilization and storage of intracellular lead are still not fully understood in B. calyciflorus.

  5. PROPOSTE DI ALLENAMENTO MULTILATERALE CON PALLA IN DUE DISCIPLINE SPORTIVE: LA GINNASTICA RITMICA E LA PALLACANESTRO

    Maria Caire; Isabella Scursatone

    2015-01-01

    La specializzazione precoce non garantisce il successo nello sport d’élite, ma comporta numerosi rischi (Malina, 2010). Una delle strategie per contrastare questi rischi nell’allenamento giovanile è la proposta di un carico motorio che presenti carattere di polivalenza e multilateralità. La multilateralità nella metodologia dell’allenamento è considerata un aspetto chiave per la formazione giovanile (AA.VV., 1987; AA.VV., 1987; Sotgiu & Pellegrini, 1989; Starosta, 2006; Weinek, 2009). Pro...

  6. Food Composition of the Marsh Frog, Rana ridibunda Pallas, 1771, in Thrace

    Kerim ÇİÇEK; Ahmet MERMER

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the feeding habits of the marsh frog, Rana ridibunda, populations inhabiting Turkish Thrace. Analysis of the stomach contents of 53 (19 males, 34 females) adult individuals was performed. The frog diet consisted of a wide variety of arthropods; Diptera (42.62%) and Coleoptera (21.84%) were especially prominent. Aquatic forms did not contribute much to the frog diet. The prey items identified indicate that individuals of this species, like oth...

  7. Kärdla VIII b kangutas lahti kultuuriukse Leisi / Anu Pallas

    Pallas, Anu, 1960-

    2001-01-01

    Kärdla Keskkooli kaheksas b klass sõitis Leisi, et mängida kooliteatrite peapreemia saanud etendust "Oleme viieteistaastased ehk üks päev kaheksandas bees". Merle Karusoo lavaloo "Oleme kolmeteistkümne aastased" ja Kärdla kooli 8b klassi esseede põhjal oli tüki kokku ja lavale seadnud Koit Randus

  8. Relationship between habitat, densities and metabolic profile in brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas)

    Marco Bagliacca; Marco Ferretti; Antonio Lavazza; Gisella Paci

    2010-01-01

    Some habitat traits and haematic parameters were studied to understand the relationships between the hare densities, habitat characteristics and physiological and nutritional condition of the animals. A total of 33 protected areas, reserved for wild game reproduction, located in the Province of Florence (Central Italy), were monitored during a 2-year period. In each protected area the hares were submitted to census. The habitat features of the protected areas were studied and the following pa...

  9. Biology of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772 (Acari: Ixodidae on some laboratory hosts in Brazil

    Daniel Sobreira Rodrigues

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The ixodid Amblyomma aureolatum is suspected to play a role in the epidemiology of wild life-cycle hemoparasites, which frequently infect dogs in rural and hunting areas in Brazil. Little is known about its bionomics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate some bionomic aspects of A. aureolatum ticks in Brazil. One engorged female, collected from a dog (Canis familiaris in São Sebastião das Águas Claras, State of Minas Gerais, was used to establish a colony in the laboratory. Subsequently its parasitic stage progeny were fed on domestic dogs and laboratory animals. The free-living stages were incubated at 27ºC ± 2°C and minimum 70% relative humidity in a BOD incubator. The egg incubation period ranged from 31 to 34 days; the parasitic period of larvae ranged from 4 to 6 days and ecdysis to nymphs occurred from day 19 up to day 22. The parasitic period of nymphs ranged from 5 to 8 days and the period of ecdysis to adults from 31 to 33 days. The parasitic period of adults ranged from 11 to 15 days, the pre-oviposition period from 6 to 12 days, and the oviposition period from 9 to 38 days. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 116 to 168 days.

  10. Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Superkonzeption (Superfetation) beim Europäischen Feldhasen (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778)

    Röllig, Kathleen Renate

    2010-01-01

    Successful reproductive strategies are important to maximize reproductive output and therefore Darwinian fitness. Superfetation (SF) is the ability to conceive during an existing pregnancy. For a long time, it has been proposed that SF occurs in the European brown hare. The EBH- populations have been declining across Europe over recent decades. To ensure survival of this species it will be important to understand its reproductive strategies. In this study we initially characterised pregnancy ...

  11. First record of Racer Goby Neogobius gymnotrachelus (PALLAS, 1811 in the Hungarian section of the Danube

    Guti, G.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens of Neogobius gymnotrachelus were found in the sidearm system of the Szigetköz floodplain of the Danube (rkm 1837-1836 in September 2004. It was the first detection of this Ponto-Caspian goby in Hungary.

  12. Relationship between habitat, densities and metabolic profile in brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

    Marco Bagliacca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some habitat traits and haematic parameters were studied to understand the relationships between the hare densities, habitat characteristics and physiological and nutritional condition of the animals. A total of 33 protected areas, reserved for wild game reproduction, located in the Province of Florence (Central Italy, were monitored during a 2-year period. In each protected area the hares were submitted to census. The habitat features of the protected areas were studied and the following parameters were categorised: altitude; cleared-land/total-land ratio; main exposure; main ground composition; water availability; main slope; anthropogenic presence; predator presence; wooded borders; presence of trees and shrubs; surveillance against hunting; demographic predator control; kind of cultivation; unharvested crops for game. After the census the hares were captured for translocation outside in “free” hunting areas. During capture the hares were put in darkened, wooden capture-boxes and remained inside for a variable period of time (10min to 3h. A sample of 3 to 7 hares, captured per year and per each protected area, were removed from the boxes (physically restrained, with covered eyes for blood sample collection, sex, age and live weight determination. The following analyses were performed on frozen plasma samples: ALanine aminoTransferase (ALT, ASpartate aminoTransferase (AST, glucose, cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, and Cl concentrations. The relationship between hare density and habitat characteristics was analysed by single regressions analysis. Then the habitat characteristics were subjected to multivariate analysis in relationship to hare body condition. The haematic parameters were analysed by least square means considering habitat traits, animal density, age and sex, as main categorical factors, interaction sex*age, and “pregnant and non-reproducing” nested within sex. Results showed that the highest density and best body conditions can be found in highlands, open fields with low tree presence and wooded borders, medium mixture soils, scarce predator presence and limited anthropogenic presence and with abundant water availability and shrubbiness. The study of the absolute values of metabolic profile, indicator of the physiological and nutritional condition of the reared animals, did not show any nutritional winter deficiency in wild hares and, as census data, should be repeated for several years since, probably, only their variations can be used as indicators of preliminary problems.

  13. Habitat use and home range traits of resident and relocated hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas

    Marco Bagliacca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to know the habitat preferences and home range of resident and relocated brown hares during the no hunting period. The trial was carried out in a protected area (PA and in a free hunting territory (FHT, both located in Florence province. During captures 21 hares were equipped with a necklace radio tag: 7 hares, resident group, were released in the same area of capture and 14 hares, relocated group, were relocated in six different locations within the FHT. The effect of place of release was analyzed by ANOVA and/or non parametric methods. Results showed that the home ranges of the resident group were characterised by a greater presence of fallow land and shrub land than relocated group (P< 0.05. Home range sizes and Max distances from the releasing sites differed between the two groups. Resident hares preferred landscape characterized by a higher density of patches than the relocated hares (152 vs. 70 n/100ha, 43 vs. 12 n/100ha, 4703 vs. 8142 sq.m respectively; P<0.01. The landscape structure indexes, the home range sizes and the maximum distance from the releasing sites suggest that the relocated hares even if released in suited habitats, will move from their releasing point to look for better habitats. Landscape with most complexity are preferred from the resident hare, and this result should be consider when a project to reintroduction of this lagomorph in a territory is programmed, or when it is necessary to improve the dynamic of a natural population.

  14. Reducing visual stimulations in european hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas captured for translocation

    Marco Ferretti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress may be an important variable affecting the survival of the captured hares, for this reason the Authors studied the effect of the use of a blindfolding hood applied to the hares immediately after net trapping. A total of 119 hares were captured by coursing with 3-4 dogs (greyhounds or lurchers in no hunting areas of Tuscany. Immediately after net trapping 38 hares were blindfolded with a hood and 81 were normally handled to the wooden darkened capture- boxes without blinding their eyes (control. From all the hares a sample of blood was collected within 1-2 min by the auricular vein. Blood samples were analyzed for haemocromocytometry and metabolic profile determination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Sub-clinically stressed hares were discriminated from nonstressed hares by the use of the discriminant function based on CK, AST and glucose and the differences were tested by chi2c Results showed that body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, glucose, cholesterol, CK, AST, ALT, BUN, total protein and some haemocromo-cytometric parameters were significantly higher in captured hares without blindfold. The incidence of subclinically stressed hares was 26% in the hares equipped with the blindfold and 81% in the hares without blindfold (chi2c=32.98, P<0.0001 (presence of subclinical stress discriminated by the use of a discriminant function based on CPK, AST and glucose. For this reason the procedures designed for the translocation of the hares could take advantage by the use of a blindfold which should be applied to the hares immediately after their trapping.

  15. G- and C-Banded Karyotype of Cricetulus migratorius Pallas, 1773 (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Central Anatolia

    ARSLAN, Atilla; AKAN, Şükrüye

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the banding patterns (G- and C-banding) of chromosomes of Cricetulus migratorius from Central Anatolia. Karyotype of C. migratorius comprised (2n) 22 chromosomes. The number of chromosomal arms (FN) was 44 and the number of autosomal arms (FNa) was 40. Subtelocentric X and Y chromosomes were very similar in size, but they differed on G- and C-banding patterns. Most autosomes in this species were C-negative. Pair no. 4 had very small centromeric C-bands, autosome no. ...

  16. Bioconcentration and localization of lead in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1677 (Rotifera: Monogononta)

    We studied how lead is bioconcentrated and distributed in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus using metal histochemistry to locate lead granules, Leadmium Green® analysis to establish the route of uptake, atomic absorption to determined the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and detected the presence of microelements in the cuticle by X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate: (a) the digestive system is the main route of lead uptake in the rotifer B. calyciflorus, (b) after 24-h lead is deposited in granules in the mastax and vitellarium, (c) our energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicates decalcification taking place in the cuticle of the rotifer after a 24-h lead exposure, and (d) we determined a BCF = 115 for lead after a 24 h exposure. However, the route of mobilization and storage of intracellular lead are still not fully understood in B. calyciflorus.

  17. Effect of sea buckthorn and vitamin E on growth performance of Acipenser stellatus (Pallas 1771 juveniles

    Oana Georgiana Dorojan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Addition of natural additives (prebiotics, probiotics, phytobiotics in fish feed is a benefic method because it leads to improved growth performance of fish reared in intensive production systems. Sea buckthorn is one of the most commonly phytobiotics used in aquaculture because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunostimulant, anti-stress, cytoprotective, liver and tissue regeneration properties. Sea buckthorn berries are rich in vitamins (B, C, E and K, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols and many volatile compounds. In this context the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (500 mg/kg diet and sea buckthorn on growth performance and survival of the A. stellatus juveniles reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The experiment took place in the recirculating pilot system of “Dunărea de Jos” University of Galați. In order to emphasize the influence of the above mentioned immunostimulants on sevruga fingerlings with different genetic background, four experimental groups from different genitors (V1: ♀2 Danube x ♂1 Aquaculture, V2: ♀1 Danube x ♂1 Danube, V3: ♀1 Danube x ♂2 Aquaculture and V4: ♀2 Danube x ♂2 Danube have been used. At the end of the experiment no significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in terms of final mean weight, individual growth rate, SGR, FCR, PER, between the sevruga fingerlings obtained from wild genitors, comparing with those obtained from aquaculture genitors.

  18. Effect of sea buckthorn and vitamin E on growth performance of Acipenser stellatus (Pallas 1771) juveniles

    Oana Georgiana Dorojan; Victor Cristea; Mirela Crețu; Lorena Dediu; Iulia Rodica Grecu; Săndița Plăcintă

    2015-01-01

    Addition of natural additives (prebiotics, probiotics, phytobiotics) in fish feed is a benefic method because it leads to improved growth performance of fish reared in intensive production systems. Sea buckthorn is one of the most commonly phytobiotics used in aquaculture because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunostimulant, anti-stress, cytoprotective, liver and tissue regeneration properties. Sea buckthorn berries are rich in vitamins (B, C, E and K), flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopher...

  19. Eco-physiology, mass production and larvaebreeding potentialities of the fresh water rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas

    Awaïss, A.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available In veterinary medicine of african tradition in Kivu and Kibali-lturi (Zaire, we have identified 32 medicinal plants used alone or in association at the time of verminosis, diarrhea, coprostasis and meteorism. The parts of the plant intervene in the following proportions : leaves (59 %, fruits and seeds (12 %, whole plant (12 %, stems barks (9 %, roots, rhizoms and tubers (5 %, roots'barks (3 %. After maceration (51 % of cases, decoction (25 % or without modification (20 %, the way of administration is oral in 90 % of cases and anal in 10 % of cases. Our data led us to suggest that plants previously submitted to a pharmacological screening could be introduced and maintained by management technics of paturages before pharmacotechnical studies or industrial production of medicaments.

  20. Diplectanids (Monogenea) on the archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas) (Toxotidae) off Peninsular Malaysia.

    Lim, L H S

    2006-05-01

    Two new and two previously described species of diplectanid monogeneans (Heteroplectanum flabelliforme n. sp., Diplectanum sumpit n. sp., D. jaculator Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969 and D. toxotes Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969) were collected from archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix off the Island of Langkawi, Kedah and off Perak, Malaysia. The reproductive systems and squamodiscs of D. jaculator and D. toxotes are described for the first time. D. sumpit n. sp. differs from D. toxotes and D. jaculator in a having a small curved copulatory tube with a distinct accessory piece, compared to the long, tubular copulatory tube of D. jaculator and the slender tube of D. toxotes. D. sumpit n. sp. also differs from D. toxotes in having a larger ventral bar and larger squamodiscs. H. flabelliforme n. sp. differs from all known Heteroplectanum species in the shape and size of the squamodiscs, the arrangement of the sclerites in the squamodiscs, the extremely large ventral bar and the short, curved, non-spinous copulatory tube. PMID:16773472

  1. Advantages of liquid nitrogen freezing of Penaeus monodon over conventional plate freezing

    Chakrabarti, R; Chaudhury, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen frozen products are biochemically and organoleptically superior to conventional plate frozen products but beneficial effect of liquid nitrogen freezing over conventional plate freezing can exist only up to 59 days at a commercial storage temperature of -18°C.

  2. Studies on luminous, Vibrio harveyi associated with shrimp culture system rearing Penaeus monodon.

    Kannapiran, E; Ravindran, J; Chandrasekar, R; Kalaiarasi, A

    2009-09-01

    Microbiological studies in a modified extensive shrimp culture system at Nambuthalai, southeast coast of India were carried out fora period of 120 days. Population dynamics and distribution profile of luminous bacteria and total heterotrophic bacteria in the water sediment and animal samples were monitored. Luminous bacteria associated with exoskeleton, gills and gut were isolated and quantified. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 1.3 x 10(4) to 25.3 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1) in water and 1.5 x 10(6) to 26.2 x 10(6) CFU g(-1) in sediment. The V. harveyi population density varied between 0.6 x 10(4) and 8.8 x 10(4) LCFU ml(-1) in water and from 1.2 x 10(6) to 10.4 x 10(6) LCFU g(-1) sediment respectively. The gut of the animal was found to harbor high density of V. harveyi than gills and exoskeleton. The total heterotrophic bacteria and V. harveyi population density showed increasing trend during the culture period. The high V harveyi density observed in this study at the end of the culture period correlated with the outbreak of white spot disease. PMID:20143707

  3. The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) cementum-dentin junction: a functionally graded biointerphase.

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Chattah, Netta Lev-Tov; Djomehri, Sabra; Eidelmann, Naomi; Eichmiller, Frederick C; Webb, Samuel; Schuck, P James; Nweeia, Martin; Ho, Sunita P

    2014-08-01

    In nature, an interface between dissimilar tissues is often bridged by a graded zone, and provides functional properties at a whole organ level. A perfect example is a "biological interphase" between stratified cementum and dentin of a narwhal tooth. This study highlights the graded structural, mechanical, and chemical natural characteristics of a biological interphase known as the cementum-dentin junction layer and their effect in resisting mechanical loads. From a structural perspective, light and electron microscopy techniques illustrated the layer as a wide 1000-2000 μm graded zone consisting of higher density continuous collagen fiber bundles from the surface of cementum to dentin, that parallels hygroscopic 50-100 μm wide collagenous region in human teeth. The role of collagen fibers was evident under compression testing during which the layer deformed more compared to cementum and dentin. This behavior is reflected through site-specific nanoindentation indicating a lower elastic modulus of 2.2 ± 0.5 GPa for collagen fiber bundle compared to 3 ± 0.4 GPa for mineralized regions in the layer. Similarly, microindentation technique illustrated lower hardness values of 0.36 ± 0.05 GPa, 0.33 ± 0.03 GPa, and 0.3 ± 0.07 GPa for cementum, dentin, and cementum-dentin layer, respectively. Biochemical analyses including Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron-source microprobe X-ray fluorescence demonstrated a graded composition across the interface, including a decrease in mineral-to-matrix and phosphate-to-carbonate ratios, as well as the presence of tidemark-like bands with Zn. Understanding the structure-function relationships of wider tissue interfaces can provide insights into natural tissue and organ function. PMID:25205746

  4. Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae

    Nayak, S.; Singh, S.K.; Ramaiah, N.; Sreepada, R.A.

    for categorization of ESTs into different groups. 2.5. Expression analyses of selected genes by Real time PCR (qPCR) To further confirm the changes in expression induced by bacterial challenge, real time gene expression analyses of six different immune related... be grouped into 12 categories based on their physiological and functional roles (Fig 1). Among these, three genes are likely to be immunorelevant and, eight others, related to antioxidant and ATP metabolism. The largest group comprised of the muscle...

  5. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    followed the cube law. The weight of the prawn increased at the rate of more or less cube of the length. The relationship was found to be significant (p less than 0.001). At 95% confidence limit the b values were between 3.0524 and 4.3691. ANOVA showed...

  6. POTENCY OF VIBRIO ISOLATES FOR BIOCONTROL OF VIBRIOSIS IN TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON LARVAE

    B. W. LAY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain Vibrio isolates able to function as biocontr ol of vibriosis in shrimp hatchery. Thirty one Vibrio isolates were isolated from tiger shrimp larvae and hatchery environments, i.e. Labuan, Pangandaran, and Lampung, Indonesia. Pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 was obtained from Maros, South-Sulawesi and was made as a rifampicin resistant mutant (RFR to screen for those 31 Vibrio isolates in in vitro assays and to allow us to monitor their presence in shrimp larvae and larval rearing water. Almost all Vibrio isolates could inhibit the growth of pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 RFR. SKT-b isolate from Skeletonema was the most effective to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi MR5339 Rf* and significantly reduced larval mortality in pathogen challenge assays. These prospective biocontrol bacteria, at concentration of 10" CFU/ml, did not show pathogenicity to shrimp larvae. SKT-b was Gram negative, short rod-shape, exhibited yellow colonies on TCBS and swarming on SWC-agar media, motile, u tilized glucose and sucrose but not lactose: produced extra-cellular protease and amylase, but did not produce chitmase. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA gene SKT-b showed SKT-b similarity to Vibrio alginofyticus.

  7. Population of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus (Pathogen and Bacillus (Beneficial Bacteria in Penaeus Monodon (Fabricus, 1798 Culture

    V. Pattukumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present work was attempted to evaluate the probiotic activity of Bacillus spp. in shrimp health management. Approach: Penaeid culture ecosystem as a confined environment with huge inputs always encourages the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria like Vibrios. Results: From the present study and earlier reports it is understood that these pathogens alone or combine with virus especially White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV lead to sudden disease outbreaks and mortality. However the unwarranted and unwanted usage of antibiotics causes negative impacts rather than controlling diseases. Conclusion: Based on this, it is concluded that application of suitable and effective probiotics (Bacillus will certainly reduce population of pathogens and provide a congenial pond environment for shrimp culture. However, this could be achieved by the effective usage of commercially available probiotics for maintaining good pond environment.

  8. Characterization of a probiotic Bacillus S11 bacterium of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Pissamai Powedchagun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus S11 (BS11, a Gram-positive spore forming bacteria, was identified as Bacillus subtilis, based on biochemicaltests, physical morphology, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. BS11 was found to be safe as probiotic for shrimp because it doesnot produce either detectable antimicrobial substance or enterotoxin. A potential specific markers of BS11 by RAPD-PCR wasindicated using UBC459 primer (5'-GCGTCGAGGG -3' and the sequence of the major band, a size of 0.4 kb fragment, is similarto the gene encoding of a protein of the phosphotransferase system (PTS glucosamine-specific enzyme glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase from Bacillus subtilis strain subsp. subtilis 168.

  9. Quotas on narwhal (Monodon monoceros) hunting in East Greenland

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the introduction of quotas on narwhal hunting in East Greenland with respect to effects on Inuit culture and based on trends in narwhal killed per hunter and assessment of migration patterns. Cultural aspects were assessed through group discussions and comparison between East...... and sustainable use of narwhal stocks may be more likely to succeed if local communities are involved through comanagement agreements....

  10. Low-input Modified Extensive Shrimp Culture System for Penaeus monodon Restrian Vibriosis

    Fernandes, S.O.; Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Karekar. S.V.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Vogelsang, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    .10 × 103 CFU g-1. Counts of LB were found to be below detectable levels in hepatopancreas between 105 to 135-doc. 1.3 Correlation analysis None of the measured environmental variables (temperature, salinity, pH, DO) showed any significant correlation... = 65, pond sediment = 29 and shrimp hepatopancreas = 20 International Journal of Marine Science 2013, Vol.3, No.40, 319-332 http://ijms.sophiapublisher.com 324 1.5 Average weight, feed conversion ratio and survival Cultured shrimps attained...

  11. On the type of Antilope leucophaea Pallas, 1766, preserved in the collection of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden

    Husson, A.M.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1969-01-01

    One of the important features of the mammal collection of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie is its wealth in old types. This is mainly due to the fact that the first director of the Museum, Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858), was one of the foremost mammalogists of his time, and during the e

  12. Reinvestigation of vitellogenesis in Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Caryophyllaeidae), monozoic tapeworm of Abramis brama (Pisces, Teleostei)

    Bruňanská, M.; Drobníková, P.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Nebesářová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-81. ISSN 0440-6605 Grant ostatní: ERDF(XE) 26220120022 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Caryophyllidea * Caryophyllaeus laticeps * vitellogenesis * vitellocyte * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2013

  13. Origin of Spanish invasion by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting

    Rajagopal, S.; Pollux, B.J.A.; Peters, J.L.; Cremers, G.; Moon- van der Staay, S.Y.; Alen, van T.; Eygensteyn, J.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Palau, A.; Vaate, de A.B.; Velde, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha is an aquatic nuisance invasive species originally native to the Ponto-Caspian region where it is found in lakes and delta areas of large rivers draining into the Black and Caspian seas. The dispersal of D. polymorpha began at the end of the 18th century, at a

  14. Contribuição ao conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva de Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera, Molossidae

    Marta Elena Fabián

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 179 specimens of Molossus molossus in Ceará, Brazil, showed morphological and functional ovarian asymmetry in adult females, with the right side more developed. Blastocyst implantation occurred also in the right uterine horn. Active male testicles were bigger (x = 5,38mm than inactive ones (x = 3,25mm. Pregnancy with subsequent offspring was found in March-April and November, during the wet season.

  15. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas. Potential use for genotoxicant biomonitoring of fresh water ecosystems.

    Le Goff, J; Gallois, J; Pelhuet, L; Devier, M H; Budzinski, H; Pottier, D; André, V; Cachot, J

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 microg g(-1) dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 microg g(-1) dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10(8) nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 microg g(-1) dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 microg g(-1) dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10(8) nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor PAH-exposure and evaluate genotoxicity in fresh water ecosystems. PMID:16780971

  16. EFFETTO PALLA DI NEVE: LA RIFORMA UNIVERSITARIA E LA NASCITA DEI CORSI DI LAUREA IN ANTROPOLOGIA A ROMA

    Romano, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of the new educational system, with its Learning Agreements (which require Undergraduate Courses to provide instruction and require teachers provide students with mentoring), its Program Descriptions (which set out the professional qualifications and employment outcomes which each program aims to provide), and its ministerial charts and their credits (which, through the new composition of the former and the modification of the latter, attempt to make good on the promises of t...

  17. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in an aquatic food web recently invaded by Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas)

    The carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions (δ13C and δ15N) of major abiotic and biotic constituents were determined in Oneida Lake, New York. This lake was invaded by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in 1990 and there have been concomitant changes in various biotic and abiotic lake properties. The C (46-49%) and N (12%) concentrations and C:N ratios (3.9-4) of zebra mussel flesh were similar to those reported for other lakes. Trophic positions were reflected in the δ15N values for which walleye > gizzard shad and yellow perch > Daphnia spp. and zebra mussel flesh > seston and sediment. There was an average increase of 3.6%015N per trophic transfer. Results from the δ13C analysis suggest that Daphnia spp. were using a distinct source of organic carbon whereas zebra mussel were using the entire seston resource. Only yellow perch showed a significant shift in δ13C values (1.1%0), possibly reflecting a shift in a food source and diet from 1992 to 1993. (author). 48 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Ovarian Follicle Ultrastructure and Changes in Levels of Ovarian Steroids during Oogenesis in Chalcalburnus tarichi Pallas, 1811

    ÜNAL, Güler

    2005-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the ovarian follicle and the levels of the ovarian 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC), estradiol-17b (E2), 17a-hydroxyprogesterone (17a-OHP), and progesterone (P) were studied during cortical alveoli, vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation in Chalcalburnus tarichi. The microvilli began to form on the oocyte surface during cortical alveoli phase and during vitellogenesis, came into contact in the pore canals of the zona radiata with microvilli formed from granulosa cells. Wh...

  19. Isamaaline tundmus : Eesti ja Soome kirjamees Jüri Tilk ehk Yrjö Virula / Anu Pallas

    Pallas, Anu, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Avaliku elu tegelasest, ajakirjanikust ja karskuskirjanduse rajajast Jüri Tilgast, kes 19. sajandi lõpul töötas aktiivselt üldtuntud rahvajuhtide kõrval, olles ka Ado Grenzsteini lähim aatekaaslane

  20. Relative importance of the trophic and direct pathways on PCB contamination in the rotifer species Brachionus calyciflorus (Pallas)

    Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Gosselain, V; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Thomé, Jean-Pierre

    1995-01-01

    To determine the contribution of food ingestion (trophic pathway) to PCB contamination of zooplankton in the river Meuse (Belgium), we used 14 C-labelled algae (Dictyosphaerium ehrenbergianum) to measure ingestion and assimilation rates in the rotifer species Brachionus calyciflorus . When the concentration of algae in the culture medium varied from 20 103 to 200 103 algal cells ml -1 (0.12 to 1 .18 mg C 1 - '), the Brachionus calyciflorus ingestion rate varied from 0 .25 ± 0 .12 to 1 .52 ± 0...

  1. Predation of Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera: Molossidae by Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002 (Anura: Bufonidae in the Caatinga, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This communication is to report, through a fortuitous event, the predation of the bat Molossus molossus by the toad Rhinella jimi, on 29 May 2003 in the Caatinga, municipality of Orocó, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.

  2. EXPLORATORY PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR URAL OWLS (STRIX URALENSIS, PALLAS 1771) FROM THE AUSTRIAN REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years. PMID:27468020

  3. Fine structure of the female reproductive ducts of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea), from salmonid fish

    Poddubnaya, L. G.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Scholz, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2005), s. 323-338. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1317; GA ČR GA524/04/0342 Grant ostatní: Grantová agentura SR(SK) VEGA2/4177/04; Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research(RU) 05-04-48250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * ultrastructure * female reproductive system Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  4. Selective effects of the extract from Angelica archangelica L. against Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)—An important predator of aphids

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Kazda, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 87-92. ISSN 0926-6690 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Angelica archangelica * Harmonia axyridis * furanocoumarins * botanical insecticides * aphids Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.208, year: 2013

  5. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.; Heide-Jorgensen, M.P.; Moller, P.; Cleemann, M.; Boer, de J.; Glasius, M.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased in the f

  6. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland.

    Dietz, R; Riget, F; Hobson, K A; Heide-Jørgensen, M P; Møller, P; Cleemann, M; de Boer, J; Glasius, M

    2004-09-20

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased in the first 3-4 years of the animal's life, after which no dependence on age was observed. Females had significantly higher concentrations of Cd in all tissues and of Hg and Se in liver than males. No consistent difference in metal levels between narwhals from Avanersuaq and Uummannaq was found. Year-to-year variation in metal levels at one location was larger than the geographical variation. Metal levels were within the range of previous published results for narwhals from Arctic Canada. Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in blubber of narwhals were dependent on age and sex. Females showed decreasing OC concentration in the first 8-10 years, while for males increases were detected in the first few years of life, after which the concentrations became stable. Few statistical differences in mean OC concentrations among individuals were observed. However, narwhals from Avanersuaq in 1993 had the lowest levels, indicating a temporal decrease of SigmaPCBs. SigmaPCBs, DDTs, HCHs and toxaphenes seem to be at similar levels in West Greenland and Arctic Canada, which can be explained by the close winter distributions of populations as well as large ranges in concentrations, time span, number of analyses and the size/age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which they became relatively stable. delta15 N values were significantly higher in samples from Uummannaq in 1993 compared to samples from Avanersuaq in 1984 and 1985 indicating that the diet of the narwhals in Uummannaq was at a higher trophic level. However, only a few significant correlations were found between stable isotope ratios and metal and OC concentrations. PMID:15325143

  7. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.; Heide-Joergensen, M.P.; Moeller, P.; Cleemann, M.; Boer, J. de; Glasius, M

    2004-09-20

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased in the first 3-4 years of the animal's life, after which no dependence on age was observed. Females had significantly higher concentrations of Cd in all tissues and of Hg and Se in liver than males. No consistent difference in metal levels between narwhals from Avanersuaq and Uummannaq was found. Year-to-year variation in metal levels at one location was larger than the geographical variation. Metal levels were within the range of previous published results for narwhals from Arctic Canada. Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in blubber of narwhals were dependent on age and sex. Females showed decreasing OC concentration in the first 8-10 years, while for males increases were detected in the first few years of life, after which the concentrations became stable. Few statistical differences in mean OC concentrations among individuals were observed. However, narwhals from Avanersuaq in 1993 had the lowest levels, indicating a temporal decrease of {sigma}PCBs. {sigma}PCBs, DDTs, HCHs and toxaphenes seem to be at similar levels in West Greenland and Arctic Canada, which can be explained by the close winter distributions of populations as well as large ranges in concentrations, time span, number of analyses and the size/age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which they became relatively stable. {delta}{sup 15} N values were significantly higher in samples from Uummannaq in 1993 compared to samples from Avanersuaq in 1984 and 1985 indicating that the diet of the narwhals in Uummannaq was at a higher trophic level. However, only a few significant correlations were found between stable isotope ratios and metal and OC concentrations.

  8. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased in the first 3-4 years of the animal's life, after which no dependence on age was observed. Females had significantly higher concentrations of Cd in all tissues and of Hg and Se in liver than males. No consistent difference in metal levels between narwhals from Avanersuaq and Uummannaq was found. Year-to-year variation in metal levels at one location was larger than the geographical variation. Metal levels were within the range of previous published results for narwhals from Arctic Canada. Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in blubber of narwhals were dependent on age and sex. Females showed decreasing OC concentration in the first 8-10 years, while for males increases were detected in the first few years of life, after which the concentrations became stable. Few statistical differences in mean OC concentrations among individuals were observed. However, narwhals from Avanersuaq in 1993 had the lowest levels, indicating a temporal decrease of ΣPCBs. ΣPCBs, DDTs, HCHs and toxaphenes seem to be at similar levels in West Greenland and Arctic Canada, which can be explained by the close winter distributions of populations as well as large ranges in concentrations, time span, number of analyses and the size/age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which they became relatively stable. δ15 N values were significantly higher in samples from Uummannaq in 1993 compared to samples from Avanersuaq in 1984 and 1985 indicating that the diet of the narwhals in Uummannaq was at a higher trophic level. However, only a few significant correlations were found between stable isotope ratios and metal and OC concentrations

  9. Sequence variation at the major histocompatibility complex DRB loci in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhal (Monodon monoceros).

    Murray, B W; White, B N

    1998-09-01

    The variation at loci with similarity to DRB class II major histocompatibility complex loci was assessed in 313 beluga collected from 13 sampling locations across North America, and 11 narwhal collected in the Canadian high Arctic. Variation was assessed by amplification of exon 2, which codes for the peptide binding region, via the polymerase chain reaction, followed by either cloning and DNA sequencing or single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. Two DRB loci were identified in beluga: DRB1, a polymorphic locus, and, DRB2, a monomorphic locus. Eight alleles representing five distinct lineages (based on sequence similarity) were found at the beluga DRB1 locus. Although the relative number of alleles is low when compared with terrestrial mammals, the amino acid variation found among the lineages is moderate. At the DRB1 locus, the average number of nonsynonymous substitutions per site is greater than the average number of synonymous substitutions per site (0.0806 : 0.0207, respectively; P<0.01). Most of the 31 amino acid substitutions do not conserve the physiochemical properties of the residue, and 21 of these are located at positions implicated as forming pockets responsible for the selective binding of foreign peptide side chains. Only DRB1 variation was examined in 11 narwhal, revealing a low amount of variation. These data are consistent with an important role for the DRB1 locus in the cellular immune response of beluga. In addition, the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions is similar to that among primate alleles, arguing against a reduction in the balancing selection pressure in the marine environment. Two hypotheses may explain the modest amount of Mhc variation when compared with terrestrial mammals: small population sizes at speciation or a reduced neutral substitution rate in cetaceans. PMID:9716643

  10. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks

    Garde, Eva; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Ditlevsen, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    ) technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid D/L ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks (n=9). Two racemization rates were...

  11. Pathogenesis and virulence of Vibrio harveyi from southern part of Thailand in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Pecharat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of bacteria were performed from diseased black tiger shrimp collected from farms in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Patthalung, Songkhla, Satun and Patthani. All isolates belonged to Vibrio harveyi, forming rounded colonies with smooth periphery and hemolysis of red blood cells. The colonies appearedgreen and yellow on TCBS selective media and indeeded both luminescent and non-luminescent groups. To support good growth as cell proliferation, an addition of 2-8% salt to the culture media was required. Sensitivity tests against antibiotics showed that all ten isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxolinic acid, oxytetracyclin and sarafloxacin at 80, 60, 50, 40, 40 and 30%, respectively. When 12-15 g juvenile shrimp were tested for the virulence by injection, the isolates were highly virulent with OD at 640 nm in the range 0.007-0.139. The bacteria concentration of 1.60×106 - 7.27×107 CFU/ ml caused 50% juvenile mortality in ten days. The physiological changes after susceptibility included a decline in the blood cells (p<0.05, higher plasma pH (p<0.05, decrease in serum protein within 24 h (p<0.05, and a return to normal levels within 48 h. There were no differences in blood sugar levels and phenoloxidase activity between the healthy and the infected individuals. Histological study showed that at an early period of susceptibility, there were swollen tubular lumen, minor cell degeneration of the hepatic tubules and lymphoid organs and aggregation of blood cells around the degenerating cells. During 7-day susceptibility period, there was large scale cell degeneration of the hepatopancreas, lymphoid organs, gills and blood formingorgans with a great extent of blood cell aggregation and eventually mortalities occurred. During 14 day susceptibility period, there was almost entire degeneration of cells in hepatic tubules and lymphoid organs causing hepatopancreatic tubular necrosis. During this period, juveniles did not accept feed and total mortality occurred.

  12. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems. PMID:20943254

  13. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  14. The development of a high density linkage map for black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon based on cSNPs.

    Matthew Baranski

    Full Text Available Transcriptome sequencing using Illumina RNA-seq was performed on populations of black tiger shrimp from India. Samples were collected from (i four landing centres around the east coastline (EC of India, (ii survivors of a severe WSSV infection during pond culture (SUR and (iii the Andaman Islands (AI in the Bay of Bengal. Equal quantities of purified total RNA from homogenates of hepatopancreas, muscle, nervous tissue, intestinal tract, heart, gonad, gills, pleopod and lymphoid organs were combined to create AI, EC and SUR pools for RNA sequencing. De novo transcriptome assembly resulted in 136,223 contigs (minimum size 100 base pairs, bp with a total length 61 Mb, an average length of 446 bp and an average coverage of 163× across all pools. Approximately 16% of contigs were annotated with BLAST hit information and gene ontology annotations. A total of 473,620 putative SNPs/indels were identified. An Illumina iSelect genotyping array containing 6,000 SNPs was developed and used to genotype 1024 offspring belonging to seven full-sibling families. A total of 3959 SNPs were mapped to 44 linkage groups. The linkage groups consisted of between 16-129 and 13-130 markers, of length between 139-10.8 and 109.1-10.5 cM and with intervals averaging between 1.2 and 0.9 cM for the female and male maps respectively. The female map was 28% longer than the male map (4060 and 2917 cM respectively with a 1.6 higher recombination rate observed for female compared to male meioses. This approach has substantially increased expressed sequence and DNA marker resources for tiger shrimp and is a useful resource for QTL mapping and association studies for evolutionarily and commercially important traits.

  15. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.;

    2004-01-01

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased in the...... first 3-4 years of the animal's life, after which no dependence on age was observed. Females had significantly higher concentrations of Cd in all tissues and of Hg and Se in liver than males. No consistent difference in metal levels between narwhals from Avanersuaq and Uummarmaq was found. Year...... concentration in the first 8-10 years, while for males increases were detected in the first few years of life, after which the concentrations became stable. Few statistical differences in mean OC concentrations among individuals were observed. However, narwhals from Avanersuaq in 1993 had the lowest levels...

  16. Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts

    Hanzelová, V.; Oros, M.; Barčák, D.; Miklisová, D.; Kirin, D.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2015), s. 177-190. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : population dynamics * identification * cesroda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  17. Reproductive parameters of invasive population of Round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1814) in the Slovak part of the Danube river - preliminary results

    Round goby has a high invasive potential and huge expansive scattering. A suitable reproduction strategy probably helps him in successful colonizing of new territories. This allows him to create offspring also in the environments with constantly changing conditions. The aim of this work was to: (1) Analyze vital signs flexibility of bull populations living in different habitats (Karloveske rameno - less stable habitat, Cunovo - stable habitat). (2) Determine whether the disturbance, which occurred in 2010 on a site Karloveske rameno expressed in reproductive parameters of this population. To achieve the objectives it was necessary to analyze reproductive parameters of the bull individuals from both locations. The population of goby from Karloveske rameno has statistically significantly greater total mean of oocytes and oocyte diameter in different size groups and a higher average value of gonadosomatic index compared with a population of Cunovo. The absolute fertility and relative fertility was lower in Karloveske rameno population despite the fact that a given population had a greater range of values of absolute fertility. (author)

  18. Re-introduction of globally threatened Arabian Gazelles Gazella Arabica (Pallas, 1766 (Mammalia: Bovidae in fenced protected area in central Saudi Arabia

    M.Z. Islam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gazelle is a globally threatened antelope (Vulnerable in Saudi Arabia. Small relict populations remain in limited areas, while historically Arabian Gazelles occurred in Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in central Saudi Arabia but were exterminated by anthropogenic and other pressures, including habitat loss and hunting. Important habitat has been lost to agricultural developments, fencing of pasture for livestock and the construction of human settlements and roads. The reintroduction of Arabian Gazelles was undertaken in Mahazat during 2011-2014 to bring back this locally extinct species study its ecology and biology in a fenced protected area. We released a total of 49 (12 males, 37 females animals. A year after release animals started breeding and six calves have been recorded so far with more to come. The gazelles prefer to use more rocky areas where shrubs and acacia trees occur in the reserve, and do not move long distances except for one individual that moved more than 50km. Mahazat is fenced, which prevents local people from entering the reserve to poach or otherwise disturb animals. Management lessons include the need for continued monitor-ing of reintroduced populations. Interactions between Arabian and Sand Gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica and Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx were also studied.

  19. The behavioural ecology of two sympatric talitrid species, Talitrus saltator (Montagu) and Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas) on a Tyrrhenian sandy beach dune system

    Colombini, Isabella; Fallaci, Mario; Gagnarli, Elena; Rossano, Claudia; Scapini, Felicita; Chelazzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The behavioural ecology of a sub-population of Talitrus saltator living on the sandy shore of the Maremma Regional Park (Italy) was compared with that of Orchestia gammarellus inhabiting the retrodunal dune slack area. Monthly monitoring over a year determined the mean distribution patterns, their changes and whether these overlapped. Standard pitfall traps were placed along transects across the beach-dune-dune slack area. Experiments analysed the diel activity rhythms during spring and the activity patterns of the different age classes and the two sexes were compared within and between species. Local environmental conditions were registered with a microclimatic station. During May and September, plant hummocks were monitored to see whether surface movements of O. gammarellus could be restricted to certain periods of the year and to estimate densities within the vegetation. The plant biomass and moisture conditions within the hummocks were also recorded and substratum samples were collected at the base of the shrubs for laboratory analysis. To test for visual cues, orientation experiments with and without landscape view were carried out on the beach during morning and afternoon hours and contemporaneously for each species. Experiments to test the diel variation of scototaxis to a black shape were also performed over a 24 h period of time under controlled conditions. There was a spatial partitioning of the two species, with T. saltator moving along a sea-land axis according to diel and seasonal changes and with some individuals reaching the back of the dune in particular environmental conditions. No spatial overlap with the zonation patterns of O. gammarellus was observed, which was restricted to the dune slack area. Nocturnal surface activity was observed for both species with juveniles peaking at dawn and with O. gammarellus being strictly more nocturnal than T. saltator. Orientation experiments showed a higher ability of T. saltator to orient towards the shoreline using solar and local cues, whereas O. gammarellus seemed to have a stronger scototaxis. Differences in the behavioural responses are discussed in terms of the species ecological adaptations to their particular habitats.

  20. Effects of X-rays on the mortality of pubescent individuals and on the fertility of females of the amphipod Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas)

    Orchestia gammarellus females and males were X-irradiated with doses of 2,300-40,000R. The LD 50/20 is 2,300R. No egg-laying was observed in any irradiated females. Radiosensitivity of embryos was higher than that of the female parent

  1. [Variation in the timing of spawning of the Black Sea brown trout Salmo trutta labrax Pallas under artificial and natural conditions].

    Makhrov, A A; Artamonova, V S; Sumarokov, V S; Pashkov, A N; Reshetnikov, S I; Ganchenko, M V; Kulian, S A

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the maturation and spawning times of the Black Sea brown trout bred at the fish-farming plants and inhabiting natural waterways of the Northwestern Caucasus has demonstrated a considerable variation depending on environmental conditions, first and foremost, temperature. This fact, as well as the analysis of literature data, suggests that the duration and timing of the spawning season cannot be used as self-sufficient criteria for identifying species of the genus Salmo. PMID:21506392

  2. Effects of sewage effluent and ethynyl oestradiol upon molecular markers of oestrogenic exposure, maturation and reproductive success in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus, Pallas)

    Male fish in several UK estuaries are known to be exposed to oestrogenic contamination, and whilst a limited number of studies have shown that exposure to oestrogens can reduce the reproductive success of fish, the impact of environmentally relevant exposures is less clear. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effects of exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of a sewage effluent and the synthetic oestrogen 17α-ethynyl oestradiol (EE2) upon the reproductive success of a marine fish. Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) were exposed for 7 months to EE2 or a sewage effluent containing known xeno-oestrogens (alkylphenol polyethoxylates) and bred using within treatment crosses. Nominal exposure concentrations were 6 ng l-1 EE2, 0.3 or 0.03% v/v sewage effluent. At the end of the breeding trials, expression of hepatic zona radiata protein (Zrp) and vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA were determined using two recently developed cDNA probes. Exposure to 6 ng l-1 EE2 induced Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression in male and female sand goby, impaired male maturation and reproductive behaviour, reduced female fecundity and reduced egg fertility. As a consequence, fertile egg production of the EE2-exposed population was reduced by 90%. Exposure to sewage effluent (0.3% v/v) increased adult mortality and female Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression, but did not induce male vitellogenesis. Exposure to EE2 and 0.3% v/v sewage effluent impaired development of the male urogenital papilla. Fish exposed to 0.03% v/v sewage effluent produced more fertile eggs than those exposed to 0.3% effluent, or those receiving no effluent. It is concluded that male vitellogenesis in an oestrogenically exposed population may be accompanied by reduced reproductive success, but that it may not be indicative of altered reproductive output in a population exposed to an industrial sewage effluent

  3. A comparison of skeletal muscle protein bands in Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771) and Pelophylax caralitanus (Arıkan, 1988) populations in Turkey using SDS-PAGE

    BÜLBÜL, Ufuk; KUTRUP, Bilal

    2011-01-01

    In this study, skeletal muscle protein bands of Pelophylax ridibundus specimens from 31 populations inhabiting all geographic regions of Turkey and Pelophylax caralitanus specimens from the Isparta (Lake Eğirdir) population were compared using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In total, 270 adult (134 females, 136 males) P. ridibundus specimens and 12 adult (5 females, 7 males) P. caralitanus specimens were used in SDS-PAGE characterization. The first grou...

  4. Is web oscillation in the orb-web spider Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772)(Araneidae) an anti-predatory behaviour?

    Cedhagen, Tomas; Björklund, S.

    2007-01-01

    the spider allow it to move the centre of gravity quickly, and thereby to oscillate. (2) The great elasticity and strength of its web allow the spider to control the oscillations so that slow movements are reduced to a minimum. (3) When it is oscillating. the eyes of a predator cannot accommodate to...

  5. Accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel and Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla in a constructed wetland of the Venice lagoon watershed

    Bragato, Claudia [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Padova, Agripolis, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Brix, Hans [Department of Biological Sciences, Plant Biology, University of Aarhus, Ole Worms Alle, Building 1135, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark); Malagoli, Mario [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Padova, Agripolis, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy)]. E-mail: mario.malagoli@unipd.it

    2006-12-15

    A recently constructed wetland, located in the Venice lagoon watershed, was monitored to investigate growth dynamics, nutrient and heavy metal shoot accumulation of the two dominating macrophytes: Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus. Investigations were conducted over a vegetative season at three locations with different distance to the inlet point to assess effects on vegetation. The distance from the inlet did not affect either shoot biomass or nutrients (N, P, K and Na) and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) shoot content. With the exception of Na, nutrient and heavy metal concentrations were higher in shoots of P. australis than in B. maritimus. Heavy metal concentration in the incoming water and in the soil was not correlated to the plant content of either species. Shoot heavy metal concentrations were similar to those reported in the current literature, but accumulation generally increased towards the end of the growing season. - Heavy metal shoot concentration in Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus increased significantly at the end of the growing season.

  6. The influence of stocking density on growth performance and hematological profile of stellate sturgeon (A. stellatus, Pallas, 1771, reared in an industrial ,, flow-through’’ aquaculture system

    Desimira Maria Dicu Stroe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of four different stocking densities, ranging from 18.7 to 28.6 kg m3, on growth performance and welfare of juvenile stellate sturgeons, reared in an industrial ,,flow-through’’ aquaculture system. At the end of 60 days experimental period, a survival rate of 98% and a stocking density that ranged from 32.5 to 39.8 kg m-3 were registered. The physiological state of biological material is characterized by the values ​​of hematological indices, that are not significant from the statistical point of view (p> 0.05, both at the beginning and at the end of experimental period, as well as between experimental variants. To assess the biological material growth performance, feed conversion ratio (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR and profile index were calculated. Regarding the growth performance parameters, better value are encountered at B1 (18.7 kg m-3 and B3 (23.3 kg m-3, appreciable values ​​at B2 (20.4 kg m-3 and low values at B4 (28.6 kg m-3. As conclusion, it can be assert that the initial stocking density of 28.6 kg m-3 is not optimal for rearing juvenile stellate sturgeons in an industrial ,,flow-through’’ aquaculture system. Normal 0 21 false false false RO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  7. Vulnerability of larvae of two species of aphidophagous ladybirds, Adalia bipunctata Linnaeus and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, to cannibalism and intraguild predation

    Sato, S.; Yasuda, H.; Evans, E.W.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2009), s. 111-115. ISSN 1343-8786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : cannibalism * chemical protection * Coccinellidae * intraguild predation * predatory ladybirds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.663, year: 2009

  8. Separar el gra de la palla a la web Separating the Wheat from the Chaff on the Web Separar el grano de la paja en la web

    Francina Martí Cartes

    2008-01-01

    L'article exposa diverses teories d'experts sobre l'avaluació de la informació a Internet. Aquestes teories es comparen amb el comportament d'uns estudiants d'ESO a l'hora de buscar informació a Internet, a partir de dades extretes d'observacions i entrevistes. Finalment, es fan algunes propostes d'estratègies que es poden ensenyar als estudiants perquè siguin capaços de valorar la credibilitat dels webs que visiten, tot analitzan-ne l'autoria, l'objectivitat i els propòsits. ________________...

  9. Separar el gra de la palla a la web Separating the Wheat from the Chaff on the Web Separar el grano de la paja en la web

    Francina Martí Cartes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L'article exposa diverses teories d'experts sobre l'avaluació de la informació a Internet. Aquestes teories es comparen amb el comportament d'uns estudiants d'ESO a l'hora de buscar informació a Internet, a partir de dades extretes d'observacions i entrevistes. Finalment, es fan algunes propostes d'estratègies que es poden ensenyar als estudiants perquè siguin capaços de valorar la credibilitat dels webs que visiten, tot analitzan-ne l'autoria, l'objectivitat i els propòsits. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cet article explore diverses théories sur l'evaluation de l'information sur Internet. Ces théories sont comparées avec le comportement de certains élèves de l'enseignement secondaire (ESO à la recherche d'information sur Internet, à partir de données extraites d'observations et d'entrevues. Enfin, l'article fait quelques propositions de stratégies qui peuvent être enseignées aux élèves afin qu'ils soient capables d'evaluer la crédibilité des sites web visités, en analysant leurs auteurs, leur objectivité et leurs propos.This article explores various theories about evaluating information on the Internet. The theories are tested against data taken from observations and interviews concerning the behaviour of secondary school (ESO students searching for information on the Internet. Lastly, a number of strategies are proposed to equip students to be better able to assess the credibility of the websites they browse, analysing their authorship, objectivity and purpose.El artículo explora diversas teorías sobre la evaluación de la información en Internet. Estas teorías se comparan con el comportamiento de unos estudiantes de ESO en la búsqueda de información en Internet, a partir de datos extraídos de observaciones y entrevistas. Finalmente, se hacen algunas propuestas de estrategias que se pueden enseñar a los estudiantes para que sean capaces de valorar la credibilidad de las webs que visitan, analizando su autoría, objetividad y propósitos.

  10. The influence of some phytobiotics (thyme, seabuckthorn on growth performance of stellate sturgeon (A. stellatus, Pallas, 1771 in an industrial recirculating aquaculture system

    Oana Georgiana Dorojan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obiectivul acestui experiment a fost de a evalua influența unor phytobiotics asupra performanțelor de creștere a sturionilor stelat ( A. stellatus . Au existat două variante experimentale: V1 - cimbru și V2 - catina. Peștele utilizat în acest experiment au fost de un an si patru luni, cu o greutate inițială medie de 122.78 ± 31.60 g / pește (V1, respectiv 121.21 ± 32,54 g / pește (V2. Cele phytobiotics folosite, cimbru ( Thymus vulgaris și cătină ( Hippophae rhamnoides , au fost încorporate în furaje, utilizând gelatină, având o concentrație de 2% / kg furaj. Alterna Storioni hrănesc - a fost folosit de 48% proteine ​​brute. Parametrii de calitate a apei în timpul experimentului au fost în limite normale pentru o creștere optimă a peștilor experimentale. La sfârșitul experimentului diferențele semnificative (p <0,05 au fost observate între cele două variante experimentale în termeni de greutate medie finală și rata de creștere individuală. Diferențele cu privire la SGR, FCR, PER au fost nesemnificative (p> 0,05. Valoarea cea mai mare rata de creștere individuală (105.90 g a fost înregistrată în cazul V2 și cea mai mică valoare (98,45 g în caz de V1. Ca o concluzie, se poate spune că cele două tipuri de phytobiotics (cimbru, cătină, administrate într-o concentrație de 2% / kg de furaje, au influențat performanța de creștere a sturionilor stelat.  

  11. Accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel and Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla in a constructed wetland of the Venice lagoon watershed

    A recently constructed wetland, located in the Venice lagoon watershed, was monitored to investigate growth dynamics, nutrient and heavy metal shoot accumulation of the two dominating macrophytes: Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus. Investigations were conducted over a vegetative season at three locations with different distance to the inlet point to assess effects on vegetation. The distance from the inlet did not affect either shoot biomass or nutrients (N, P, K and Na) and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) shoot content. With the exception of Na, nutrient and heavy metal concentrations were higher in shoots of P. australis than in B. maritimus. Heavy metal concentration in the incoming water and in the soil was not correlated to the plant content of either species. Shoot heavy metal concentrations were similar to those reported in the current literature, but accumulation generally increased towards the end of the growing season. - Heavy metal shoot concentration in Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus increased significantly at the end of the growing season

  12. The mechanical properties of the dentine and cement of the tusk of the narwhal Monodon monoceros compared with those of other mineralized tissues.

    Brear, K; Currey, J D; Pond, C M; Ramsay, M A

    1990-01-01

    Values for Young's modulus of elasticity, ultimate and yield stresses, ultimate and yield strains, work under the stress-strain curve and work of fracture were obtained from tensile and bending tests on specimens of narwhal tusk dentine and cement, femoral bone from young and mature cattle, and reindeer antler. Compared with the cattle bone the narwhal tissues had low Young's moduli, low yield stresses, rather low ultimate stresses and high ultimate strains. In all these properties they were similar to reindeer antler. The calcium content and hardness of the narwhal tissues were compared with those of human and cattle dental tissues. The narwhal dentine was considerably softer and less mineralized than human and cattle dentine. Human cementum was softer and less mineralized than cattle cementum, and was like narwhal cementum. In general, the mechanical properties of the narwhal tusk tissues were as would be expected from their mineral content, except that the stiffness of the cementum was low. It is likely that narwhal dentine is not very similar to human and cattle dentine in its mechanical properties. PMID:2256815

  13. Mercury distribution in the skin of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhal (Monodon monoceros) from the Canadian Arctic and mercury burdens and excretion by moulting.

    Wagemann, R; Kozlowska, H

    2005-12-01

    Beluga and narwhal skin as a whole (in Inuktitut known as "muktuk") is considered to be a delicacy by native Canadian and Greenland people. Individual strata of the skin, and muscle from 27 beluga from the western, and 20 narwhal from the eastern Canadian Arctic, were analyzed for mercury and the thickness and density of each skin layer was measured. Mercury was not uniformly distributed in the skin, but increased outwardly with each layer. The concentration was only 0.29 and 0.16 microg/g (wet wt) in the innermost layer (dermis) of belugas and narwhal respectively, and 1.5 and 1.4 microg/g (wet wt) in the outermost layer (degenerative epidermis) of beluga and narwhal, respectively. There was a significant (alpha=0.05) association between age and mercury concentration in each skin layer, the regression coefficients progressively increasing from the inner layer (dermis) to the outer layer: 0.011-0.063 microg/g year-1; 0.034 microg/g year-1 for skin as a whole; 0.054 microg/g year-1 for muscle. The concentration of total mercury was 0.84 and 0.59 microg/g (wet wt) in skin as a whole (muktuk) of beluga and narwhal respectively, and 0.12 and 0.03 microg/g in blubber, respectively. The average, total mercury concentration in muscle tissue was 1.4 and 0.81 microg/g wet wt, in beluga and narwhal respectively, exceeding (except for blubber) the Canadian Government's Guideline (0.5 microg/g wet wt) for fish export and consumption. The skin surface area of an average-size beluga and narwhal was estimated (6.10 and 6.50 m2, respectively), as were excretions of mercury through moulting (13,861 and 6721 microg year-1; 14 and 7 mg year-1) for belugas and narwhal, respectively. The whole-body mercury burden (699,300 microg; 700 mg) for a 1000 kg beluga and its various tissues were estimated, as was the fraction of mercury excreted by moulting (2-0.42% of the whole-body burden). Annual mercury burden increments in beluga skin, muscle and the whole body were estimated (2750; 17,280; 40,00 microg year-1, respectively), using regression coefficients of age on mercury concentration. The annual gross mercury intake via food was estimated (131,400 microg), of which 70% was excreted. PMID:16271747

  14. Subcellular distribution of heavy metals in liver and kidney of a narwhal whale (Monodon monoceros): an evaluation for the presence of metallothionein.

    Wagemann, R; Hunt, R; Klaverkamp, J F

    1984-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of Zn, Cd, Cu and Hg in liver and kidney from a narwhal was determined by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration. Most of the total mercury in the liver and kidney was bound by the cellular pellet (88 and 73%, respectively). Of the total mercury, 7 and 11% was in the form of methylmercury in the liver and kidney, respectively. More than half (74%) of the total Zn and Cu in the kidney was in the cytosol and somewhat less than this was in the cytosol of the liver. Almost all of the cadmium in liver and kidney (88 and 92%, respectively) was in cytosol. Cytosolic fractions from liver and kidney were evaluated for the presence of metallothionein by analysing for Zn, Cd, Hg, Cu, Fe and--SH groups, by molecular weight estimation and by u.v. absorption spectra. Metallothionein was found in these organs in estimated concentrations similar to those present in terrestrial and other marine mammals. PMID:6149069

  15. Effects of buffer additives and thermal processing methods on the solubility of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) proteins and the immunoreactivity of its major allergen.

    Lasekan, Adeseye O; Nayak, Balunkeswar

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the potential of two buffer additives (Tween 20 and DTT) to improve the solubility of proteins from shrimp subjected to different heat treatments and the allergenicity of tropomyosin in the extracts. The concentration of soluble proteins extracted by all the buffers from processed shrimp was significantly reduced compared with untreated samples. The concentration of total soluble proteins from heat treated shrimp increased significantly when phosphate buffer containing both surfactant and reducing agent was used as the extraction buffer. However, the concentrations of heat-stable proteins in the buffers were mostly similar. The electrophoretic profile of extracted proteins showed that tropomyosin is very stable under the different heat treatment methods used in this study except for high pressure steaming where the intensity of tropomyosin band was reduced. Competitive inhibition ELISA showed that high pressure steaming reduced the allergenicity of tropomyosin compared with other heat treatments methods. PMID:26830572

  16. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius)

    Klowkliang, T.; Tattanon, T.; Ruangsri, J.; Supamattaya, K.; Suntornchareonnon, N.; Boonyaratpalin, M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.4...

  17. Trace metals in the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and mangrove sediments of the Tanzania coast: Is there a risk to marine fauna and public health?

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kochzius, Marc; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Mangroves ecosystems support livelihood and economic activities of coastal communities in the tropics and subtropics. Previous reports have documented the inefficiency of waste treatment facilities in Tanzania to contain trace metals. Therefore, the rapidly expanding coastal population and industrial sector is likely to threaten mangrove ecosystems with metal pollution. This study analysed trace metals in 60 sediment samples and 160 giant tiger prawns from the Tanzanian coast in order to document the distribution of trace metals and to establish if measured levels present a threat to mangrove fauna and are of public health importance. High levels of Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and V was observed in mangroves of river Pangani, Wami, and Rufiji. Multivariate analysis showed that they originate mainly from weathering and erosion in the river catchments. Extreme enrichment of Cd was observed in a mangrove affected by municipal sewage. The distribution of Hg, Pb, and Zn was related with urbanisation and industrial activities along the coast. The metal pollution index was high at Pangani, Saadani, and Rufiji, suggesting that these estuarine mangroves are also affected by human activities in the catchment. Moderate to considerable ecological risks were observed in all sampled mangroves, except for Kilwa Masoko. It was revealed that As, Cd, and Hg present moderate risks to fauna. High levels of Cu, Fe and Zn were observed in prawns but the level of the non-essential Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed the maximum allowed levels for human consumption. However, based on the trends of fish consumption in the country, weekly intake of Hg is likely to exceed provisional tolerable weekly intake level, especially in fishing communities. This calls for measures to control Hg emissions and to strengthen sewage and waste treatment in coastal cities and urban centres in the basin of major rivers. PMID:27281719

  18. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Klowkliang, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.49% w/w. There are andrographolide,14-deoxy-11-12-didehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide. TLC-chromatogram of Clinacanthus nutans extract after reacted with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid showed a 9 key compounds, while preliminary neutralization test of the compounds revealed that there were active compounds against HSV-1 virus. In vitro efficacy test revealed that Curcuma longa and Andrographis paniculata extracts at 250 and 1,500 mg/L could eradicate 15 isolates of Vibrio spp. which were isolated from infected shrimps. Effects of medicinal plant extracts incorporated into the diet on shrimp immune responses were investigated. Shrimp fed diet containing Clinacanthus nutans extract at 20 mg/kg of diet had good growth, FCR and immune responses. The shrimp that were fed diet containing Curcuma longa extracts at 25 mg/kg of diet for 7-14 days showed high resistance to Vibrio harveyi. Likewise, the shrimp fed Andrographis paniculata extract at 25 mg/ kg of diet for 14 days had a higher resistance to WSSV. Incorporating the medicinal extracts at higher levels resulted in reduction in diet palatability which consequently had an effect on a decrease in growth, immune responses and resistance to bacterial and WSSV infection.

  19. Activity of Na +/K + -ATPase from the gill of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon )%斑节对虾鳃Na+/K+-ATPase的活性

    房文红; 王慧; 来琦芳; 李国保

    2001-01-01

    研究了培养介质的Na+、K+和Mg2+浓度、Na+:K+比、pH值、培养温度以及培养时间和底物ATP-Na2量对斑节对虾鳃Na+/K+-ATPase活性的影响.培养介质中Na+浓度为50~100mM、K+浓度为25~30mM、Mg2+浓度为8~20mM、Na+:K+比在10:1~2:1、pH 7.0~7.5时,Na+/K+-ATPase活性较高,Na+/K+-ATPase活性随着培养温度升高而增大.Na+/K+-ATPase反应时释放出的无机磷(Pi)累积量与培养时间呈直线性增加.底物ATP-Na2浓度达到1.04mM时,Na+/K+-ATPase活性达到最高,随着ATP-Na2量的增多,Na+/K+-ATPase活性并未增大.

  20. Evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Patil, R.; Palaksha, K.J.; Anil, T.M.; Guruchannabasavanna; Patil, P.; Shankar, K.M.; Mohan, C.V.; Sreepada, R.A.

    , of Karnataka on the west coast of India. Of 12 grow-out farms in Kundapur, 6 (F1 to F6) yielded shrimp samples that were negative for WSSV by both immunodot test and 1-step PCR from stocking to successful harvest. Samples from the other 6 farms (F7 to F12) were...

  1. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    Thi Tu, H.; SILVESTRE, F.; Wang, N; Thomé, J.-P.; Thanh Phuong, N.; Kestemont, P

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice–shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6);...

  2. Development and testing of methods to be used in the Dreissena polymorpha (PALLAS) freshwater mussel for the biomonitoring of heavy metals in the ecosystem of the river Weser. Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden fuer einen Einsatz der Suesswassermuschel Dreissena polymorpha (PALLAS) fuer ein Biomonitoring von Schwermetallen im Oekosystem Weser

    Busch, D.

    1991-03-01

    The suitability of the Dreissena polymorpha freshwater mussel for passive and active biomonitoring of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Hg) in a limnic ecosystem, particularly that of the Weser, was investigated from different points of view. The local and temporal differences in concentration seen for the soft parts reflect the variations in the bioavailability of heavy metals between sites of exposure and are not to be regarded as a result of the mussels' individual living conditions. Bioavailability is an independent quantitative factor that is subject to local and temporal changes and of key importance to ecological risk assessments. It cannot be determined or extrapolated from the chemico-technical values usually measured for various water parameters. An analysis of the concentrations of pollutants in the water and sediment does not provide a basis for reliable predictions about the related dangers to the particular biocenosis constituted by waters. (orig.).

  3. Ontogenetic variations in the diet of two invasive gobies, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) and Ponticola kessleri (Günther, 1861), from the middle Danube (Slovakia) with notice on their potential impact on benthic invertebrate communities.

    Števove, Barbora; Kováč, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ontogenetic variations in diet of invasive bighead goby Ponticola kessleri and round goby Neogobius melanostomus from the middle Danube were analysed. Index of stomach fullness, Fulton's condition factor, index of food importance, frequency of occurrence, biomass, electivity, and proportions of invasive organisms in their diet were examined. Changes in the diet during ontogeny of both species emphasise the differences in their trophic niches. Our results combined with literary data suggest that bighead goby may threaten small native benthic fish species as a predator (especially in the invasion front), whereas round goby can potentially impact native fish species of all ontogenetic phases by competing for food. Round goby appear to have strong impact on bivalves, especially in the invasion front. High consumption of invasive organisms by bighead goby may help the native macroinvertebrate community. Thus, in contrast to round goby, bighead goby does not seem to be a hot candidate for being a nuisance invader. PMID:27031302

  4. Increased presence of the thermophilic mosquitoes and potential vectors Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas, 1771) and Culex modestus Ficalbi 1889 in Central Europe’s lower Dyje River basin (South Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Šebesta, O.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2015), s. 272-280. ISSN 0037-9271 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anopheles hyrcanus * Culex modestus * vector Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2014

  5. 防治匙叶天南星褐腐病药剂筛选试验初报%Experimant for selecting fungicide to control brown rot of spathipyllum pallas

    欧壮喆; 张扬; 潘礼增; 黄奉; 陈采平; 李庆生

    2003-01-01

    药剂筛选试验结果表明,10%世高水分散粒剂、30%爱苗乳油、2.5%适乐时乳油、25%施保克乳油和25%腈菌唑乳油等5种杀菌剂对匙叶天南星褐腐病有良好的控制作用,防治效果达91%以上,对作物安全.生产上可选择这些杀菌剂,采用淋灌法,在杯苗期、中苗期和大苗期各施药2~3次,每隔7~10天施药一次.

  6. Study on biological and pathogenic characteristics of the brown rot of Spathiphyllum pallas%绿巨人褐腐病菌生物学特性和病组织结构变化的研究

    伍慧雄; 王健; 王军; 岑炳沾; 余倩珠; 姚京都

    2004-01-01

    苞叶芋属观叶植物表现褐腐病症状的绿巨人Spathiphyllum pallas、神灯白掌S. lynise、香水白掌S. sensation、金叶白掌S. golden和白掌S. clevelandii分离提纯菌株,作交互接种试验显示,都可交互致病,表现褐腐病自然感病症状. 根据对5个菌株培养特性、形态特征和致病性观测,认为是同一个病原种即苞叶芋帚梗柱孢Cylindrocladium spathiphylli Schoulties El-Gholl & Alfieri. 病原菌生物学特性的研究表明,20~26 ℃适宜病原菌生长,高于34 ℃或低于15 ℃则不利于生长,湿度在90%以上有利于病原菌孢子萌发;在适量微量元素Fe、Mg、K营养条件下,病原菌生长缓慢,pH 5~9病原菌生长良好. 从接种病原菌后的绿巨人叶柄横切可见其病理结构变化为:接种12 h,病菌以菌丝通过表皮上伤口或细胞间隙进入皮层;接种24 h,部分表皮细胞和皮层薄壁细胞质壁分离,变褐;接种48 h,受害皮层薄壁细胞向深处发展扩大,细胞壁呈黑褐色;接种72 h,病菌侵进维管束,韧皮部和木质部破坏变黑;接种72 h的病根横切显示,病菌菌丝通过表皮伤口进入外皮层、中皮层薄壁细胞、胞壁崩裂、变黑. 本研究目的是为绿巨人生产中的病害防治提供理论依据.

  7. 5种杀虫剂防治西番莲大斑芫菁的药效试验%Tests of five insecticides for contolling Mylabris phalerata Pallas on Passiflora edulis Sims

    任新军; 付先惠; 文斌; 张丽霞

    2002-01-01

    通过室内药剂试验,发现敌百虫1 000倍液、辛硫磷1 000倍液、多虫清2 000倍液、功夫4 000倍液、巴丹1 000倍液等5种药剂都对大斑芫菁有较好的胃毒效果.其中敌百虫触杀效果较好,见效快、持效长,在施药12 h后,大斑芫菁平均死亡率达到100%.通过对敌百虫浓度梯度试验表明,在生产上使用90%敌百虫原粉3 000倍液防治西番莲大斑芫菁较理想,既可收到较好的防治效果,又能降低生产成本.

  8. The study of genetic diversity and population structure of Vimba vimba persa (Pallas, 1814 populations in the Eastern and Western coastline of the Caspian sea (Havigh River and GorganRoud River using microsatellite markers

    Samira Mohamadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of Vimba vimba persa was investigated using microsatellite markers from two regions of the Iranian coastline of southern Caspian sea (Havigh River in Guilan province, GorganRoud River in Golestan province. The purpose of this research was the study of Vimba vimba persa’s possible populations related to genetic diversity and population structure in the Caspian sea and introducing the useful genetic markers. To investigate the genetic structure of Vimba vimba persa populations, we sampled 50 specimens of Vimba vimba persa caught by beach seine from GorganRoud River in Golestan Province (30 specimens and Havigh River in the Guilan Province (20 specimens. Genomic DNA was extracted from fin tissue by phenol-Chlorophorm method and PCR reaction was accomplished with 17 microsatellite primers 10 of which were amplified with reasonable polymorphism. Means of alleles were on 6.75 averages, observed and expected heterozygosity averages were 0.817 and 0.735, respectively. Most cases, significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p≤0.01. According to the Fst values, there are two significant populations of Vimba vimba persa in the eastern and western coasts of the Caspian Sea which restocking of these species should be considered. Based on the survey revealed, since the population of this species is decreasing with its high genetic diversity, the Caspian Vimba had an enormous diversity in the past.

  9. Süda läks seitsmekümneks killuks : usutlusi kunstiühingu Pallas kirjavahetajaliikme Leida Rügaga / Leida Rüga ; interv. Enn Lillemets

    Rüga, Leida

    2000-01-01

    Eduard Rüga abikaasa mälestusi Eestist põgenemisest 1944. a., Ameerikasse pääsemisest, sidemetest Eestiga. Usutlus on talletatud 1994. a. Eestis. 8. VIII 2000 sängitati Tartus, Vana-Jaani kalmistul Raadil mulda Eduard Rüga (1903-1997, Elmwood Park) tuhk. Hauakivi autor Jaan Luik

  10. 斑节对虾1种lectin基因的电子克隆及分析%Silico cloning and analysis of C-lectin gene in Penaeus monodon

    杨玥; 杨军厚

    2012-01-01

    @@%以中国明对虾的c-lectin(DQ167572)基因为探针,搜索EST数据库,获得了日本对虾的1个lectin序列,通过电子克隆扩增到了该基因,并对基因进行了生物信息学分析.

  11. On some eighteenth century animal portraits of interest for systematic zoology

    Tuijn, P.; Feen, van der P.J.

    1969-01-01

    The English zoologist Thomas Pennant (1726—1798) visited The Hague in 1765. There he met another zoologist, Dr. Peter Simon Pallas (1741—1811). On July 30th they visited together the Dutch painter Aart Schouman (1710—1792). Pennant’s diary records: “Accompanied Doctor Pallas a very ingenious young m

  12. 75 FR 81970 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14245; Permit To Conduct Research on Marine Mammals; Receipt of Application

    2010-12-29

    ..., Monodon monoceros. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments must be received on or before January 28... 27, 2010 notice (80 FR 22119) was published that NMML requests a 5-year permit to conduct research...

  13. Lunar, diel and tidal variabilityin penaeid prawn larval abundance in the Mandovi estuary, Goa

    Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.

    samples. These were in order of abundance, Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers), M. affinis (H. Milne-Edwards), M. monoceros (Fabricius), Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards), Penaeus merguiensis De Man, P. indicus H. Milne-Edwards, P. monodon Fabricius...

  14. Tänavu jagub presidendi tunnustust neljale ettevõtjale / Väinu Rozental

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    Ärimees Margus Reinsalu, Nopri talu peremees Tiit Niilo, ehitusfirma Aspi üks omanikke Ain Tromp ja Harju Elektri nõukogu esimees Endel Palla pälvisid president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt riiklikud teenetemärgid

  15. О НАХОЖДЕНИИ PROSERPINA PROSERPINA И AMMOBIOTA HEBE (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE, ARCTIIDAE) В ЛЕВОБЕРЕЖЬЕ САРАТОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    КОРБ С.К.; КРЮКОВ И.В.; ЦЫЛИН А.А.; ПОТАНИН Д.В.; САЖНЕВ А.С.

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the field entomological expedition to the left bank of Saratov province the authors found new localities for two rare moths: Proserpina proserpina Pallas, 1772 and Ammobiota hebe (Linnaeus, 1758).

  16. Lijst van de Nederlandsche visschen aanwezig in 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden, tevens eene vermelding van de tot nu toe in en bij Nederland waargenomen visschen

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1924-01-01

    Afd.: CHORDATA. Groep III: CEPHALOCHORDATA. Fam.: BRANCHIOSTOMATIDAE. Branchiostoma lanceolata (Pallas) — slakprik, niet aanwezig. Groep IV: CRANIATA. Klasse: Marsipobranchii. Fam.: PETROMYZONIDAE. Petromyzon marinus L. — zeeprik. 1 ex. beschadigd, Noordzee, uit het oude kabinet, in spir. no. 4277.

  17. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    Komppula, M.; Sihto, S.-L.; Korhonen, H.; Lihavainen, H.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In eastern air masses almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in western air masses most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle form...

  18. Observação da visita de morcegos (Chiroptera) às flores de Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns Observation of visit of bats (Chiroptera) to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns

    Shirley S. Pereira da Silva; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi

    1995-01-01

    The visit of two species of bats to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns was observed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro during the period of may and july of 1989. The flowers of this vegetal species present attributions in accordance to the Syndrome of Chiropterophily and receive the visit of Glossophaga soricina (Pallas. 1766) and Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas. 1767). Glossophaga soricina has morfological caracteristes for nectarivory, Phyllostomus hastat...

  19. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study. 1 The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). 2 However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic emb...

  20. ÉTUDE SUR LES CAPACITÉS DE FRANCHISSEMENT DES CABOTS BOUCHE-RONDES (SICYOPTERUS LAGOCEPHALUS, PALLAS, 1770 EN VUE DE LA CONCEPTION DE DISPOSITIFS ADAPTÉS AUX PRISES D’EAU DU TRANSFERT SALAZIE (ÎLE DE LA REUNION.

    VOEGTLÉ B.

    2002-01-01

    puissent franchir un mur vertical, le pourcentage de passage et le taux de réussite est beaucoup plus faible que pour les autres pentes testées. Une pente à 50°, et une charge de l’ordre de 1-2 mm sont les deux conditions ayant permis sur le pilote d’obtenir les meilleurs résultats. Le revêtement de la rampe s’est révélé être un facteur secondaire, le béton lisse constituant cependant le meilleur support. Les résultats de cette étude ont permis de proposer des critères de dimensionnement pour des dispositifs de franchissement adaptés aux sites et à l’espèce. La passe consiste en une rampe en béton lisse installée à une pente de 50° alimentée par déversement. Une alimentation non uniforme sur la largeur de la rampe permet d’obtenir, quel que soit le niveau amont, une zone favorable à la remontée du poisson.

  1. 南中国斑节对虾养殖中控制白斑综合症病的理论和策略%Theory and Strategies for Controlling White Spot Syndrome (WSS) of Cultured Penaeus monodon in South China

    2000-01-01

    @@ White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the causative agent of white spot syndrome (WSS) of cultured penaeid shrimps. WSS breaks out and prevails in cultured penaeid shrimps in many countries and regions of the world, especially in southeast Asia. WSSV is the virus most severe damaging to the cultured penaeid shrimps in the world. At the present time, the control of the outbreaks of WSSV will recover and develop the penaeid shrimp cultures in China and even in the world.

  2. The effects of Cefalexin on larval development of Penaeus monodon and changes in the number of heterotrophic bacteria and vibrios in larval rearing ponds%头孢氨苄对斑节对虾幼体发育及育苗水体细菌数量的影响

    马之明; 周发林; 黄建华; 叶乐; 江世贵

    2005-01-01

    研究了不同浓度头孢氨苄(Cefalexin)对斑节对虾Penaeus monodon幼体发育以及对斑节对虾育苗水体中异养菌总数和弧菌数量的影响.在试验初期,无论是对照组还是施用头孢氨苄的各试验组,育苗水体中的总异养菌数量和弧菌数量都呈现出较为明显的上升趋势;在第二次施用头孢氨苄后,各试验组的异养菌总数和弧菌数量的增幅明显低于对照组(或出现异养菌总数和弧菌数量缓慢下降),而对照组异养菌总数和弧菌数量则呈现显著的上升.施用0.5~1.0 μL·L-1头孢氨苄对育苗水体中的总异养菌有显著的杀灭及抑制作用,但对弧菌数量杀灭及抑制作用并不显著;施用1.5 μL·L-1头孢氨苄对育苗水体中的总异养菌和弧菌数量的杀灭及抑制作用显著.当幼体变态发育至仔虾第8天(P8)时,对照组异养菌总数和弧菌数量分别达6.33×105和3.55×104 CFU·mL-1,均远远高于试验组的异养菌总数和弧菌数量增长的幅度.试验组的幼体变态到P1期的时间,比对照组缩短了10 h以上;试验组的成苗率也比对照组提高了3.2%~13.1%.

  3. Presencia de moluscos tropicales de la provincia panameña en la costa central del Perú y su relación con los eventos "El Niño"

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el hallazgo de moluscos cuya distribución conocida se encuentra dentro de los límites de la Provincia Panameña, en diversas localidades de la Provincia Peruana entre los años 1972 y 1994, período en el que se presentaron varios eventos "El Niño". Fue posible determinar 15 especies de moluscos que ampliaron su distribución: Pteria stema, Orobitella peruviana, Cryptornya califomica, Cerithium (T stercusmuscarum, Malea ringens, Hexaplex brassica, Thais styllmanberryi, T (M. triangularis, T (T callaoensis, Acanthina brevidentata, Purpura pansa, Neorapana muricata, Anachis (C. nigricans, Cancellaria (C. decussata y C. (B. chrysostorna. Se postula una variabilidad en los límites de las provincias biogeográficas de la costa peruana, controlada por el ENSO.

  4. The predictable narwhal: satellite tracking shows behavioural similarities between isolated subpopulations

    Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Nielsen, N.H.; Hansen, R. G.;

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of behavioural similarities between subpopulations of species that have been isolated for a long time is important for understanding the general ecology of species that are under pressure from large-scale changes in habitats. Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) east and west of Greenland are ...

  5. Monoclonal antibody based immunodot for specific detection of proteins of the shrimp Penaeus species.

    Abhiman, P B; Shankar, K M; Patil, Rajreddy; Suresh Babu, P P; Sahoo, A K; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-05-01

    Frozen shrimp continued to be the single largest item of export from India in terms of value accounting for about 44% of the total marine export earnings. Headless, peeled frozen shrimp is a common and dominant item in the market and there is need for differentiating peeled Penaeus sp from Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis and Macrobrachium sp as consumer preference and price vary. Furthermore, there is need to find out original species used in value addition of shrimp products. Hence, it is essential for development of simple and consumer friendly technique for the identification of shrimp and their products in the market. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) C-15 (IgG3) and C-52 (IgG2a) reacting with 65 and 47 kD proteins of Penaeus monodon respectively in the Western blot were selected. In epitope analysis by immunodot, the two MAbs reacted and recognized specific proteins of P. monodon, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Littopenaeus vannamei and not that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, crabs and fishes. The immunodot required 120 min for completion. The sensitivity of the immunodot to detect proteins of P. monodon was 0.225 mg with MAb C-15 and 0.028 mg with MAb C-52. The MAb based immunodot developed, could be used for identifying and differentiating meat of P. monodon, F. indicus, and L. vannamei from that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, M. rosenbergii, crabs and fishes. PMID:24803705

  6. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-02-12

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  7. 77 FR 27321 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    2012-05-09

    ... published a Notice of Proposed IHA in the Federal Register on November 9, 2011 (76 FR 69958). That notice..., the narwhal (Monodon monoceros) is not expected to be found in the activity area. Therefore, NMFS has...). All drilling is planned to be vertical. The Notice of Proposed IHA (76 FR 69958, November 9,...

  8. Chitin purification from shrimp wastes by microbial deproteination and decalcification.

    Xu, Y; Gallert, C; Winter, J

    2008-06-01

    Chitin was purified from Penaeus monodon and Crangon crangon shells using a two-stage fermentation process with anaerobic deproteination followed by decalcification through homofermentative lactic acid fermentation. Deproteinating enrichment cultures from sewage sludge and ground meat (GM) were used with a proteolytic activity of 59 and 61 mg N l(-1) h(-1) with dried and 26 and 35 mg N l(-1) h(-1) with wet P. monodon shells. With 100 g wet cells of proteolytic bacteria per liter, protein removal was obtained in 42 h. An anaerobic spore-forming bacterium HP1 was isolated from enrichment GM. Its proteolytic activity was 76 U ml(-1) compared to 44 U ml(-1) of the consortium. Glucose was fermented with Lactobacillus casei MRS1 to lactic acid. At a pH of 3.6, calcium carbonate of the shells was solubilised. After deproteination and decalcification of P. monodon or C. crangon shells, the protein content was 5.8% or 6.7%, and the calcium content was 0.3% or 0.4%, respectively. The viscosity of the chitin from P. monodon and C. crangon was 45 and 135 mPa s, respectively, whereas purchased crab shell chitin (practical grade) had a viscosity of 21 mPa s, indicating a higher quality of biologically purified chitin. PMID:18418590

  9. Shrimp disease management using bioactive marine secondary metabolites: an eco-friendly approach

    Selvin, J.; Lipton, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Vibriosis caused by opportunistic and secondary bacterial pathogens is still a serious disease problem in aquaculture of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Attempts were made for controlling shrimp bacterial disease using Marine Secondary Metabolites (MSMs). Findings indicated that the MSMs of seaweed Ulva fasciata and Dendrilla nigra are effective for controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens.

  10. Deep-ocean predation by a high Arctic cetacean

    Laidre, K.L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Jørgensen, Ole A;

    2004-01-01

    A bioenergetic model for two narwhal (Monodon monoceros) sub-populations was developed to quantify daily gross energy requirements and estimate the biomass of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) needed to sustain the sub-populations for their 5-month stay on wintering grounds in Baff...

  11. 76 FR 68973 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    2011-11-07

    ...; ringed, ribbon, spotted, and bearded seals; narwhal (Monodon monoceros); polar bears (Ursus maritimus... threatened status for subspecies of the ringed seal (75 FR 77476) and a notice of proposed threatened and not warranted status for subspecies and distinct population segments of the bearded seal (75 FR 77496) in...

  12. On the vaccination of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus

    Witteveldt, J.

    2006-01-01

    More than a decade after its discovery inSouth-East Asia, White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still the most important (viral) pathogen in the shrimp culture industry. Despite the shift from culturingPenaeusmonodon

  13. Profiling of a few immune responsive genes expressed in postlarvae of Fenneropenaeus indicus challenged with Vibrio harveyi D3

    Nayak, S.; Ajay, K.M.; Ramaiah, N.; Meena, R.M.; Sreepada, R.A.

    vannamei GO787118 translationally controlled tumor protein(13) 6.00E-51 100% Litopenaeus vannamei GO787119 ferritin (15) 8.00E-48 100% Penaeus monodon GO787120 arginine kinase (2) 1.00E-16 95% Litopenaeus vannamei GO787121 allergen Pen m 2 (6) 5.00E...

  14. Observação da visita de morcegos (Chiroptera às flores de Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav. A. Robyns Observation of visit of bats (Chiroptera to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav. A. Robyns

    Shirley S. Pereira da Silva

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The visit of two species of bats to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav. A. Robyns was observed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro during the period of may and july of 1989. The flowers of this vegetal species present attributions in accordance to the Syndrome of Chiropterophily and receive the visit of Glossophaga soricina (Pallas. 1766 and Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas. 1767. Glossophaga soricina has morfological caracteristes for nectarivory, Phyllostomus hastatus is omnivorous and starts its visils soon after the anthesis. That bats present landing behaviour during the visit.

  15. [Sex determination in ten crane species by DNA marker EE0.6].

    2013-12-01

    Using a unique DNA sequence of W-chromosome EE0.6, we carried out molecular sex determination in 383 individuals often species of cranes (Grusgrus L., G. leucogeranus Pallas, G. japonensis Muller, G. vipio Pallas, G. Canadensis L., G. antigone L., G. monacha Temminck, Anthropoides virgo L., Balearica regulorum Bennett, and B. pavonia L.) kept in zoos and other centers of captive propagation. In 211 birds, sex was determined or verified for the first time. The efficiency of using the sex marker EE0.6 for chicks and immature and adult cranes of different species, as well as for interspecific hybrids was shown. PMID:25508137

  16. Primer registro de Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae para Venezuela First record of Dondice parguerensis (Mollusca: Favorinidae in Venezuela

    Joany Mariño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Venezuela el aeolidaceo Dondice parguerensis Brandon y Cutress, 1985, parásito de los cnidarios Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 y Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774, hasta ahora sólo conocido de Puerto Rico, Panamá y Bermudas.The presence of the aeolidacean Dondice parguerensis Brandon and Cutress, 1985, parasite of the cnidaria Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892 and Cassiopea frondosa (Pallas, 1774 is recorded for the first time in Venezuela. It was previously recorded in Puerto Rico, Panama and Bermuda.

  17. The Ch-class asteroids: Connecting a visible taxonomic class to a 3-{\\mu}m band shape

    Rivkin, Andrew S; Howell, Ellen S; Emery, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    Asteroids belonging to the Ch spectral taxonomic class are defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 {\\mu}m, which is interpreted as due to Fe-bearing phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicates also cause strong absorptions in the 3-{\\mu}m region, as do other hydrated and hydroxylated minerals and H2O ice. Over the past decade, spectral observations have revealed different 3-{\\mu}m band shapes the asteroid population. Although a formal taxonomy is yet to be fully established, the "Pallas-type" spectral group is most consistent with the presence of phyllosilicates. If Ch class and Pallas type are both indicative of phyllosilicates, then all Ch-class asteroids should also be Pallas-type. In order to test this hypothesis, we obtained 42 observations of 36 Ch-class asteroids in the 2- to 4-{\\mu}m spectral region. We found that 88% of the spectra have 3-{\\mu}m band shapes most consistent with the Pallas-type group. This is the first asteroid class for which such a strong correlation has been found. Because the Ch cl...

  18. Visits of bats to flowers of Lafoensia glyptocarpa KOEHNE (LYTHRACEAE Visitas de morcegos às flores de Lafoensia glyptocarpa KOEHNE (LYTHRACEAE

    S. S. P. SILVA

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study visits of phyllostomid bats to the Lafoensia glyptocarpa Kohne flowers were observed at Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Itaguaí municipality, Rio de Janeiro state. This tree species present floral characteristics to fit the "chiropterophilous syndrome", encouraging the visit of four species of bats which showed different behavior patterns, according to their size, weight and access to the food resources. Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 showed hovering behavior. Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767 and Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 showed landing behavior and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 fed during the quick flight, without a real landing.No presente trabalho, foram estudadas visitas de morcegos filostomídeos às flores de Lafoensia glyptocarpa Koehne na área da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Essa espécie vegetal apresenta atributos florais que estão de acordo com a "Síndrome da Quiropterofilia" e recebe visitas de quatro espécies de morcegos que apresentam comportamento variado ao abordar as flores, conforme o seu tamanho, peso e acesso ao alimento. Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 adeja, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767 e Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 pousam e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 realiza passagens rápidas sem pousar.

  19. Changes in the Ratio of the Sulcus Acusticus Area to the Sagitta Area of Pomatoschistus-Minutus and P-Lozanoi (Pisces, Gobiidae)

    Arellano, R.V.; Hamerlynck, O.; Vincx, M.; Mees, J.; Hostens, K.; Gijselinck, W.

    1995-01-01

    The Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas) and P. lozanoi (de Buen) stock of the ebb-tidal delta of the former Grevelingen estuary was sampled monthly from September 1992 to October 1993. Sagittae were extracted and the areas of the sagitta and sulcus acusticus were measured with a digitizer. The frequency

  20. Spotlight on the positive effects of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis on agriculture

    In the midst of considerable negativity surrounding the ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), this paper sheds some light on the positive effects that this predator has had on agriculture. Using resources available at the USDA, National Agricultural Library (DigiTop literature database, Navigator pla...

  1. Temporal distribution of five bat species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Panga Reserve, south-eastern Brazil

    Wagner A. Pedro

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Data about activity patterns, hourly and monthly, on five phyllostomid bats, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Camilla perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroyi, 1810, studied over a one year period at the Panga Ecological Reserve, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais state, south-eastern Brazil, are reported and discussed.

  2. Temporal distribution of five bat species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Panga Reserve, south-eastern Brazil

    Wagner A Pedro; Valdir A. Taddei

    2002-01-01

    Data about activity patterns, hourly and monthly, on five phyllostomid bats, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766), Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818), Camilla perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758), Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810) and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroyi, 1810), studied over a one year period at the Panga Ecological Reserve, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais state, south-eastern Brazil, are reported and discussed.

  3. New host records for Anenterotrematidae, Lecithodendriidae and Urotrematidae trematodes in bats from Argentina, with redescription of Anenterotrema liliputianum Nuevos registros de trematodos Anenterotrematidae, Lecitodendriidae y Urotrematidae en murciélagos de Argentina y redescripción de Anenterotrema liliputianum

    Lía I. Lunaschi; Juliana Notarnicola

    2010-01-01

    Anenterotrema liliputianum (Travassos, 1928) (Anenterotrematidae) is redescribed based on the type specimens fromMolossus molossus (Pallas) and Phyllostomus elongatus (Geoffroy) from Brazil, and also on new specimens collected from the Dwarf Dog-faced Bat, Molossops temminckii (Burmeister) (Molossidae) in Argentina. In addition, we report the finding of Gymnoacetabulum talaveraensis (Lunaschi, 2002), Ochoterenatrema labda Caballero, 1943 (Lecithodendriidae), and Urotrema scabridum Braum, 1900...

  4. Twenty five years of invasion: management of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus in the Baltic Sea

    Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Christoffersen, Mads; Clink, Sally; Florin, Ann-Britt; Gruszka, Piotr; Puntila, Riikka; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions to be...

  5. A root hairless barley mutant for elucidating genetic of root hairs and phosphorus uptake (Correction in v. 242, 2002, p. 299)

    Gahoonia, T.S.; Nielsen, N.E.; Priyavadan, A.J.; Jahoor, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a new barley mutant missing root hairs. The mutant was spontaneously discovered among the population of wild type (Pallas, a spring barley cultivar), producing normal, 0.8 mm long root hairs. We have called the mutant bald root barley (brb). Root anatomical studies confirmed the...

  6. HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF WADERS (AVES, СHARADRII)

    L. P. Kharchenko; I. A. Lykova

    2014-01-01

    Histological structure of digestive tracts of 12 species of waders (Aves, Сharadrii) has been studied: Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758), Charadrius hiaticula (Linnaeus, 1758), Recurvirostra avosetta (Linnaeus, 1758), Tringa ochropus (Linnaeus, 1758), T. glareola (Linnaeus, 1758), T. nebularia (Gunnerus, 1767), T. erythropus (Pallas, 1764), Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758), Calidris minuta (Leisler, 1812), C. ferruginea (Pontoppidan, 1763), C. alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) and Gallinago gall...

  7. Revision of the Indo-Pacific species of the genus Distichopora

    Boschma, H.

    1959-01-01

    Twenty-one species of Distichopora have been described after specimens from various localities in the Indo-Pacific region, viz., D. violacea (Pallas, 1766) from “Mare Indicum”, D. cinnabarina Nardo, 1844, from the Red Sea (?), D. gracilis Dana, 1848, from the Tuamotu Islands, D. coccinea Gray, 1860,

  8. The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis

    Roy, Helen E.; Brown, Peter M.J.; Adriaens, Tim;

    2016-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is native to Asia but has been intentionally introduced to many countries as a biological control agent of pest insects. In numerous countries, however, it has been introduced unintentionally. The dramatic spread of H...

  9. Five new additions to the flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India.

    L. Rasingam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fioria vitifolia (L. Mattei (Malvaceae, Combretum acuminatum Roxb. (Combretaceae, Marsdenia tinctoria R. Br. (Apocynaceae Phoebe lanceolata (Nees Nees (Lauraceae and Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L. Palla (Cyperaceae collected from Little Andaman Island are reported to be new additions to the flora of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.   

  10. First record of Saga pedo (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae in Suceava County with notes on its distribution in Eastern Romania

    Emilian Pricop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The predatory bush-cricket Saga pedo Pallas, 1771 is mentioned for the first time from“Fâneţele Seculare Ponoare” Bosanci Natural Reserve, located few kilometers south of Suceava city,Suceava county (Romania. The general distribution of this species in eastern Romania is also discussedin this paper.

  11. First record of Saga pedo (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) in Suceava County with notes on its distribution in Eastern Romania

    Emilian Pricop; Bogdan-Mihai Negrea; Irinel E. Popescu; Ionuţ Ştefan Iorgu

    2012-01-01

    The predatory bush-cricket Saga pedo Pallas, 1771 is mentioned for the first time from“Fâneţele Seculare Ponoare” Bosanci Natural Reserve, located few kilometers south of Suceava city,Suceava county (Romania). The general distribution of this species in eastern Romania is also discussedin this paper.

  12. Thaliacea of the Bermuda area

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1975-01-01

    A large number of samples of Salpidae, Doliolidae and Pyrosomatidae, collected by the U. S. Ocean Acre Project, are studied. A new record for the Bermuda area of Doliopsis rubescens (Vogt, 1817) is given. Dominant species are Iasis zonaria (Pallas, 1766), Salpa fusiformis Cuvier, 1804, and Salpa asp

  13. The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is not the cause of white feces syndrome in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei

    Tangprasittipap, Amornrat; Srisala, Jiraporn; Chouwdee, Saisunee; Somboon, Montagan; Chuchird, Niti; Limsuwan, Chalor; Srisuvan, Thinnarat; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2013-01-01

    Background The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei was first described from Thailand in 2009 in farmed, indigenous giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. The natural reservoir for the parasite is still unknown. More recently, a microsporidian closely resembling it in morphology and tissue preference was found in Thai-farmed, exotic, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome (WFS). Our objective was to compare the newly found pathogen with E. ...

  14. KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN DAN AKTIVITAS ENZIM PENCERNAAN UDANG VANNAMEI (Litopenaeus vannamei) PADA BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI PROBIOTIK BIOREMEDIASI-Bacillus sp.

    Aslamyah, Siti

    2012-01-01

    Udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei) merupakan jenis udang yang dapat dibudidayakan di tambak selain udang windu (Penaeus monodon Fab.). Udang vannamei memiliki keunggulan, yaitu dapat hidup pada rentang salinitas lebar (euryhaline) dari 5 hingga 30 ppt, mampu beradaptasi terhadap kepadatan tinggi, serta tumbuh baik dengan pakan berprotein rendah (Haliman dan Adijaya, 2005). Demikian juga, perubahan salinitas khususnya pada salinitas tinggi. Disamping itu, udang vannamei juga mempunyai laj...

  15. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerl...

  16. SEM-EDX STUDIES OF CHITOSAN DERIVATIVES-METAL ADDUCTS

    Galo Cárdenas; Edelio Taboada; Armando Bravo; S. Patricia Miranda

    2003-01-01

    Chitosan was obtained from shrimps shells (pleuroncodes monodon) using chemical methods. A series of chitosan (QS)charged with solution of copper, cobalt, nickel and mercury ions were prepared at room temperature using the batch method. N-3,5-diethylamino benzoyl chitosan (QDAB); N,O-dimercapto succinate chitosan (QNOT) and 4-aminobenzoate chitosan (QAB) derivatives were prepared. The chitosan metal adducts with Cu, Co, Ni and Hg ions and derivatives maximum loading is discussed. Chitosan and...

  17. Application of primary haemocyte culture of in the assessment of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of heavy metals and pesticides

    Jose, Seena; Jayesh, P.; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I. S. Bright

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lack of shrimp cell lines has hindered the study of pollutants which adversely affects shrimp health and its export value. In this context a primary haemocyte culture developed from Penaeus monodon was employed for assessing the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two heavy metal compounds, cadmium chloride and mercuric chloride and two organophosphate insecticides, malathion and monocrotophos. Using MTT assay 12 h IC50 values calculated were 31.09 ? 16.27 ?M and 5.52 ? 1.16 ...

  18. Optimization of the production of shrimp waste protein hydrolysate using microbial proteases adopting response surface methodology

    Dey, Satya S.; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates were produced from shrimp waste mainly comprising head and shell of Penaeus monodon by enzymatic hydrolysis for 90 min using four microbial proteases (Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, Flavourzyme) where PR(%) and DH (%) of respective enzymes were compared to select best of the lot. Alcalase, which showed the best result, was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions for shrimp waste hydrolysis by response surface methodology using a central composite design. A model equation wa...

  19. A study on performances of intensification in the farming system of a shrimp farm at Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh

    Sayed, I A; Mahmood, N.; Karim, M A

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the harvest and mean production in relation to the stocking of P. monodon fry during the period between March 1992 and October 1994, at the farm owned by M/s Monugung Sea Food Ltd., Cox's Bazar. The analysis shows that production figures were initially up to expectation, but after harvesting 4 crops within 16 months, production sharply decreased. The unexpected high mortality of the growing stock was due to outbreak of an uncontrollabe disease (Vibriosis). Significantly hi...

  20. エビ類ポリフェノールオキシダーゼの分布および性質

    中川, 孝之; 牧之段, 保夫; 藤田, 眞夫

    1992-01-01

    The distribution and properties of polyphenol oxidase from shrimps Penaeus japonicus and P. monodon were investigated to increase our knowledge of the blackening of crustaceans. Enzyme activity toward catechol was detected in all tissues from both species. The hepatopancreas was found to have the highest activity of catechol oxidation, and the muscle had very low activity. The shrimp enzymes had high oxidative activity towards various diphenols. The enzymes in the hepatopancreas and epidermis...

  1. Attractants in purified diets

    Pascual, Felicitas P.

    1980-01-01

    Juvenile Penaeus monodon were reared on purified diets containing different attractants used to gelatinize the cornstarch: plain water, shrimp, mussel, squid or trash fish extract. The highest survival rate was observed in the group given the shrimp attractant, followed by mussel, fish and squid. However growth appeared best in the diet containing mussel extract. Mussel extract apparently can be used to enhance the attractability of purified diets.

  2. Development of the shrimp industry in the Western Indian Ocean - a holistic approach of vertical integration, from domestication and biosecurity to product certification

    Le Groumelec, Marc; Rigolet, Vincent; Duraisamy, Panchayuthapani; Vandeputte, Marc; Rao, Vemulapali Manavendra

    2011-01-01

    The shrimp farming industry in the western Indian Ocean started with Aqualma’s project in 1989, and now several companies farm shrimp in the Mozambique Channel. Despite the remoteness of these projects and their high investment and operating costs, they compete in the global marketplace by efficiently producing high value quality products. To address sustainability and biosecurity issues, Aqualma developed domesticated specific pathogenfree (SPF) broodstock of Penaeus monodon from western Ind...

  3. Decomposing mangrove litter supports a microbial biofilm with potential nutritive value to penaeid shrimp post larvae

    Gatune, C.; Vanreusel, A.; Cnudde, C.; Ruwa, R.; Bossier, P; M. De Troch

    2012-01-01

    The use of fish meal in shrimp culture not only contributes to the decline of wild fish stocks, but also undermines its profitability and enhances ecosystem pollution. There is an urgent need for alternative natural food supply in shrimp cultures. The present study investigated the potential of mangrove litter from Rhizophora mucronata and the associated microbial biofilm as food for shrimp post larvae of Penaeus indicus and Penaeus monodon in a community-based ecological shrimp farm in Mtwap...

  4. ВИДОВОЙ СОСТАВ ГЕЛЬМИНТОВ ДЗЕРЕНОВ (PROCAPRA GUTTUROSA, PALLAS, 1777 МИГРИРУЮЩИХ ИЗ МОНГОЛИИ НА ТЕРРИТОРИЮ ЗАБАЙКАЛЬСКОГО КРАЯ

    Кирильцов, Е.В.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available В работе приведены данные о зараженности гельминтозами дзеренов, мигрирующих с территории Монголии в Забайкальский край. Изучен видовой состав выявленных паразитов. Выявлено 13 видов гельминтов, с высокой ЭИ до 100% и ИИ свыше 2000 экз./гол. Обнаруженные гельминты патогенны для сельскохозяйственных животных, а Echinococcus granulosus larva, Cysticercus tenuicollis, Trichostrongylus colubriformis и Trichostrongylus axei может заражаться и человек.

  5. The potential of four woody species for the revegetation of fly ash deposits from the ‘Nikola Tesla-a’ thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia)

    Kostić Olga; Mitrović Miroslava; Knežević M.; Jarić Snežana; Gajić Gordana; Đurđević L.; Pavlović P.

    2012-01-01

    Four woody species, Tamarix tentandra Pallas, Populus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (planted) and Amorpha fruticosa L. (naturally colonized) were studied at two fly ash deposit lagoons, weathered 3 (L1) and 11 years (L2). All species were assessed in terms of their invasive ability, photosynthetic efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and damage symptoms, while the characteristics of the habitat were assessed in terms of trace element content and the pH and EC of the ash. A reduced ...

  6. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    Daniela Dias; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi; Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856); Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842); Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856); Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838); Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767); Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823); Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mor...

  7. Insect growth regulator effects of azadirachtin and neem oil on survivorship, development and fecundity of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Kraiss, Heidi; Cullen, Eileen M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aphis glycines Matsumura, an invasive insect pest in North American soybeans, is fed upon by a key biological control agent, Harmonia axyridis Pallas. Although biological control is preferentially relied upon to suppress insect pests in organic agriculture, approved insecticides, such as neem, are periodically utilized to reduce damaging pest populations. The authors evaluated direct spray treatments of two neem formulations, azadirachtin and neem seed oil, under controlled condit...

  8. Pärsimägi - eesti Matisse

    2003-01-01

    28. II-15. V EKMi Rüütelkonna hoones näitus "Pärsimägi ja Pallas". Karl Pärsimäe loomingut raamivad Pallase koolkonna kunstnike 1930. aastate maalid ja skulptuurid. Kuraator Tiina Abel, kujundaja Tiit Pääsuke. Kaasnevad kunstipedagoogilised programmid "Sinine, punane, kollane" (5-10-aastastele), "Eesti Matisse Karl Pärsimägi" (gümnaasiumiealistele)

  9. Current and potential management strategies against Harmonia axyridis

    Kenis, Marc; Roy, Helen E.; Zindel, Renate; Majerus, Michael E. N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the current and potential methods to control the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an Asian predatory beetle invasive in Europe and the Americas where it has become a human nuisance, a grape and wine pest and a threat to native biodiversity. Current methods to manage this invasive species include: techniques to mechanically prevent adult beetles from entering buildings in autumn or to remove aggregates of beetles inside buildings, e...

  10. Evidence for fine scale genetic structure and estuarine colonisation in a potential high gene flow marine goby (Pomatoschistus minutus)

    Pampoulie, C.; Gysels, E.S.; Maes, G.E.; Hellemans, B.; Leentjes, V.; A. G. Jones; Volckaert, F.A.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Marine fish seem to experience evolutionary processes that are expected to produce genetically homogeneous populations. We have assessed genetic diversity and differentiation in 15 samples of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770) (Gobiidae, Teleostei) from four major habitats within the Southern Bight of the North Sea, using seven microsatellite and 13 allozyme loci. Despite its high dispersal potential, microsatellite loci revealed a moderate level of differentiation (overall F...

  11. Quantitative Analysis of the Early Powdery Mildew Infection Stages on Resistant Barley Genotypes

    Andersen, J. B.; Torp, J.

    1986-01-01

    A classification system was developed, that allowed quantification of the leaf surface development of the barley powdery mildew fungus on barley. An experiment with Manchuria and Pallas as susceptible controls and 4 resistance gene each represented by three lines with different gene backgrounds s...... penetration attempts. This number increased as the degree of resistance increased, i.e. the ESH frequency decreased. The penetration stage also invariably proved to be the limiting stage, where the largest proportion of fungal propagules was stopped....

  12. Morfologia dos Coccinellini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Depositados na Coleção Entomológica dos Campos Gerais do Paraná, Ponta Grossa, Paraná

    Julianne Milléo; Willian Meira

    2012-01-01

    Foi realizada uma análise comparativa com base na morfologia detalhada do exoesqueleto e genitália do adulto de oito espécies de Coccinellini: Coleomegilla quadrifasciata (Schönherr, 1808); Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763); Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829); Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824); Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773); Hippodamia convergens (Guérin, 1842); Neocalvia anastomozans (Crotch, 1874); Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866). É apresentado uma chave de identificação, diagnose para cada ...

  13. Potential for exploitative competition, not intraguild predation, between invasive harlequin ladybirds and flowerbugs in urban parks

    Howe, Andrew Gordon; Ravn, Hans Peter; Pipper, Christian Bressen;

    2016-01-01

    In aphidophagous insect communities invaded by the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), intraguild predation (IGP) is widely implicated in the displacement of native predators, however, indirect trophic interactions are rarely assessed. Using molecular gut-cont...... investigation. Our results emphasize the need to incorporate indirect interactions in studies of insect communities following invasion, not least because they potentially affect more species than direct interactions alone....

  14. Determination of cutting point of oviduct in minimally invasive surgical technique in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and Starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus)

    Milad Kabir; Ali Bani

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other Chondrostean fish, Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897) andStarry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pallas 1771) have got Gymnovarian ovaries, and structure form oftheir reproduction system is such that eggs cannot readily leave it. In minimally invasive surgicaltechnique, a small incision is made in the wall of oviduct so that the eggs can easily leave it with theminimal manipulation and also the broodstock can survive. The aim of this work is to determine thedist...

  15. The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts

    Koch, R L

    2003-01-01

    Throughout the last century, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been studied quite extensively, with topics ranging from genetics and evolution to population dynamics and applied biological control being covered. Much of the early work on H. axyridis was conducted in the native Asian range. From the 1980's to the present, numerous European and North American studies have added to the body of literature on H. axyridis. H. axyridis has recently gained attention i...

  16. Model-based analysis of causes for habitat segregation in Idotea species (Crustacea, Isopoda)

    Strer, Maximilian; Hammrich, Arne; Gutow, Lars; Moenickes, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    On the shore of the rocky island of Helgoland (North Sea) two closely related isopod species, Idotea balthica Pallas, 1772, and Idotea granulosa Rathke, 1843, share a similar fundamental niche but inhabit well-separated habitats. Idotea balthica inhabits floating algae at the sea surface and accumulations of decaying algae on the seafloor, whereas I. granulosa primarily occurs in intertidal macroalgal belts. In laboratory experiments on individually reared isopods I. balthica outperformed I. ...

  17. Diversity and Social Anthropology

    Uherek, Zdeněk

    Amsterdam : Pallas, 2011 - (Knotter, S.; De Lobel, R.; Tsipouri, L.; Stenius, V.), s. 21-41 ISBN 978-90-8555-044-0 Grant ostatní: European Commission(XE) SUS.DIV, CONTRACT No513438(CIT3) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : social anthropology * social diversity * anthropological theory Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.aup.nl/do.php?a=show_visitor_book&isbn=9789085550440&l=2

  18. A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus.

    Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Parichoronyssus bakeri new species was found on two phyllostomid bats species, the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas), and the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy), in Pakitza, National Park Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, including additional material examined from Venezuela. The female, male, deutonymph, and protonymph are described and illustrated. A key to the seven species of Parichoronyssus is provided. PMID:17294915

  19. NUEVAS CITAS DE BULBOSTYLIS (CYPERACEAE) PARA LAS FLORAS DE BOLIVIA Y PARAGUAY New records of Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae) for the flora of Bolivia and Paraguay

    María Gabriela López

    2010-01-01

    Durante la revisión del género Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae, Abildgaardieae) para la flora de
    América austral, se encontraron cinco nuevas citas, una de Bolivia: B. svensoniana Steyerm. y
    cuatro de Paraguay: B. consanguinea (Kunth) C.B.Clarke, B. loefgrenii (Boeck.) Prata &
    López, B. sellowiana (Kunth) Palla y B. papillosa Kük. Se hacen aclaraciones sobre estos&...

  20. Seasonal cycle, size dependencies, and source analyses of aerosol optical properties at the SMEAR II measurement station in Hyytiälä, Finland

    Virkkula, A.; Backman, J.; Aalto, P.P.; Hulkkonen, M.; L. Riuttanen; Nieminen, T.; Maso, M; Sogacheva, L.; De Leeuw, G.; M. Kulmala

    2011-01-01

    Scattering and absorption were measured at the Station for Measuring Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II) station in Hyytiälä, Finland, from October 2006 to May 2009. The average scattering coefficient σSP (λ = 550 nm) 18 Mm−1 was about twice as much as at the Pallas Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station in Finnish Lapland. The average absorption coefficient σAP (λ = 550 nm) was...

  1. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Cotton

    P. G. Tillman; Cottrell, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer), Cycloneda munda (Say), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and ...

  2. Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae) in Mauritania : first report on the presence of the arbovirus mosquito vector in Nouakchott

    Lekweiry, K.M.; Ould Ahmedou Salem, M. S.; Ould Brahim, K.; Lemrabott, M. A. O.; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, O.; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital c...

  3. A list of macrofauna on the continental shelf of Gökçeada Island (northern Aegean Sea) with a new record (Gryphus vitreus Born, 1778) (Brachiopoda, Rhynchonellata) for the Turkish seas

    Gönülal, Onur; Güreşen, Sedat Ozan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Long-term sampling (1974-2013) of macro fauna of the Gökçeada Island (northern Aegean Sea) provided qualitative information on many taxa including Porifera, Cnidaria Mollusca, Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Spinculida, Echinodermata, Chordata. Gryphus vitreus (Brachiopoda) and Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) are the first records for the Turkish seas and the Aegean coast of Turkey, respectively. The present paper aims to describe macrofauna occurring on the continental sh...

  4. Electromagnetic heating of minor planets in the early solar system

    Herbert, F.; Sonett, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    Electromagnetic processes occurring in the primordial solar system are likely to have significantly affected planetary evolution. In particular, electrical coupling of the kinetic energy of a dense T-Tauri-like solar wind into the interior of the smaller planets could have been a major driver of thermal metamorphism. Accordingly a grid of asteroid models of various sizes and solar distances was constructed using dc transverse magnetic induction theory. Plausible parameterizations with no requirement for a high environmental temperature led to complete melting for Vesta with no melting for Pallas and Ceres. High temperatures were reached in the Pallas model, perhaps implying nonmelting thermal metamorphosis as a cause of its anomalous spectrum. A reversal of this temperature sequence seems implausible, suggesting that the Ceres-Pallas-Vesta dichotomy is a natural outcome of the induction mechanism. Highly localized heating is expected to arise due to an instability in the temperature-controlled current distribution. Localized metamorphosis resulting from this effect may be relevant to the production and evolution of pallasites, the large presumed metal component of S object spectra, and the formation of the lunar magma ocean.

  5. Analysis of 60Co gamma-ray transport through air by discrete-ordinates transport codes

    An assessment of the calculational accuracy of the discrete-ordinates codes, PALLAS-2DCY and DOT-III, has been performed for gamma-ray transport through air from a 60Co point isotropic source. The first collision source technique was used in the calculations. The results were compared with the measured exposure dose rates near the ground surface. Also, the ratio of the dose rates by gamma rays incident on and reflected from the ground was compared between the calculations. In addition, the calculated angular fluxes were examined. It is shown that the use of a truncated Legendre polynomial expansion implemented on DOT-III is not sufficient for calculations of gamma-ray scattering in air, while the direct application of the Klein-Nishina formula on PALLAS-2DCY is adequate to the calculatons. Both two-dimensional tranport codes, however, are useful for calculating the gamma-ray transport through air with a practical accuracy. PALLAS-2DCY requires one-fifth the central processor unit time as DOT-III

  6. Assessment of radionuclide concentration in three crustaceans species of the bay of Bengal

    The natural (226Ra, 228Th, 232Th and 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides concentrations in three crustaceans species (Penaeus monodon, Metapenaeus monoceros and Panulirus versicolor), collected from the bay of Bengal, were determined with an aim of assessing any internal radiation hazard due to consumption of the shell fishes and establishing a database for radioactivity levels of the species. Very low level of radioactivity was observed in all the species. The average activity of 226Ra observed in P. monodon was 1.21 ± 0.27 Bq kg-1 fw; in M. monoceros was 0.70 ±0.08 Bq kg-1 fw, and in Panulirus versicolor was 1.04 ± 0.09 Bq kg-1 fw. The activity of 232Th observed in these species was 1.30 ± 0.37, 0.76 ± 0.34 and 1.32 ± 0.70 Bq kg-1 fw, and 228Th was 0.55 ± 0.26, 0.31 ± 0.14 and 0.74 ± 0.22 Bq kg-1 fw, respectively. The average activity of 40K observed in these species was 12.56 ± 1.18, 6.38 ±1.02 and 10.07 ± 1.52 Bq kg-1 fw, respectively. The activity of radiocaesium (137Cs) was below detection limit. The results indicate that the natural and artificial radionuclides observed in three crustaceans species are safe for human health. A significant relationship was observed between 226Ra and 232Th in both the P. monodon (r = 0.839, p ≤ 0.05, df = 4) and the Panulirus versicolor (r = 0.906, p ≤ 0.05, df = 4). (authors)

  7. Assessment of radionuclide concentration in three crustaceans species of the bay of Bengal; Mesure de la concentration de radionucleides dans trois especes de crustaces du golfe du Bengale

    Hasan, C.K.; Zafar, M. [Chittagong Univ., Institute of Marine Sciences (Bangladesh); Chowdhury, M.I.; Kamal, M. [Radioactivity Testing and Monitoring Laboratory, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Chittagong (Bangladesh)

    2006-10-15

    The natural ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs) radionuclides concentrations in three crustaceans species (Penaeus monodon, Metapenaeus monoceros and Panulirus versicolor), collected from the bay of Bengal, were determined with an aim of assessing any internal radiation hazard due to consumption of the shell fishes and establishing a database for radioactivity levels of the species. Very low level of radioactivity was observed in all the species. The average activity of {sup 226}Ra observed in P. monodon was 1.21 {+-} 0.27 Bq kg{sup -1} fw; in M. monoceros was 0.70 {+-}0.08 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, and in Panulirus versicolor was 1.04 {+-} 0.09 Bq kg{sup -1} fw. The activity of {sup 232}Th observed in these species was 1.30 {+-} 0.37, 0.76 {+-} 0.34 and 1.32 {+-} 0.70 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, and {sup 228}Th was 0.55 {+-} 0.26, 0.31 {+-} 0.14 and 0.74 {+-} 0.22 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, respectively. The average activity of {sup 40}K observed in these species was 12.56 {+-} 1.18, 6.38 {+-}1.02 and 10.07 {+-} 1.52 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, respectively. The activity of radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs) was below detection limit. The results indicate that the natural and artificial radionuclides observed in three crustaceans species are safe for human health. A significant relationship was observed between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in both the P. monodon (r = 0.839, p {<=} 0.05, df = 4) and the Panulirus versicolor (r = 0.906, p {<=} 0.05, df = 4). (authors)

  8. Application of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to improve survival of the black tiger shrimp after Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates an effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as feed supplement to improve immunity of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). LPS was coated to commercial feed pellets and given to the shrimp once or twice a day for 10 days before an exposure with shrimp pathogenic bacterium Vibrio harveyi. The growth rates, percent weight gains, total hemocyte and granulocyte counts and survival rates of shrimp between the LPS-coated pellet fed groups and a control group where shrimp fed with commercial feed pellets were compared. After 10 days of the feeding trials, growth rates were not significantly different in all groups, suggesting no toxicity from LPS supplement. To determine beneficial effect of LPS diets, each group was subsequently exposed to V. harveyi by immersion method and the survival rates were recorded for seven days after the immersion. Regardless of the dosages of LPS, the shrimp groups fed with LPS-coated pellets showed higher survival rates than the control group. There was no significant difference in survival rates between the two LPS dosages groups. In addition to survival under pathogen challenge, we also determine effect of LPS on immune-related genes after 10-day feeding trial. Gene expression analysis in the P. monodon intestines revealed that antilipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALF3), C-type lectin, and mucine-like peritrophin (mucin-like PM) were expressed significantly higher in a group fed with LPS supplemental diet once or twice a day than in a control group. The transcript levels of C-type lectin and mucin-like PM had increased significantly when LPS was given once a day, while significant induction of ALF3 transcripts was observed when shrimp were fed with LPS twice a day. The up-regulation of the immune gene levels in intestines and higher resistance to V. harveyi of the shrimp fed with LPS provide the evidence for potential application of LPS as an immunostimulant in P. monodon farming. PMID:23751331

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15718-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available rat 50 1e-04 ( Q52085 ) RecName: Full=Cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein 64; ... 52 2e-04 EU152252_1( EU152252 ... AM746676 |pid:none) Sorangium cellulosum 'So ce 56'... 50 6e-04 S40992( S40992 )hypothetical protein K04H4.2 - Caenorhabditis el...P4-... 47 0.007 EU024890_1( EU024890 |pid:none) Penaeus monodon vitellogenin recep... 47 0.007 AF065168_1( A...ptqtppptqtpt nhsigvnecdccpegqycllifghercfiandggdgipeetigcpgvttgtptstdggtg hytesgtgnphlcdrhhcrsgmechvingipeclpskykcldcldlhce...lsilmvmndvwvfm nkilvvdlggihgkattsinldrlgltegtnypfdffycerhtteshisietsieltcpg ydecgvcqgdgsscctks

  10. Isolation and characterization of chitosan from different local insects in Egypt.

    Marei, Narguess H; El-Samie, Emtithal Abd; Salah, Taher; Saad, Gamal R; Elwahy, Ahmed H M

    2016-01-01

    Chitin was extracted from four different local sources: the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the beetles (Calosoma rugosa). Chitosan was then obtained by deacetylation of chitin and physicochemically characterized using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. The moisture content, water binding capacity, fats binding capacity, ash content were determined and chitosans morphology was visualized using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The difference between the obtained chitosans from three insect sources and α-chitosan from shrimp in terms of crystallinity, fibrous structure was discussed. PMID:26459168

  11. AcEST: DK960753 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0008_E06 693 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0008_E06. 5' end seq ... t sp_hit_id Q9U572 Definition sp|Q9U572|CLOT_PENMO Hemolymph ... clottable protein OS=Penaeus monodon Align length ... cant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q9U572|CLOT_PENMO Hemolymph ... clottable protein OS=Penaeus mono... 35 0.38 sp|P0 ...

  12. Identification of Effective Organic Carbon for Biofloc Shrimp Culture System

    K. Sakkaravarthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify an effective carbon source which enhances not only the microbial load but also the shrimps growth. The carbon source cane sugar, molasses and jaggery were tested in 100 L culture tanks with stocking density of 30 m‾2 Peneus monodon seeds for a culture period of 40 days. Jaggery biofloc tank shows highest floc formation (22 mL, highest survival (86% and highest ABW (6 g, proximate composition of jagerry biofloc had higher protein level (35% followed by mollases and sugar culture tanks. It confirms jaggery is a new efficient carbon source for shrimp culture system.

  13. A Phase Separation Fluoroimmunoassay of Estradiol

    WANG,Yong-Cheng(王永成); ZHAO,Jin-Fu(赵金富); LI,Yuan-Zong(李元宗); CHANG,Wen-Bao(常文保); GUO,Zhen-Quan(郭振泉)

    2001-01-01

    A competitive indirect fluoroinmnunoassay of free estradiol(E2) was established based on the thermal sensitivity of hy-drogel-poly-N-isopropylacrylamide.Free estradiol was cova-lently bound to bovine sermn albumin (BSA) to form com-plete antigen (F2-BSA),which was in turn labeled by fluores-cein isothiocyanate (FITC) as the fluorescence probe.The an-ti- F2 monodonal anfibody (Mc Ab) was prepared by anin vivo method,and coupled with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA)to make an immune copolymer,poly-N-isopropylacylamide-monodonal antibody (pNIPA-McAb),for the deterniiration of free F2.The immunoassay method was based on the com-petitive binding of free F2 and fluoresceinated antigen (F2-BSA-FITC) with limited amount of pNIPA-McAb.When theinmunological reaction was over,precipitation and centrifugalprocedures were carried ont to separate pNIPA-McAb-F2-BSA-FITC from other constituents in solution.The precipitatepNIPA-McAb-F2-BSA-FITC was dissolved in solution andthen the fluorescence intensity was measured.The calibrationcurve covered a range of 78-500 ng/mL for free F2.The re-coveries were 91,2-107.2%.``

  14. Selection of nursery areas by six southeast African Penaeidae

    de Freitas, A. J.

    1986-12-01

    A survey was carried out along the shore and adjacent mangrove swamp in the northeast margin of Maputo Bay in Mozambique, east Africa. The study area contained several habitats within close proximity. These were shallow pools in the intertidal muddy sand flats, areas of submerged macrophytes, the swash zone on sandy beaches, primary mangrove channels, secondary mangrove channels, shallow mangrove creeks and a shallow creek with strong freshwater influence at the landward fringe of the swamp. Each station was sampled by means of a small handnet. Data suggest that Penaeus japonicus prefers sandy substrata, while P. semisulcatus chooses areas rich in submerged macrophytes. P. indicus and P. monodon both appear to favour muddy mangrove channels, although P. monodon may require marginal or floating vegetation as nurseries. Metapenaeus stebbingi seems to prefer the swash zone in quiet areas with minimal wave action, while M. monoceros is more widespread and is able to cope with very low salinities. Managers of coastal systems should, therefore, attempt to maintain a diversity of biotopes within larger systems because, even if postlarvae do enter an estuary, juvenile populations with not develop if their specific habitat has been destroyed.

  15. White spot syndrome virus infection: Threat to crustacean biodiversity in Vembanad Lake, India

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Vembanad Lake located on the south-west coast of India, an ecological hotspot is the nursing ground of many economically important crustaceans. The prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV among crustaceans from farmed, estuarine and marine environments surrounding the Vembanad Lake, India was detected using PCR. A total of 308 samples from aquaculture ponds consisting of six species of crustaceans collected from five different farms were tested for the presence of WSSV. Of these, 67% were found to carry the virus. A total of 258 samples of crustaceans from the Cochin backwater system that forms a part of the Vembanad lake viz., Metapenaeus dobsoni, Metapenaeus monoceros, Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus were found to contain WSSV in 62% of the samples. Fifteen species of crustaceans caught from the seas off Cochin were also screened for the presence of WSSV. Out of these, twelve species had WSSV incidence levels ranging from 6–23%. WSSV was not detected from three species of deep sea crustaceans tested. The black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon had the highest incidence of WSSV among the species screened in farmed, estuarine and marine environments.

  16. Complete genome sequence of virulence-enhancing Siphophage VHS1 from Vibrio harveyi.

    Khemayan, Krit; Prachumwat, Anuphap; Sonthayanon, Burachai; Intaraprasong, Aungkul; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Flegel, Timothy W

    2012-04-01

    Vibrio harveyi siphophage 1 (VHS1) is a tailed phage with an icosahedral head of approximately 66 nm in diameter and an unornamented, flexible tail of approximately 153 nm in length. When Vibrio harveyi 1114GL is lysogenized with VHS1, its virulence for the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) increases by more than 100 times, and this coincides with production of a toxin(s) associated with shrimp hemocyte agglutination. Curiously, the lysogen does not show increased virulence for the whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus [Litopenaeus] vannamei). Here we present and annotate the complete, circular genome of VHS1 (81,509 kbp; GenBank accession number JF713456). By software analysis, the genome contains 125 putative open reading frames (ORFs), all of which appear to be located on the same DNA strand, similar to the case for many other bacteriophages. Most of the putative ORFs show no significant homology to known sequences in GenBank. Notable exceptions are ORFs for a putative DNA polymerase and putative phage structural proteins, including a portal protein, a phage tail tape measure protein, and a phage head protein. The last protein was identified as a component of the species-specific toxin mixture described above as being associated with agglutination of hemocytes from P. monodon. PMID:22307287

  17. ГЕОМЕТРИЧЕСКАЯ МОРФОМЕТРИЯ НИЖНЕЙ ЧЕЛЮСТИ ХРОМОСОМНЫХ РАС МАЛОЙ ЛЕСНОЙ МЫШИ (SYLVAEMUS URALENSIS PALLAS, 1811): ТАКСОНОМИЧЕСКИЙ И ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ АСПЕКТЫ

    Городилова, Ю.; Васильева, И.

    2014-01-01

    The paper estimates morphological variability and taxonomic status of the pygmy wood mouse chromosome races based on comparison of their mandible shape by methods of geometric morphometrics. The most morphological divergence was revealed between the Asian race and the Eastern European form of European race. The specimens of South-European form of European chromosomal race are found to demonstrate some intermediate features, but more close to the Eastern European form. Inferred from morpho-eco...

  18. Diversidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) do Complexo Aporé-Sucuriú, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat Diversity (Mammalia, Chiroptera) from Aporé-Sucuriú's complex, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Marcelo O Bordignon

    2006-01-01

    Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA). Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766) e Artib...

  19. Shallow-water Aplysina Nardo (Aplysinidae, Verongida, Demospongiae from the São Sebastião Channel and its environs (Tropical southwestern Atlantic, with the description of a new species and a literature review of other brazilian records of the genus

    Ulisses dos Santos Pinheiro

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Aplysina Nardo, 1834 are described in this article, Aplysina caissara sp. n. and A. fulva (Pallas, 1766. Additionally, a possible third species was identified as A. aff. cauliformis. Collections were done in the São Sebastião Channel area as an ongoing effort to assess the poriferan biodiversity of the northern sector of the São Paulo State coastline. Specimens were collected by scuba diving, and descriptions of external morphology are based on the observation of populations alive, and on extensive underwater photography. A literature review of other brazilian records of Aplysina was undertaken, and an ammended species list is offered.

  20. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    M. Komppula

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In eastern air masses almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in western air masses most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The value of condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the organic vapours

  1. New particle formation in air mass transported between two measurement sites in Northern Finland

    M. Komppula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers four years of aerosol number size distribution data from Pallas and Värriö sites 250 km apart from each other in Northern Finland and compares new particle formation events between these sites. In air masses of eastern origin almost all events were observed to start earlier at the eastern station Värriö, whereas in air masses of western origin most of the events were observed to start earlier at the western station Pallas. This demonstrates that particle formation in a certain air mass type depends not only on the diurnal variation of the parameters causing the phenomenon (such as photochemistry but also on some properties carried by the air mass itself. The correlation in growth rates between the two sites was relatively good, which suggests that the amount of condensable vapour causing the growth must have been at about the same level in both sites. The condensation sink was frequently much higher at the downwind station. It seems that secondary particle formation related to biogenic sources dominate in many cases over the particle sinks during the air mass transport between the sites. Two cases of transport from Pallas to Värriö were further analysed with an aerosol dynamics model. The model was able to reproduce the observed nucleation events 250 km down-wind at Värriö but revealed some differences between the two cases. The simulated nucleation rates were in both cases similar but the organic concentration profiles that best reproduced the observations were different in the two cases indicating that divergent formation reactions may dominate under different conditions. The simulations also suggested that organic compounds were the main contributor to new particle growth, which offers a tentative hypothesis to the distinct features of new particles at the two sites: Air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean typically spent approximately only ten hours over land before arriving at Pallas, and thus the time for the

  2. Controle da incrustação de organismos invesores em materiais de sistemas de resfriamento de usinas hidrelétricas

    Netto, Otto Samuel Mäder

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: A construção de reservatórios de usinas hidrelétricas, para geração de energia elétrica, se tornou o ambiente ideal para proliferação de organismos invasores. A usina hidrelétrica governador José Richa (Salto Caxias), vem apresentando problemas com a introdução de duas espécies invasoras: o molusco Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Mytilidae), conhecido como mexilhão dourado e o hidróide Cordylophora caspia (Pallas, 1771) (Cnidária). Estas espécies se encontram atualmente em grandes...

  3. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in invasive and native populations of Harmonia axyridis

    Ilya A. Zakharov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, is one of the most invasive insects in the world. Originally introduced into the USA and Europe for the biological control of pest insects, it has recently gained the status of an invasive species. There is little data on the differences between invasive and non-invasive populations at the genetic level. In this research mtDNA sequences of the COI gene from specimens of native and non-native populations were compared. The results indicate that individuals from invasive populations are similar to those from Far Eastern native populations.

  4. Divergence of Populations of Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla flava, and Citrine wagtaill, Motacilla citreola (Motacillidae, Passeriformes, in the Middle Volga of Russia

    Artemieva E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples of “yellow” wagtails collected in the areas geographically representing the Middle Volga breeding populations of these species were investigated. After isolation of mtDNA barkoding of studied “yellow” wagtails species was conducted. Amplification of the subunit of cytochrome oxidase I gene used as a genetic marker for the comparison of the samples was carried out. After sequencing and sequence alignment of gene cytochrome c-oxidase I, based on the comparison of genetic distances between individuals of the studied species using Jalview phylogenetic trees of populations of species Motacilla flava Linnaeus, 1758 and Motacilla citreola Pallas, 1776 were constructed.

  5. Highly productive mutant genotypes in barley - direct use in practice and in successive recombination

    Three special cases of induced mutations in barley are discussed in this paper. They are denoted here as the Gunilla, the Pallas and the Mari cases, after the three named varieties to which the original mutants gave rise. The original mutants described represent just a small sample of the induced mutants, many of which have been tested in practice and have been further studied in basic genetics and evolutionary research. The three approved varieties have given rise to further recombination families, which also to some extent have been fused. Two of the mutant cases - Pallas and Mari - were directly useful in practice and officially approved. The third case involved a mutant of special appearance - a ''bushy type'' with an intense blue wax coating and with a supreme lodging resistance. The mutant was used in developing the Gunilla variety, which arose by recombination breeding. This variety has been highly satisfactory in further gene recombination work. A similar situation has prevailed with regard to the Pallas and Mari families arising after gene recombination, too. Up to now, the Gunilla, Pallas and Mari families include a long series of released and officially approved varieties. Several of them represent valuable agricultural contributions with wide areas of cultivation. These three mutants - with their recombination families - led to greatly increased straw stiffness and high grain production. Their phenotypic expression often corresponds to a dwarf or semidwarf description. One of the mutants - the Mari genotype - represents a group of genes and alleles which give rise to profound changes in the photoperiod (and partially also in the thermoperiod) behaviour. In fact, often even such small changes have a fundamental influence on adaptation and distribution. Data are presented analysing the property of lodging resistance with the background of plant, tiller and internode structure. A method of partial back-mutation was worked out in separating traits generally

  6. Morfologia dos Coccinellini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae Depositados na Coleção Entomológica dos Campos Gerais do Paraná, Ponta Grossa, Paraná

    Julianne Milléo

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. A comparative analysis was carried out based on the detailed morphology of exoskeleton and genitalia of the adult of eight species of the Coccinellini: Coleomegilla quadrifasciata (Schönherr, 1808; Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763; Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829; Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824; Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773; Hippodamia convergens (Guérin, 1842; Neocalvia anastomozans (Crotch, 1874; Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866. A dichotomic key, diagnoses for the species with description of new characters and records of the plants in which it was collected, are added.

  7. Biometric and statistical investigations on the cnidoma of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa

    Maria I. Deserti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about the nematocysts like a source of biometric information for comparison between the species Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766, Hydra vulgaris pedunculata Deserti et al., 2011 and Hydra pseudoligactis (Hyman, 1931. This biometric tool lets us carry out statistical comparisons and adding these results to the identification of specimens from different classificatory groups. In this particular study, we obtained significant differences between species, individuals of each species and nematocysts type when compared the biometry of its nematocysts. Another result was the variation in of particular nematocysts, like atrichous isorhiza and holotrichous isorhiza for the species H. vulgaris in relation to the column size.

  8. A Mineral-Rich Red Algae Extract Inhibits Polyp Formation and Inflammation in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Mice on a High-Fat Diet

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum (Pallas), could be used as a dietary supplement for chemoprevention against colon polyp formation. Sixty C57bl/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet. One group received a low-fat, rodent chow diet (AIN76A). The second group received a high-fat “Western style” diet (HFWD). The third group was fed the same HFWD with the mineral-rich extract included ...

  9. Role of NAD+ and ADP-Ribosylation in the Maintenance of the Golgi Structure

    Colanzi, Antonino; Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Fiucci, Giusy; Flati, Silvio; Fusella, Aurora; Polishchuk, Roman; Mironov, Alexander; Tullio, Giuseppe Di; Weigert, Roberto; Malhotra, Vivek; Corda, Daniela; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Luini, Alberto

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the ADP- ribosylation induced by brefeldin A (BFA) in the mechanisms controlling the architecture of the Golgi complex. BFA causes the rapid disassembly of this organelle into a network of tubules, prevents the association of coatomer and other proteins to Golgi membranes, and stimulates the ADP-ribosylation of two cytosolic proteins of 38 and 50 kD (GAPDH and BARS-50; De Matteis, M.A., M. DiGirolamo, A. Colanzi, M. Pallas, G. Di Tullio, L.J. McDonald, J. Moss...

  10. Shallow-water Aplysina Nardo (Aplysinidae, Verongida, Demospongiae) from the São Sebastião Channel and its environs (Tropical southwestern Atlantic), with the description of a new species and a literature review of other brazilian records of the genus

    Ulisses dos Santos Pinheiro; Eduardo Hajdu

    2001-01-01

    Two species of Aplysina Nardo, 1834 are described in this article, Aplysina caissara sp. n. and A. fulva (Pallas, 1766). Additionally, a possible third species was identified as A. aff. cauliformis. Collections were done in the São Sebastião Channel area as an ongoing effort to assess the poriferan biodiversity of the northern sector of the São Paulo State coastline. Specimens were collected by scuba diving, and descriptions of external morphology are based on the observation of populations a...

  11. Asteroid Shape Models Refined By Stellar Occultation Silhouettes

    Durech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.

    2004-12-01

    We present shape models of asteroids 2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 39 Laetitia, 41 Daphne, 52 Europa, 85 Io, 129 Antigone, and 208 Lacrimosa derived from their lightcurves and stellar occultation silhouettes. Lightcurve inversion shape models and rotation states of those asteroids were already published. The occultation silhouettes give direct information about the size and shape of asteroid's projected cross-section. We process the lightcurve and occultation data simultaneously and derive more detailed shape models, remove possible ambiguities in the pole directions, and calibrate the models to absolute dimensions.

  12. An efficient protocol for copper-free palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling in aqueous media at low temperatures

    Marziale, Alexander N.

    2011-11-01

    A thorough study on copper-free Sonogashira cross-couplings in water was carried out using the palla-dacycle, [{Pd(μ-Cl){K2-P,C-P(iPr) 2(OC6H3-2-Ph)}}2] as pre-catalyst with different bases and palladium concentrations. The highly active pre-catalyst imparts good to near quantitative yields using a concentration of 0.25 mol % at 40 °C. This broadly applicable protocol exhibits high tolerance of functional groups and substitution patterns. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei by treatment with mycelial extracts from cultured fungi

    Haugaard, H.; Jørgensen, H.J.L.; Lyngkjær, M.F.;

    2001-01-01

    High levels of protection against infection from Blumeria graminis Esp. hordei in the susceptible barley cv. Pallas were obtained by pretreatment with mycelial extracts or culture filtrates from seven different fungi (Bipolaris oryzae, B. sorokiniana, Drechslera teres f. maculata, Fusarium culmorum......, Trichoderma harzianum, Pythium ultimum and Rhizopus stolonifer). Three mycelial extracts from the taxonomically different fungi B. oryzae, A ultimum and R. stolonifer were selected for detailed study. In general the number of colonies formed was reduced by 70-98% compared with controls. Furthermore, the few...

  14. Friedrich Gedike on why and how to compare the world’s languages: a stepping stone between Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Wilhelm von Humboldt?

    Van Hal, Toon

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and reproduces a short text by Friedrich Gedike (1754–1803), a key figure of the German Spätaufklärung. Gedike published “Plan und Ankündigung eines Universalglossariums der Rußischen Kaiserin” in 1785 after P. S. Pallas had announced his famous comparative linguistic undertaking (Linguarum totius orbis vocabularia), the first volume of which would be published two years later. My contribution seeks to demonstrate that Gedike, in a clearly Leibnizian spirit, was one of th...

  15. Las ciperáceas (Cyperaceae) de la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica

    Jorge Gómez-Laurito

    2009-01-01

    La familia Cyperaceae es cosmopolita e incluye unos 115 géneros y 3600 especies. Costa Rica tiene 25 géneros y 210 especies. Aquí presento claves y descripciones para las 34 especies (10 géneros) que ocurren en la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica. El género Cyperus está representado por 12 especies, seguido por Rhynchospora (6), Scleria (5), Calyptocarya (2), Eleocharis (2), Kyllinga (2), Mapania (2), Hypolytrum (1) y Lipocarpha (1). Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp & Kunth) Palla, ha sido col...

  16. Seasonal cycle, size dependencies, and source analyses of aerosol optical properties at the SMEAR II measurement station in Hyytiälä, Finland

    Virkkula, A.; Backman, J.; Aalto, P.P.; Hulkkonen, M.; L. Riuttanen; Nieminen, T.; Dal Maso, M.; Sogacheva, L.; De Leeuw, G.; M. Kulmala

    2010-01-01

    Scattering and absorption were measured at the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, Finland, from October 2006 to May 2009. The average scattering coefficient σSP (λ=550 nm) 18 Mm−1 was about twice as much as at the Pallas GAW station in Finnish Lapland. The average absorption coefficient σAP (λ=550 nm) was 2.1 Mm−1. The seasonal cycles were analyzed from hourl...

  17. Notas de ixodologia: IX. O complexo ovale do gênero Amblyomma

    Henrique Aragão

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available It was impossible to confirm either WARBUTON's conservative nor TONELLI RONDELLI's opposite belief on the number of valid species after studying many lots of ticks of the ovale group, mainly from Brazil. Two species are recognized: Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 and Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772, corresponding respectively to A. fossum Neumann, 1898 and A. stratum Koch, 1844. A list of synonyms is presented. Both species are redescribed and intraspecific morphological variation show to be the cause of the multiplication of species by those working with insufficient material. Color plates of both species are presented and hosts and localities of captures are recorded.

  18. Las plagas de topillo campesino (Microtus arvalis) en Castilla y León: efectos del clima, los cambios en el uso del suelo, e impacto sobre el ecosistema global

    Jareño Gómez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    El topillo campesino (Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1778) es un pequeño roedor herbívoro, que tiene preferencia por la vegetación herbácea verde, pudiendo ocupar una gran variedad de hábitats con este tipo de vegetación, desde prados montanos hasta llanuras cerealistas (Gonzalez-Esteban and Villate, 2007; Amori et al., 2008; Jacob et al., 2013). El topillo campesino es una especie semifosorial que vive en galerías subterráneas, pero se alimenta principalmente en superficie. Es una especie con una...

  19. Real time PCR quantification of WSSV infection in specific pathogen free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) exposed to antiviral nucleotide

    MA Badhul Haq; K Kalai Priya; R Rajaram; R Vignesh; M Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) to specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) in laboratory captivity condition in relation to PCR detection, histopathological observation and viral genome sequence. Methods: Viral DNA was isolated from purified virions by treatment with proteinase K (0.2 mg/mL) and Sarkosyl (1%). The purity and concentration of the DNA were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moribund and dead shrimp were removed and processed for indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) analysis. Histological observation of infected L. vannamei shrimps were revealed by the degenerated cells which were characterized by intranuclear inclusions in the tissues of WSSV infected mid-gut gland, lymphoid organ, gill lamellae and gut epithelium. Total DNA was extracted, from shrimp hemolymph and tissues, with a High Puree PCR template preparation kit. WSSV-DNA was detected using a commercial 2-step PCR detection kit. Results:The present study compares the real-time PCR results with SYBR Green I concentration ranging from 0.2 to 0.7×. The positive standard was used in the range of 102, 104 106, 108 and 1010 copies/ng of DNA in general. The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band of 848 bp. Moderate and severe levels were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 & 2 000 copies) in various transmission routes. The WSSV content in moribund shrimp of all the experimental species (L. vannamei) approximately ranged in nucleotide application by quantification method from 0.000 001 WSSV copies/μg of total DNA. In whole moribund infection animal, approximately 0.02 WSSV copies/μg of DNA was detected in nucleotide applied animal. Conclusion: These results indicate that wild brood stock and native culture shrimp P. monodon may be infected with WSSV and can get transferred into the SPF L. vannamei farming

  20. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  1. Proposals for the masses of the three largest asteroids, the Moon-Earth mass ratio and the Astronomical Unit

    Pitjeva, E. V.; Standish, E. M.

    2009-04-01

    We propose to the NSFA (the IAU Working Group on Numerical Standards for Fundamental Astronomy) the following representative values and realistic uncertainties for the masses of the three largest asteroids (Ceres, Pallas, Vesta), to be used as the current best estimates: begin{array}{ll}M_Ceres/M_odot = 4.72(3)\\cdot 10^{-10},\\ M_Pallas/M_odot = 1.03(3)\\cdot 10^{-10},\\ M_Vesta/M_odot = 1.35(3)\\cdot 10^{-10}. Unlike the values previously adopted in the Astronomical Almanac, these are consistent with nearly all of the twenty or so modern accurate determinations from various authors. We also have proposed the following values for the Moon-Earth mass ratio and the astronomical unit in meters obtained from the ephemeris improvement processes at JPL in Pasadena and at IAA RAS in St.Petersburg: M Moon/ M Earth = 0.0123000371(4) and AU = 149597870700(3) m. The numerical value of the AU in meters is identical in both the TDB-based and the TCB-based systems of units if one uses the conversion proposed by Irwin and Fukushima, Brumberg and Groten, Brumberg and Simon.

  2. Measurements of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols in Northern Finland

    V. Aaltonen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Three years of continuous measurements of aerosol optical properties and simultaneous aerosol number size distribution measurements at Pallas GAW station, a remote subarctic site in the northern border of the boreal forest zone, have been analysed. The scattering coefficient at 550 nm varied from 0.2 to 94.4 Mm−1 with an average of 7.1±8.6 Mm−1. Both the scattering and backscattering coefficients had a clear seasonal cycle with an autumn minimum and a 4–5 times higher summer maximum. The scattering was dominated by submicron aerosols and especially so during late summer and autumn. The Ångström exponent had a clear seasonal pattern with maximum values in late summer and minimum values during wintertime. The highest hemispheric backscattering fraction values were observed in autumn, indicating clean air with few scattering particles and a particle size distribution strongly dominated by ultrafine particles. To analyse the influence of air mass origin on the aerosol optical properties a trajectory climatology was applied to the Pallas aerosol data. The most polluted trajectory patterns represented air masses from the Kola Peninsula, Scandinavia and Russia as well as long-range transport from Britain and Eastern Europe. These air masses had the largest average scattering and backscattering coefficients for all seasons. Higher than average values of the Ångström exponent were also observed in connection with transport from these areas.

  3. The thermodynamic dissociation constants of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by the least-squares nonlinear regression of multiwavelength spectrophotometric pH-titration data.

    Meloun, Milan; Bordovská, Sylva; Galla, Lubomír

    2007-11-30

    The mixed dissociation constants of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen, diclofenac sodium, flurbiprofen and ketoprofen at various ionic strengths I of range 0.003-0.155, and at temperatures of 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C, were determined with the use of two different multiwavelength and multivariate treatments of spectral data, SPECFIT/32 and SQUAD(84) nonlinear regression analyses and INDICES factor analysis. The factor analysis in the INDICES program predicts the correct number of components, and even the presence of minor ones, when the data quality is high and the instrumental error is known. The thermodynamic dissociation constant pK(a)(T) was estimated by nonlinear regression of (pK(a), I) data at 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Goodness-of-fit tests for various regression diagnostics enabled the reliability of the parameter estimates found to be proven. PALLAS, MARVIN, SPARC, ACD/pK(a) and Pharma Algorithms predict pK(a) being based on the structural formulae of drug compounds in agreement with the experimental value. The best agreement seems to be between the ACD/pK(a) program and experimentally found values and with SPARC. PALLAS and MARVIN predicted pK(a,pred) values with larger bias errors in comparison with the experimental value for all four drugs. PMID:17825517

  4. Development of core technology for research reactors using plate type fuels

    Around 250 research reactors are under operation over the world. However, about 2/3 have been operated more than 30 years and demands for replacements are expected in the near future. The number of expected units is around 110, and around 55 units from 40 countries will be expected to be bid in the world market. In 2007, Netherlands started international bidding process to construct a new 80MW RR (named PALLAS) with the target of commercial operation in 2016, which will replace the existing HFR(45MW). KAERI consortium has been participated in that bid. Most of RRs use plate type fuels as a fuel assembly, Be and Graphite as a reflector. On the other hand, in Korea, the KAERI is operating the HANARO, which uses a rod type fuel assembly and heavy water as a reflector. Hence, core technologies for RRs using plate type fuels are in short. Therefore, core technologies should be secured for exporting a RR. In chapter 2, the conceptual design of PALLAS which use plate type fuels are described including core, cooling system and connected systems, layout of general components. Experimental verification tests for the plate type fuel and second shutdown system and the code verification for nuclear design are explained in Chapter 3 and 4, respectively

  5. Triaxial ellipsoid dimensions and poles of asteroids from AO observations at the Keck-II telescope

    Drummond, Jack; Christou, Julian; Nelson, Jerry

    2009-07-01

    Five main belt asteroids, 2 Pallas, 129 Antigone, 409 Aspasia, 532 Herculina, and 704 Interamnia were imaged with the adaptive optics system on the 10 m Keck-II telescope in the near infrared on one night, August 16, 2006. The three axis dimensions and rotational poles were determined for Pallas, Antigone, Aspasia, and Interamnia, from their changing apparent sizes and shapes as measured with parametric blind deconvolution. The rotational pole found for Interamnia is much different from all previous work, including our own at Lick Observatory the previous month. Although images of Herculina were obtained at only two rotational phases, its rotation appears to be opposite to that predicted from the lightcurve inversion model of M. Kaasalainen, J. Torppa, and J. Piironen [2002. Icarus 159, 369-395]. A search for satellites was made in all of the asteroid images, with negative results, but three trailing stars around Herculina (200 km diameter), down to 8.9 magnitudes fainter and between 1 and 115 asteroid radii (100 to 11,500 km) from the asteroid, establishes an upper limit of 3.3 km for any object with the same albedo near Herculina.

  6. High sequence variability among hemocyte-specific Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors in decapod crustaceans.

    Cerenius, Lage; Liu, Haipeng; Zhang, Yanjiao; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Gunnar Andersson, M; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Crustacean hemocytes were found to produce a large number of transcripts coding for Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). A detailed study performed with the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and the shrimp Penaeus monodon revealed the presence of at least 26 and 20 different Kazal domains from the hemocyte KPIs, respectively. Comparisons with KPIs from other taxa indicate that the sequences of these domains evolve rapidly. A few conserved positions, e.g. six invariant cysteines were present in all domain sequences whereas the position of P1 amino acid, a determinant for substrate specificity, varied highly. A study with a single crayfish animal suggested that even at the individual level considerable sequence variability among hemocyte KPIs produced exist. Expression analysis of four crayfish KPI transcripts in hematopoietic tissue cells and different hemocyte types suggest that some of these KPIs are likely to be involved in hematopoiesis or hemocyte release as they were produced in particular hemocyte types or maturation stages only. PMID:19715720

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15761-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available vidus EST, clone MPMGp1172N172Q, ... 38 0.10 3 ( EU906957 ) Cynoglossus semilaevis microsatellite C.... 38 0.10 3 ( EU910150 ) Tegillarca granosa clone T26E2 microsatellite seq... 42 0.10 2 ( AM192582 ) Paracentrotus li...51812 ) Lygus hesperus clone LHMS2-54 microsatellite sequ... 34 0.21 3 ( EY552103 ) CAWT19349.rev CAWT Capit...23 ( AY753002 ) Penaeus monodon clone t1101 microsatellite sequence. 42 0.22 2 ( AZ167278 ) SP_0098_A1_A10_S...o anubis cDN... 44 0.25 2 ( EU094835 ) Humulus lupulus clone ACC2-E14-4 microsatellite s... 36 0.26 4 ( EY37

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08961-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available se... 46 3.3 1 ( DQ307240 ) Penaeus monodon microsatellite 8EG sequence. 46 3.3 1 ( AM910995 ) Plasmodium knowles...; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Va... 0.711 1.31 Gapped Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Matrix: blastn matrix:1 -3 Gap Penalties: Existence: 5, Extension: 2 Number of Hit...f database: 5,564,391 effective search space: 7200321954 effective search space used: 7200321954 T: 0 A: 40 X1: 6 (11.9 bit......................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( BJ375091 ) Dictyoste

  9. Detection of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in wild shrimp from India by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Manjanaik, B; Umesha, K R; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2005-02-28

    The prevalence of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in wild penaeid shrimp samples from India was studied by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed in our laboratory. The virus could be detected in 9 out of 119 samples by non-nested PCR. However, by nested PCR 69 out of 119 samples were positive. The PCR results were confirmed by hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled DNA probe. Shrimp species positive by non-nested PCR included Penaeus monodon, Penaeus indicus and Penaeus semisulcatus and by nested PCR Parapenaeopsis stylifera, Penaeus japonicus, Metapenaeus monoceros, M. affinis, M. elegans, M. dobsoni, M. ensis and Solenocera choprai. This is the first report on the prevalence of HPV in captured wild shrimp from India. PMID:15819441

  10. Recruitment and origin of penaeid prawn postlarvae in two South-east African estuaries

    Forbes, A. T.; Cyrus, D. P.

    1991-09-01

    Input of postlarval stages into the penaeid prawn stocks of Natal, South Africa, was investigated by monitoring immigration into the St Lucia and Kosi estuaries. Five species, Penaeus japonicus Bate, P. indicus Milne Edwards, P. semisulcatus de Haan, P. monodon Fabricius and Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) were recorded. Recruitment into the more northerly Kosi estuary, where offshore conditions are influenced by the south-flowing Agulhas Current, was totally dominated by P. japonicus. At St Lucia, at the northern end of the Tugela Bank, similar numbers of P. japonicus and P. indicus were recorded as well as smaller numbers of the other three species. The differences imply that the Tugela Bank provides the major postlarval input of commercially important species to St Lucia and suggests a greater degree of isolation of the Natal penaeid prawn populations than previously thought.

  11. SEM-EDX STUDIES OF CHITOSAN DERIVATIVES-METAL ADDUCTS

    Galo Cárdenas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan was obtained from shrimps shells (pleuroncodes monodon using chemical methods. A series of chitosan (QScharged with solution of copper, cobalt, nickel and mercury ions were prepared at room temperature using the batch method. N-3,5-diethylamino benzoyl chitosan (QDAB; N,O-dimercapto succinate chitosan (QNOT and 4-aminobenzoate chitosan (QAB derivatives were prepared. The chitosan metal adducts with Cu, Co, Ni and Hg ions and derivatives maximum loading is discussed. Chitosan and derivatives containing copper were analyzed by SEM to find out the morphology of the polymers. Chitosan-Cu and derivatives charged, QDAB-Ni and QDAB-Hg were analyzed by EDX to verify the presence of the metal in the polymeric chain

  12. Den smältande polarisens effekt på de endemiska valarna i Arktis

    Larsson, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Klimatförändringarna har en stor påverkan på de arktiska valarna grönlandsval (Balaena mysticetus), vitval (Delphinapterus leucas) och narval (Monodon monoceros), mer än vad som tros vid en första tanke. I dagsläget får dessa valar utstå stora utmaningar som troligenkan komma att förvärras i framtiden om inte isens smältande kan bromsas. En del av utmaningarna innebär att valarna måste genomgå stora förändringar för att överleva, vilket innebär att deras förmåga att anpassa sig spelar en stor...

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15475-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ( Q26537 ) RecName: Full=14-3-3 protein homolog 2; Short=... 70 4e-11 T45211( T45211 ) DNA damage checkpo...1716_1( AF441716 |pid:none) Penaeus monodon 14-3-3 zeta-like t... 69 8e-11 EF459687_1( EF459687 |pid:none) Melampsora laricis-pop...1( EF459688 |pid:none) Melampsora laricis-populina clone ... 69 8e-11 GN117852_1( GN117852 |pid:none) Sequen...one) Sequence 480 from Patent WO2009037... 69 1e-10 EF459689_1( EF459689 |pid:none) Melampsora laricis-popul...s 14-3-3 A pro... 67 5e-10 ( P42657 ) RecName: Full=DNA damage checkpoint protein rad25; &CU... 67 5e-10 FN3

  14. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a novel antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-3 (Fi-Pen3) from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B

    2012-03-20

    A new member of antimicrobial peptide genes of the penaeidin family, penaeidin 3, was cloned from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropeneaus indicus (F. indicus), by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE-PCR) methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of cDNA clone of Indian white shrimp F. indicus Penaeidin 3 (Fi-Pen3) was 243bp long and has an open reading frame which encodes 80 amino acid peptide. The homology analysis of Fi-Pen3 sequence with other Penaeidins 3 shows higher similarity with Penaeus monodon (92%). The theoretical 3D structure generated through ab initio modelling indicated the presence of two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. The signal peptide sequence of Fi-Pen3 is almost entirely homologous to that of other Penaeidin 3 of crustaceans, while differing relatively in the N-terminal domain of the mature peptide. The mature peptide has a predicted molecular weight of 84.9kDa, and a theoretical pI of 9.38. Phylogenetic analysis of Fi-Pen3 shows high resemblance with other Pen-3 from P. monodon, Litopenaeus stylirostris, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus. Fi-Pen3 found to be expressed in haemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, muscles, gills, intestine, and eyestalk with higher expression in haemocytes. Microbial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, up to 6h post injection of Vibrio parahemolyticus. The Fi-Pen3 mRNA expression of F. indicus in the premolt stage (D(01) and D(02)) was significantly up-regulated than the postmolt (A and B) and intermolt stages (C). The findings of the present paper underline the involvement of Fi-Pen3 in innate immune system of F. indicus. PMID:21885268

  15. Antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh shrimps in Shanghai fish markets, China.

    He, Yu; Jin, Lanlan; Sun, Fengjiao; Hu, Qiongxia; Chen, Lanming

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a causative agent of human serious seafood-borne gastroenteritis disease and even death. Shrimps, often eaten raw or undercooked, are an important reservoir of the bacterium. In this study, we isolated and characterized a total of 400 V. parahaemolyticus strains from commonly consumed fresh shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon, and Exopalaemon carinicauda) in Shanghai fish markets, China in 2013-2014. The results revealed an extremely low occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus carrying two major toxic genes (tdh and trh, 0.0 and 0.5 %). However, high incidences of antibiotic resistance were observed among the strains against ampicillin (99 %), streptomycin (45.25 %), rifampicin (38.25 %), and spectinomycin (25.50 %). Approximately 24 % of the strains derived from the P. monodon sample displayed multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, followed by 19, 12, and 6 % from the E. carinicauda, L. vannamei, and M. rosenbergii samples, respectively. Moreover, tolerance to heavy metals of Cr(3+) and Zn(2+) was observed in 90 antibiotic resistant strains, the majority of which also displayed resistance to Cu(2+) (93.3 %), Pb(2+) (87.8 %), and Cd(2+)(73.3 %). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-based genotyping of these strains revealed a total of 71 distinct pulsotypes, demonstrating a large degree of genomic variation among the isolates. The wide distribution of MDR and heavy-metal resistance isolates in the PFGE clusters suggested the co-existence of a number of resistant determinants in V. parahaemolyticus population in the detected samples. This study provided data in support of aquatic animal health management and food safety risk assessment in aquaculture industry. PMID:27083906

  16. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

    Sondgeroth Kerry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion

  17. Auch eine Theorie der Moderne

    Sabine Rohlf

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Hahn zeichnet die Wege schreibender Frauen durch 200 Jahre deutsch-jüdische Kulturgeschichte nach. Ausgehend von Paul Celans vieldeutiger Jüdin Pallas Athene, werden dabei stereotype Bilder der „Jüdin“, der „Intellektuellen“ und die scharfe Trennlinie zwischen humanistisch christlicher und jüdischer Tradition zur Diskussion gestellt. Mit Celans Figur schreibt sich gleichzeitig die theoretische Herausforderung in diese Studie ein, nach Ambivalenzen und Dialogen zu fragen, deren Voraussetzungen mit beispielloser Gewalt zerstört wurden. Gestützt auf Archivmaterial und veröffentlichte Texte der von ihr vorgestellten Frauen, spannt Hahn den Bogen von frühen Strategien der Assimilierung bis in die Jahre nach 1945. Das Buch ist keine Überblicksdarstellung, sondern präsentiert einzelne, einander auch überschneidende Konstellationen – intellektuelle Netzwerke, Briefwechsel, intertextuellen Transfer.

  18. Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea em morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Sreblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea on bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Gustavo Graciolli

    Full Text Available A survey of the Streblidae batflies on the phyllostomid bats was conducted in the northeastern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 1997. Hundred thirty three streblids were collected on 44 parasited hosts. Eleven species of batflies (Trichobius dugesii Townsend, 1891, T. tiptoni Wenzel, 1976, Trichobius sp., Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, M. proxima (Séguy, 1926, Exastinion clovisi (Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Paraeuctenodes longipes Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, 1966, A. caudiferae Wenzel, 1976 and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907 were found on six species of phyllostomid bats (Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818 and A. geoffroyi Gray, 1838. All records are new for the Rio Grande do Sul and Anastrebla caudiferae is firstly recorded in Brazil. Differences in the batflies community composition in Artibeus fimbriatus and A. lituratus are discussed.

  19. Contrasting phosphate acquisition of mycorrhizal fungi with that of root hairs using the root hairless barley mutant

    Jakobsen, I.; Chen, B.D.; Munkvold, L.;

    2005-01-01

    dependency of a spontaneous root hairless mutant, brb, in Hordeum vulgare cv Pallas and its wild type. Both brb and wild type were grown at different soil P levels in association with different mycorrhizal fungi. P uptake of brb and wild type was similar at high P levels, but P uptake by non-mycorrhizal brb......Comparisons between plant species or cultivars differing in root hair length have indicated a major impact of root hairs on the mycorrhizal dependency of plants with respect to phosphate (P) uptake. The current study aimed to investigate this relationship by comparing directly the mycorrhizal...... plants at low P levels was substantially lower than that of the non-mycorrhizal wild-type plants. However, P uptake of the mutant was much increased by mycorrhizas and with one fungus, the additional P uptake was effectively translated into increased plant growth. Roots of the mutant contained typical...

  20. Structural changes in bunched crystalline ion beams

    Measurements of the spatial distribution of bunched crystalline ion beams in the radio frequency quadrupole storage ring PALLAS are presented for different ratios of the longitudinal and the transverse confinement strengths. The length of highly elongated crystalline ion bunches and its dependence on the bunching voltage is compared to predictions for a one-dimensional ion string and three-dimensional space-charge-dominated beams. The length is found to be considerably shorter than that predicted by the models. Furthermore, the scaling of the length with the bunching voltage is shown to differ from the expected inverse cube root scaling. These differences can partially be attributed to the formation of a mixed crystalline structure. Additionally, a concise mapping of the structural transition from a string to a zig-zag configuration as a function of the ratio of the confinement strengths is presented, which in a similar way deviates from the predictions

  1. Structural changes in bunched crystalline ion beams

    Bussmann, M; Schätz, T; Habs, D

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the spatial distribution of bunched crystalline ion beams in the radio frequency quadrupole storage ring PALLAS are presented for different ratios of the longitudinal and the transverse confinement strengths. The length of highly elongated crystalline ion bunches and its dependence on the bunching voltage is compared to predictions for a one-dimensional ion string and three-dimensional space-charge-dominated beams. The length is found to be considerably shorter than that predicted by the models. Furthermore, the scaling of the length with the bunching voltage is shown to differ from the expected inverse cube root scaling. These differences can partially be attributed to the formation of a mixed crystalline structure. Additionally, a concise mapping of the structural transition from a string to a zig-zag configuration as a function of the ratio of the confinement strengths is presented, which in a similar way deviates from the predictions.

  2. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  3. "Blister Beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae in Nahavand County (Hamedan Province, Iran and Their Ecological Relationship to Other Coleopteran Families"

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Field collection in Nahavand county (Hamedan Province, Iran revealed 9 blister beetle (Col: Meloidae species from three different tribes of subfamily Meloinae. In tribe Mylabrini, Mylabris impressa Chevrolat 1837, Mylabris schreibersi Reiche 1865, Mylabris variabilis (Pallas, 1781, Mylabris guerini Chevrolat 1837, Lydoceras bilineatus Thomas 1897 and Croscherichia spp. Pardo Alcaide identified; whereas in tribe Lyttini Alosimus smyrnensis (Maran 1942 and Muzimes iranicus (Maran 1942 found. Another species was Calydos alloushei Kaszab 1960 of tribe Eupomphini. Two records of Mylabris impressa and Mylabris schreibersi are quite new for Iranian fauna. There are some interesting mimicry rings between meloid species and 8 species of other coleopteran families which indicates a remarkable Müllerian mimicry. Mimics of the following families have taken advantage of Meloid aposematism towards a better natural fitness: Cerambycidae, Cleridae, Pedilidae, Melyridae, Chrysomelidae, Cantharidae and Cicindelidae. Canthariphily of families Chrysomelidae, Cantharidae and Cerambycidae are new reports which have never been shown elsewhere.

  4. Attitudes about inclusion by educators and physical educators: effects of participation in an inclusive adapted physical education program

    Eliane Mauerberg-deCastro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the attitudes about the inclusion of students with disability by professionals in education and health, relative to their experience and training. We compared three groups: 20 teachers and trainees who worked in an adapted physical education program (GI; 75 professionals from the municipal education system of Rio Claro subdivided according to their experience-CGyes e CGno, respectively, with and without experience. We used the inventory adapted by Palla (2001 to assess participants' attitudes and self-concepts. Overall, individuals in the group that participated in the intervention maintained their tendency of being favorable toward inclusion. Teachers in regular school settings in the municipal school system of Rio Claro (São Paulo, Brazil, regardless of their experience with inclusive settings, remain mostly indecisive about the benefits of inclusion.

  5. Herschel celestial calibration sources: Four large main-belt asteroids as prime flux calibrators for the far-IR/sub-mm range

    Mueller, T G; Nielbock, M; Lim, T; Teyssier, D; Olberg, M; Klaas, U; Linz, H; Altieri, B; Pearson, C; Bendo, G; Vilenius, E

    2013-01-01

    Celestial standards play a major role in observational astrophysics. They are needed to characterise the performance of instruments and are paramount for photometric calibration. During the Herschel Calibration Asteroid Preparatory Programme approximately 50 asteroids have been established as far-IR/sub-mm/mm calibrators for Herschel. The selected asteroids fill the flux gap between the sub-mm/mm calibrators Mars, Uranus and Neptune, and the mid-IR bright calibration stars. All three Herschel instruments observed asteroids for various calibration purposes, including pointing tests, absolute flux calibration, relative spectral response function, observing mode validation, and cross-calibration aspects. Here we present newly established models for the four large and well characterized main-belt asteroids (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, (4) Vesta, and (21) Lutetia which can be considered as new prime flux calibrators. The relevant object-specific properties (size, shape, spin-properties, albedo, thermal properties) are w...

  6. Effects of biorational pesticides on four coccinellid species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) having potential as biological control agents in interiorscapes.

    Smith, S F; Krischik, V A

    2000-06-01

    The direct toxicity of insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, Azatin, an extract from the Neem tree containing azadiractin, and BotainiGard, a commercial formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, was assessed on adults of four species of coccinellids--Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Ménéville), Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant. All biorationals caused less mortality than a conventional pesticide, carbaryl (Sevin). Horticultural oil (Sunspray ultrafine oil) consistently had no effect on beetle survivorship. Insecticidal soap (M-Pede) significantly reduced survival in all replicates for C. maculata and in at least one of the three replicates for the other three coccinellid species. Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard) significantly reduced survival of C. montrouzieri at 72 h after spray in all three replicates. Azatin reduced survivorship in only one species, C. maculata, in only one of the three replicates. PMID:10902323

  7. Fast neutron transport through laminated iron-water shield

    Reaction rates were measured in a laminated iron-water shield by threshold detectors, from which the neutron spectra were obtained with the aid of the SAND-II code. The error analysis for the unfolding of the spectra proved that the spectra obtained satisfactorily in the energy range of 1 -- 10.5 MeV. One-dimensional calculations were made by the discrete ordinates transport codes ANISN-JR and PALLAS in a spherical geometry. Agreements within a factor of 1.6 for the spectra and 1.31 for the reaction rates were obtained between the measurements and calculations, though rather large discrepancies were found in the spectra at the energy range of 3 -- 7 MeV. All experimental data in absolute value and detailed specifications for source, detector and the experimental geometry are given for a fast neutron transport benchmark calculation. (author)

  8. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  9. The potential of four woody species for the revegetation of fly ash deposits from the ‘Nikola Tesla-a’ thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia

    Kostić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four woody species, Tamarix tentandra Pallas, Populus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (planted and Amorpha fruticosa L. (naturally colonized were studied at two fly ash deposit lagoons, weathered 3 (L1 and 11 years (L2. All species were assessed in terms of their invasive ability, photosynthetic efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and damage symptoms, while the characteristics of the habitat were assessed in terms of trace element content and the pH and EC of the ash. A reduced vitality of all populations growing on the ash was observed, except for the naturally colonized A. fruticosa. High vitality on all sites, except at L2, increased chlorophyll content and absence of damage symptoms indicates a tolerance in relation to the uptake of toxic elements from the ash. Therefore, the characteristics of naturally colonized species can be used for modeling future actions of biological restoration of fly ash deposits.

  10. Eesti kunstnikud ajakirjandusgraafikas 1930. aastail

    Merle Talvik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of 1930-1940 marked the first surge of interest in graphic arts in Estonian journalism. The importance of artists who had received education in homeland increased and the following schools of specific creative image emerged - the school of Tallinn artists, who had mostly been educated at the State School of Applied Art, determined the face of magazines published in Tallinn (e.g. Muusikaleht, Huvitav Žurnaal, Kirilind, Lood Elust, Maaomavalitsus, Teater, Välis-Eesti Almanak, Sõdur, Käsitööleht, Laste Rõõm, Kaitse Kodu! and the Tartu school of graphic artists, who had been educated at the Higher Art School Pallas, designed the face of magazines and journals published in Tartu (e.g. Olion, Tänapäev, Varamu, Teater Vanemuine, Kevadik. Art déco style became the common feature of these two schools of art. The curricula of the School of Applied Arts followed the example of curricula at the Stieglitz School of Applied Arts in St. Petersburg, which was oriented to systematic teaching in calligraphy and decorative art. The school had established good contacts with art institutions in Germany that were considered the most prestigious ones in Europe at the time. National ornamentation was abundantly used. In the 1930s, the Tallinn School laid a solid foundation for the development of Estonian graphic design by ensuring the continuity of education in this field. The work of the Tallinn school is characterised by art decoésque stilisation, moderate use of the element of nationalism and strong composition, also clear and legible script. The indisputable authority for this generation on both decorative art and calligraphy was Günther Reindorff (1889-1975, who devised the systematic methods in teaching calligraphy in Estonia. The most important representatives of the Tallinn school in the graphic art in journalism were Johann Naha (1902-1982, Paul Luhtein (born in 1909, Hugo Lepik (1905-2001, Werner Birkenfeldt (1903-1942, Eduard Salu

  11. Genetic relationships among some hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species and genotypes.

    Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar

    2010-10-01

    The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns. PMID:20640884

  12. Distribution and abundance of Gobiidae family species larvae in İzmir Bay

    Burcu Taylan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, we search about the abundance and distribution of Gobiidae larvae in Izmir Bay between the years 2000-2004. For this purpose, seasonally obtained the ichthyoplankton sam¬ples from 8 stations identified in the inner, middle and outer parts of the bay aboard the K. Piri Reis research vessel. They were shot horizontaly with a Hensen model zooplankton net which has a 200 µm mesh-opening and is 55 cm in diameter. We obtained 1210 larvae/10m³ through¬out the survey and identified 4 species of Gobiidae family. These species; Gobius niger Lin¬naeus, 1758, Gobius paganellus Linnaeus, 1758, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770 and Pomatoschistus microps (KrØyer, 1938, respectively. G. niger was found to be dominant in Izmir Bay.

  13. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 106 M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints

  14. Development of Acne therapeutic hydrogel patches by radiation technology

    Lim, Younmook; Nho, Youngchang; Gwon, Huijeong; Park, Jongseok; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yongsoo

    2012-04-15

    In this project, hydrogel patches containing herbal extracts mixture were developed by radiation technology for acne treatment. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, is the cause of inflammatory acne. To find novel mediation for inflammation of P. acnes, we confirmed the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The water extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thumb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were mixed into biocompatible polymers and irradiated by using gamma-ray to prepare hydrogels. The hydrogels containing herbal extracts mixture initiated to decrease the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-{alpha}, IL-8, IL-1{beta} and IL-6, in experiment with human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes at 1 mg/ml of mixture concentration.

  15. [Original procreation or generational change? The investigation of cysticercus and tapeworms].

    Geus, A

    2007-01-01

    The doctrine of the abiogenesis postulated the origin of human and animal intestinal worms from "not complete digested ingesta". Indeed Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811) defined already 1760 in his dissertation that endoparasitic worms reproduce themselves by eggs. But he characterised the nature of cysticercus as "pathologically degenerated tail bladder". In 1856 Rudolf Leuckart (1822-1898) paraphrased the alternation of generation with "marvellous metamorphoses and peculiar form of development". The Dane Johannes Japetus Smith Steenstrup (1813-1897) recognised finally the principle of the alternation of generation and Gottlob Friedrich Heinrich Küchenmeister (1821-1890), a physician at the Saxon city Zittau realised the special correlation between the alternate and end host of tapeworms. Both, Leuckart and Küchenmeister proved their insights by animal and human experimentations. PMID:17243446

  16. The birds of Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    T.S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avifaunal survey carried out from December 2006 to September 2007 in Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, revealed the presence of a total of 147 species of birds belonging to 43 families. One-hundred-twelve species of birds in Araku Valley were resident breeders, 23 species winter visitors, nine species local migrants, two species passage migrants and one species summer visitor. Many bird species were seen in more than one habitat for nesting, roosting and foraging. The dominant feeding guild of birds was insectivorous. Four globally threatened species, namely, the Purple Wood-Pigeon Columba punicea Blyth, 1842, the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas, 1811, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 and the Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (S.G. Gmelin, 1770, were recorded during the survey from the area

  17. Breaking the hierarchy - a new cluster selection mechanism for hierarchical clustering methods

    Zweig Katharina A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hierarchical clustering methods like Ward's method have been used since decades to understand biological and chemical data sets. In order to get a partition of the data set, it is necessary to choose an optimal level of the hierarchy by a so-called level selection algorithm. In 2005, a new kind of hierarchical clustering method was introduced by Palla et al. that differs in two ways from Ward's method: it can be used on data on which no full similarity matrix is defined and it can produce overlapping clusters, i.e., allow for multiple membership of items in clusters. These features are optimal for biological and chemical data sets but until now no level selection algorithm has been published for this method. Results In this article we provide a general selection scheme, the level independent clustering selection method, called LInCS. With it, clusters can be selected from any level in quadratic time with respect to the number of clusters. Since hierarchically clustered data is not necessarily associated with a similarity measure, the selection is based on a graph theoretic notion of cohesive clusters. We present results of our method on two data sets, a set of drug like molecules and set of protein-protein interaction (PPI data. In both cases the method provides a clustering with very good sensitivity and specificity values according to a given reference clustering. Moreover, we can show for the PPI data set that our graph theoretic cohesiveness measure indeed chooses biologically homogeneous clusters and disregards inhomogeneous ones in most cases. We finally discuss how the method can be generalized to other hierarchical clustering methods to allow for a level independent cluster selection. Conclusion Using our new cluster selection method together with the method by Palla et al. provides a new interesting clustering mechanism that allows to compute overlapping clusters, which is especially valuable for biological and

  18. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).

    Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes

  19. Auch eine Theorie der Moderne Another Theory of Modernity

    Sabine Rohlf

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Hahn zeichnet die Wege schreibender Frauen durch 200 Jahre deutsch-jüdische Kulturgeschichte nach. Ausgehend von Paul Celans vieldeutiger Jüdin Pallas Athene, werden dabei stereotype Bilder der „Jüdin“, der „Intellektuellen“ und die scharfe Trennlinie zwischen humanistisch christlicher und jüdischer Tradition zur Diskussion gestellt. Mit Celans Figur schreibt sich gleichzeitig die theoretische Herausforderung in diese Studie ein, nach Ambivalenzen und Dialogen zu fragen, deren Voraussetzungen mit beispielloser Gewalt zerstört wurden. Gestützt auf Archivmaterial und veröffentlichte Texte der von ihr vorgestellten Frauen, spannt Hahn den Bogen von frühen Strategien der Assimilierung bis in die Jahre nach 1945. Das Buch ist keine Überblicksdarstellung, sondern präsentiert einzelne, einander auch überschneidende Konstellationen – intellektuelle Netzwerke, Briefwechsel, intertextuellen Transfer.Hahn traces the paths of women writers through two hundred years of German-Jewish cultural history. Using Celan’s plurivalent “Pallas Athene” as a starting point, Hahn discusses stereotypical images of “the Jew,” “the Intellectual,” and the sharp division between the humanistic Christian and the Jewish tradition. The character created by Celan functions as a theoretical challenge in this text, asking about feelings of ambivalence and dialogues which could not take place as their premises were destroyed with an unprecedented violence. Based on archival material and biographical texts about the women she uses, Hahn completes the circle between early strategies and assimilation until the post-WWII years. This book does not offer a general overview, but offers individual, overlapping constellations-intellectual networks, letters, and intertextual transfers.

  20. [Biological and ecological background of nematode fauna structure formation in the alimentary tracts of wild Anatinae ducks in north-western Poland].

    Kavetska, Katarzyna M

    2008-01-01

    The study involved a total of 250 wild ducks representing 17 species of three ecologically different tribes: the Anatini (113 individuals), the Aythyini (71), and the Mergini (66). The ducks, obtained mainly from fishermen and hunters, were examined for the presence of parasites, using the generally accepted methods. Analyses of nematode assemblage structure were conducted with methods described in the literature. In addition, significance of differences in intensity of infestation was determined in relation to the hosts' age and sex as grouping variables. Significance of differences in infestation prevalence was tested with the Pearson Chi2 test or its modifications (V-square test, Chi2 test with Yates' correction, and the exact Fisher's test), while the Mann-Whitney U test was applied to infestation intensity and relative density. Similarity coefficients were ordered using the cluster analysis module of the STATISTICA 6.0 computer software; Ward's algorithm was used for grouping, Euclidean distance being applied as the similarity measure. The ducks examined were found to host a highly diverse nematode assemblage, consisting of a total of 22 species representing the following 7 families: Amidostomatidae, Anisakidae, Ascarididae, Tetrameridae, Acuariidae, Dioctophymatidae, and Capillariidae, the core of the assemblage being formed by the following 7 species: Amidostomoides acutum, A. monodon, A. petrovi, Tetrameres fissispina, Echinuria uncinata, Eucoleus contortus, and Capillaria anatis. The assemblage of parasitic nematodes in the ducks examined was found to be characterized by a high organ specificity, as the parasites selected mainly the gizzard and proventriculus as their microhabitats (10 and 8 typical species, respectively) and firmly avoided the duodenum and cloaca. Individual parasite species were observed to show a clear preference with respect to location in the host's alimentary tract, which means that, for a distinct majority of the parasitic species

  1. Analisis komoditas unggulan perikanan budidaya Kabupaten Pidie Jaya

    Farok Afero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Snapper (Lates calcarifer, grouper (Epinephelus coioides, tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus are leading commodity worthly cultivated in Pidie Jaya. Bandar Baru and Tringgadeng an appropriate areas for black tiger shrimp while Jangka Buya and Ulim approriate areas for vannamei cultivation. AHP analysis showed black tiger shrimp is top priority based on the economic value while vannamei shrimp is top priority based on enterprise sustainability. Financial analysis of snapper, grouper, black tiger shrimp, vannamei shrimp and tilapia farming generated positive cash flow and NPV, IRR > 100%, the ratio of benefit to cost of production > 1,30 and payback period of investment costs  < 1 year, thus demonstrating the feasibility of cultivation of these leading commodities. Vannamei shrimp cultivation showed positive prospect as long the market offers premium price. Grouper and snapper had a positive outlook because high demand of high-quality fish in the international market. Keywords: Leading commodity; financial analysis; aquaculture; Pidie Jaya Abstrak. Komoditas kakap (Lates calcarifer, kerapu (Epinephelus coioides,udang windu (Penaeus monodon, udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei dan nila (Oreochromis niloticus adalah komoditas unggulan yang layak dibudidaya di Kabupaten Pidie Jaya. Bandar Baru dan Tringgadeng merupakan kawasan yang layak untuk pengembangan komoditas udang windu sedangkan Jangka Buya dan Ulim layak untuk pengembangan komoditas udang vannamei. Analisis AHP menunjukkan komoditas udang windu menjadi prioritas utama untuk dikembangkan berdasarkan nilai ekonomi sedangkan udang vannamei menjadi prioritas utama berdasarkan keberlanjutan usaha. Analisis indikator keuangan budidaya kakap, kerapu, udang windu, vannamei dan nila menunjukkan usaha budidaya komoditas unggulan menghasilkan arus kas kumulatif dan NPV positif, nilai  IRR diatas 100%, rasio keuntungan

  2. Tamaños de muestra para estimar la estructura de tallas de las capturas de langostino colorado en la zona centro-norte de Chile: una aproximación a través de remuestreo Sample sizes for estimating the catch size distribution of squat lobster in north-central Chile: a resampling approach

    Carlos Montenegro Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el desempeño de distintos tamaños de muestra para estimar la composición de tallas de las capturas del langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon, a partir de un procedimiento de remuestreo computacional. Se seleccionaron datos recolectados en mayo de 2002 entre los 29°10'S y 32°10'S. A partir de éstos, se probaron siete escenarios de muestreo de viajes de pesca (1-7 viajes, 12 escenarios de número de ejemplares muestreados (25, 50,...300, cada 25 ejemplares y dos estrategias de muestreo de lances de pesca al interior de un viaje de pesca (censo de lances y muestreo sistemático. Se probó la combinación de todos estos escenarios, lo que permitió analizar el desempeño de 168 escenarios de tamaño de muestra para estimar la composición de tallas por sexo. Los resultados indicaron una disminución en el índice de error en la estimación de la distribución de frecuencia de tallas, conforme aumentó el número de viajes de pesca, con disminuciones progresivamente menores entre escenarios adyacentes. Del mismo modo, se verificó una disminución en el índice de error al aumentar el número de ejemplares muestreados, con mejoras marginales sobre los 175 ejemplares.The performances of different sample sizes for estimating the size distribution of squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon catches were analyzed using a computer resampling procedure. The data selected were gathered in May 2002 between 29°10'S and 32°10'S. These data were used to test seven sampling scenarios for fishing trips (1-7 trips, twelve scenarios of the number of individuals sampled per tow (25, 50,..., 300, and two within-trip sampling strategies (sampling all tows and systematic tow sampling. By testing the combination of all these scenarios, we were able to analyze the performance of 168 scenarios of sample size for estimating the composition of sizes by sex. The results indicate a lower error index for estimates of the size frequency distribution as the

  3. Study on genetic diversity of cultivated populations in 4 species of shrimps

    黎中宝; 吴仲庆

    2003-01-01

    Genetic diversity of cultivated populations was investigated using assay of vertical slabpolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 4 species of shrimps, which were Penaeus japonicus, Penaeusmonodon, Penaeus vannamei and Metapenaeus ensis. The results showed that the mean number of alle-les per locus (A) is 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.3 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.1 respectively; the percentage ofpolymorphic loci (P0.95) is 12.5, 6.7, 20 and 23.5 respectivdy; the expected heterozygosity (He) is0.042 ± 0.034, 0.042 ± 0.031, 0.094 ± 0.042 and 0.097 ± 0.047 respectively; and the observed het-erozygosity (Ho) is 0.029 ± 0.024, 0.028 ± 0.023, 0.154 ± 0.082 and 0.150 ± 0.084 respectively.The difference of genetic diversity is obvious in 4 species of shrimps. The degree of genetic diversity isM. Ensis> P. Vannamei >P .japonicus >P. Monodon. In short, the lower level of genetic diversity isestimated in 4 species of shrimps.

  4. Liver cell adenoma: A case report with clonal analysis and literature review

    Li Gong; Qin Su; Wei Zhang; Ai-Ning Li; Shao-Jun Zhu; Ying-Ming Feng

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of liver cell adenoma (LCA) in a 33-year-old female patient with special respect to its clonality status, pathogenic factors and differential diagnosis. The case was examined by histopathology,immunohistochemistry and a clonality assay based on X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism in female somatic tissues and polymorphism at androgen receptor focus. The clinicopathological features of the reported cases from China and other countries were compared.The lesion was spherical, sizing 2 cm in its maximal dimension. Histologically, it was composed of cells arranged in cords, most of which were two-cell-thick and separated by sinusoids. Focal fatty change and excessive glycogen storage were observed. The tumor cells were round or polygonal in shape, resembling the surrounding parenchymal cells. Mitosis was not found. No portal tract, central vein or ductule was found within the lesion. The tumor tissue showed a positive reaction for cytokeratin (CK) 18, but not for CK19, vimentin, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Monodonality was demonstrated for the lesion, confirming the diagnosis of an LCA. Clonality analysis is helpful for its distinction from focal nodular hyperplasia.

  5. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  6. Current status of shrimp farming in the southwestern coast (Manroe Island, Kollam of India

    C. Shakir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey on 58 shrimp farms (42 operational and 16 non-operational was conducted within the Manroe island over 12 weeks. The black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon was the main species cultured. Presently, small-scale farmers carry out 90% shrimp aquaculture in Manroe Island. The farming is characterized by modified extensive and semi-intensive production systems, largely dependent on small ponds of less than 1 ha. These farms account for ~90% of the total area utilized for shrimp culture. The stocking densities range between 4 to 6 post larvae /m2 and average shrimp yields after 90-120 days is 320-400 kg.ha-1. As per our survey the average production cost for shrimp per hectare is at least 1,50,000 per cycle. During the 1990s, shrimp was cash crop in the Kollam with an average production of 900 kg.ha-1. Currently, the unsustainable practices and devastating outbreaks of disease has forced the industry to shut down.

  7. Computational analysis of molt-inhibiting hormone from selected crustaceans.

    C, Kumaraswamy Naidu; Y, Suneetha; P, Sreenivasula Reddy

    2013-12-01

    Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) is a principal endocrine hormone regulating the growth in crustaceans. In total, nine MIH peptide sequences representing members of the family Penaeidae (Penaeus monodon, Litopenaeus vannamei, Marsupenaeus japonicus), Portunidae (Portunus trituberculatus, Charybdis japonica, Charybdis feriata), Cambaridae (Procambarus bouvieri), Parastacidae (Cherax quadricarinatus) and Varunidae (Eriocheir sinensis) were selected for our study. In order to develop a structure based phylogeny, predict functionally important regions and to define stability changes upon single site mutations, the 3D structure of MIH for the crustaceans were built by using homology modeling based on the known structure of MIH from M. japonicus (1J0T). Structure based phylogeny showed a close relationship between P. bouvieri and C. japonica. ConSurf server analysis showed that the residues Cys(8), Arg(15), Cys(25), Asp(27), Cys(28), Asn(30), Arg(33), Cys(41), Cys(45), Phe(51), and Cys(54) may be functionally significant among the MIH of crustaceans. Single amino acid substitutions 'Y' and 'G' at the positions 71 and 72 of the MIH C-terminal region showed an alteration in the stability indicating that a change in this region may alter the function of MIH. In conclusion, we proposed a computational approach to analyze the structure, phylogeny and stability of MIH from crustaceans. PMID:24041714

  8. Stability of the WSSV ORF94 VNTR genotype marker during passage in marine shrimp, freshwater crayfish and freshwater prawns.

    Gudkovs, Nicholas; Murwantoko, Murwantoko; Walker, Peter J

    2014-10-16

    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome contains 3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) regions, located in open reading frame (ORF) 75, ORF94 and ORF125, which have been employed for molecular epizootiological studies. A previous report suggested that the ORF 94 VNTR is highly unstable, varying in the number of tandem repeats during single passages from shrimp to other crustaceans. As such rapid variations would have profound implications for the interpretation of molecular epizootiological data, we re-examined the stability of the ORF94 VNTR. Two WSSV isolates with different ORF94 VNTR genotypes (TRS5 and TRS7) were obtained from disease outbreaks in farmed black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in Indonesia. High titre stocks of each virus were produced by injection in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with filtered infected tissue extracts, and the genotypes were confirmed. Each stock (macerated tissue) was then used to feed SPF Pacific white shrimp, freshwater crayfish (Cherax sp.) and freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii through 3 successive passages involving alternative hosts at each level. Taqman real-time PCR was conducted on samples from each group to confirm infection and quantify viral genetic loads. ORF94 VNTR genotype analysis conducted on samples from each of the 43 passage groups indicated no variations in the VNTR number in either genotype TRS5 or genotype TRS7. This finding is contrary to the previous report and suggests that ORF94 VNTR are stable during multiple passages in these crustaceans. PMID:25320037

  9. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60203-3 Potential in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of Holigarna arnottiana (Hook F)

    Aseer Manilal; Akbar Idhayadhulla

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Holigarna arnottiana (H. arnottiana) against human and shrimp pathogenic bacteria and use GC-MS analysis to elucidate its antimicrobial principles. Methods: In the present study, organic extract of H. arnottiana was examined for in vitro antimicrobial potency against five clinical human pathogens, seven species of human type culture pathogens, six pathogenic Vibrio strains isolated from moribund tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and seven type cultures (Microbial Type Culture Collection, MTCC) of prominent shrimp pathogens. Results:The extraction of H. arnottiana with ethyl acetate yielded bioactive crude extract that efficiently repressed the growth of all tested pathogens. Among the pathogens tested, shrimp pathogens were the most susceptible organisms while clinical pathogens were found to be a little resistant. The chemical constituents of the H. arnottiana were analysed by GC-MS which revealed the presence of major compounds such as 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-o1 (42.1%), 1-lodo-2-methylundecane (34.5%) and squalene (11.1%) which might have a functional role in the chemical defence against microbial invasion. Conclusions:Based on the finding it could be inferred that H. arnottiana would be a reliable source for developing shrimp and human bio-therapeutics in future.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pattern recognition molecule, lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Cheng, Winton; Liu, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2005-04-01

    A lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) cDNA was cloned from the haemocyte and hepatopancreas of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end RACE method. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1101 bp encoding a protein of 367 amino acids including a 17 amino acid signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature proteins (350 amino acids) is 39.92 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.37. Two putative integrin binding motifs (cell adhesion site), RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and a potential recognition motif for beta- (1-->3) linkage of polysaccharides were observed in the LGBP. Sequence comparison showed that LGBP deduced amino acid of L. vannamei has an overall similarity of 95%, 92% and 61% to that of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris LGBP, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon BGBP and crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus LGBP, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that LGBP transcript in haemocyte of L. vannamei increased in 3- and 6-h post Vibrio alginolyticus injection. PMID:15561560

  11. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Varela-Romero, Alejandro; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Vega-Heredia, Sarahí; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis E; De la Rosa-Vélez, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2009-03-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in many cellular processes. Description of penaeid shrimp genes, including mitochondrial genomes are fairly recent and some are focusing on commercially important shrimp as the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that is being used for aquaculture not only in America, but also in Asia. Much less is known about other Pacific shrimp such as the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. We report the complete mitogenomes from these last two Pacific shrimp species. Long DNA fragments were obtained by PCR and then used to get internal fragments for sequencing. The complete F. californiensis and L. stylirostris mtDNAs are 15,975 and 15,988 bp long, containing the 37 common sequences and a control region of 990 and 999 bp, respectively. The gene order is identical to that of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Secondary structures for the 22 tRNAs are proposed and phylogenetic relationships for selected complete crustacean mitogenomes are included. Phylogenomic relationships among five shrimp show strong statistical support for the monophyly of the genus across the analysis. Litopenaeus species define a clade, with close relationship to Farfantepenaeus, and both clade with the sister group of Penaeus and Fenneropenaeus. PMID:20403743

  12. Simple immunoblot and immunohistochemical detection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus using monoclonal antibodies to viral capsid protein expressed heterologously.

    Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Hajimasalaeh, Warunee; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sridulyakul, Pattarin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2009-12-01

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), called formerly infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), is an important shrimp pathogen which can cause mortality in the blue shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris and stunting in the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the 37kDa capsid protein 3 (CP3) of PstDNV expressed heterologously in the form of a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase called GST-CP3. All MAbs belonged to the IgG2b subclass and could bind to GST-CP3 at 300 pg/spot in immunodot-blot tests. They could detect CP3 in naturally infected shrimp extracts by Western blotting and dot blotting and in shrimp tissues by immunohistochemistry without cross-reactivity to extracts from uninfected shrimps or shrimps infected with several other viruses. Although dot blot assay sensitivity was approximately 1000 times lower than that of one step PCR for PstDNV, it easily detected PstDNV infections in field samples of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. PMID:19654023

  13. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pattern recognition protein, lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Liu, Fengsong; Li, Fuhua; Dong, Bo; Wang, Xiaomei; Xiang, Jianhai

    2009-03-01

    A pattern recognition protein (PRP), lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) cDNA was cloned from the haemocyte of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis by the techniques of homology cloning and RACE. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the full-length cDNA of 1,275 bp has an open reading frame of 1,098 bp encoding a protein of 366 amino acids including a 17 amino acid signal peptide. Sequence comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of F. chinensis LGBP showed a high identity of 94%, 90%, 87%, 72% and 63% with Penaeus monodon BGBP, Litopenaeus stylirostris LGBP, Marsupenaeu japonicus BGBP, Homarus gammarus BGBP and Pacifastacus leniusculus LGBP, respectively. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein is 39,857 Da with a deduced pI of 4.39. Two putative integrin binding motifs, RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and a potential recognition motif for beta-1,3-linkage of polysaccharides were observed in LGBP sequence. RT-PCR analysis showed that LGBP gene expresses in haemocyte and hepatopancreas only, but not in other tissues. Capillary electrophoresis RT-PCR method was used to quantify the variation of mRNA transcription level during artificial infection with heat-killed Vibrio anguillarum and Staphylococcus aureusin. A significant enhancement of LGBP transcription was appeared at 6 h post-injection in response to bacterial infection. These results have provided useful information to understand the function of LGBP in shrimp. PMID:18163220

  14. Double-stranded RNA confers both preventive and therapeutic effects against Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Ho, Teerapong; Yasri, Pratchayapong; Panyim, Sakol; Udomkit, Apinunt

    2011-01-01

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) infection is found widespread in peneaid shrimp, especially in economically important species such as black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Although effective prevention method for viral diseases is not well established in shrimp, the treatment with viral specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or siRNA has given promising results. In present study, dsRNAs corresponding to non-structural (ORF1 and ORF2 overlapping sequence) and structural (ORF3) genes of PstDNV were investigated for their potency to inhibit PstDNV replication in the shrimp. Periodically injection of either ORF1-2 dsRNA or ORF3 dsRNA at three days interval into L. vannamei resulted in substantial inhibition of PstDNV infection. In addition, a possibility for a therapeutic application of dsRNA in PstDNV-infected shrimp was demonstrated by the efficient suppression of PstDNV replication in L. vannamei when the ORF1-2 dsRNA was delivered into the shrimp within 24h post-PstDNV injection. Hence, our results established both the preventive and therapeutic potency of dsRNA to inhibit PstDNV in L. vannamei that could be applied as a potential treatment of PstDNV infection in shrimp. PMID:20869997

  15. Arterial circulation of the spinal cord and brain in the Monodontidae (order Cetacea).

    Vogl, A W; Fisher, H D

    1981-11-01

    In this paper we document retial supply of the spinal cord and describe the arterial vascular pattern of the brain in the whale family Monodontidae. Observations are based on gross dissections of four brains, two each of Monodon monoceros and Delphinapterus leucas, and one spinal cord from M. monoceros. Vessels of the spinal cord arise from extradural retia in the neural canal. Arteries originating from the retia penetrate the dura between successive spinal roots (mainly ventral) and not in association with them, unlike radicular arteries of other mammals. Also, these vessels are uniformly distributed and contribute equally to a plexus surrounding the cord. An A. radicularis magna is not present, and neither are distinct anterior or posterior spinal arteries. Circulation to the brain is effected by two pairs of arteries originating from intracranial retia. The rostral pair supplies most of the forebrain (prosencephalon), whereas the more caudal pair supplies mainly the midbrain (mesencephalon) and hindbrain (rhombencephalon). The circulatory pattern is characterized by 1) complete independence of anterior cerebral arteries (no anastomoses); 2) extensive cortical supply by the anterior choroidal arteries; 3) absence of subdural communicating vessels between rostral and caudal trunks; 4) union of caudal trunks to form a small basilar artery; and 5) absence of vertebral arteries and hence of a vertebral basilar system. There are some obvious differences between subdural arteries in the Monodontidae and those in other mammals; however, their general patterns of distribution are similar, and we suggest that most of the vessels, at least in the cranium, are homologous. PMID:7299826

  16. A morbillivirus antibody survey of Atlantic walrus, narwhal and beluga in Canada.

    Nielsen, O; Stewart, R E; Measures, L; Duignan, P; House, C

    2000-07-01

    A longitudinal serologic survey was conducted for morbillivirus antibodies in Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and the St. Lawrence estuary (Canada). Sixty-five of 131 (50%) walruses sampled between 1984 and 1993 had detectable morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies. Positive walrus were identified from four of five Arctic sampling sites, to as far back as 1984. Prevalence of morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies in walruses from Foxe Basin ranged from a high of 76% (n = 21) in 1993 to a low of 22% (n = 28) in 1984. Limitations in sample acquisition may have produced underestimates for the 1984 data. There are no reports of clinical morbillivirus infection in walruses. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a morbillivirus similar or identical to phocine distemper virus (PDV) has circulated among walrus populations of the eastern Canadian Arctic, at least since the early 1980s. No narwhal (n = 79) or beluga (n = 445) from Arctic waters were identified as having antibodies to dolphin morbilivirus (DMV) above the threshold serum dilution of log2 4. Also, none of the beach-cast cetacean carcasses (n = 28) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence estuary were positive for antibodies to DMV. This indicates that Gulf of St. Lawrence, St. Lawrence estuary, and Arctic cetaceans either have not been exposed to DMV or an antigenically related morbillivirus, or are not susceptible to infection. PMID:10941737

  17. Enamel structure in odontocete whales.

    Ishiyama, M

    1987-09-01

    With regard to the enamel structure of mammals, a large number of studies have been reported in the past. Of them, however, the enamel structure of odontocetes has not yet been sufficiently elucidated. The author therefore observed the enamel structure of 11 species in 7 families of living odontocetes. A clear prism structure in the enamel is noted in delphinids and Pontoporia blainvillei. Neophocaena phocaenoides has a very simple-structured prism, but even this structure is obvious only in the deep layer of the enamel, disappearing gradually from the mid layer to surface layer. The prism pattern of delphinids differs significantly depending on the site of the enamel; that of Pontoporia shows as a whole pattern 1. On the other hand, the enamel of Physeter catodon, Berardius bairdi, Phocoena phocoena, Phocoenoides dalli and Delphinapterus leucus is prismless. The enamel of Physeter and Phocoena shows pseudoprisms; that of Phocoenoides contains enamel tubuli. The enamel of Berardius and Delphinapterus is 3 to 8 micron thick, which is extremely thin for mammalian enamel. No enamel was noted in Monodon monoceros teeth. The enamel structure of living odontocetes is thus very variable. Several characteristic structures having been present during the evolutionary course of this tissue are still present in some of them. As the results of comparative histologic study, it is considered that the variable enamel structure of living odontocetes is a secondary phenomenon produced during the degenerative history of the enamel. PMID:3659855

  18. Upside-down swimming behaviour of free-ranging narwhals

    Richard Pierre

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-ranging narwhals (Monodon monoceros were instrumented in Admiralty Inlet, Canada with both satellite tags to study migration and stock separation and short-term, high-resolution digital archival tags to explore diving and feeding behaviour. Three narwhals were equipped with an underwater camera pod (Crittercam, another individual was equipped with a digital archival tag (DTAG, and a fifth with both units during August 2003 and 2004. Results Crittercam footage indicated that of the combined 286 minutes of recordings, 12% of the time was spent along the bottom. When the bottom was visible in the camera footage, the narwhals were oriented upside-down 80% of the time (range: 61100%. The DTAG data (14.6 hours of recordings revealed that during time spent below the surface, the two tagged narwhals were supine an average of 13% (range: 9–18% of the time. Roughly 70% of this time spent in a supine posture occurred during the descent. Conclusion Possible reasons for this upside-down swimming behaviour are discussed. No preference for a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction of roll was observed, discounting the possibility that rolling movements contribute to the asymmetric left-handed helical turns of the tusk.

  19. Molecular Characterization of a Newly Identified Subfamily Member of Penaeidin from two Penaeid Shrimps, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros.

    Afsal, V V; Antony, Swapna P; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-03-01

    Penaeidins are a major group of antimicrobial peptides found in penaeid shrimps. This study reports a new isoform of penaeidin from the hemocytes of Indian white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus indicus (Fi-PEN, JX657680), and the pink shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Mm-PEN, KF275674). Mm-PEN is also the first antimicrobial peptide to be identified from M. monoceros. The complete coding sequences of the newly identified Fi-PEN and Mm-PEN consisted of an ORF of 338 bp encoding 71 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 5.66 kDa and a pI of 9.38. The penaeidins had its characteristic signal peptide region (19 amino acids), which was followed by a mature peptide with a proline-rich domain (24 amino acids) at the N-terminal region and a cysteine-rich domain (28 amino acids) at the C-terminal region, designating it to penaeidin-3 subgroup. Structural analysis revealed an alpha-helix in its secondary structure and an extended structure at the proline-rich domain. The newly identified penaeidin isoform showed maximum similarity of 63 % to a penaeidin-3 isoform of P. monodon, which further proves it to be a new isoform. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it possessed similar evolutionary status like other penaeidins, which has subsequently diverged at different phases of evolution. The wide distribution of penaeidins in penaeid shrimps indicates the importance of these AMPs in the innate immunity. PMID:26607699

  20. Dependence of mechanical properties on fibre angle in narwhal tusk, a highly oriented biological composite.

    Currey, J D; Brear, K; Zioupos, P

    1994-07-01

    The successful modelling of the mechanical properties of mineralized tissues depends critically on the knowledge of the off-axis behaviour of individual unidirectional lamellae. Information on this is lacking. In this work we attempt to rectify the situation. Young's modulus, measured in bending and tension, and the tensile strength and ultimate strain to failure of the dentine of the narwhal Monodon monoceros, were determined on specimens that had almost unidirectional fibres, whose direction differed considerably from specimen to specimen. Modulus and strength decreased steadily with the degree of off-angle loading, falling to about 45% of maximum for modulus, and 35% of maximum for strength. Ultimate strain showed a less uniform behaviour, and remained remarkably high at large angles. Differences in mechanical behaviour were not related to the very small differences in mineral content measured between specimens. These findings have strong implications for modelling the anisotropic behaviour of bone, because dentine is very much like bone in most important respects. Predictions using classical composite theory are reasonably satisfactory, as long as the mineral crystals are assumed to be platelets, not rods. PMID:8063839

  1. The internal carotid artery does not directly supply the brain in the Monodontidae (order Cetacea).

    Vogl, A W; Fisher, H D

    1981-11-01

    In this paper we describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the internal carotid artery and demonstrate that this vessel does not directly supply blood to the brain, in the Monodontidae (order Cetacea). Our account is based on gross dissections and perfusion casts of the arterial vasculature in Delphinapterus leucas and Monodon monoceros and on histological material from the latter species. The internal carotid artery originates low in the neck and extends to the carotid rete at the base of the brain. The vessel tapers dramatically along its cervical course and changes from an artery elastic in nature to one more muscular. A single large cervical branch occurs in D. leucas and supplies cerebrally related retia in this region and prevertebral muscles. No cervical branches occur in M. monoceros. In otic regions, the internal carotid artery is small and muscular. A lumen is present; however, a split internal and external elastic lamella and a thickened subendothelial layer are evident. Though patent in the neck and ear, the vessel appears occluded within the carotid canal. At this level, the vessel is characterized by absence of a lumen and by fragmented elastic lamellae. We conclude that the internal carotid artery is anatomically closed at a level just proximal to the carotid rete and hence has no direct involvement with cerebral blood supply in the Monodontidae. Our results confirm other investigators' work on smaller cetacean species. PMID:7299829

  2. Narwhals document continued warming of southern Baffin Bay

    Laidre, K. L.; Heide-JøRgensen, M. P.; Ermold, W.; Steele, M.

    2010-10-01

    We report on wintertime data collected from Baffin Bay and northern Davis Strait, a major gateway linking the Arctic with the subpolar North Atlantic, using narwhals (Monodon monoceros) as an oceanographic sampling platform. Fourteen narwhals were instrumented with satellite-linked time-depth-temperature recorders between 2005 and 2007. Transmitters collected and transmitted water column temperature profiles from each dive between December and April, where >90% of maximum daily dive depths reached the bottom. Temperature measurements were combined with 15 helicopter-based conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts taken in April 2007 across central Baffin Bay and compared with hydrographic climatology values used for the region in Arctic climate models. Winter temperature maxima for whale and CTD data were in good agreement, ranging between 4.0°C and 4.6°C in inshore and offshore Baffin Bay and in Davis Strait. The warm Irminger Water was identified between 57°W and 59°W (at 68°N) between 200 and 400 m depths. Whale data correlated well with climatological temperature maxima; however, they were on average 0.9°C warmer ±0.6°C (P 1700 m offer a useful opportunity to sample the area.

  3. Evaluation of a detection system of yellow head disease virus (YHV using q-PCR

    Ochoa-Meza A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow head disease is caused by the yellow head virus (YHV. This important disease affects Penaus monodon farms in Thailand. In Mexico, reports of this disease in L. vannamei have been issued. This has not been officially declared by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. This study reports a method of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of this virus in shrimp. A certified sample was analyzed with a commercial detection system for YHV. We obtained a differential sequence of genotypes that cause both YHV and gill-associated virus (GAV by comparison with ClustalW. Primers were designed for amplification of the fragment by a TaqMan probe with which a positive standard to YHV was amplified. Tests were negative for other pathogens. A survey of shrimp farms in Mexico in 2009 showed negative results for YHV presence. These results demonstrate that the system developed in this study is a specific diagnostic method, sensitive and reproducible for detection of YHV.

  4. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Novel Isoform of Anti-lipopolysaccharide Factor from the Mantis Shrimp, Miyakea nepa.

    Sruthy, K S; Chaithanya, E R; Sathyan, Naveen; Nair, Aishwarya; Antony, Swapna P; Singh, I S Bright; Philip, Rosamma

    2015-12-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is a cationic anti-microbial peptide representing humoral defence system exhibiting a diverse spectrum of activity against microbial pathogens, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel ALF homologue (MnALF) encoding cDNA sequence from the haemocytes of stomatopod mantis shrimp Miyakea nepa. The deduced peptide of MnALF encoded for a 123-amino acid peptide with a 25-residue signal peptide containing selenocysteine followed by a highly cationic mature peptide comprised of a putative LPS-binding domain flanked by two cysteine residues. BLAST analysis of MnALF showed that it exhibits identity to crustacean and limulid ALFs. The mature peptide of MnALF has a net charge of +7 and predicted molecular weight of 10.998 kDa with a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 9.93. Spatial structure of MnALF comprises three α-helices packed against a four-stranded β-sheet of which two were linked by a disulphide bond to form an amphipathic loop similar to the structure of Penaeus monodon, ALF-Pm3. All these features suggest that MnALF could play an imperative role in the innate defence mechanism of M. nepa. To our knowledge, this study accounts for the first report of an anti-microbial peptide from the order stomatopoda. PMID:26187684

  5. Purification and identification of a clotting protein from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Wang, Baojie; Peng, Hongni; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

    2013-09-01

    The clotting protein (CP) plays important and diverse roles in crustaceans, such as coagulation and lipid transportation. A clotting protein was purified from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (named as Fc-CP) with Q sepharose HP anion-exchange chromatography and phenyl sepharose HP hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Fc-CP was able to form stable clots in vitro in the presence of hemocyte lysate and Ca2+, suggesting that the clotting reaction is catalyzed by a Ca2+-dependent transglutaminase in shrimp hemocytes. The molecular mass of Fc-CP was 380 kDa under non-reducing conditions and 190 kDa under reducing conditions as was determined with SDS-PAGE. CP exists as disulfide-linked homodimers and oligomers. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Fc-CP was identical to that of shrimps including Penaeus monodon, Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Litopenaeus vannamei; and similar to that of other decapods. The purified Fc-CP was digested with trypsin and verified on an ABI 4700 matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. Our results will aid to better understanding the coagulation mechanism of shrimp hemolymph.

  6. Endothelial adhesion of synchronized gastric tumor cells changes during cell cycle transit and correlates with the expression level of CD44 splice variants

    Anton Oertl; Jens Castein; Tobias Engl; Wolf-Dietrich Beecken; Dietger Jonas; Richard Melamed; Roman A. Blaheta

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study adhesion capacity and CD44 expression of human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN45 cells at different stages of a first cell cycle.METHODS: MKN45 cells were synchronized by aphidicolin and assayed for adhesion to an endothelial cell (HUVEC)monolayer. Surface expression of CD44 and CD44 splice variants on MKN45 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry.Functional relevance of CD44 adhesion receptors was investigated by blocking studies using anti CD44 monoclonal antibodies or by hyaluronan digestion.RESULTS: Adhesion of MKN45 to HUVEC was increased during G2/M transit, after which adhesion returned to baseline levels with cell cycle completion. In parallel, CD44splice variants CD44v4, CD44v5, and CD44v7 were all upregulated on MKN45 during cell cycle progression with a maximum effect in G2/M. The function of CD44 surface receptors was assessed with specific receptor blocking monodonal antibodies or removal of hyaluronan by digestion with hyaluronidase. Both strategies inhibited tumor cell adhesion to HUVEC by nearly 50%, which indicates that MKN45-HUVEC-interaction is CD44 dependent.CONCLUSION: CD44 expression level is linked to the cell cycle in gastrointestinal tumor cells, which in turn leads to cell cyde dependent alterations of their adhesion behaviour to endothelium.

  7. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALOPHILIC PROTEASE FROM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

    R. Satheeskumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial purification and characterization of alkalophilic protease production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the gut of marine and coastal waters shrimp Penaeus monodon. The protease production was assayed in submerged fermentation to produce maximum protease activity (423 ± 0.09 U/ml. The enzyme was precipitated with ammonium sulphate and partially purified by ion exchange chromatography through DEAE Sephadex A-50 column. In 10th fraction showed maximum protease activity (734 ± 0.18 U/ml with increase in purification fold. The molecular weight of protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recorded as 60 kDa. The stability of protease was tested at various pH and temperature; it showed maximum protease activity at pH-9 and temperature 50ºC. Among the various surfactants tested for enzyme stability, maximum activity was retained in poly ethylene glycol. The compatibility of protease enzyme with various commercial detergents; the enzyme retained maximum protease activity in tide. The results are indicated that all these properties make the bacterial proteases are most suitable for wide industrial applications.

  8. Seasonal narwhal habitat associations in the high Arctic

    Laidre, K.L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Logdson, M.L.;

    2004-01-01

    Movements and behavior of top marine predators are often closely linked with productive oceanic fronts or regional prey aggregations. Consequently, it is of interest to quantify habitat needs and preferences, which can facilitate predictions of conditions favoring persistence and success. Multiva......Movements and behavior of top marine predators are often closely linked with productive oceanic fronts or regional prey aggregations. Consequently, it is of interest to quantify habitat needs and preferences, which can facilitate predictions of conditions favoring persistence and success....... Multivariate habitat models of movements and dive behavior of narwhals (Monodon monoceros, Linnaeus) in the eastern Canadian high Arctic and West Greenland were developed using data collected from satellite telemetry studies on three separate sub-populations. Twenty-six narwhals were captured between 1993...... grounds often coincided with areas of concurrent high density of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Walbaum) and predictable open water in winter pack ice in Baffin Bay. These quantitative habitat models made it possible to reconcile the behavioral traits of narwhals with dynamic...

  9. Species composition of by-catch from milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry fishery in selected sites in the Philippines as determined by DNA barcodes.

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Destura, Irma; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-05-01

    Milkfish fry fishery, an important industry in the Philippines, uses non-selective fishing gears and push nets in coastal areas which lead to the capture of other non-targeted juvenile aquatic species. Unfortunately, information on the amount and the identity of by-catch species is lacking thus the extent of impact of the fry fishery is not known. In this study, the species composition of milkfish fry fishery by-catch sampled from selected coastal areas that are known to be fry collection sites in the country were identified and assessed through the use of DNA barcoding. Analyses revealed that by-catch fish species of the milkfish fry industry included Black Tiger shrimp (Peneaus monodon), Tarpon (Megalops cyprinoides), Glass perchlets (Ambasis gymnocephalus and Ambasis buruensis), Ladyfish (Elops hawaiensis), Snapper (Lutjanus fulviflamma), Cardinal fishes (Apogon hyalosoma and Sphaeramia orbicularis), Whipfin siver biddy (Gerres filamentosus), Mullet (Liza sp.), Anchovy (Encrasicholina heteroloba), and Tiger perch (Terapon jarbua), almost all of which are potential marketable food fish and culture species. The results of the study provide preliminary information, as well as awareness, on the species composition of milkfish fry by-catch. PMID:25329278

  10. Identification of a Novel Nonstructural Protein, VP9, from White Spot Syndrome Virus: Its Structure Reveals a Ferredoxin Fold with Specific Metal Binding Sites

    Liu,Y.; Wu, J.; Song, J.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP9, a full-length protein of WSSV, encoded by open reading frame wsv230, was identified for the first time in the infected Penaeus monodon shrimp tissues, gill, and stomach as a novel, nonstructural protein by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the transcription of VP9 started from the early to the late stage of WSSV infection as a major mRNA species. The structure of full-length VP9 was determined by both X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It is the first structure to be reported for WSSV proteins. The crystal structure of VP9 revealed a ferredoxin fold with divalent metal ion binding sites. Cadmium sulfate was found to be essential for crystallization. The Cd2+ ions were bound between the monomer interfaces of the homodimer. Various divalent metal ions have been titrated against VP9, and their interactions were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy. The titration data indicated that VP9 binds with both Zn2+ and Cd2+. VP9 adopts a similar fold as the DNA binding domain of the papillomavirus E2 protein. Based on our present investigations, we hypothesize that VP9 might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of WSSV, a function similar to that of the E2 protein during papillomavirus infection of the host cells.

  11. Head morphology in perinatal dolphins: a window into phylogeny and ontogeny.

    Rauschmann, Michael A; Huggenberger, Stefan; Kossatz, Lars S; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2006-11-01

    In this paper on the ontogenesis and evolutionary biology of odontocete cetaceans (toothed whales), we investigate the head morphology of three perinatal pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) with the following methods: computer-assisted tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, conventional X-ray imaging, cryo-sectioning as well as gross dissection. Comparison of these anatomical methods reveals that for a complete structural analysis, a combination of modern imaging techniques and conventional morphological methods is needed. In addition to the perinatal dolphins, we include series of microslides of fetal odontocetes (S. attenuata, common dolphin Delphinus delphis, narwhal Monodon monoceros). In contrast to other mammals, newborn cetaceans represent an extremely precocial state of development correlated to the fact that they have to swim and surface immediately after birth. Accordingly, the morphology of the perinatal dolphin head is very similar to that of the adult. Comparison with early fetal stages of dolphins shows that the ontogenetic change from the general mammalian bauplan to cetacean organization was characterized by profound morphological transformations of the relevant organ systems and roughly seems to parallel the phylogenetic transition from terrestrial ancestors to modern odontocetes. PMID:17051542

  12. Virulence Changes to Harveyi Clade Bacteria Infected with Bacteriophage from Vibrio owensii.

    Busico-Salcedo, Nancy; Owens, Leigh

    2013-09-01

    Vibrio owensii is one of the most virulent vibrios known being able to kill crustacean larvae at 10(2) CFU ml(-1). This study describes virulence changes to naïve strains of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio campbellii when infected with the bacteriophage VOB from a closely related species V. owensii 47666-1. The bacteriophage from V. owensii was induced into lytic phase by using mitomycin C at 100 ng ml(-1). One strain of V. harveyi and two strains of V. campbellii from 29 tested containing no prophage were susceptible to lysogenic conversion with VOB. Virulence changes induced in Harveyi clade bacteria included the up-regulation of protein secretion, statistically significant increased haemolysin and chitinase production and increased mortality to nauplii of Penaeus monodon. No change in siderophore production was observed. Bacteriophage VOB is likely to be responsible for some of the virulence factors expressed by V. owensii. As this bacteriophage is able to infect strains of V. harveyi and V. campbellii this phage may contribute to increased virulence of other vibrios in aquaculture and in the natural environment. PMID:24426274

  13. Three recent ice entrapments of Arctic cetaceans in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian High Arctic

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three ice entrapments of Monodontids have been reported in the western North Atlantic since 1993. Hunters in Disko Bay, West Greenland, discovered one in March 1994 that included about 150 narwhals (Monodon monoceros. The entrapment occurred during a sudden cold period which caused ice to form rapidly. The trapped whales were subject to hunting, but about 50 of the killed whales could not be retrieved in the ice. The whales were trapped in a small opening in the ice and because of that they would probably have succumbed even if not discovered by hunters. Two entrapments involving white whales or belugas (Delphinapterus leucas occurred in the eastern Canadian Arctic in May 1999; one in Lancaster Sound discovered by polar bear (Ursus maritimus researchers and one in Jones Sound discovered by hunters. The first included one bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus and about 40 belugas that were being preyed upon by polar bears. The second involved at least 170 belugas, of which about 100 were killed by polar bears and 17 were taken by hunters. The entrapments in Disko Bay and Jones Sound both occurred in areas where entrapments have previously been reported, whereas the one in Lancaster Sound was in a new area.

  14. Sequence variation at the major histocompatibility complex locus DQ beta in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Murray, B W; Malik, S; White, B N

    1995-07-01

    Genetic variation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex locus DQ beta was analyzed in 233 beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from seven populations: St. Lawrence Estuary, eastern Beaufort Sea, eastern Chukchi Sea, western Hudson Bay, eastern Hudson Bay, southeastern Baffin Island, and High Arctic and in 12 narwhals (Monodon monoceros) sympatric with the High Arctic beluga population. Variation was assessed by amplification of the exon coding for the peptide binding region via the polymerase chain reaction, followed by either cloning and DNA sequencing or single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. Five alleles were found across the beluga populations and one in the narwhal. Pairwise comparisons of these alleles showed a 5:1 ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions per site leading to eight amino acid differences, five of which were nonconservative substitutions, centered around positions previously shown to be important for peptide binding. Although the amount of allelic variation is low when compared with terrestrial mammals, the nature of the substitutions in the peptide binding sites indicates an important role for the DQ beta locus in the cellular immune response of beluga whales. Comparisons of allele frequencies among populations show the High Arctic population to be different (P Dele-DQ beta*0101-2, was found in 98% of the animals, while in the High Arctic it was found in only 52% of the animals. Two other alleles were found at high frequencies in the High Arctic population, one being very similar to the single allele found in narwhal. PMID:7659014

  15. Nitrification in brackish water recirculating aquaculture system integrated with activated packed bed bioreactor.

    Rejish Kumar, V J; Joseph, Valsamma; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2010-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) depend on nitrifying biofilters for the maintenance of water quality, increased biosecurity and environmental sustainability. To satisfy these requirements a packed bed bioreactor (PBBR) activated with indigenous nitrifying bacterial consortia has been developed and commercialized for operation under different salinities for instant nitrification in shrimp and prawn hatchery systems. In the present study the nitrification efficiency of the bioreactor was tested in a laboratory level recirculating aquaculture system for the rearing of Penaeus monodon for a period of two months under higher feeding rates and no water exchange. Rapid setting up of nitrification was observed during the operation, as the volumetric total ammonia nitrogen removal rates (VTR) increased with total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) production in the system. The average Volumetric TAN Removal Rates (VTR) at the feeding rate of 160 g/day from 54-60th days of culture was 0.1533+/-0.0045 kg TAN/m(3)/day. The regression between VTR and TAN explained 86% variability in VTR (P<0.001). The laboratory level RAS demonstrated here showed high performance both in terms of shrimp biomass yield and nitrification and environmental quality maintenance. Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization analysis of the reactor biofilm ensured the presence of autotrophic nitrifier groups such as Nitrosococcus mobilis lineage, Nitrobacter spp and phylum Nitrospira, the constituent members present in the original consortia used for activating the reactors. This showed the stability of the consortia on long term operation. PMID:20150717

  16. Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines

    Bergquist, Daniel A.

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ≤10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  17. Diversidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera do Complexo Aporé-Sucuriú, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat Diversity (Mammalia, Chiroptera from Aporé-Sucuriú's complex, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA. Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Algumas espécies raras foram capturadas: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 e Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. O local de maior abundância (0,032 indivíduos/m²/h mostrou um índice de Simpson de D = 3.86 e o de menor abundância (0,003 indivíduos/m²/h um índice de Simpson de D = 3.03. A preservação dos mananciais de água e a cobertura florestal nestes pontos são discutidas.From April to November 2004 was made a bat fauna inventory in Northern of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Jauru's Project/MMA. Eight points was sampled with mist-nets in a cerrado's ecosystem and was caught 146 individuals de 28 species, distributed into six bat families. The total of species in this study just represents 30% of cerrado's bat fauna. The more caught family was Phyllostomidae represented by Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Some rare species were caught: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 and Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. The more abundant point sampled (0.032 bat/m²/h shown a Simpson index of D = 3.86 and the low abundant point sampled (0.003 bat/m²/h was D = 3.03. The preservation of water springs and forest cover in study sites are discussed.

  18. Schools of Estonian Graphic Art in Journalism in the 1930s

    Merle Talvik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for the development and spread of graphic design in the1920s and 30s in Estonia was the rapid progress of the country’s economy and commerce. The rise in the number of publications led to a greater need for designers. The need for local staff arose in all fields of applied graphics. In the 1930s, graphic artists were trained at two professional art schools – the State Applied Art School (Riigi Kunsttööstuskool in Tallinn and the Higher Art School(Kõrgem Kunstikool Pallas in Tartu. The present article focuses on the analyses of the creative work of the graphic artists of both schools, trying to mark the differences and similarities.The State Applied Art School was established in 1914. In 1920, GüntherReindorff started working as a drawing teacher. His teaching methods and the distinguished style of his creative work became an inspiration for an entire generation of Estonian graphic designers. The three well-known students and followers of G. Reindorff were Johann Naha, Paul Luhtein and Hugo Lepik. The teachers and students of the State Applied Art School shaped greatly the appearance of magazines printed in Tallinn. Of modern art movements, art deco found most followers. National ornament became a source for creative work. Distinct composition and beautifully designed legible script are also the features that resulted from the systematic education of the State School of Applied Art.The curriculum of the Higher Art School Pallas, established in 1919, was based on western European art experience. Therefore the visual language of the artists from the Tartu school is often picturesque; influences of expressionism and constructivism are visible. Individualities emerge very clearly. National propaganda is latent in comparison with the Tallinn school, but the script is often unprofessional. The most important representatives of the Tartu school were Nikolai Triik, Ado Vabbe ja Hando Mugasto. Very productive graphic designers were also

  19. Esponjas (Porifera, Demospongiae da plataforma continental ao largo do Estado do Amapá, Brasil Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae of the continental shelf off the coast of Amapá State, Brazil

    Beatriz Mothes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As amostras foram coletadas com draga retangular ao largo da costa (04º13'00" -02º34'02" N, 47º54'05" -50º50'07" W, pela Comissão Pesca Norte I, em 1968, através da Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação da Marinha do Brasil com o N./Oc. " Almirante Saldanha" em profundidades que variaram de 56 a 95 m. Oito espécies são aqui registradas, entre as quais Niphates alba Van Soest, 1980, Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 e Terpios belindae Rützler & Smith, 1993 são identificadas pela primeira vez para a costa brasileira. As demais espécies, Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766, Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816, Niphates erecta (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, Neopetrosia proxima (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 e Plakinastrella onkodes Uliczka, 1929 são conhecidas pela primeira vez para a área estudada. Todas as espécies identificadas são também registradas para o Caribe. Os espécimes encontram-se depositados na Coleção de Porifera do Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The collections were dredged off the coast (04º13'00" -02º34'02" N, 47º54'05" -50º50'07" W. They were collected between 56 to 95 depths, during an oceanographic expedition, Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação da Marinha do Brasil, by R/V " Almirante Saldanha" in 1968. Eight species are here registered, among which Niphates alba Van Soest, 1980, Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 and Terpios belindae Rützler & Smith, 1993 represent new registers for Brazil. The other species: Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766, Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816, Niphates erecta Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864, Neopetrosia proxima (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 and Plakinastrella onkodes Uliczka, 1929 represent new records to the studied area. All registered species are also known from Caribbean. Specimens are deposited in the Porifera Collection of the Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  20. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera

    A Gomes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará. Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern. Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of R. pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to R. pumilio (pair 15. However, two chromosomes of M. crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes

  1. Rainfall influences on ungulate population abundance in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem.

    Ogutu, J O; Piepho, H-P; Dublin, H T; Bhola, N; Reid, R S

    2008-07-01

    1. Rainfall is the prime climatic factor underpinning the dynamics of African savanna ungulates, but no study has analysed its influence on the abundance of these ungulates at monthly to multiannual time scales. 2. We report relationships between rainfall and changes in age- and sex-structured abundances of seven ungulate species monitored monthly for 15 years using vehicle ground counts in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. 3. Abundance showed strong and curvilinear relationships with current and cumulative rainfall, with older topi, Damaliscus korrigum (Ogilby); warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas); waterbuck, Kobus ellipsyprimnus (Ogilby); and impala, Aepyceros melampus (Lichtenstein) responding to longer lags than younger animals, portraying carryover effects of prior habitat conditions. 4. The abundances of newborn calves were best correlated with monthly rainfall averaged over the preceding 5-6 months for topi, waterbuck, warthog, and 2 months for the migratory zebra Equus burchelli (Gray), but with seasonal rainfall averaged over 2-5 years for giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.); impala; and kongoni, Alcelaphus busephalus (Pallas). The cumulative late wet-season rainfall was the best predictor of abundance for quarter- to full-grown animals for most species. Monthly rainfall exerted both negative and positive effects on the abundances of zebra, impala and waterbuck. Ignoring age, both sexes responded similarly to rainfall. 5. Births were strongly seasonal only for warthog and topi, but peaked between August and December for most species. Hence abundance was strongly seasonal for young topi and warthog and the migratory zebra. Pronounced seasonality in births for warthog and topi obliterated otherwise strong relationships between abundance and rainfall when both month and rainfall were included in the same model. Aggregated density produced relationships with rainfall similar to those for fully grown animals, emphasizing the necessity of

  2. Deposition of Chernobyl-derived transuranium nuclides and short- lived radon-222 progeny in Finland

    . The observed mean 214Pb activity concentration, 2.87 kBq/L, at Tikkakoski, central Finland, is in agreement with that observed at Pallas, northern Finland, 1.89 kBq/L, taking into consideration the closer location of Pallas to maritime areas. The lowest 222Rn progeny concentrations in precipitation were found during westerly winds transporting maritime air masses from the Atlantic Ocean to Finland. The air mass back-trajectories revealed, however, that the concentration does not depend exclusively on the time the air masses spend above sea or land areas, but that the meteorological situation has to be taken into account, too. (orig.)

  3. Cholesterol content in meat of some Cyprinidae

    Živković Dragić L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine cholesterol content in meat of five Cyprinidae species: white bream (Bllica bjoerkna L, carp bream (Abramis brama L, baltic vimba (Vimba vimba carinata Pallas, zope (Abramis balerus L and crucian carp (Carassius carassius gibelio Bloch from the river Danube. Cholesterol content was examined in the function of season factor and individual weight. Cholesterol concentration in meat of white bream carp bream, baltic vimba, zope and crucian carp is on average level below 20 mg/100 g of meat, which makes meat of these fish species nutritively very valuable. Cholesterol content is variable during the season. Its concentration in meat and in lipids is lowest during spring, during summer it increases and during autumn decreases, except in meat of white bream. Body weight has influence on cholesterol content when its concentration is expressed as % of cholesterol in lipids. Its content in lipids decreases with increasing of individual weight, except in meat of carp bream.

  4. Obtaining Communities with a Fitness Growth Process

    Beiró, Mariano G; Grynberg, Sebastian P; Alvarez-Hamelin, J Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The study of community structure has been a hot topic of research over the last years. But, while successfully applied in several areas, the concept lacks of a general and precise notion. Facts like the hierarchical structure and heterogeneity of complex networks make it difficult to unify the idea of community and its evaluation. The global functional known as modularity is probably the most used technique in this area. Nevertheless, its limits have been deeply studied. Local techniques as the ones by Lancichinetti et al. and Palla et al. arose as an answer to the resolution limit and degeneracies that modularity has. Here we start from the algorithm by Lancichinetti et al. and propose a unique growth process for a fitness function that, while being local, finds a community partition that covers the whole network, updating the scale parameter dynamically. We test the quality of our results by using a set of benchmarks of heterogeneous graphs. We discuss alternative measures for evaluating the community struc...

  5. Prevalence and intensity of Streblidae in bats from a Neotropical savanna region in Brazil.

    Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Antonini, Yasmine

    2016-01-01

    Bats of the family Phyllostomidae are common hosts to streblids known as bat flies. Here, we discuss the component community, prevalence and intensity of infection with species of Streblidae on an assemblage of phyllostomid bats in the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area (APA Cafuringa) in the core area of the Cerrado in Central Brazil. A total of 1 841 streblid individuals of 24 species occurred on 752 bats of 14 species. Ten species of streblids infected Glossophaga soricina (Pallas), whereas seven or fewer streblid species infected the other bat species. Nine bat fly species presented a prevalence of more than 50%, whereas some differences in the abundance of bat flies among hosts were observed. Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856 and Trichobius furmani Wenzel, 1966 were more host-specific compared to the other streblids, and they occurred in greater abundance on their preferred hosts. Trichobius uniformis Curran, 1935 and Strebla mirabilis (Waterhouse, 1879) were the least host-specific, occurring on five and six hosts, respectively. PMID:27507561

  6. Presence of Native Prey Does Not Divert Predation on Exotic Pests by Harmonia axyridis in Its Indigenous Range

    Zhang, Gui Fen; Lövei, Gábor L; Wu, Xia; Wan, Fang Hao

    2016-01-01

    In China, two invasive pests, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Gennadius) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), often co-occur with the native pest, Aphis gossypii (Glover), on plants of Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. All three are preyed on by the native ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas); however, the native predator might be expected to prefer native prey to the exotic ones due to a shared evolutionary past. In order to clarify whether the presence of native prey affected the consumption of these two invasive species by the native predator, field-cage experiments were conducted. A duplex qPCR was used to simultaneously detect both non-native pests within the gut of the predator. H. axyridis readily accepted both invasive prey species, but preferred B. tabaci. With all three prey species available, H. axyridis consumption of B. tabaci was 39.3±2.2% greater than consumption of F. occidentalis. The presence of A. gossypii reduced (by 59.9% on B. tabaci, and by 60.6% on F. occidentalis), but did not stop predation on the two exotic prey when all three were present. The consumption of B. tabaci was similar whether it was alone or together with A. gossypii. However, the presence of aphids reduced predation on the invasive thrips. Thus, some invasive prey may be incorporated into the prey range of a native generalist predator even in the presence of preferred native prey. PMID:27391468

  7. Primo report sull’attività entomologica in Italia nell'ambito del piano nazionale per la sorveglianza della West Nile disease

    Maria Goffredo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Il virus West Nile (WNV, neuropatogeno per uccelli, cavalli e uomo, è mantenuto in natura da un ciclo primario di trasmissione tra uccelli e zanzare, in particolare quelle del genere Culex; il cavallo e l’uomo sono considerati ospiti a fondo cieco. Un focolaio circoscritto di encefalomielite equina da WNV verificatosi in Italia nel 1998 ed un’epidemia scoppiata in Francia nei pressi del confine italiano, hanno indotto il Governo Italiano ad attuare un piano di sorveglianza allo scopo di valutare il rischio di reintroduzione del virus. Il piano ha previsto la sorveglianza entomologica in 15 aree di studio considerate “a rischio” di introduzione del WNV in Italia. L’indagine entomologica, nel periodo compreso tra il 2003 e il 2007, ha visto come risultato la cattura di 28.798 zanzare, 14.765 adulte e 14.033 larve, appartenenti a 22 specie. In conformità con i dati riportati in letteratura, otto tra le specie identificate sono state trovate naturalmente infette con WNV o infettate con successo in laboratorio in alcuni paesi dell’Europa e degli Stati Uniti d’America: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1897 (=Stegomiya albopicta, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830, Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen, 1818, Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889, Culex modestus (Ficalbi, 1889, Culex pipiens (Linnaeus, 1758, Culex theileri (Theobald, 1903 e Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771 (=Aedes caspius.

  8. Sponge cell reaggregation: Cellular structure and morphogenetic potencies of multicellular aggregates.

    Lavrov, Andrey I; Kosevich, Igor A

    2016-02-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are one of the most ancient extant multicellular animals and can provide valuable insights into origin and early evolution of Metazoa. High plasticity of cell differentiations and anatomical structure is characteristic feature of sponges. Present study deals with sponge cell reaggregation after dissociation as the most outstanding case of sponge plasticity. Dynamic of cell reaggregation and structure of multicellular aggregates of three demosponge species (Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766), Haliclona aquaeductus (Sсhmidt, 1862), and Halisarca dujardinii Johnston, 1842) were studied. Sponge tissue dissociation was performed mechanically. Resulting cell suspensions were cultured at 8-10°C for at least 5 days. Structure of multicellular aggregates was studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Studied species share common stages of cell reaggregation-primary multicellular aggregates, early-stage primmorphs and primmorphs, but the rate of reaggregation varies considerably among species. Only cells of H. dujardinii are able to reconstruct functional and viable sponge after primmorphs formation. Sponge reconstruction in this species occurs due to active cell locomotion. Development of H. aquaeductus and H. panicea cells ceases at the stages of early primmorphs and primmorphs, respectively. Development of aggregates of these species is most likely arrested due to immobility of the majority of cells inside them. However, the inability of certain sponge species to reconstruct functional and viable individuals during cell reaggregation may be not a permanent species-specific characteristic, but depends on various factors, including the stage of the life cycle and experimental conditions. PMID:26863993

  9. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  10. Long-term effects of extreme weather events and eutrophication on the fish community of shallow Lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia

    Külli Kangur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish kill in lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia during the extraordinarily hot summer of 2010 evoked an investigation into the effects of environmental extremes and long-term eutrophication on the fish community of the lake. Current data on lake Peipsi indicate that temperature extremes and synergistic interactions with eutrophication have led to a radical restructuring of the fish community. Commercial landings of lake smelt, Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus m. spirinchus (Pallas, the previous dominant species of the fish community, have decreased dramatically since the 1930s, these declines being coupled with summer heat waves coinciding with low water levels. Gradual decline in smelt stock and catches was significantly related to a decline of near-bottom oxygen conditions and to a decrease in water transparency. The first documented fish kill in 1959 occurred only in the southern, most shallow and eutrophic lake (lake Pihkva. Recently, summer fish kill have become more frequent, involving larger areas of the lake. In addition to the cold-water species, e.g. smelt and vendace Coregonus albula (L., the abundance of bottom-dwelling fishes such as ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus (L. and juvenile fish have significantly decreased after the 2010 heat wave probably due to hypoxia and warm water temperatures. This study showed that fish community structure in large shallow lakes may be very vulnerable to water temperature increases, especially temperature extremes in combination with eutrophication.

  11. Tsetse ecology in a Liberian rain-forest focus of Gambian sleeping sickness.

    Kaminsky, R

    1987-07-01

    Investigations on tsetse ecology were undertaken in Bong County of Liberia during the dry season, October 1981 to February 1982, around villages where the human infection rate with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Dutton was about 2%. Most tsetse captured in biconical traps were Glossina palpalis Robineau-Desvoidy and G. pallicera Bigot, with relatively few G. fusca Walker and G. nigrofusca Newstead. Swamps and water-gathering places were predominant habitats of all four species, but tsetse were also found in coffee and cocoa plantations. Breeding-places of G. palpalis were found in the leaf axils of oilpalm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin), especially beside paths where people would risk being bitten. Bloodmeals of twenty-nine wild-caught G. palpalis were identified as mostly from man (fifteen) and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus (Pallas] or other wild ruminants (eleven), plus three from reptiles. It is concluded that man may be the principal host of tsetse in the area, while man or bushbuck could be the main reservoir to T.b. gambiense infection. Most of the activity of G. palpalis occurs in the early afternoon from noon to 16.00 hours. Mean life-span of G. palpalis and G. pallicera, estimated from wing-fray age-groups, was consistent with the females, and to a lesser degree the males, having vector potential. PMID:2979539

  12. Norcantharidin, Derivative of Cantharidin, for Cancer Stem Cells

    Chen-Hsi Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs existing in human cancers have been demonstrated to be a major cause of cancer treatment resistance, invasion, metastasis, and relapse. Self-renewal pathways, Wnt/β-catenin, Sonic hedgehog (Shh, and the Notch signaling pathway play critical roles in developing CSCs and lead to angiogenesis, migration, invasion, and metastasis. Multidrug resistance (MDR is an unfavorable factor causing the failure of treatments against cancer cells. The most important and thoroughly studied mechanism involved in MDR is the active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents through membrane drug transporters. There is growing evidence that Norcantharidin (NCTD, a water-soluble synthetic small molecule derivative of naturally occurring cantharidin from the medicinal insect blister beetle (Mylabris phalerata Pallas, is capable of chemoprevention and tumor inhibition. We summarize investigations into the modulation of self-renewal pathways and MDR in CSCs by NCTD. This review may aid in further investigation of using NCTD to develop more effective strategies for cancer treatment to reduce resistance and recurrence.

  13. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil; Licenciamento de reatores: proposta de uma estrutura regulatoria integrada com abordagem em qualidade e meio ambiente para reatores de pesquisa no Brasil

    Serra, Reynaldo Cavalcanti

    2014-07-01

    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  14. Gregarious pupation act as a defensive mechanism against cannibalism and intraguild predation.

    Roberge, Claudia; Fréchette, Bruno; Labrie, Geneviève; Dumont, François; Lucas, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Coccinellid pupae use an array of defensive strategies against their natural enemies. This study aims to assess the efficiency of gregarious pupation as a defensive mechanism against intraguild predators and cannibals in coccinellid. The study was designed specifically (i) to determine the natural occurrence of gregarious pupation in the field for different coccinellid species, and (ii) to evaluate the adaptive value of gregarious pupation as a defensive mechanism against 2 types of predators (i.e., cannibals and intraguild predators). In the field, gregarious pupation consisted of a group of 2-5 pupae. The proportion of gregarious pupation observed varied according to species, the highest rate being observed with Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coccinellidae; 14.17%). Gregarious pupation had no impact on the probability that intraguild predators and cannibals locate pupae. Intraguild predation occurred more often in site with gregarious pupation, while cannibalism occurred as often in site with gregarious pupation as in site with isolated pupa. However, for a specific pupa, the mortality rate was higher for isolated pupae than for pupae located in a gregarious pupation site both in the presence of intraguild predators and in the presence of cannibals. The spatial location of pupae within the group had no impact on mortality rate. Since it reduces the risk of predation, it is proposed that gregarious pupation act as a defensive mechanism for H. axyridis pupae. PMID:25684624

  15. Data library of gamma-ray buildup factors for point isotropic source

    Gamma-ray buildup factors for a point isotropic source have been calculated as a function of atomic number of heavy elements and source energies over an energy range from 0.015 MeV to 15 MeV, for penetration depths up to 40 mfp, bu the PALLAS-PL,SP-Br code. These data include the contribution of bremsstrahlung, annihilation radiation and fluorescence X-ray. The calculated absorbed-dose, exposure and dose-equivalent buildup factors are tabulated for molybdenum, tin, tungsten, lead and uranium, which are practical interest shield materials, lanthanum and gadolinium which are important materials for obtaining buildup factors by interpolation with the atomic number. In the case of high atomic number materials, inclusion of brems-strahlung source has great influence on the buildup factors for high source energies and that of fluorescence X-ray gives spectracular effects on those for low energies close to the K edge of attenuation cross section. Furthermore, the geometrical-progression (G-P) parameters have been determined for these buildup factors in order to obtain the values of buildup factors at arbitrary distances and energies. (author)

  16. Does Sense of Place Still Exist?

    Helena Ruotsala

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article my aim is to discuss place, locality and their role and changed significance in the ethnological studies. I argue that although the meaning and role of place have been changed, place still is an important concept in ethnology. Researches are now paying more attention to the changed nature of the concept, e.g. for the multivocality of places. The anthropological literature on space and place forms my theoretical framework, with which I study some empiric cases from my familiar environment, from Finnish Lapland and from Kola Peninsula. ‘Place’, in my examples the sieidi of Taatsi, Lake Seidjavr, the Pallas fells or the tourist centre Levi, can have a unique reality for each inhabitant and visitor. While the meanings may be shared with others, the views of the place are often likely to be competing, and contested in practice. According to Margaret Rodman (2004: 207, researchers should empower place by returning control over meanings of place to the rightful producers, and empower their own analysis of place by attending to the multiplicity of local voices found about place.

  17. Sub-lethal effects of a copper sulfate fungicide on development and reproduction in three coccinellid species

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper-based fungicides reliably control various foliar diseases in citrus production, although they are suspected to exacerbate mite problems through various mechanisms. Studies have shown negative effects of various copper formulations on entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes, and parasitoids, but few have sought to measure its impact on the biology of predatory insects. We exposed the larvae of three species of ladybeetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae to field rates of copper sulfate in combination with petroleum oil, a formulation commonly applied in Florida citrus. First instar larvae of Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Olla v-nigrum Mulsant received a 24 h exposure to residues on Petri dishes, and another 24 h exposure in the third instar. Treated larvae of all three species survived to adulthood at the same rate as control larvae, but larvae of O. v-nigrum experienced a significant increase in developmental time. Female adults of C. coeruleus and H. axyridis receiving copper sulfate exposures as larvae did not differ from control adults in pre-reproductive period, fecundity or fertility over ten days of reproduction. Treated O. v-nigrum females had significantly longer pre-reproductive periods than control females and laid significantly fewer eggs, although egg fertility was equivalent. We conclude that copper-sulfate fungicides are unlikely to disrupt biological control processes in citrus groves that are mediated by these coccinellid beetles.

  18. Continuatori balcanico-danubiani del Veneto "balota"

    Giovan Battista Pellegrini

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available E' merito di László Hadrovics di avere impostato una numerosa serie di ricerche etimologiche con un metodo originale che ha dato ampi frutti, fondato sullo studio globale di tanti dati, ma in primo luogo saldamente ancorato al minuzioso esame delle fonti e dei motivi storici e culturali che hanno occasionato i prestiti. I suoi contributi alia storia e all'etimologia di varie parole ungheresi costituiscono autentiche piccole monografie concentrate nel settore del lessico giudicato di norma "di etimologia difficile" nei dizionari specializzati; essi sono ora in buona parte riuniti in due volumetti: Jövevényszók-vizsģalatok (Indagini sui prestiti del 1965 e Szavak és szólások (Parole ed espressioni] del 1975. In questa seconda miscellanea, nel capitolo quinto dedicato ai "prestiti italiani" (o­ lasz jövevényszók, alle pp. 78-94 l' A. ha l' occasione di occuparsi della voceungherese labda 'palla' (pp. 86-89 che presenta varie corrispondenze nelle lingue slave e balcaniche, oggetto di tante discussioni, come si può vedere anche dai piu recenti dizionari etimoiogici.

  19. Benthic communities on hard substrates covered by Limnoperna fortunei Dunker (Bivalvia, Mytilidae at an estuarine beach (Río de la Plata, Argentina

    Fernando G. Spaccesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and composition of benthic communities on hard substrates covered by the nonindigenous bivalve Limnoperna fortunei Dunker, the golden mussel, were quantified in the middle zone of the Río de la Plata Estuary (Argentina from April 2001 through March 2002. A total of 26 taxa were recorded. L. fortunei and Nematoda were the central and dominant groups, with a prodigious abundance of over 80%. The prevalence of L. fortunei, rather than the environmental variables, regulated the dynamics of the associated invertebrate fauna. The golden mussel alters both the structure and function of benthic native communities on hard substrates, allows a higher surface available for colonization and refuge, and provides food source to deposit-feeding organisms in the form of organic or residual material. The mussel also increases the abundance and diversity of taxa on hard substrata - such as Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Tardigrada, Chironomidae, Copepoda, Tanaidacea, and Hydrachnidia. Similarities and nonparametric multidimensional-scaling analyses indicated that the benthic composition had a seasonal variation. L. fortunei has an environmental impact, an ability to invade new freshwater ambiences worldwide and ecological characteristic comparable to those of Dreissena polymorpha Pallas (the zebra mussel of North America and Europe.

  20. A study of buildup factors, angular and energy distributions at small distances from three source geometries - plane isotropic, point isotropic, and plane normal - for low-energy gamma-ray incidence on water

    Exposure buildup factors for plane isotropic, point isotropic, and plane normal sources have been calculated using a discrete ordinates, direct integration code, PALLAS-PL,SP-Br, in infinite and finite water shields in the 0.06- to 0.1-MeV range. The values of the attenuation kernel, Be- /sup mur/, are greater than unity at distances up to a fe mean-free-paths in an infinite medium. The maximum value of Be- /sup mur/ depends on the incident energy, and this effect reaches a maximum for a 0.08-MeV source. The implication that the dose rate with a shield is greater than without a shield should be noticed. Results of this study show, however, that the large degree of scattering in a low-z material, such as water, produces this effect. Buildup factors, energy spectra, and angular distributions were analyzed for three source geometries in the comparisons of scattered gamma-ray transport in infinite and finite water shields

  1. Measurement of the radial velocity of the Sun as a star by means of a reflecting solar system body. The effect of the body rotation

    Lanza, A F

    2015-01-01

    Minor bodies of the solar system can be used to measure the spectrum of the Sun as a star by observing sunlight reflected by their surfaces. To perform an accurate measurement of the radial velocity of the Sun as a star by this method, it is necessary to take into account the Doppler shifts introduced by the motion of the reflecting body. Here we discuss the effect of its rotation. It gives a vanishing contribution only when the inclinations of the body rotation axis to the directions of the Sun and of the Earth observer are the same. When this is not the case, the perturbation of the radial velocity does not vanish and can reach up to about 2.4 m/s for an asteroid such as 2 Pallas that has an inclination of the spin axis to the plane of the ecliptic of about 30 degrees. We introduce a geometric model to compute the perturbation in the case of a uniformly reflecting body of spherical or triaxial ellipsoidal shape and provide general results to easily estimate the magnitude of the effect.

  2. Occultation studies of the Solar system. Semiannual status report, 1 July-31 December 1986

    The planetary occultation program began at Lowell Observatory in 1973 with a worldwide campaign to observe mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean Satellites. Then the temperature profile of the Martian atmosphere was measured from data taken during the occultation of epsilon Geminorum, the Rings of Uranus were discovered as they occulted SAO 158687, and the dimensions of Pallas were measured when that minor planet occulted SAO 85009. In 1979 the present grant was initiated, providing funds for portable photometric instrumentation used to observe occultations by asteroids as well as by Uranus and Neptune. Software for predicting occultations of catalog stars by asteroids, planets, and comets was written in 1983. Lowell currently provides most of the available predictions for asteroid occultations. Realizing in 1983 that the lack of a high-quality astrometric telescope dedicated to occultation work was limiting progress, an 18-inch, F/8 lens was acquired and adapted to an existing mounting at Lowell. Although acquisition of the lens and implementation of the new telescope has been accomplished primarily with non-grant funds, the instrument makes a major contribution to occultation research

  3. Vector processing of the neutron transport codes

    One of the large computations in JAERI is the neutron transport ones used for reactor shielding and criticality analyses. The adaptability of vector processings has been investigated on the neutron transport codes under the assumption of future use of super-computer. Five codes have been tested. They are DOT3.5, TWOTRAN and ANISN based on finite difference method, and PALLAS-2DCY and BERMUDA on the direct integration method. It has been found that the gain from vectorization depends upon the numerical methods, geometries, and problems types to be solved. That is, the direct integration is rather suited for vector processing. But in the conventional finite difference method, the difference equation has an unvectorizable recurrence form in (r, z) and (r, -)-geometries. But by altering the interative process, the equation can be vectorized and some gains have been found to be achieved in a criticality problem. For each code, described are some views on vectorization, program restructurings, speedup ratio on F75 APU, numerical studies on the interative process, and so forth. (author)

  4. CO and C3H8 total oxidation over Pd/La-Al2O3 catalysts:Effect of calcination temperature and hydrothermal treatment

    周仁美; 邢丰; 王树元; 鲁继青; 金凌云; 罗孟飞

    2014-01-01

    A series of Pd/La-Al2O3 (PLA) catalysts with La-Al2O3 (LA) support calcined at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1050 ºC) were prepared using an incipient wetness impregnation method. The activity of the fresh and hydrothermally aged PLA catalysts were tested for total oxidation of CO and C3H8. The activity of the fresh PLA catalysts for CO and C3H8 oxidation increased with increasing calcination temperature of the support, while the activities of the aged catalysts declined and became essentially the same. CO chemisorption results revealed that the suppressed activities of the aged catalysts were mainly due to the decline of palla-dium dispersion. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CO oxidation increased with increasing reduction ability of the catalysts, with a fresh catalyst calcined at 1050 ºC having the highest value (0.048 s-1). However, the TOF of C3H8 total oxidation was affected by not only the redox properties of catalysts but also the size of Pd particle, and large Pd particles possessed higher TOF value of C3H8 oxi-dation, with the highest value (0.125 s-1) being obtained on an aged catalyst calcined at 500 ºC.

  5. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil. PMID:26751869

  6. Morcegos (Chiroptera da área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Bats (Chiroptera of the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.

  7. STUDIES REGARDING THE DENSITY DYNAMICS OF AVENA FATUA WEED SPECIES ON WHEAT CULTIVATED IN MONOCULTURE (2 AND 3 YEARS AND IN THE WHEAT–RAPE CROP ROTATION ON BURNAS PLATFORM (ALEXANDRIA

    Mihai BERCA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Until 1995, the Avena fatua (odos wasn’t even known as a weed in Burnas Plain wheat crop. Starting with the beginning of the first decade of the millennium, also fostered by the climate change process, Avena fatua has been slowly, but surely, installed in the area. By 2010 it reached almost 50 plants/m2 on wheat after wheat and about 90 plants/m2 in 3 years wheat monoculture. Over the past three years, the specie’s density has logarithmically increased up to 600 plants/m2 on wheat after wheat and to almost 900 plants/m2 in 3 years wheat monoculture. The surfaces identified by us have exceeded 1500 ha, while the yield losses reach up to 100%. In these conditions, the rape-wheat simple crop rotation reduces weed infestation and keeps it slightly variable between 5-10 plants/m2, well below the economic threshold of tolerance. At the same time, substantive amendments in weed’s biology and ecology were observed, it becoming therophytes - hemitherophytes due to climate change. Can talk about a weed infestation of the crop with biannual and annual forms. Between all the chemical methods used so far, very good results were obtained with the Pallas 75 WG product, at a dose of 150 g/ha, even without safener.

  8. Interpolation of gamma-ray buildup factors in atomic number, using the geometrical progression (G-P) parameters

    The values of buildup factors for specified energy above K-edges and penetration distance vary smoothly with respect to atomic number, and the geometrical progression (G-P) parameters behave also similarly. An interpolation of buildup factors for an arbitrary elemental material was examined using the G-P parameters for an equivalent atomic number, where the G-P parameters are data fitted to the proposed American National Standard buildup factor data compilation of 17 elements from Be to Mo calculated by the moments method and those for 8 elements of Fe, Mo, Sn, La, Gd, W, Pb and U, including bremsstrahlung and fluorescence, calculated by the PALLAS code. It has been confirmed through various tests over a wide range of atomic number that the values of the buildup factors generated by interpolated G-P parameters can accurately reproduce the basic data calculated directly over the full range of energy within a few percent. The values of equivalent atomic number for mixture materials, such as water, air, concrete and lead glass of the density 4.36, are determined from a ratio of scattering cross section to the total attenuation coefficient. The buildup factors for these materials calculated using the G-P parameters, interpolated by the equivalent atomic number, are in good agreement with the basic data, except the buildup factors for lead glass to γ-ray energy above 3 MeV. (author)

  9. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  10. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in round gobies in New York State (USA) waters of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River

    Groocock, G.H.; Getchell, R.G.; Wooster, G.A.; Britt, K.L.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.; Casey, R.N.; Casey, J.W.; Bowser, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    In May 2006 a large mortality of several thousand round gobies Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) occurred in New York waters of the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Necropsies of sampled fish from these areas showed pallor of the liver and gills, and hemorrhagic areas in many organs. Histopathologic examination of affected tissues revealed areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Inoculations of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820) cell cultures with dilutions of tissue samples from the necropsied gobies produced a cytopathic effect within 5 d post-inoculation. Samples of cell culture supernatant were tested using RT-PCR and confirmed the presence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Sequence analysis of the VHSV isolate resulted in its assignment to the type-IVb subgroup. The detection of VHSV in a relatively recent invasive fish species in the Great Lakes and the potential impact of VHSV on the ecology and economy of the area will require further investigation and careful management considerations. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  11. Water quality modeling for urban reach of Yamuna river, India (1999-2009), using QUAL2Kw

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Kansal, Arun; Pelletier, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The study was to characterize and understand the water quality of the river Yamuna in Delhi (India) prior to an efficient restoration plan. A combination of collection of monitored data, mathematical modeling, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis has been done using the QUAL2Kw, a river quality model. The model was applied to simulate DO, BOD, total coliform, and total nitrogen at four monitoring stations, namely Palla, Old Delhi Railway Bridge, Nizamuddin, and Okhla for 10 years (October 1999-June 2009) excluding the monsoon seasons (July-September). The study period was divided into two parts: monthly average data from October 1999-June 2004 (45 months) were used to calibrate the model and monthly average data from October 2005-June 2009 (45 months) were used to validate the model. The R2 for CBODf and TN lies within the range of 0.53-0.75 and 0.68-0.83, respectively. This shows that the model has given satisfactory results in terms of R2 for CBODf, TN, and TC. Sensitivity analysis showed that DO, CBODf, TN, and TC predictions are highly sensitive toward headwater flow and point source flow and quality. Uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo showed that the input data have been simulated in accordance with the prevalent river conditions.

  12. Censo de aves migratórias (Charadriidae, Scolopacidae e Laridae na Coroa do Avião, Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil Census of shorebirds and Seabirds (Charadriidae, Scolopacidae and Laridae in the Coroa do Avião, Igarassu, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Wallace R. Telino-Júnior

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of shorebirds and seabirds use the Atlantic route through the northeastern coast of Brazil every year to migrate to South America. In this study was made a census of individuals that uses the Coroa do Avião (7º40'S and 34º50"W, an islet located on the south bar of the Santa Cruz channel on the north coast of Pernambuco state, from May 1993 throughout April 1995 and from August 1996 throughout July 1997. Four species of the family Charadriidae, seven species of the family Scolopacidae, and two species of the family Laridae was observed. The populational peaks match both the period of arrival to the winter season site and the period of departure to the reproduction site. The species considered very frequent were: Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 and Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764. All the other species were considered rather frequent. There was a strong linear correlation between 1993 and 1994 among Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758 and Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus, 1758; A. interpres and Calidris pusilla (Linnaues, 1766; A. interpres and C. alba; and C. pusilla and C. alba. From 1994 to April 1995 it occured between P. squatarola and C. alba; C. semipalmatus and C. pusilla; C. semipalmatus and C. pusilla; and A. interpres and C. pusilla. From August 1996 throughout July 1997 there was correlation only between P. squatarola and C. pusilla. The obtained results demonstrate the great importance of the Coroa do Avião as a winter season site.

  13. [Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of the Tien Shan: morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic analysis].

    Gordeev, M I; Zvantsov, A B; Goriacheva, I I; Shaĭkevich, E V; Ezhov, M N; Usenbaev, N T; Shapieva, Zh Zh; Zhakhongirov, Sh M

    2008-01-01

    Morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic studies of the Anopheles fauna in the valley and foothills of the Tien Shan identified 5 species of malaria mosquitoes: An. artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Fall, An. claviger Meigen, An. hyrcanus Pallas, An. pulcherrimus Theobald, and superpictus Grassi. An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, and An. messeae were prevalent in the Northern Tien-Shan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, An. messeae, and An. superpictus were detected in the Western Tien Shan. An. artemievi was first recorded in Kazakhstan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were noted in the Inferior Tien Shan. An. messeae was first observed in the Issyk Kul hollow. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were habitants of the foothills of the South-Western Tien Shan. An. artemievi, An. hyrcanus, An. superpictus, and An. pulcherrimus were in the plain. An. pulcherrimus and An. superpicts mosquitoes are regarded as important vectors in the new malaria foci of the Fergana regions. The role of An. artemievi in the transmission of malaria is to be specified. PMID:18822504

  14. Discovery of the first asteroid, Ceres historical studies in asteroid research

    Cunningham, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    Based on extensive primary sources, many never previously translated into English, this is the definitive account of the origins of Ceres as it went from being classified as a new planet to reclassification as the first of a previously unknown group of celestial objects. Cunningham opens this critical moment of astronomical discovery to full modern analysis for the first time. This book includes all the voluminous correspondence, translated into English, between the astronomers of Europe about the startling discovery of Ceres by Piazzi in 1801. It covers the period up to March 1802, at which time Pallas was discovered. Also included are Piazzi's two monographs about Ceres, and the sections of two books dealing with Ceres, one by Johann Bode, the other by Johann Schroeter. The origin of the word 'asteroid' is explained, along with several chapters on the antecedents of the story going back to ancient Greek times. The formulation of Bode's Law is given, as are the details on the efforts of Baron von Zach to org...

  15. The assembly of the disk shielding is finished.

    Vincent Hedberg

    At the end of March, the shielding project engineer, Jan Palla, could draw a sigh of relief when the fourth and final rotation of the disk shielding was carried out without incident. The two 80-ton heavy shielding assemblies were built in a horizontal position and they had to be first turned upside-down and then rotated to a vertical position during the assembly. The relatively thin disk plate with a diameter of 9 meters, made this operation quite delicate and a lot of calculation work and strengthening of the shielding was carried out before the rotations could take place. The disk shielding is being turned upside-down. The stainless steel cylinder in the centre supports the shielding as well as the small muon wheel. The two disk shielding assemblies consist of different materials such as bronze, gray steel, cast iron, stainless steel, boron doped polyethylene and lead. The project is multinational with the major pieces having been made by companies in Armenia, Serbia, Spain, Bulgaria, Italy, Slovaki...

  16. Mutation work done at Svaloef, Sweden, for improving disease resistance in barley

    The mutation work at Svaloef has so far resulted in 51 barley mutants with induced resistance to powdery mildew. Several susceptible varieties (Foma, Mari, Kristina, Bonus, Pallas) have been used in the experiments and many different mutagentia have also been included. Thirteen mutants are recognized by having the same type of resistance as conditioned by alleles at the ml-o locus, i.e. almost immunity with the exception of a few well-developed colonies of mildew on each plant, a very broad spectrum of resistance and a monogen, recessive inheritance of the character. Six mutants have been completely immune in all mildew tests, while nineteen mutants have shown a more or less hypersensitive reaction type and partial resistance. For both of these groups resistance is normally conditioned by a single, dominant gene, associated with the Ml-a locus. More studies, however, are necessary to reveal the number of, and the relationship between, the induced genes for resistance. Three of the mutants, namely SR1, SR34a and SR34b, have been included in comparative trials. In these trials SR1 yielded 5% less than its parent variety Foma, while SR34a and SR34b were equal to their parent Kristina. (author)

  17. Uptake, Accumulation and Excretion by Corophium volutator(Crustacea: Amphipoda) of Zinc, Cadmium and Cobalt Added to Sewage Sludge

    Burgos, M. Galay; Rainbow, P. S.

    1998-11-01

    Zinc, cadmium and cobalt associated with digested sewage sludge are available to the benthic deposit-feeding amphipodCorophium volutator(Pallas). Accumulation by the amphipod of radioactively labelled metals adsorbed onto a 5% sludge-sediment mixture increased with time of exposure up to 15 days, but irregularly so as pulses of labelled metal were excreted into faecal pellets. The three labelled metals were accumulated and excreted apparently almost synchronously by individual amphipods, although great variability between different individuals was found. This intraspecific variability could not be attributed to differences between male and female amphipods. Net accumulation of labelled metals from the sludge increased with increased labelled metal concentration in the sludge, but not with time beyond an initial period of 15-30 days. It is proposed that the metal excretion patterns might reflect the breakdown of epithelial cells of the ventral caeca following a cell cycle, releasing accumulated stores of detoxified metals into the gut lumen and out of the body through faeces.

  18. Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland

    Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

    2009-03-01

    The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 μm), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

  19. Innate Cellular Immune Responses in Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    Soliman, D E; Farid, H A; Hammad, R E; Gad, A M; Bartholomay, L C

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit a variety of pathogens that have devastating consequences for global public and veterinary health. Despite their capacity to serve as vectors, these insects have a robust capacity to respond to invading organisms with strong cellular and humoral immune responses. In Egypt, Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771) has been suspected to act as a bridge vector of Rift Valley Fever virus between animals and humans. Microscopic analysis of Ae. caspius hemolymph revealed the presence of phagocytic cells called granulocytes. We further evaluated cellular immune responses produced by Ae. caspius as a result of exposure to a Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacterium, and to latex beads. After challenge, a rapid and strong phagocytic response against either a natural or synthetic invader was evident. Hemocyte integrity in bacteria-inoculated mosquitoes was not morphologically affected. The number of circulating granulocytes decreased with age, reducing the overall phagocytic capacity of mosquitoes over time. The magnitude and speed of the phagocytic response suggested that granulocytes act as an important force in the battle against foreign invaders, as has been characterized in other important mosquito vector species. PMID:26792848

  20. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  1. Use of hydra for chronic toxicity assessment of waters intended for human consumption

    Arkhipchuk, Victor V. [Laboratory of Biomarkers and Biotesting, Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Water Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Vernadsky Blvd. 42, Kiev 03142 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: arvic@nbi.com.ua; Blaise, Christian [Centre Saint-Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Malinovskaya, Maria V. [Laboratory of Biomarkers and Biotesting, Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Water Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Vernadsky Blvd. 42, Kiev 03142 (Ukraine)

    2006-07-15

    Methods developed with the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata (Pallas), have proven effective for screening acute toxicity in aqueous samples, whereas their use in revealing (sub)chronic toxic effects have had mitigated success. We therefore sought to explore manifestations of hydra mortality and abnormal morphological changes, as well as the reproductive capacity of hydras to further enhance the bioassay sensitivity and to assess (sub)chronic toxicity. These parameters were recorded following the onset of experiments after 8, 12 and 19-21 days of hydra exposure. Results obtained with potable waters (30 brands of bottled waters and artesian waters from 9 wells) showed chronic sublethal and lethal effects or reproduction rate inhibition for most samples. The effectiveness of the hydra toxicity test was demonstrated in comparison with other widely used bioassays. Our previous and present investigations suggest that hydra is a reliable and relevant test organism for the assessment of acute and chronic water toxicity. - Hydra is a reliable and relevant test organism for the assessment of acute and chronic toxicity of waters intended for human consumption.

  2. Use of hydra for chronic toxicity assessment of waters intended for human consumption

    Methods developed with the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata (Pallas), have proven effective for screening acute toxicity in aqueous samples, whereas their use in revealing (sub)chronic toxic effects have had mitigated success. We therefore sought to explore manifestations of hydra mortality and abnormal morphological changes, as well as the reproductive capacity of hydras to further enhance the bioassay sensitivity and to assess (sub)chronic toxicity. These parameters were recorded following the onset of experiments after 8, 12 and 19-21 days of hydra exposure. Results obtained with potable waters (30 brands of bottled waters and artesian waters from 9 wells) showed chronic sublethal and lethal effects or reproduction rate inhibition for most samples. The effectiveness of the hydra toxicity test was demonstrated in comparison with other widely used bioassays. Our previous and present investigations suggest that hydra is a reliable and relevant test organism for the assessment of acute and chronic water toxicity. - Hydra is a reliable and relevant test organism for the assessment of acute and chronic toxicity of waters intended for human consumption

  3. Heterospecific sociality of birds on beaches from southeastern Brazil

    César Cestari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the sociality of heterospecific assemblages of birds have promoted a greater understanding of the types of interactions and survivorship between coexisting species. This study verified the group compositions in bird assemblages and analyzed the sociality of migratory and resident species on sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil. A transect was established on the median portion of beaches and all the groups of bird species (monospecific, heterospecific and solitary individuals were registered four days per month from November 2006 to April 2007. The sociality of each species was calculated by its frequency in heterospecific groups, its proportional number of contacts with other species in heterospecific groups, and the number of species that it associated with. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 and Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 (both migratory had the highest degree of sociality and did not show a preference to associate with either residents or migratory species. Sanderling Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 (migratory occupied the third position in the sociality rank and associated with migratory species frequently. Southern Caracara Carara plancus (Miller, 1777 and Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (Beschstein, 1793 (both resident were uniquely found among heterospecific groups with necrophagous and resident species. Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (resident associated more frequently with resident species. The sociality in assemblages of birds may promote advantages such as an increased collective awareness in dangerous situations and indication of sites with abundant food sources.

  4. Design and development of micro-strip stacked module prototypes to measure flying particle directions

    Bernardini, J. [Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 - 56126 Pisa (Italy); Bosi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pisa, Edificio C - Polo Fibonacci Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dell' Orso, R., E-mail: roberto.dellorso@pi.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pisa, Edificio C - Polo Fibonacci Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - 56127 Pisa (Italy); Fiori, F.; Messineo, A. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti, 43 - 56126 Pisa (Italy); Palla, F.; Profeti, A.; Verdini, P.G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pisa, Edificio C - Polo Fibonacci Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Experience at high luminosity hadron collider experiments shows that tracking information enhances the trigger rejection capabilities while retaining high efficiency for interesting physics events [F. Palla and G. Parrini, Tracking in the trigger: from the CDF experience to CMS upgrade, 2007. Published in PoS VER-TEX2007:034, 2007]. The design of a tracking based trigger for Super LHC (S-LHC), the already envisaged high luminosity upgrade of the LHC collider, is an extremely challenging task, and requires the identification of high-momentum particle tracks as a part of the Level 1 Trigger. Simulation studies show that this can be achieved by correlating hits on two closely spaced silicon strip sensors. This work focuses on the design and development of micro-strip stacked prototype modules and will also discuss the technical challenges in the construction and the final detector performance. Studies of possible sensor geometries and wire-bonding techniques will be also presented. The prototypes have been built with the silicon sensors and electronics used to equip the present CMS Tracker [CMS Collaboration, The CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, JINST 3:S08004:26-89, 2008]. Correlation of signals collected from sensors are processed off detector. We will present the results of tests performed on the prototype modules in terms of the noise performance of the proposed stack geometry. Preliminary results in terms of signal over noise and tracking performance with cosmic rays will also be shown.

  5. Different evolutionary stages in massive star formation. Centimeter continuum and H2O maser emission with ATCA

    Sanchez-Monge, A; Cesaroni, R; Fontani, F; Brand, J; Molinari, S; Testi, L; Burton, M

    2012-01-01

    We present ATCA observations of the H2O maser line and radio continuum at 18.0GHz and 22.8GHz, toward a sample of 192 massive star forming regions containing several clumps already imaged at 1.2mm. The main aim of this study is to investigate the water maser and centimeter continuum emission (likely tracing thermal free-free emission) in sources at different evolutionary stages, using the evolutionary classifications proposed by Palla et al (1991) and Molinari et al (2008). We used the recently comissioned CABB backend at ATCA obtaining images with 20arcsec resolution in the 1.3cm continuum and H2O maser emission, in all targets. For the evolutionary analysis of the sources we used the millimeter continuum emission from Beltran et al (2006) and the infrared emission from the MSX Point Source Catalogue. We detect centimeter continuum emission in 88% of the observed fields with a typical rms noise level of 0.45mJy/beam. Most of the fields show a single radio continuum source, while in 20% of them we identify mu...

  6. The role of intrusions in the formation of Irish-type mineralisation

    McCusker, Jim; Reed, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    The Stonepark Prospect is located in County Limerick, south-central Ireland. Multiple zones of Zn-Pb mineralisation have been identified at Stonepark and these are approximately 5 km west of the Pallas Green Prospect. At Stonepark, the sulphide bodies are hosted within the Waulsortian Limestone and closely resemble other Irish-type deposits. The mineralisation is composed of pyrite-marcasite, sphalerite and galena with gangue Fe-dolomite and calcite cements. A key difference at Stonepark is the presence of Chadian-aged volcanic rocks (Knockroe Volcanics) that intrude into and overlie the Waulsortian Limestone. Subsequent hydrothermal brecciation of the Waulsortian Limestone and Knockroe intrusions resulted in the formation of tabular polymict breccia bodies containing mixed carbonate and clasts of intrusive rocks. These have then been overprinted by massive sulphide mineralisation. Further syn-mineralisation brecciation has overprinted the earlier breccias. Drilling has demonstrated a spatial relationship between the volume of intrusive rocks (dykes and polymict breccias) and Zn-Pb mineralisation. This association suggests that the intrusive rocks provided a mechanism for the introduction of the mineralising fluids into the breccia bodies. This is significant as to date no large controlling fault has been identified, as is seen at other Irish-type deposits. Further work is required to understand the alteration process of the intrusive rocks and how this may relate to the mineralising process.

  7. Características de los paseriformes europeos que invernan en el Parque Nacional de las Aves del Djoudj (África occidental

    Juan Arizaga, Daniel Alonso, Ivan Maggini, Luis Romero, Antonio Vilches, Gorka Belamendia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El Sahel es una de las regiones más importantes para las especies de paseriformes europeos que invernan en África subsahariana. En el invierno de 2010 (diciembre se desarrolló una expedición al Parque Nacional de las Aves del Djoudj (Senegal, en África occidental. Durante la expedición se capturaron varias especies de paseriformes europeos, en ocho de las cuales las capturas fueron superiores a 5 ejemplares: Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (L., 1758, A. scirpaceus Herman, 1804, Luscinia svecica (L., 1758, Motacilla flava L., 1758, Phylloscopus collybita (Vieillot, 1817, P. ibericus (Ticehurst, 1937, Riparia riparia (L., 1758, Sylvia cantillans (Pallas, 1764. El objetivo del artículo es contribuir al conocimiento básico de las características de las especies europeas de paseriformes invernantes en el Parque Nacional de las Aves del Djoudj. Se capturaron gran número de individuos en muda activa, particularmente en el caso de R. riparia (50% de la población y, en menor grado, A. schoenobaenus, M. flava y S. cantillans, lo cual pone de manifiesto el empleo de la zona como área de muda para especies europeas. Por otro lado, en todos los casos la cantidad de reservas de grasa fue baja, sugiriendo que los individuos capturados invernaban en la zona. En concordancia, el rango de vuelo estimado fue también muy bajo (menor de 300 km.

  8. A three dimensional stochastic neutron transport code using new lattice model 'DIMOS' and analysis of neutron streaming problems

    A design-oriented three dimensional stochastic neutron transport code was made with a new lattice model for shielding analysis. The basic assumption of this lattice model is that neutron motion may be sampled at predetermined points. A medium is considered to be filled with a cubic lattice. The number of allowed directions of motion is revised from 26 in the old lattice model to 98 in the new one. By using the lattice model, a computer code named DIMOS has been developed on the basis of a stochastic approach. In addition, this code has an option coupling the two-dimensional discrete ordinates code PALLAS with the DIMOS code. In order to demonstrate the ability of this code, three neutron streaming problems were calculated with the option of coupling in the DIMOS: a cylindrical air duct in water, a straight annular duct in an unsymmetrical configuration and an annular duct with the one bend. Results obtained are in good agreement experimental ones. (author)

  9. Recent transportation calculation code systems and their accuracy evaluation

    In the field of shielding design, many studies have been carried out for the development of radiation transportation calculation codes (transportation codes) including Monte Carlo codes. The present report outlines major transportation codes used in Japan for design of shielding. Major one-dimensional codes include ANISN (Sn), PALLAS-PL and SP-Br (direct integration) whili two-dimensional ones include DOT-3.5 and TWOTRAN-II. All these transportation codes have been developed on the basis of numerical solution to the Boltzmann's transportation equation. These codes are roughly divided into two groups: discrete ordinates type and Monte Carlo type. The former include Sn-type codes and direct integration type codes. Sn-type codes are currently used most widely. The accuracy and other features of a code should be tested before applysing it to practical shielding design. One of the techniques for this purpose is the benchmark method, which consists of benchmark tests and analysis of the test results. The possible overall error involved in calculations can be determined from the benchmark tests. (Nogami, K.)

  10. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D solar system.

  11. The pre-main sequence population of NGC 6530 in M8

    J. I. Arias

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos los resultados de una investigaci on de probables miembros d ebiles del c umulo abierto muy joven NGC 6530 en M8, basados en espectroscop a de resoluci on intermedia obtenida con el telescopio Magallanes I de 6.5 m del Observatorio Las Campanas. El an alisis de los espectros condujo al descubrimiento de 39 nuevas estrellas de pre-secuencia principal en la regi on. De acuerdo a los tipos espectrales, y a la presencia de l neas de emisi on y de l nea de absorci on de litio, identi camos 30 estrellas T-Tauri cl asicas, 7 estrellas T-Tauri d ebiles y dos objetos Herbig Ae/Be. Utilizando magnitudes infrarrojas de 2MASS y de nuestro trabajo previo, y las huellas evolutivas de Palla & Stahler (1999, estimamos las masas y edades de estas estrellas. Encontramos que casi todas las estrellas de nuestra muestra son m as j ovenes que 3 106 a~nos y abarcan un intervalo de masas de entre 0.8 y 2.0 M .

  12. Standard Triaxial Ellipsoid Asteroids from AO Observations

    Drummond, Jack D.; Merline, W. J.; Conrad, A.; Dumas, C.; Carry, B.

    2008-09-01

    As part of our study of resolved asteroids using adaptive optics (AO) on large telescopes (>8; m), we have identified several that can serve as Standard Triaxial Ellipsoid Asteroids (STEAs), suitable for radar and thermo-physical calibration. These objects are modeled well as triaxial ellipsoids, having: 1) small uncertainties on their three dimensions as determined with AO; 2) rotational poles well determined from both lightcurves and AO; and 3) good sidereal periods from lightcurves. Although AO allows the opportunity to find an asteroid's dimensions and rotational pole in one night, we have developed a method to combine AO observations from different oppositions to pool into a global solution. The apparent orientation and sizes of STEAs can be predicted to within a few degrees and a few km over decades. Currently, we consider 511 Davida, 52 Europa, 2 Pallas, and 15 Eunomia as STEAs. Asteroids that are not well modeled as ellipsoids, clearly showing departures from ellipsoid figures in AO images, include 129 Antigone and 41 Daphne. We will show movies of images and models of these asteroids.

  13. HST/WFPC2 Study of the Trapezium Cluster: the Influence of Circumstellar Disks on the Initial Mass Function

    Robberto, M; Carrillo, G M; Beckwith, S V W; Makidon, R B; Panagia, N

    2004-01-01

    We have performed the first measures of mass accretion rates in the core of the Orion Nebula Cluster. Four adjacent fields centered on the Trapezium stars have been imaged in the U- and B-bands using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. In this paper we focus our attention on a group of 40 stars with known spectral types and complete UBVI WFPC2 photometry. Approximately three quarters of the sources show excess luminosity in the U-band, that we attribute to mass accretion. The known correlation between the U-band excess and the total accretion luminosity allows us to estimate the accretion rates. Overall, mass accretion rates appear lower than those measured by other authors in the Orion flanking fields or in Taurus-Auriga. Mass accretion rates remain low even in the vicinity of the birth line of Palla & Stahler, suggesting that in the core of the Trapezium cluster disk accretion has been recently depressed by an external mechanism. We suggest that the UV radiation genera...

  14. Identifikasi Kelelawar Pemakan Buah Asal Sulawesi Berdasarkan Morfometri (THE MORPHOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION OF CELEBES FRUIT BATS

    Tiltje Andretha Ransaleleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The bat is very important for human life, because of their  role as pollinator of plants, as a producer oforganic fertilizer,  and as food.  In Northern Celebes fruit eating bats serve as exotic food, so the presenceof bats were threatened to be extinct due to uncontrolled hunting.  The changes of the forest for plantationlands, damage the habitats and the bats were forced to migrate out.   The aim of the study was to identifythe fruit eating bats of Celebes.  Morphometry of body size, skull,  and physical characteristics were usedin determining the types and distribution  of fruit eating bats in Celebes. The field survey was carried outat the hunting area, bat dealers, and bat sellers. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptivemethod and interpreted by narrating to describe the entire study. The result show that  there were fivetypes of fruit eating bats : i.e.  kalong sulawesi (Acerodon celebensis,  paniki pallas (Nyctimene cephalotes,codot wallet (Thoopterus nigrescens, nyap biasa (Rousettus amplexicaudatus, and  kalong hitam  (Pteropusalecto.

  15. Redescription of two species of cystidicolid nematodes (Spirurina: Cystidicolidae) from Notopterus notopterus (Osteichthyes) in Thailand.

    Moravec, František; Pachanawan, Adithepchaikarn; Kamchoo, Kanda

    2016-06-01

    Two nematode species, Pseudoproleptus notopteri (Karve et Naik, 1951) and Spinitectus notopteri Karve et Naik, 1951 (both Cystidicolidae), are redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of specimens collected from the digestive tract of the freshwater fish Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) (Notopteridae, Osteoglossiformes) in Thailand. Some new important morphological features, such as a detailed structure of the cephalic end and the presence of bifurcate deirids and a ventral median caudal protuberance in male, are reported for the former species (P. notopteri), which is provisionally assigned to Pseudoproleptus Khera, 1955; Notopteroides notopteri Chakravarty et Majumdar, 1962, Pseudoproleptus satendri Sahay, 1967, P. lamyi Le-Van-Hoa et Bui-Thi Lien-Huong, 1969, P. gomtii Gupta et Bakshi, 1984. P. sprenti Gupta et Masoodi, 1986 and P. thapari Gupta et Naiyer, 1992 are considered its junior synonyms. The first study of S. notopteri by SEM showed its morphological similarity with S. mastacembeli Karve et Naik, 1951, from which it clearly differs by the structure of eggs; Spinitectus alii Kalyankar, 1970, S. bengalensis Chakravarty, Sain et Majumdar, 1961, S. gomalensis Siddiqui et Kattak, 1984 and S. thapari Ali, 1957 are considered to be junior synonyms of S. notopteri. Pseudoproleptus notopteri and Spinitectus notopteri are reported from Thailand for the first time. PMID:27078651

  16. News of the world

    This document gathers information from nuclear industry throughout the world. The most relevant follows. The reactor 1 of the Kudankulam site has diverged and is expected to be connected to the grid soon. This reactor is a VVER-1000 reactor whose power output will reach 1000 MW, it is the most powerful of the 21 reactors operating in India. China and Pakistan have signed an agreement for the construction of 2 reactors ACP-1000 near Karachi for a cost of 9.6 billion dollars. Ukraine and Japan have launched a common project whose purpose is the satellite-based monitoring of damaged nuclear plants Chernobyl and Fukushima. 4 countries of central Europe (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia) have created a common center for the research and development of reactors of 4. generation. The European Commission has decided to grant a loan for the construction of the Pallas high flux multi-purpose reactor on the Petten site (The Netherlands). It will replace the High Flux reactor as soon as 2023 particularly for the production of radio-isotopes. Jordan plans to build its first reactor, this reactor will be a 5 MW research reactor situated at Irbid in the promises of the Sciences and Technologies University. (A.C.)

  17. On whose shoulders we stand – the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó

    Karoly Vig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary’s natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time.Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877–88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects.Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas 1771, of aestivation in insects – in present-day terms diapause.It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest.

  18. On whose shoulders we stand - the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó.

    Vig, Károly

    2011-01-01

    The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary's natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time.Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877-88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects.Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas, 1771), of aestivation in insects - in present-day terms diapause.It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest. PMID:22303108

  19. On whose shoulders we stand – the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó *

    Vig, Károly

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary’s natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time. Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877–88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects. Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas, 1771), of aestivation in insects – in present-day terms diapause. It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest. PMID:22303108

  20. An interactive survey panel regarding the effects of mice (Microtus spec.) on a young ecosystem

    Zaplata, Markus; Maurer, Thomas; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Schaaf, Wolfgang; Hinz, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Apparent disturbance caused by soil megafauna took place for the very first time in 2014, after nine years of spontaneous vegetative succession of the constructed watershed Chicken Creek catchment (6 ha). This watershed was designed to investigate the initial phase of soil and ecosystem development under natural conditions including the detailed study of hydrologic processes and water-substrate-plant-atmosphere interactions. In autumn 2014, we recorded the primarily common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas) activities (calamity), which altered the microtopography of the substrate surface: We counted mouse holes and diggings (for storage organs) at the same spatial units (permanent plots, >100 # of 5 m × 5 m) where we monitor the vegetation since the onset of the catchment. We are hence capable of analysing the effect of abundant vegetarian mice and biogenic macropores, e.g. on the occurrence and performance of the more than 150 vascular plant species present by comparing the respective coverage in 2013 (the pre-mice year) versus 2014, with or without accounting for the confounding effect of succession. Additionally elaborated insight on the 3-D architecture of the mice underground corridors and the nesting places (in situ) enables to extrapolate mass and volume of the moved substrate and the number of the nests of mice for the whole catchment. We report these results, anticipating a return service: Here, we ask for your expectation regarding the significance of the mice-made disturbance on the vegetation of the young ecosystem.