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Sample records for acadesine kills chronic

  1. Synergistic anti-tumor activity of acadesine (AICAR) in combination with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in in vivo and in vitro models of mantle cell lymphoma

    Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; López-Guerra, Mónica; Rosich, Laia; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Salaverria, Itziar; Beà, Silvia; Kalko, Susana G.; de Frias, Mercè; Campàs, Clara; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered one of the most challenging lymphoma, with limited responses to current therapies. Acadesine, a nucleoside analogue has shown antitumoral effects in different preclinical cancer models as well as in a recent phase I/II clinical trial conducted in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here we observed that acadesine exerted a selective antitumoral activity in the majority of MCL cell lines and primary MCL samples, independently of adverse cytogene...

  2. Synergistic anti-tumor activity of acadesine (AICAR) in combination with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in in vivo and in vitro models of mantle cell lymphoma.

    Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; López-Guerra, Mónica; Rosich, Laia; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Salaverria, Itziar; Beà, Silvia; Kalko, Susana G; de Frias, Mercè; Campàs, Clara; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2014-02-15

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered one of the most challenging lymphoma, with limited responses to current therapies. Acadesine, a nucleoside analogue has shown antitumoral effects in different preclinical cancer models as well as in a recent phase I/II clinical trial conducted in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here we observed that acadesine exerted a selective antitumoral activity in the majority of MCL cell lines and primary MCL samples, independently of adverse cytogenetic factors. Moreover, acadesine was highly synergistic, both in vitro and in vivo, with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, commonly used in combination therapy for MCL. Gene expression profiling analysis in harvested tumors suggested that acadesine modulates immune response, actin cytoskeleton organization and metal binding, pointing out a substantial impact on metabolic processes by the nucleoside analog. Rituximab also induced changes on metal binding and immune responses.The combination of both drugs enhanced the gene signature corresponding to each single agent, showing an enrichment of genes involved in inflammation, metabolic stress, apoptosis and proliferation. These effects could be important as aberrant apoptotic and proinflammatory pathways play a significant role in the pathogenesis of MCL. In summary, our results suggest that acadesine exerts a cytotoxic effect in MCL in combination with rituximab, by decreasing the proliferative and survival signatures of the disease, thus supporting the clinical examination of this strategy in MCL patients. PMID:24519895

  3. Adenosine-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation by acadesine. A novel antithrombotic mechanism in vitro and in vivo.

    Bullough, D A; Zhang, C.; Montag, A; Mullane, K. M.; Young, M A

    1994-01-01

    Inhibition of platelet aggregation by acadesine was evaluated both in vitro and ex vivo in human whole blood using impedance aggregometry, as well as in vivo in a canine model of platelet-dependent cyclic coronary flow reductions. In vitro, incubation of acadesine in whole blood inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 50% at 240 +/- 60 microM. Inhibition of platelet aggregation was time dependent and was prevented by the adenosine kinase inhibitor, 5'-deoxy 5-iodotubercidin, which block...

  4. Activated ClpP kills persisters and eradicates a chronic biofilm infection.

    Conlon, Brian P.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Fleck, Laura E.; LaFleur, Michael D.; Isabella, Vincent M.; Coleman, K.; Leonard, Steve N.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lewis, Kim

    2013-11-21

    The current antibiotic crisis stems from two distinct phenomena-drug resistance, and drug tolerance. Resistance mechanisms such as drug efflux or modification prevent antibiotics from binding to their targets 1, allowing pathogens to grow. Antibiotic tolerance is the property of persister cells, phenotypic variants of regular bacteria 2. Antibiotics kill by corrupting targets, but these are inactive in dormant persisters, leading to tolerance. Persisters were first identified by Joseph Bigger in 1944, when he discovered a surviving sub-population of Staphylococcus following treatment with penicillin3. Persisters are largely responsible for recalcitrance of chronic diseases such as tuberculosis, and various infections associated with biofilms - endocarditis, osteomyelitis, infections of catheters and indwelling devices, and deep-seated infections of soft tissues 4. There are a number of redundant pathways involved in persister formation5,6 precluding development of drugs inhibiting their formation. The acyldepsipeptide antibiotic (ADEP 4) has been shown to activate the ClpP protease resulting in death of growing cells 7. Here we show that ADEP4 activated ClpP becomes a fairly non-specific protease and kills persister cells by degradation of over 400 intracellular targets. clpP mutants are resistant to ADEP4 7, but we find that they display increased susceptibility to killing by a range of conventional antibiotics. Combining ADEP4 with rifampicin leads to eradication of persisters, stationary and biofilm populations of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in a deep-seated murine infection. Target corruption/activation provides an approach to killing persisters and eradicating chronic infections.

  5. Staphylococci surviving intracellularly in phagocytes from patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease are killed in vitro by antibiotics encapsulated in liposomes.

    Roesler, J.; Hockertz, S; Vogt, B.; Lohmann-Matthes, M L

    1991-01-01

    Granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages from patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are ineffective in killing specific kinds of phagocytized bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, due to decreased or lacking ability to produce reactive oxygen intermediates. Commonly used antibiotics like flucloxacillin are of limited therapeutic value, because the staphylococci are protected against their action in the interior of phagocytes. However, encapsulation of flucloxacillin into ...

  6. The increased killing of biofilms in vitro by combining topical silver dressings with topical negative pressure in chronic wounds.

    Valente, Pedro Miguel Ds; Deva, Anand; Ngo, Quan; Vickery, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Chronic wounds remain a significant medical and financial burden in hospitals of today. A major factor in the transition from an acute to a chronic wound is its bacterial bioburden. Developments in molecular techniques have shown that chronic wounds remain colonised by many species of bacteria and that the bacteria within these chronic wounds exist in two forms. Treatments of chronic wounds have maintained a challenging field and significant ongoing research is being conducted. With the development of an in vitro wound model, we applied topical negative pressure (TNP) dressings to a spectrum of common bacterial biofilms found in chronic wounds and studied the synergistic efficacy between the application of TNP and silver-impregnated foam against these biofilms. This synergistic response was seen within the laboratory strains of staphylococcal biofilms over a 3-day treatment period but lost following the 5 days of treatment. However, combining topical pressure dressings and silver foam lead to a synergistic inactivation in Pseudomonas species over both 3-day and 5-day treatments. PMID:24712658

  7. Studies on the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to antibody-dependent killing of developing schistosomula using sera from chronically infected mice and mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae

    Changes in the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to in vitro killing during development of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni were studied using serum from chronically infected mice (CIS) and from mice vaccinated with highly irradiated (20 krad) cercariae (VS). Binding of these sera was quantitated by counting the number of P388D1 cells (a transformed, macrophage-like cell of mouse origin, bearing Fc receptors for IgG) binding to the parasite surface. Compared with schistosomula derived in vitro by mechanical transformation (MS), schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vitro (SS) showed a significant loss in surface binding of CIS. Schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vivo (SRS) showed even less binding, and this trend continued such that parasites recovered from the lungs 5 days after infection (LS) showed only minimal binding, and 10-day-old worms from the portal system showed no significant binding. In contrast, VS, which bound significantly less well to MS than CIS, showed enhanced binding to SS, and in the face of their declining antigenicity with respect to CIS, 3- to 24-hr SRS maintained this raised level of antigenicity. Although there appeared to be a decline in binding of VS thereafter, LS remained antigenic, still binding as many cells as MS did despite the fact that they also expressed host antigens detected usng antisera raised against mouse RBC. In spite of this persistence of VS binding up to the lung stage, resistance to eosinophil-mediated killing in vitro had developed by 48 hr post-infection, and LS were totally resistant to both eosinophil- and C-mediated killing

  8. Studies on the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to antibody-dependent killing of developing schistosomula using sera from chronically infected mice and mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae

    Bickle, Q.D.; Ford, M.J.

    1982-05-01

    Changes in the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to in vitro killing during development of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni were studied using serum from chronically infected mice (CIS) and from mice vaccinated with highly irradiated (20 krad) cercariae (VS). Binding of these sera was quantitated by counting the number of P388D/sub 1/ cells (a transformed, macrophage-like cell of mouse origin, bearing Fc receptors for IgG) binding to the parasite surface. Compared with schistosomula derived in vitro by mechanical transformation (MS), schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vitro (SS) showed a significant loss in surface binding of CIS. Schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vivo (SRS) showed even less binding, and this trend continued such that parasites recovered from the lungs 5 days after infection (LS) showed only minimal binding, and 10-day-old worms from the portal system showed no significant binding. In contrast, VS, which bound significantly less well to MS than CIS, showed enhanced binding to SS, and in the face of their declining antigenicity with respect to CIS, 3- to 24-hr SRS maintained this raised level of antigenicity. Although there appeared to be a decline in binding of VS thereafter, LS remained antigenic, still binding as many cells as MS did despite the fact that they also expressed host antigens detected usng antisera raised against mouse RBC. In spite of this persistence of VS binding up to the lung stage, resistance to eosinophil-mediated killing in vitro had developed by 48 hr post-infection, and LS were totally resistant to both eosinophil- and C-mediated killing.

  9. The Killing

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    This article tracks the uncanny locations of The Killing (2007–2012), relating them to place, space and atmosphere, putting bits and pieces from the topographic puzzle together with cues from the symbolic space in order to see how they fit into the overall pattern of Nordic Noir. In The Killing......, the abstract level of space and atmosphere meets the concrete level of place, both influencing the notion of location. This meeting, I suggest, has contributed towards the simultaneous domestic and international appeal of The Killing....

  10. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder; Agerstam, Helena; Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Rissler, Marianne; Lassen, Carin; Olofsson, Tor; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Richter, Johan; Fioretos, Thoas

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML will...

  11. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder; Agerstam, Helena; Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Rissler, Marianne; Lassen, Carin; Olofsson, Tor; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Richter, Johan; Fioretos, Thoas

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML will ...

  12. Killing tensors and conformal Killing tensors from conformal Killing vectors

    Koutras has proposed some methods to construct reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors (which are, in general, irreducible) when a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors exist in a given space. We give the completely general result demonstrating that this severe restriction of orthogonality is unnecessary. In addition, we correct and extend some results concerning Killing tensors constructed from a single conformal Killing vector. A number of examples demonstrate that it is possible to construct a much larger class of reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors than permitted by the Koutras algorithms. In particular, by showing that all conformal Killing tensors are reducible in conformally flat spaces, we have a method of constructing all conformal Killing tensors, and hence all the Killing tensors (which will in general be irreducible) of conformally flat spaces using their conformal Killing vectors

  13. Effective Concentration of a Multikinase Inhibitor within Bone Marrow Correlates with In Vitro Cell Killing in Therapy-Resistant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Mu, Chaofeng; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ma, Helen; Tao, Wenjing; Zhang, Guodong; Xia, Xiaojun; Shen, Jianliang; Mai, Junhua; Sun, Tong; Sun, Xiaoping; Arlinghaus, Ralph B; Shen, Haifa

    2016-05-01

    Leukemia cells escape BCR-ABL-targeted therapy by developing mutations, such as T315I, in the p210(BCR-ABL) fusion protein in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Although most effort has been focused on development of new tyrosine kinase inhibitors, enrichment of these small-molecule inhibitors in the tumor tissue can also have a profound impact on treatment outcomes. Here, we report that a 2-hour exposure of the T315I-mutant CML cells to 10 μmol/L of the multikinase inhibitor TG101209 suppressed BCR-ABL-independent signaling and caused cell-cycle arrest at G2-M. Further increase in drug concentration to 17.5 μmol/L blocked phosphorylation of the mutant BCR-ABL kinase and its downstream JAK2 and STAT5. The effective dosage to overcome therapy resistance identified in an in vitro setting serves as a guidance to develop the proper drug formulation for in vivo efficacy. A targeted formulation was developed to achieve sustained bone marrow TG101209 concentration at or above 17.5 μmol/L for effective killing of CML cells in vivo Potent inhibition of leukemia cell growth and extended survival were observed in two murine models of CML treated with 40 mg/kg intravenously administered targeted TG101209, but not with the untargeted drug at the same dosage. Our finding provides a unique approach to develop treatments for therapy-resistant CML. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 899-910. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26846820

  14. Chronic diseases kill on silence

    Querubina Bringel Olinda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Há uma diferença acentuada na determinação das prioridades, não no planejamento, mas na execução dos serviços, na materialização do fato e na importância da informação perante os meios de comunicação entre as duas categorias fundamentais de doenças – infecciosas e não infecciosas(1 .Em repasse às estatísticas de mortalidade proporcional, do Ministério da Saúde, em série histórica, constatam-se profundas mudanças no quadro, que há muito tempo constitui matéria discutida na literatura especializada. As causas determinantes da referida alteração foram citadas e reproduzidas em um número finito de artigos especializados, portanto, por demais conhecidas de todos.Em 2006, o grande grupo das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias representou 4,92% de todos os óbitos. Entretanto, somente o das doenças do aparelho circulatório contribuiu com 32,01% das mortes ocorridas naquele ano. É a estatística mais representativa da mortalidade dentre as principais causas de morte.(2As doenças do aparelho circulatório, isoladas, costumam atingir um quinto de todos os óbitos. No entanto, elas matam no silêncio. Os óbitos são notificados e registrados sem alarde.Ao olhar com mais detalhe o sistema de mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde, ele exibe registro na distribuição etária, e neste seu agrupamento há óbitos prematuros que se fazem presentes nas estatísticas de mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório. Há de se ter uma análise estatística esclarecedora nesse grande grupo de doença da necessidade de investimento como medida necessária para prorrogar a idade do desfecho gerador da morte. O adoecer e o morrer prematuro devem ter uma abordagem inquirida e uma resposta à altura. No final da vida a morte é uma certeza para todos, tem-se que morrer de algo, é a lei biológica – nascer, viver e morrer.Para todas as doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, constata-se que elas ocupam os três principais grupos de causa de morte. Quando se soma a contribuição da carga que tem cada um dos seus componentes no total de óbitos, as estatísticas são por demais expressivas – elas canalizam para ser uma das grandes prioridades nos serviços de saúde e nos afins ao combate da causa ou na mundança do estilo de vida para hábitos saudáveis.As neoplasias malignas representaram, no mesmo ano, 16,47%, as causas externas 14,36%, que somados aos 32,01% acima mencionados, redundaram em 62,05% dos óbitos notificados no País, em 2006 (2.Com certeza, essas estatísticas ainda contêm omissão no tocante à causa básica, porém serão a favor das crônicas. O contingente populacional de idosos tem os maiores percentuais de morte sem diagnósticos, por causas sem assistência médica e por causas mal definidas. Provavelmente, grande parte desses óbitos deve aumentar as estatísticas das doenças crônicas, alguns para as doenças do aparelho respiratório e outros, em menor escala, para o restante das causas(2.No caso das doenças crônicas tem-se que dar mais ênfase na informação a mudanças positivas no estilo de vida, na complexidade hospitalar e nas condições imprescíndiveis ao diagnóstico precoce. Tem-se que assumir que, apesar de apresentar soluções em um grande percentual de casos, o programa de saúde da família ainda não resolve problemas complexos.A capacidade de diagnóstico precoce e a resolutividade da rede são importantes para todos nós, seres humanos. Nemtodos os problemas de saúde podem, devem e conseguem ser resolvidos em unidades de menor complexidade.O atendimento terciário é um suporte imprescindível à manutenção da vida e ao respeito à dignidade do ser humano. O hospital deve também ser revitalizado. O ser “paciente” com este nome tão apropriado, é angustiante. Quanto aos principais tipos de câncer, também ainda há muito o que informar, e requer um trabalho mais sistemático de incentivo à procura de sua prevenção e uma maior cobertura de atendimentos.Nas causas externas, os meios de comunicação fazem uma verdadeira apologia à violência. Vive-se a síndrome do medo. O homicídio difere em suas causas determinantes e no seu combate aos acidentes do trânsito. Nesse bloco, entra a ação do estado em todas as esferas de governo, da engenharia de trânsito e principalmente da família – há de se voltar para os valores da pessoa humana. Não se constrói a paz semeando o medo e a violência.O Brasil espalhou medo sobre a influenza ou gripe causada pelo A(H1N1, em que a sobrevivência do vírus no ambiente é em torno de uma hora(2,3. Talvez, perpassando a linha do tempo das grandes epidemias da história no mundo, mormente as provocadas pela influenza, gripe espanhola, gripe russa e outras mais, não aqui citadas, que dizimaram milhões de pessoas(4, fizeram o sistema de comunicação sacudir as escolas com o alarme sobre a transmissibilidade da influenza e, por colocá-la isolada no foco da transmissão, esquecendo a família, o lazer, o trabalho, as viagens e, enfim, a normalidade da vida. Os serviços de saúde voltaram-se inteiramente para esse fim.As doenças transmissíveis são sempre amedrontadoras pelo seu poder de propagação e, em potencial, de causarem epidemias, em qualquer momento, desde que não lhes faltem condições para fazê-la.Os óbitos em epidemias são contados em público até a saturação da notícia, ao contrário das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. As suas estatísticas são apenas registradas e manuseadas por técnicos, excluídas do clamor social. Há necessidade de um novo olhar, em se tratando de doenças crônicas. Os definidores de politicas públicas devem ter em mente dois fatos norteadores para o planejamento de ações de intervenção nas referidas doenças. O primeiro de que os futuros idosos brasileiros, dentro de, sessenta anos de idade, referencial da velhice no País, já foram nascidos; e o outro, de que a expectativa de vida brasileira aumentou, o que tornará as doenças crônicas ainda em mais evidência no setor saúde.REFERÊNCIAS1. Rouquayrol MZ, Almeida-Filho N. Epidemiologia eSaúde, 2ª - ed. Rio de Janeiro: (BR Medsi; 2008.570 p.2. Brasil, Ministério da Saúde. Influenza humana:perguntas e respostas. (acesso em 2009 Ago 29.Disponível em: http://portal.saude.gov.br/portal/saude/profissional/area.cfm?id_area=15343. Ministério da Saúde (BR. Influenza humana: perguntase respostas. (acesso em 2009 ago 29. Disponívelem: http://portal.saude.gov.br/portal/saude/profissional/visualizar_texto.cfm?idtxt=31244 acesso em 2009.4. Bueno WC. A “gripe suína” e a pandemia da informação.Portal imprensa. (acesso em 2009 Jun. 20. Disponívelem: http://portalimprensa.uol.com.br/colunistas/colunas/2009/05/05/imprensa406.shtml .

  15. Chronic gastritis

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  16. Ion-kill dosimetry

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  17. Chronic γ-irradiation results in increased cell killing and chromosomal aberration with specific breakpoints in fibroblast cell strains derived from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients

    Cultured skin fibroblast cells from 16 NHL (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) patients and 2 clinically normal subjects were compared for cell survival and chromosomal aberration after chronic γ-irradiation. Fibroblasts from an ataxia telangiectasia (AT) homozygote and an AT heterozygote were used as positive controls. Following irradiation, fibroblasts from all 16 NHL patients showed an increase in both cell death and chromosomal aberration (breaks and rearrangements) compared to normal subjects. The difference in frequency of chromosomal aberration between normals and NHL-patients remained virtually unchanged over a period of 24-72 h post irradiation incubation of cells. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry carried out in 1 normal and 1 NHL fibroblast cell strain showed that more cells representing the NHL patient were in G2/M phase compared to the normal at various times of cytogenetic analysis. While the AT homozygote appeared to be the most radiosensitive, the AT heterozygote showed a slightly higher incidence of cell death and chromosomal aberration than the normals. The cellular and chromosomal radiosensitivity of fibroblast cell lines from NHL-patients differed slightly from that of AT heterozygote but clearly occupied an intermediate position between the AT homozygote and the normal subjects. Cells from 3 of the NHL patients showed radiation-induced specific chromosomal breaks involving chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, 10 and 11 which correspond to known fragile sites. Such breakpoints associated with increased radiosensitivity may be indicative of predisposition to malignancy in the patients studied. (author). 30 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  18. "It didn't kill me. It just made me stronger and wiser": Silver Linings for Children and Adolescents of Parents with Chronic Pain.

    Umberger, Wendy A; Risko, Judy

    2016-04-01

    Chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) is a disease that affects adults in their child-rearing years and is often incurable and of indefinite duration. Children and adolescents who live with parental CNCP can endure multiple adversities and experience subsequent emotional and somatic difficulties. Resilience is the ability to overcome adversity and even experience growth. This study is a secondary analysis of qualitative data, which sought to gain a deeper understanding of the ways in which children and adolescents rebound and grow from experiences living with parents who suffer with CNCP. Young adult children (N=30) of parents with CNCP were interviewed. Content analysis yielded five ways in which their experiences led to areas of positive growth: (a) expanded ways of understanding; (b) cultivated a strong character; (c) aided in the development of important skills; (d) instilled a commitment to live well, and; (e) nurtured spirituality. Clinicians who work with children and adolescents whose parents are disabled with CNCP can create environments that foster resilience and serve as a guide by helping these youth recognize potentials that have not yet been actualized and promoting positive change and growth over time. PMID:26992861

  19. Evolution of coalitionary killing.

    Wrangham, R W

    1999-01-01

    Warfare has traditionally been considered unique to humans. It has, therefore, often been explained as deriving from features that are unique to humans, such as the possession of weapons or the adoption of a patriarchal ideology. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that coalitional killing of adults in neighboring groups also occurs regularly in other species, including wolves and chimpanzees. This implies that selection can favor components of intergroup aggression important to human warfare, including lethal raiding. Here I present the principal adaptive hypothesis for explaining the species distribution of intergroup coalitional killing. This is the "imbalance-of-power hypothesis," which suggests that coalitional killing is the expression of a drive for dominance over neighbors. Two conditions are proposed to be both necessary and sufficient to account for coalitional killing of neighbors: (1) a state of intergroup hostility; (2) sufficient imbalances of power between parties that one party can attack the other with impunity. Under these conditions, it is suggested, selection favors the tendency to hunt and kill rivals when the costs are sufficiently low. The imbalance-of-power hypothesis has been criticized on a variety of empirical and theoretical grounds which are discussed. To be further tested, studies of the proximate determinants of aggression are needed. However, current evidence supports the hypothesis that selection has favored a hunt-and-kill propensity in chimpanzees and humans, and that coalitional killing has a long history in the evolution of both species. PMID:10601982

  20. Redshifts and Killing Vectors

    Harvey, A; Surowitz, E J; Harvey, Alex; Schucking, Engelbert L.; Surowitz, Eugene J.

    2005-01-01

    Courses in introductory special and general relativity have increasingly become part of the curriculum for upper-level undergraduate physics majors and master's degree candidates. One of the topics rarely discussed is symmetry, particularly in the theory of general relativity. The principal tool for its study is the Killing vector. We provide an elementary introduction to the concept of a Killing vector field, its properties, and as an example of its utility apply these ideas to the rigorous determination of gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

  1. Killing tensors and canonical geometry

    The systematic derivation of constants of the motion, based on Killing tensors and the gauge covariant approach, is outlined. Quantum dots are shown to support second-, third- and fourth-rank Killing tensors. (paper)

  2. How microglia kill neurons.

    Brown, Guy C; Vilalta, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident brain macrophages that become inflammatory activated in most brain pathologies. Microglia normally protect neurons, but may accidentally kill neurons when attempting to limit infections or damage, and this may be more common with degenerative disease as there was no significant selection pressure on the aged brain in the past. A number of mechanisms by which activated microglia kill neurons have been identified, including: (i) stimulation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX) to produce superoxide and derivative oxidants, (ii) expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) producing NO and derivative oxidants, (iii) release of glutamate and glutaminase, (iv) release of TNFα, (v) release of cathepsin B, (vi) phagocytosis of stressed neurons, and (vii) decreased release of nutritive BDNF and IGF-1. PHOX stimulation contributes to microglial activation, but is not directly neurotoxic unless NO is present. NO is normally neuroprotective, but can react with superoxide to produce neurotoxic peroxynitrite, or in the presence of hypoxia inhibit mitochondrial respiration. Glutamate can be released by glia or neurons, but is neurotoxic only if the neurons are depolarised, for example as a result of mitochondrial inhibition. TNFα is normally neuroprotective, but can become toxic if caspase-8 or NF-κB activation are inhibited. If the above mechanisms do not kill neurons, they may still stress the neurons sufficiently to make them susceptible to phagocytosis by activated microglia. We review here whether microglial killing of neurons is an artefact, makes evolutionary sense or contributes in common neuropathologies and by what mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection. PMID:26341532

  3. "The Killing Fields" of Innovation

    Ingerslev, Karen

    2014-01-01

    clustering of ideas, a design strategy which seemed to kill unique ideas. The reframing of innovation as a radical endeavor killed learning from others for being not innovative. The findings of this paper supplement theories of deliberate killing of ideas by suggesting framing, design and facilitation of......, however, substantial amounts of relevant ideas got killed during opening phases, where the purpose of activities was framed as idea generation. These ideas were either verbally or silently killed, and some in rather contradicted ways: The design and facilitation of brain storming processes lead to...

  4. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spinc-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space

  5. Analysing the Wrongness of Killing

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth analysis of the wrongness of killing by comparing different versions of three influential views: the traditional view that killing is always wrong; the liberal view that killing is wrong if and only if the victim does not want to be killed; and Don Marquis‟ future...... of value account of the wrongness of killing. In particular, I illustrate the advantages that a basic version of the liberal view and a basic version of the future of value account have over competing alternatives. Still, ultimately none of the views analysed here are satisfactory; but the different...... reasons why those competing views fail provide important insights into the ethics of killing....

  6. Killing Symmetry on Finsler Manifold

    Ootsuka, Takayoshi; Ishida, Muneyuki

    2016-01-01

    Killing vector fields $K$ are defined on Finsler manifold. The Killing symmetry is reformulated simply as $\\delta K^\\flat =0$ by using the Killing non-linear 1-form $K^\\flat$ and the spray operator $\\delta$ with the Finsler non-linear connection. $K^\\flat$ is related to the generalization of Killing tensors on Finsler manifold, and the condition $\\delta K^\\flat =0$ gives an analytical method of finding higher derivative conserved quantities, which may be called hidden conserved quantities. We show two examples: the Carter constant on Kerr spacetime and the Runge-Lentz vectors in Newtonian gravity.

  7. Can a penny kill you?

    Hili, Alexander; Duca, Edward

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing urban legend suggests that a penny dropped from a great height, let's say the Empire State Building, kills. The penny should speed up and pass through a person's skull easily. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/can-a-penny-kill-you/

  8. How electroshock weapons kill!

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  9. Notes on super Killing tensors

    Howe, P. S.; Lindström, U.

    2016-03-01

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the even Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed.

  10. Notes on Super Killing Tensors

    Howe, P S

    2015-01-01

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed

  11. Phantom metrics with Killing spinors

    W.A. Sabra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study metric solutions of Einstein–anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1-dimensional space–time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  12. Azithromycin blocks quorum sensing and alginate polymer formation and increases the sensitivity to serum and stationary growth phase killing of P. aeruginosa and attenuates chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in Cftr -/--mice

    Hoffmann, N.; Lee, Bao le ri; Hentzer, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of O-acetylated alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are tolerance to both antibiotic treatments and effects on the innate and the adaptive defense mechanisms. In clinical trials, azithromycin (AZM) ...

  13. "Guns do not kill, people do!"

    Lemche, Niels Peter

    The Bible does not kill, but many people who have read the Bible (in their way) have killed, virtually or in real.......The Bible does not kill, but many people who have read the Bible (in their way) have killed, virtually or in real....

  14. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    2010-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  15. Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.

  16. Phagocyte roulette in Salmonella killing.

    Fenlon, Luke A; Slauch, James M

    2014-01-15

    Salmonella propagates in macrophages to cause life-threatening infections, but the role of neutrophils in combating Salmonella has been controversial. In this issue, Burton et al. (2014) use single cell analyses and modeling to explain the ability of Salmonella to survive in macrophages while being killed by neutrophils. PMID:24439894

  17. Phagocyte Roulette in Salmonella Killing

    Fenlon, Luke A.; Slauch, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella propagate in macrophages to cause life-threatening infections, but the role of neutrophils in combating Salmonella has been controversial. In this issue, Burton et al. (2013) use single cell analyses and modeling to explain the ability of Salmonella to survive in macrophages, while being killed by neutrophils.

  18. To Kill For An Image

    Fausing, Bent

    Images can provide both an overview and insight, but also the opposite. This ambivalence has become an even bigger part of the nature of the image, of what is an Image? Today we kill for an image, seen from afar on a screen and captured by a drone. The time also asks: Should it be big data...

  19. Spills on the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull

    The Arthur Kill between Staten Island, New York City, and New Jersey is a heavily industrialized corridor, the site of major petroleum refineries and chemical processing facilities. New York Harbor is a busy port, second largest in the U.S. on a tonnage basis. Six thousand vessels call on the port annually, including 1700 tankers. eighteen billion gallons of petroleum are delivered annually, of which 2/3 are handled on the Kills. In this interplay of wildlife, oil and marine based transfer operations, New York harbor COTP area experiences oil spills, releasing 250,000 average total annual volume. In the first three months of 1990 the volume of oil spilled approximately 750,000 gallons was released, threefold the annual average. The three major spills which caused this large release, and the governmental response, from the subject of this paper

  20. WOMEN'S RIGHTS VIOLATION: HONOUR KILLINGS

    CRISTINA OTOVESCU FRASIE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study I have presented the domestic violence concept and the situation regarding the observing of woman’s rights in Syria. We have also evidenced the juridical aspects regarding the honor killing directed against women after the modification of the article 548 from the Penal Code changed by the President al-Asad on July the 1st 2009. The data offered by NGOs have been of great help for the elaboration of the study as also the statistic data presented in Thara E-Magazine regarding the cities where had been done the honor killings and their number, the instrument of the murder, the age of the victim, and the motives for the murders. It must be noticed that, lately, the Government fought for the observing of the woman’s rights and promoted he gender equality by appointing women in leading positions, including the vice-president one.

  1. Surveying and Modeling Road Kill

    Lin, Shyh-Chyang

    2007-01-01

    Transportation is the backbone of developing regional economies and the evolution of our civilization. Well planned road systems are essential to connect dispersed communities or cities. However, roads are one of the major destructive forces to regional ecosystems and the natural environment. The effects of roads on their adjacent ecosystems may include road kills, habitat fragmentation, barrier effect to animal movement, road edge effects, introduction of exotic species, pollution and noise,...

  2. 24 Ways to Kill a Tree

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012

    2009-01-01

    Few residential trees die of old age. Mechanical damage and improper tree care kill more trees than any insects or diseases. This publication shows 24 ways to void making the tree-damaging mistake. Few of these items alone would kill a tree, but multiple problems will certainly stress, and could eventually kill, a tree.

  3. The Effect of Bacteriophage Preparations on Intracellular Killing of Bacteria by Phagocytes

    Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular killing of bacteria is one of the fundamental mechanisms against invading pathogens. Impaired intracellular killing of bacteria by phagocytes may be the reason of chronic infections and may be caused by antibiotics or substances that can be produced by some bacteria. Therefore, it was of great practical importance to examine whether phage preparations may influence the process of phagocyte intracellular killing of bacteria. It may be important especially in the case of patients qualified for experimental phage therapy (approximately half of the patients with chronic bacterial infections have their immunity impaired. Our analysis included 51 patients with chronic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections treated with phage preparations at the Phage Therapy Unit in Wroclaw. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of experimental phage therapy on intracellular killing of bacteria by patients’ peripheral blood monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. We observed that phage therapy does not reduce patients’ phagocytes’ ability to kill bacteria, and it does not affect the activity of phagocytes in patients with initially reduced ability to kill bacteria intracellularly. Our results suggest that experimental phage therapy has no significant adverse effects on the bactericidal properties of phagocytes, which confirms the safety of the therapy.

  4. Killing-Yano tensors and Nambu mechanics

    Killing-Yano tensors were introduced in 1952 by Kentaro-Yano from mathematical point of view. The physical interpretation of Killing-Yano tensors of rank higher than two was unclear. We found that all Killing-Yano tensors ηi1i2...in with covariant derivative zero are Nambu tensors. We found that in the case of flat space case all Killing-Yano tensors are Nambu tensors. In the case of Taub-NUT and Kerr-Newmann metric Killing-Yano tensors of order two generate Nambu tensors of rank 3

  5. Killing(-Yano) Tensors in String Theory

    Chervonyi, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    We construct the Killing(-Yano) tensors for a large class of charged black holes in higher dimensions and study general properties of such tensors, in particular, their behavior under string dualities. Killing(-Yano) tensors encode the symmetries beyond isometries, which lead to insights into dynamics of particles and fields on a given geometry by providing a set of conserved quantities. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the Killing tensor, we provide a prescription for constructing several conserved quantities starting from a single object, and we demonstrate that Killing tensors in higher dimensions are always associated with ellipsoidal coordinates. We also determine the transformations of the Killing(-Yano) tensors under string dualities, and find the unique modification of the Killing-Yano equation consistent with these symmetries. These results are used to construct the explicit form of the Killing(-Yano) tensors for the Myers-Perry black hole in arbitrary number of dimensions and for its charged version.

  6. WOMEN'S RIGHTS VIOLATION: HONOUR KILLINGS

    CRISTINA OTOVESCU FRASIE

    2011-01-01

    In this study I have presented the domestic violence concept and the situation regarding the observing of woman’s rights in Syria. We have also evidenced the juridical aspects regarding the honor killing directed against women after the modification of the article 548 from the Penal Code changed by the President al-Asad on July the 1st 2009. The data offered by NGOs have been of great help for the elaboration of the study as also the statistic data presented in Thara E-Magazine regarding the ...

  7. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  8. Fish Kills in Ireland in 1990

    Moriarty, C.

    1991-01-01

    The total of 52 fish kills in 1990 was a marked improvement over the previous year when 111 were reported. Although this result was no better than that for 1988, it represented a considerable achievement because 1988 experienced a wet summer with high water flows while 1990 was exceptionally dry. Because of the poor dilution of pollutants, low river flows are usually associated with an increase in the number of fish kills. All three traditional causes of fish kills, agriculture, industry a...

  9. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  10. Fish Kills in Ireland in 1989

    Moriarty, C.

    1990-01-01

    The final estimate for the number of fish kills in 1989 was 111. The increase in 1989 is largely accounted for by the exceptional warm weather conditions which prevailed. Details of all the incidents are given in the following pages. When these are analysed some very significant facts emerge. The number of fish kills while higher than in 1988 (50 kills) was about nine percent lower than in 1987 (122 kills). Low water due to dry weather conditions was the most important factor in 1989 raising ...

  11. Defects in the oxidative killing of microorganisms by phagocytic leukocytes.

    Roos, D; Weening, R S

    One of the most important mechanisms of phagocytic killing of ingested microorganisms by leukocytes is the generation of toxic oxygen products. During phagocytosis, neutrophils, as well as monocytes and macrophages, display a strongly increased cell respiration. Quantitatively the most important product of this reaction is hydrogen peroxide. Superoxide is also generated in large amounts, probably as an intermediate in the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Indications exist that singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals are also formed in this process. Some of these oxygen products have microbicidal properties by themselves. The effect of hydrogen peroxide is greatly enhanced by the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Several dysfunctions of this sytem are known. In chronic granulomatous disease the enzyme system that produces superoxide is not operative. Thus, no superoxide or hydrogen peroxide is generated, leading to a severely decreased bacterial killing capacity. The exact molecular defects in the X-linked and the autosomal form are as yet undefined. Two variants are also known: lipochrome histiocytosis, with different clinical and histological manifestations, and a 'triggering defect' where only strongly opsonized particles trigger the respiratory burst. Myeloperoxidase deficiency leads to slightly decreased killing capacity, especially for yeasts. In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency no oxygen radicals or hydrogen peroxide are produced because no equivalents for oxygen reduction can be generated in the hexose-monophosphate shunt. Deficiencies in the glutathione redox system also result in impaired phagocyte function, probably because the cells have to be protected against their own toxic oxygen products. PMID:225141

  12. Hypersurface homogeneous Killing spinor space–times

    I present a complete list of hypersurface homogeneous space–times admitting a non-null valence two Killing spinor, including a new class admitting only exceptional Killing tensors. A connection is established with the classification of locally rotationally symmetric or boost symmetric space–times. (paper)

  13. [Killing of cattle via electrical stunning].

    Maurer, B; Forster, S

    2007-04-01

    For disease control in the case of epidemics killing of cattle via electrical stunning is a method of choice. The official veterinarian is responsible for monitoring the adhesion to animal welfare principles during electrical stunning and killing. This requires specialised knowledge and experience as the symptoms of effective stunning are quite variable in cattle. Signs of effective and ineffective stunning are described below. In addition to suitable technical equipment, restraint of the animals and correct use of the equipment, neurophysiological processes have to be considered. Calm handling of the animals avoiding stress is a prerequisite for ensuring animal welfare and minimising pain especially when killing cattle using electrical methods. PMID:17484500

  14. A new combined assay of phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Escherichia coli by polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    A new combined radiometric assay is described in which adherence, and phagocytosis and killing of Escherichia coli by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) are simultaneously measured in the same sample. Pure monolayers of PMN in Petri dishes are allowed to ingest [14C]phenylalanine labelled E. coli and excess bacteria are removed by washing. A period of incubation allows intracellular killing to occur while polymyxin-B is added to half the dishes to kill extracellular bacteria. The remaining viable bacteria in all dishes are labelled with [3H]thymidine. The number of ingested bacteria and the percentage of intracellular organisms killed is determined from the 14C and 3H counts by a simple subtraction technique. By performing protein assays on representative monolayers, the number of PMN adhered in the monolayers and hence the mean bacterial uptake per PMN is estimated. The assay detected killing efficiencies reduced below the normal range, in monolayers treated with sodium azide, phenylbutazone, in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, and in immature neutrophils from the promyelocytic leukaemic cell line, HL60. The assay was adapted to measure phagocytosis and killing by cells in suspension. (Auth.)

  15. Killing superalgebras for Lorentzian four-manifolds

    de Medeiros, Paul; Santi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We determine the Killing superalgebras underpinning field theories with rigid unextended supersymmetry on Lorentzian four-manifolds by re-interpreting them as filtered deformations of $\\mathbb{Z}$-graded subalgebras with maximum odd dimension of the $N{=}1$ Poincar\\'e superalgebra in four dimensions. Part of this calculation involves computing a Spencer cohomology group which, by analogy with a similar result in eleven dimensions, prescribes a notion of Killing spinor, which we identify with the defining condition for bosonic supersymmetric backgrounds of minimal off-shell supergravity in four dimensions. We prove that such Killing spinors always generate a Lie superalgebra, and that this Lie superalgebra is a filtered deformation of a subalgebra of the $N{=}1$ Poincar\\'e superalgebra in four dimensions. Demanding the flatness of the connection defining the Killing spinors, we obtain equations satisfied by the maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We solve these equations, arriving at the classification of ma...

  16. The geometry of D=11 Killing spinors

    We propose a way to classify all supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity using the G-structures defined by the Killing spinors. We show that the most general bosonic geometries admitting a Killing spinor have at least a local SU(5) or an (Spin(7)lxR8)xR structure, depending on whether the Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is timelike or null, respectively. In the former case we determine what kind of local SU(5) structure is present and show that almost all of the form of the geometry is determined by the structure. We also deduce what further conditions must be imposed in order that the equations of motion are satisfied. We illustrate the formalism with some known solutions and also present some new solutions including a rotating generalisation of the resolved membrane solutions and generalisations of the recently constructed D=11 Godel solution. (author)

  17. Honor Killing in Pakistan: An Islamic Perspective

    Niaz Muhammad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Republic of Pakistan is considered as one of the most dangerous and unsafe country for women in the world, because of the increasing rate of crimes against women in the shape of honor killing and honor related violence. Which are known as assaults committed against women for what is considered immoral behavior. Some researchers and Islamic scholars links act of honor killing with Islam, they tried to justify this crime with some general sayings of Prophet Peace be upon him. In this paper the issue of honor killing has examined in the light of fundamental resources of Islam i.e Quran (the Saying of Allah and Hadees (The Saying of Prophet Muhammad SAH to clarify the true guidance of Islam in such cases. The claim of some researchers that honor killing get encouragement from Islamic Guidance has also been examined through Primary and Secondary Sources of Islam. Effort is made to bring forth the correct Islamic teachings.

  18. Homefucking is Killing Prostitution / Taavi Eelmaa

    Eelmaa, Taavi, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Mis jääb vaatajale teatrietendusest meelde? Ilmus Kris Moori raamat "Homefucking is Killing Prostitution". Raamat sisaldab tekste ja Erki Lauri fotosid Von Krahli Teatri samanimelisest etendusest, mida kordagi ei mängitud

  19. Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion

    On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.

  20. Cryptococcus neoformans modulates extracellular killing by neutrophils

    Asfia eQureshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently established a key role for host sphingomyelin synthase (SMS in the regulation of the killing activity of neutrophils against Cryptococcus neoformans. In this work, we studied the effect of C. neoformans on the killing activity of neutrophils and whether SMS would still be a player against C. neoformans in immunocompromised mice lacking T and NK cells (Tgε26 mice. To this end, we analyzed whether C. neoformans would have any effect on neutrophil survival and killing in vitro and in vivo. We show that unlike C. albicans, neither the presence nor the capsule size of C. neoformans cells have any effect on neutrophil viability. Interestingly, melanized C. neoformans cells totally abrogated the killing activity of neutrophils. Next, we monitored how exposure of neutrophils to C. neoformans cells would interfere with any further killing activity of the medium and found that pre-incubation with live but not heat-killed fungal cells significantly inhibits further killing activity of the medium. We next studied whether activation of SMS at the site of C. neoformans infection is dependent on T and NK cells. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI tissue imaging in infected lung we found that similarly to previous observations in the isogenic wild type CBA/J mice, SM 16:0 levels are significantly elevated at the site of infection in mice lacking T and NK cells but only at early time points. This study highlights that C. neoformans may negatively regulate the killing activity of neutrophils and that SMS activation in neutrophils appears to be partially independent of T and/or NK cells.

  1. Killing Forms of Isotropic Lie Algebras

    Malagon, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for computing the Killing form of an isotropic Lie algebra defined over an arbitrary field based on the Killing form of a subalgebra containing its anisotropic kernel. This approach allows for streamlined formulas for many Lie algebras of types E6 and E7 and yields a unified formula for all Lie algebras of inner type E6, including the anisotropic ones.

  2. Teleparallel Killing Vectors of the Einstein Universe

    M. Sharif; Amir, M. Jamil

    2007-01-01

    In this short paper we establish the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the context of teleparallel theory of gravity and also extend it for a general tensor of rank $p+q$. This definition is then used to find Killing vectors of the Einstein universe. It turns out that Killing vectors of the Einstein universe in the teleparallel theory are the same as in General Relativity.

  3. Cell killing by avian leukosis viruses.

    Weller, S K; Temin, H M

    1981-01-01

    Infection of chicken cells with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus resulted in the detachment of killed cells from the culture dish. The detached, dead cells contained more unintegrated viral DNA than the attached cells. These results confirm the hypothesis that cell killing after infection with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus is associated with accumulation of large amounts of unintegrated viral DNA. No accumulation of large amounts of integrated viral DNA was found in cells infected with c...

  4. Killing transform on regular Dirichlet subspaces

    Li, Liping; Ying, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we shall consider the killing transform induced by a multiplicative functional on regular Dirichlet subspaces of a fixed Dirichlet form. Roughly speaking, a regular Dirichlet subspace is a closed subspace with Dirichlet and regular properties of fixed Dirichlet space. By using the killing transforms, our main results indicate that the big jump part of fixed Dirichlet form is not essential for discussing its regular Dirichlet subspaces. This fact is very similar to the status of...

  5. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature

  6. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-01

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  7. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    Groeger, Josua, E-mail: groegerj@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  8. Lie algebra of conformal Killing-Yano forms

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We provide a generalization of the Lie algebra of conformal Killing vector fields to conformal Killing-Yano forms. A new Lie bracket for conformal Killing-Yano forms that corresponds to slightly modified Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of differential forms is proposed. We show that conformal Killing-Yano forms satisfy a graded Lie algebra in constant curvature manifolds. It is also proven that normal conformal Killing-Yano forms in Einstein manifolds also satisfy a graded Lie algebra. The constructed graded Lie algebras reduce to the graded Lie algebra of Killing-Yano forms and the Lie algebras of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields in special cases.

  9. Chronic pancreatitis

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  10. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be...

  11. Generalized Killing equations for spinning spaces and the role of Killing-Yano tensors

    Visinescu, Mihai

    1996-01-01

    The generalized Killing equations for the configuration space of spinning particles (spinning space) are analysed. Solutions of these equations are expressed in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. In general the constants of motion can be seen as extensions of those from the scalar case or new ones depending on the Grassmann-valued spin variables.

  12. 75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  13. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  14. Strain ŽP - the first bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system.

    Starčič Erjavec, Marjanca; Petkovšek, Živa; Kuznetsova, Marina V; Maslennikova, Irina L; Žgur-Bertok, Darja

    2015-11-01

    As multidrug resistant bacteria pose one of the greatest risks to human health new alternative antibacterial agents are urgently needed. One possible mechanism that can be used as an alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy is transfer of killing agents via conjugation. Our work was aimed at providing a proof of principle that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems are possible. We constructed a bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system employing the well known Escherichia coli probiotic strain Nissle 1917 genetically modified to harbor a conjugative plasmid carrying the "kill" gene (colicin ColE7 activity gene) and a chromosomally encoded "anti-kill" gene (ColE7 immunity gene). The constructed strain acts as a donor in conjugal transfer and its efficiency was tested in several types of conjugal assays. Our results clearly demonstrate that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems can be highly efficient. PMID:26436830

  15. (Conformal) Killing vectors and their associated bivectors

    Fayos and Sopuerta have recently set up a formalism for studying vacuum spacetimes with an isometry, a formalism that is centred around the bivector corresponding to the Killing vector and that adapts the tetrad to the bivector. Steele has generalized their approach to include the homothetic case. Here, we generalize this formalism to arbitrary spacetimes and to homothetic and conformal Killing vectors but do not insist on aligning the tetrad with the bivector. The most efficient way to use the formalism to find conformal Killing vectors (proper or not) of a given spacetime is to combine it with the notion of a preferred tetrad. A metric by Kimura is used as an illustrative example

  16. Honor Killing in Pakistan: An Islamic Perspective

    Niaz Muhammad; Mufti. Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed; Abdullah Abdullah; Fazle Omer; Naqeeb Hussain Shah

    2012-01-01

    Islamic Republic of Pakistan is considered as one of the most dangerous and unsafe country for women in the world, because of the increasing rate of crimes against women in the shape of honor killing and honor related violence. Which are known as assaults committed against women for what is considered immoral behavior. Some researchers and Islamic scholars links act of honor killing with Islam, they tried to justify this crime with some general sayings of Prophet Peace be upon him. In this pa...

  17. On the algebraic structure of Killing superalgebras

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2016-01-01

    We study the algebraic structure of the Killing superalgebra of a supersymmetric $11$-dimensional supergravity background and show that it is isomorphic to a filtered deformation of a $\\mathbb Z$-graded subalgebra of the Poincar\\'e superalgebra. We then re-interpret the classification problem for backgrounds which preserve more than half of the supersymmetry as the classification problem of certain admissible filtered subdeformations of the Poincar\\'e superalgebra. In particular we relate the bosonic field equations of $11$-dimensional supergravity to the Jacobi identity of the Killing superalgebra and show in this way that preserving more than half the supersymmetry implies the bosonic field equations.

  18. Chronic Diarrhea

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  19. An in vitro model of antibody-enhanced killing of the intracellular parasite Leishmania amazonensis.

    Katherine N Gibson-Corley

    Full Text Available Footpad infection of C3HeB/FeJ mice with Leishmania amazonensis leads to chronic lesions accompanied by large parasite loads. Co-infecting these animals with L. major leads to induction of an effective Th1 immune response that can resolve these lesions. This cross-protection can be recapitulated in vitro by using immune cells from L. major-infected animals to effectively activate L. amazonensis-infected macrophages to kill the parasite. We have shown previously that the B cell population and their IgG2a antibodies are required for effective cross-protection. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to L. major, killing L. amazonensis parasites is dependent upon FcRγ common-chain and NADPH oxidase-generated superoxide from infected macrophages. Superoxide production coincided with killing of L. amazonensis at five days post-activation, suggesting that opsonization of the parasites was not a likely mechanism of the antibody response. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that non-specific immune complexes could provide a mechanism of FcRγ common-chain/NADPH oxidase dependent parasite killing. Macrophage activation in response to soluble IgG2a immune complexes, IFN-γ and parasite antigen was effective in significantly reducing the percentage of macrophages infected with L. amazonensis. These results define a host protection mechanism effective during Leishmania infection and demonstrate for the first time a novel means by which IgG antibodies can enhance killing of an intracellular pathogen.

  20. Two independent killing mechanisms of Candida albicans by human neutrophils: evidence from innate immunity defects.

    Gazendam, Roel P; van Hamme, John L; Tool, Anton T J; van Houdt, Michel; Verkuijlen, Paul J J H; Herbst, Martin; Liese, Johannes G; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2014-07-24

    Invasive fungal infections, accompanied by high rates of mortality, represent an increasing problem in medicine. Neutrophils are the major effector immune cells in fungal killing. Based on studies with neutrophils from patients with defined genetic defects, we provide evidence that human neutrophils use 2 distinct and independent phagolysosomal mechanisms to kill Candida albicans. The first mechanism for the killing of unopsonized C albicans was found to be dependent on complement receptor 3 (CR3) and the signaling proteins phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9), but was independent of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. The second mechanism for the killing of opsonized C albicans was strictly dependent on Fcγ receptors, protein kinase C (PKC), and reactive oxygen species production by the NADPH oxidase system. Each of the 2 pathways of Candida killing required Syk tyrosine kinase activity, but dectin-1 was dispensable for both of them. These data provide an explanation for the variable clinical presentation of fungal infection in patients suffering from different immune defects, including dectin-1 deficiency, CARD9 deficiency, or chronic granulomatous disease. PMID:24948657

  1. Gas Well Blowout Kills 243 People

    2003-01-01

    @@ At least 243 people have been killed and scores of others poisoned in a devastating blowout at a natural gas field in Southwest China's Chongqing municipality on December 24. The accident happened at the Chuandongbei gas field in Kaixian county of Chongqing municipality.

  2. The evolution of reduced microbial killing.

    Vriezen, Jan A C; Valliere, Michael; Riley, Margaret A

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria engage in a never-ending arms race in which they compete for limited resources and niche space. The outcome of this intense interaction is the evolution of a powerful arsenal of biological weapons. Perhaps the most studied of these are colicins, plasmid-based toxins produced by and active against Escherichia coli. The present study was designed to explore the molecular responses of a colicin-producing strain during serial transfer evolution. What evolutionary changes occur when colicins are produced with no target present? Can killing ability be maintained in the absence of a target? To address these, and other, questions, colicinogenic strains and a noncolicinogenic ancestor were evolved for 253 generations. Samples were taken throughout the experiment and tested for killing ability. By the 38th transfer, a decreased killing ability and an increase in fitness were observed in the colicin-producing strains. Surprisingly, DNA sequence determination of the colicin plasmids revealed no changes in plasmid sequences. However, a set of chromosomally encoded loci experienced changes in gene expression that were positively associated with the reduction in killing. The most significant expression changes were observed in DNA repair genes (which were downregulated in the evolved strains), Mg ion uptake genes (which were upregulated), and late prophage genes (which were upregulated). These results indicate a fine-tuned response to the evolutionary pressures of colicin production, with far more genes involved than had been anticipated. PMID:20333208

  3. Killing Spinors and Related Symmetries in Six Dimensions

    Batista, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Benefiting from the index spinorial formalism, the Killing spinor equation is integrated in six-dimensional spacetimes. The integrability conditions for the existence of a Killing spinor are worked out and the Killing spinors are classified in two algebraic types, in the first type the scalar curvature of the spacetime must be negative, while in the second type the spacetime must be an Einstein manifold. In addition, the equations that define Killing-Yano (KY) and closed conformal Killing-Yano (CCKY) tensors are expressed in the index notation and, as consequence, all non-vanishing KY and CCKY tensors that can be generated from a Killing spinor are made explicit.

  4. Killing spinors and related symmetries in six dimensions

    Batista, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Benefiting from the index spinorial formalism, the Killing spinor equation is integrated in six-dimensional spacetimes. The integrability conditions for the existence of a Killing spinor are worked out and the Killing spinors are classified into two algebraic types; in the first type the scalar curvature of the spacetime must be negative, while in the second type the spacetime must be an Einstein manifold. In addition, the equations that define Killing-Yano (KY) and closed conformal Killing-Yano (CCKY) tensors are expressed in the index notation and, as consequence, all nonvanishing KY and CCKY tensors that can be generated from a Killing spinor are made explicit.

  5. Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion; Dirac-Operatoren und Killing-Spinoren mit Torsion

    Becker-Bender, Julia

    2012-12-17

    On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.

  6. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six

  7. Heterotic supergravity on manifolds with Killing spinors

    The present work deals with the construction of heterotic string backgrounds on manifolds with real Killing spinors. The latter have played an important role in string theory for a long time, mainly due to Baer's correspondence between Killing spinors on a manifold M and parallel spinors on the cone over M. Given the fact that parallel spinors always lead to exact supergravity BPS backgrounds, it implies that the cone admits a solution of the BPS equations. Furthermore, in type II string theory and in M-theory it is possible to place a brane at the tip of the cone, in appropriate dimensions, and the resulting supergravity solutions are exactly known. In the limit far away from the brane they converge to the empty space solution, whereas in the near horizon limit one obtains a so-called Freund-Rubin solutions, consisting of an anti-de Sitter space times our base manifold M. In heterotic supergravity on the other hand two types of brane-like solutions are known; the NS5-brane, consisting of an R4-factor with fluxes and a transverse 6-dimensional Minkowski space, and what is sometimes called the gauge solitonic branes. These come equipped with an instanton gauge field on some Euclidean space Rp, which carries further non-vanishing fluxes, and again a transverse (10-p)-dimensional Minkowski space. The possible values for p that appeared in the literature so far are p=4, 7 and 8, and the corresponding instantons are the famous BPST and octonionic instantons. Manifolds with real Killing spinors have been classified: besides the round spheres they are either 6-dimensional nearly Kaehler, 7-dimensional nearly parallel G2, Sasaki-Einstein, or 3-Sasakian. I present a generalization of the gauge solitonic branes to the cone over any real Killing spinor manifold, based upon this classification. In particular, this involves the construction of instantons on the cone. Additionally, I show that for homogeneous manifolds with real Killing spinors there is a solution similar to the

  8. The Calabi complex and Killing sheaf cohomology

    Khavkine, Igor

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been noticed that the degeneracies of the Poisson bracket of linearized gravity on constant curvature Lorentzian manifold can be described in terms of the cohomologies of a certain complex of differential operators. This complex was first introduced by Calabi and its cohomology is known to be isomorphic to that of the (locally constant) sheaf of Killing vectors. We review the structure of the Calabi complex in a novel way, with explicit calculations based on representation theory of GL(n), and also some tools for studying its cohomology in terms of of locally constant sheaves. We also conjecture how these tools would adapt to linearized gravity on other backgrounds and to other gauge theories. The presentation includes explicit formulas for the differential operators in the Calabi complex, arguments for its local exactness, discussion of generalized Poincar\\'e duality, methods of computing the cohomology of locally constant sheaves, and example calculations of Killing sheaf cohomologies of som...

  9. Amphibian road kills: a global perspective

    Puky, Miklós

    2005-01-01

    Transportation infrastructure is a major factor determining land use forms. As global changes in this factor are the most important for biodiversity, roads fundamentally influence wildlife. The effect of roads on wildlife has been categorized in several ways resulting in six to ten categories with road kill as an obvious and important component, and amphibians are greatly affected by this factor. As this animal group has been documented to decline from multiple threats worldwide, the study an...

  10. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important fir...

  11. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  12. Killing Vector Fields of Standard Static Space-times

    Dobarro, Fernando; Unal, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    We consider Killing vector fields on standard static space-times and obtain equations for a vector field on a standard static space-time to be Killing. We also provide a characterization of Killing vector fields on standard static space-times with compact Riemannian parts.

  13. It's not just conflict that motivates killing of orangutans.

    Jacqueline T Davis

    Full Text Available We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI. These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed.

  14. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  15. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine,...

  16. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  17. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper...

  18. Surface gravities for non-Killing horizons

    There are many logically and computationally distinct characterizations of the surface gravity of a horizon, just as there are many logically rather distinct notions of horizon. Fortunately, in standard general relativity, for stationary horizons, these characterizations are degenerate. However, in modified gravity, or in analogue spacetimes, horizons may be non-Killing or even non-null, and hence these degeneracies can be lifted. We present a brief overview of the key issues, specifically focusing on horizons in analogue spacetimes and universal horizons in modified gravity. (paper)

  19. Low Temperature Plasma Kills SCaBER Cancer Cells

    Barekzi, Nazir; van Way, Lucas; Laroussi, Mounir

    2013-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare type of bladder cancer that forms as a result of chronic irritation of the epithelial lining of the bladder. The cell line used in this study is SCaBER (ATCC® HTB-3™) derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the human urinary bladder. Current treatments of bladder cancer include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, the cost of these treatments, the potential toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents and the systemic side-effects warrant an alternative to current cancer treatment. This paper represents preliminary studies to determine the effects of biologically tolerant plasma (BTP) on a cell line of human bladder cancer cells. Previous work by our group using the plasma pencil revealed the efficacy of BTP on leukemia cells suspended in solution. Based on these earlier findings we hypothesized that the plasma exposure would elicit a similar programmed cell death in the SCaBER cells. Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays revealed the cell killing after exposure to BTP. Our study indicates that low temperature plasma generated by ionizing helium gas and the reactive species may be a suitable and safe alternative for cancer therapy.

  20. The 1990 Arthur Kill oil spills

    On January 1-2, 1990, Exxon discharged 567,000 gallons of No. 2 heating oil in the Arthur Kill, the strait separating Staten Island, New York from New Jersey. Lawsuits against Exxon were filed by the State of New Jersey, New York City, and the City of Elizabeth. They seek to force Exxon to reimburse the municipalities and the state for cleanup costs and to restore damaged wetlands and other natural resources. The three plaintiffs, joined by New York State and the federal government, initiated a three-tiered natural resource damage assessment study (Tier II), currently underway, includes sampling and chemical analysis of sediments and benthic invertebrates, mapping of impacted wetlands and measurement of direct impacts on water birds and their prey. The purposes of the study are to quantify the damages and determine the presence of Exxon's oil in the sediments. Since the Exxon spill, there have been two major spills and an intermediate-size spill. During the first size months of 1990, over one million gallons of petroleum products have been discharged into the Arthur Kill and nearby waters. This paper reports that a review of these incidents provides lessons for the prevention, investigation, and cleanup of spills in urban estuaries

  1. Non-Monotonic Survival of Staphylococcus aureus with Respect to Ciprofloxacin Concentration Arises from Prophage-Dependent Killing of Persisters

    Elizabeth L. Sandvik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious pathogen with a propensity to cause chronic, non-healing wounds. Bacterial persisters have been implicated in the recalcitrance of S. aureus infections, and this motivated us to examine the persistence of S. aureus to ciprofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic. Upon treatment of exponential phase S. aureus with ciprofloxacin, we observed that survival was a non-monotonic function of ciprofloxacin concentration. Maximal killing occurred at 1 µg/mL ciprofloxacin, which corresponded to survival that was up to ~40-fold lower than that obtained with concentrations ≥ 5 µg/mL. Investigation of this phenomenon revealed that the non-monotonic response was associated with prophage induction, which facilitated killing of S. aureus persisters. Elimination of prophage induction with tetracycline was found to prevent cell lysis and persister killing. We anticipate that these findings may be useful for the design of quinolone treatments.

  2. Heterosigma bloom and associated fish kill

    Hershberger, P.K.; Rensel, J.E.; Postel, J.R.; Taub, F.B.

    1997-01-01

    A bloom of the harmful marine phytoplankton, Heterosigma carterae occurred in upper Case Inlet, south Puget Sound, Washington in late September, 1994, correlating with the presence of at least 35 dead salmon. This marks the first time that this alga has been closely correlated with a wild fish kill; in the past it was thought to be associated with kills of penned fish at fish farms only. We were informed of the presence of a possible harmful algal bloom and dead salinois Ilear the town of Allyn on 27 September and a team was formed to investigate. We arrived at the Allyn waterfront at 17:30 hours the same day. Prior to our arrival, state agency personnel walked approximatcly two miles of shoreline from the powerlines north of the dock, to the mouth of Sherwood Creek and conducted the only official count of dead fish present along the shore consisting of 12 coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), 11 chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), 12 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), one flat fish, and one sculpin on the morning of 9/27. Since previous harmful blooms of Heterosigma have resultedin the majority of net penreared salmon sinking to the bottom of pens, and only approximately two miles of shoreline were sampled, it is suspected that many more exposed fish may have succumbed than were counted. Witnesses who explored the east side of the bay reported seeing many dead salmon there as well, but no counts were made. State agency personnel who observed the fish kill reported seeing “dying fish coming to the beach, gulping at the surface, trying to get out of the water” Scavengers were seen consuming the salmon carcasses; these included two harbor seals, a house cat, and Hymenopteran insects. None suffered any noticeable acute ill effects. Although precise cause of death has not been ascertained, visual inspection of the reproductive organs from a deceased male chum salmon found on the shore at Allyn confirmed that the fish was not yet reproductively mature and

  3. Using Chemoattractants to Lure Bacteria to Contact-Killing Surfaces.

    Jain, Rishabh; Faith, Nancy G; Milkowski, Andrew; Nelson, Kevin; Busche, David; Lynn, David M; Czuprynski, Charles J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial surfaces with covalently attached biocidal functionalities only kill microbes that come into direct contact with the surfaces (contact-killing surfaces). Herein, the activity of contact-killing surfaces is shown to be enhanced by using gradients in the concentration of soluble chemoattractants (CAs) to attract bacteria to the surfaces. Two natural and nonbiocidal CAs (aspartate and glucose) were used to attract bacteria to model surfaces decorated with quaternary ammonium groups (known to kill bacteria that come into contact with them). These results demonstrate the killing of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, two common pathogens, at levels 10- to 20-times greater than that of the native surfaces alone. This approach is general and provides new strategies for the design of active or dynamic contact-killing surfaces with enhanced antimicrobial activities. PMID:27059788

  4. Black hole spacetimes with Killing-Yano symmetries

    Kubiznak, David

    2009-01-01

    We present a brief overview of black hole spacetimes admitting Killing-Yano tensors. In vacuum these include Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics and certain black brane solutions. In the presence of matter fields, (conformal) Killing-Yano symmetries are known to exist for the Plebanski-Demianski solution and (trivially) for any spacetime with spherical symmetry. Special attention is devoted to generalized Killing-Yano tensors of black holes in minimal gauged supergravity. Several aspects directly related ...

  5. Why Are Bad Products So Hard to Kill?

    Duncan Simester; Juanjuan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    It is puzzling that firms often continue to invest in product development projects when they should know that demand will be low. We argue that bad products are hard to kill because firms face an inherent conflict when designing managers' incentives. Rewarding success encourages managers to forge ahead even when demand is low. To avoid investing in low-demand products, the firm must also reward decisions to kill products. However, rewarding managers for killing products effectively undermines...

  6. f(R)-gravity from Killing tensors

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2016-04-01

    We consider f(R)-gravity in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime with zero spatial curvature. We apply the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to specify the functional form of f(R) and for the field equations to be invariant under Lie-Bäcklund transformations, which are linear in momentum (contact symmetries). Consequently, the field equations to admit quadratic conservation laws given by Noether’s theorem. We find three new integrable f(R)-models, for which, with the application of the conservation laws, we reduce the field equations to a system of two first-order ordinary differential equations. For each model we study the evolution of the cosmological fluid. We find that for each integrable model the cosmological fluid has an equation of state parameter, in which there is linear behavior in terms of the scale factor which describes the Chevallier, Polarski and Linder parametric dark energy model.

  7. Geometry of Killing spinors in neutral signature

    Klemm, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We classify the supersymmetric solutions of minimal $N=2$ gauged supergravity in four dimensions with neutral signature. They are distinguished according to the sign of the cosmological constant and whether the vector field constructed as a bilinear of the Killing spinor is null or non-null. In neutral signature the bilinear vector field can be spacelike, which is a new feature not arising in Lorentzian signature. In the $\\Lambda0$ non-null case, the manifold is a fibration over a Lorentzian Gauduchon-Tod base space. Finally, in the $\\Lambda>0$ null class, the metric is contained in the Kundt family, and it turns out that the holonomy is reduced to ${\\rm Sim}(1)\\times{\\rm Sim}(1)$. There appear no self-dual solutions in the null class for either sign of the cosmological constant.

  8. Self-forces from generalized Killing fields

    A non-perturbative formalism is developed that simplifies the understanding of self-forces and self-torques acting on extended scalar charges in curved spacetimes. Laws of motion are locally derived using momenta generated by a set of generalized Killing fields. Self-interactions that may be interpreted as arising from the details of a body's internal structure are shown to have very simple geometric and physical interpretations. Certain modifications to the usual definition for a center-of-mass are identified that significantly simplify the motions of charges with strong self-fields. A derivation is also provided for a generalized form of the Detweiler-Whiting axiom that pointlike charges should react only to the so-called regular component of their self-field. Standard results are shown to be recovered for sufficiently small charge distributions

  9. Killing spinors as a characterisation of rotating black hole spacetimes

    Cole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the implications of the existence of Killing spinors in a spacetime. In particular, we show that in vacuum and electrovacuum a Killing spinor, along with some assumptions on the associated Killing vector in an asymptotic region, guarantees that the spacetime is locally isometric to the Kerr or Kerr-Newman solutions. We show that the characterisation of these spacetimes in terms of Killing spinors is an alternative expression of characterisation results of Mars (Kerr) and Wong (Kerr-Newman) involving restrictions on the Weyl curvature and matter content.

  10. Killing spinors as a characterisation of rotating black hole spacetimes

    Cole, Michael J.; Valiente Kroon, Juan A.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the implications of the existence of Killing spinors in a spacetime. In particular, we show that in vacuum and electrovacuum a Killing spinor, along with some assumptions on the associated Killing vector in an asymptotic region, guarantees that the spacetime is locally isometric to the Kerr or Kerr–Newman solutions. We show that the characterisation of these spacetimes in terms of Killing spinors is an alternative expression of characterisation results of Mars (Kerr) and Wong (Kerr–Newman) involving restrictions on the Weyl curvature and matter content.

  11. Killing forms and toric Sasaki-Einstein spaces

    The construction of the special Killing forms on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds is presented. This goal is achieved using the interplay between complex coordinates of the Calabi-Yau metric cone and the special Killing forms on the toric Sasaki-Einstein space. As a concrete example, we present the complete set of special Killing forms on the five-dimensional Einstein-Sasaki Yp,q spaces. It is pointed out the existence of two additional special Killing forms associated with the complex holomorphic volume form of Calabi-Yau cone manifold

  12. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  13. Actinomyces in chronic granulomatous disease: an emerging and unanticipated pathogen

    Reichenbach, J.; Lopatin, U; Mahlaoui, N.; Beovic, B; Siler, U; Zbinden, R.; Seger, R.A.; Galmiche, L; Brousse, N; Kayal, S.; Güngör, T; Blanche, S; Holland, S M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system that causes defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life-threatening infections, mostly by catalase-producing organisms. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, chronic infections with Actinomyces species in 10 patients with CGD. Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous condition that commonly manifests as cerv...

  14. Understanding carnivore killing behaviour: Exploring the motivations for tiger killing in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh

    MacMillan, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores village-based tiger killing (TK) among communities bordering the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh. We find that TKs are not purely retaliatory in nature (i.e. a desire for retribution following livestock depredation or attacks on humans by tigers) and that previous negative experience of tigers is not the sole determinant of villagers’ acceptance of TK behaviour. Inter-related social-psychological factors (risk perceptions, beliefs about tigers, tolerance for tigers)...

  15. Investigating CTL mediated killing with a 3D cellular automaton.

    Frederik Graw

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs are important immune effectors against intra-cellular pathogens. These cells search for infected cells and kill them. Recently developed experimental methods in combination with mathematical models allow for the quantification of the efficacy of CTL killing in vivo and, hence, for the estimation of parameters that characterize the effect of CTL killing on the target cell populations. It is not known how these population-level parameters relate to single-cell properties. To address this question, we developed a three-dimensional cellular automaton model of the region of the spleen where CTL killing takes place. The cellular automaton model describes the movement of different cell populations and their interactions. Cell movement patterns in our cellular automaton model agree with observations from two-photon microscopy. We find that, despite the strong spatial nature of the kinetics in our cellular automaton model, the killing of target cells by CTLs can be described by a term which is linear in the target cell frequency and saturates with respect to the CTL levels. Further, we find that the parameters describing CTL killing on the population level are most strongly impacted by the time a CTL needs to kill a target cell. This suggests that the killing of target cells, rather than their localization, is the limiting step in CTL killing dynamics given reasonable frequencies of CTL. Our analysis identifies additional experimental directions which are of particular importance to interpret estimates of killing rates and could advance our quantitative understanding of CTL killing.

  16. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: rapid killing accompanying phagocytosis

    The kinetics of bactericidal activity of activated macrophages can be precisely described by a mathematical model in which phagocytosis, killing, digestion, and release of degraded bacterial material are considered to occur continuously. To gain a better understanding of these events, I have determined the period of time between first contact of bacteria with macrophages and the onset of killing. Activated rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated for various times up to 15 min with Listeria monocytogenes previously labeled with 3H-thymidine and the unassociated bacteria removed by two centrifugations through a density interface. Both cell-associated radioactivity and cell-associated viable bacteria, determined as colony forming units after sonication of the cell pellet, increased with time of incubation. However, the specific viability of these bacteria, expressed as the ratio of number of viable bacteria per unit radioactivity declined with time, as an approximate inverse exponential, after a lag period of 2.9 +/- 0.8 min. Evidence is given that other possible causes for this decline in specific viability, other than death of the bacteria, such as preferential ingestion of dead Listeria, clumping of bacteria, variations in autolytic activity, or release of Listericidins are unlikely. I conclude therefore that activated macrophages kill Listeria approximately 3 min after the cell and the bacterium first make contact

  17. Antibacterial activity of liposomal gentamicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a time-kill study.

    Rukholm, Gavin; Mugabe, Clement; Azghani, Ali O; Omri, Abdelwahab

    2006-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common and lethal genetic disorder with a carrier frequency of 1 in 29 Caucasians. Chronic respiratory infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with CF. Aminoglycoside antibiotics, including gentamicin, are highly effective against P. aeruginosa, but severe toxicity limits their use. One potential strategy for avoiding this problem is to encapsulate aminoglycosides in liposomes. In this study, we compared the bactericidal capacity of liposome-encapsulated gentamicin with that of free antibiotic against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. Liposome size, encapsulation efficiency and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the free and liposomal gentamicin against gentamicin-sensitive and -resistant strains of P. aeruginosa were determined. In vitro time-kill studies were performed using free and liposomal gentamicin at 1, 2 or 4 times the MICs. The average liposomal size was 426.25 +/- 13.56 nm, with a gentamicin encapsulation efficiency of 4.51 +/- 0.54%. The MICs for liposomal gentamicin were significantly lower than those of corresponding free gentamicin. In addition, the time-kill values for liposomal gentamicin were either equivalent to or better than those of the free antibiotic. In conclusion, our liposomal gentamicin formulation is a more potent antipseudomonal drug with an improved killing time and prolonged antimicrobial activity. PMID:16472992

  18. Design of targeted B cell killing agents.

    Alexey V Stepanov

    Full Text Available B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of both systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Autoreactive B cells not only produce autoantibodies, but also are capable to efficiently present specific autoantigens to T cells. Furthermore, B cells can secrete proinflammatory cytokines and amplify the vicious process of self-destruction. B cell-directed therapy is a potentially important approach for treatment of various autoimmune diseases. The depletion of B cells by anti-CD20/19 monoclonal antibody Retuximab® used in autoimmune diseases therapy leads to systemic side effects and should be significantly improved. In this study we designed a repertoire of genetically engineered B cell killers that specifically affected one kind of cells carrying a respective B cell receptor. We constructed immunotoxins (ITs, fused with c-myc epitope as a model targeting sequence, based on barnase, Pseudomonas toxin, Shiga-like toxin E.coli and Fc domain of human antibody IgGγ1. C-MYC hybridoma cell line producing anti-c-myc IgG was chosen as a model for targeted cell depletion. C-myc sequence fused with toxins provided addressed delivery of the toxic agent to the target cells. We demonstrated functional activity of designed ITs in vitro and showed recognition of the fusion molecules by antibodies produced by targeted hybridoma. To study specificity of the proposed B cells killing molecules, we tested a set of created ITs ex vivo, using C-MYC and irrelevant hybridoma cell lines. Pseudomonas-containing IT showed one of the highest cytotoxic effects on the model cells, however, possessed promiscuous specificity. Shiga-like toxin construct demonstrated mild both cytotoxicity and specificity. Barnase and Fc-containing ITs revealed excellent balance between their legibility and toxic properties. Moreover, barnase and Fc molecules fused with c-myc epitope were able to selectively deplete c-myc-specific B cells and decrease production of anti

  19. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli

    Klemm, P.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren

    1995-01-01

    of time. Similar results were obtained with a strain in which the killing cassette was inserted in the chromosome. In competition with noncontained cells during growth, the contained cells are always outcompeted. Stochastic killing obtained by the fim-gef fusion is at present relevant only as a...

  20. Null conformal Killing-Yano tensors and Birkhoff theorem

    Ferrando, Joan Josep

    2015-01-01

    We study the space-times admitting a null conformal Killing-Yano tensor whose divergence defines a Killing vector. We analyze the similitudes and differences with the recently studied non null case (Gen. Relativ. Grav. (2015) {\\bf 47} 1911). The results by Barnes concerning the Birkhoff theorem for the case of null orbits are analyzed and generalized.

  1. Null conformal Killing-Yano tensors and Birkhoff theorem

    Ferrando, Joan Josep; Sáez, Juan Antonio

    2016-04-01

    We study the space-times admitting a null conformal Killing-Yano tensor whose divergence defines a Killing vector. We analyze the similarities and differences with the recently studied non null case (Ferrando and Sáez in Gen Relativ Gravit 47:1911, 2015). The results by Barnes concerning the Birkhoff theorem for the case of null orbits are analyzed and generalized.

  2. Generalized Killing equations and Taub-NUT spinning space

    Vaman, Diana; Visinescu, Mihai

    1996-01-01

    The generalized Killing equations for the configuration space of spinning particles (spinning space) are analysed. Simple solutions of the homogeneous part of these equations are expressed in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. The general results are applied to the case of the four-dimensional euclidean Taub-NUT manifold.

  3. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  4. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  5. Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines

    Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

  6. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  7. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  8. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  9. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  10. Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

  11. Otters Lutra lutra killing Mountain Hares Lepus timidus

    Conroy J.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available During the winter, otter Lutra lutra were found to kill mountain hares Lepus timidus in the Scottish highlands. The possible method of killing is discussed. Hares and other mammals are an important part of otter' diet during winter.

  12. Killing of Bacteria by Copper Surfaces Involves Dissolved Copper▿

    Molteni, Cristina; Abicht, Helge K.; Solioz, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria are rapidly killed on copper surfaces. However, the mechanism of this process remains unclear. Using Enterococcus hirae, the effect of inactivation of copper homeostatic genes and of medium compositions on survival and copper dissolution was tested. The results support a role for dissolved copper ions in killing.

  13. Staphylococcus epidermidis strategies to avoid killing by human neutrophils.

    Gordon Y C Cheung

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading nosocomial pathogen. In contrast to its more aggressive relative S. aureus, it causes chronic rather than acute infections. In highly virulent S. aureus, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs contribute significantly to immune evasion and aggressive virulence by their strong ability to lyse human neutrophils. Members of the PSM family are also produced by S. epidermidis, but their role in immune evasion is not known. Notably, strong cytolytic capacity of S. epidermidis PSMs would be at odds with the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus, prompting us to examine the biological activities of S. epidermidis PSMs. Surprisingly, we found that S. epidermidis has the capacity to produce PSMδ, a potent leukocyte toxin, representing the first potent cytolysin to be identified in that pathogen. However, production of strongly cytolytic PSMs was low in S. epidermidis, explaining its low cytolytic potency. Interestingly, the different approaches of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to causing human disease are thus reflected by the adaptation of biological activities within one family of virulence determinants, the PSMs. Nevertheless, S. epidermidis has the capacity to evade neutrophil killing, a phenomenon we found is partly mediated by resistance mechanisms to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, including the protease SepA, which degrades AMPs, and the AMP sensor/resistance regulator, Aps (GraRS. These findings establish a significant function of SepA and Aps in S. epidermidis immune evasion and explain in part why S. epidermidis may evade elimination by innate host defense despite the lack of cytolytic toxin expression. Our study shows that the strategy of S. epidermidis to evade elimination by human neutrophils is characterized by a passive defense approach and provides molecular evidence to support the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus.

  14. Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus

    Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

    2012-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

  15. f(R)-gravity from Killing Tensors

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2015-01-01

    We consider $f\\left( R\\right) $-gravity in a Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker spacetime with zero spatial curvature. We apply the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to specify the functional form of $f\\left( R\\right) $ and the field equations to be invariant under Lie-B\\"{a}cklund transformations which are linear in the momentum (contact symmetries). Consequently, the field equations to admit quadratic conservation laws given by Noether's Theorem. We find three new integrable $f\\left( R\\right) $ models, for which with the application of the conservation laws we reduce the field equations to a system of two first-order ordinary differential equations. For each model we study the evolution of the cosmological fluid. Where we find that for the one integrable model the cosmological fluid has an equation of state parameter, in which in the latter there is a linear behavior in terms of the scale factor which describes the CPL parametric dark energy model.

  16. Boromycin Kills Mycobacterial Persisters without Detectable Resistance

    Moreira, Wilfried; Aziz, Dinah B.; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Boromycin is a boron-containing polyether macrolide antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It was shown to be active against Gram positive bacteria and to act as an ionophore for potassium ions. The antibiotic is ineffective against Gram negative bacteria where the outer membrane appears to block access of the molecule to the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we asked whether boromycin is active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis which, similar to Gram negative bacteria, possesses an outer membrane. The results show that boromycin is a potent inhibitor of mycobacterial growth (MIC50 = 80 nM) with strong bactericidal activity against growing and non-growing drug tolerant persister bacilli. Exposure to boromycin resulted in a rapid loss of membrane potential, reduction of the intracellular ATP level and leakage of cytoplasmic protein. Consistent with boromycin acting as a potassium ionophore, addition of KCl to the medium blocked its antimycobacterial activity. In contrast to the potent antimycobacterial activities of the polyether macrolide, its cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity were low (CC50 = 30 μM, HC50 = 40 μM) with a selectivity index of more than 300. Spontaneous resistant mutants could not be isolated suggesting a mutation frequency of less than 10-9/CFU. Taken together, the results suggests that targeting mycobacterial transmembrane ion gradients may be an attractive chemotherapeutic intervention level to kill otherwise drug tolerant persister bacilli, and to slow down the development of genetic antibiotic resistance. PMID:26941723

  17. Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans

    Lovato James

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22. Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88 after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size.

  18. [Time point and methods for emergency killing in cattle].

    Khol, J L; Schafbauer, T; Wittek, T

    2016-02-16

    Emergency killing is defined as the killing of injured or ill animals to avoid excessive pain or harm. Decision-making for emergency killing or a prolonged therapy can be difficult and has to be based on the case history and results of the clinical examination contributing to the prognosis, particularly in downer cows. Evaluation of enzyme activities and total bilirubin can be used as additional factors pointing to a guarded prognosis; however, none of these parameters provides a clear cut-off value indicating a poor prognosis and mandatory emergency killing. Euthanasia by intravenous drug application is seen as the least stressful method of killing and should therefore always be the first method of choice for emergency killing in cattle. Drugs containing pentobarbital as well as a combination of three different drugs (T61®-Injektionslösung, MSD Animal Health) are available for euthanasia in cattle. All drugs must be administered by a veterinarian. Before application of pentobarbital, an animal should be deeply sedated. The administration of T61® requires anaesthesia of the animal and it is not licensed for use in pregnant animals. Alternative methods for emeragency killing, including captive bolt stunning and the use of firearms, although not regularly performed by veterinarians, should be assessed concerning their correct application and performance. When captive bolt stunning or emergency killing using firearms is performed, the correct position of the device is crucial as well as a quick exsanguination or the application of a pithing rod for the actual killing of the animal after captive bolt stunning. In addition to medical considerations, economic and personal factors contribute to the decision about emergency killing in cattle. Therefore, veterinarians should aim to evaluate each case thoroughly based on personal knowledge and experience, case history, clinical findings and laboratory parameters to avoid prolonged suffering of the animal. PMID:26830543

  19. Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age

    Jeremy Biles; Brian Collins

    2012-01-01

    Most readers will recall the 1996 tragedy in which six-year-old beauty-pageant princess JonBenét Ramsey was found bound, gagged, and strangled in the basement of her parents’ home, inciting an orgy of media coverage. What readers may not know is that John Mark Karr—the imminently creepy individual who falsely confessed to the killing, and whose sordid past includes an arrest for possession of child pornography—has continued to make news as an alleged cyberstalker and would-be cult leader. Thi...

  20. Chronic Bronchitis

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  1. Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption

    Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the

  2. Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct

  3. Potassium channels mediate killing by human natural killer cells

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, the authors found a voltage-dependent potassium (K+) current in NK cells. The K+ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd2+. They tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard 51Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd2+, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K+ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na= current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K+ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. The findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process

  4. Chronic prostatitis

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  5. Special Killing forms on toric Sasaki–Einstein manifolds

    In this paper we study the interplay between complex coordinates on the Calabi–Yau metric cone and the special Killing forms on the toric Sasaki–Einstein manifold. First, we give a procedure to locally construct the special Killing forms. Finally, we exemplify the general scheme in the case of the five-dimensional Yp,q spaces, identifying the additional special Killing 2-forms which were previously obtained using a different method by Visinescu (2012 Mod. Phys. Lett. A 27 1250217). (paper)

  6. Killing spinors and supersymmetry on AdS

    In this paper we construct several supersymmetric theories on AdS5 background. We discuss the proper definition of the Killing equation for the symplectic Majorana spinors required in AdS5 supersymmetric theories. We find that the symplectic Killing spinor equation involves a matrix M in the USp(2N) indices whose role was not recognized previously. Using the correct Killing spinors we explicitly confirm that the particle masses in the constructed theories agree with the predictions of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Finally, we establish correct O(d - 1,2) isometry transformations required to keep the Lagrangian invariant on AdSd

  7. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct', we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. Γ rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that γ-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture

  8. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  9. Blacks are much more likely to be executed for killing whites than whites who have killed blacks

    Baumgartner, Frank; Grigg, Amanda; Mastro, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Last year saw the increased popularization of the “#BlackLivesMatter” movement in the wake of the killing of unarmed Black men by police in Ferguson, Missouri, and New York. In new research, Frank Baumgartner, Amanda Grigg, and Alisa Mastro find that in the area of capital punishment, Black lives seem to matter far less than whites’. They find that, since 1976, twice as many blacks have been executed for killing whites than whites have been for killing blacks, and that while Blacks make up 47...

  10. Killing superalgebra deformations of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds

    We explore Lie superalgebra deformations of the Killing superalgebras of some ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We prove the rigidity of the Poincare superalgebras in types I, IIA and IIB, as well as of the Killing superalgebra of the Freund-Rubin vacuum of type IIB supergravity. We also prove rigidity of the Killing superalgebras of the NS5-, D0-, D3-, D4- and D5-branes, whereas we exhibit the possible deformations of the D1-, D2-, D6- and D7-brane Killing superalgebras, as well as of that of the type II fundamental string solutions. We relate the superalgebra deformations of the D2- and D6-branes to those of the (delocalized) M2-brane and the Kaluza-Klein monopole, respectively. The good behaviour under Kaluza-Klein reduction suggests that the deformed superalgebras ought to have a geometric interpretation

  11. Fish Kill Investigations : St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes an investigation that took place after a massive fish kill in 5 of the 6 ponds on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge. Two days of field...

  12. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  13. Hidden symmetries and killing tensors on curved spaces

    Higher-order symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and nonstandard supersymmetries is pointed out. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to space-times which appear in modern studies. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra. The existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed 3-Sasakian structures.

  14. Conformal Killing vector fields and a virial theorem

    The virial theorem is formulated both intrinsically and in local coordinates for a Lagrangian system of a mechanical type on a Riemann manifold. An important case studied in this paper is that of an affine virial function associated with a vector field on the configuration manifold. The special cases of a virial function associated with a Killing, a homothetic, and a conformal Killing vector field are considered and the corresponding virial theorems are established for these types of functions. (paper)

  15. Killing tensors in stationary and axially symmetric space-times

    Vollmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the existence of Killing tensors for certain (physically motivated) stationary and axially symmetric vacuum space-times. We show nonexistence of a nontrivial Killing tensor for a Tomimatsu-Sato metric (up to valence 7), for a C-metric (up to valence 9) and for a Zipoy-Voorhees metric (up to valence 11). The results are obtained by mathematically completely rigorous, nontrivial computer algebra computations with a huge number of equations involved in the problem.

  16. Conformal Killing Vectors in LRS Bianchi Type V Spacetimes

    Suhail, Khan; Tahir, Hussain; Ashfaque, H. Bokhari; Gulzar, Ali Khan

    2016-03-01

    In this note, we investigate conformal Killing vectors (CKVs) of locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type V spacetimes. Subject to some integrability conditions, CKVs up to implicit functions of (t,x) are obtained. Solving these integrability conditions in some particular cases, the CKVs are completely determined, obtaining a classification of LRS Bianchi type V spacetimes. The inheriting conformal Killing vectors of LRS Bianchi type V spacetimes are also discussed.

  17. The effect of road kills on amphibian populations

    Hels, Tove; Buchwald,, Erik

    2001-01-01

    The diurnal movement patterns of Triturus vulgaris, T. cristatus, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, Rana temporaria, and R. arvalis were investigated during five breeding seasons (1994-1998). Two main questions were addressed: 1) What is the probability of an individual amphibian getting killed when crossing the road? and 2) What fraction of the amphibian populations gets killed by traffic? The rate of movement of 203 adult amphibians was recorded. Information on traffic loads was provided, and mo...

  18. Special Killing forms on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds

    Slesar, Vladimir; Vilcu, Gabriel Eduard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the interplay between complex coordinates of the Calabi-Yau metric cone and the special Killing forms on the toric Sasaki-Einstein manifold. In the general case we give a procedure to locally construct the special Killing forms. In the final part we exemplify the general scheme in the case of the 5-dimensional $Y^{p,q}$ spaces.

  19. Snail-Killing Effects of Streptomyces 218 Powder

    V.O. Aina; A.A.J. Adewumi; C.O. Yao; M.Z. Shi; Hu, D. Y.; W.H. Chai

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at finding out the snail-killing effects of Streptomyces 218 powder on Oncomelania hupensis snails which are the vectors or intermediate host of Schiltosoma Japonicum (intestinal schistosomiasis) in china the tests were carried out in the laboratory and on the field. The snail-killing effects of Streptomyces218 powder, isolated from snail habitat at Anchang Village of Anxiang country in China was tested using the immersion and spraying methods. The tests on the Oncomelania...

  20. Conformal Killing vector fields and a virial theorem

    Cariñena, José F.; Gheorghiu, Irina; Martínez, Eduardo; Santos, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    The virial theorem is formulated both intrinsically and in local coordinates for a Lagrangian system of mechanical type on a Riemann manifold. An import case studied in this paper is that of an affine virial function associated to a vector field on the configuration manifold. The special cases of a virial function associated to a Killing, a homothetic and a conformal Killing vector field are considered and the corresponding virial theorems are established for this type of functions.

  1. On Killing vectors and harmonic vectors at quantization of gravitation

    Attention is paid to two shortcomings occuring at quantization in the curved spacetime: mathematical shortcoming consisting in the killing vector absence in arbitrary Riemann space and physical one consisting in absence of energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational field. It is shown, that both shortcomings may be removed, if the killing vectors are replaced by harmonic vectors corresponding to shift generators of the Poincare group existing in arbitrary Riemann space

  2. Spinorial geometry and Killing spinor equations of 6D supergravity

    We solve the Killing spinor equations of six-dimensional (1, 0)-supergravity coupled to any number of tensor, vector and scalar multiplets in all cases. The isotropy groups of Killing spinors are Sp(1)·Sp(1)xH(1)·U(1)/·Sp(1)xH(2), Sp(1)xH(3,4), Sp(1)(2), U(1)(4) and {1}(8), where in parenthesis is the number of supersymmetries preserved in each case. If the isotropy group is non-compact, the spacetime admits a parallel null 1-form with respect to a connection with torsion given by the 3-form field strength of the gravitational multiplet. The associated vector field is Killing and the 3-form is determined in terms of the geometry of spacetime. The Sp(1)xH case admits a descendant solution preserving three out of four supersymmetries due to the hyperini Killing spinor equation. If the isotropy group is compact, the spacetime admits a natural frame constructed from 1-form spinor bi-linears. In the Sp(1) and U(1) cases, the spacetime admits three and four parallel 1-forms with respect to the connection with torsion, respectively. The associated vector fields are Killing and under some additional restrictions the spacetime is a principal bundle with fibre a Lorentzian Lie group. The conditions imposed by the Killing spinor equations on all other fields are also determined.

  3. Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age

    Jeremy Biles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most readers will recall the 1996 tragedy in which six-year-old beauty-pageant princess JonBenét Ramsey was found bound, gagged, and strangled in the basement of her parents’ home, inciting an orgy of media coverage. What readers may not know is that John Mark Karr—the imminently creepy individual who falsely confessed to the killing, and whose sordid past includes an arrest for possession of child pornography—has continued to make news as an alleged cyberstalker and would-be cult leader. This article claims that whereas a real serial killer is compelled to murder again and again with different victims, Karr is compelled to repeat the singular murder of JonBenét Ramsey the only way he can—in a virtual reality constituted by writing.

  4. Symmetry Operators of Killing Spinors and Superalgebras in AdS_5

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We construct the first-order symmetry operators of Killing spinor equation in terms of odd Killing-Yano forms. By modifying the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of Killing-Yano forms, we show that the symmetry operators of Killing spinors close into an algebra in AdS_5 spacetime. Since the symmetry operator algebra of Killing spinors corresponds to a Jacobi identity in extended Killing superalgebras, we investigate the possible extensions of Killing superalgebras to include higher-degree Killing-Yano forms. We found that there is a superalgebra extension but no Lie superalgebra extension of the Killing superalgebra constructed out of Killing spinors and odd Killing-Yano forms in AdS_5 background.

  5. Symmetry operators of Killing spinors and superalgebras in AdS5

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-04-01

    We construct the first-order symmetry operators of Killing spinor equation in terms of odd Killing-Yano forms. By modifying the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of Killing-Yano forms, we show that the symmetry operators of Killing spinors close into an algebra in AdS5 spacetime. Since the symmetry operator algebra of Killing spinors corresponds to a Jacobi identity in extended Killing superalgebras, we investigate the possible extensions of Killing superalgebras to include higher-degree Killing-Yano forms. We found that there is a superalgebra extension but no Lie superalgebra extension of the Killing superalgebra constructed out of Killing spinors and odd Killing-Yano forms in AdS5 background.

  6. Chronic migraine.

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  7. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fish kill for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek

    Etnier, E.L.; Opresko, D.M.; Talmage, S.S. [eds.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring of fish kills in upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) from July 1990 to June 1993. Since the opening of Lake Reality (LR) in 1988, total numbers of fish inhabiting upper EFPC have increased. However, species diversity has remained poor. Water quality data have been collected in upper EFPC during the time period covered in this report. Total residual chlorine (TRC) levels have exceeded federal and state water quality criteria over the years. However, with the installation of two dechlorination systems in late 1992, TRC levels have been substantially lowered in most portions of upper EFPC. By June 1993, concentrations of TRC were 0.04 to 0.06 mg/L at the north-south pipes (NSP) and below detection limits at sampling station AS-8 and were 0 to 0.01 mg/L at the inlet and outlet of LR. The daily chronic fish mortality in upper EFPC has been attributed to background stress resulting from the continuous discharge of chlorine into upper EFPC. Mean daily mortality rates for 22 acute fish kills were three fold or more above background and usually exceeded ten fish per day. Total number of dead fish collected per acute kill event ranged from 30 to over 1,000 fish; predominant species killed were central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) and striped shiners (Luxilus chrysocephalus). Spills or elevated releases of toxic chemicals, such as acids, organophosphates, aluminum nitrate, ammonia, or chlorine, were identified as possible causative agents; however, a definitive cause-effect relationship was rarely established for any acute kills. Ambient toxicity testing, in situ chemical monitoring, and streamside experiments were used to examine TRC dynamics and ambient toxicity in EFPC.

  8. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fish kill for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek

    This report summarizes the monitoring of fish kills in upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) from July 1990 to June 1993. Since the opening of Lake Reality (LR) in 1988, total numbers of fish inhabiting upper EFPC have increased. However, species diversity has remained poor. Water quality data have been collected in upper EFPC during the time period covered in this report. Total residual chlorine (TRC) levels have exceeded federal and state water quality criteria over the years. However, with the installation of two dechlorination systems in late 1992, TRC levels have been substantially lowered in most portions of upper EFPC. By June 1993, concentrations of TRC were 0.04 to 0.06 mg/L at the north-south pipes (NSP) and below detection limits at sampling station AS-8 and were 0 to 0.01 mg/L at the inlet and outlet of LR. The daily chronic fish mortality in upper EFPC has been attributed to background stress resulting from the continuous discharge of chlorine into upper EFPC. Mean daily mortality rates for 22 acute fish kills were three fold or more above background and usually exceeded ten fish per day. Total number of dead fish collected per acute kill event ranged from 30 to over 1,000 fish; predominant species killed were central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) and striped shiners (Luxilus chrysocephalus). Spills or elevated releases of toxic chemicals, such as acids, organophosphates, aluminum nitrate, ammonia, or chlorine, were identified as possible causative agents; however, a definitive cause-effect relationship was rarely established for any acute kills. Ambient toxicity testing, in situ chemical monitoring, and streamside experiments were used to examine TRC dynamics and ambient toxicity in EFPC

  9. Disseminated aspergillosis as the herald manifestation of chronic granulomatous disease in an adult patient.

    Ilad Alavi Darazam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease is an inherited defect in intracellular killing of ingested microorganisms characterized by recurrent life threatening bacterial and fungal infections including invasive aspergillosis in early childhood. We report a disseminated aspergillosis as the representative of adult onset chronic granulomatous disease without previous infection, with dramatic response to combination of antifungal and interferon therapy.

  10. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused by ...

  11. Chronic pancreatitis

    Kocher, Hemant M; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  12. Chronic pancreatitis

    Kocher, Hemant M; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  13. Rotating Killing horizons in generic $F(R)$ gravity theories

    Bhattacharya, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    We discuss various properties of rotating Killing horizons in generic non-singular $F(R)$ theories of gravity in dimension four for spacetimes endowed with two commuting Killing vector fields. By constructing a suitable $(3+1)$-foliation, we show that similar to Einstein's gravity, we must have $T_{ab}k^ak^b=0$ on the Killing horizon, where $k^a$ is a null geodesic tangent to the horizon. For axisymmetric spacetimes, the effective gravitational coupling $\\sim\\,F'^{-1}(R)$ should usually depend upon the polar coordinate and hence need not necessarily be a constant on the Killing horizon. We prove that the surface gravity of such a Killing horizon must be a constant, irrespective of whether $F'(R)$ is a constant there or not. We next use these results to derive some simple corollaries. In particular, we point out that the no hair theorem for the real massive vector field need not necessarily hold for a generic $F(R)$, unless some additional condition is satisfied.

  14. Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.

    Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age = 14.6, SD = 0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567

  15. Generalized killing equations and symmetries of spinning space

    The authors derive a set of general conditions for the isometrics of d-dimensional spinning space. These equations constitute a Grassmann-valued extension of the Killing equations for ordinary space. They are realized as invariances of spinning-particle actions. Some general solutions for the extended Killing equations in arbitrary curved space are presented. Thus the spinning particle in d-dimensions can be shown to possess new types of (super-)symmetries, which transform the commuting and anti-commuting co-ordinates (Xμ, ψa) not only linearly, but also non-linearly. The authors present the algebra of these non-linear transformations. They give a complete solution of the generalized Killing-equations for flat spinning space and construct an infinite set of conserved charges. (author). 11 refs

  16. Almost-Killing conserved currents: A general mass function

    Ruiz, Milton; Palenzuela, Carlos; Bona, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A new class of conserved currents, describing nongravitational energy-momentum density, is presented. The proposed currents do not require the existence of a (timelike) Killing vector, and are not restricted to spherically symmetric spacetimes (or similar ones, in which the Kodama vector can be defined). They are based instead on almost-Killing vectors, which could in principle be defined on generic spacetimes. We provide local arguments, based on energy density profiles in highly simplified (stationary, rigidly rotating) star models, which confirm the physical interest of these almost-Killing currents. A mass function is defined in this way for the spherical case, qualitatively different from the Hernández-Misner mass function. An elliptic equation determining the new mass function is derived for the Tolman-Bondi spherically symmetric dust metrics, including a simple solution for the Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse. The equations for the nonsymmetric case are shown to be of a mixed elliptic-hyperbolic nature.

  17. Supersymmetric Backgrounds, the Killing Superalgebra, and Generalised Special Holonomy

    Coimbra, André

    2016-01-01

    We prove that, for M theory or type II, generic Minkowski flux backgrounds preserving $\\mathcal{N}$ supersymmetries in dimensions $D\\geq4$ correspond precisely to integrable generalised $G_{\\mathcal{N}}$ structures, where $G_{\\mathcal{N}}$ is the generalised structure group defined by the Killing spinors. In other words, they are the analogues of special holonomy manifolds in $E_{d(d)} \\times\\mathbb{R}^+$ generalised geometry. In establishing this result, we introduce the Kosmann-Dorfman bracket, a generalisation of Kosmann's Lie derivative of spinors. This allows us to write down the internal sector of the Killing superalgebra, which takes a rather simple form and whose closure is the key step in proving the main result. In addition, we find that the eleven-dimensional Killing superalgebra of these backgrounds is necessarily the supertranslational part of the $\\mathcal{N}$-extended super-Poincar\\'e algebra.

  18. Reactive oxygen species-mediated bacterial killing by B lymphocytes.

    Kovács, István; Horváth, Magdolna; Lányi, Árpád; Petheő, Gábor L; Geiszt, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Regulated production of ROS is mainly attributed to Nox family enzymes. In neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages, Nox2 has a crucial role in bacterial killing, and the absence of phagocytic ROS production leads to the development of CGD. Expression of Nox2 was also described in B lymphocytes, where the role of the enzyme is still poorly understood. Here, we show that peritoneal B cells, which were shown recently to possess phagocytic activity, have a high capacity to produce ROS in a Nox2-dependent manner. In phagocytosing B cells, intense intraphagosomal ROS production is detected. Finally, by studying 2 animal models of CGD, we demonstrate that phagocyte oxidase-deficient B cells have a reduced capacity to kill bacteria. Our observations extend the number of immune cell types that produce ROS to kill pathogens. PMID:25821233

  19. On Discrete Killing Vector Fields and Patterns on Surfaces

    Ben-Chen, Mirela

    2010-09-21

    Symmetry is one of the most important properties of a shape, unifying form and function. It encodes semantic information on one hand, and affects the shape\\'s aesthetic value on the other. Symmetry comes in many flavors, amongst the most interesting being intrinsic symmetry, which is defined only in terms of the intrinsic geometry of the shape. Continuous intrinsic symmetries can be represented using infinitesimal rigid transformations, which are given as tangent vector fields on the surface - known as Killing Vector Fields. As exact symmetries are quite rare, especially when considering noisy sampled surfaces, we propose a method for relaxing the exact symmetry constraint to allow for approximate symmetries and approximate Killing Vector Fields, and show how to discretize these concepts for generating such vector fields on a triangulated mesh. We discuss the properties of approximate Killing Vector Fields, and propose an application to utilize them for texture and geometry synthesis. Journal compilation © 2010 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Killing and Noether Symmetries of Plane Symmetric Spacetime

    Shamir, M Farasat; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate the Killing and Noether symmetries of static plane symmetric spacetime. For this purpose, five different cases have been discussed. The Killing and Noether symmetries of Minkwoski spacetime in cartesian coordinates are calculated as a special case and it is found that Lie algebra of the Lagrangian is 10 and 17 dimensional respectively. The symmetries of Taub's universe, anti-deSitter universe, self similar solutions of in?finite kind for parallel perfect fluid case and self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel dust case are also explored. In all the cases, the Noether generators are calculated in the presence of gauge term. All these examples justify the conjecture that Killing symmetries form a subalgebra of Noether symmetries [1].

  1. Conformal Killing Vectors Of Plane Symmetric Four Dimensional Lorentzian Manifolds

    Khan, Suhail; Bokhari, Ashfaque H; Khan, Gulzar Ali; Mathematics, Department of; Peshawar, University of; Pakhtoonkhwa, Peshawar Khyber; Pakistan.,; Petroleum, King Fahd University of; Minerals,; 31261, Dhahran; Arabia, Saudi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing's vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing's symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper ...

  2. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  3. Combinatorial BTK and MALT1 inhibition augments killing of CD79 mutant diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    Nagel, Daniel; Bognar, Miriam; Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Kutzner, Kerstin; Vincendeau, Michelle; Krappmann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Survival of activated B cell-subtype (ABC) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is driven by chronic B cell receptor (BCR) signaling that activates the canonical NF-κB pathway. Inhibition of BTK by Ibrutinib has been shown to kill ABC DLBCL cells that carry activating mutations in the BCR adaptor CD79. However, mutations in BTK or in downstream components such as CARMA1/CARD11 can render lymphomas Ibrutinib resistant. Therefore, we assessed here the simultaneous inhibition of BTK and the ...

  4. Perturbative stability of the approximate Killing field eigenvalue problem

    An approximate Killing field may be defined on a compact, Riemannian geometry by solving an eigenvalue problem for a certain elliptic operator. This paper studies the effect of small perturbations in the Riemannian metric on the resulting vector field. It shows that small metric perturbations, as measured using a Sobolev-type supremum norm on the space of Riemannian geometries on a fixed manifold, yield small perturbations in the approximate Killing field, as measured using a Hilbert-type square integral norm. It also discusses applications to the problem of computing the spin of a generic black hole in general relativity. (paper)

  5. A radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans. (Auth.)

  6. Chronic Meningitis

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  7. Chronic Pericarditis

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... weeks after heart surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is ...

  8. Chronic cholecystitis

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  9. Chronic Pain

    ... who have chronic pain may also have low self-esteem, depression, and anger. Causes & Risk Factors What causes ... as stretching and strengthening activities) and low-impact exercise (such as walking, swimming, or biking) can help ...

  10. Cars kill chimpanzees: case report of a wild chimpanzee killed on a road at Bulindi, Uganda.

    McLennan, Matthew R; Asiimwe, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    Roads have broadly adverse impacts on wildlife, including nonhuman primates. One direct effect is mortality from collisions with vehicles. While highly undesirable, roadkills provide valuable information on the health and condition of endangered species. We present a case report of a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) killed crossing a road in Bulindi, Uganda, where chimpanzees inhabit forest fragments amid farmland. Details of the collision are constructed from eyewitness accounts of pedestrians. Physical examination of the cadaver indicated good overall body condition; at 40 kg, the deceased female was heavier than usual for an adult female East African chimpanzee. No external wounds or fractures were noted. Coprological assessment demonstrated infection by several gastrointestinal parasites commonly reported in living wild chimpanzees. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic enteritis and biliary hyperplasia potentially caused by parasite infection. However, eosinophilia was not widely spread into the submucosa, while egg/cyst counts suggested low-intensity parasite infections compared to healthy female chimpanzees of similar age in nearby Budongo Forest. No behavioral indicators of ill health were noted in the deceased female in the month prior to the accident. We conclude that cause of death was acute, i.e., shock from the collision, and was probably unrelated to parasite infection or any other underlying health condition. Notably, this female had asymmetrical polythelia, and, while nursing at the time of her death, had one functioning mammary gland only. In Uganda, where primates often inhabit human-dominated landscapes, human population growth and economic development has given rise to increasing motor traffic, while road development is enabling motorists to travel at greater speeds. Thus, the danger of roads to apes and other wildlife is rising, necessitating urgent strategies to reduce risks. Installation of simple speed-bumps-common on Ugandan

  11. Conformal killing vectors of plane symmetric four dimensional lorentzian manifolds

    In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper CKV is found and CKVs are either HVs or Killing's vectors (KVs). In each of the three cases of conformally flat metrics, a fifteen dimensional algebra of CKVs is obtained of which eight are proper CKVs. (orig.)

  12. The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities

    Kosal, Erica F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate…

  13. Nordic Noir on Television: The Killing I-III

    Agger, Gunhild

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic Noir has been applied by many countries as a slightly distorting mirror of tendencies in their own societies. On the background of its international appeal, the article analyses the prevalent genre of The Killing – the thriller – and relates it to the genres of crime fiction, political...

  14. Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment

    Bertozzi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,…

  15. VECTOR BUNDLE, KILLING VECTOR FIELD AND PONTRYAGIN NUMBERS

    周建伟

    1991-01-01

    Let E be a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold M. We construct a natural metric on the bundle space E and discuss the relationship between the killing vector fields of E and M. Then we give a proof of the Bott-Baum-Cheeger Theorem for vector bundle E.

  16. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus by C-8-Methoxy Fluoroquinolones

    Zhao, Xilin; Wang, Jian-Ying; Xu, Chen; Dong, Yuzhi; Zhou, Jianfeng; Domagala, John; Drlica, Karl

    1998-01-01

    C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones were more lethal than C-8-bromine, C-8-ethoxy, and C-8-H derivatives for Staphylococcus aureus, especially when topoisomerase IV was resistant. The methoxy group also increased lethality against wild-type cells when protein synthesis was inhibited. These properties encourage refinement of C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones to kill staphylococci.

  17. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    Michalska, Marta; Wolf, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells.

  18. Fish Kill in the Philippines—Déjà Vu

    Gil Jacinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost ten years ago today, the country woke up toscreaming headlines— “Massive Fish Kill inPangasinan” or something akin to that. The fish killphenomenon, familiar to fishers in freshwater andcoastal bodies of water where fish farming was beingpursued, was suddenly manifested at a scale that hadheretofore not been experienced.

  19. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    Marta eMichalska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells.

  20. The Conversation Analyses of To Kill a Mockingbird

    Zhangyixin

    2016-01-01

    Conversation analysis (CA) mainly studies the interpersonal communication in two or more than two people of a dialogue. Conversation analysis is a very useful analysis framework about actual discourse. This paper chooses an excerpt of To Kill a Mockingbird to analysis the relationships and characters among the people.

  1. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the World Health Organization... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD...

  2. In Vitro Killing of Mycobacterium ulcerans by Acidified Nitrite

    Phillips, R.; Kuijper, S.; Benjamin, N.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.; Wilks, M.; Kolk, A. H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans, which causes Buruli ulcer, was exposed to acidified nitrite or to acid alone for 10 or 20 min. Killing was rapid, and viable counts were reduced below detectable limits within 10 min of exposure to 40 mM acidified nitrite. M. ulcerans is highly susceptible to acidified nitrite in vitro. PMID:15273132

  3. What Is John Dewey Doing in "To Kill a Mockingbird"?

    Frank, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Harper Lee's novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" is taught in countless public schools and is beloved by many teachers and future teachers. Embedded within this novel--interestingly--is a strong criticism of an approach to education mockingly referred to as the "Dewey Decimal System." In this essay I explore Lee's criticism of…

  4. Distorted Killing Horizons and Algebraic Classification of Curvature Tensors

    Pravda, Vojtěch; Zaslavskii, O.B.

    Singapore: World Scientific, 2008 - (Kleinert, H.; Jantzen, R.; Ruffini, R.), s. 2231-2233 ISBN 978-981-283-426-3. [Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity /11./. Berlín (DE), 23.07.2006-29.07.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : curvature tensor * Petrov classification * Killing horizon Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. Denaturation of membrane proteins and hyperthermic cell killing

    Burgman, Paulus Wilhelmus Johannes Jozef

    1993-01-01

    Summarizing: heat induced denaturation of membrane proteins is probably related to hyperthermic cell killing. Induced resistance of heat sensitive proteins seems to be involved in the development of thermotolerance. Although many questions remain still to be answered, it appears that HSP72, when bound to membrane proteins, is capable of providing heat resistance to these proteins. ... Zie: Summary

  6. Conformal killing vectors of plane symmetric four dimensional lorentzian manifolds

    Khan, Suhail; Hussain, Tahir; Khan, Gulzar Ali [University of Peshawar, Department of Mathematics, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (Pakistan); Bokhari, Ashfaque H. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper CKV is found and CKVs are either HVs or Killing's vectors (KVs). In each of the three cases of conformally flat metrics, a fifteen dimensional algebra of CKVs is obtained of which eight are proper CKVs. (orig.)

  7. A note on simple applications of the Killing spinor identities

    We show how the Killing Spinor Identities (KSI) can be used to reduce the number of independent equations of motion that need to be checked explicitly to make sure that a supersymmetric configuration is a classical supergravity solution. We also show how the KSI can be used to compute BPS relations between masses and charges

  8. Hidden Symmetries and Lie Algebra Structures from Geometric and Supergravity Killing Spinors

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We consider the geometric and supergravity Killing spinors and the spinor bilinears constructed out of them. The spinor bilinears of geometric Killing spinors correspond to the antisymmetric generalizations of Killing vector fields which are called Killing-Yano forms. They constitute a Lie superalgebra structure in constant curvature spacetimes. We show that the Dirac currents of geometric Killing spinors satisfy a Lie algebra structure up to a condition on 2-form spinor bilinears. We propose that the spinor bilinears of supergravity Killing spinors give way to different generalizations of Killing vector fields to higher degree forms. It is also shown that those supergravity Killing forms constitute a Lie algebra structure in six and ten dimensional cases. For five and eleven dimensional cases, the Lie algebra structure depends on an extra condition on supergravity Killing forms.

  9. Antithymocyte Globulin at Clinically Relevant Concentrations Kills Leukemic Blasts.

    Dabas, Rosy; Lee, Rachelle; Servito, Maria Theresa; Dharmani-Khan, Poonam; Modi, Monica; van Slyke, Tiffany; Luider, Joanne; Durand, Caylib; Larratt, Loree; Brandwein, Joseph; Morris, Don; Daly, Andrew; Khan, Faisal M; Storek, Jan

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to cyclosporine or methotrexate, rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with myeloablative conditioning does not increase the risk of relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation. The reason for this is unknown. We hypothesized that ATG at concentrations achieved with our standard ATG dose of 4.5 mg/kg exerts antileukemic activity. We measured ATG-induced killing of leukemic blasts via complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and via complement-independent cytotoxicity (CIC) in marrow or blood from 36 patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. The median percentage of blasts killed by CDC was 0.3% at 1 mg/L ATG, 2.8% at 10 mg/L ATG, 12.6% at 25 mg/L ATG, and 42.2% at 50 mg/L ATG. The median percentage of blasts killed by CIC after a 4-hour incubation with ATG was 1.9% at 1 mg/L ATG, 7.15% at 10 mg/L ATG, 12.1% at 25 mg/L ATG, and 13.9% at 50 mg/L ATG. CIC appeared to represent a direct induction of apoptosis by ATG. There was a high variability in the sensitivity of the blasts to ATG; at 50 mg/L, the percentage of blasts killed ranged from 2.6% to 97.2% via CDC and from 1.4% to 69.9% via CIC. In conclusion, ATG at clinically relevant concentrations kills leukemic blasts in vitro. Some acute leukemias are highly sensitive to ATG, whereas others are relatively resistant. This finding could lead to personalized administration of ATG. PMID:26779931

  10. Broadening the future of value account of the wrongness of killing

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    account of the wrongness of killing and against the broad interpretation that I had put forward in response to Carson Strong. In this article I argue that the narrow view is problematic because it violates some basic principles of equality and because it allows for some of the very killing that Marquis......On Don Marquis's future of value account of the wrongness of killing, 'what makes it wrong to kill those individuals we all believe it is wrong to kill, is that killing them deprives them of their future of value'. Marquis has recently argued for a narrow interpretation of his future of value...

  11. Influence of chronic hypoxia and radiation quality on cell survival

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic hypoxia and anoxia on cell survival after low- and high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells were kept for 24 h under chronic hypoxia (94.5% N2; 5% CO2; 0.5% O2) or chronic anoxia (95% N2; 5% CO2). Irradiation was performed using 250 kVp X-rays or carbon ions with a dose average LET of 100 keV/μm either directly under the chronic oxygenation states, or at different time points after reoxygenation. Moreover, the cell cycle distribution for cells irradiated under different chronic oxic states was measured over 24 h during reoxygenation. The measurements showed a fairly uniform cell cycle distribution under chronic hypoxia, similar to normoxic conditions. Chronic anoxia induced a block in G1 and a strong reduction of S-phase cells. A distribution similar to normoxic conditions was reached after 12 h of reoxygenation. CHO cells had a similar survival under both acute and chronic hypoxia. In contrast, survival after irradiation under chronic anoxia was slightly reduced compared to that under acute anoxia. We conclude that, in hamster cells, chronic anoxia is less effective than acute anoxia in inducing radioresistance for both X-rays and carbon ions, whereas in hypoxia, acute and chronic exposures have a similar impact on cell killing. (author)

  12. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  14. A Research for Massive Fish Kills in Lake Bafa (Turkey

    Murat Yabanlı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As there were massive fish kills in Lake Bafa which is a lagoon situated in Southwestern Turkey in October, 2006, water and fish samples were taken from the region. Water samples were analysed physicochemically, toxicologically and microbiologically and fish samples were subjected to toxicological analysis. The analyses of lake water revealed on oxygen value of approximately 5.0 mg/L, salinity 16.2 ‰, nitrogen from ammonia 0.1 mg/L, nitrogen nitrite 0.013 mg/L, and total organic carbon 13 mg/L. Total coliform count was 1100 MPN/100 ml and faecal coliform count was 28 MPN/100 ml. There was no detection of any pesticide residues in fish and water samples. Massive fish kills are thought to be due to the decrease in water quality.

  15. Scientific projection paper for mutagenesis, transformation and cell killing

    Our knowledge about mutagenesis, transformation, and cell killing by ionizing radiation consists of large bodies of data, which are potentially useful in terms of application to human risk assessment and to the constructive use of radiation, as in cancer treatment. The three end-points discussed above are united by at least five significant concepts in radiation research strategy: (1) The inter-relationships among the important end-points, mutation, carcinogenesis, and cell killing. Research on one is meaningful only in the context of information about the other two. (2) The interaction of radiations with other agents in producing these end-points. (3) The mechanisms of action of other environmental mutagenic, carcinogenic, and cytotoxic agents. (4) The use of repair deficient human mutant cells. (5) The study of radiation damage mechanisms. There is no better way to extrapolate laboratory data to the clinical and public worlds than to understand the underlying biological mechanisms that produced the data

  16. Ultrafast Killing and Self-Gelling Antimicrobial Imidazolium Oligomers.

    Riduan, Siti Nurhanna; Yuan, Yuan; Zhou, Feng; Leong, Jiayu; Su, Haibin; Zhang, Yugen

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases and the increasing threat of worldwide pandemics have underscored the importance of antibiotics and hygiene. Intensive efforts have been devoted to developing new antibiotics to meet the rapidly growing demand. In particular, advancing the knowledge of the structure-property-activity relationship is critical to expedite the design and development of novel antimicrobial with the needed potential and efficacy. Herein, a series of new antimicrobial imidazolium oligomers are developed with the rational manipulation of terminal group's hydrophobicity. These materials exhibit superior activity, excellent selectivity, ultrafast killing (>99.7% killing within 30 s), and desirable self-gelling properties. Molecular dynamic simulations reveal the delicate effect of structural changes on the translocation motion across the microbial cell membrane. The energy barrier of the translocation process analyzed by free energy calculations provides clear kinetic information to suggest that the spontaneous penetration requires a very short timescale of seconds to minutes for the new imidazolium oligomers. PMID:26891016

  17. Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, Study Finds

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160505.html Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, ... 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus kills neural stem cells in the brains ...

  18. Hidden symmetries and Lie algebra structures from geometric and supergravity Killing spinors

    Açık, Özgür; Ertem, Ümit

    2016-08-01

    We consider geometric and supergravity Killing spinors and the spinor bilinears constructed out of them. The spinor bilinears of geometric Killing spinors correspond to the antisymmetric generalizations of Killing vector fields which are called Killing–Yano forms. They constitute a Lie superalgebra structure in constant curvature spacetimes. We show that the Dirac currents of geometric Killing spinors satisfy a Lie algebra structure up to a condition on 2-form spinor bilinears. We propose that the spinor bilinears of supergravity Killing spinors give way to different generalizations of Killing vector fields to higher degree forms. It is also shown that those supergravity Killing forms constitute a Lie algebra structure in six- and ten-dimensional cases. For five- and eleven-dimensional cases, the Lie algebra structure depends on an extra condition on supergravity Killing forms.

  19. Charged Particles Kill Pathogens and Round Up Dust

    2015-01-01

    To keep plants fresh longer in space, Marshall Space Flight Center awarded funding to the University of Wisconsin-Madison to develop a titanium oxide-based device that reduced the amount of decay-inducing ethylene gas in the air. Electrolux (now Dallas-based Aerus Holdings) furthered the technology by developing an air purification product that kills pathogens both in the atmosphere and on surfaces.

  20. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  1. The killing of African trypanosomes by ethidium bromide.

    Arnab Roy Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence of viable parasites lacking kDNA (dyskinetoplastic led many to think that kDNA loss could not be the mechanism of killing. When recent studies indicated that kDNA is indeed essential in bloodstream trypanosomes and that dyskinetoplastic cells survive only if they have a compensating mutation in the nuclear genome, we investigated the effect of EB on kDNA and its replication. We here report some remarkable effects of EB. Using EM and other techniques, we found that binding of EB to network minicircles is low, probably because of their association with proteins that prevent helix unwinding. In contrast, covalently-closed minicircles that had been released from the network for replication bind EB extensively, causing them, after isolation, to become highly supertwisted and to develop regions of left-handed Z-DNA (without EB, these circles are fully relaxed. In vivo, EB causes helix distortion of free minicircles, preventing replication initiation and resulting in kDNA loss and cell death. Unexpectedly, EB also kills dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes, lacking kDNA, by inhibiting nuclear replication. Since the effect on kDNA occurs at a >10-fold lower EB concentration than that on nuclear DNA, we conclude that minicircle replication initiation is likely EB's most vulnerable target, but the effect on nuclear replication may also contribute to cell killing.

  2. [The vegetarian appeal and killing animals. An ethical challenge].

    Luy, J; Hildebrandt, G; von Mickwitz, G

    2001-01-01

    The demand for renunciation of killing animals has already been discussed by mankind since ancient times. Many arguments for and against this demand have accumulated in the meantime. The reproaches of the vegetarians repeatedly forced the ones who eat meat to justify their diet. Today most of these historical justifications however have to be rejected because of lacking plausibility. Many of the vegetarian arguments on the other hand must be rejected for similar reasons as well. Remaining as morally convincing is the demand for doing the killing absolutely painless and without frightening the animals, which was already formulated for example by Kant and Schopenhauer. Arguments which consider this way of killing as still immoral belong in a broad sense to the "anthropocentric" animal ethics. They do not belong to what is called in Germany "pathocentric" animal ethics, because an animal that is killed without being frightened or tortured, has not suffered, for it hasn't consciously realized anything like danger or harm. We do even argue that these animals are not harmed at all, because it seems senseless to talk about harm without negative conscious phenomena. To push ahead a ban on animal slaughter for moral reasons could be itself morally wrong because it would disturb indirectly many people's conscious well-being without being justified by protecting an animal's conscious well-being. It is however possible to derive from a general duty not to make animals suffer (pathocentric animal ethics) a duty to boycott food of animal origin if these animals had to suffer during their lives. PMID:11505802

  3. Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Liu Lunxu; Wang Yanping; Mei Longyong; Jia Weiguo; Che Guowei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR) promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli) cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK) gene were cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed wi...

  4. Snail-Killing Effects of Streptomyces 218 Powder

    V.O. Aina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the snail-killing effects of Streptomyces 218 powder on Oncomelania hupensis snails which are the vectors or intermediate host of Schiltosoma Japonicum (intestinal schistosomiasis in china the tests were carried out in the laboratory and on the field. The snail-killing effects of Streptomyces218 powder, isolated from snail habitat at Anchang Village of Anxiang country in China was tested using the immersion and spraying methods. The tests on the Oncomelania hupensis snails which are intermediate host of Streptomyces japonicum infection were carried out in the laboratory and in the field. The mean corrected snail mortalities of the immersion technique in the laboratory were 81.70 and 98.63% in 10 ppm of 218 solutions after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The mean corrected snail mortalities of the spraying tests in the laboratory were 82.90 and 87.90% at 3 and 5 days, respectively with 10 g/m2 218 powders. The snail-killing ability of 218 powders on the field determines by immersion and spraying methods were comparable to that of the chemical molluscicide-Niclosamide. The corrected snail mortality at 150 ppm of 218 powder (g/m2 and at 2 ppm of Niclosamide by immersion was 100% at the second time test after 24, 48 and 72 h. In the field spraying test, the mean corrected snail mortality at 100 ppm of 218 powders were 61.96 and 70.00% after 3 and 7 days of spraying respectively. At 2 ppm niclosamide, this was found to be 65.58 and 63.81%, respectively. The effective ingredients for the snail-killing are found to be located in the spore chains. Streptomyces 218 powder, although at higher concentrations, seems to be a promising mollusciciding biological agent. If developed further, this could compliment existing mollusciciding agents.

  5. Sabretoothed Carnivores and the Killing of Large Prey

    Ki Andersson; David Norman; Lars Werdelin

    2011-01-01

    Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage...

  6. Oxidative and nonoxidative killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils.

    Miyasaki, K T; Wilson, M E; Brunetti, A J; Genco, R J

    1986-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative gram-negative microorganism which has been implicated as an etiologic agent in localized juvenile periodontitis and in subacute bacterial endocarditis and abscesses. Although resistant to serum bactericidal action and to oxidant injury mediated by superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), this organism is sensitive to killing by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system (K.T. Miyasaki, M.E. Wilson, and R.J. Genco, In...

  7. Mechanisms of killing of Toxoplasma gondii by rat peritoneal macrophages.

    McCabe, R E; Remington, J S

    1986-01-01

    Rats are resistant to Toxoplasma infection, and macrophages are thought to mediate this resistance. We performed a series of experiments to investigate the mechanism of the anti-Toxoplasma activity of resident rat peritoneal macrophages. Resident rat peritoneal macrophages killed more than 90% of ingested Toxoplasma gondii in vitro. This capacity was reduced progressively with the prolongation of culturing of macrophages in vitro before challenge with T. gondii. Exhaustion of the respiratory ...

  8. Photoexcited quantum dots for killing multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Courtney, Colleen M.; Goodman, Samuel M.; McDaniel, Jessica A.; Madinger, Nancy E.; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are an ever-growing threat because of the shrinking arsenal of efficacious antibiotics. Metal nanoparticles can induce cell death, yet the toxicity effect is typically nonspecific. Here, we show that photoexcited quantum dots (QDs) can kill a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacterial clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium. The killing effect is independent of material and controlled by the redox potentials of the photogenerated charge carriers, which selectively alter the cellular redox state. We also show that the QDs can be tailored to kill 92% of bacterial cells in a monoculture, and in a co-culture of E. coli and HEK 293T cells, while leaving the mammalian cells intact, or to increase bacterial proliferation. Photoexcited QDs could be used in the study of the effect of redox states on living systems, and lead to clinical phototherapy for the treatment of infections.

  9. Almost-Killing conserved currents: a general mass function

    Ruiz, Milton; Bona, Carles

    2013-01-01

    A new class of conserved currents, describing non-gravitational energy-momentum density, is presented. The proposed currents do not require the existence of a (timelike) Killing vector, and are not restricted to spherically symmetric spacetimes (or similar ones, in which the Kodama vector can be defined). They are based instead on almost-Killing vectors, which could in principle be defined on generic spacetimes. We provide local arguments, based on energy density profiles in highly simplified (stationary, rigidly-rotating) star models, which confirm the physical interest of these 'almost-Killing currents'. A mass function is defined in this way for the spherical case, qualitatively different from the Hern\\'andez-Misner mass function. An elliptic equation determining the new mass function is derived for the Tolman-Bondi spherically symmetric dust metrics, including a simple solution for the Oppenheimer-Schneider collapse. The equations for the non-symmetric case are shown to be of a mixed elliptic-hyperbolic n...

  10. Default risk modeling with position-dependent killing

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2013-04-01

    Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.

  11. Sunlight-induced killing of nondividing human cells in culture

    Nondividing populations of human diploid fibroblasts that are DNA excision repair proficient and repair deficient were exposed to mid-day summer sunlight and their survival determined based on their ability to remain attached to a culture vessel surface. Whereas mid- and far-UV wavelengths and sunlamp radiation cause a gradual degeneration and detachment of cells in a dose-dependent manner, sunlight does not promote cell killing in repair proficient cells. Detachment of repair deficient cells is promoted to a limited extent but only at sunlight exposure times that are low with respect to the amount of DNA damage induced. Repair proficient and deficient cells exposed to sunlight for longer times do not detach. Pyrimidine dimer levels in these sunlight irradiated cells were great enough to have promoted detachment had these levels been induced by UV (254 nm) alone. Other photodamage induced by these exposures evidently inhibits the dimer induced cell degeneration that leads to cell detachment. It was concluded that pyrimidine dimers are responsible for cell killing at short sunlight exposure times (80 min) cells are killed by a different mechanism. (author)

  12. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 μg/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function

  13. The holonomy of the supercovariant connection and Killing spinors

    We show that the holonomy of the supercovariant connection for M-theory backgrounds with N Killing spinors reduces to a subgroup of SL(32-N,R)·NR32-N). We use this to give the necessary and sufficient conditions for a background to admit N Killing spinors. We show that there is no topological obstruction for the existence of up to 22 Killing spinors in eleven-dimensional spacetime. We investigate the symmetry superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds and find that their structure constants are determined by an antisymmetric matrix. The Lie subalgebra of bosonic generators is related to a real form of a symplectic group. We show that there is a one-one correspondence between certain bases of the Cartan subalgebra of sl(32,R) and supersymmetric planar probe M-brane configurations. A supersymmetric probe configuration can involve up to 31 linearly independent planar branes and preserves one supersymmetry. The space of supersymmetric planar probe M-brane configurations is preserved by an SO(32,R) subgroup of SL(32,R). (author)

  14. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    Andrea M Binnebose

    Full Text Available Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment.

  15. EXPOSURE TO CARBONIC GAS ENRICHED ATMOSPHERE OR ELECTRICAL WATER BATH TO STUN OR KILL CHICKENS

    JP Nicolau; MF Pinto; EHG Ponsano; SHV Perri; M Garcia Neto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to compare the effects of two methods (electrical water bath or carbonic gas atmosphere) for stunning or killing broiler chickens prior to bleeding on weight loss due to bleeding and meat traits. A completely randomized design with 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (electrical or gas system x stunning or killing) was applied. The time required for stunning and killing and the birds' behavior were evaluated for the gas exposure method. The birds killed by the ...

  16. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea... paragraph. (i) Eight bovine virus diarrhea susceptible calves (five vaccinates and three controls) shall...

  17. Killing wild geese with carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Lourens, A.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Verhoeven, M.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    The killing of animals is the subject of societal and political debate. Wild geese are caught and killed on a regular basis for fauna conservation and damage control. Killing geese with carbon dioxide (CO2) is commonly practiced, but not listed in legislation on the protection of flora and fauna, an

  18. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  19. Killing Tensors and Conserved Quantities of a Relativistic Particle in External Fields

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    We generalize Killing equations to a test particle system which is subjected to external force. We relax the conservation condition by virtue of reparametrization invariance of a particle orbit. As a result, we obtain generalized Killing equations which have hierarchical structure on the top of which a conformal Killing equation exists.

  20. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  1. Low back pain - chronic

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  2. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  3. Employees with Chronic Pain

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  4. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  5. Chronic coughing

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  6. Mothers who kill: evolutionary underpinnings and infanticide law.

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

    2012-01-01

    Women who kill their children present a profound challenge to accepted notions of motherhood and the protection offered by mothers to their children. Historically, societies have varied in the sanctions applied to perpetrators of such acts, across both time and place. Where penalties were once severe and punitive for mothers, in modern times some two dozen nations now have infanticide acts that reduce the penalties for mothers who kill their infants. Embedded within these acts are key criteria that relate (a) only to women who are (b) suffering the hormonal or mood effects of pregnancy/lactation at the time of the offence which is (c) usually restricted to within the first year after delivery. Criticisms of infanticide legislation have largely centered on inherent gender bias, misconceptions about the hormonal basis of postpartum psychiatric disorders, and the nexus and contribution of these disorders to the offending in relation to issues of culpability and sentencing. Important differences between female perpetrators relative to the age of the child victim have also highlighted problems in the implementation of infanticide legislation. For example, women who commit neonaticide (murder during the first day of life) differ substantially from mentally ill mothers who kill older children. However, despite these shortcomings, many nations have in recent years chosen to retain their infanticide acts. This article reviews the central controversies of infanticide legislation in relation to current research and fundamental fairness. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework to organize this discussion, it is argued that infanticide legislation is at best unnecessary and at worst misapplied, in that it exculpates criminal intent and fails to serve those for whom an infanticide defense might otherwise have been intended. PMID:22961624

  7. (M-theory-)Killing spinors on symmetric spaces

    We show how the theory of invariant principal bundle connections for reductive homogeneous spaces can be applied to determine the holonomy of generalised Killing spinor covariant derivatives of the form D = ∇ + Ω in a purely algebraic and algorithmic way, where Ω : TM → Λ∗(TM) is a left-invariant homomorphism. Specialising this to the case of symmetric M-theory backgrounds (i.e., (M, g, F) with (M, g) an eleven-dimensional Lorentzian (locally) symmetric space and F an invariant closed 4-form), we derive several criteria for such a background to preserve some supersymmetry and consequently find all supersymmetric symmetric M-theory backgrounds

  8. Towards Fluid Instabilities of Stationary Non-Killing Horizons

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    Flowing black holes are asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes that are stationary but have non-Killing horizons. Holographically, they are dual to a steady-state heat flow in the boundary field theory. We investigate the stability of these black holes in the limit in which they are well-described by the relativistic conformal Navier-Stokes equations. More precisely, we study the quasi-normal modes of the linearized ideal fluid equations. Though we find no unstable modes, there are an infinite...

  9. Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Liu Lunxu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK gene were cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed with the KDR promoter and CDglyTK genes. A recombinant adenoviral plasmid AdKDR-CDglyTK was then constructed and transfected into 293 packaging cells to grow and harvest adenoviruses. KDR-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV304 and KDR-negative liver cancer cell line (HepG2 were infected with the recombinant adenoviruses at different multiplicity of infection (MOI. The infection rate was measured by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression. The infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of prodrugs ganciclovir (GCV and/or 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC. The killing effects were measured using two different methods, i.e. annexin V-FITC staining and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Recombinant adenoviruses AdKDR-CDglyTK were successfully constructed and they infected ECV304 and HepG2 cells efficiently. The infection rate was dependent on MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. ECV304 cells infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were highly sensitive to GCV and 5-FC. The cell survival rate was dependent on both the concentration of the prodrugs and the MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. In contrast, there were no killing effects in the HepG2 cells. The combination of two prodrugs was much more effective in killing ECV304 cells than GCV or 5-FC alone. The growth of transgenic ECV304 cells was suppressed in the presence of prodrugs. Conclusion AdKDR-CDglyTK/double prodrog system may be a useful

  10. Estimation in Discretely Observed Diffusions Killed at a Threshold

    Bibbona, Enrico; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Parameter estimation in diffusion processes from discrete observations up to a first-passage time is clearly of practical relevance, but does not seem to have been studied so far. In neuroscience, many models for the membrane potential evolution involve the presence of an upper threshold. Data are...... modelled as discretely observed diffusions which are killed when the threshold is reached. Statistical inference is often based on a misspecified likelihood ignoring the presence of the threshold causing severe bias, e.g. the bias incurred in the drift parameters of the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck model for...