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Sample records for acadesine kills chronic

  1. Synergistic anti-tumor activity of acadesine (AICAR) in combination with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in in vivo and in vitro models of mantle cell lymphoma

    Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; López-Guerra, Mónica; Rosich, Laia; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Salaverria, Itziar; Beà, Silvia; Kalko, Susana G.; de Frias, Mercè; Campàs, Clara; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered one of the most challenging lymphoma, with limited responses to current therapies. Acadesine, a nucleoside analogue has shown antitumoral effects in different preclinical cancer models as well as in a recent phase I/II clinical trial conducted in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here we observed that acadesine exerted a selective antitumoral activity in the majority of MCL cell lines and primary MCL samples, independently of adverse cytogene...

  2. Synergistic anti-tumor activity of acadesine (AICAR) in combination with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in in vivo and in vitro models of mantle cell lymphoma.

    Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; López-Guerra, Mónica; Rosich, Laia; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Salaverria, Itziar; Beà, Silvia; Kalko, Susana G; de Frias, Mercè; Campàs, Clara; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2014-02-15

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is considered one of the most challenging lymphoma, with limited responses to current therapies. Acadesine, a nucleoside analogue has shown antitumoral effects in different preclinical cancer models as well as in a recent phase I/II clinical trial conducted in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here we observed that acadesine exerted a selective antitumoral activity in the majority of MCL cell lines and primary MCL samples, independently of adverse cytogenetic factors. Moreover, acadesine was highly synergistic, both in vitro and in vivo, with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, commonly used in combination therapy for MCL. Gene expression profiling analysis in harvested tumors suggested that acadesine modulates immune response, actin cytoskeleton organization and metal binding, pointing out a substantial impact on metabolic processes by the nucleoside analog. Rituximab also induced changes on metal binding and immune responses.The combination of both drugs enhanced the gene signature corresponding to each single agent, showing an enrichment of genes involved in inflammation, metabolic stress, apoptosis and proliferation. These effects could be important as aberrant apoptotic and proinflammatory pathways play a significant role in the pathogenesis of MCL. In summary, our results suggest that acadesine exerts a cytotoxic effect in MCL in combination with rituximab, by decreasing the proliferative and survival signatures of the disease, thus supporting the clinical examination of this strategy in MCL patients. PMID:24519895

  3. Adenosine-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation by acadesine. A novel antithrombotic mechanism in vitro and in vivo.

    Bullough, D A; Zhang, C.; Montag, A; Mullane, K. M.; Young, M A

    1994-01-01

    Inhibition of platelet aggregation by acadesine was evaluated both in vitro and ex vivo in human whole blood using impedance aggregometry, as well as in vivo in a canine model of platelet-dependent cyclic coronary flow reductions. In vitro, incubation of acadesine in whole blood inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 50% at 240 +/- 60 microM. Inhibition of platelet aggregation was time dependent and was prevented by the adenosine kinase inhibitor, 5'-deoxy 5-iodotubercidin, which block...

  4. Activated ClpP kills persisters and eradicates a chronic biofilm infection.

    Conlon, Brian P.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Fleck, Laura E.; LaFleur, Michael D.; Isabella, Vincent M.; Coleman, K.; Leonard, Steve N.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lewis, Kim

    2013-11-21

    The current antibiotic crisis stems from two distinct phenomena-drug resistance, and drug tolerance. Resistance mechanisms such as drug efflux or modification prevent antibiotics from binding to their targets 1, allowing pathogens to grow. Antibiotic tolerance is the property of persister cells, phenotypic variants of regular bacteria 2. Antibiotics kill by corrupting targets, but these are inactive in dormant persisters, leading to tolerance. Persisters were first identified by Joseph Bigger in 1944, when he discovered a surviving sub-population of Staphylococcus following treatment with penicillin3. Persisters are largely responsible for recalcitrance of chronic diseases such as tuberculosis, and various infections associated with biofilms - endocarditis, osteomyelitis, infections of catheters and indwelling devices, and deep-seated infections of soft tissues 4. There are a number of redundant pathways involved in persister formation5,6 precluding development of drugs inhibiting their formation. The acyldepsipeptide antibiotic (ADEP 4) has been shown to activate the ClpP protease resulting in death of growing cells 7. Here we show that ADEP4 activated ClpP becomes a fairly non-specific protease and kills persister cells by degradation of over 400 intracellular targets. clpP mutants are resistant to ADEP4 7, but we find that they display increased susceptibility to killing by a range of conventional antibiotics. Combining ADEP4 with rifampicin leads to eradication of persisters, stationary and biofilm populations of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in a deep-seated murine infection. Target corruption/activation provides an approach to killing persisters and eradicating chronic infections.

  5. Staphylococci surviving intracellularly in phagocytes from patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease are killed in vitro by antibiotics encapsulated in liposomes.

    Roesler, J.; Hockertz, S; Vogt, B.; Lohmann-Matthes, M L

    1991-01-01

    Granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages from patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are ineffective in killing specific kinds of phagocytized bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, due to decreased or lacking ability to produce reactive oxygen intermediates. Commonly used antibiotics like flucloxacillin are of limited therapeutic value, because the staphylococci are protected against their action in the interior of phagocytes. However, encapsulation of flucloxacillin into ...

  6. The increased killing of biofilms in vitro by combining topical silver dressings with topical negative pressure in chronic wounds.

    Valente, Pedro Miguel Ds; Deva, Anand; Ngo, Quan; Vickery, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Chronic wounds remain a significant medical and financial burden in hospitals of today. A major factor in the transition from an acute to a chronic wound is its bacterial bioburden. Developments in molecular techniques have shown that chronic wounds remain colonised by many species of bacteria and that the bacteria within these chronic wounds exist in two forms. Treatments of chronic wounds have maintained a challenging field and significant ongoing research is being conducted. With the development of an in vitro wound model, we applied topical negative pressure (TNP) dressings to a spectrum of common bacterial biofilms found in chronic wounds and studied the synergistic efficacy between the application of TNP and silver-impregnated foam against these biofilms. This synergistic response was seen within the laboratory strains of staphylococcal biofilms over a 3-day treatment period but lost following the 5 days of treatment. However, combining topical pressure dressings and silver foam lead to a synergistic inactivation in Pseudomonas species over both 3-day and 5-day treatments. PMID:24712658

  7. Studies on the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to antibody-dependent killing of developing schistosomula using sera from chronically infected mice and mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae

    Changes in the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to in vitro killing during development of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni were studied using serum from chronically infected mice (CIS) and from mice vaccinated with highly irradiated (20 krad) cercariae (VS). Binding of these sera was quantitated by counting the number of P388D1 cells (a transformed, macrophage-like cell of mouse origin, bearing Fc receptors for IgG) binding to the parasite surface. Compared with schistosomula derived in vitro by mechanical transformation (MS), schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vitro (SS) showed a significant loss in surface binding of CIS. Schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vivo (SRS) showed even less binding, and this trend continued such that parasites recovered from the lungs 5 days after infection (LS) showed only minimal binding, and 10-day-old worms from the portal system showed no significant binding. In contrast, VS, which bound significantly less well to MS than CIS, showed enhanced binding to SS, and in the face of their declining antigenicity with respect to CIS, 3- to 24-hr SRS maintained this raised level of antigenicity. Although there appeared to be a decline in binding of VS thereafter, LS remained antigenic, still binding as many cells as MS did despite the fact that they also expressed host antigens detected usng antisera raised against mouse RBC. In spite of this persistence of VS binding up to the lung stage, resistance to eosinophil-mediated killing in vitro had developed by 48 hr post-infection, and LS were totally resistant to both eosinophil- and C-mediated killing

  8. Studies on the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to antibody-dependent killing of developing schistosomula using sera from chronically infected mice and mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae

    Bickle, Q.D.; Ford, M.J.

    1982-05-01

    Changes in the surface antigenicity and susceptibility to in vitro killing during development of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni were studied using serum from chronically infected mice (CIS) and from mice vaccinated with highly irradiated (20 krad) cercariae (VS). Binding of these sera was quantitated by counting the number of P388D/sub 1/ cells (a transformed, macrophage-like cell of mouse origin, bearing Fc receptors for IgG) binding to the parasite surface. Compared with schistosomula derived in vitro by mechanical transformation (MS), schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vitro (SS) showed a significant loss in surface binding of CIS. Schistosomula recovered 3 hr after skin penetration in vivo (SRS) showed even less binding, and this trend continued such that parasites recovered from the lungs 5 days after infection (LS) showed only minimal binding, and 10-day-old worms from the portal system showed no significant binding. In contrast, VS, which bound significantly less well to MS than CIS, showed enhanced binding to SS, and in the face of their declining antigenicity with respect to CIS, 3- to 24-hr SRS maintained this raised level of antigenicity. Although there appeared to be a decline in binding of VS thereafter, LS remained antigenic, still binding as many cells as MS did despite the fact that they also expressed host antigens detected usng antisera raised against mouse RBC. In spite of this persistence of VS binding up to the lung stage, resistance to eosinophil-mediated killing in vitro had developed by 48 hr post-infection, and LS were totally resistant to both eosinophil- and C-mediated killing.

  9. The Killing

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    This article tracks the uncanny locations of The Killing (2007–2012), relating them to place, space and atmosphere, putting bits and pieces from the topographic puzzle together with cues from the symbolic space in order to see how they fit into the overall pattern of Nordic Noir. In The Killing......, the abstract level of space and atmosphere meets the concrete level of place, both influencing the notion of location. This meeting, I suggest, has contributed towards the simultaneous domestic and international appeal of The Killing....

  10. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder; Agerstam, Helena; Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Rissler, Marianne; Lassen, Carin; Olofsson, Tor; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Richter, Johan; Fioretos, Thoas

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML will ...

  11. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils Gunder; Agerstam, Helena; Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Rissler, Marianne; Lassen, Carin; Olofsson, Tor; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Richter, Johan; Fioretos, Thoas

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML will...

  12. Killing tensors and conformal Killing tensors from conformal Killing vectors

    Koutras has proposed some methods to construct reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors (which are, in general, irreducible) when a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors exist in a given space. We give the completely general result demonstrating that this severe restriction of orthogonality is unnecessary. In addition, we correct and extend some results concerning Killing tensors constructed from a single conformal Killing vector. A number of examples demonstrate that it is possible to construct a much larger class of reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors than permitted by the Koutras algorithms. In particular, by showing that all conformal Killing tensors are reducible in conformally flat spaces, we have a method of constructing all conformal Killing tensors, and hence all the Killing tensors (which will in general be irreducible) of conformally flat spaces using their conformal Killing vectors

  13. Effective Concentration of a Multikinase Inhibitor within Bone Marrow Correlates with In Vitro Cell Killing in Therapy-Resistant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Mu, Chaofeng; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ma, Helen; Tao, Wenjing; Zhang, Guodong; Xia, Xiaojun; Shen, Jianliang; Mai, Junhua; Sun, Tong; Sun, Xiaoping; Arlinghaus, Ralph B; Shen, Haifa

    2016-05-01

    Leukemia cells escape BCR-ABL-targeted therapy by developing mutations, such as T315I, in the p210(BCR-ABL) fusion protein in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Although most effort has been focused on development of new tyrosine kinase inhibitors, enrichment of these small-molecule inhibitors in the tumor tissue can also have a profound impact on treatment outcomes. Here, we report that a 2-hour exposure of the T315I-mutant CML cells to 10 μmol/L of the multikinase inhibitor TG101209 suppressed BCR-ABL-independent signaling and caused cell-cycle arrest at G2-M. Further increase in drug concentration to 17.5 μmol/L blocked phosphorylation of the mutant BCR-ABL kinase and its downstream JAK2 and STAT5. The effective dosage to overcome therapy resistance identified in an in vitro setting serves as a guidance to develop the proper drug formulation for in vivo efficacy. A targeted formulation was developed to achieve sustained bone marrow TG101209 concentration at or above 17.5 μmol/L for effective killing of CML cells in vivo Potent inhibition of leukemia cell growth and extended survival were observed in two murine models of CML treated with 40 mg/kg intravenously administered targeted TG101209, but not with the untargeted drug at the same dosage. Our finding provides a unique approach to develop treatments for therapy-resistant CML. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 899-910. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26846820

  14. Chronic diseases kill on silence

    Querubina Bringel Olinda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Há uma diferença acentuada na determinação das prioridades, não no planejamento, mas na execução dos serviços, na materialização do fato e na importância da informação perante os meios de comunicação entre as duas categorias fundamentais de doenças – infecciosas e não infecciosas(1 .Em repasse às estatísticas de mortalidade proporcional, do Ministério da Saúde, em série histórica, constatam-se profundas mudanças no quadro, que há muito tempo constitui matéria discutida na literatura especializada. As causas determinantes da referida alteração foram citadas e reproduzidas em um número finito de artigos especializados, portanto, por demais conhecidas de todos.Em 2006, o grande grupo das doenças infecciosas e parasitárias representou 4,92% de todos os óbitos. Entretanto, somente o das doenças do aparelho circulatório contribuiu com 32,01% das mortes ocorridas naquele ano. É a estatística mais representativa da mortalidade dentre as principais causas de morte.(2As doenças do aparelho circulatório, isoladas, costumam atingir um quinto de todos os óbitos. No entanto, elas matam no silêncio. Os óbitos são notificados e registrados sem alarde.Ao olhar com mais detalhe o sistema de mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde, ele exibe registro na distribuição etária, e neste seu agrupamento há óbitos prematuros que se fazem presentes nas estatísticas de mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório. Há de se ter uma análise estatística esclarecedora nesse grande grupo de doença da necessidade de investimento como medida necessária para prorrogar a idade do desfecho gerador da morte. O adoecer e o morrer prematuro devem ter uma abordagem inquirida e uma resposta à altura. No final da vida a morte é uma certeza para todos, tem-se que morrer de algo, é a lei biológica – nascer, viver e morrer.Para todas as doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, constata-se que elas ocupam os três principais grupos de causa de morte. Quando se soma a contribuição da carga que tem cada um dos seus componentes no total de óbitos, as estatísticas são por demais expressivas – elas canalizam para ser uma das grandes prioridades nos serviços de saúde e nos afins ao combate da causa ou na mundança do estilo de vida para hábitos saudáveis.As neoplasias malignas representaram, no mesmo ano, 16,47%, as causas externas 14,36%, que somados aos 32,01% acima mencionados, redundaram em 62,05% dos óbitos notificados no País, em 2006 (2.Com certeza, essas estatísticas ainda contêm omissão no tocante à causa básica, porém serão a favor das crônicas. O contingente populacional de idosos tem os maiores percentuais de morte sem diagnósticos, por causas sem assistência médica e por causas mal definidas. Provavelmente, grande parte desses óbitos deve aumentar as estatísticas das doenças crônicas, alguns para as doenças do aparelho respiratório e outros, em menor escala, para o restante das causas(2.No caso das doenças crônicas tem-se que dar mais ênfase na informação a mudanças positivas no estilo de vida, na complexidade hospitalar e nas condições imprescíndiveis ao diagnóstico precoce. Tem-se que assumir que, apesar de apresentar soluções em um grande percentual de casos, o programa de saúde da família ainda não resolve problemas complexos.A capacidade de diagnóstico precoce e a resolutividade da rede são importantes para todos nós, seres humanos. Nemtodos os problemas de saúde podem, devem e conseguem ser resolvidos em unidades de menor complexidade.O atendimento terciário é um suporte imprescindível à manutenção da vida e ao respeito à dignidade do ser humano. O hospital deve também ser revitalizado. O ser “paciente” com este nome tão apropriado, é angustiante. Quanto aos principais tipos de câncer, também ainda há muito o que informar, e requer um trabalho mais sistemático de incentivo à procura de sua prevenção e uma maior cobertura de atendimentos.Nas causas externas, os meios de comunicação fazem uma verdadeira apologia à violência. Vive-se a síndrome do medo. O homicídio difere em suas causas determinantes e no seu combate aos acidentes do trânsito. Nesse bloco, entra a ação do estado em todas as esferas de governo, da engenharia de trânsito e principalmente da família – há de se voltar para os valores da pessoa humana. Não se constrói a paz semeando o medo e a violência.O Brasil espalhou medo sobre a influenza ou gripe causada pelo A(H1N1, em que a sobrevivência do vírus no ambiente é em torno de uma hora(2,3. Talvez, perpassando a linha do tempo das grandes epidemias da história no mundo, mormente as provocadas pela influenza, gripe espanhola, gripe russa e outras mais, não aqui citadas, que dizimaram milhões de pessoas(4, fizeram o sistema de comunicação sacudir as escolas com o alarme sobre a transmissibilidade da influenza e, por colocá-la isolada no foco da transmissão, esquecendo a família, o lazer, o trabalho, as viagens e, enfim, a normalidade da vida. Os serviços de saúde voltaram-se inteiramente para esse fim.As doenças transmissíveis são sempre amedrontadoras pelo seu poder de propagação e, em potencial, de causarem epidemias, em qualquer momento, desde que não lhes faltem condições para fazê-la.Os óbitos em epidemias são contados em público até a saturação da notícia, ao contrário das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. As suas estatísticas são apenas registradas e manuseadas por técnicos, excluídas do clamor social. Há necessidade de um novo olhar, em se tratando de doenças crônicas. Os definidores de politicas públicas devem ter em mente dois fatos norteadores para o planejamento de ações de intervenção nas referidas doenças. O primeiro de que os futuros idosos brasileiros, dentro de, sessenta anos de idade, referencial da velhice no País, já foram nascidos; e o outro, de que a expectativa de vida brasileira aumentou, o que tornará as doenças crônicas ainda em mais evidência no setor saúde.REFERÊNCIAS1. Rouquayrol MZ, Almeida-Filho N. Epidemiologia eSaúde, 2ª - ed. Rio de Janeiro: (BR Medsi; 2008.570 p.2. Brasil, Ministério da Saúde. Influenza humana:perguntas e respostas. (acesso em 2009 Ago 29.Disponível em: http://portal.saude.gov.br/portal/saude/profissional/area.cfm?id_area=15343. Ministério da Saúde (BR. Influenza humana: perguntase respostas. (acesso em 2009 ago 29. Disponívelem: http://portal.saude.gov.br/portal/saude/profissional/visualizar_texto.cfm?idtxt=31244 acesso em 2009.4. Bueno WC. A “gripe suína” e a pandemia da informação.Portal imprensa. (acesso em 2009 Jun. 20. Disponívelem: http://portalimprensa.uol.com.br/colunistas/colunas/2009/05/05/imprensa406.shtml .

  15. Chronic gastritis

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  16. Ion-kill dosimetry

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  17. "It didn't kill me. It just made me stronger and wiser": Silver Linings for Children and Adolescents of Parents with Chronic Pain.

    Umberger, Wendy A; Risko, Judy

    2016-04-01

    Chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) is a disease that affects adults in their child-rearing years and is often incurable and of indefinite duration. Children and adolescents who live with parental CNCP can endure multiple adversities and experience subsequent emotional and somatic difficulties. Resilience is the ability to overcome adversity and even experience growth. This study is a secondary analysis of qualitative data, which sought to gain a deeper understanding of the ways in which children and adolescents rebound and grow from experiences living with parents who suffer with CNCP. Young adult children (N=30) of parents with CNCP were interviewed. Content analysis yielded five ways in which their experiences led to areas of positive growth: (a) expanded ways of understanding; (b) cultivated a strong character; (c) aided in the development of important skills; (d) instilled a commitment to live well, and; (e) nurtured spirituality. Clinicians who work with children and adolescents whose parents are disabled with CNCP can create environments that foster resilience and serve as a guide by helping these youth recognize potentials that have not yet been actualized and promoting positive change and growth over time. PMID:26992861

  18. Chronic γ-irradiation results in increased cell killing and chromosomal aberration with specific breakpoints in fibroblast cell strains derived from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients

    Cultured skin fibroblast cells from 16 NHL (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) patients and 2 clinically normal subjects were compared for cell survival and chromosomal aberration after chronic γ-irradiation. Fibroblasts from an ataxia telangiectasia (AT) homozygote and an AT heterozygote were used as positive controls. Following irradiation, fibroblasts from all 16 NHL patients showed an increase in both cell death and chromosomal aberration (breaks and rearrangements) compared to normal subjects. The difference in frequency of chromosomal aberration between normals and NHL-patients remained virtually unchanged over a period of 24-72 h post irradiation incubation of cells. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry carried out in 1 normal and 1 NHL fibroblast cell strain showed that more cells representing the NHL patient were in G2/M phase compared to the normal at various times of cytogenetic analysis. While the AT homozygote appeared to be the most radiosensitive, the AT heterozygote showed a slightly higher incidence of cell death and chromosomal aberration than the normals. The cellular and chromosomal radiosensitivity of fibroblast cell lines from NHL-patients differed slightly from that of AT heterozygote but clearly occupied an intermediate position between the AT homozygote and the normal subjects. Cells from 3 of the NHL patients showed radiation-induced specific chromosomal breaks involving chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, 10 and 11 which correspond to known fragile sites. Such breakpoints associated with increased radiosensitivity may be indicative of predisposition to malignancy in the patients studied. (author). 30 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Evolution of coalitionary killing.

    Wrangham, R W

    1999-01-01

    Warfare has traditionally been considered unique to humans. It has, therefore, often been explained as deriving from features that are unique to humans, such as the possession of weapons or the adoption of a patriarchal ideology. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that coalitional killing of adults in neighboring groups also occurs regularly in other species, including wolves and chimpanzees. This implies that selection can favor components of intergroup aggression important to human warfare, including lethal raiding. Here I present the principal adaptive hypothesis for explaining the species distribution of intergroup coalitional killing. This is the "imbalance-of-power hypothesis," which suggests that coalitional killing is the expression of a drive for dominance over neighbors. Two conditions are proposed to be both necessary and sufficient to account for coalitional killing of neighbors: (1) a state of intergroup hostility; (2) sufficient imbalances of power between parties that one party can attack the other with impunity. Under these conditions, it is suggested, selection favors the tendency to hunt and kill rivals when the costs are sufficiently low. The imbalance-of-power hypothesis has been criticized on a variety of empirical and theoretical grounds which are discussed. To be further tested, studies of the proximate determinants of aggression are needed. However, current evidence supports the hypothesis that selection has favored a hunt-and-kill propensity in chimpanzees and humans, and that coalitional killing has a long history in the evolution of both species. PMID:10601982

  20. Redshifts and Killing Vectors

    Harvey, A; Surowitz, E J; Harvey, Alex; Schucking, Engelbert L.; Surowitz, Eugene J.

    2005-01-01

    Courses in introductory special and general relativity have increasingly become part of the curriculum for upper-level undergraduate physics majors and master's degree candidates. One of the topics rarely discussed is symmetry, particularly in the theory of general relativity. The principal tool for its study is the Killing vector. We provide an elementary introduction to the concept of a Killing vector field, its properties, and as an example of its utility apply these ideas to the rigorous determination of gravitational and cosmological redshifts.

  1. Killing tensors and canonical geometry

    The systematic derivation of constants of the motion, based on Killing tensors and the gauge covariant approach, is outlined. Quantum dots are shown to support second-, third- and fourth-rank Killing tensors. (paper)

  2. How microglia kill neurons.

    Brown, Guy C; Vilalta, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident brain macrophages that become inflammatory activated in most brain pathologies. Microglia normally protect neurons, but may accidentally kill neurons when attempting to limit infections or damage, and this may be more common with degenerative disease as there was no significant selection pressure on the aged brain in the past. A number of mechanisms by which activated microglia kill neurons have been identified, including: (i) stimulation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX) to produce superoxide and derivative oxidants, (ii) expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) producing NO and derivative oxidants, (iii) release of glutamate and glutaminase, (iv) release of TNFα, (v) release of cathepsin B, (vi) phagocytosis of stressed neurons, and (vii) decreased release of nutritive BDNF and IGF-1. PHOX stimulation contributes to microglial activation, but is not directly neurotoxic unless NO is present. NO is normally neuroprotective, but can react with superoxide to produce neurotoxic peroxynitrite, or in the presence of hypoxia inhibit mitochondrial respiration. Glutamate can be released by glia or neurons, but is neurotoxic only if the neurons are depolarised, for example as a result of mitochondrial inhibition. TNFα is normally neuroprotective, but can become toxic if caspase-8 or NF-κB activation are inhibited. If the above mechanisms do not kill neurons, they may still stress the neurons sufficiently to make them susceptible to phagocytosis by activated microglia. We review here whether microglial killing of neurons is an artefact, makes evolutionary sense or contributes in common neuropathologies and by what mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection. PMID:26341532

  3. "The Killing Fields" of Innovation

    Ingerslev, Karen

    2014-01-01

    clustering of ideas, a design strategy which seemed to kill unique ideas. The reframing of innovation as a radical endeavor killed learning from others for being not innovative. The findings of this paper supplement theories of deliberate killing of ideas by suggesting framing, design and facilitation of......, however, substantial amounts of relevant ideas got killed during opening phases, where the purpose of activities was framed as idea generation. These ideas were either verbally or silently killed, and some in rather contradicted ways: The design and facilitation of brain storming processes lead to...

  4. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spinc-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space

  5. Analysing the Wrongness of Killing

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth analysis of the wrongness of killing by comparing different versions of three influential views: the traditional view that killing is always wrong; the liberal view that killing is wrong if and only if the victim does not want to be killed; and Don Marquis‟ future...... of value account of the wrongness of killing. In particular, I illustrate the advantages that a basic version of the liberal view and a basic version of the future of value account have over competing alternatives. Still, ultimately none of the views analysed here are satisfactory; but the different...... reasons why those competing views fail provide important insights into the ethics of killing....

  6. Killing Symmetry on Finsler Manifold

    Ootsuka, Takayoshi; Ishida, Muneyuki

    2016-01-01

    Killing vector fields $K$ are defined on Finsler manifold. The Killing symmetry is reformulated simply as $\\delta K^\\flat =0$ by using the Killing non-linear 1-form $K^\\flat$ and the spray operator $\\delta$ with the Finsler non-linear connection. $K^\\flat$ is related to the generalization of Killing tensors on Finsler manifold, and the condition $\\delta K^\\flat =0$ gives an analytical method of finding higher derivative conserved quantities, which may be called hidden conserved quantities. We show two examples: the Carter constant on Kerr spacetime and the Runge-Lentz vectors in Newtonian gravity.

  7. Can a penny kill you?

    Hili, Alexander; Duca, Edward

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing urban legend suggests that a penny dropped from a great height, let's say the Empire State Building, kills. The penny should speed up and pass through a person's skull easily. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/can-a-penny-kill-you/

  8. How electroshock weapons kill!

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2010-03-01

    Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

  9. Notes on Super Killing Tensors

    Howe, P S

    2015-01-01

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed

  10. Notes on super Killing tensors

    Howe, P. S.; Lindström, U.

    2016-03-01

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the even Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed.

  11. Phantom metrics with Killing spinors

    W.A. Sabra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study metric solutions of Einstein–anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1-dimensional space–time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  12. Azithromycin blocks quorum sensing and alginate polymer formation and increases the sensitivity to serum and stationary growth phase killing of P. aeruginosa and attenuates chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in Cftr -/--mice

    Hoffmann, N.; Lee, Bao le ri; Hentzer, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of O-acetylated alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are tolerance to both antibiotic treatments and effects on the innate and the adaptive defense mechanisms. In clinical trials, azithromycin (AZM) ...

  13. "Guns do not kill, people do!"

    Lemche, Niels Peter

    The Bible does not kill, but many people who have read the Bible (in their way) have killed, virtually or in real.......The Bible does not kill, but many people who have read the Bible (in their way) have killed, virtually or in real....

  14. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    2010-07-01

    ..., English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and their tributaries: (1)...

  15. Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.

  16. To Kill For An Image

    Fausing, Bent

    Images can provide both an overview and insight, but also the opposite. This ambivalence has become an even bigger part of the nature of the image, of what is an Image? Today we kill for an image, seen from afar on a screen and captured by a drone. The time also asks: Should it be big data...

  17. Phagocyte roulette in Salmonella killing.

    Fenlon, Luke A; Slauch, James M

    2014-01-15

    Salmonella propagates in macrophages to cause life-threatening infections, but the role of neutrophils in combating Salmonella has been controversial. In this issue, Burton et al. (2014) use single cell analyses and modeling to explain the ability of Salmonella to survive in macrophages while being killed by neutrophils. PMID:24439894

  18. Phagocyte Roulette in Salmonella Killing

    Fenlon, Luke A.; Slauch, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella propagate in macrophages to cause life-threatening infections, but the role of neutrophils in combating Salmonella has been controversial. In this issue, Burton et al. (2013) use single cell analyses and modeling to explain the ability of Salmonella to survive in macrophages, while being killed by neutrophils.

  19. Spills on the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull

    The Arthur Kill between Staten Island, New York City, and New Jersey is a heavily industrialized corridor, the site of major petroleum refineries and chemical processing facilities. New York Harbor is a busy port, second largest in the U.S. on a tonnage basis. Six thousand vessels call on the port annually, including 1700 tankers. eighteen billion gallons of petroleum are delivered annually, of which 2/3 are handled on the Kills. In this interplay of wildlife, oil and marine based transfer operations, New York harbor COTP area experiences oil spills, releasing 250,000 average total annual volume. In the first three months of 1990 the volume of oil spilled approximately 750,000 gallons was released, threefold the annual average. The three major spills which caused this large release, and the governmental response, from the subject of this paper

  20. WOMEN'S RIGHTS VIOLATION: HONOUR KILLINGS

    CRISTINA OTOVESCU FRASIE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study I have presented the domestic violence concept and the situation regarding the observing of woman’s rights in Syria. We have also evidenced the juridical aspects regarding the honor killing directed against women after the modification of the article 548 from the Penal Code changed by the President al-Asad on July the 1st 2009. The data offered by NGOs have been of great help for the elaboration of the study as also the statistic data presented in Thara E-Magazine regarding the cities where had been done the honor killings and their number, the instrument of the murder, the age of the victim, and the motives for the murders. It must be noticed that, lately, the Government fought for the observing of the woman’s rights and promoted he gender equality by appointing women in leading positions, including the vice-president one.

  1. Surveying and Modeling Road Kill

    Lin, Shyh-Chyang

    2007-01-01

    Transportation is the backbone of developing regional economies and the evolution of our civilization. Well planned road systems are essential to connect dispersed communities or cities. However, roads are one of the major destructive forces to regional ecosystems and the natural environment. The effects of roads on their adjacent ecosystems may include road kills, habitat fragmentation, barrier effect to animal movement, road edge effects, introduction of exotic species, pollution and noise,...

  2. 24 Ways to Kill a Tree

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012

    2009-01-01

    Few residential trees die of old age. Mechanical damage and improper tree care kill more trees than any insects or diseases. This publication shows 24 ways to void making the tree-damaging mistake. Few of these items alone would kill a tree, but multiple problems will certainly stress, and could eventually kill, a tree.

  3. The Effect of Bacteriophage Preparations on Intracellular Killing of Bacteria by Phagocytes

    Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular killing of bacteria is one of the fundamental mechanisms against invading pathogens. Impaired intracellular killing of bacteria by phagocytes may be the reason of chronic infections and may be caused by antibiotics or substances that can be produced by some bacteria. Therefore, it was of great practical importance to examine whether phage preparations may influence the process of phagocyte intracellular killing of bacteria. It may be important especially in the case of patients qualified for experimental phage therapy (approximately half of the patients with chronic bacterial infections have their immunity impaired. Our analysis included 51 patients with chronic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections treated with phage preparations at the Phage Therapy Unit in Wroclaw. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of experimental phage therapy on intracellular killing of bacteria by patients’ peripheral blood monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. We observed that phage therapy does not reduce patients’ phagocytes’ ability to kill bacteria, and it does not affect the activity of phagocytes in patients with initially reduced ability to kill bacteria intracellularly. Our results suggest that experimental phage therapy has no significant adverse effects on the bactericidal properties of phagocytes, which confirms the safety of the therapy.

  4. Killing-Yano tensors and Nambu mechanics

    Killing-Yano tensors were introduced in 1952 by Kentaro-Yano from mathematical point of view. The physical interpretation of Killing-Yano tensors of rank higher than two was unclear. We found that all Killing-Yano tensors ηi1i2...in with covariant derivative zero are Nambu tensors. We found that in the case of flat space case all Killing-Yano tensors are Nambu tensors. In the case of Taub-NUT and Kerr-Newmann metric Killing-Yano tensors of order two generate Nambu tensors of rank 3

  5. Killing(-Yano) Tensors in String Theory

    Chervonyi, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    We construct the Killing(-Yano) tensors for a large class of charged black holes in higher dimensions and study general properties of such tensors, in particular, their behavior under string dualities. Killing(-Yano) tensors encode the symmetries beyond isometries, which lead to insights into dynamics of particles and fields on a given geometry by providing a set of conserved quantities. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the Killing tensor, we provide a prescription for constructing several conserved quantities starting from a single object, and we demonstrate that Killing tensors in higher dimensions are always associated with ellipsoidal coordinates. We also determine the transformations of the Killing(-Yano) tensors under string dualities, and find the unique modification of the Killing-Yano equation consistent with these symmetries. These results are used to construct the explicit form of the Killing(-Yano) tensors for the Myers-Perry black hole in arbitrary number of dimensions and for its charged version.

  6. WOMEN'S RIGHTS VIOLATION: HONOUR KILLINGS

    CRISTINA OTOVESCU FRASIE

    2011-01-01

    In this study I have presented the domestic violence concept and the situation regarding the observing of woman’s rights in Syria. We have also evidenced the juridical aspects regarding the honor killing directed against women after the modification of the article 548 from the Penal Code changed by the President al-Asad on July the 1st 2009. The data offered by NGOs have been of great help for the elaboration of the study as also the statistic data presented in Thara E-Magazine regarding the ...

  7. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  8. Fish Kills in Ireland in 1990

    Moriarty, C.

    1991-01-01

    The total of 52 fish kills in 1990 was a marked improvement over the previous year when 111 were reported. Although this result was no better than that for 1988, it represented a considerable achievement because 1988 experienced a wet summer with high water flows while 1990 was exceptionally dry. Because of the poor dilution of pollutants, low river flows are usually associated with an increase in the number of fish kills. All three traditional causes of fish kills, agriculture, industry a...

  9. Fish Kills in Ireland in 1989

    Moriarty, C.

    1990-01-01

    The final estimate for the number of fish kills in 1989 was 111. The increase in 1989 is largely accounted for by the exceptional warm weather conditions which prevailed. Details of all the incidents are given in the following pages. When these are analysed some very significant facts emerge. The number of fish kills while higher than in 1988 (50 kills) was about nine percent lower than in 1987 (122 kills). Low water due to dry weather conditions was the most important factor in 1989 raising ...

  10. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  11. Defects in the oxidative killing of microorganisms by phagocytic leukocytes.

    Roos, D; Weening, R S

    One of the most important mechanisms of phagocytic killing of ingested microorganisms by leukocytes is the generation of toxic oxygen products. During phagocytosis, neutrophils, as well as monocytes and macrophages, display a strongly increased cell respiration. Quantitatively the most important product of this reaction is hydrogen peroxide. Superoxide is also generated in large amounts, probably as an intermediate in the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Indications exist that singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals are also formed in this process. Some of these oxygen products have microbicidal properties by themselves. The effect of hydrogen peroxide is greatly enhanced by the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Several dysfunctions of this sytem are known. In chronic granulomatous disease the enzyme system that produces superoxide is not operative. Thus, no superoxide or hydrogen peroxide is generated, leading to a severely decreased bacterial killing capacity. The exact molecular defects in the X-linked and the autosomal form are as yet undefined. Two variants are also known: lipochrome histiocytosis, with different clinical and histological manifestations, and a 'triggering defect' where only strongly opsonized particles trigger the respiratory burst. Myeloperoxidase deficiency leads to slightly decreased killing capacity, especially for yeasts. In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency no oxygen radicals or hydrogen peroxide are produced because no equivalents for oxygen reduction can be generated in the hexose-monophosphate shunt. Deficiencies in the glutathione redox system also result in impaired phagocyte function, probably because the cells have to be protected against their own toxic oxygen products. PMID:225141

  12. Hypersurface homogeneous Killing spinor space–times

    I present a complete list of hypersurface homogeneous space–times admitting a non-null valence two Killing spinor, including a new class admitting only exceptional Killing tensors. A connection is established with the classification of locally rotationally symmetric or boost symmetric space–times. (paper)

  13. [Killing of cattle via electrical stunning].

    Maurer, B; Forster, S

    2007-04-01

    For disease control in the case of epidemics killing of cattle via electrical stunning is a method of choice. The official veterinarian is responsible for monitoring the adhesion to animal welfare principles during electrical stunning and killing. This requires specialised knowledge and experience as the symptoms of effective stunning are quite variable in cattle. Signs of effective and ineffective stunning are described below. In addition to suitable technical equipment, restraint of the animals and correct use of the equipment, neurophysiological processes have to be considered. Calm handling of the animals avoiding stress is a prerequisite for ensuring animal welfare and minimising pain especially when killing cattle using electrical methods. PMID:17484500

  14. A new combined assay of phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Escherichia coli by polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    A new combined radiometric assay is described in which adherence, and phagocytosis and killing of Escherichia coli by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) are simultaneously measured in the same sample. Pure monolayers of PMN in Petri dishes are allowed to ingest [14C]phenylalanine labelled E. coli and excess bacteria are removed by washing. A period of incubation allows intracellular killing to occur while polymyxin-B is added to half the dishes to kill extracellular bacteria. The remaining viable bacteria in all dishes are labelled with [3H]thymidine. The number of ingested bacteria and the percentage of intracellular organisms killed is determined from the 14C and 3H counts by a simple subtraction technique. By performing protein assays on representative monolayers, the number of PMN adhered in the monolayers and hence the mean bacterial uptake per PMN is estimated. The assay detected killing efficiencies reduced below the normal range, in monolayers treated with sodium azide, phenylbutazone, in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, and in immature neutrophils from the promyelocytic leukaemic cell line, HL60. The assay was adapted to measure phagocytosis and killing by cells in suspension. (Auth.)

  15. Honor Killing in Pakistan: An Islamic Perspective

    Niaz Muhammad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Republic of Pakistan is considered as one of the most dangerous and unsafe country for women in the world, because of the increasing rate of crimes against women in the shape of honor killing and honor related violence. Which are known as assaults committed against women for what is considered immoral behavior. Some researchers and Islamic scholars links act of honor killing with Islam, they tried to justify this crime with some general sayings of Prophet Peace be upon him. In this paper the issue of honor killing has examined in the light of fundamental resources of Islam i.e Quran (the Saying of Allah and Hadees (The Saying of Prophet Muhammad SAH to clarify the true guidance of Islam in such cases. The claim of some researchers that honor killing get encouragement from Islamic Guidance has also been examined through Primary and Secondary Sources of Islam. Effort is made to bring forth the correct Islamic teachings.

  16. Homefucking is Killing Prostitution / Taavi Eelmaa

    Eelmaa, Taavi, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Mis jääb vaatajale teatrietendusest meelde? Ilmus Kris Moori raamat "Homefucking is Killing Prostitution". Raamat sisaldab tekste ja Erki Lauri fotosid Von Krahli Teatri samanimelisest etendusest, mida kordagi ei mängitud

  17. Killing superalgebras for Lorentzian four-manifolds

    de Medeiros, Paul; Santi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We determine the Killing superalgebras underpinning field theories with rigid unextended supersymmetry on Lorentzian four-manifolds by re-interpreting them as filtered deformations of $\\mathbb{Z}$-graded subalgebras with maximum odd dimension of the $N{=}1$ Poincar\\'e superalgebra in four dimensions. Part of this calculation involves computing a Spencer cohomology group which, by analogy with a similar result in eleven dimensions, prescribes a notion of Killing spinor, which we identify with the defining condition for bosonic supersymmetric backgrounds of minimal off-shell supergravity in four dimensions. We prove that such Killing spinors always generate a Lie superalgebra, and that this Lie superalgebra is a filtered deformation of a subalgebra of the $N{=}1$ Poincar\\'e superalgebra in four dimensions. Demanding the flatness of the connection defining the Killing spinors, we obtain equations satisfied by the maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We solve these equations, arriving at the classification of ma...

  18. The geometry of D=11 Killing spinors

    We propose a way to classify all supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity using the G-structures defined by the Killing spinors. We show that the most general bosonic geometries admitting a Killing spinor have at least a local SU(5) or an (Spin(7)lxR8)xR structure, depending on whether the Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is timelike or null, respectively. In the former case we determine what kind of local SU(5) structure is present and show that almost all of the form of the geometry is determined by the structure. We also deduce what further conditions must be imposed in order that the equations of motion are satisfied. We illustrate the formalism with some known solutions and also present some new solutions including a rotating generalisation of the resolved membrane solutions and generalisations of the recently constructed D=11 Godel solution. (author)

  19. Killing Forms of Isotropic Lie Algebras

    Malagon, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for computing the Killing form of an isotropic Lie algebra defined over an arbitrary field based on the Killing form of a subalgebra containing its anisotropic kernel. This approach allows for streamlined formulas for many Lie algebras of types E6 and E7 and yields a unified formula for all Lie algebras of inner type E6, including the anisotropic ones.

  20. Teleparallel Killing Vectors of the Einstein Universe

    M. Sharif; Amir, M. Jamil

    2007-01-01

    In this short paper we establish the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the context of teleparallel theory of gravity and also extend it for a general tensor of rank $p+q$. This definition is then used to find Killing vectors of the Einstein universe. It turns out that Killing vectors of the Einstein universe in the teleparallel theory are the same as in General Relativity.

  1. Cryptococcus neoformans modulates extracellular killing by neutrophils

    Asfia eQureshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently established a key role for host sphingomyelin synthase (SMS in the regulation of the killing activity of neutrophils against Cryptococcus neoformans. In this work, we studied the effect of C. neoformans on the killing activity of neutrophils and whether SMS would still be a player against C. neoformans in immunocompromised mice lacking T and NK cells (Tgε26 mice. To this end, we analyzed whether C. neoformans would have any effect on neutrophil survival and killing in vitro and in vivo. We show that unlike C. albicans, neither the presence nor the capsule size of C. neoformans cells have any effect on neutrophil viability. Interestingly, melanized C. neoformans cells totally abrogated the killing activity of neutrophils. Next, we monitored how exposure of neutrophils to C. neoformans cells would interfere with any further killing activity of the medium and found that pre-incubation with live but not heat-killed fungal cells significantly inhibits further killing activity of the medium. We next studied whether activation of SMS at the site of C. neoformans infection is dependent on T and NK cells. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI tissue imaging in infected lung we found that similarly to previous observations in the isogenic wild type CBA/J mice, SM 16:0 levels are significantly elevated at the site of infection in mice lacking T and NK cells but only at early time points. This study highlights that C. neoformans may negatively regulate the killing activity of neutrophils and that SMS activation in neutrophils appears to be partially independent of T and/or NK cells.

  2. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature

  3. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-01

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  4. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    Groeger, Josua, E-mail: groegerj@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  5. Cell killing by avian leukosis viruses.

    Weller, S K; Temin, H M

    1981-01-01

    Infection of chicken cells with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus resulted in the detachment of killed cells from the culture dish. The detached, dead cells contained more unintegrated viral DNA than the attached cells. These results confirm the hypothesis that cell killing after infection with a cytopathic avian leukosis virus is associated with accumulation of large amounts of unintegrated viral DNA. No accumulation of large amounts of integrated viral DNA was found in cells infected with c...

  6. Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion

    On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.

  7. Killing transform on regular Dirichlet subspaces

    Li, Liping; Ying, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we shall consider the killing transform induced by a multiplicative functional on regular Dirichlet subspaces of a fixed Dirichlet form. Roughly speaking, a regular Dirichlet subspace is a closed subspace with Dirichlet and regular properties of fixed Dirichlet space. By using the killing transforms, our main results indicate that the big jump part of fixed Dirichlet form is not essential for discussing its regular Dirichlet subspaces. This fact is very similar to the status of...

  8. Lie algebra of conformal Killing-Yano forms

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We provide a generalization of the Lie algebra of conformal Killing vector fields to conformal Killing-Yano forms. A new Lie bracket for conformal Killing-Yano forms that corresponds to slightly modified Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of differential forms is proposed. We show that conformal Killing-Yano forms satisfy a graded Lie algebra in constant curvature manifolds. It is also proven that normal conformal Killing-Yano forms in Einstein manifolds also satisfy a graded Lie algebra. The constructed graded Lie algebras reduce to the graded Lie algebra of Killing-Yano forms and the Lie algebras of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields in special cases.

  9. Chronic pancreatitis

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  10. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be...

  11. 75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  12. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  13. Generalized Killing equations for spinning spaces and the role of Killing-Yano tensors

    Visinescu, Mihai

    1996-01-01

    The generalized Killing equations for the configuration space of spinning particles (spinning space) are analysed. Solutions of these equations are expressed in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. In general the constants of motion can be seen as extensions of those from the scalar case or new ones depending on the Grassmann-valued spin variables.

  14. Strain ŽP - the first bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system.

    Starčič Erjavec, Marjanca; Petkovšek, Živa; Kuznetsova, Marina V; Maslennikova, Irina L; Žgur-Bertok, Darja

    2015-11-01

    As multidrug resistant bacteria pose one of the greatest risks to human health new alternative antibacterial agents are urgently needed. One possible mechanism that can be used as an alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy is transfer of killing agents via conjugation. Our work was aimed at providing a proof of principle that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems are possible. We constructed a bacterial conjugation-based "kill"-"anti-kill" antimicrobial system employing the well known Escherichia coli probiotic strain Nissle 1917 genetically modified to harbor a conjugative plasmid carrying the "kill" gene (colicin ColE7 activity gene) and a chromosomally encoded "anti-kill" gene (ColE7 immunity gene). The constructed strain acts as a donor in conjugal transfer and its efficiency was tested in several types of conjugal assays. Our results clearly demonstrate that conjugation-based antimicrobial systems can be highly efficient. PMID:26436830

  15. (Conformal) Killing vectors and their associated bivectors

    Fayos and Sopuerta have recently set up a formalism for studying vacuum spacetimes with an isometry, a formalism that is centred around the bivector corresponding to the Killing vector and that adapts the tetrad to the bivector. Steele has generalized their approach to include the homothetic case. Here, we generalize this formalism to arbitrary spacetimes and to homothetic and conformal Killing vectors but do not insist on aligning the tetrad with the bivector. The most efficient way to use the formalism to find conformal Killing vectors (proper or not) of a given spacetime is to combine it with the notion of a preferred tetrad. A metric by Kimura is used as an illustrative example

  16. Honor Killing in Pakistan: An Islamic Perspective

    Niaz Muhammad; Mufti. Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed; Abdullah Abdullah; Fazle Omer; Naqeeb Hussain Shah

    2012-01-01

    Islamic Republic of Pakistan is considered as one of the most dangerous and unsafe country for women in the world, because of the increasing rate of crimes against women in the shape of honor killing and honor related violence. Which are known as assaults committed against women for what is considered immoral behavior. Some researchers and Islamic scholars links act of honor killing with Islam, they tried to justify this crime with some general sayings of Prophet Peace be upon him. In this pa...

  17. On the algebraic structure of Killing superalgebras

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2016-01-01

    We study the algebraic structure of the Killing superalgebra of a supersymmetric $11$-dimensional supergravity background and show that it is isomorphic to a filtered deformation of a $\\mathbb Z$-graded subalgebra of the Poincar\\'e superalgebra. We then re-interpret the classification problem for backgrounds which preserve more than half of the supersymmetry as the classification problem of certain admissible filtered subdeformations of the Poincar\\'e superalgebra. In particular we relate the bosonic field equations of $11$-dimensional supergravity to the Jacobi identity of the Killing superalgebra and show in this way that preserving more than half the supersymmetry implies the bosonic field equations.

  18. An in vitro model of antibody-enhanced killing of the intracellular parasite Leishmania amazonensis.

    Katherine N Gibson-Corley

    Full Text Available Footpad infection of C3HeB/FeJ mice with Leishmania amazonensis leads to chronic lesions accompanied by large parasite loads. Co-infecting these animals with L. major leads to induction of an effective Th1 immune response that can resolve these lesions. This cross-protection can be recapitulated in vitro by using immune cells from L. major-infected animals to effectively activate L. amazonensis-infected macrophages to kill the parasite. We have shown previously that the B cell population and their IgG2a antibodies are required for effective cross-protection. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to L. major, killing L. amazonensis parasites is dependent upon FcRγ common-chain and NADPH oxidase-generated superoxide from infected macrophages. Superoxide production coincided with killing of L. amazonensis at five days post-activation, suggesting that opsonization of the parasites was not a likely mechanism of the antibody response. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that non-specific immune complexes could provide a mechanism of FcRγ common-chain/NADPH oxidase dependent parasite killing. Macrophage activation in response to soluble IgG2a immune complexes, IFN-γ and parasite antigen was effective in significantly reducing the percentage of macrophages infected with L. amazonensis. These results define a host protection mechanism effective during Leishmania infection and demonstrate for the first time a novel means by which IgG antibodies can enhance killing of an intracellular pathogen.

  19. Two independent killing mechanisms of Candida albicans by human neutrophils: evidence from innate immunity defects.

    Gazendam, Roel P; van Hamme, John L; Tool, Anton T J; van Houdt, Michel; Verkuijlen, Paul J J H; Herbst, Martin; Liese, Johannes G; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2014-07-24

    Invasive fungal infections, accompanied by high rates of mortality, represent an increasing problem in medicine. Neutrophils are the major effector immune cells in fungal killing. Based on studies with neutrophils from patients with defined genetic defects, we provide evidence that human neutrophils use 2 distinct and independent phagolysosomal mechanisms to kill Candida albicans. The first mechanism for the killing of unopsonized C albicans was found to be dependent on complement receptor 3 (CR3) and the signaling proteins phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9), but was independent of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. The second mechanism for the killing of opsonized C albicans was strictly dependent on Fcγ receptors, protein kinase C (PKC), and reactive oxygen species production by the NADPH oxidase system. Each of the 2 pathways of Candida killing required Syk tyrosine kinase activity, but dectin-1 was dispensable for both of them. These data provide an explanation for the variable clinical presentation of fungal infection in patients suffering from different immune defects, including dectin-1 deficiency, CARD9 deficiency, or chronic granulomatous disease. PMID:24948657

  20. Chronic Diarrhea

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  1. Gas Well Blowout Kills 243 People

    2003-01-01

    @@ At least 243 people have been killed and scores of others poisoned in a devastating blowout at a natural gas field in Southwest China's Chongqing municipality on December 24. The accident happened at the Chuandongbei gas field in Kaixian county of Chongqing municipality.

  2. The evolution of reduced microbial killing.

    Vriezen, Jan A C; Valliere, Michael; Riley, Margaret A

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria engage in a never-ending arms race in which they compete for limited resources and niche space. The outcome of this intense interaction is the evolution of a powerful arsenal of biological weapons. Perhaps the most studied of these are colicins, plasmid-based toxins produced by and active against Escherichia coli. The present study was designed to explore the molecular responses of a colicin-producing strain during serial transfer evolution. What evolutionary changes occur when colicins are produced with no target present? Can killing ability be maintained in the absence of a target? To address these, and other, questions, colicinogenic strains and a noncolicinogenic ancestor were evolved for 253 generations. Samples were taken throughout the experiment and tested for killing ability. By the 38th transfer, a decreased killing ability and an increase in fitness were observed in the colicin-producing strains. Surprisingly, DNA sequence determination of the colicin plasmids revealed no changes in plasmid sequences. However, a set of chromosomally encoded loci experienced changes in gene expression that were positively associated with the reduction in killing. The most significant expression changes were observed in DNA repair genes (which were downregulated in the evolved strains), Mg ion uptake genes (which were upregulated), and late prophage genes (which were upregulated). These results indicate a fine-tuned response to the evolutionary pressures of colicin production, with far more genes involved than had been anticipated. PMID:20333208

  3. Killing Spinors and Related Symmetries in Six Dimensions

    Batista, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Benefiting from the index spinorial formalism, the Killing spinor equation is integrated in six-dimensional spacetimes. The integrability conditions for the existence of a Killing spinor are worked out and the Killing spinors are classified in two algebraic types, in the first type the scalar curvature of the spacetime must be negative, while in the second type the spacetime must be an Einstein manifold. In addition, the equations that define Killing-Yano (KY) and closed conformal Killing-Yano (CCKY) tensors are expressed in the index notation and, as consequence, all non-vanishing KY and CCKY tensors that can be generated from a Killing spinor are made explicit.

  4. Killing spinors and related symmetries in six dimensions

    Batista, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Benefiting from the index spinorial formalism, the Killing spinor equation is integrated in six-dimensional spacetimes. The integrability conditions for the existence of a Killing spinor are worked out and the Killing spinors are classified into two algebraic types; in the first type the scalar curvature of the spacetime must be negative, while in the second type the spacetime must be an Einstein manifold. In addition, the equations that define Killing-Yano (KY) and closed conformal Killing-Yano (CCKY) tensors are expressed in the index notation and, as consequence, all nonvanishing KY and CCKY tensors that can be generated from a Killing spinor are made explicit.

  5. Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion; Dirac-Operatoren und Killing-Spinoren mit Torsion

    Becker-Bender, Julia

    2012-12-17

    On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.

  6. Heterotic supergravity on manifolds with Killing spinors

    The present work deals with the construction of heterotic string backgrounds on manifolds with real Killing spinors. The latter have played an important role in string theory for a long time, mainly due to Baer's correspondence between Killing spinors on a manifold M and parallel spinors on the cone over M. Given the fact that parallel spinors always lead to exact supergravity BPS backgrounds, it implies that the cone admits a solution of the BPS equations. Furthermore, in type II string theory and in M-theory it is possible to place a brane at the tip of the cone, in appropriate dimensions, and the resulting supergravity solutions are exactly known. In the limit far away from the brane they converge to the empty space solution, whereas in the near horizon limit one obtains a so-called Freund-Rubin solutions, consisting of an anti-de Sitter space times our base manifold M. In heterotic supergravity on the other hand two types of brane-like solutions are known; the NS5-brane, consisting of an R4-factor with fluxes and a transverse 6-dimensional Minkowski space, and what is sometimes called the gauge solitonic branes. These come equipped with an instanton gauge field on some Euclidean space Rp, which carries further non-vanishing fluxes, and again a transverse (10-p)-dimensional Minkowski space. The possible values for p that appeared in the literature so far are p=4, 7 and 8, and the corresponding instantons are the famous BPST and octonionic instantons. Manifolds with real Killing spinors have been classified: besides the round spheres they are either 6-dimensional nearly Kaehler, 7-dimensional nearly parallel G2, Sasaki-Einstein, or 3-Sasakian. I present a generalization of the gauge solitonic branes to the cone over any real Killing spinor manifold, based upon this classification. In particular, this involves the construction of instantons on the cone. Additionally, I show that for homogeneous manifolds with real Killing spinors there is a solution similar to the

  7. Conformal killing tensors and covariant Hamiltonian dynamics

    A covariant algorithm for deriving the conserved quantities for natural Hamiltonian systems is combined with the non-relativistic framework of Eisenhart, and of Duval, in which the classical trajectories arise as geodesics in a higher dimensional space-time, realized by Brinkmann manifolds. Conserved quantities which are polynomial in the momenta can be built using time-dependent conformal Killing tensors with flux. The latter are associated with terms proportional to the Hamiltonian in the lower dimensional theory and with spectrum generating algebras for higher dimensional quantities of order 1 and 2 in the momenta. Illustrations of the general theory include the Runge-Lenz vector for planetary motion with a time-dependent gravitational constant G(t), motion in a time-dependent electromagnetic field of a certain form, quantum dots, the Hénon-Heiles and Holt systems, respectively, providing us with Killing tensors of rank that ranges from one to six

  8. The Calabi complex and Killing sheaf cohomology

    Khavkine, Igor

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been noticed that the degeneracies of the Poisson bracket of linearized gravity on constant curvature Lorentzian manifold can be described in terms of the cohomologies of a certain complex of differential operators. This complex was first introduced by Calabi and its cohomology is known to be isomorphic to that of the (locally constant) sheaf of Killing vectors. We review the structure of the Calabi complex in a novel way, with explicit calculations based on representation theory of GL(n), and also some tools for studying its cohomology in terms of of locally constant sheaves. We also conjecture how these tools would adapt to linearized gravity on other backgrounds and to other gauge theories. The presentation includes explicit formulas for the differential operators in the Calabi complex, arguments for its local exactness, discussion of generalized Poincar\\'e duality, methods of computing the cohomology of locally constant sheaves, and example calculations of Killing sheaf cohomologies of som...

  9. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important fir...

  10. Amphibian road kills: a global perspective

    Puky, Miklós

    2005-01-01

    Transportation infrastructure is a major factor determining land use forms. As global changes in this factor are the most important for biodiversity, roads fundamentally influence wildlife. The effect of roads on wildlife has been categorized in several ways resulting in six to ten categories with road kill as an obvious and important component, and amphibians are greatly affected by this factor. As this animal group has been documented to decline from multiple threats worldwide, the study an...

  11. It's not just conflict that motivates killing of orangutans.

    Jacqueline T Davis

    Full Text Available We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI. These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed.

  12. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  13. Killing Vector Fields of Standard Static Space-times

    Dobarro, Fernando; Unal, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    We consider Killing vector fields on standard static space-times and obtain equations for a vector field on a standard static space-time to be Killing. We also provide a characterization of Killing vector fields on standard static space-times with compact Riemannian parts.

  14. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  15. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine,...

  16. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  17. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper...

  18. Surface gravities for non-Killing horizons

    There are many logically and computationally distinct characterizations of the surface gravity of a horizon, just as there are many logically rather distinct notions of horizon. Fortunately, in standard general relativity, for stationary horizons, these characterizations are degenerate. However, in modified gravity, or in analogue spacetimes, horizons may be non-Killing or even non-null, and hence these degeneracies can be lifted. We present a brief overview of the key issues, specifically focusing on horizons in analogue spacetimes and universal horizons in modified gravity. (paper)

  19. Low Temperature Plasma Kills SCaBER Cancer Cells

    Barekzi, Nazir; van Way, Lucas; Laroussi, Mounir

    2013-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare type of bladder cancer that forms as a result of chronic irritation of the epithelial lining of the bladder. The cell line used in this study is SCaBER (ATCC® HTB-3™) derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the human urinary bladder. Current treatments of bladder cancer include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, the cost of these treatments, the potential toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents and the systemic side-effects warrant an alternative to current cancer treatment. This paper represents preliminary studies to determine the effects of biologically tolerant plasma (BTP) on a cell line of human bladder cancer cells. Previous work by our group using the plasma pencil revealed the efficacy of BTP on leukemia cells suspended in solution. Based on these earlier findings we hypothesized that the plasma exposure would elicit a similar programmed cell death in the SCaBER cells. Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays revealed the cell killing after exposure to BTP. Our study indicates that low temperature plasma generated by ionizing helium gas and the reactive species may be a suitable and safe alternative for cancer therapy.

  20. The 1990 Arthur Kill oil spills

    On January 1-2, 1990, Exxon discharged 567,000 gallons of No. 2 heating oil in the Arthur Kill, the strait separating Staten Island, New York from New Jersey. Lawsuits against Exxon were filed by the State of New Jersey, New York City, and the City of Elizabeth. They seek to force Exxon to reimburse the municipalities and the state for cleanup costs and to restore damaged wetlands and other natural resources. The three plaintiffs, joined by New York State and the federal government, initiated a three-tiered natural resource damage assessment study (Tier II), currently underway, includes sampling and chemical analysis of sediments and benthic invertebrates, mapping of impacted wetlands and measurement of direct impacts on water birds and their prey. The purposes of the study are to quantify the damages and determine the presence of Exxon's oil in the sediments. Since the Exxon spill, there have been two major spills and an intermediate-size spill. During the first size months of 1990, over one million gallons of petroleum products have been discharged into the Arthur Kill and nearby waters. This paper reports that a review of these incidents provides lessons for the prevention, investigation, and cleanup of spills in urban estuaries

  1. Non-Monotonic Survival of Staphylococcus aureus with Respect to Ciprofloxacin Concentration Arises from Prophage-Dependent Killing of Persisters

    Elizabeth L. Sandvik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious pathogen with a propensity to cause chronic, non-healing wounds. Bacterial persisters have been implicated in the recalcitrance of S. aureus infections, and this motivated us to examine the persistence of S. aureus to ciprofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic. Upon treatment of exponential phase S. aureus with ciprofloxacin, we observed that survival was a non-monotonic function of ciprofloxacin concentration. Maximal killing occurred at 1 µg/mL ciprofloxacin, which corresponded to survival that was up to ~40-fold lower than that obtained with concentrations ≥ 5 µg/mL. Investigation of this phenomenon revealed that the non-monotonic response was associated with prophage induction, which facilitated killing of S. aureus persisters. Elimination of prophage induction with tetracycline was found to prevent cell lysis and persister killing. We anticipate that these findings may be useful for the design of quinolone treatments.

  2. Heterosigma bloom and associated fish kill

    Hershberger, P.K.; Rensel, J.E.; Postel, J.R.; Taub, F.B.

    1997-01-01

    A bloom of the harmful marine phytoplankton, Heterosigma carterae occurred in upper Case Inlet, south Puget Sound, Washington in late September, 1994, correlating with the presence of at least 35 dead salmon. This marks the first time that this alga has been closely correlated with a wild fish kill; in the past it was thought to be associated with kills of penned fish at fish farms only. We were informed of the presence of a possible harmful algal bloom and dead salinois Ilear the town of Allyn on 27 September and a team was formed to investigate. We arrived at the Allyn waterfront at 17:30 hours the same day. Prior to our arrival, state agency personnel walked approximatcly two miles of shoreline from the powerlines north of the dock, to the mouth of Sherwood Creek and conducted the only official count of dead fish present along the shore consisting of 12 coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), 11 chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), 12 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), one flat fish, and one sculpin on the morning of 9/27. Since previous harmful blooms of Heterosigma have resultedin the majority of net penreared salmon sinking to the bottom of pens, and only approximately two miles of shoreline were sampled, it is suspected that many more exposed fish may have succumbed than were counted. Witnesses who explored the east side of the bay reported seeing many dead salmon there as well, but no counts were made. State agency personnel who observed the fish kill reported seeing “dying fish coming to the beach, gulping at the surface, trying to get out of the water” Scavengers were seen consuming the salmon carcasses; these included two harbor seals, a house cat, and Hymenopteran insects. None suffered any noticeable acute ill effects. Although precise cause of death has not been ascertained, visual inspection of the reproductive organs from a deceased male chum salmon found on the shore at Allyn confirmed that the fish was not yet reproductively mature and

  3. Using Chemoattractants to Lure Bacteria to Contact-Killing Surfaces.

    Jain, Rishabh; Faith, Nancy G; Milkowski, Andrew; Nelson, Kevin; Busche, David; Lynn, David M; Czuprynski, Charles J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial surfaces with covalently attached biocidal functionalities only kill microbes that come into direct contact with the surfaces (contact-killing surfaces). Herein, the activity of contact-killing surfaces is shown to be enhanced by using gradients in the concentration of soluble chemoattractants (CAs) to attract bacteria to the surfaces. Two natural and nonbiocidal CAs (aspartate and glucose) were used to attract bacteria to model surfaces decorated with quaternary ammonium groups (known to kill bacteria that come into contact with them). These results demonstrate the killing of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, two common pathogens, at levels 10- to 20-times greater than that of the native surfaces alone. This approach is general and provides new strategies for the design of active or dynamic contact-killing surfaces with enhanced antimicrobial activities. PMID:27059788

  4. Black hole spacetimes with Killing-Yano symmetries

    Kubiznak, David

    2009-01-01

    We present a brief overview of black hole spacetimes admitting Killing-Yano tensors. In vacuum these include Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics and certain black brane solutions. In the presence of matter fields, (conformal) Killing-Yano symmetries are known to exist for the Plebanski-Demianski solution and (trivially) for any spacetime with spherical symmetry. Special attention is devoted to generalized Killing-Yano tensors of black holes in minimal gauged supergravity. Several aspects directly related ...

  5. Why Are Bad Products So Hard to Kill?

    Duncan Simester; Juanjuan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    It is puzzling that firms often continue to invest in product development projects when they should know that demand will be low. We argue that bad products are hard to kill because firms face an inherent conflict when designing managers' incentives. Rewarding success encourages managers to forge ahead even when demand is low. To avoid investing in low-demand products, the firm must also reward decisions to kill products. However, rewarding managers for killing products effectively undermines...

  6. Geometry of Killing spinors in neutral signature

    Klemm, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We classify the supersymmetric solutions of minimal $N=2$ gauged supergravity in four dimensions with neutral signature. They are distinguished according to the sign of the cosmological constant and whether the vector field constructed as a bilinear of the Killing spinor is null or non-null. In neutral signature the bilinear vector field can be spacelike, which is a new feature not arising in Lorentzian signature. In the $\\Lambda0$ non-null case, the manifold is a fibration over a Lorentzian Gauduchon-Tod base space. Finally, in the $\\Lambda>0$ null class, the metric is contained in the Kundt family, and it turns out that the holonomy is reduced to ${\\rm Sim}(1)\\times{\\rm Sim}(1)$. There appear no self-dual solutions in the null class for either sign of the cosmological constant.

  7. Self-forces from generalized Killing fields

    A non-perturbative formalism is developed that simplifies the understanding of self-forces and self-torques acting on extended scalar charges in curved spacetimes. Laws of motion are locally derived using momenta generated by a set of generalized Killing fields. Self-interactions that may be interpreted as arising from the details of a body's internal structure are shown to have very simple geometric and physical interpretations. Certain modifications to the usual definition for a center-of-mass are identified that significantly simplify the motions of charges with strong self-fields. A derivation is also provided for a generalized form of the Detweiler-Whiting axiom that pointlike charges should react only to the so-called regular component of their self-field. Standard results are shown to be recovered for sufficiently small charge distributions

  8. f(R)-gravity from Killing tensors

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2016-04-01

    We consider f(R)-gravity in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime with zero spatial curvature. We apply the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to specify the functional form of f(R) and for the field equations to be invariant under Lie-Bäcklund transformations, which are linear in momentum (contact symmetries). Consequently, the field equations to admit quadratic conservation laws given by Noether’s theorem. We find three new integrable f(R)-models, for which, with the application of the conservation laws, we reduce the field equations to a system of two first-order ordinary differential equations. For each model we study the evolution of the cosmological fluid. We find that for each integrable model the cosmological fluid has an equation of state parameter, in which there is linear behavior in terms of the scale factor which describes the Chevallier, Polarski and Linder parametric dark energy model.

  9. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  10. Killing forms and toric Sasaki-Einstein spaces

    The construction of the special Killing forms on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds is presented. This goal is achieved using the interplay between complex coordinates of the Calabi-Yau metric cone and the special Killing forms on the toric Sasaki-Einstein space. As a concrete example, we present the complete set of special Killing forms on the five-dimensional Einstein-Sasaki Yp,q spaces. It is pointed out the existence of two additional special Killing forms associated with the complex holomorphic volume form of Calabi-Yau cone manifold

  11. Killing spinors as a characterisation of rotating black hole spacetimes

    Cole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the implications of the existence of Killing spinors in a spacetime. In particular, we show that in vacuum and electrovacuum a Killing spinor, along with some assumptions on the associated Killing vector in an asymptotic region, guarantees that the spacetime is locally isometric to the Kerr or Kerr-Newman solutions. We show that the characterisation of these spacetimes in terms of Killing spinors is an alternative expression of characterisation results of Mars (Kerr) and Wong (Kerr-Newman) involving restrictions on the Weyl curvature and matter content.

  12. Killing spinors as a characterisation of rotating black hole spacetimes

    Cole, Michael J.; Valiente Kroon, Juan A.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the implications of the existence of Killing spinors in a spacetime. In particular, we show that in vacuum and electrovacuum a Killing spinor, along with some assumptions on the associated Killing vector in an asymptotic region, guarantees that the spacetime is locally isometric to the Kerr or Kerr–Newman solutions. We show that the characterisation of these spacetimes in terms of Killing spinors is an alternative expression of characterisation results of Mars (Kerr) and Wong (Kerr–Newman) involving restrictions on the Weyl curvature and matter content.

  13. Actinomyces in chronic granulomatous disease: an emerging and unanticipated pathogen

    Reichenbach, J.; Lopatin, U; Mahlaoui, N.; Beovic, B; Siler, U; Zbinden, R.; Seger, R.A.; Galmiche, L; Brousse, N; Kayal, S.; Güngör, T; Blanche, S; Holland, S M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system that causes defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life-threatening infections, mostly by catalase-producing organisms. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, chronic infections with Actinomyces species in 10 patients with CGD. Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous condition that commonly manifests as cerv...

  14. Understanding carnivore killing behaviour: Exploring the motivations for tiger killing in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh

    MacMillan, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores village-based tiger killing (TK) among communities bordering the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh. We find that TKs are not purely retaliatory in nature (i.e. a desire for retribution following livestock depredation or attacks on humans by tigers) and that previous negative experience of tigers is not the sole determinant of villagers’ acceptance of TK behaviour. Inter-related social-psychological factors (risk perceptions, beliefs about tigers, tolerance for tigers)...

  15. Investigating CTL mediated killing with a 3D cellular automaton.

    Frederik Graw

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs are important immune effectors against intra-cellular pathogens. These cells search for infected cells and kill them. Recently developed experimental methods in combination with mathematical models allow for the quantification of the efficacy of CTL killing in vivo and, hence, for the estimation of parameters that characterize the effect of CTL killing on the target cell populations. It is not known how these population-level parameters relate to single-cell properties. To address this question, we developed a three-dimensional cellular automaton model of the region of the spleen where CTL killing takes place. The cellular automaton model describes the movement of different cell populations and their interactions. Cell movement patterns in our cellular automaton model agree with observations from two-photon microscopy. We find that, despite the strong spatial nature of the kinetics in our cellular automaton model, the killing of target cells by CTLs can be described by a term which is linear in the target cell frequency and saturates with respect to the CTL levels. Further, we find that the parameters describing CTL killing on the population level are most strongly impacted by the time a CTL needs to kill a target cell. This suggests that the killing of target cells, rather than their localization, is the limiting step in CTL killing dynamics given reasonable frequencies of CTL. Our analysis identifies additional experimental directions which are of particular importance to interpret estimates of killing rates and could advance our quantitative understanding of CTL killing.

  16. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: rapid killing accompanying phagocytosis

    The kinetics of bactericidal activity of activated macrophages can be precisely described by a mathematical model in which phagocytosis, killing, digestion, and release of degraded bacterial material are considered to occur continuously. To gain a better understanding of these events, I have determined the period of time between first contact of bacteria with macrophages and the onset of killing. Activated rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated for various times up to 15 min with Listeria monocytogenes previously labeled with 3H-thymidine and the unassociated bacteria removed by two centrifugations through a density interface. Both cell-associated radioactivity and cell-associated viable bacteria, determined as colony forming units after sonication of the cell pellet, increased with time of incubation. However, the specific viability of these bacteria, expressed as the ratio of number of viable bacteria per unit radioactivity declined with time, as an approximate inverse exponential, after a lag period of 2.9 +/- 0.8 min. Evidence is given that other possible causes for this decline in specific viability, other than death of the bacteria, such as preferential ingestion of dead Listeria, clumping of bacteria, variations in autolytic activity, or release of Listericidins are unlikely. I conclude therefore that activated macrophages kill Listeria approximately 3 min after the cell and the bacterium first make contact

  17. Antibacterial activity of liposomal gentamicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a time-kill study.

    Rukholm, Gavin; Mugabe, Clement; Azghani, Ali O; Omri, Abdelwahab

    2006-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common and lethal genetic disorder with a carrier frequency of 1 in 29 Caucasians. Chronic respiratory infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with CF. Aminoglycoside antibiotics, including gentamicin, are highly effective against P. aeruginosa, but severe toxicity limits their use. One potential strategy for avoiding this problem is to encapsulate aminoglycosides in liposomes. In this study, we compared the bactericidal capacity of liposome-encapsulated gentamicin with that of free antibiotic against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. Liposome size, encapsulation efficiency and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the free and liposomal gentamicin against gentamicin-sensitive and -resistant strains of P. aeruginosa were determined. In vitro time-kill studies were performed using free and liposomal gentamicin at 1, 2 or 4 times the MICs. The average liposomal size was 426.25 +/- 13.56 nm, with a gentamicin encapsulation efficiency of 4.51 +/- 0.54%. The MICs for liposomal gentamicin were significantly lower than those of corresponding free gentamicin. In addition, the time-kill values for liposomal gentamicin were either equivalent to or better than those of the free antibiotic. In conclusion, our liposomal gentamicin formulation is a more potent antipseudomonal drug with an improved killing time and prolonged antimicrobial activity. PMID:16472992

  18. Design of targeted B cell killing agents.

    Alexey V Stepanov

    Full Text Available B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of both systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Autoreactive B cells not only produce autoantibodies, but also are capable to efficiently present specific autoantigens to T cells. Furthermore, B cells can secrete proinflammatory cytokines and amplify the vicious process of self-destruction. B cell-directed therapy is a potentially important approach for treatment of various autoimmune diseases. The depletion of B cells by anti-CD20/19 monoclonal antibody Retuximab® used in autoimmune diseases therapy leads to systemic side effects and should be significantly improved. In this study we designed a repertoire of genetically engineered B cell killers that specifically affected one kind of cells carrying a respective B cell receptor. We constructed immunotoxins (ITs, fused with c-myc epitope as a model targeting sequence, based on barnase, Pseudomonas toxin, Shiga-like toxin E.coli and Fc domain of human antibody IgGγ1. C-MYC hybridoma cell line producing anti-c-myc IgG was chosen as a model for targeted cell depletion. C-myc sequence fused with toxins provided addressed delivery of the toxic agent to the target cells. We demonstrated functional activity of designed ITs in vitro and showed recognition of the fusion molecules by antibodies produced by targeted hybridoma. To study specificity of the proposed B cells killing molecules, we tested a set of created ITs ex vivo, using C-MYC and irrelevant hybridoma cell lines. Pseudomonas-containing IT showed one of the highest cytotoxic effects on the model cells, however, possessed promiscuous specificity. Shiga-like toxin construct demonstrated mild both cytotoxicity and specificity. Barnase and Fc-containing ITs revealed excellent balance between their legibility and toxic properties. Moreover, barnase and Fc molecules fused with c-myc epitope were able to selectively deplete c-myc-specific B cells and decrease production of anti

  19. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  20. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  1. Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines

    Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

  2. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  3. Killing of Bacteria by Copper Surfaces Involves Dissolved Copper▿

    Molteni, Cristina; Abicht, Helge K.; Solioz, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria are rapidly killed on copper surfaces. However, the mechanism of this process remains unclear. Using Enterococcus hirae, the effect of inactivation of copper homeostatic genes and of medium compositions on survival and copper dissolution was tested. The results support a role for dissolved copper ions in killing.

  4. Generalized Killing equations and Taub-NUT spinning space

    Vaman, Diana; Visinescu, Mihai

    1996-01-01

    The generalized Killing equations for the configuration space of spinning particles (spinning space) are analysed. Simple solutions of the homogeneous part of these equations are expressed in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. The general results are applied to the case of the four-dimensional euclidean Taub-NUT manifold.

  5. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  6. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  7. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  8. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli

    Klemm, P.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren

    1995-01-01

    of time. Similar results were obtained with a strain in which the killing cassette was inserted in the chromosome. In competition with noncontained cells during growth, the contained cells are always outcompeted. Stochastic killing obtained by the fim-gef fusion is at present relevant only as a...

  9. Null conformal Killing-Yano tensors and Birkhoff theorem

    Ferrando, Joan Josep

    2015-01-01

    We study the space-times admitting a null conformal Killing-Yano tensor whose divergence defines a Killing vector. We analyze the similitudes and differences with the recently studied non null case (Gen. Relativ. Grav. (2015) {\\bf 47} 1911). The results by Barnes concerning the Birkhoff theorem for the case of null orbits are analyzed and generalized.

  10. Null conformal Killing-Yano tensors and Birkhoff theorem

    Ferrando, Joan Josep; Sáez, Juan Antonio

    2016-04-01

    We study the space-times admitting a null conformal Killing-Yano tensor whose divergence defines a Killing vector. We analyze the similarities and differences with the recently studied non null case (Ferrando and Sáez in Gen Relativ Gravit 47:1911, 2015). The results by Barnes concerning the Birkhoff theorem for the case of null orbits are analyzed and generalized.

  11. Otters Lutra lutra killing Mountain Hares Lepus timidus

    Conroy J.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available During the winter, otter Lutra lutra were found to kill mountain hares Lepus timidus in the Scottish highlands. The possible method of killing is discussed. Hares and other mammals are an important part of otter' diet during winter.

  12. Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

  13. Staphylococcus epidermidis strategies to avoid killing by human neutrophils.

    Gordon Y C Cheung

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading nosocomial pathogen. In contrast to its more aggressive relative S. aureus, it causes chronic rather than acute infections. In highly virulent S. aureus, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs contribute significantly to immune evasion and aggressive virulence by their strong ability to lyse human neutrophils. Members of the PSM family are also produced by S. epidermidis, but their role in immune evasion is not known. Notably, strong cytolytic capacity of S. epidermidis PSMs would be at odds with the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus, prompting us to examine the biological activities of S. epidermidis PSMs. Surprisingly, we found that S. epidermidis has the capacity to produce PSMδ, a potent leukocyte toxin, representing the first potent cytolysin to be identified in that pathogen. However, production of strongly cytolytic PSMs was low in S. epidermidis, explaining its low cytolytic potency. Interestingly, the different approaches of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to causing human disease are thus reflected by the adaptation of biological activities within one family of virulence determinants, the PSMs. Nevertheless, S. epidermidis has the capacity to evade neutrophil killing, a phenomenon we found is partly mediated by resistance mechanisms to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, including the protease SepA, which degrades AMPs, and the AMP sensor/resistance regulator, Aps (GraRS. These findings establish a significant function of SepA and Aps in S. epidermidis immune evasion and explain in part why S. epidermidis may evade elimination by innate host defense despite the lack of cytolytic toxin expression. Our study shows that the strategy of S. epidermidis to evade elimination by human neutrophils is characterized by a passive defense approach and provides molecular evidence to support the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus.

  14. Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus

    Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

    2012-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

  15. Boromycin Kills Mycobacterial Persisters without Detectable Resistance

    Moreira, Wilfried; Aziz, Dinah B.; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Boromycin is a boron-containing polyether macrolide antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It was shown to be active against Gram positive bacteria and to act as an ionophore for potassium ions. The antibiotic is ineffective against Gram negative bacteria where the outer membrane appears to block access of the molecule to the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we asked whether boromycin is active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis which, similar to Gram negative bacteria, possesses an outer membrane. The results show that boromycin is a potent inhibitor of mycobacterial growth (MIC50 = 80 nM) with strong bactericidal activity against growing and non-growing drug tolerant persister bacilli. Exposure to boromycin resulted in a rapid loss of membrane potential, reduction of the intracellular ATP level and leakage of cytoplasmic protein. Consistent with boromycin acting as a potassium ionophore, addition of KCl to the medium blocked its antimycobacterial activity. In contrast to the potent antimycobacterial activities of the polyether macrolide, its cytotoxicity and haemolytic activity were low (CC50 = 30 μM, HC50 = 40 μM) with a selectivity index of more than 300. Spontaneous resistant mutants could not be isolated suggesting a mutation frequency of less than 10-9/CFU. Taken together, the results suggests that targeting mycobacterial transmembrane ion gradients may be an attractive chemotherapeutic intervention level to kill otherwise drug tolerant persister bacilli, and to slow down the development of genetic antibiotic resistance. PMID:26941723

  16. Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans

    Lovato James

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22. Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88 after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size.

  17. f(R)-gravity from Killing Tensors

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2015-01-01

    We consider $f\\left( R\\right) $-gravity in a Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker spacetime with zero spatial curvature. We apply the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to specify the functional form of $f\\left( R\\right) $ and the field equations to be invariant under Lie-B\\"{a}cklund transformations which are linear in the momentum (contact symmetries). Consequently, the field equations to admit quadratic conservation laws given by Noether's Theorem. We find three new integrable $f\\left( R\\right) $ models, for which with the application of the conservation laws we reduce the field equations to a system of two first-order ordinary differential equations. For each model we study the evolution of the cosmological fluid. Where we find that for the one integrable model the cosmological fluid has an equation of state parameter, in which in the latter there is a linear behavior in terms of the scale factor which describes the CPL parametric dark energy model.

  18. [Time point and methods for emergency killing in cattle].

    Khol, J L; Schafbauer, T; Wittek, T

    2016-02-16

    Emergency killing is defined as the killing of injured or ill animals to avoid excessive pain or harm. Decision-making for emergency killing or a prolonged therapy can be difficult and has to be based on the case history and results of the clinical examination contributing to the prognosis, particularly in downer cows. Evaluation of enzyme activities and total bilirubin can be used as additional factors pointing to a guarded prognosis; however, none of these parameters provides a clear cut-off value indicating a poor prognosis and mandatory emergency killing. Euthanasia by intravenous drug application is seen as the least stressful method of killing and should therefore always be the first method of choice for emergency killing in cattle. Drugs containing pentobarbital as well as a combination of three different drugs (T61®-Injektionslösung, MSD Animal Health) are available for euthanasia in cattle. All drugs must be administered by a veterinarian. Before application of pentobarbital, an animal should be deeply sedated. The administration of T61® requires anaesthesia of the animal and it is not licensed for use in pregnant animals. Alternative methods for emeragency killing, including captive bolt stunning and the use of firearms, although not regularly performed by veterinarians, should be assessed concerning their correct application and performance. When captive bolt stunning or emergency killing using firearms is performed, the correct position of the device is crucial as well as a quick exsanguination or the application of a pithing rod for the actual killing of the animal after captive bolt stunning. In addition to medical considerations, economic and personal factors contribute to the decision about emergency killing in cattle. Therefore, veterinarians should aim to evaluate each case thoroughly based on personal knowledge and experience, case history, clinical findings and laboratory parameters to avoid prolonged suffering of the animal. PMID:26830543

  19. Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age

    Jeremy Biles; Brian Collins

    2012-01-01

    Most readers will recall the 1996 tragedy in which six-year-old beauty-pageant princess JonBenét Ramsey was found bound, gagged, and strangled in the basement of her parents’ home, inciting an orgy of media coverage. What readers may not know is that John Mark Karr—the imminently creepy individual who falsely confessed to the killing, and whose sordid past includes an arrest for possession of child pornography—has continued to make news as an alleged cyberstalker and would-be cult leader. Thi...

  20. Chronic Bronchitis

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  1. Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption

    Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the

  2. Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct

  3. Potassium channels mediate killing by human natural killer cells

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, the authors found a voltage-dependent potassium (K+) current in NK cells. The K+ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd2+. They tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard 51Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd2+, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K+ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na= current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K+ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. The findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process

  4. Chronic prostatitis

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  5. Special Killing forms on toric Sasaki–Einstein manifolds

    In this paper we study the interplay between complex coordinates on the Calabi–Yau metric cone and the special Killing forms on the toric Sasaki–Einstein manifold. First, we give a procedure to locally construct the special Killing forms. Finally, we exemplify the general scheme in the case of the five-dimensional Yp,q spaces, identifying the additional special Killing 2-forms which were previously obtained using a different method by Visinescu (2012 Mod. Phys. Lett. A 27 1250217). (paper)

  6. Killing spinors and supersymmetry on AdS

    In this paper we construct several supersymmetric theories on AdS5 background. We discuss the proper definition of the Killing equation for the symplectic Majorana spinors required in AdS5 supersymmetric theories. We find that the symplectic Killing spinor equation involves a matrix M in the USp(2N) indices whose role was not recognized previously. Using the correct Killing spinors we explicitly confirm that the particle masses in the constructed theories agree with the predictions of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Finally, we establish correct O(d - 1,2) isometry transformations required to keep the Lagrangian invariant on AdSd

  7. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct', we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. Γ rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that γ-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture

  8. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  9. Blacks are much more likely to be executed for killing whites than whites who have killed blacks

    Baumgartner, Frank; Grigg, Amanda; Mastro, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Last year saw the increased popularization of the “#BlackLivesMatter” movement in the wake of the killing of unarmed Black men by police in Ferguson, Missouri, and New York. In new research, Frank Baumgartner, Amanda Grigg, and Alisa Mastro find that in the area of capital punishment, Black lives seem to matter far less than whites’. They find that, since 1976, twice as many blacks have been executed for killing whites than whites have been for killing blacks, and that while Blacks make up 47...

  10. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  11. Fish Kill Investigations : St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes an investigation that took place after a massive fish kill in 5 of the 6 ponds on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge. Two days of field...

  12. Killing superalgebra deformations of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds

    We explore Lie superalgebra deformations of the Killing superalgebras of some ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We prove the rigidity of the Poincare superalgebras in types I, IIA and IIB, as well as of the Killing superalgebra of the Freund-Rubin vacuum of type IIB supergravity. We also prove rigidity of the Killing superalgebras of the NS5-, D0-, D3-, D4- and D5-branes, whereas we exhibit the possible deformations of the D1-, D2-, D6- and D7-brane Killing superalgebras, as well as of that of the type II fundamental string solutions. We relate the superalgebra deformations of the D2- and D6-branes to those of the (delocalized) M2-brane and the Kaluza-Klein monopole, respectively. The good behaviour under Kaluza-Klein reduction suggests that the deformed superalgebras ought to have a geometric interpretation

  13. Hidden symmetries and killing tensors on curved spaces

    Higher-order symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and nonstandard supersymmetries is pointed out. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to space-times which appear in modern studies. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra. The existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed 3-Sasakian structures.

  14. Snail-Killing Effects of Streptomyces 218 Powder

    V.O. Aina; A.A.J. Adewumi; C.O. Yao; M.Z. Shi; Hu, D. Y.; W.H. Chai

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at finding out the snail-killing effects of Streptomyces 218 powder on Oncomelania hupensis snails which are the vectors or intermediate host of Schiltosoma Japonicum (intestinal schistosomiasis) in china the tests were carried out in the laboratory and on the field. The snail-killing effects of Streptomyces218 powder, isolated from snail habitat at Anchang Village of Anxiang country in China was tested using the immersion and spraying methods. The tests on the Oncomelania...

  15. Special Killing forms on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds

    Slesar, Vladimir; Vilcu, Gabriel Eduard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the interplay between complex coordinates of the Calabi-Yau metric cone and the special Killing forms on the toric Sasaki-Einstein manifold. In the general case we give a procedure to locally construct the special Killing forms. In the final part we exemplify the general scheme in the case of the 5-dimensional $Y^{p,q}$ spaces.

  16. On Killing vectors and harmonic vectors at quantization of gravitation

    Attention is paid to two shortcomings occuring at quantization in the curved spacetime: mathematical shortcoming consisting in the killing vector absence in arbitrary Riemann space and physical one consisting in absence of energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational field. It is shown, that both shortcomings may be removed, if the killing vectors are replaced by harmonic vectors corresponding to shift generators of the Poincare group existing in arbitrary Riemann space

  17. Conformal Killing vector fields and a virial theorem

    Cariñena, José F.; Gheorghiu, Irina; Martínez, Eduardo; Santos, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    The virial theorem is formulated both intrinsically and in local coordinates for a Lagrangian system of mechanical type on a Riemann manifold. An import case studied in this paper is that of an affine virial function associated to a vector field on the configuration manifold. The special cases of a virial function associated to a Killing, a homothetic and a conformal Killing vector field are considered and the corresponding virial theorems are established for this type of functions.

  18. The effect of road kills on amphibian populations

    Hels, Tove; Buchwald,, Erik

    2001-01-01

    The diurnal movement patterns of Triturus vulgaris, T. cristatus, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, Rana temporaria, and R. arvalis were investigated during five breeding seasons (1994-1998). Two main questions were addressed: 1) What is the probability of an individual amphibian getting killed when crossing the road? and 2) What fraction of the amphibian populations gets killed by traffic? The rate of movement of 203 adult amphibians was recorded. Information on traffic loads was provided, and mo...

  19. Conformal Killing vector fields and a virial theorem

    The virial theorem is formulated both intrinsically and in local coordinates for a Lagrangian system of a mechanical type on a Riemann manifold. An important case studied in this paper is that of an affine virial function associated with a vector field on the configuration manifold. The special cases of a virial function associated with a Killing, a homothetic, and a conformal Killing vector field are considered and the corresponding virial theorems are established for these types of functions. (paper)

  20. Killing tensors in stationary and axially symmetric space-times

    Vollmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the existence of Killing tensors for certain (physically motivated) stationary and axially symmetric vacuum space-times. We show nonexistence of a nontrivial Killing tensor for a Tomimatsu-Sato metric (up to valence 7), for a C-metric (up to valence 9) and for a Zipoy-Voorhees metric (up to valence 11). The results are obtained by mathematically completely rigorous, nontrivial computer algebra computations with a huge number of equations involved in the problem.

  1. Conformal Killing Vectors in LRS Bianchi Type V Spacetimes

    Suhail, Khan; Tahir, Hussain; Ashfaque, H. Bokhari; Gulzar, Ali Khan

    2016-03-01

    In this note, we investigate conformal Killing vectors (CKVs) of locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type V spacetimes. Subject to some integrability conditions, CKVs up to implicit functions of (t,x) are obtained. Solving these integrability conditions in some particular cases, the CKVs are completely determined, obtaining a classification of LRS Bianchi type V spacetimes. The inheriting conformal Killing vectors of LRS Bianchi type V spacetimes are also discussed.

  2. Spinorial geometry and Killing spinor equations of 6D supergravity

    We solve the Killing spinor equations of six-dimensional (1, 0)-supergravity coupled to any number of tensor, vector and scalar multiplets in all cases. The isotropy groups of Killing spinors are Sp(1)·Sp(1)xH(1)·U(1)/·Sp(1)xH(2), Sp(1)xH(3,4), Sp(1)(2), U(1)(4) and {1}(8), where in parenthesis is the number of supersymmetries preserved in each case. If the isotropy group is non-compact, the spacetime admits a parallel null 1-form with respect to a connection with torsion given by the 3-form field strength of the gravitational multiplet. The associated vector field is Killing and the 3-form is determined in terms of the geometry of spacetime. The Sp(1)xH case admits a descendant solution preserving three out of four supersymmetries due to the hyperini Killing spinor equation. If the isotropy group is compact, the spacetime admits a natural frame constructed from 1-form spinor bi-linears. In the Sp(1) and U(1) cases, the spacetime admits three and four parallel 1-forms with respect to the connection with torsion, respectively. The associated vector fields are Killing and under some additional restrictions the spacetime is a principal bundle with fibre a Lorentzian Lie group. The conditions imposed by the Killing spinor equations on all other fields are also determined.

  3. Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age

    Jeremy Biles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most readers will recall the 1996 tragedy in which six-year-old beauty-pageant princess JonBenét Ramsey was found bound, gagged, and strangled in the basement of her parents’ home, inciting an orgy of media coverage. What readers may not know is that John Mark Karr—the imminently creepy individual who falsely confessed to the killing, and whose sordid past includes an arrest for possession of child pornography—has continued to make news as an alleged cyberstalker and would-be cult leader. This article claims that whereas a real serial killer is compelled to murder again and again with different victims, Karr is compelled to repeat the singular murder of JonBenét Ramsey the only way he can—in a virtual reality constituted by writing.

  4. Symmetry Operators of Killing Spinors and Superalgebras in AdS_5

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We construct the first-order symmetry operators of Killing spinor equation in terms of odd Killing-Yano forms. By modifying the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of Killing-Yano forms, we show that the symmetry operators of Killing spinors close into an algebra in AdS_5 spacetime. Since the symmetry operator algebra of Killing spinors corresponds to a Jacobi identity in extended Killing superalgebras, we investigate the possible extensions of Killing superalgebras to include higher-degree Killing-Yano forms. We found that there is a superalgebra extension but no Lie superalgebra extension of the Killing superalgebra constructed out of Killing spinors and odd Killing-Yano forms in AdS_5 background.

  5. Symmetry operators of Killing spinors and superalgebras in AdS5

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-04-01

    We construct the first-order symmetry operators of Killing spinor equation in terms of odd Killing-Yano forms. By modifying the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of Killing-Yano forms, we show that the symmetry operators of Killing spinors close into an algebra in AdS5 spacetime. Since the symmetry operator algebra of Killing spinors corresponds to a Jacobi identity in extended Killing superalgebras, we investigate the possible extensions of Killing superalgebras to include higher-degree Killing-Yano forms. We found that there is a superalgebra extension but no Lie superalgebra extension of the Killing superalgebra constructed out of Killing spinors and odd Killing-Yano forms in AdS5 background.

  6. Chronic migraine.

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  7. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fish kill for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek

    Etnier, E.L.; Opresko, D.M.; Talmage, S.S. [eds.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring of fish kills in upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) from July 1990 to June 1993. Since the opening of Lake Reality (LR) in 1988, total numbers of fish inhabiting upper EFPC have increased. However, species diversity has remained poor. Water quality data have been collected in upper EFPC during the time period covered in this report. Total residual chlorine (TRC) levels have exceeded federal and state water quality criteria over the years. However, with the installation of two dechlorination systems in late 1992, TRC levels have been substantially lowered in most portions of upper EFPC. By June 1993, concentrations of TRC were 0.04 to 0.06 mg/L at the north-south pipes (NSP) and below detection limits at sampling station AS-8 and were 0 to 0.01 mg/L at the inlet and outlet of LR. The daily chronic fish mortality in upper EFPC has been attributed to background stress resulting from the continuous discharge of chlorine into upper EFPC. Mean daily mortality rates for 22 acute fish kills were three fold or more above background and usually exceeded ten fish per day. Total number of dead fish collected per acute kill event ranged from 30 to over 1,000 fish; predominant species killed were central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) and striped shiners (Luxilus chrysocephalus). Spills or elevated releases of toxic chemicals, such as acids, organophosphates, aluminum nitrate, ammonia, or chlorine, were identified as possible causative agents; however, a definitive cause-effect relationship was rarely established for any acute kills. Ambient toxicity testing, in situ chemical monitoring, and streamside experiments were used to examine TRC dynamics and ambient toxicity in EFPC.

  8. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fish kill for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek

    This report summarizes the monitoring of fish kills in upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) from July 1990 to June 1993. Since the opening of Lake Reality (LR) in 1988, total numbers of fish inhabiting upper EFPC have increased. However, species diversity has remained poor. Water quality data have been collected in upper EFPC during the time period covered in this report. Total residual chlorine (TRC) levels have exceeded federal and state water quality criteria over the years. However, with the installation of two dechlorination systems in late 1992, TRC levels have been substantially lowered in most portions of upper EFPC. By June 1993, concentrations of TRC were 0.04 to 0.06 mg/L at the north-south pipes (NSP) and below detection limits at sampling station AS-8 and were 0 to 0.01 mg/L at the inlet and outlet of LR. The daily chronic fish mortality in upper EFPC has been attributed to background stress resulting from the continuous discharge of chlorine into upper EFPC. Mean daily mortality rates for 22 acute fish kills were three fold or more above background and usually exceeded ten fish per day. Total number of dead fish collected per acute kill event ranged from 30 to over 1,000 fish; predominant species killed were central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) and striped shiners (Luxilus chrysocephalus). Spills or elevated releases of toxic chemicals, such as acids, organophosphates, aluminum nitrate, ammonia, or chlorine, were identified as possible causative agents; however, a definitive cause-effect relationship was rarely established for any acute kills. Ambient toxicity testing, in situ chemical monitoring, and streamside experiments were used to examine TRC dynamics and ambient toxicity in EFPC

  9. Disseminated aspergillosis as the herald manifestation of chronic granulomatous disease in an adult patient.

    Ilad Alavi Darazam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease is an inherited defect in intracellular killing of ingested microorganisms characterized by recurrent life threatening bacterial and fungal infections including invasive aspergillosis in early childhood. We report a disseminated aspergillosis as the representative of adult onset chronic granulomatous disease without previous infection, with dramatic response to combination of antifungal and interferon therapy.

  10. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused by ...

  11. Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.

    Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age = 14.6, SD = 0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567

  12. Rotating Killing horizons in generic $F(R)$ gravity theories

    Bhattacharya, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    We discuss various properties of rotating Killing horizons in generic non-singular $F(R)$ theories of gravity in dimension four for spacetimes endowed with two commuting Killing vector fields. By constructing a suitable $(3+1)$-foliation, we show that similar to Einstein's gravity, we must have $T_{ab}k^ak^b=0$ on the Killing horizon, where $k^a$ is a null geodesic tangent to the horizon. For axisymmetric spacetimes, the effective gravitational coupling $\\sim\\,F'^{-1}(R)$ should usually depend upon the polar coordinate and hence need not necessarily be a constant on the Killing horizon. We prove that the surface gravity of such a Killing horizon must be a constant, irrespective of whether $F'(R)$ is a constant there or not. We next use these results to derive some simple corollaries. In particular, we point out that the no hair theorem for the real massive vector field need not necessarily hold for a generic $F(R)$, unless some additional condition is satisfied.

  13. Chronic pancreatitis

    Kocher, Hemant M; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  14. Chronic pancreatitis

    Kocher, Hemant M; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  15. Reactive oxygen species-mediated bacterial killing by B lymphocytes.

    Kovács, István; Horváth, Magdolna; Lányi, Árpád; Petheő, Gábor L; Geiszt, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Regulated production of ROS is mainly attributed to Nox family enzymes. In neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages, Nox2 has a crucial role in bacterial killing, and the absence of phagocytic ROS production leads to the development of CGD. Expression of Nox2 was also described in B lymphocytes, where the role of the enzyme is still poorly understood. Here, we show that peritoneal B cells, which were shown recently to possess phagocytic activity, have a high capacity to produce ROS in a Nox2-dependent manner. In phagocytosing B cells, intense intraphagosomal ROS production is detected. Finally, by studying 2 animal models of CGD, we demonstrate that phagocyte oxidase-deficient B cells have a reduced capacity to kill bacteria. Our observations extend the number of immune cell types that produce ROS to kill pathogens. PMID:25821233

  16. Almost-Killing conserved currents: A general mass function

    Ruiz, Milton; Palenzuela, Carlos; Bona, Carles

    2014-01-01

    A new class of conserved currents, describing nongravitational energy-momentum density, is presented. The proposed currents do not require the existence of a (timelike) Killing vector, and are not restricted to spherically symmetric spacetimes (or similar ones, in which the Kodama vector can be defined). They are based instead on almost-Killing vectors, which could in principle be defined on generic spacetimes. We provide local arguments, based on energy density profiles in highly simplified (stationary, rigidly rotating) star models, which confirm the physical interest of these almost-Killing currents. A mass function is defined in this way for the spherical case, qualitatively different from the Hernández-Misner mass function. An elliptic equation determining the new mass function is derived for the Tolman-Bondi spherically symmetric dust metrics, including a simple solution for the Oppenheimer-Snyder collapse. The equations for the nonsymmetric case are shown to be of a mixed elliptic-hyperbolic nature.

  17. Supersymmetric Backgrounds, the Killing Superalgebra, and Generalised Special Holonomy

    Coimbra, André

    2016-01-01

    We prove that, for M theory or type II, generic Minkowski flux backgrounds preserving $\\mathcal{N}$ supersymmetries in dimensions $D\\geq4$ correspond precisely to integrable generalised $G_{\\mathcal{N}}$ structures, where $G_{\\mathcal{N}}$ is the generalised structure group defined by the Killing spinors. In other words, they are the analogues of special holonomy manifolds in $E_{d(d)} \\times\\mathbb{R}^+$ generalised geometry. In establishing this result, we introduce the Kosmann-Dorfman bracket, a generalisation of Kosmann's Lie derivative of spinors. This allows us to write down the internal sector of the Killing superalgebra, which takes a rather simple form and whose closure is the key step in proving the main result. In addition, we find that the eleven-dimensional Killing superalgebra of these backgrounds is necessarily the supertranslational part of the $\\mathcal{N}$-extended super-Poincar\\'e algebra.

  18. Conformal Killing Vectors Of Plane Symmetric Four Dimensional Lorentzian Manifolds

    Khan, Suhail; Bokhari, Ashfaque H; Khan, Gulzar Ali; Mathematics, Department of; Peshawar, University of; Pakhtoonkhwa, Peshawar Khyber; Pakistan.,; Petroleum, King Fahd University of; Minerals,; 31261, Dhahran; Arabia, Saudi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing's vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing's symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper ...

  19. Killing and Noether Symmetries of Plane Symmetric Spacetime

    Shamir, M Farasat; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate the Killing and Noether symmetries of static plane symmetric spacetime. For this purpose, five different cases have been discussed. The Killing and Noether symmetries of Minkwoski spacetime in cartesian coordinates are calculated as a special case and it is found that Lie algebra of the Lagrangian is 10 and 17 dimensional respectively. The symmetries of Taub's universe, anti-deSitter universe, self similar solutions of in?finite kind for parallel perfect fluid case and self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel dust case are also explored. In all the cases, the Noether generators are calculated in the presence of gauge term. All these examples justify the conjecture that Killing symmetries form a subalgebra of Noether symmetries [1].

  20. On Discrete Killing Vector Fields and Patterns on Surfaces

    Ben-Chen, Mirela

    2010-09-21

    Symmetry is one of the most important properties of a shape, unifying form and function. It encodes semantic information on one hand, and affects the shape\\'s aesthetic value on the other. Symmetry comes in many flavors, amongst the most interesting being intrinsic symmetry, which is defined only in terms of the intrinsic geometry of the shape. Continuous intrinsic symmetries can be represented using infinitesimal rigid transformations, which are given as tangent vector fields on the surface - known as Killing Vector Fields. As exact symmetries are quite rare, especially when considering noisy sampled surfaces, we propose a method for relaxing the exact symmetry constraint to allow for approximate symmetries and approximate Killing Vector Fields, and show how to discretize these concepts for generating such vector fields on a triangulated mesh. We discuss the properties of approximate Killing Vector Fields, and propose an application to utilize them for texture and geometry synthesis. Journal compilation © 2010 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Generalized killing equations and symmetries of spinning space

    The authors derive a set of general conditions for the isometrics of d-dimensional spinning space. These equations constitute a Grassmann-valued extension of the Killing equations for ordinary space. They are realized as invariances of spinning-particle actions. Some general solutions for the extended Killing equations in arbitrary curved space are presented. Thus the spinning particle in d-dimensions can be shown to possess new types of (super-)symmetries, which transform the commuting and anti-commuting co-ordinates (Xμ, ψa) not only linearly, but also non-linearly. The authors present the algebra of these non-linear transformations. They give a complete solution of the generalized Killing-equations for flat spinning space and construct an infinite set of conserved charges. (author). 11 refs

  2. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  3. Combinatorial BTK and MALT1 inhibition augments killing of CD79 mutant diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    Nagel, Daniel; Bognar, Miriam; Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Kutzner, Kerstin; Vincendeau, Michelle; Krappmann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Survival of activated B cell-subtype (ABC) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is driven by chronic B cell receptor (BCR) signaling that activates the canonical NF-κB pathway. Inhibition of BTK by Ibrutinib has been shown to kill ABC DLBCL cells that carry activating mutations in the BCR adaptor CD79. However, mutations in BTK or in downstream components such as CARMA1/CARD11 can render lymphomas Ibrutinib resistant. Therefore, we assessed here the simultaneous inhibition of BTK and the ...

  4. A radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans. (Auth.)

  5. Perturbative stability of the approximate Killing field eigenvalue problem

    An approximate Killing field may be defined on a compact, Riemannian geometry by solving an eigenvalue problem for a certain elliptic operator. This paper studies the effect of small perturbations in the Riemannian metric on the resulting vector field. It shows that small metric perturbations, as measured using a Sobolev-type supremum norm on the space of Riemannian geometries on a fixed manifold, yield small perturbations in the approximate Killing field, as measured using a Hilbert-type square integral norm. It also discusses applications to the problem of computing the spin of a generic black hole in general relativity. (paper)

  6. Cars kill chimpanzees: case report of a wild chimpanzee killed on a road at Bulindi, Uganda.

    McLennan, Matthew R; Asiimwe, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    Roads have broadly adverse impacts on wildlife, including nonhuman primates. One direct effect is mortality from collisions with vehicles. While highly undesirable, roadkills provide valuable information on the health and condition of endangered species. We present a case report of a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) killed crossing a road in Bulindi, Uganda, where chimpanzees inhabit forest fragments amid farmland. Details of the collision are constructed from eyewitness accounts of pedestrians. Physical examination of the cadaver indicated good overall body condition; at 40 kg, the deceased female was heavier than usual for an adult female East African chimpanzee. No external wounds or fractures were noted. Coprological assessment demonstrated infection by several gastrointestinal parasites commonly reported in living wild chimpanzees. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic enteritis and biliary hyperplasia potentially caused by parasite infection. However, eosinophilia was not widely spread into the submucosa, while egg/cyst counts suggested low-intensity parasite infections compared to healthy female chimpanzees of similar age in nearby Budongo Forest. No behavioral indicators of ill health were noted in the deceased female in the month prior to the accident. We conclude that cause of death was acute, i.e., shock from the collision, and was probably unrelated to parasite infection or any other underlying health condition. Notably, this female had asymmetrical polythelia, and, while nursing at the time of her death, had one functioning mammary gland only. In Uganda, where primates often inhabit human-dominated landscapes, human population growth and economic development has given rise to increasing motor traffic, while road development is enabling motorists to travel at greater speeds. Thus, the danger of roads to apes and other wildlife is rising, necessitating urgent strategies to reduce risks. Installation of simple speed-bumps-common on Ugandan

  7. Chronic cholecystitis

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  8. Chronic Pain

    ... who have chronic pain may also have low self-esteem, depression, and anger. Causes & Risk Factors What causes ... as stretching and strengthening activities) and low-impact exercise (such as walking, swimming, or biking) can help ...

  9. Chronic Meningitis

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  10. Chronic Pericarditis

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... weeks after heart surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is ...

  11. Fish Kill in the Philippines—Déjà Vu

    Gil Jacinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost ten years ago today, the country woke up toscreaming headlines— “Massive Fish Kill inPangasinan” or something akin to that. The fish killphenomenon, familiar to fishers in freshwater andcoastal bodies of water where fish farming was beingpursued, was suddenly manifested at a scale that hadheretofore not been experienced.

  12. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    Marta eMichalska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells.

  13. The Conversation Analyses of To Kill a Mockingbird

    Zhangyixin

    2016-01-01

    Conversation analysis (CA) mainly studies the interpersonal communication in two or more than two people of a dialogue. Conversation analysis is a very useful analysis framework about actual discourse. This paper chooses an excerpt of To Kill a Mockingbird to analysis the relationships and characters among the people.

  14. VECTOR BUNDLE, KILLING VECTOR FIELD AND PONTRYAGIN NUMBERS

    周建伟

    1991-01-01

    Let E be a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold M. We construct a natural metric on the bundle space E and discuss the relationship between the killing vector fields of E and M. Then we give a proof of the Bott-Baum-Cheeger Theorem for vector bundle E.

  15. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus by C-8-Methoxy Fluoroquinolones

    Zhao, Xilin; Wang, Jian-Ying; Xu, Chen; Dong, Yuzhi; Zhou, Jianfeng; Domagala, John; Drlica, Karl

    1998-01-01

    C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones were more lethal than C-8-bromine, C-8-ethoxy, and C-8-H derivatives for Staphylococcus aureus, especially when topoisomerase IV was resistant. The methoxy group also increased lethality against wild-type cells when protein synthesis was inhibited. These properties encourage refinement of C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones to kill staphylococci.

  16. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    Michalska, Marta; Wolf, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells.

  17. A note on simple applications of the Killing spinor identities

    We show how the Killing Spinor Identities (KSI) can be used to reduce the number of independent equations of motion that need to be checked explicitly to make sure that a supersymmetric configuration is a classical supergravity solution. We also show how the KSI can be used to compute BPS relations between masses and charges

  18. What Is John Dewey Doing in "To Kill a Mockingbird"?

    Frank, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Harper Lee's novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" is taught in countless public schools and is beloved by many teachers and future teachers. Embedded within this novel--interestingly--is a strong criticism of an approach to education mockingly referred to as the "Dewey Decimal System." In this essay I explore Lee's criticism of…

  19. Denaturation of membrane proteins and hyperthermic cell killing

    Burgman, Paulus Wilhelmus Johannes Jozef

    1993-01-01

    Summarizing: heat induced denaturation of membrane proteins is probably related to hyperthermic cell killing. Induced resistance of heat sensitive proteins seems to be involved in the development of thermotolerance. Although many questions remain still to be answered, it appears that HSP72, when bound to membrane proteins, is capable of providing heat resistance to these proteins. ... Zie: Summary

  20. Conformal killing vectors of plane symmetric four dimensional lorentzian manifolds

    Khan, Suhail; Hussain, Tahir; Khan, Gulzar Ali [University of Peshawar, Department of Mathematics, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (Pakistan); Bokhari, Ashfaque H. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper CKV is found and CKVs are either HVs or Killing's vectors (KVs). In each of the three cases of conformally flat metrics, a fifteen dimensional algebra of CKVs is obtained of which eight are proper CKVs. (orig.)

  1. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the World Health Organization... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD...

  2. In Vitro Killing of Mycobacterium ulcerans by Acidified Nitrite

    Phillips, R.; Kuijper, S.; Benjamin, N.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.; Wilks, M.; Kolk, A. H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans, which causes Buruli ulcer, was exposed to acidified nitrite or to acid alone for 10 or 20 min. Killing was rapid, and viable counts were reduced below detectable limits within 10 min of exposure to 40 mM acidified nitrite. M. ulcerans is highly susceptible to acidified nitrite in vitro. PMID:15273132

  3. Conformal killing vectors of plane symmetric four dimensional lorentzian manifolds

    In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper CKV is found and CKVs are either HVs or Killing's vectors (KVs). In each of the three cases of conformally flat metrics, a fifteen dimensional algebra of CKVs is obtained of which eight are proper CKVs. (orig.)

  4. The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities

    Kosal, Erica F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate…

  5. Nordic Noir on Television: The Killing I-III

    Agger, Gunhild

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic Noir has been applied by many countries as a slightly distorting mirror of tendencies in their own societies. On the background of its international appeal, the article analyses the prevalent genre of The Killing – the thriller – and relates it to the genres of crime fiction, political...

  6. Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment

    Bertozzi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,…

  7. Distorted Killing Horizons and Algebraic Classification of Curvature Tensors

    Pravda, Vojtěch; Zaslavskii, O.B.

    Singapore: World Scientific, 2008 - (Kleinert, H.; Jantzen, R.; Ruffini, R.), s. 2231-2233 ISBN 978-981-283-426-3. [Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity /11./. Berlín (DE), 23.07.2006-29.07.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : curvature tensor * Petrov classification * Killing horizon Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. Hidden Symmetries and Lie Algebra Structures from Geometric and Supergravity Killing Spinors

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We consider the geometric and supergravity Killing spinors and the spinor bilinears constructed out of them. The spinor bilinears of geometric Killing spinors correspond to the antisymmetric generalizations of Killing vector fields which are called Killing-Yano forms. They constitute a Lie superalgebra structure in constant curvature spacetimes. We show that the Dirac currents of geometric Killing spinors satisfy a Lie algebra structure up to a condition on 2-form spinor bilinears. We propose that the spinor bilinears of supergravity Killing spinors give way to different generalizations of Killing vector fields to higher degree forms. It is also shown that those supergravity Killing forms constitute a Lie algebra structure in six and ten dimensional cases. For five and eleven dimensional cases, the Lie algebra structure depends on an extra condition on supergravity Killing forms.

  9. Antithymocyte Globulin at Clinically Relevant Concentrations Kills Leukemic Blasts.

    Dabas, Rosy; Lee, Rachelle; Servito, Maria Theresa; Dharmani-Khan, Poonam; Modi, Monica; van Slyke, Tiffany; Luider, Joanne; Durand, Caylib; Larratt, Loree; Brandwein, Joseph; Morris, Don; Daly, Andrew; Khan, Faisal M; Storek, Jan

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to cyclosporine or methotrexate, rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with myeloablative conditioning does not increase the risk of relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation. The reason for this is unknown. We hypothesized that ATG at concentrations achieved with our standard ATG dose of 4.5 mg/kg exerts antileukemic activity. We measured ATG-induced killing of leukemic blasts via complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and via complement-independent cytotoxicity (CIC) in marrow or blood from 36 patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. The median percentage of blasts killed by CDC was 0.3% at 1 mg/L ATG, 2.8% at 10 mg/L ATG, 12.6% at 25 mg/L ATG, and 42.2% at 50 mg/L ATG. The median percentage of blasts killed by CIC after a 4-hour incubation with ATG was 1.9% at 1 mg/L ATG, 7.15% at 10 mg/L ATG, 12.1% at 25 mg/L ATG, and 13.9% at 50 mg/L ATG. CIC appeared to represent a direct induction of apoptosis by ATG. There was a high variability in the sensitivity of the blasts to ATG; at 50 mg/L, the percentage of blasts killed ranged from 2.6% to 97.2% via CDC and from 1.4% to 69.9% via CIC. In conclusion, ATG at clinically relevant concentrations kills leukemic blasts in vitro. Some acute leukemias are highly sensitive to ATG, whereas others are relatively resistant. This finding could lead to personalized administration of ATG. PMID:26779931

  10. Broadening the future of value account of the wrongness of killing

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    account of the wrongness of killing and against the broad interpretation that I had put forward in response to Carson Strong. In this article I argue that the narrow view is problematic because it violates some basic principles of equality and because it allows for some of the very killing that Marquis......On Don Marquis's future of value account of the wrongness of killing, 'what makes it wrong to kill those individuals we all believe it is wrong to kill, is that killing them deprives them of their future of value'. Marquis has recently argued for a narrow interpretation of his future of value...

  11. Influence of chronic hypoxia and radiation quality on cell survival

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic hypoxia and anoxia on cell survival after low- and high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells were kept for 24 h under chronic hypoxia (94.5% N2; 5% CO2; 0.5% O2) or chronic anoxia (95% N2; 5% CO2). Irradiation was performed using 250 kVp X-rays or carbon ions with a dose average LET of 100 keV/μm either directly under the chronic oxygenation states, or at different time points after reoxygenation. Moreover, the cell cycle distribution for cells irradiated under different chronic oxic states was measured over 24 h during reoxygenation. The measurements showed a fairly uniform cell cycle distribution under chronic hypoxia, similar to normoxic conditions. Chronic anoxia induced a block in G1 and a strong reduction of S-phase cells. A distribution similar to normoxic conditions was reached after 12 h of reoxygenation. CHO cells had a similar survival under both acute and chronic hypoxia. In contrast, survival after irradiation under chronic anoxia was slightly reduced compared to that under acute anoxia. We conclude that, in hamster cells, chronic anoxia is less effective than acute anoxia in inducing radioresistance for both X-rays and carbon ions, whereas in hypoxia, acute and chronic exposures have a similar impact on cell killing. (author)

  12. Scientific projection paper for mutagenesis, transformation and cell killing

    Our knowledge about mutagenesis, transformation, and cell killing by ionizing radiation consists of large bodies of data, which are potentially useful in terms of application to human risk assessment and to the constructive use of radiation, as in cancer treatment. The three end-points discussed above are united by at least five significant concepts in radiation research strategy: (1) The inter-relationships among the important end-points, mutation, carcinogenesis, and cell killing. Research on one is meaningful only in the context of information about the other two. (2) The interaction of radiations with other agents in producing these end-points. (3) The mechanisms of action of other environmental mutagenic, carcinogenic, and cytotoxic agents. (4) The use of repair deficient human mutant cells. (5) The study of radiation damage mechanisms. There is no better way to extrapolate laboratory data to the clinical and public worlds than to understand the underlying biological mechanisms that produced the data

  13. Ultrafast Killing and Self-Gelling Antimicrobial Imidazolium Oligomers.

    Riduan, Siti Nurhanna; Yuan, Yuan; Zhou, Feng; Leong, Jiayu; Su, Haibin; Zhang, Yugen

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases and the increasing threat of worldwide pandemics have underscored the importance of antibiotics and hygiene. Intensive efforts have been devoted to developing new antibiotics to meet the rapidly growing demand. In particular, advancing the knowledge of the structure-property-activity relationship is critical to expedite the design and development of novel antimicrobial with the needed potential and efficacy. Herein, a series of new antimicrobial imidazolium oligomers are developed with the rational manipulation of terminal group's hydrophobicity. These materials exhibit superior activity, excellent selectivity, ultrafast killing (>99.7% killing within 30 s), and desirable self-gelling properties. Molecular dynamic simulations reveal the delicate effect of structural changes on the translocation motion across the microbial cell membrane. The energy barrier of the translocation process analyzed by free energy calculations provides clear kinetic information to suggest that the spontaneous penetration requires a very short timescale of seconds to minutes for the new imidazolium oligomers. PMID:26891016

  14. A Research for Massive Fish Kills in Lake Bafa (Turkey

    Murat Yabanlı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As there were massive fish kills in Lake Bafa which is a lagoon situated in Southwestern Turkey in October, 2006, water and fish samples were taken from the region. Water samples were analysed physicochemically, toxicologically and microbiologically and fish samples were subjected to toxicological analysis. The analyses of lake water revealed on oxygen value of approximately 5.0 mg/L, salinity 16.2 ‰, nitrogen from ammonia 0.1 mg/L, nitrogen nitrite 0.013 mg/L, and total organic carbon 13 mg/L. Total coliform count was 1100 MPN/100 ml and faecal coliform count was 28 MPN/100 ml. There was no detection of any pesticide residues in fish and water samples. Massive fish kills are thought to be due to the decrease in water quality.

  15. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  17. Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, Study Finds

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160505.html Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, ... 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus kills neural stem cells in the brains ...

  18. Hidden symmetries and Lie algebra structures from geometric and supergravity Killing spinors

    Açık, Özgür; Ertem, Ümit

    2016-08-01

    We consider geometric and supergravity Killing spinors and the spinor bilinears constructed out of them. The spinor bilinears of geometric Killing spinors correspond to the antisymmetric generalizations of Killing vector fields which are called Killing–Yano forms. They constitute a Lie superalgebra structure in constant curvature spacetimes. We show that the Dirac currents of geometric Killing spinors satisfy a Lie algebra structure up to a condition on 2-form spinor bilinears. We propose that the spinor bilinears of supergravity Killing spinors give way to different generalizations of Killing vector fields to higher degree forms. It is also shown that those supergravity Killing forms constitute a Lie algebra structure in six- and ten-dimensional cases. For five- and eleven-dimensional cases, the Lie algebra structure depends on an extra condition on supergravity Killing forms.

  19. Snail-Killing Effects of Streptomyces 218 Powder

    V.O. Aina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the snail-killing effects of Streptomyces 218 powder on Oncomelania hupensis snails which are the vectors or intermediate host of Schiltosoma Japonicum (intestinal schistosomiasis in china the tests were carried out in the laboratory and on the field. The snail-killing effects of Streptomyces218 powder, isolated from snail habitat at Anchang Village of Anxiang country in China was tested using the immersion and spraying methods. The tests on the Oncomelania hupensis snails which are intermediate host of Streptomyces japonicum infection were carried out in the laboratory and in the field. The mean corrected snail mortalities of the immersion technique in the laboratory were 81.70 and 98.63% in 10 ppm of 218 solutions after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The mean corrected snail mortalities of the spraying tests in the laboratory were 82.90 and 87.90% at 3 and 5 days, respectively with 10 g/m2 218 powders. The snail-killing ability of 218 powders on the field determines by immersion and spraying methods were comparable to that of the chemical molluscicide-Niclosamide. The corrected snail mortality at 150 ppm of 218 powder (g/m2 and at 2 ppm of Niclosamide by immersion was 100% at the second time test after 24, 48 and 72 h. In the field spraying test, the mean corrected snail mortality at 100 ppm of 218 powders were 61.96 and 70.00% after 3 and 7 days of spraying respectively. At 2 ppm niclosamide, this was found to be 65.58 and 63.81%, respectively. The effective ingredients for the snail-killing are found to be located in the spore chains. Streptomyces 218 powder, although at higher concentrations, seems to be a promising mollusciciding biological agent. If developed further, this could compliment existing mollusciciding agents.

  20. Sabretoothed Carnivores and the Killing of Large Prey

    Ki Andersson; David Norman; Lars Werdelin

    2011-01-01

    Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage...

  1. [The vegetarian appeal and killing animals. An ethical challenge].

    Luy, J; Hildebrandt, G; von Mickwitz, G

    2001-01-01

    The demand for renunciation of killing animals has already been discussed by mankind since ancient times. Many arguments for and against this demand have accumulated in the meantime. The reproaches of the vegetarians repeatedly forced the ones who eat meat to justify their diet. Today most of these historical justifications however have to be rejected because of lacking plausibility. Many of the vegetarian arguments on the other hand must be rejected for similar reasons as well. Remaining as morally convincing is the demand for doing the killing absolutely painless and without frightening the animals, which was already formulated for example by Kant and Schopenhauer. Arguments which consider this way of killing as still immoral belong in a broad sense to the "anthropocentric" animal ethics. They do not belong to what is called in Germany "pathocentric" animal ethics, because an animal that is killed without being frightened or tortured, has not suffered, for it hasn't consciously realized anything like danger or harm. We do even argue that these animals are not harmed at all, because it seems senseless to talk about harm without negative conscious phenomena. To push ahead a ban on animal slaughter for moral reasons could be itself morally wrong because it would disturb indirectly many people's conscious well-being without being justified by protecting an animal's conscious well-being. It is however possible to derive from a general duty not to make animals suffer (pathocentric animal ethics) a duty to boycott food of animal origin if these animals had to suffer during their lives. PMID:11505802

  2. Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Liu Lunxu; Wang Yanping; Mei Longyong; Jia Weiguo; Che Guowei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR) promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli) cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK) gene were cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed wi...

  3. Mechanisms of killing of Toxoplasma gondii by rat peritoneal macrophages.

    McCabe, R E; Remington, J S

    1986-01-01

    Rats are resistant to Toxoplasma infection, and macrophages are thought to mediate this resistance. We performed a series of experiments to investigate the mechanism of the anti-Toxoplasma activity of resident rat peritoneal macrophages. Resident rat peritoneal macrophages killed more than 90% of ingested Toxoplasma gondii in vitro. This capacity was reduced progressively with the prolongation of culturing of macrophages in vitro before challenge with T. gondii. Exhaustion of the respiratory ...

  4. Oxidative and nonoxidative killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils.

    Miyasaki, K T; Wilson, M E; Brunetti, A J; Genco, R J

    1986-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative gram-negative microorganism which has been implicated as an etiologic agent in localized juvenile periodontitis and in subacute bacterial endocarditis and abscesses. Although resistant to serum bactericidal action and to oxidant injury mediated by superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), this organism is sensitive to killing by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system (K.T. Miyasaki, M.E. Wilson, and R.J. Genco, In...

  5. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  6. The killing of African trypanosomes by ethidium bromide.

    Arnab Roy Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence of viable parasites lacking kDNA (dyskinetoplastic led many to think that kDNA loss could not be the mechanism of killing. When recent studies indicated that kDNA is indeed essential in bloodstream trypanosomes and that dyskinetoplastic cells survive only if they have a compensating mutation in the nuclear genome, we investigated the effect of EB on kDNA and its replication. We here report some remarkable effects of EB. Using EM and other techniques, we found that binding of EB to network minicircles is low, probably because of their association with proteins that prevent helix unwinding. In contrast, covalently-closed minicircles that had been released from the network for replication bind EB extensively, causing them, after isolation, to become highly supertwisted and to develop regions of left-handed Z-DNA (without EB, these circles are fully relaxed. In vivo, EB causes helix distortion of free minicircles, preventing replication initiation and resulting in kDNA loss and cell death. Unexpectedly, EB also kills dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes, lacking kDNA, by inhibiting nuclear replication. Since the effect on kDNA occurs at a >10-fold lower EB concentration than that on nuclear DNA, we conclude that minicircle replication initiation is likely EB's most vulnerable target, but the effect on nuclear replication may also contribute to cell killing.

  7. Charged Particles Kill Pathogens and Round Up Dust

    2015-01-01

    To keep plants fresh longer in space, Marshall Space Flight Center awarded funding to the University of Wisconsin-Madison to develop a titanium oxide-based device that reduced the amount of decay-inducing ethylene gas in the air. Electrolux (now Dallas-based Aerus Holdings) furthered the technology by developing an air purification product that kills pathogens both in the atmosphere and on surfaces.

  8. Almost-Killing conserved currents: a general mass function

    Ruiz, Milton; Bona, Carles

    2013-01-01

    A new class of conserved currents, describing non-gravitational energy-momentum density, is presented. The proposed currents do not require the existence of a (timelike) Killing vector, and are not restricted to spherically symmetric spacetimes (or similar ones, in which the Kodama vector can be defined). They are based instead on almost-Killing vectors, which could in principle be defined on generic spacetimes. We provide local arguments, based on energy density profiles in highly simplified (stationary, rigidly-rotating) star models, which confirm the physical interest of these 'almost-Killing currents'. A mass function is defined in this way for the spherical case, qualitatively different from the Hern\\'andez-Misner mass function. An elliptic equation determining the new mass function is derived for the Tolman-Bondi spherically symmetric dust metrics, including a simple solution for the Oppenheimer-Schneider collapse. The equations for the non-symmetric case are shown to be of a mixed elliptic-hyperbolic n...

  9. Default risk modeling with position-dependent killing

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2013-04-01

    Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.

  10. Sunlight-induced killing of nondividing human cells in culture

    Nondividing populations of human diploid fibroblasts that are DNA excision repair proficient and repair deficient were exposed to mid-day summer sunlight and their survival determined based on their ability to remain attached to a culture vessel surface. Whereas mid- and far-UV wavelengths and sunlamp radiation cause a gradual degeneration and detachment of cells in a dose-dependent manner, sunlight does not promote cell killing in repair proficient cells. Detachment of repair deficient cells is promoted to a limited extent but only at sunlight exposure times that are low with respect to the amount of DNA damage induced. Repair proficient and deficient cells exposed to sunlight for longer times do not detach. Pyrimidine dimer levels in these sunlight irradiated cells were great enough to have promoted detachment had these levels been induced by UV (254 nm) alone. Other photodamage induced by these exposures evidently inhibits the dimer induced cell degeneration that leads to cell detachment. It was concluded that pyrimidine dimers are responsible for cell killing at short sunlight exposure times (80 min) cells are killed by a different mechanism. (author)

  11. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 μg/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function

  12. The holonomy of the supercovariant connection and Killing spinors

    We show that the holonomy of the supercovariant connection for M-theory backgrounds with N Killing spinors reduces to a subgroup of SL(32-N,R)·NR32-N). We use this to give the necessary and sufficient conditions for a background to admit N Killing spinors. We show that there is no topological obstruction for the existence of up to 22 Killing spinors in eleven-dimensional spacetime. We investigate the symmetry superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds and find that their structure constants are determined by an antisymmetric matrix. The Lie subalgebra of bosonic generators is related to a real form of a symplectic group. We show that there is a one-one correspondence between certain bases of the Cartan subalgebra of sl(32,R) and supersymmetric planar probe M-brane configurations. A supersymmetric probe configuration can involve up to 31 linearly independent planar branes and preserves one supersymmetry. The space of supersymmetric planar probe M-brane configurations is preserved by an SO(32,R) subgroup of SL(32,R). (author)

  13. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    Andrea M Binnebose

    Full Text Available Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment.

  14. Photoexcited quantum dots for killing multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Courtney, Colleen M.; Goodman, Samuel M.; McDaniel, Jessica A.; Madinger, Nancy E.; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are an ever-growing threat because of the shrinking arsenal of efficacious antibiotics. Metal nanoparticles can induce cell death, yet the toxicity effect is typically nonspecific. Here, we show that photoexcited quantum dots (QDs) can kill a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacterial clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium. The killing effect is independent of material and controlled by the redox potentials of the photogenerated charge carriers, which selectively alter the cellular redox state. We also show that the QDs can be tailored to kill 92% of bacterial cells in a monoculture, and in a co-culture of E. coli and HEK 293T cells, while leaving the mammalian cells intact, or to increase bacterial proliferation. Photoexcited QDs could be used in the study of the effect of redox states on living systems, and lead to clinical phototherapy for the treatment of infections.

  15. EXPOSURE TO CARBONIC GAS ENRICHED ATMOSPHERE OR ELECTRICAL WATER BATH TO STUN OR KILL CHICKENS

    JP Nicolau; MF Pinto; EHG Ponsano; SHV Perri; M Garcia Neto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to compare the effects of two methods (electrical water bath or carbonic gas atmosphere) for stunning or killing broiler chickens prior to bleeding on weight loss due to bleeding and meat traits. A completely randomized design with 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (electrical or gas system x stunning or killing) was applied. The time required for stunning and killing and the birds' behavior were evaluated for the gas exposure method. The birds killed by the ...

  16. Killing wild geese with carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Lourens, A.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Verhoeven, M.T.W.

    2013-01-01

    The killing of animals is the subject of societal and political debate. Wild geese are caught and killed on a regular basis for fauna conservation and damage control. Killing geese with carbon dioxide (CO2) is commonly practiced, but not listed in legislation on the protection of flora and fauna, an

  17. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  18. 9 CFR 113.200 - General requirements for killed virus vaccines.

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccines. 113.200 Section 113.200 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.200 General requirements for killed virus vaccines. When prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed Outline of Production, a killed virus...

  19. Killing Tensors and Conserved Quantities of a Relativistic Particle in External Fields

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    We generalize Killing equations to a test particle system which is subjected to external force. We relax the conservation condition by virtue of reparametrization invariance of a particle orbit. As a result, we obtain generalized Killing equations which have hierarchical structure on the top of which a conformal Killing equation exists.

  20. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea... paragraph. (i) Eight bovine virus diarrhea susceptible calves (five vaccinates and three controls) shall...

  1. Low back pain - chronic

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  2. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  3. Employees with Chronic Pain

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  4. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  5. Chronic coughing

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  6. Mothers who kill: evolutionary underpinnings and infanticide law.

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

    2012-01-01

    Women who kill their children present a profound challenge to accepted notions of motherhood and the protection offered by mothers to their children. Historically, societies have varied in the sanctions applied to perpetrators of such acts, across both time and place. Where penalties were once severe and punitive for mothers, in modern times some two dozen nations now have infanticide acts that reduce the penalties for mothers who kill their infants. Embedded within these acts are key criteria that relate (a) only to women who are (b) suffering the hormonal or mood effects of pregnancy/lactation at the time of the offence which is (c) usually restricted to within the first year after delivery. Criticisms of infanticide legislation have largely centered on inherent gender bias, misconceptions about the hormonal basis of postpartum psychiatric disorders, and the nexus and contribution of these disorders to the offending in relation to issues of culpability and sentencing. Important differences between female perpetrators relative to the age of the child victim have also highlighted problems in the implementation of infanticide legislation. For example, women who commit neonaticide (murder during the first day of life) differ substantially from mentally ill mothers who kill older children. However, despite these shortcomings, many nations have in recent years chosen to retain their infanticide acts. This article reviews the central controversies of infanticide legislation in relation to current research and fundamental fairness. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework to organize this discussion, it is argued that infanticide legislation is at best unnecessary and at worst misapplied, in that it exculpates criminal intent and fails to serve those for whom an infanticide defense might otherwise have been intended. PMID:22961624

  7. Estimation in Discretely Observed Diffusions Killed at a Threshold

    Bibbona, Enrico; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Parameter estimation in diffusion processes from discrete observations up to a first-passage time is clearly of practical relevance, but does not seem to have been studied so far. In neuroscience, many models for the membrane potential evolution involve the presence of an upper threshold. Data are...... modelled as discretely observed diffusions which are killed when the threshold is reached. Statistical inference is often based on a misspecified likelihood ignoring the presence of the threshold causing severe bias, e.g. the bias incurred in the drift parameters of the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck model for...

  8. Violence as a communicative action: Customary and honor killings

    Necla Mora

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of gender plays an evident role in arranging the social structure. It is observed that societies are commonly arranged with a matriarchal structure or a patriarchal structure.In matriarchal structure, women are in a respected position that has a social power. On the contrary, patriarchal structure operates with an understanding that men are superior. Patriarchal structures reign inversely proportional to the civilization level of the society especially in the societies in which monotheistic religions are practiced. It is believed that bloodline is continued over men. The perception, which considers man as a seed and woman as soil, reduces the women to a carrier for continuing the human bloodline. This perception affects human relations to a great extent. Social and legal norms, which are formed in order to maintain the social order, are formed and practiced within the scope of this perception. Social order is regarded as normal in view of this perception. Socialization materializes in compliance with this perception, and values are reproduced in accordance with this perception. These are all actions which are performed in a communicative sense.Blended with violence; blood feud; honor killing; ‘berdel’ (the bartering of women between families to avoid paying dowry related expenses to each other; similar practices and cultural structure, the patriarchal understanding becomes the language of daily life in the extent of communicative action.Customary and honor killings – which are performed with the discourse of honor, customary, and pride that were conveyed to other regions and countries with the internal and the external migration commonly practiced especially in the Eastern and Southeastern regions of Turkey – are types of violence that are emerged with the patriarchal structure as a communicative action; they are fed by ignorance; and they have an economic background.In this study, an attempt will be made to question the

  9. Non-metallic Inclusions in Continuously Cast Aluminum Killed Steels

    2000-01-01

    In aluminum killed steels, the size, shape, quantity and formation of non-metallic inclusions in ladle steel (before and after RH vacuum treatment) and in tundish as well as in slabs were studied by EPMA (Electron Probe Microanalysis) and by analyzing the total oxygen. The results showed that in the slabs the total oxygen was quite low and the inclusions discovered were mainly small-sized angular alumina inclusions. This indicates that most inclusions have been removed by floating out during the continuous casting process. In addition, the countermeasures were discussed to decrease the alumina inclusions in the slabs further.

  10. Generation Kill: la estética de la muerte

    Gómez Tarín, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    Generation Kill, miniserie del canal de cable premium norteamericano Home Box Office, en su división de HBO Films, compuesta por siete capítu-los sin continuidad posterior. El tipo de reflexión que pretendemos llevar a cabo se estructura en torno a tres ejes conceptuales: estética, ética y épica. La estética visual de carácter documental que conecta a la perfección el mundo posible (el generado por el discurso e inmerso en el significante), el mundo real (el contextual para el espectador) y e...

  11. Sabretoothed carnivores and the killing of large prey.

    Ki Andersson

    Full Text Available Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ∼10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than "megaherbivores" as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of

  12. Towards Fluid Instabilities of Stationary Non-Killing Horizons

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    Flowing black holes are asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes that are stationary but have non-Killing horizons. Holographically, they are dual to a steady-state heat flow in the boundary field theory. We investigate the stability of these black holes in the limit in which they are well-described by the relativistic conformal Navier-Stokes equations. More precisely, we study the quasi-normal modes of the linearized ideal fluid equations. Though we find no unstable modes, there are an infinite...

  13. Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes

    To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes

  14. Ground Zero/Fresh Kills: Cataloguing Ruins, Garbage, and Memory

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the rise and fall of the Twin Towers can be read in relation to the rise and fall of the Staten Island Fresh Kills landfill, how their destinies were entwined from the start, and how the immediate cultural response to the collapse of the former and the closing of the latter recurred to the form of catalogues of objects, words, and images. From this angle it will be possible to posit the events within a larger, if somewhat unusual, cultural frame encompassi...

  15. (M-theory-)Killing spinors on symmetric spaces

    We show how the theory of invariant principal bundle connections for reductive homogeneous spaces can be applied to determine the holonomy of generalised Killing spinor covariant derivatives of the form D = ∇ + Ω in a purely algebraic and algorithmic way, where Ω : TM → Λ∗(TM) is a left-invariant homomorphism. Specialising this to the case of symmetric M-theory backgrounds (i.e., (M, g, F) with (M, g) an eleven-dimensional Lorentzian (locally) symmetric space and F an invariant closed 4-form), we derive several criteria for such a background to preserve some supersymmetry and consequently find all supersymmetric symmetric M-theory backgrounds

  16. Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Liu Lunxu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK gene were cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed with the KDR promoter and CDglyTK genes. A recombinant adenoviral plasmid AdKDR-CDglyTK was then constructed and transfected into 293 packaging cells to grow and harvest adenoviruses. KDR-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV304 and KDR-negative liver cancer cell line (HepG2 were infected with the recombinant adenoviruses at different multiplicity of infection (MOI. The infection rate was measured by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression. The infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of prodrugs ganciclovir (GCV and/or 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC. The killing effects were measured using two different methods, i.e. annexin V-FITC staining and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Recombinant adenoviruses AdKDR-CDglyTK were successfully constructed and they infected ECV304 and HepG2 cells efficiently. The infection rate was dependent on MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. ECV304 cells infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were highly sensitive to GCV and 5-FC. The cell survival rate was dependent on both the concentration of the prodrugs and the MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. In contrast, there were no killing effects in the HepG2 cells. The combination of two prodrugs was much more effective in killing ECV304 cells than GCV or 5-FC alone. The growth of transgenic ECV304 cells was suppressed in the presence of prodrugs. Conclusion AdKDR-CDglyTK/double prodrog system may be a useful

  17. Chronic Insomnia

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  18. PPARγ Expression and Function in Mycobacterial Infection: Roles in Lipid Metabolism, Immunity, and Bacterial Killing

    Patricia E. Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be a global health threat, with drug resistance and HIV coinfection presenting challenges for its control. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, is a highly adapted pathogen that has evolved different strategies to subvert the immune and metabolic responses of host cells. Although the significance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ activation by mycobacteria is not fully understood, recent findings are beginning to uncover a critical role for PPARγ during mycobacterial infection. Here, we will review the molecular mechanisms that regulate PPARγ expression and function during mycobacterial infection. Current evidence indicates that mycobacterial infection causes a time-dependent increase in PPARγ expression through mechanisms that involve pattern recognition receptor activation. Mycobacterial triggered increased PPARγ expression and activation lead to increased lipid droplet formation and downmodulation of macrophage response, suggesting that PPARγ expression might aid the mycobacteria in circumventing the host response acting as an escape mechanism. Indeed, inhibition of PPARγ enhances mycobacterial killing capacity of macrophages, suggesting a role of PPARγ in favoring the establishment of chronic infection. Collectively, PPARγ is emerging as a regulator of tuberculosis pathogenesis and an attractive target for the development of adjunctive tuberculosis therapies.

  19. Porins facilitate nitric oxide-mediated killing of mycobacteria.

    Fabrino, Daniela Leite; Bleck, Christopher K E; Anes, Elsa; Hasilik, Andrej; Melo, Rossana C N; Niederweis, Michael; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Non-pathogenic mycobacteria such us Mycobacterium smegmatis reside in macrophages within phagosomes that fuse with late endocytic/lysosomal compartments. This sequential fusion process is required for the killing of non-pathogenic mycobacteria by macrophages. Porins are proteins that allow the influx of hydrophilic molecules across the mycobacterial outer membrane. Deletion of the porins MspA, MspC and MspD significantly increased survival of M. smegmatis in J774 macrophages. However, the mechanism underlying this observation is unknown. Internalization of wild-type M. smegmatis (SMR5) and the porin triple mutant (ML16) by macrophages was identical indicating that the viability of the porin mutant in vivo was enhanced. This was not due to effects on phagosome trafficking since fusion of phagosomes containing the mutant with late endocytic compartments was unaffected. Moreover, in ML16-infected macrophages, the generation of nitric oxide (NO) was similar to the wild type-infected cells. However, ML16 was significantly more resistant to the effects of NO in vitro compared to SMR5. Our data provide evidence that porins render mycobacteria vulnerable to killing by reactive nitrogen intermediates within phagosomes probably by facilitating uptake of NO across the mycobacterial outer membrane. PMID:19460455

  20. Ground Zero/Fresh Kills: Cataloguing Ruins, Garbage, and Memory

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how the rise and fall of the Twin Towers can be read in relation to the rise and fall of the Staten Island Fresh Kills landfill, how their destinies were entwined from the start, and how the immediate cultural response to the collapse of the former and the closing of the latter recurred to the form of catalogues of objects, words, and images. From this angle it will be possible to posit the events within a larger, if somewhat unusual, cultural frame encompassing the history of two different yet complementary symbols of New York up to 2001 (the WTC and Fresh Kills. From Don DeLillo’s Underworld (1997 and Falling Man (2007 through Holman, Steve Zeitlin e Joe Dobkin’s Crisis (2001-2002; from Art Spiegelman’s In the Shadows of No Tower (2004 to Artists Respond’s 9-11 (2002; from the New York Times to Bearing Witness to History, the 2003-2006 retrospective of the Smithsonian Museum, relevant collective or individual responses to the 2001 attacks took the form of a catalogue, a list, a vertical or horizontal juxtaposition of data, objects, and memories, evoking a suggestive parallel to the organizing principle of past relics collected in museums and garbage stratified in sanitary landfills.

  1. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism.

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Ercolini, Danilo; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-08-23

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host. PMID:27506800

  2. Effect of pulsed electron beam on cell killing

    The extent of repairable and irreparable damage in a living cell produced by ionizing radiation depends on the quality of the radiation. In the case of sparsely ionizing radiation, the dose rate and the pattern of energy deposition of the radiation are the important physical factors which can affect the amount of damage in living cells. In the present study, radio-sensitive and radioresistive bacteria cells were exposed to 8 MeV pulsed electron beam and the efficiency of cell-killing was investigated to evaluate the Do, the mean lethal dose. The dose to the cell was delivered in micro-second pulses at an instantaneous dose rate of 2.6 x 105 Gy s-1. Fricke dosimeter was used to measure the absorbed dose of electron beam. The results were compared with those of gamma rays. The survival curve of radio-resistive Deinococcus-radiodurans (DR) is found to be sigmoidal and the survival response for radio-sensitive Escherichia-coli (E-coli) is found to be exponential without any shoulder. Comparison of Do values indicate that irradiation with pulsed electron beam resulted in more cell-killing than was observed for gamma irradiation. (author)

  3. Mannitol Does Not Enhance Tobramycin Killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Cystic Fibrosis Model System of Biofilm Formation.

    Katherine E Price

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis (CF is a human genetic disease that results in the accumulation of thick, sticky mucus in the airways, which results in chronic, life-long bacterial biofilm infections that are difficult to clear with antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is correlated with worsening lung disease and P. aeruginosa transitions to an antibiotic tolerant state during chronic infections. Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside currently used to combat lung infections in individuals with CF. While tobramycin is effective at eradicating P. aeruginosa in the airways of young patients, it is unable to completely clear the chronic P. aeruginosa infections in older patients. A recent report showed that co-addition of tobramycin and mannitol enhanced killing of P. aeruginosa grown in vitro as a biofilm on an abiotic surface. Here we employed a model system of bacterial biofilms formed on the surface of CF-derived airway cells to determine if mannitol would enhance the antibacterial activity of tobramycin against P. aeruginosa grown on a more clinically relevant surface. Using this model system, which allows the growth of robust biofilms with high-level antibiotic tolerance analogous to in vivo biofilms, we were unable to find evidence for enhanced antibacterial activity of tobramycin with the addition of mannitol, supporting the observation that this type of co-treatment failed to reduce the P. aeruginosa bacterial load in a clinical setting.

  4. Antibiofouling Polyvinylidene Fluoride Membrane Modified by Quaternary Ammonium Compound: Direct Contact-Killing versus Induced Indirect Contact-Killing.

    Zhang, Xingran; Ma, Jinxing; Tang, Chuyang Y; Wang, Zhiwei; Ng, How Yong; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-05-17

    Widespread applications of membrane technology call for the development of antibiofouling membranes. For the traditional contact-killing strategy, the antibacterial action is restricted to the surface: the membrane loses its antibiofouling efficacy once its surface is completely covered with a fouling layer. However, in this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes blended with quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) exhibited a surprisingly lasting antimicrobial activity in the vicinity of the membrane surface. The results indicated that QAC was capable of driving surface segregation with a high structural stability, and the QAC modified membrane shows clear antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Covering the modified membrane surface by an abiotic alginate layer resulted in a loss of antibacterial efficiency by 86.2%. In contrast, the antibacterial efficiency was maintained after developing a biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus of 30 μm in thickness. The current study may suggest that bacteria affected by contact-killing might interact with other bacteria in the vicinity, resulting in retarded biofilm growth. The antibiofouling effect and associated mechanism of the QAC modified membrane were further validated in a membrane bioreactor during long-term operation. PMID:27104660

  5. M-Cell Targeting of Whole Killed Bacteria Induces Protective Immunity against Gastrointestinal Pathogens▿

    Chionh, Yok-Teng; Wee, Janet L. K.; Every, Alison L.; Ng, Garrett Z.; Sutton, Philip

    2009-01-01

    As the majority of human pathogens infect via a mucosal surface, delivery of killed vaccines by mucosal routes could potentially improve protection against many such organisms. Our ability to develop effective killed mucosal vaccines is inhibited by a lack of adjuvants that are safe and effective in humans. The Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin specifically binds M cells lining the murine gastrointestinal tract. We explored the potential for M-cell-targeted vaccination of whole, kill...

  6. The Welfare Effects of Pfiesteria-Related Fish Kills in Seafood Markets: A Contingent Behavior Analysis

    Parsons, George R.; Ash O. Morgan; John C. Whitehead; Haab, Timothy C.

    2005-01-01

    We use contingent behavior analysis to study the effects of Pfiesteria related fish kills on the demand for seafood in the Mid-Atlantic region. We use a phone-mail-phone survey to look at the effects of various information provision mechanisms used to ameliorate the effects of misinformation regarding fish kills. A set of demand difference models are estimated based on individual responses to multiple questions about seafood consumption with and without fish kills present and with various hea...

  7. Cultural Untranslatability in to Kill a Mockingbird Tanslated into Indonesian by Femmy Syahrani

    Siregar, Dewi Putriani

    2015-01-01

    This study entitled Cultural Untranslatability in To Kill A Mockingbird Translated into Indonesian by Femmy Syahrani. It analyzes the translation of cultural untranslatability in the translation of Harper Lee’s novel To Kill A Mockingbird translated into Indonesian by Femmy Syahrani. The data of this analysis are words/ phrases in To Kill A Mockingbird which contains cultural untranslatability. The objective of the study is to find out the type of translation techniques used by the translator...

  8. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Nicholas W Pilfold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650 and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida lairs (n=1396 observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2% while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344 of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344. Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344 of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121, and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78. The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2 =0.30, P=0.04, but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  9. Comparative Killing Rates of Fluoroquinolones and Cell Wall-Active Agents

    Fung-Tomc, Joan C.; Gradelski, Elizabeth; Valera, Lourdes; Kolek, Benjamin; Bonner, Daniel P.

    2000-01-01

    Killing rates of fluoroquinolones, β-lactams, and vancomycin were compared against Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci, streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis. The times required for fluoroquinolones to decrease viability by 3 log10 were 1.5 h for Enterobacteriaceae, 4 to 6 h for staphylococci, and ≥6 h for streptococci and enterococci. Thus, the rate of killing by fluoroquinolones is organism group dependent; overall, they killed more rapidly than β-lactams and vancomycin...

  10. Enhancement of Candida albicans killing activity of separated human epidermal cells by ultraviolet radiation

    Ultraviolet irradiation enhanced the Candida albicans killing activity of freshly separated human epidermal cells in vitro. The simulation was dose-dependent and was not due to soluble extracellular factors acting on non-irradiated epidermal cells. The enhancement of the killing activity remained unchanged when epidermal cells were depleted of Langerhans cells. Protein synthesis inhibitors and prostaglandin antagonists inhibited the ultraviolet-induced augmentation of killing activity. (author)

  11. A Sequential Model of Host Cell Killing and Phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica

    Adam Sateriale; Huston, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The virulence of Entamoeba histolytica is strongly correlated with the parasite's capacity to effectively kill and phagocytose host cells. The process by which host cells are killed and phagocytosed follows a sequential model of adherence, cell killing, initiation of phagocytosis, and engulfment. This paper presents recent advances in the cytolytic and phagocytic processes of Ent...

  12. De-escalating Media Language of Killing: An Instructional Module

    Beverly Ann Deepe Keever

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing substantial academic research and citing the first comprehensive summary of violence on a global scale undergirds this online article that elaborates on a companion web-based resource to be posted at www.toda.org. These twinned online productions examine the role of the media in producing a culture of violence and seek to curb its extent and effects. This article and the accompanying webcast describe the approach of Professor Emeritus Glenn Paige, author of Nonkilling Global Political Science, which has been translated into 25 languages. He urges greater media awareness about the importance of: avoiding the inappropriate use of the language of killing and, alternatively, avoiding the use of euphemisms to gloss over or cover up examples of violence. Paige's arguments and this online article suggest five recommendations for future action.

  13. Manners of killing and rituals in Apulian mafia murders.

    De Donno, Antonio; Santoro, Valeria; Rossi, Anna Paola; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Introna, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    The Apulian (South of Italy) territory saw the birth of a criminal organization called Sacra Corona Unita (SCU, United Holy Crown) which transformed the rules of traditional mafia organizations. This work examined 83 victims of the SCU between 1980 and 2000. The bodies were mainly of SCU members and in some cases, of police and law enforcement officers and other citizens caught in the crossfire. Some of these were discovered; thanks to the collaboration of "repented" SCU members who became police informers. The condition of the bodies varied in relation to the date and manner of killing. In some cases anthropometric research methods were necessary. In 73% of the cases, lesions of the head were the only marks left on the body. In conclusion, the existence of some social aspects connected with the symbolisms and membership rites that characterized the origin, evolution, and decline of the SCU is stressed. PMID:19486252

  14. Biosystems Engineering of Prokaryotes with Tumor-Killing Capacities.

    Kalyoncu, Ebuzer; Olmez, Tolga T; Ozkan, Alper D; Sarioglu, Omer F

    2016-01-01

    Certain bacteria selectively attack tumor tissues and trigger tumor shrinkage by producing toxins and modulating the local immune system, but their clinical utility is limited because of the dangers posed by systemic infection. Genetic engineering can be used to minimize the risks associated with tumor-targeting pathogens, as well as to increase their efficiency in killing tumor cells. Advances in genetic circuit design have led to the development of bacterial strains with enhanced tumor-targeting capacities and the ability to secrete therapeutics, cytotoxic proteins and prodrug-cleaving enzymes, which allows their safe and effective use for cancer treatment. The present review details the recent advances in the design and application of these modified bacterial strains. PMID:26654438

  15. Towards Fluid Instabilities of Stationary Non-Killing Horizons

    Fischetti, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Flowing black holes are asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes that are stationary but have non-Killing horizons. Holographically, they are dual to a steady-state heat flow in the boundary field theory. We investigate the stability of these black holes in the limit in which they are well-described by the relativistic conformal Navier-Stokes equations. More precisely, we study the quasi-normal modes of the linearized ideal fluid equations. Though we find no unstable modes, there are an infinite number at finite transverse momentum which are arbitrarily long-lived. This suggests the possibility that either non-modal effects or nonlinear interactions between these modes can give rise to new types of gravitational instabilities.

  16. Could giant basin-forming impacts have killed Martian dynamo?

    Kuang, W.; Jiang, W.; Roberts, J.; Frey, H. V.

    2014-11-01

    The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30° of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16° polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer.

  17. Invariant Killing spinors in 11D and type II supergravities

    We present all isotropy groups and associated Σ groups, up to discrete identifications of the component connected to the identity, of spinors of 11-dimensional and type II supergravities. The Σ groups are products of a Spin group and an R-symmetry group of a suitable lower dimensional supergravity theory. Using the case of SU(4)-invariant spinors as a paradigm, we demonstrate that the Σ groups, and so the R-symmetry groups of lower dimensional supergravity theories arising from compactifications, have disconnected components. These lead us to discrete symmetry groups reminiscent of R-parity. We examine the role of disconnected components of the Σ groups in the choice of Killing spinor representatives and in the context of compactifications.

  18. Could Giant Basin-Forming Impacts Have Killed Martian Dynamo?

    Kuang, W.; Jiang, W.; Roberts, J.; Frey, H. V.

    2014-01-01

    The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30 deg of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16 deg polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer.

  19. Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Ashlie Perry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is plausible that terrorism can manifest itself as a form of genocide. Using Raphael Lemkin’s definition of genocide and the UN Genocide Convention’s definition of genocide, non-state and state terrorism are assessed as a form of genocide. Commonalities found in the definitions of both genocide and terrorism supports the argument. The psychology of terrorism and Lemkin’s psychology of genocide describe similar motivations of perpetrators. The September 11th attacks and the U.S. invasion of Iraq are used as case studies to illustrate that terrorism can result in genocide or genocidal acts. Framing acts of terrorism as genocide allows for prosecution in international courts and brings a new perspective to the concept of killing with intent.

  20. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  1. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  2. Melanoma stem cells in experimental melanoma are killed by radioimmunotherapy

    Introduction: In spite of recently approved B-RAF inhibitors and immunomodulating antibodies, metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and novel treatments are needed. Melanoma stem cells (MSC) have been implicated in the resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. Recently we demonstrated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 188-Rhenium(188Re)-6D2 antibody to melanin was a safe and effective modality. Here we investigated the interaction of MSC with RIT as a possible mechanism for RIT efficacy. Methods: Mice bearing A2058 melanoma xenografts were treated with either 1.5 mCi 188Re-6D2 antibody, saline, unlabeled 6D2 antibody or 188Re-labeled non-specific IgM. Results: On Day 28 post-treatment the tumor size in the RIT group was 4-times less than in controls (P < 0.001). The tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and FACS for two MSC markers — chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 and H3K4 demethylase JARID1B. There were no significant differences between RIT and control groups in percentage of ABCB5 or JARID1B-positive cells in the tumor population. Our results demonstrate that unlike chemotherapy, which kills tumor cells but leaves behind MSC leading to recurrence, RIT kills MSC at the same rate as the rest of tumor cells. Conclusions: These results have two main implications for melanoma treatment and possibly other cancers. First, the susceptibility of ABCB5 + and JARID1B + cells to RIT in melanoma might be indicative of their susceptibility to antibody-targeted radiation in other cancers where they are present as well. Second, specifically targeting cancer stem cells with radiolabeled antibodies to ABCB5 or JARID1B might help to completely eradicate cancer stem cells in various cancers

  3. Can Pulp Fibroblasts Kill Cariogenic Bacteria? Role of Complement Activation.

    Jeanneau, C; Rufas, P; Rombouts, C; Giraud, T; Dejou, J; About, I

    2015-12-01

    Complement system activation has been shown to be involved in inflammation and regeneration processes that can be observed within the dental pulp after moderate carious decay. Studies simulating carious injuries in vitro have shown that when human pulp fibroblasts are stimulated by lipoteichoic acid (LTA), they synthetize all complement components. Complement activation leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which is known for its bacterial lytic effect. This work was designed to find out whether human pulp fibroblasts can kill Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis via complement activation. First, histological staining of carious tooth sections showed that the presence of S. mutans correlated with an intense MAC staining. Next, to simulate bacterial infection in vitro, human pulp fibroblasts were incubated in serum-free medium with LTA. Quantification by an enzymatic assay showed a significant increase of MAC formation on bacteria grown in this LTA-conditioned medium. To determine whether the MAC produced by pulp fibroblasts was functional, bacteria sensitivity to LTA-conditioned medium was evaluated using agar well diffusion assay and succinyl dehydrogenase (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide [MTT]) assay. Both assays showed that S. mutans and S. sanguinis were sensitive to LTA-conditioned medium. Finally, to evaluate whether MAC formation on cariogenic bacteria, by pulp fibroblasts, can be directly induced by the presence of these bacteria, a specific coculture model of human pulp fibroblasts and bacteria was developed. Immunofluorescence revealed an intense MAC labeling on bacteria after direct contact with pulp fibroblasts. The observed MAC formation and its lethal effects were significantly reduced when CD59, an inhibitor of MAC formation, was added. Our findings demonstrate that the MAC produced by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts is functional and can kill S. mutans and S. sanguinis. Taken together

  4. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  5. Unique type of plasmid maintenance function: postsegregational killing of plasmid-free cells.

    Gerdes, K; Rasmussen, P. B.; Molin, S

    1986-01-01

    The stability locus parB+ of plasmid R1 has been found to specify a unique type of plasmid maintenance function. Two genes, hok (host killing) and sok (suppressor of killing), are required for the stabilizing activity. The hok gene encodes a highly toxic gene product, whose overexpression causes a rapid killing and a concomitant dramatic change in morphology of the host cell. The other gene, sok, was found to encode a product that counteracts the hok gene-mediated killing. The parB+ region wa...

  6. Immune Killing Activity of Lymphocytes on Hela Cells Expressing Interleukin-12 In Vitro

    Huiyan WANG; Suhua CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The killing effects of lymphocytes on Hela cells expressing intedeukin-12 (IL-12) in vitro were explored. By using gene transfection technique, full length IL-12 gene was transfected into Hela cells. The expression of IL-12 in Hela cells was detected quantitatively by ELISA; Changes in killing effects of lymphocytes on Hela cells expressing IL-12 were observed by MTT. It was found that Hela cells could express IL-12 between 24h and 72h after transfection. Killing activity of lymphocytes on Hela cells expressing IL-12 was significantly enhanced. It was concluded by cell transfection technique, Hela cells could express IL-12 and were more easily killed by lymphocytes.

  7. Chronic urticaria

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  8. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984–2010, fires killed trees that contained 5–11 Tg C year−1 and during 1997–2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2–24 Tg C year−1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5–10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States. (letter)

  9. Effects of Vegetation Structure on the Location of Lion Kill Sites in African Thicket

    Davies, Andrew B.; Tambling, Craig J.; Kerley, Graham I. H.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Predator-prey relationships are integral to ecosystem stability and functioning. These relationships are, however, difficult to maintain in protected areas where large predators are increasingly being reintroduced and confined. Where predators make kills has a profound influence on their role in ecosystems, but the relative importance of environmental variables in determining kill sites, and how these might vary across ecosystems is poorly known. We investigated kill sites for lions in South Africa’s thicket biome, testing the importance of vegetation structure for kill site locations compared to other environmental variables. Kill sites were located over four years using GPS telemetry and compared to non-kill sites that had been occupied by lions, as well as to random sites within lion ranges. Measurements of 3D vegetation structure obtained from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) were used to calculate the visible area (viewshed) around each site and, along with wind and moonlight data, used to compare kill sites between lion sexes, prey species and prey sexes. Viewshed area was the most important predictor of kill sites (sites in dense vegetation were twice as likely to be kill sites compared to open areas), followed by wind speed and, less so, moonlight. Kill sites for different prey species varied with vegetation structure, and male prey were killed when wind speeds were higher compared to female prey of the same species. Our results demonstrate that vegetation structure is an important component of predator-prey interactions, with varying effects across ecosystems. Such differences require consideration in terms of the ecological roles performed by predators, and in predator and prey conservation. PMID:26910832

  10. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  11. Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), IL-1β secretion, and asparagine endopeptidase are critical factors for alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and bacterial killing.

    Descamps, Delphyne; Le Gars, Mathieu; Balloy, Viviane; Barbier, Diane; Maschalidi, Sophia; Tohme, Mira; Chignard, Michel; Ramphal, Reuben; Manoury, Bénédicte; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-31

    A deficit in early clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is crucial in nosocomial pneumonia and in chronic lung infections. Few studies have addressed the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are early pathogen associated molecular pattern receptors, in pathogen uptake and clearance by alveolar macrophages (AMs). Here, we report that TLR5 engagement is crucial for bacterial clearance by AMs in vitro and in vivo because unflagellated P. aeruginosa or different mutants defective in TLR5 activation were resistant to AM phagocytosis and killing. In addition, the clearance of PAK (a wild-type P. aeruginosa strain) by primary AMs was causally associated with increased IL-1β release, which was dramatically reduced with PAK mutants or in WT PAK-infected primary TLR5(-/-) AMs, demonstrating the dependence of IL-1β production on TLR5. We showed that this IL-1β production was important in endosomal pH acidification and in inducing the killing of bacteria by AMs through asparagine endopeptidase (AEP), a key endosomal cysteine protease. In agreement, AMs from IL-1R1(-/-) and AEP(-/-) mice were unable to kill P. aeruginosa. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that TLR5 engagement plays a major role in P. aeruginosa internalization and in triggering IL-1β formation. PMID:22307620

  12. Mothers Who Kill Their Offspring: Testing Evolutionary Hypothesis in a 110-Case Italian Sample

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea S.; Fontanesi, Lilybeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This research aimed to identify incidents of mothers in Italy killing their own children and to test an adaptive evolutionary hypothesis to explain their occurrence. Methods: 110 cases of mothers killing 123 of their own offspring from 1976 to 2010 were analyzed. Each case was classified using 13 dichotomic variables. Descriptive…

  13. Humane killing of fishes for scientific research: a comparison of two methods.

    Blessing, J J; Marshall, J C; Balcombe, S R

    2010-06-01

    Two killing methods were compared on the clupeid, bony bream Nematolosa erebi and it was found that ice-slurry immersion was more humane than benzocaine overdose. The use of ice-slurry for killing N. erebi should be accepted as a standard humane method and considered similarly for other warm-water species. PMID:20557609

  14. Get Real! Silence and Boasting in J. Oppenheimer's The Act of Killing

    Hyldgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines what can be learned from Joshua Oppenheimer’s The Act of Killing and The Look of Silence which document the mass killing of up to one million Indonesians in connection with the military coup in 1965. The opposition between fiction and reality is discussed on the foundation of...

  15. PD-L1 Expression on Retrovirus-Infected Cells Mediates Immune Escape from CD8+ T Cell Killing.

    Ilseyar Akhmetzyanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic CD8+ T Lymphocytes (CTL efficiently control acute virus infections but can become exhausted when a chronic infection develops. Signaling of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 is an important mechanism for the development of virus-specific CD8+ T cell dysfunction. However, it has recently been shown that during the initial phase of infection virus-specific CD8+ T cells express high levels of PD-1, but are fully competent in producing cytokines and killing virus-infected target cells. To better understand the role of the PD-1 signaling pathway in CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity during acute viral infections we analyzed the expression of the ligand on retrovirus-infected cells targeted by CTLs. We observed increased levels of PD-L1 expression after infection of cells with the murine Friend retrovirus (FV or with HIV. In FV infected mice, virus-specific CTLs efficiently eliminated infected target cells that expressed low levels of PD-L1 or that were deficient for PD-L1 but the population of PD-L1high cells escaped elimination and formed a reservoir for chronic FV replication. Infected cells with high PD-L1 expression mediated a negative feedback on CD8+ T cells and inhibited their expansion and cytotoxic functions. These findings provide evidence for a novel immune escape mechanism during acute retroviral infection based on PD-L1 expression levels on virus infected target cells.

  16. Complete Classification of Conformal Killing Symmetries of Plane-Symmetric Static Spacetimes in Teleparallel Theory

    Ali, Ahmad T.; Rahaman, F.; Mallick, A.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied the conformal, homothetic and Killing vectors in the context of teleparallel theory of gravitation for plane-symmetric static spacetimes. We have solved completely the non-linear coupled teleparallel conformal Killing equations. This yields the general form of teleparallel conformal vectors along with the conformal factor for all possible cases of metric functions. We have found four solutions which are divided into one Killing symmetries and three conformal Killing symmetries. One of these teleparalel conformal vectors depends on x only and other is a function of all spacetime coordinates. The three conformal Killing symmetries contain three proper homothetic symmetries where the conformal factor is an arbitrary non-zero constant.

  17. Glycan elongation beyond the mucin associated Tn antigen protects tumor cells from immune-mediated killing

    Madsen, Caroline B; Lavrsen, Kirstine; Steentoft, Catharina; Vester-Christensen, Malene B; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H; Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2013-01-01

    recognized as cancer associated truncated glycans, and are expressed in many adenocarcinomas, e.g. breast- and pancreatic cancer cells. To investigate the role of the cancer associated glycan truncations in immune-mediated killing we created glyco-engineered breast- and pancreatic cancer cells expressing...... and pancreatic cancer cell lines T47D and Capan-1 increases sensitivity to both NK cell mediated antibody-dependent cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing. In addition, we investigated the association between total cell surface expression of MUC1/MUC16 and NK or...... CTL mediated killing, and observed an inverse correlation between MUC16/MUC1 expression and the sensitivity to ADCC and CTL-mediated killing. Together, these data suggest that up-regulation of membrane bound mucins protects cells from immune mediated killing, and that particular glycosylation steps...

  18. Targeted Anticancer Immunotoxins and Cytotoxic Agents with Direct Killing Moieties

    Koji Kawakami

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of the bioinformatics approach to characterize cell-surface antigens and receptors on tumor cells, it remains difficult to generate novel cancer vaccines or neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapeutics. Among targeted cancer therapeutics, biologicals with targetable antibodies or ligands conjugated or fused to toxins or chemicals for direct cell-killing ability have been developed over the last 2 decades. These conjugated or fused chimeric proteins are termed immunotoxins or cytotoxic agents. Two agents, DAB389IL-2 (ONTAKTM targeting the interleukin-2 receptor and CD33-calicheamicin (Mylotarg®, have been approved by the FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML, respectively. Such targetable agents, including RFB4(dsFv-PE38 (BL22, IL13-PE38QQR, and Tf-CRM107, are being tested in clinical trials. Several agents using unique technology such as a cleavable adapter or immunoliposomes with antibodies are also in the preclinical stage. This review summarizes the generation, mechanism, and development of these agents. In addition, possible future directions of this therapeutic approach are discussed.

  19. Rapid kill-novel endodontic sealer and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Beyth, Nurit; Kesler Shvero, Dana; Zaltsman, Nathan; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Abramovitz, Itzhak; Davidi, Michael Perez; Weiss, Ervin I

    2013-01-01

    With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means. PMID:24223159

  20. Rapid kill-novel endodontic sealer and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Nurit Beyth

    Full Text Available With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means.

  1. Filicide: mental illness in those who kill their children.

    Sandra M Flynn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. METHOD: All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997-2006 were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. RESULTS: 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66% perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27% and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%, most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. CONCLUSION: In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research.

  2. Development of Al-killed/Ti stabilized steels

    Ramirez-Ledesma, A. L.; Aguilar-Mendez, M. A.; Rodriguez-Diaz, R. A.; >G Aramburo,

    2015-01-01

    Several Al-killed/Ti-stabilized low carbon steels were developed in a Mexican steel industry with the aim of obtaining an interstitial free steel for automotive applications. The steelmaking route involved the use of 100% sponge iron which was feed into an electric arc furnace, vacuum degassed, ladle treated and continuously casted. The resulting slabs were then hot rolled at 1100 °C and coiled at 650 °C. Then, the steel plates were cold rolled at room temperature and sheets annealed at 700 °C. As-cast micro structure showed the presence of α-ferrite with titanium nitrides in matrix and grain boundaries while in the ashot rolled condition, elongated grains showed the presence of titanium nitrides, titanium sulfides and titanium carbosulfides. The annealed sheets showed, additionally to the other precipitates, the presence of titanium carbides. Microstructure, texture, the Lankford ratio and mechanical properties of fully recrystallized coils fulfilled the target properties established by the automobile industry.

  3. Book review: Mosquito eradication: The story of killing Campto

    Lapointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In 1826, the paradise that was the Hawaiian Islands was changed forever when the first mosquito species was accidentally introduced to the island of Maui. Though it has not lived up to its potential as a vector of human disease in the islands, Culex quinquefasciatus and the avian pathogens it transmits laid waste to perhaps the world's most remarkable insular avifauna. Today the lowland native forests, once deafening with birdsong, are largely devoid of native birds and Cx. quinquefasciatus has become an inextricable part of our natural areas. In the Hawaiian Islands, the conservation community struggles to keep invasive species out and to control a number of species that have become naturalized. Despite the millions of dollars spent, these efforts never seem enough to slow the erosion of our native biota. The restoration and long-term preservation of Hawaiian forest birds depend on the nearly complete control of mosquito-borne avian disease, an obstacle that to many land managers appears insurmountable. To rally hope in Hawai`i, the conservation community needs to see a success. As a Pacific island, Hawai`i shares similar conservation problems with New Zealand and has often looked to that nation for innovation and inspiration. Mosquito Eradication: The Story of Killing Campto may be our latest inspiration.

  4. Killing the Electron Cloud Effect in the LHC Arcs

    McIntyre, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    A getter/electrode assembly has been devised to suppress the regeneration mechanism of the electron cloud effect in the arc dipoles of LHC. The assembly consists of a copper foil electrode, supported through an insulating layer on a stainless steel skid, which would rest upon the flat bottom of the beam screen. The electrode is coated with NEG to provide effective pumping of all non-inert gases from the vacuum. Pumping should be enhanced by electron bombardment. By biasing the electrode ~+100 V secondary electrons produced on the surface would be fully re-absorbed, killing the regeneration mechanism. The NEG surface can be regenerated by passing a current through the electrode to heat it to ~240 C. The heat transfer (radiant + conductive) to the beam screen during regeneration is estimated ~10 W/m, within limits to maintain the beam screen at nominal 20 K temperature during regeneration. The entire assembly has been designed so that installation does not require modification of any hardware currently being bu...

  5. Nanotechnology for the detection and kill of circulating tumor cells

    Gao, Yang; Yuan, Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a surrogate biomarker of hematogenous metastases and thus could be considered as a `liquid biopsy' which reveals metastasis in action. But it is absolutely a challenge to detect CTCs due to their extreme rarity. At present, the most common principle is to take advantage of the epithelial surface markers of CTCs which attach to a specific antibody. Antibody-magnetic nanobeads combine with the epithelial surface markers, and then the compound is processed by washing, separation, and detection. However, a proportion of CTC antigen expressions are down-regulated or lost in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus, this part of CTCs cannot be detected by classical detection methods such as CellSearch. To resolve this problem, some multiple-marker CTC detections have been developed rapidly. Additionally, nanotechnology is a promising approach to kill CTCs with high efficiency. Implantable nanotubes coated with apoptosis-promoting molecules improve the disease-free survival and overall survival. The review introduces some novel CTC detection techniques and therapeutic methods by virtue of nanotechnology to provide a better knowledge of the progress about CTC study.

  6. Anthrax toxin receptor 2-dependent lethal toxin killing in vivo.

    Heather M Scobie

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax toxin receptors 1 and 2 (ANTXR1 and ANTXR2 have a related integrin-like inserted (I domain which interacts with a metal cation that is coordinated by residue D683 of the protective antigen (PA subunit of anthrax toxin. The receptor-bound metal ion and PA residue D683 are critical for ANTXR1-PA binding. Since PA can bind to ANTXR2 with reduced affinity in the absence of metal ions, we reasoned that D683 mutant forms of PA might specifically interact with ANTXR2. We show here that this is the case. The differential ability of ANTXR1 and ANTXR2 to bind D683 mutant PA proteins was mapped to nonconserved receptor residues at the binding interface with PA domain 2. Moreover, a D683K mutant form of PA that bound specifically to human and rat ANTXR2 mediated killing of rats by anthrax lethal toxin, providing strong evidence for the physiological importance of ANTXR2 in anthrax disease pathogenesis.

  7. Development of Al-killed/Ti stabilized steels

    Several Al-killed/Ti-stabilized low carbon steels were developed in a Mexican steel industry with the aim of obtaining an interstitial free steel for automotive applications. The steelmaking route involved the use of 100% sponge iron which was feed into an electric arc furnace, vacuum degassed, ladle treated and continuously casted. The resulting slabs were then hot rolled at 1100 °C and coiled at 650 °C. Then, the steel plates were cold rolled at room temperature and sheets annealed at 700 °C. As-cast micro structure showed the presence of α-ferrite with titanium nitrides in matrix and grain boundaries while in the ashot rolled condition, elongated grains showed the presence of titanium nitrides, titanium sulfides and titanium carbosulfides. The annealed sheets showed, additionally to the other precipitates, the presence of titanium carbides. Microstructure, texture, the Lankford ratio and mechanical properties of fully recrystallized coils fulfilled the target properties established by the automobile industry

  8. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  9. Untying chronic pain

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic ...

  10. ABT-737 synergizes with Bortezomib to kill melanoma cells

    Steven N. Reuland

    2012-02-01

    The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 is a potent inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w. The Bcl-2 family modulates sensitivity to anticancer drugs in many cancers, including melanomas. In this study, we examined whether ABT-737 is effective in killing melanoma cells either alone or in combination with a proteasome inhibitor already in clinical use (Bortezomib in vitro and in vivo, and further evaluated the mechanisms of action. Results showed that ABT-737 alone induced modest cytotoxicity in melanoma cells, but only at higher doses. Knock-down of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, or Mcl-1 with siRNAs demonstrated that Mcl-1 is the critical mediator of melanoma's resistance to ABT-737 treatment. However, ABT-737 displayed strong synergistic lethality when combined with Bortezomib. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that Bortezomib increased expression of Noxa, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member that antagonizes Mcl-1. Additionally, siRNA-mediated inhibition of Noxa expression protected melanoma cells from cytotoxicity induced by the combination treatment. These results demonstrate that Bortezomib synergizes with ABT-737 by neutralizing Mcl-1's function via increased levels of Noxa. In a xenograft mouse model, although drug doses were limited due to toxicity, ABT-737 or Bortezomib slowed melanoma tumor growth compared to the control, and the drug combination significantly decreased growth compared to either drug alone. These data imply that less toxic drugs fulfilling a function similar to Bortezomib to neutralize Mcl-1 are promising candidates for combination with ABT-737 for treating melanomas.

  11. Why bad projects are so hard to kill.

    Royer, Isabelle

    2003-02-01

    Even at the prototype stage, experts were saying the technology was obsolete. Yet, in the face of tepid consumer response, the company stubbornly kept increasing production capacity and developing new models. By the time it was finally killed, the initiative had cost the company an astounding $580 million and had tied up resources for 14 years. The product was RCA's SelectaVision videodisc recorder, and its story is hardly unique. Companies make similar mistakes--if on a somewhat smaller scale--all the time. But why? No one comes to work saying, "I'm going to pursue a project that will waste my company millions of dollars." Quite the opposite. They come to work full of excitement about a project they believe in. And that, surprisingly, can be the root of all the trouble--a fervent belief in the inevitability of a project's ultimate success. Starting, naturally enough, with a project's champion, this faith can spread throughout the organization, leading everyone to believe collectively in the product's viability and to view any signs of impending doom merely as temporary setbacks. This phenomenon is documented here in two chillingly detailed case studied, one involving Essilor, the world's largest maker of corrective lenses for eyeglasses, and the other involving Lafarge, the largest producer of building materials. By counterexample, they point the way toward avoiding such morasses: assembling project teams not entirely composed of like-minded people and putting in place--and sticking to--well-defined review processes. Both cases also show that if it takes a project champion to get a project up and running, it may take a new kind of organizational player--an "exit champion"--to push an irrationally exuberant organization to admit when enough is enough. PMID:12577652

  12. Commuting symmetry operators of the Dirac equation, Killing-Yano and Schouten-Nijenhuis brackets

    In this paper we derive the most general first-order symmetry operator commuting with the Dirac operator in all dimensions and signatures. Such an operator splits into Clifford even and Clifford odd parts which are given in terms of odd Killing-Yano and even closed conformal Killing-Yano inhomogeneous forms, respectively. We study commutators of these symmetry operators and give necessary and sufficient conditions under which they remain of the first-order. In this specific setting we can introduce a Killing-Yano bracket, a bilinear operation acting on odd Killing-Yano and even closed conformal Killing-Yano forms, and demonstrate that it is closely related to the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. An important nontrivial example of vanishing Killing-Yano brackets is given by Dirac symmetry operators generated from the principal conformal Killing-Yano tensor [hep-th/0612029]. We show that among these operators one can find a complete subset of mutually commuting operators. These operators underlie separability of the Dirac equation in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes in all dimensions [arXiv:0711.0078].

  13. Eigenvalues of Killing Tensors and Separable Webs on Riemannian and Pseudo-Riemannian Manifolds

    Giovanni Rastelli

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Given a $n$-dimensional Riemannian manifold of arbitrary signature, we illustrate an algebraic method for constructing the coordinate webs separating the geodesic Hamilton-Jacobi equation by means of the eigenvalues of $m leq n$ Killing two-tensors. Moreover, from the analysis of the eigenvalues, information about the possible symmetries of the web foliations arises. Three cases are examined: the orthogonal separation, the general separation, including non-orthogonal and isotropic coordinates, and the conformal separation, where Killing tensors are replaced by conformal Killing tensors. The method is illustrated by several examples and an application to the L-systems is provided.

  14. Targeted killing as a means of asymmetric warfare: a provocative view and invitation to debate

    Bachmann, Sascha; Haeussler, U.

    2011-01-01

    The killing of Mahmoud al-Mabhou reportedly by agents of Israel‟s Mossad service in Dubai a year ago1 serves as a quick reminder that extrajudicial executions, assassinations and other targeted killing operations are taking place and are part of a modern democracy‟s arsenal of antiterrorism and counter-terrorism means. Targeted Killing Operations reportedly form part of NATO‟s operational practice: depending on the circumstances they represent just another option of the lawful use of force in...

  15. Mechanisms of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: the use of effector cells from chronic granulomatous disease patients as investigative probes.

    Katz, P.; Simone, C B; Henkart, P A; Fauci, A S

    1980-01-01

    The present study characterized the antibody-dependent cellular cytoxicity (ADCC) of leukocyte effector cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes) from normal subjects and from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients. CGD phagocytic cells (neutrophils and monocytes) had depressed ADCC activity against antibody-coated human erythrocyte (HRBC) targets in suspension cultures indicative of abnormal intracellular postphagocytic killing. However, when phagocytosis was prevented by using a...

  16. Studies on the mechanisms of mammalian cell killing by a freeze-thaw cycle: conditions that prevent cell killing using nucleated freezing

    Normally a freeze-thaw cycle is a very efficient method of killing mammalian cells. However, this report describes conditions that prevent killing of cultured mammalian cells by nucleated freezing at -24 degrees C. Optimal protection from cell killing at -24 degrees C was obtained in isotonic solutions containing an organic cryoprotectant such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; 10%, v/v), a saccharide such as sucrose over a broad concentration range from 50 to 150 mM, and glucose. Glycerol was also an effective cryoprotectant but other organic solvents were ineffective, although in some cases they appeared to protect cell membranes, while not protecting other vital components. A wide variety of saccharide structures were effective at protecting cells from freeze-thaw killing, with trehalose being particularly effective. The degree of resistance to killing by a freeze-thaw cycle under these conditions varied widely among different cell lines. If toxicity of DMSO was responsible for this variability of cryoprotection, it must have been due to short-term, not longer term, toxicity of DMSO. Studies on the mechanism by which cells are protected from killing under these conditions indicated that neither vitrification of the medium nor the concentrating of components during freezing were involved. One model not eliminated by the mechanistic studies proposes that the organic solvent cryoprotectant component acts by fluidizing membranes under the thawing conditions, so that any holes produced by ice crystals propagating through membranes can reseal during the thawing process. In this model one of the mechanisms by which the saccharide component could act is by entering the cells and stabilizing vital intracellular components. Consistent with this, a freeze-thaw cycle promoted the uptake of labeled sucrose into cultured cells

  17. Chronic granulomatous disease

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called ... some types of bacteria and fungi. This disorder leads to long- ...

  18. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    ... Experiencing Chronic Homelessness Share This: People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness We've made significant progress in our national ... the USICH newsletter. We know how to end homelessness. Let's do it, together. Sign up for our ...

  19. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at age 5 or 6 and get worse until age 12. They often improve during adulthood.

  20. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    ... can include cramping abdominal pain nausea or vomiting fever chills bloody stools Children with chronic diarrhea who have ... can include cramping, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, chills, or bloody stools. Children with chronic diarrhea who ...

  1. "Chronic Lyme Disease"

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area "Chronic Lyme Disease" What is "chronic Lyme disease?" Lyme disease is an infection caused by ... J Med 357:1422-30, 2008). How is Lyme disease treated? For early Lyme disease, a short ...

  2. Recent advances in chronic granulomatous disease.

    Goldblatt, David

    2014-11-01

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by abnormities in the NADPH Oxidase that is involved in the respiratory burst responsible for initiating the killing of microbes ingested by phagocytic cells. The hallmark of CGD is recurrent infection but the inflammatory complications can prove difficult to treat. New insights into the mechanisms responsible for the inflammatory complications have led to new therapies. The treatment of CGD colitis with an anti-tumour necrosis alpha agent has been shown to be successful but associated with significant infectious complications. Haematopoietic stem cell transplants offer the possibility of cure for those with ether a matched or unrelated donor transplant, with results of the latter improving significantly over recent years. Gene Therapy offers the promise of cure without the need for a transplant but better vectors are required. PMID:25264161

  3. Prostaglandins and chronic inflammation

    Aoki, Tomohiro; Narumiya, Shuh

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is the basis of various chronic illnesses including cancer and vascular diseases. However, much has yet to be learned how inflammation becomes chronic. Prostaglandins (PGs) are well established as mediators of acute inflammation, and recent studies in experimental animals have provided evidence that they also function in transition to and maintenance of chronic inflammation. One role PGs play in such processes is amplification of cytokine signaling. As such, PGs can facil...

  4. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treat...

  5. Distribution, size and sex of bear kills and composition of Kodiak Island bear population

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Distribution of kill dates, from existing records, by fifteen day periods from April 1 to November 30th and distribution by size, sex, and other variables.

  6. Metabolic requirements for hormone-induced resistance to antibody-complement mediated killing of tumor cells

    Line-1 guinea pig hepatoma cells are susceptible to killing by anti-Forssman IgM antibody plus guinea pig complement (GPC). When these tumor cells are incubated with insulin, epinephrine, hydrocortisone, or prednisolone, the cells show a marked reduction in their susceptibility to antibody-C-mediated killing. If the ability of the cells to synthesize DNA, RNA, and protein is impaired by pretreatment with metabolic inhibitors, x-irradiation, or culture in nutrient-deficient media, the hormones are no longer effective in rendering the cells resistant to killing. If only DNA synthesis is impaired, but not RNA and protein synthesis, the hormones are effective. The inability of cells inhibited in their macromolecular synthesis to be rendered resistant to killing after hormone treatment is not due to an inability of the cells to bind hormone

  7. The curvature and the algebra of Killing vectors in five-dimensional space

    This paper presents the Killing vectors for a five-dimensional space with the line element. The algebras which are formed by these vectors are written down. The curvature two-forms are described. (author). 10 refs

  8. Characterization of cell lysis in Pseudomonas putida induced upon expression of heterologous killing genes

    Ronchel, M.C.; Molina, L.; Witte, A.; Lutbiz, W.; Molin, Søren; Ramos, J.L.; Rodriguez, Cayo Juan Ramos

    1998-01-01

    Active biological containment systems are based on the controlled expression of killing genes. These systems are of interest for the Pseudomonadaceae because of the potential applications of these microbes as bioremediation agents and biopesticides, The physiological effects that lead to cell death...... upon the induction of expression of two different heterologous killing genes in nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida KT2440 derivatives have been analyzed, P. putida CMC4 and CMC12 carry in their chromosomes a fusion of the PAl-04/03 promoter to the Escherichia coli gef gene and the phi X174 lysis gene E......, respectively. Expression of the killing genes is controlled by the LacI protein, whose expression is initiated from the XylS-dependent Pm promoter. Under induced conditions, killing of P. putida CMC12 cells mediated by phi X174 lysis protein E was faster than that observed for P. putida CMC4, for which the Gef...

  9. The Cumbria spree killing:how mobility affects the policing of critical incidents

    Kirby, Stuart; Graham, Jerry; Green, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Spree killing impacts significantly on emergency services and is becoming more prevalent across the world. The purpose of this paper is to explore the Cumbrian spree killing, which resulted in the fatal shooting of 12 people with a further 11 wounded. This study highlights why these events are so difficult to manage in an attempt to assist policy makers and practitioners deal with them more effectively. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative methodology was used, examining open...

  10. Urinary IgG antibody against mixed heat-killed coliform antigen and lipopolysaccharide core antigen.

    Gibb, A P; Edmond, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether antibody to lipopolysaccharide-core (LPS-core) antigen is an important component of the antibody, detected by mixed heat-killed coliform antigen, in urine from patients with suspected urinary tract infection. METHODS: LPS-core antigen and mixed heat-killed coliform antigen were used in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure IgG antibody in midstream urine samples. Seventy two samples from students attending their general practitioner with symptoms s...

  11. Vacuum Einstein metrics with bidimensional Killing leaves. I-Local aspects

    Sparano, G; Vinogradov, A

    2002-01-01

    The solutions of vacuum Einstein's field equations, for the class of Riemannian metrics admitting a non Abelian bidimensional Lie algebra of Killing fields, are explicitly described. They are parametrized either by solutions of a transcendental equation (the tortoise equation), or by solutions of a linear second order differential equation in two independent variables. Metrics, corresponding to solutions of the tortoise equation, are characterized as those that admit a 3-dimensional Lie algebra of Killing fields with bidimensional leaves.

  12. Density of Wild Prey Modulates Lynx Kill Rates on Free-Ranging Domestic Sheep

    Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Linnell, John D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore–livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 alo...

  13. Research on the properties of laser welded joints of aluminum killed cold rolled steel

    阎启; 曹能; 俞宁峰

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum killed cold rolled steel used for automobiles was welded shows that high quality of welding can be realized at welding speed of laser welded joints for aluminum killed cold rolled steel increased compared to those of the base metal while the formability decreased. Forming limit diagram of joint material indicated that the laser weld seam should avoid the maximum deformation area of automobile parts during the designing period for the position of weld seam.

  14. Postsegregational killing does not increase plasmid stability but acts to mediate the exclusion of competing plasmids

    Cooper, Tim F; Heinemann, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    Postsegregational killing (PSK) systems consist of a tightly linked toxin–antitoxin pair. Antitoxin must be continually produced to prevent the longer lived toxin from killing the cell. PSK systems on plasmids are widely believed to benefit the plasmid by ensuring its stable vertical inheritance. However, experimental tests of this “stability” hypothesis were not consistent with its predictions. We suggest an alternative hypothesis to explain the evolution of PSK: ...

  15. Mechanism of the Susceptibility of Remodeled Pulmonary Vessels to Drug‐Induced Cell Killing

    Ibrahim, Yasmine F.; Wong, Chi‐Ming; Pavlickova, Ludmila; Liu, Lingling; Trasar, Lobsang; Bansal, Geetanjali; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension remains a devastating disease without a cure. The major complication of this disease is the abnormal growth of vascular cells, resulting in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Thus, agents, which affect the remodeled vessels by killing unwanted cells, should improve treatment strategies. The present study reports that antitumor drugs selectively kill vascular cells in remodeled pulmonary vessels in rat models of pulmonary hypertension. Methods and Results...

  16. Raping and making love are different concepts: so are killing and voluntary euthanasia.

    1988-01-01

    The distinction between 'kill' and 'help to die' is argued by analogy with the distinction between 'rape' and 'make love to'. The difference is the consent of the receiver of the act, therefore 'kill' is the wrong word for an act of active voluntary euthanasia. The argument that doctors must not be allowed by law to perform active voluntary euthanasia because this would recognise an infringement of the sanctity of life ('the red light principle') is countered by comparing such doctors with th...

  17. Interleukin-8 enhances nonoxidative intracellular killing of Mycobacterium fortuitum by human granulocytes.

    Nibbering, P. H.; Pos, O; Stevenhagen, A; van Furth, R

    1993-01-01

    The results of this study show that recombinant interleukin-8 (IL-8) enhances the intracellular killing of Mycobacterium fortuitum by human granulocytes. This chemokine did not stimulate the phagocytosis of M. fortuitum by granulocytes at various bacterium-to-cell ratios. The killing process was not affected by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium bisulfate, which indicates that recombinant IL-8 stimulates oxygen-independent mycobactericidal mechanisms of granulocytes. IL-8 did not...

  18. An Analysis Of Prejudice In Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mockingbird

    Simanjuntak, Abrina

    2011-01-01

    Skripsi ini berjudul An Analysis of Prejudice in Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird yang merupakan suatu pembahasan mengenai prasangka. Prasangka adalah salah satu persoalan sosial yang biasa terdapat dalam karya sastra. Setiap karakter, baik yang berprasangka maupun yang menjadi korban prasangka merepresentasikan persoalan sosial yang dialami oleh masyarakat Maycomb County. Di dalam skripsi ini secara keseluruhan, penulis ingin membuktikan apakah benar novel yang berjudul To Kill a Mockingbi...

  19. Submerged entry nozzle clogging during continuous casting of Al-killed steel

    F. Tehovnik; Burja, J.; Arh, B.; Knap, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nozzle clogging is a common problem in the production of continuously cast Al-killed steels. Clogging occurs when there are solid inclusions in molten steel at casting temperatures. SENs (Submerged entry nozzles) from continuous casting of Al-killed low alloy steel grades with increased content of sulfur (0,020 to 0,035 % S) were examined. The examinations revealed that the deposits are mainly alumina based, with spinel and sulfur inclusions and some entrapped steel melt. It was concluded tha...

  20. Effect of extracellular serum in the stimulation of intracellular killing of streptococci by human monocytes.

    Leijh, P C; van Zwet, T L; Furth, R. van

    1980-01-01

    This study shows that the intracellular killing of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae by human monocytes is stimulated by the extracellular presence of both heat-stable and heat-labile serum factors. A similar kind of stimulation of monocytes has been described in respect of catalase-positive microorganisms. However, killing of these bacteria is negligible in the absence of extracellular serum factors, whereas a large proportion of the ingested catala...

  1. Short Communication: Activating Stimuli Enhance Immunotoxin-Mediated Killing of HIV-Infected Macrophages

    Marsden, Matthew D.; Xu, Jie; Hamer, Dean; Zack, Jerome A.

    2008-01-01

    Strategies for purging persistent reservoirs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may be enhanced by including agents that specifically kill virus-expressing cells. Anti-HIV envelope immunotoxins (ITs) represent one class of candidate molecules that could fulfill this function. We have previously utilized an anti-gp120 IT in conjunction with various stimulants to kill latently infected T cells ex vivo. Here we show that primary macrophages expressing HIV Env are relative...

  2. Effect of Ciprofloxacin on Killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    Cacchillo, David A.; Walters, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a pathogen associated with aggressive periodontitis, resists phagocytic killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It is susceptible to ciprofloxacin, which PMNs actively accumulate. This study tested the hypothesis that ciprofloxacin-loaded PMNs are more effective at killing A. actinomycetemcomitans than control PMNs. Isolated human PMNs were loaded by brief incubation with 0.5 μg of ciprofloxacin/ml. Opsonized bacteria (ATCC 43718) were incubated a...

  3. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  4. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide variety

  5. Complement-mediated killing of Borrelia burgdorferi by nonimmune sera from sika deer.

    Nelson, D R; Rooney, S; Miller, N J; Mather, T N

    2000-12-01

    Various species of cervid deer are the preferred hosts for adult, black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus) in the United States. Although frequently exposed to the agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), these animals, for the most part, are incompetent as transmission reservoirs. We examined the borreliacidal activity of normal and B. burgdorferi-immune sera from sika deer (Cervus nippon) maintained in a laboratory setting and compared it to that of similar sera from reservoir-competent mice and rabbits. All normal deer sera (NDS) tested killed > 90% of B. burgdorferi cells. In contrast, normal mouse and rabbit sera killed 1:1,024. Heat treatment (56 C, 30 min) of NDS reduced borreliacidal activity, with 90% of the cells killed. Addition of 10 mM EDTA reduced the killing to approximately 30%, whereas the addition of Mg2+ (10 mM) restored borreliacidal activity to NDS. The addition of zymosan A, an activator of the alternative pathway, increased the survival of B. burgdorferi cells to approximately 80% in NDS. These data suggest that the alternative complement activation pathway plays a major role in the borreliacidal activity of NDS. Additionally, 10 mM EGTA had almost no effect on the killing activity of B. burgdorferi-exposed deer sera, suggesting that the classical pathway is not involved in Borrelia killing, even in sera from B. burgdorferi-exposed deer. PMID:11191897

  6. Inability to sustain intraphagolysosomal killing of Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to bacterial persistence in macrophages.

    Jubrail, Jamil; Morris, Paul; Bewley, Martin A; Stoneham, Simon; Johnston, Simon A; Foster, Simon J; Peden, Andrew A; Read, Robert C; Marriott, Helen M; Dockrell, David H

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are critical effectors of the early innate response to bacteria in tissues. Phagocytosis and killing of bacteria are interrelated functions essential for bacterial clearance but the rate-limiting step when macrophages are challenged with large numbers of the major medical pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is unknown. We show that macrophages have a finite capacity for intracellular killing and fail to match sustained phagocytosis with sustained microbial killing when exposed to large inocula of S. aureus (Newman, SH1000 and USA300 strains). S. aureus ingestion by macrophages is associated with a rapid decline in bacterial viability immediately after phagocytosis. However, not all bacteria are killed in the phagolysosome, and we demonstrate reduced acidification of the phagolysosome, associated with failure of phagolysosomal maturation and reduced activation of cathepsin D. This results in accumulation of viable intracellular bacteria in macrophages. We show macrophages fail to engage apoptosis-associated bacterial killing. Ultittop mately macrophages with viable bacteria undergo cell lysis, and viable bacteria are released and can be internalized by other macrophages. We show that cycles of lysis and reuptake maintain a pool of viable intracellular bacteria over time when killing is overwhelmed and demonstrate intracellular persistence in alveolar macrophages in the lungs in a murine model. PMID:26248337

  7. The pathology of embryo death caused by the male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium in Drosophila nebulosa

    Heraty Joseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inherited bacteria that kill male offspring, male-killers, are known to be common in insects, but little is understood about the mechanisms used by male-killing bacteria to kill males. In this paper we describe the tempo and changes that occur during male-killing by Spiroplasma bacteria in the host Drosophila nebulosa. Results Spiroplasma infected D. nebulosa males were developmentally retarded from 6–8 h into embryonic development at 25°C, and arrested at between stages 12 and 13 of embryogenesis (10–12 h. Dying males were characterized by a failure to form segments, and ultimately disintegration of the normal oval embryonic shape. Prior to death, dying males exhibited widespread apoptosis, as testified by TUNEL staining. Conclusion The Spiroplasma kills male Drosophila in a narrow developmental period, shortly after the formation of the host dosage compensation complex that is required for male-killing. Male death is preceded by widespread apoptosis, but it is uncertain if this is primary or secondary apoptosis.

  8. Assisted suicide and the killing of people? Maybe. Physician-assisted suicide and the killing of patients? No: the rejection of Shaw's new perspective on euthanasia.

    McLachlan, Hugh V

    2010-05-01

    David Shaw presents a new argument to support the old claim that there is not a significant moral difference between killing and letting die and, by implication, between active and passive euthanasia. He concludes that doctors should not make a distinction between them. However, whether or not killing and letting die are morally equivalent is not as important a question as he suggests. One can justify legal distinctions on non-moral grounds. One might oppose physician-assisted suicide and active euthanasia when performed by doctors on patients whether or not one is in favour of the legalisation of assisted suicide and active euthanasia. Furthermore, one can consider particular actions to be contrary to appropriate professional conduct even in the absence of legal and ethical objections to them. Someone who wants to die might want only a doctor to kill him or to help him to kill himself. However, we are not entitled to everything that we want in life or death. A doctor cannot always fittingly provide all that a patient wants or needs. It is appropriate that doctors provide their expert advice with regard to the performance of active euthanasia but they can and should do so while, qua doctors, they remain hors de combat. PMID:20448006

  9. Heredity of chronic bronchitis

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for lung diseases and lower respiratory symptoms, but since not all smokers develop chronic bronchitis and since chronic bronchitis is also diagnosed in never-smokers, it has been suggested that some individuals are more susceptible to develop chronic...... bronchitis due to genetics. OBJECTIVE: To study the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in the susceptibility to chronic bronchitis. METHODS: In a population-based questionnaire study of 13,649 twins, 50-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, we calculated sex......-specific concordance rates and heritability of chronic bronchitis. The response rate was 75%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 9.3% among men and 8.5% among women. The concordance rate for chronic bronchitis was higher in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins among women; 0.30 vs. 0.17, but not...

  10. Colicin Killing: Foiled Cell Defense and Hijacked Cell Functions

    de Zamaroczy, Miklos; Chauleau, Mathieu

    The study of bacteriocins, notably those produced by E. coli (and named colicins), was initiated in 1925 by Gratia, who first discovered "un remarquable exemple d'antagonisme entre deux souches de colibacilles". Since this innovating observation, the production of toxic exoproteins has been widely reported in all major lineages of Eubacteria and in Archaebacteria. Bacteriocins belong to the most abundant and most diverse group of these bacterial defense systems. Paradoxically, these antimicrobial cytotoxins are actually powerful weapons in the intense battle for bacterial survival. They are also biotechnologically useful since several bacteriocins are used as preservatives in the food industry or as antibiotics or as potential antitumor agents in human health care. Most colicins kill bacteria in one of two ways. The first type is those that form pores in the phospholipid bilayer of the inner membrane. They are active immediately after their translocation across the outer membrane. The translocation pathway requires generally either the BtuB receptor and the Tol (OmpF/TolABQR) complex, or the FepA, FhuA, or Cir receptor and the Ton (TonB/ExbBD) system. The second type of colicins encodes specific endonuclease activities that target DNA, rRNA, or tRNAs in the cytoplasm. To be active, these colicins require translocation across both the outer and inner membranes. The molecular mechanisms implicated in the complex cascade of interactions, required for the transfers of colicin molecules from the extracellular medium through the different "cellular compartments" (outer membrane, periplasm, inner membrane, and cytoplasm), are still incompletely understood. It is clear, however, that the colicins "hijack" specific cellular functions to facilitate access to their target. In this chapter, following a general presentation of colicin biology, we describe, compare, and update several of the concepts related to colicin toxicity and discuss recent, often unexpected findings

  11. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik;

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...

  12. Male-killing endosymbionts: influence of environmental conditions on persistence of host metapopulation

    Hovestadt Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male killing endosymbionts manipulate their arthropod host reproduction by only allowing female embryos to develop into infected females and killing all male offspring. Because of the reproductive manipulation, we expect them to have an effect on the evolution of host dispersal rates. In addition, male killing endosymbionts are expected to approach fixation when fitness of infected individuals is larger than that of uninfected ones and when transmission from mother to offspring is nearly perfect. They then vanish as the host population crashes. High observed infection rates and among-population variation in natural systems can consequently not be explained if defense mechanisms are absent and when transmission efficiency is perfect. Results By simulating the host-endosymbiont dynamics in an individual-based metapopulation model we show that male killing endosymbionts increase host dispersal rates. No fitness compensations were built into the model for male killing endosymbionts, but they spread as a group beneficial trait. Host and parasite populations face extinction under panmictic conditions, i.e. conditions that favor the evolution of high dispersal in hosts. On the other hand, deterministic 'curing' (only parasite goes extinct can occur under conditions of low dispersal, e.g. under low environmental stochasticity and high dispersal mortality. However, high and stable infection rates can be maintained in metapopulations over a considerable spectrum of conditions favoring intermediate levels of dispersal in the host. Conclusion Male killing endosymbionts without explicit fitness compensation spread as a group selected trait into a metapopulation. Emergent feedbacks through increased evolutionary stable dispersal rates provide an alternative explanation for both, the high male-killing endosymbiont infection rates and the high among-population variation in local infection rates reported for some natural systems.

  13. Proteases and antiproteases in chronic neutrophilic lung disease - relevance to drug discovery.

    Greene, Catherine M

    2009-10-01

    Chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and emphysema are characterized by higher-than-normal levels of pulmonary proteases. While these enzymes play important roles such as bacterial killing, their dysregulated expression or activity can adversely impact on the inflammatory process. The existence of efficient endogenous control mechanisms that can dampen or halt this overexuberant protease activity in vivo is essential for the effective resolution of inflammatory lung disease. The function of pulmonary antiproteases is to fulfil this role. Interestingly, in addition to their antiprotease activity, protease inhibitors in the lung also often possess other intrinsic properties that contribute to microbial killing or termination of the inflammatory process. This review will outline important features of chronic inflammation that are regulated by pulmonary proteases and will describe the various mechanisms by which antiproteases attempt to counterbalance exaggerated protease-mediated inflammatory events. These proteases, antiproteases and their modifiers represent interesting targets for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Immunization with a heat-killed preparation of the environmental bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae promotes stress resilience in mice

    Reber, Stefan O.; Siebler, Philip H.; Donner, Nina C.; Morton, James T.; Smith, David G.; Kopelman, Jared M.; Lowe, Kenneth R.; Wheeler, Kristen J.; Fox, James H.; Hassell, James E.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Jansch, Charline; Lechner, Anja; Schmidt, Dominic; Uschold-Schmidt, Nicole; Füchsl, Andrea M.; Langgartner, Dominik; Walker, Frederick R.; Hale, Matthew W.; Lopez Perez, Gerardo; Van Treuren, Will; González, Antonio; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L.; Fleshner, Monika; Raison, Charles L.; Rook, Graham A.; Peddada, Shyamal D.; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of inflammatory diseases is increasing in modern urban societies. Inflammation increases risk of stress-related pathology; consequently, immunoregulatory or antiinflammatory approaches may protect against negative stress-related outcomes. We show that stress disrupts the homeostatic relationship between the microbiota and the host, resulting in exaggerated inflammation. Repeated immunization with a heat-killed preparation of Mycobacterium vaccae, an immunoregulatory environmental microorganism, reduced subordinate, flight, and avoiding behavioral responses to a dominant aggressor in a murine model of chronic psychosocial stress when tested 1–2 wk following the final immunization. Furthermore, immunization with M. vaccae prevented stress-induced spontaneous colitis and, in stressed mice, induced anxiolytic or fear-reducing effects as measured on the elevated plus-maze, despite stress-induced gut microbiota changes characteristic of gut infection and colitis. Immunization with M. vaccae also prevented stress-induced aggravation of colitis in a model of inflammatory bowel disease. Depletion of regulatory T cells negated protective effects of immunization with M. vaccae on stress-induced colitis and anxiety-like or fear behaviors. These data provide a framework for developing microbiome- and immunoregulation-based strategies for prevention of stress-related pathologies. PMID:27185913

  15. Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels

    Roy, Debdutta

    Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily

  16. Rapid whole-blood flow cytometry assay for diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.

    O'Gorman, M R; Corrochano, V

    1995-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by defective killing of intracellular microorganisms due to mutations in one of the four known components of the NADPH oxidase system. This system is responsible for the generation of superoxide and related antimicrobial oxidants. Diagnosis of CGD requires the demonstration of an abnormal oxidase system in the leukocytes of affected patients. Recently, several flow cytometry-based procedures which measure various reactive oxygen intermediat...

  17. Lessons About the Pathogenesis and Management of Aspergillosis from Studies in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Gallin, John I.; Zarember, Kol

    2007-01-01

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the NADPH oxidase. The CGD phenotype includes granuloma formation and susceptibility to infection with microorganisms including Aspergillus. The immune adjuvant interferon-γ and the antifungal agent itraconazole have reduced the incidence of infections in CGD. Studies using CGD phagocytes have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS), products of the NAPDH oxidase, are critical for killing Aspergillus hyphae. But de...

  18. Blockade of Immunosuppressive Cytokines Restores NK Cell Antiviral Function in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Dimitra Peppa; Lorenzo Micco; Alia Javaid; Kennedy, Patrick T.F.; Anna Schurich; Claire Dunn; Celeste Pallant; Gidon Ellis; Pooja Khanna; Geoffrey Dusheiko; Gilson, Richard J.; Mala K Maini

    2010-01-01

    NK cells are enriched in the liver, constituting around a third of intrahepatic lymphocytes. We have previously demonstrated that they upregulate the death ligand TRAIL in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), allowing them to kill hepatocytes bearing TRAIL receptors. In this study we investigated whether, in addition to their pathogenic role, NK cells have antiviral potential in CHB. We characterised NK cell subsets and effector function in 64 patients with CHB compared to...

  19. Artificial mouth opening fosters anoxic conditions that kill small estuarine fish

    Becker, Alistair; Laurenson, Laurie J. B.; Bishop, Kylie

    2009-05-01

    Fish kills are not uncommon within estuaries in many regions of the world. In seasonally open systems, which are common in temperate areas, they are often associated with mouth openings. Such a kill occurred in July 2005 in the Surrey Estuary following a closed mouth period of seven months resulting in the loss of many thousands of fish. At the time the fish community within the estuary was under investigation which provided comprehensive data of this population prior to the kill. Monthly water quality monitoring was also being conducted prior to the kill and also carried out on a daily basis following the mouth opening. The Surrey was stratified during the closed mouth phase, isolated waters below the halocline had stagnated and become anoxic. As a result only waters above the halocline contained oxygen concentrations capable of sustaining most fish. It appears that if a mouth opening happens under low flow conditions, a shearing effect occurs within the water column where surface waters flow out to sea leaving deeper waters behind. This resulted in only anoxic waters being present for in excess of six days and was responsible for the fish kill. Fish sampling of the Surrey Estuary was conducted three and six months following the kill and those data were compared to that collected in the 12 months prior to the event. Three months after the kill few fish were collected within the estuary and included marine opportunists near the mouth and estuarine resident species in the far upper reaches of the system. However six months following the kill large numbers of estuarine resident species were collected throughout the Surrey Estuary. As many species were euryhaline, it is believed that some individuals migrated into freshwater reaches of the Surrey to escape the anoxic conditions within the estuary. As conditions improved they recolonised the Surrey Estuary. The high fecundity and rapid growth of these small, short lived species probably aided in their re

  20. Chronic diseases in adolescence

    Rončević Nevenka; Stojadinović Aleksandra; Odri Irena

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and repr...

  1. Chronic penile strangulation

    Lopes, Roberto I.; Silvia I Lopes; Roberto N. Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examin...

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NR Anthonisen

    2007-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are...

  3. Impaired killing of Candida albicans by granulocytes mobilized for transfusion purposes: a role for granule components.

    Gazendam, Roel P; van de Geer, Annemarie; van Hamme, John L; Tool, Anton T J; van Rees, Dieke J; Aarts, Cathelijn E M; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; van Alphen, Floris; Verkuijlen, Paul; Meijer, Alexander B; Janssen, Hans; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2016-05-01

    Granulocyte transfusions are used to treat neutropenic patients with life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections that do not respond to anti-microbial drugs. Donor neutrophils that have been mobilized with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone are functional in terms of antibacterial activity, but less is known about their fungal killing capacity. We investigated the neutrophil-mediated cytotoxic response against C. albicans and A. fumigatus in detail. Whereas G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils appeared less mature as compared to neutrophils from untreated controls, these cells exhibited normal ROS production by the NADPH oxidase system and an unaltered granule mobilization capacity upon stimulation. G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils efficiently inhibited A. fumigatus germination and killed Aspergillus and Candida hyphae, but the killing of C. albicans yeasts was distinctly impaired. Following normal Candida phagocytosis, analysis by mass spectrometry of purified phagosomes after fusion with granules demonstrated that major constituents of the antimicrobial granule components, including major basic protein (MBP), were reduced. Purified MBP showed candidacidal activity, and neutrophil-like Crisp-Cas9 NB4-KO-MBP differentiated into phagocytes were impaired in Candida killing. Together, these findings indicate that G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils for transfusion purposes have a selectively impaired capacity to kill Candida yeasts, as a consequence of an altered neutrophil granular content. PMID:26802050

  4. Effect of Shark Liver Oil on Peritoneal Murine Macrophages in Responses to Killed-Candida albicans

    Monire Hajimoradi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sShark Liver Oil (SLO is an immunomodulator. Macrophages play a key role in host defense against pathogens like fungi. Candida albicans have mechanisms to escape immune system. We determined the effect of killed-Candida on the in vitro viability of macrophages and the effect of SLO on augmentation of this potency.Materials and MethodsPeritoneal macrophages were separated and cultured (3×105/well. At first, the effect of killed-Candida (200 cells/well on macrophage viability was evaluated, using MTT test. Then, MTT was performed on macrophages stimulated with killed-Candida in the presence of SLO. ResultsKilled-Candida suppressed the ability of MTT reduction and hence macrophages viability (P=0.026, but addition of SLO (100 mg/ml significantly enhanced cell viability (P=0.00. So, SLO could neutralize the inhibitory effect of Candida.ConclusionSimultaneous with cytotoxic effect of killed-Candida cells on macrophages viability, SLO augment macrophages viability. So, it can be applied in candidiasis as a complement.

  5. Killing vectors of FRW metric and non-normalizable zero modes of the scalar Laplacian

    Dass, N D Hari

    2015-01-01

    Based on an examination of the actual solutions to the Killing Vector equations for the FRW-metric, it is conjectured, and proved, that Killing Vectors for the FRW metric, when suitably scaled by functions, are \\emph{non-normalizable zero modes} of the \\emph{scalar} Laplacian on these spaces. The complete such set of non-normalizable zero modes(infinitely many) are explicitly constructed for the two-sphere. The covariant Laplacians(vector Laplacians) of general Killing vectors are worked out for four-manifolds in two different ways, both of which have the novelty of not needing explicit knowledge of the connections. The two ways of computing covariant Laplacians are used to prove the conjecture. As a corollary, it is shown that for the maximally symmetric sub-manifolds of the FRW-spaces also, the scaled Killing vectors are non-normalizable zero modes of their corresponding scalar Laplacians. The Killing vectors for the maximally symmetric four-manifolds are worked out using the elegant embedding formalism ori...

  6. Quantifying killing of orangutans and human-orangutan conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available Human-orangutan conflict and hunting are thought to pose a serious threat to orangutan existence in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. No data existed prior to the present study to substantiate these threats. We investigated the rates, spatial distribution and causes of conflict and hunting through an interview-based survey in the orangutan's range in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Between April 2008 and September 2009, we interviewed 6983 respondents in 687 villages to obtain socio-economic information, assess knowledge of local wildlife in general and orangutan encounters specifically, and to query respondents about their knowledge on orangutan conflicts and killing, and relevant laws. This survey revealed estimated killing rates of between 750 and 1800 animals killed in the last year, and between 1950 and 3100 animals killed per year on average within the lifetime of the survey respondents. These killing rates are higher than previously thought and are high enough to pose a serious threat to the continued existence of orangutans in Kalimantan. Importantly, the study contributes to our understanding of the spatial variation in threats, and the underlying causes of those threats, which can be used to facilitate the development of targeted conservation management.

  7. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) Phagocyte (purple) engulfing Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (yellow). Credit: NIAID CGD is a genetic disorder in which white blood ...

  8. Chronic silent otitis media.

    Paparella, Michael M; Schachern, Patricia A; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2002-01-01

    Otitis media occurs along a continuum. For example, otitis media with effusion characterized by fluid pathology can lead to chronic otitis media plus chronic mastoiditis, characterized by the presence of intractable tissue pathology such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma or granulation tissue. The literature defines chronic otitis media as having a tympanic membrane perforation and otorrhea. Amongst many other sequelae, which can result from the continuum, an important common one is chronic silent otitis media. This overlooked entity which includes pathology beneath an intact tympanic membrane is commonly seen in our human temporal bone laboratory and in patients. The clinical pathological correlates of this important disease are discussed herein. PMID:12021496

  9. Interstitial Lung Disease in a Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is an inherited phagocytes defect, characterized by defects of NADPH-oxidase and inability of bacterial killing, which leads to recurrent life-threatening infections. Respiratory problems, which are the major cause of morbidity in CGD, usually result from recurrent severe infections; however, vigorous inflammatory response could also cause respiratory diseases.Case Presentation: Herein, an 11 year-old patient with CGD is presented who suffered from chronic cough and dyspnea for 7 years. Considering the results of chest X-ray, high-resolution computed tomography, and pulmonary function test, the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease was made.Conclusion: Early recognition of manifestations associated with CGD and appropriate treatment could prevent further complications and reduce morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.

  10. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) movements and behavior around a kill site and implications for GPS collar studies

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars are increasingly used to estimate Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates. In interpreting results from this technology, researchers make various assumptions about wolf behavior around kills, yet no detailed description of this behavior has been published. This article describes the behavior of six wolves in an area of constant daylight during 30 hours, from when the pack killed a Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) calf and yearling on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, to when they abandoned the kill remains. Although this is only a single incident, it demonstrates one possible scenario of pack behavior around a kill. Combined with the literature, this observation supports placing a radio-collar on the breeding male to maximize finding kills via GPS collars and qualifying results depending on whatever other information is available about the collared wolf's pack.

  11. Amalgamating oncolytic viruses to enhance their safety, consolidate their killing mechanisms, and accelerate their spread.

    Ayala-Breton, Camilo; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Mader, Emily K; Russell, Stephen J; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2013-10-01

    Oncolytic viruses are structurally and biologically diverse, spreading through tumors and killing them by various mechanisms and with different kinetics. Here, we created a hybrid vesicular stomatitis/measles virus (VSV/MV) that harnesses the safety of oncolytic MV, the speed of VSV, and the tumor killing mechanisms of both viruses. Oncolytic MV targets CD46 and kills by forcing infected cells to fuse with uninfected neighbors, but propagates slowly. VSV spreads rapidly, directly lysing tumor cells, but is neurotoxic and loses oncolytic potency when neuroattenuated by conventional approaches. The hybrid VSV/MV lacks neurotoxicity, replicates rapidly with VSV kinetics, and selectively targets CD46 on tumor cells. Its in vivo performance in a myeloma xenograft model was substantially superior to either MV or widely used recombinant oncolytic VSV-M51. PMID:23842448

  12. Development of a non-damaging kill fluid for the Ocelot Tanzania well completion

    Shaw, J. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada); Pedersen, P.

    1998-10-01

    Development of a non-damaging kill fluid for the Ocelot Tanzania well completion was described. Several criteria exist for a kill fluid design. These are: (1) non-damaging to formation permeability, (2) density > 1.25 g/cc at reservoir temperature of 55 degrees C, (3) good bridging and lower leak-off, (4) ease of disposal, (5) environmentally friendly, and (6) cost-effective. A combination of NaCl and NaBr can meet all the design criteria, and the use of sized salt in a saturated salt solution can provide some leak-off control. Issues of selection of salt types, mercury capillary pressure analysis, core network characterization, and formulation of kill fluid were addressed. Well testing results, pre- and post-workover, and a summary of workover fluid performance were also provided. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  13. Teleparallel Conformal Killing Vector Fields of LRS Bianchi Type V Spacetimes in Teleparallel Gravity

    Khan, Suhail; Khan, Gulzar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore teleparallel conformal Killing vector fields (CKVFs) of locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type V spacetimes in the context of teleparallel gravity and compare the obtained results with those of general relativity. The general solution of teleparallel conformal Killing's equations is found in terms of some unknown functions of t and x , along with a set of integrability conditions. The integrability conditions are solved in some particular cases to get the final form of teleparallel CKVFs. It is observed that the LRS Bianchi type V spacetimes admit proper teleparallel CKVF in only one case, while in remaining cases the teleparallel CKVFs reduce to teleparallel Killing vector fields (KVFs). Moreover, it is shown that the LRS Bianchi type V spacetimes do not admit any proper teleparallel homothetic vector field (HVF).

  14. Efficacy of common laboratory disinfectants and heat on killing trypanosomatid parasites

    Tyler Kevin M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disinfectants TriGene, bleach, ethanol and liquid hand soap, and water and temperature were tested for their ability to kill bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, epimastigotes of Trypanosoma rangeli and promastigotes of Leishmania major. A 5-min exposure to 0.2% TriGene, 0.1% liquid hand soap and 0.05% bleach (0.05% NaOCl killed all three trypanosomatids. Ethanol and water destroyed the parasites within 5 min at concentrations of 15–17.5% and 80–90%, respectively. All three organisms were also killed when treated for 5 min at 50°C. The results indicate that the disinfectants, water and temperature treatment (i.e. autoclaving are suitable laboratory hygiene measures against trypanosomatid parasites.

  15. Plankton Microorganisms Coinciding with Two Consecutive Mass Fish Kills in a Newly Reconstructed Lake

    Andreas Oikonomou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Karla, Greece, was dried up in 1962 and its refilling started in 2009. We examined the Cyanobacteria and unicellular eukaryotes found during two fish kill incidents, in March and April 2010, in order to detect possible causative agents. Both microscopic and molecular (16S/18S rRNA gene diversity identification were applied. Potentially toxic Cyanobacteria included representatives of the Planktothrix and Anabaena groups. Known toxic eukaryotes or parasites related to fish kill events were Prymnesium parvum and Pfiesteria cf. piscicida, the latter being reported in an inland lake for the second time. Other potentially harmful microorganisms, for fish and other aquatic life, included representatives of Fungi, Mesomycetozoa, Alveolata, and Heterokontophyta (stramenopiles. In addition, Euglenophyta, Chlorophyta, and diatoms were represented by species indicative of hypertrophic conditions. The pioneers of L. Karla’s plankton during the first months of its water refilling process included species that could cause the two observed fish kill events.

  16. Offensive Counterterrorism Targeted killing in eliminating terrorist target: the case of the USA and Israel

    Hermínio Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the "global terrorism project", some States have adopted offensive counterterrorism measures which, though within national strategies on security and defense, contemplate the use of military power and the use of lethal force against non-state actors - individuals, groups or terrorist organizations - beyond their national borders. Reformulating the security paradigm has led, in these cases, to policies against terrorism. This is the case of targeted killing - the killing of selected targets - by the USA and Israel. Targeted killing actions - using essentially but not only drones - in Pakistan and Yemen by the American administration, a well as the Israeli response to Palestinian terrorism, are under heated debate in terms of their efficiency and legality. Thus, this paper aims to not only provide an analytical framework on this theme but also analyze the scope and impact of these counter terrorist strategies by the two countries.

  17. Inefficiency of high boron concentrations for cell killing in boron neutron capture therapy

    This study is to investigate the relationship between the cell-killing effect of the 10B(n, α)7Li capture reaction, intracellular boron concentration, and thermal neutron fluence in boron neutron capture therapy using in vitro cell survival based on a clonogenic assay, and biophysical analysis. Our results showed that the cell-killing yield of the 10B(n, α)7Li capture reaction per unit thermal neutron fluence declined with an increase in the intracellular boron concentration above 45 μg/ml 10B. The cell-killing effect was well described using an empirical power function of the intracellular boron concentration, with exponent 0.443. Knowledge of this effect will help in the optimization of BNCT. (author)

  18. Invasive fungal infection and impaired neutrophil killing in human CARD9 deficiency.

    Drewniak, Agata; Gazendam, Roel P; Tool, Anton T J; van Houdt, Michel; Jansen, Machiel H; van Hamme, John L; van Leeuwen, Ester M M; Roos, Dirk; Scalais, Emmanuel; de Beaufort, Carine; Janssen, Hans; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2013-03-28

    Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) is an adaptor molecule in the cytosol of myeloid cells, required for induction of T-helper cells producing interleukin-17 (Th17 cells) and important in antifungal immunity. In a patient suffering from Candida dubliniensis meningoencephalitis, mutations in the CARD9 gene were found to result in the loss of protein expression. Apart from the reduced numbers of CD4(+) Th17 lymphocytes, we identified a lack of monocyte-derived cytokines in response to Candida strains. Importantly, CARD9-deficient neutrophils showed a selective Candida albicans killing defect with abnormal ultrastructural phagolysosomes and outgrowth of hyphae. The neutrophil killing defect was independent of the generation of reactive oxygen species by the reduced NAD phosphate oxidase system. Taken together, this demonstrates that human CARD9 deficiency results in selective defect in the host defense against invasive fungal infection, caused by an impaired phagocyte killing. PMID:23335372

  19. Estimated Number of Birds Killed by House Cats (Felis catus in Canada

    Peter Blancher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predation by house cats (Felis catus is one of the largest human-related sources of mortality for wild birds in the United States and elsewhere, and has been implicated in extinctions and population declines of several species. However, relatively little is known about this topic in Canada. The objectives of this study were to provide plausible estimates for the number of birds killed by house cats in Canada, identify information that would help improve those estimates, and identify species potentially vulnerable to population impacts. In total, cats are estimated to kill between 100 and 350 million birds per year in Canada (> 95% of estimates were in this range, with the majority likely to be killed by feral cats. This range of estimates is based on surveys indicating that Canadians own about 8.5 million pet cats, a rough approximation of 1.4 to 4.2 million feral cats, and literature values of predation rates from studies conducted elsewhere. Reliability of the total kill estimate would be improved most by better knowledge of feral cat numbers and diet in Canada, though any data on birds killed by cats in Canada would be helpful. These estimates suggest that 2-7% of birds in southern Canada are killed by cats per year. Even at the low end, predation by house cats is probably the largest human-related source of bird mortality in Canada. Many species of birds are potentially vulnerable to at least local population impacts in southern Canada, by virtue of nesting or feeding on or near ground level, and habitat choices that bring them into contact with human-dominated landscapes where cats are abundant. Because cat predation is likely to remain a primary source of bird mortality in Canada for some time, this issue needs more scientific attention in Canada.

  20. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. THE ROLE OF CHLORIDE ANION AND CFTR IN KILLING OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA BY NORMAL AND CF NEUTROPHILS

    Painter, Richard G.; Bonvillain, Ryan W.; Valentine, Vincent G.; Lombard, Gisele A.; LaPlace, Stephanie G.; Nauseef, William M.; Wang, Guoshun

    2008-01-01

    Chloride anion is essential for myeloperoxidase to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in neutrophils (PMNs). To define whether chloride availability to PMNs affects their HOCl production and microbicidal capacity, we examined how extracellular chloride concentration affects killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) by normal neutrophils. PMN-mediated bacterial killing was strongly dependent on extracellular chloride concentration. Neutrophils in a chloride-deficient medium killed PsA poorly. Howe...

  2. GVL against mouse BC-CML and CP-CML: Shared mechanisms of T cell killing, but PD-ligands render CP-CML and not BC-CML GVL-resistant*

    Matte-Martone, Catherine; Venkatesan, Srividhya; Tan, Hung Sheng; Athanasiadis, Ioanna; Chang, Julia; Pavisic, Jovana; Shlomchik, Warren

    2011-01-01

    GVL against chronic phase CML (CP-CML) is potent, but it is less efficacious against acute leukemias and blast crisis CML (BC-CML). The mechanisms underlying GVL-resistance are unknown. Previously, we found that alloreactive T cell targeting of GVL-sensitive bcr-abl-induced mouse CP-CML (mCP-CML) required TCR:MHC interactions and that multiple and redundant killing mechanisms were in play. To better understand why BC-CML is resistant to GVL, we performed a comprehensive analysis of GVL agains...

  3. Managing your chronic pain

    ... your chronic back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Managing chronic pain means finding ways to make your back pain tolerable so you can live your life. You may not be able to ...

  4. Chronic diseases in adolescence

    Rončević Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and represent an additional burden for adolescents. The interaction between chronic disorders and various development issues is complex and two-way: the disease may affect development, and development may affect the disease. Developmental, psychosocial and family factors are of great importance in the treatment of adolescents with chronic disorders. Chronic disorders affect all aspects of adolescent life, including relations with peers, school, nutrition, learning, traveling, entertainment, choice of occupation, plans for the future. Physicians should keep in mind that chronic diseases and their treatment represent only one aspect of person's life. Adolescents with chronic diseases have other needs as well, personal priorities, social roles and they expect these needs to be recognized and respected. Adolescent health care should be adjusted to the life style of adolescents.

  5. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Protects Escherichia coli from Rapid Antimicrobial-Mediated Killing.

    Mi, Hongfei; Wang, Dai; Xue, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhi; Niu, Jianjun; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin

    2016-08-01

    The contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to antimicrobial lethality was examined by treating Escherichia coli with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), an antioxidant solvent frequently used in antimicrobial studies. DMSO inhibited killing by ampicillin, kanamycin, and two quinolones and had little effect on MICs. DMSO-mediated protection correlated with decreased ROS accumulation and provided evidence for ROS-mediated programmed cell death. These data support the contribution of ROS to antimicrobial lethality and suggest caution when using DMSO-dissolved antimicrobials for short-time killing assays. PMID:27246776

  6. The Welfare Effects of Pfiesteria-Related Fish Kills: A Contingent Behavior Analysis of Seafood Consumers

    Parsons, George R.; Morgan, Ash; John C. Whitehead; Haab, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    We use contingent behavior analysis to study the effects of pfiesteria-related fish kills on the demand for seafood in the Mid-Atlantic region. We estimate a set of demand difference models based on individual responses to questions about seafood consumption in the presence of fish kills and with different amounts of information provided about health risks. We use a random-effects Tobit model to control for correlation across each observation and to account for censoring. We find that (i) pfi...

  7. Honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic review of the literature.

    Kulczycki, Andrzej; Windle, Sarah

    2011-11-01

    A systematic review of the research literature on honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) indicates a paucity of studies relative to the presumed magnitude of the problem. Forty articles were reviewed and critically appraised, of which only 9 contained primary data and 11 presented original secondary analyses. Despite a recent increase in published studies, persistent methodological limitations restrict the generalizability of findings. Most studies focus on legal aspects, determinants, and characteristics of victims and perpetrators. Victims are mostly young females murdered by their male kin. Unambiguous evidence of a decline in tolerance of honor killings remains elusive. PMID:22312039

  8. Intergenomic arms races: detection of a nuclear rescue gene of male-killing in a ladybird.

    Tamsin M O Majerus

    Full Text Available Many species of arthropod are infected by deleterious inherited micro-organisms. Typically these micro-organisms are inherited maternally. Consequently, some, particularly bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, employ a variety of strategies that favour female over male hosts. These strategies include feminisation, induction of parthenogenesis and male-killing. These strategies result in female biased sex ratios in host populations, which lead to selection for host factors that promote male production. In addition, the intra-genomic conflict produced by the difference in transmission of these cytoplasmic endosymbionts and nuclear factors will impose a pressure favouring nuclear factors that suppress the effects of the symbiont. During investigations of the diversity of male-killing bacteria in ladybirds (Coccinellidae, unexpected patterns of vertical transmission of a newly discovered male-killing taxon were observed in the ladybird Cheilomenes sexmaculata. Initial analysis suggested that the expression of the bacterial male-killing trait varies according to the male(s a female has mated with. By swapping males between females, a male influence on the expression of the male-killing trait was confirmed. Experiments were then performed to determine the nature of the interaction. These studies showed that a single dominant allele, which rescues male progeny of infected females from the pathological effect of the male-killer, exists in this species. The gene shows typical Mendelian autosomal inheritance and is expressed irrespective of the parent from which it is inherited. Presence of the rescue gene in either parent does not significantly affect the inheritance of the symbiont. We conclude that C. sexmaculata is host to a male-killing gamma-proteobacterium. Further, this beetle is polymorphic for a nuclear gene, the dominant allele of which rescues infected males from the pathogenic effects of the male-killing agent. These findings represent the first

  9. Is there a moral difference between killing and letting die in healthcare?

    Mohammed Ratoubi Alanazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to prove that there is no moral difference between killing and letting one die in healthcare. It is important to be aware of the moral equivalence of killing and letting die. The doctor that allows the patient to die without providing life saving measures, and the doctor that administers a lethal injection both have the same outcome. The patient dies in either case. The Abrahamic religions; Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, all argue for the sanctity of life. The world's major religions; Islam, Christianity, and Judaism all have doctrines concerning the sanctity of life; and they support the main arguments of this study that there is no moral difference between killing and letting die. In relation to patient autonomy and the patients right to die, it is very important to highlight that doctors have a moral and legal responsibility to save lives. In addition, we discuss the distinction centres on the true definition of patient autonomy, and who is responsible for defining the and ldquo;quality and rdquo; of life. The intention and foresight are critical points that support the thesis statement that killing and letting one die are one in the same. Intention is the intentional killing of a human being, however, the when one refers to foreseen, it brings to mind images of a doctor and a patient's family that is taking into consideration the entire different variables that they must deal with in order to decide whether or not to terminate life sustaining measures. They are trying to foresee what type of life the patient will have if life prolonging treatment is withdrawn. The acts and omissions doctrine as described in this review shows that there is no moral difference to kill a person or to let him die. The end result is the same, and someone is dead. Finally, we extensively discussed the various viewpoints regarding whether or not there is a moral difference between killing and letting die. The evidence reveals that

  10. Cell killing and mutation induction on Chinese hamster cells by photoradiations

    Applying radiation directly on cells, far-uv is more effective than black light, and black light is more effective than white light in inducing proliferative death and in inducing resistance to 6-thioguanine (6-TG), ouabain and diptheria toxin (DT). Gold light has no killing and mutagenic effects on CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. Use of filters showed that a small percentage of shorter wavelengths in the far-uv region is responsible for most of the killing and mutagenic effects in the unfiltered broad spectra of black and white light

  11. Cell killing and mutation induction on Chinese hamster cells by photoradiations

    Lam, C.K.C.

    1982-11-01

    Applying radiation directly on cells, far-uv is more effective than black light, and black light is more effective than white light in inducing proliferative death and in inducing resistance to 6-thioguanine (6-TG), ouabain and diptheria toxin (DT). Gold light has no killing and mutagenic effects on CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. Use of filters showed that a small percentage of shorter wavelengths in the far-uv region is responsible for most of the killing and mutagenic effects in the unfiltered broad spectra of black and white light.

  12. Raping and making love are different concepts: so are killing and voluntary euthanasia.

    Davies, J

    1988-09-01

    The distinction between 'kill' and 'help to die' is argued by analogy with the distinction between 'rape' and 'make love to'. The difference is the consent of the receiver of the act, therefore 'kill' is the wrong word for an act of active voluntary euthanasia. The argument that doctors must not be allowed by law to perform active voluntary euthanasia because this would recognise an infringement of the sanctity of life ('the red light principle') is countered by comparing such doctors with the drivers of emergency vehicles, who are allowed to drive through red lights. PMID:3184136

  13. Galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin: the coordinator of host cell killing

    Douglas R Boettner; Christopher Huston; William A Petri Jr

    2002-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric parasite that can kill host cells via a contact-dependent mechanism. This killing involves the amoebic surface protein referred to as the Gal/GalNAc lectin. The Gal/GalNAc lectin binds galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine allowing the adherence of amoebas to host cells. Involvement of the lectin in the pathogenesis of E. histolytica infection will be reviewed in this paper. The lectin has been shown to have very specific and substantial effects on adherence, cytotoxicity, and encystation. There is also possible involvement of the lectin in phagocytosis and caspase activation in host cells.

  14. A 51Chromium release assay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    Intracellular killing of Candida albicans was measured by a chromium release technique. Appropriate conditions were equal numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and 51Chromium labelled C. albicans (106/ml), fresh plasma at a final concentration of 2.5%, incubated at 37degC for 60 min. Using normal PMNs, 35-71% of releasable chromium was liberated into the supernatant under these conditions. This assay is easy to perform, requires a small amount of blood and offers an objective measurement of intracellular killing of C. albicans

  15. Regions on plasmid pCU1 required for the killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Thatte, V; Gill, S.; Iyer, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    Plasmid pCU1 was Kik+ (promotes killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae). All Tn5 insertions within the tra region of pCU1 were Kik-. Two other regions, kikA and kikB, were needed. They may be separated on different plasmids, but both must be mobilized into Klebsiella pneumoniae. Establishment of one kik region in K. pneumoniae followed by receipt of the second did not lead to killing. Kik was therefore intracellular and required concerted and transient action of both regions.

  16. Respiratory burst facilitates the digestion of Escherichia coli killed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Weiss, J; Kao, L; Victor, M; Elsbach, P

    1987-01-01

    We examined factors that may limit degradation of bacterial protein of Escherichia coli S15 killed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Both human and rabbit PMN degraded up to 40% of [14C]amino acid-labeled protein of ingested and killed E. coli in 2 h as determined by loss of acid-precipitable radioactivity. In contrast, equally bactericidal broken-PMN preparations or isolated granules degraded only about 10% of bacterial protein regardless of pH. To determine whether activation of the re...

  17. "Shades of Foreign Evil": "Honor Killings" and "Family Murders" in the Canadian Press.

    Shier, Allie; Shor, Eran

    2016-09-01

    This article compares murder cases labeled "honor killings" with cases labeled "family/spousal murders" in the Canadian news media, exploring the construction of boundaries between these two practices. We conducted a systematic qualitative content analysis, examining a sample of 486 articles from three major Canadian newspapers between 2000 and 2012. Our analysis shows that "honor killings" are framed in terms of culture and ethnic background, presenting a dichotomy between South Asian/Muslim and Western values. Conversely, articles presenting cases as "family/spousal murders" tend to focus on the perpetrators' personalities or psychological characteristics, often ignoring factors such as culture, patriarchy, honor, and shame. PMID:26712236

  18. Rickettsial relative associated with male-killing in the ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata).

    Werren, J.H.; Hurst, G.G.D.; Zhang, W.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; Stouthamer, R; Majerus, M. E. N.

    1994-01-01

    A cytoplasmically inherited microorganism associated with male killing in the two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata, is shown to be closely related to bacteria in the genus Rickettsia. Sequencing of a PCR-amplified product of the 16S genes coding for rRNA (16S rDNA) shows the organism associated with male killing in ladybirds to share a common ancestry with the Rickettsias relative to other genera (e.g., Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Cowdria). The rickettsial 16S rDNA product is found in fo...

  19. The Chronic Responsibility

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean’s concepts...... of governmentality as an interpretative lens, we analyzed and explained six policies published by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority between 2005 and 2013. The analysis revealed that discourses within the policy vision of chronic care consider chronically ill patients’ active role, lifestyle......, and health behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who...

  20. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A. PMID:22532241

  1. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

    ... People About NINDS NINDS Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... en Español What is Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)? Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a neurological ...

  2. Stages of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  3. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  4. Tarantino's Chicks - Gender Roles and Feminist Subversion in Kill Bill and Inglourious Basterds

    Tøsse, Natascha

    2013-01-01

    The thesis analyses Kill Bill and Inglourious Basterds from an eclectic theoretical perspective. Gaze, language, Fraiman's adrenaline shot and the psychological understandings of gender as a construct and a performative are what lay the basis for attempting to figure out what Tarantino’s leading ladies can teach us about gender roles in western society.

  5. Effect of Legionella pneumophila sonicate on killing of Listeria monocytogenes by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes

    Rechnitzer, C; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Shand, G H

    1993-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila shares with other intracellular pathogens the ability to resist intracellular killing within phagocytes. An increasing number of cellular components of L. pneumophila are proposed as pathogenic factors of the organism. At the site of infection, the phagocytic cells will be ...

  6. Permanence and Stability of a Kill the Winner Model in Marine Ecology

    Korytowski, Daniel A.; Smith, Hal L.

    2016-01-01

    We focus on the long term dynamics of "killing the winner" Lotka-Volterra models of marine communities consisting of bacteria, virus, and zooplankton. Under suitable conditions, it is shown that there is a unique equilibrium with all populations present which is stable, the system is permanent, and the limiting behavior of its solutions is strongly constrained.

  7. Spatial distribution of lion kills determined by the water dependency of prey species

    Boer, de W.F.; Vis, M.J.P.; Knegt, de H.J.; Rowles, C.; Kohi, E.; Langevelde, van F.; Peel, M.J.S.; Pretorius, Y.; Skidmore, A.K.; Slotow, R.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2010-01-01

    Predation risk from lions (Panthera leo) has been linked to habitat characteristics and availability and traits of prey. We separated the effects of vegetation density and the presence of drinking water by analyzing locations of lion kills in relation to rivers with dense vegetation, which offer goo

  8. The Killing Thought in the Eugenic Era and Today: A Commentary on Hollander's Essay.

    Wolfensberger, Wolf

    1989-01-01

    Two responses to Hollander (EC 220 057) and the author's counter-response note similarities between "mercy killing" of people with mental retardation and deliberate abortion of the unborn, misuse of the history of eugenics, and a defense of the author's historical scholarship. (DB)

  9. Killing tensors, warped products and the orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    Rajaratnam, Krishan, E-mail: k2rajara@uwaterloo.ca; McLenaghan, Raymond G., E-mail: rgmclenaghan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    We study Killing tensors in the context of warped products and apply the results to the problem of orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. This work is motivated primarily by the case of spaces of constant curvature where warped products are abundant. We first characterize Killing tensors which have a natural algebraic decomposition in warped products. We then apply this result to show how one can obtain the Killing-Stäckel space (KS-space) for separable coordinate systems decomposable in warped products. This result in combination with Benenti's theory for constructing the KS-space of certain special separable coordinates can be used to obtain the KS-space for all orthogonal separable coordinates found by Kalnins and Miller in Riemannian spaces of constant curvature. Next we characterize when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in coordinates decomposable in a warped product by showing that the conditions originally given by Benenti can be reduced. Finally, we use this characterization and concircular tensors (a special type of torsionless conformal Killing tensor) to develop a general algorithm to determine when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in a special class of separable coordinates which include all orthogonal separable coordinates in spaces of constant curvature.

  10. A classification system for one Killing vector solutions of Einstein's equations

    A double classification system for one Killing vector solutions in terms of the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the Ricci and Bach tensor of the associated three manifold is proposed. The calculations of the Bach tensor are carried out for special cases. (author)

  11. Normalization of Killing vectors and energy conservation in two-dimensional gravity

    Cruz Muñoz, José Luis; Fabbri, Alessandro; Navarro Salas, José

    1999-01-01

    We explicitly show that, in the context of a recently proposed 2D dilaton gravity theory, energy conservation requires the ``natural'' Killing vector to have, asymptotically, an unusual normalization. The Hawking temperature $T_H$ is then calculated according to this prescription.

  12. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells.

    Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R; Zhang, Xiaolong; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers and the bottom one functionalized with double-stranded DNA. The results show that the top hydrogel layer was able to catch target cells with high efficiency and specificity, and that the bottom hydrogel layer could sequester doxorubicin (Dox) for sustained drug release. Importantly, the released Dox could kill 90% of the cells after 1-h residence of the cells on the hydrogel. After the cell release, this bifunctional hydrogel could be regenerated for continuous cell catching and killing. Therefore, the data presented in this study has successfully demonstrated the potential of developing a material system with the functions of attracting, catching and killing diseased cells (e.g., circulating tumor cells) or even invading microorganisms (e.g., bacteria). PMID:26396063

  13. Characterization of cell lysis in Pseudomonas putida induced upon expression of heterologous killing genes

    Ronchel, M.C.; Molina, L.; Witte, A.; Lutbiz, W.; Molin, Søren; Ramos, J.L.; Rodriguez, Cayo Juan Ramos

    1998-01-01

    Active biological containment systems are based on the controlled expression of killing genes. These systems are of interest for the Pseudomonadaceae because of the potential applications of these microbes as bioremediation agents and biopesticides, The physiological effects that lead to cell dea...

  14. Metabolic events mediating early killing of host cells infected by Shigella flexneri.

    Sansonetti, P J; Mounier, J

    1987-07-01

    J774, a continuous macrophage cell-line, was infected by M90T, an invasive isolate of Shigella flexneri serotype 5 and BS176, its non invasive derivative--which does not harbor the 220 kbase virulence plasmid pWR100. Killing of host cells by intracellular M90T, commenced one hour after infection and was completed by 4 hours. Intracellular BS176 did not kill cells during the same period. Cell protein biosynthesis was totally inhibited by both strains within 2 hours of infection thus indicating that shiga-like toxin 1 (SLT1) could not account for early killing. On the other hand a sharp decrease in intracellular ATP was observed after 1 hour in cells infected with M90T. No significant increase in ATPase activity could be detected. A sharp increase in pyruvate production starting immediately after infection indicated impairement in mitochondrial respiration, which accounts for most ATP produced intracellularly. In addition, fermentation appeared to be totally blocked thus leaving no chance of the infected cells regenerating NAD. Concurrent increase in cAMP concentration within the first hour of infection may contribute to the rapid and efficient cell killing. Cells infected by BS176 always showed an intermediate phenotype (i.e. ATP depletion, pyruvate increase, lactate decrease). Early lysis of the phagocytic vacuole by M90T may account for this difference by allowing toxic products of the bacteria to diffuse more efficiently within the cytosol. PMID:2848171

  15. Why I don't kill myself : [poems] / Paul-Eerik Rummo

    Rummo, Paul-Eerik, 1942-

    2003-01-01

    Autori lühitutvustus lk. 262. Sisu: Why I don't kill myself ; The sky stoops over the earth ; Clinging ; Crooning. Orig.: Miks ma end ära ei tapa ; "Taevas on kummargil üle maa..." ; Kinni hoidmas ; Poolüminal

  16. Fosfomycin enhances phagocyte-mediated killing of Staphylococcus aureus by extracellular traps and reactive oxygen species.

    Shen, Fengge; Tang, Xudong; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Chao; Shi, Xiaochen; An, Yanan; Zhang, Qiaoli; Liu, Mingyuan; Liu, Bo; Yu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    The successful treatment of bacterial infections is the achievement of a synergy between the host's immune defences and antibiotics. Here, we examined whether fosfomycin (FOM) could improve the bactericidal effect of phagocytes, and investigated the potential mechanisms. FOM enhanced the phagocytosis and extra- or intracellular killing of S. aureus by phagocytes. And FOM enhanced the extracellular killing of S. aureus in macrophage (MФ) and in neutrophils mediated by extracellular traps (ETs). ET production was related to NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, FOM increased the intracellular killing of S. aureus in phagocytes, which was mediated by ROS through the oxidative burst process. Our results also showed that FOM alone induced S. aureus producing hydroxyl radicals in order to kill the bacterial cells in vitro. In a mouse peritonitis model, FOM treatment increased the bactericidal extra- and intracellular activity in vivo, and FOM strengthened ROS and ET production from peritoneal lavage fluid ex vivo. An IVIS imaging system assay further verified the observed in vivo bactericidal effect of the FOM treatment. This work may provide a deeper understanding of the role of the host's immune defences and antibiotic interactions in microbial infections. PMID:26778774

  17. Readicide: How Schools Are Killing Reading and What You Can Do about It

    Gallagher, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    "Read-i-cide" n: The systematic killing of the love of reading, often exacerbated by the inane, mind-numbing practices found in schools. Reading is dying in our schools. Educators are familiar with many of the factors that have contributed to the decline--poverty, second-language issues, and the ever-expanding choices of electronic entertainment.…

  18. Genomic sequence analysis of a fast-killing isolate of the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Six clones of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) were plaque-purified from field isolates collected in Missouri, USA. In bioassays, four of the plaque-purified isolates killed neonate S. frugiperda larvae more rapidly than the field isolates from which they were derived, w...

  19. Dirac-type operators in curved spaces and role of Killing-Jano tensors

    One considers the Dirac equation in the curved external space and studies the role of the Killing-Jano tensors in plotting of the Dirac type operators. The derived and generalized results are used in the case of the four-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space. One studied the gravitational anomalies for the generalized Euclidean Taub-NUT metric admitting hidden symmetries

  20. Killing Us Softly? Investigating Portrayals of Women and Men in Contemporary Magazine Advertisements

    Conley, Terri D.; Ramsey, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Our research aimed to systematically investigate how women and men are portrayed in magazine advertisements, deriving hypotheses from Jean Kilbourne's observed media analysis presented in her "Killing Us Softly" film series. A total of 790 advertisements in 19 magazines were coded. Results revealed support for many of Kilbourne's hypotheses. For…

  1. Identifying Process Variables for a Low Atmospheric Pressure Stunning/Killing System

    Current systems for pre-slaughter gas stunning/killing of broilers use process gases such as carbon dioxide, argon, or a mixture of these gases with air or oxygen. Both carbon dioxide and argon work by displacing oxygen to induce hypoxia in the bird, leading to unconsciousness and ultimately death....

  2. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1107 Section 180.1107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES...

  3. Intimate Femicide: A Study of Men Who Have Killed Their Mates.

    Stout, Karen D.

    1993-01-01

    Examined demographic and situational factors related to killing of women by male intimate partners. Data from 23 men incarcerated for such homicides revealed portrait of offender as while male, aged 20-24, employed full-time prior to imprisonment, coming from stable childhood. Findings suggest that persons who are separated are most frequent…

  4. Killing vectors and covariant operators of momenta for fermion in curved space

    The operators of linear and angular momenta of fermion in symmetric curved space with killing vectors are constructed in the form covariant in respect to transformations of coordinates and local tetrad. Some applications of this formalism are considered. 14 refs., 1 figs

  5. The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom

    Heid, Christy; Biglan, Barbara; Ritson, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches…

  6. Geometric construction of Killing spinors and supersymmetry algebras in homogeneous spacetimes

    We show how the Killing spinors of some maximally supersymmetric supergravity solutions whose metrics describe symmetric spacetimes (including AdS, AdSxS and Hpp-waves) can be easily constructed using purely geometrical and group-theoretical methods. The calculation of the supersymmetry algebras is extremely simple in this formalism

  7. Battered Women Who Kill Their Abusers: An Examination of Commonsense Notions, Cognitions, and Judgments

    Huss, Matthew T.; Tomkins, Alan J.; Garbin, Calvin P.; Schopp, Robert F.; Kilian, Allen

    2006-01-01

    It has been argued that battered women who kill their abusers represent a special class of defendants being unfairly treated in the legal system. As a result, commentators have argued for reforms to permit the judicial system to respond more fairly. Researchers have investigated the influences of these prescribed legal modifications and the…

  8. Killing tensors, warped products and the orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    We study Killing tensors in the context of warped products and apply the results to the problem of orthogonal separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. This work is motivated primarily by the case of spaces of constant curvature where warped products are abundant. We first characterize Killing tensors which have a natural algebraic decomposition in warped products. We then apply this result to show how one can obtain the Killing-Stäckel space (KS-space) for separable coordinate systems decomposable in warped products. This result in combination with Benenti's theory for constructing the KS-space of certain special separable coordinates can be used to obtain the KS-space for all orthogonal separable coordinates found by Kalnins and Miller in Riemannian spaces of constant curvature. Next we characterize when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in coordinates decomposable in a warped product by showing that the conditions originally given by Benenti can be reduced. Finally, we use this characterization and concircular tensors (a special type of torsionless conformal Killing tensor) to develop a general algorithm to determine when a natural Hamiltonian is separable in a special class of separable coordinates which include all orthogonal separable coordinates in spaces of constant curvature

  9. Two independent killing mechanisms of Candida albicans by human neutrophils: evidence from innate immunity defects

    Gazendam, R.P.; Hamme, J.L. van; Tool, A.T.; Houdt, M. van; Verkuijlen, P.J.; Herbst, M.; Liese, J.G.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Roos, D.; Berg, T.K. van den; Kuijpers, T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections, accompanied by high rates of mortality, represent an increasing problem in medicine. Neutrophils are the major effector immune cells in fungal killing. Based on studies with neutrophils from patients with defined genetic defects, we provide evidence that human neutrophils

  10. Contact-killing of adhering streptococci by a quaternary ammonium compound incorporated in an acrylic resin

    Mei, Li; Ren, Yijin; Loontjens, Ton J. A.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Acrylates for bonding of joint prostheses and stainless-steel brackets in orthopedics and orthodontics are prone to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, respectively, leading to serious infectious complications. Here we describe the preparation of a contact-killing acrylic resin by inc

  11. 77 FR 1023 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    2012-01-09

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting within the... Arthur Kill. An earlier TIR added the basic RNA regulation for that waterway: 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 (76 FR.... * * * * * Dated: December 16, 2011. D.A. Neptun, Rear Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard, Commander, First Coast...

  12. The psychological reactions after witnessing a killing in public in a Danish high school

    Elklit, A.; Kurdahl, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School killings attract immense media and public attention but psychological studies surrounding these events are rare. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and possible risk factors of PTSD in 320 Danish high school students (mean age 18 years) 7...

  13. Chronicity and control

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a way of framing the study of ‘noncommunicable diseases’ within the more general area of chronic conditions. Focusing on Africa, it takes as points of departure the situation in Uganda, and the approach to health issues developed by a group of European and African colleagues...... over the years. It suggests a pragmatic analysis that places people's perceptions and practices within a field of possibilities shaped by policy, health care systems, and life conditions. In this field, the dimensions of chronicity and control are the distinctive analytical issues. They lead on to...... consideration of patterns of sociality related to chronic conditions and their treatment....

  14. Haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor independent killing of African trypanosomes by human serum and trypanosome lytic factors.

    Bullard, Whitney; Kieft, Rudo; Capewell, Paul; Veitch, Nicola J; Macleod, Annette; Hajduk, Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    The haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor (HpHbR) of African trypanosomes plays a critical role in human innate immunity against these parasites. Localized to the flagellar pocket of the veterinary pathogen Trypanosoma brucei brucei this receptor binds Trypanosome Lytic Factor-1 (TLF-1), a subclass of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) facilitating endocytosis, lysosomal trafficking and subsequent killing. Recently, we found that group 1 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense does not express a functional HpHbR. We now show that loss of the TbbHpHbR reduces the susceptibility of T. b. brucei to human serum and TLF-1 by 100- and 10,000-fold, respectively. The relatively high concentrations of human serum and TLF-1 needed to kill trypanosomes lacking the HpHbR indicates that high affinity TbbHpHbR binding enhances the cytotoxicity; however, in the absence of TbbHpHbR, other receptors or fluid phase endocytosis are sufficient to provide some level of susceptibility. Human serum contains a second innate immune factor, TLF-2, that has been suggested to kill trypanosomes independently of the TbbHpHbR. We found that T. b. brucei killing by TLF-2 was reduced in TbbHpHbR-deficient cells but to a lesser extent than TLF-1. This suggests that both TLF-1 and TLF-2 can be taken up via the TbbHpHbR but that alternative pathways exist for the uptake of these toxins. Together the findings reported here extend our previously published studies and suggest that group 1 T. b. gambiense has evolved multiple mechanisms to avoid killing by trypanolytic human serum factors. PMID:22286709

  15. Targeted Killing: Self-Defense, Preemption, and the War on Terrorism

    Thomas Byron Hunter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the parameters and utility of “targeted killing” in combating terrorism and its role within the norm of state self-defense in the international community. The author’s thesis is that, while targeted killing provides states with a method of combating terrorism, and while it is “effective” on a number of levels, it is inherently limited and not a panacea. The adoption and execution of such a program brings with it, among other potential pitfalls, political repercussions.Targeted killing is defined herein as the premeditated, preemptive, and intentional killing of an individual or individuals known or believed to represent a present and/or future threat to the safety and security of a state through affiliation with terrorist groups or individuals.The principal conclusions of this paper are that targeted killing:● Must be wholly differentiated from “assassination” and relatedoperations involving the intentional targeting of an individual during wartime, in order to be considered properly and rationally.● Is a politically risky undertaking with potentially negative international implications.● Is the proven desire of some terrorist groups to conduct attacks involving mass casualties against innocent civilians that may, in the future, cause states to reconsider previous abstention from adopting targeted killing in order to protect their populace.● Can serve to impact terrorists and terrorist groups on a strategic,operational, and tactical level.● Has historically had both negative and (unintentionally positiveimpacts for terrorist groups.● Oftentimes exposes civilians to unintentional harm.The methods of investigation include a thorough review of the available literature: books, published and unpublished essays, interviews of 2 selected individuals (to include academics and retired members of military and police forces, and the author’s independent analysis.

  16. Target product profile choices for intra-domiciliary malaria vector control pesticide products: repel or kill?

    Moore Sarah J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common pesticide products for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes combine two distinct modes of action: 1 conventional insecticidal activity which kills mosquitoes exposed to the pesticide and 2 deterrence of mosquitoes away from protected humans. While deterrence enhances personal or household protection of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual sprays, it may also attenuate or even reverse communal protection if it diverts mosquitoes to non-users rather than killing them outright. Methods A process-explicit model of malaria transmission is described which captures the sequential interaction between deterrent and toxic actions of vector control pesticides and accounts for the distinctive impacts of toxic activities which kill mosquitoes before or after they have fed upon the occupant of a covered house or sleeping space. Results Increasing deterrency increases personal protection but consistently reduces communal protection because deterrent sub-lethal exposure inevitably reduces the proportion subsequently exposed to higher lethal doses. If the high coverage targets of the World Health Organization are achieved, purely toxic products with no deterrence are predicted to generally provide superior protection to non-users and even users, especially where vectors feed exclusively on humans and a substantial amount of transmission occurs outdoors. Remarkably, this is even the case if that product confers no personal protection and only kills mosquitoes after they have fed. Conclusions Products with purely mosquito-toxic profiles may, therefore, be preferable for programmes with universal coverage targets, rather than those with equivalent toxicity but which also have higher deterrence. However, if purely mosquito-toxic products confer little personal protection because they do not deter mosquitoes and only kill them after they have fed, then they will require aggressive "catch up" campaigns, with

  17. Killing scalar of non-linear σ-model on G/H realizing the classical exchange algebra

    The Poisson brackets for non-linear σ-models on G/H are set up on the light-like plane. A quantity which transforms irreducibly by the Killing vectors, called Killing scalar, is constructed in an arbitrary representation of G. It is shown to satisfy the classical exchange algebra

  18. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  19. Anemia of chronic disease

    Anemia of inflammation; AOCD; ACD ... Anemia is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as ...

  20. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Full Text Available Already a member? Log In or Sign Up Home About Us Support the ACPA Contact Us Shop ... for Understanding Pain September is Pain Awareness Month Home Pain Management Tools Videos What Is Chronic Pain? ...

  1. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  2. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Full Text Available ... after a period of time the spinal cord has changed, after a period of time there are ... absence of an apparent cause. But chronic pain has a physiological or neurological basis even when we ...

  3. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Full Text Available ... acute pain and both naturally expect that some cause will be found, and when it’s found, it ... pain even in the absence of an apparent cause. But chronic pain has a physiological or neurological ...

  4. Chronic rhinosinusitis pathogenesis.

    Stevens, Whitney W; Lee, Robert J; Schleimer, Robert P; Cohen, Noam A

    2015-12-01

    There are a variety of medical conditions associated with chronic sinonasal inflammation, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and cystic fibrosis. In particular, CRS can be divided into 2 major subgroups based on whether nasal polyps are present or absent. Unfortunately, clinical treatment strategies for patients with chronic sinonasal inflammation are limited, in part because the underlying mechanisms contributing to disease pathology are heterogeneous and not entirely known. It is hypothesized that alterations in mucociliary clearance, abnormalities in the sinonasal epithelial cell barrier, and tissue remodeling all contribute to the chronic inflammatory and tissue-deforming processes characteristic of CRS. Additionally, the host innate and adaptive immune responses are also significantly activated and might be involved in pathogenesis. Recent advancements in the understanding of CRS pathogenesis are highlighted in this review, with special focus placed on the roles of epithelial cells and the host immune response in patients with cystic fibrosis, CRS without nasal polyps, or CRS with nasal polyps. PMID:26654193

  5. Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy

    ... very commonly used to treat chronic hypertension. This drug class can cause problems in the fetus, in- cluding an increased risk of birth de- fects 4 and kidney failure. Angiotensin II receptor blockers also should be avoided ...

  6. Chronic Conditions PUF

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Chronic Conditions PUFs are aggregated files in which each record is a profile or cell defined by the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries. A profile is...

  7. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Full Text Available ... ACPA Contact Us Shop FAQs The Art of Pain Management Resources Going to the ER Glossary Surveys What We Have Learned Communication Tools Videos Pain Management Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain ...

  8. Chronic penile strangulation

    Lopes Roberto I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.

  9. Neuromodulation of chronic headaches

    Martelletti, Paolo; Jensen, Rigmor H; Antal, Andrea;

    2013-01-01

    The medical treatment of patients with chronic primary headache syndromes (chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, chronic cluster headache, hemicrania continua) is challenging as serious side effects frequently complicate the course of medical treatment and some patients may be even...... medically intractable. When a definitive lack of responsiveness to conservative treatments is ascertained and medication overuse headache is excluded, neuromodulation options can be considered in selected cases.Here, the various invasive and non-invasive approaches, such as hypothalamic deep brain...... proper RCT-based evidence is limited. The European Headache Federation herewith provides a consensus statement on the clinical use of neuromodulation in headache, based on theoretical background, clinical data, and side effect of each method. This international consensus further gives recommendations for...

  10. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Shop FAQs The Art of Pain Management Resources Going to the ER Glossary Surveys What We Have Learned Communication Tools Videos Pain Management Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain ...

  11. Chronic Conditions Chartbook

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries is a chartbook prepared by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and created to provide an overview of...

  12. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Full Text Available ... Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain Awareness Toolkits Partners for Understanding Pain September is Pain Awareness Month Home Pain Management Tools Videos What Is ...

  13. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Full Text Available ... chronic pain there may be no apparent physical injury or illness to explain it. The physician and ... expected period of healing for an illness or injury. You can experience pain even if you are ...

  14. Chronic Condition Data Warehouse

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) provides researchers with Medicare and Medicaid beneficiary, claims, and assessment data linked by beneficiary across...

  15. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that ... activities. The main symptom of CFS is severe fatigue that lasts for 6 months or more. You ...

  16. Chronic dysimmune neuropathies: Beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    Khadilkar Satish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of chronic dysimmune neuropathies has widened well beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP. Pure motor (multifocal motor neuropathy, sensorimotor with asymmetrical involvement (multifocal acquired demylinating sensory and motor neuropathy, exclusively distal sensory (distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy and very proximal sensory (chronic immune sensory polyradiculopathy constitute the variants of CIDP. Correct diagnosis of these entities is of importance in terms of initiation of appropriate therapy as well as prognostication of these patients. The rates of detection of immune-mediated neuropathies with monoclonal cell proliferation (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, multiple myeloma, etc. have been facilitated as better diagnostic tools such as serum immunofixation electrophoresis are being used more often. Immune neuropathies associated with malignancies and systemic vasculitic disorders are being defined further and treated early with better understanding of the disease processes. As this field of dysimmune neuropathies will evolve in the future, some of the curious aspects of the clinical presentations and response patterns to different immunosuppressants or immunomodulators will be further elucidated. This review also discusses representative case studies.

  17. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    Cordier Jean-François; Marchand Eric

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than ...

  18. Chronic osteomyelitis mimicking sarcoma

    Gulmann, C; Young, O.; Tolan, M.; O’Riordan, D.; Leader, M

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of chronic osteomyelitis in a 60 year old man mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma. Chronic osteomyelitis is an infrequent cause of a soft tissue mass and is usually diagnosed clinically by a combination of radiology and microbiology. Rarely, COM can mimic a primary bony neoplasm, but this is the first reported case where it mimicked a soft tissue sarcoma. The clinical, radiological, and histological appearances of this case will be discussed.

  19. Hypertension in Chronic Glomerulonephritis.

    Ihm, Chun-Gyoo

    2015-12-01

    Chronic glomerulonephritis (GN), which includes focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and proliferative forms of GN such as IgA nephropathy, increases the risk of hypertension. Hypertension in chronic GN is primarily volume dependent, and this increase in blood volume is not related to the deterioration of renal function. Patients with chronic GN become salt sensitive as renal damage including arteriolosclerosis progresses and the consequent renal ischemia causes the stimulation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system(RAAS). Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system also contributes to hypertension in chronic GN. According to the KDIGO guideline, the available evidence indicates that the target BP should be ≤140mmHg systolic and ≤90mmHg diastolic in chronic kidney disease patients without albuminuria. In most patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30mg/24 h (i.e., those with both micro-and macroalbuminuria), a lower target of ≤130mmHg systolic and ≤80mmHg diastolic is suggested. The use of agents that block the RAAS system is recommended or suggested in all patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30mg/ 24 h. The combination of a RAAS blockade with a calcium channel blocker and a diuretic may be effective in attaining the target BP, and in reducing the amount of urinary protein excretion in patients with chronic GN. PMID:26848302

  20. Sensitivity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to small targeted therapeutic molecules: An in vitro comparative study.

    Sylvan, Sandra Eketorp; Skribek, Henriette; Norin, Stefan; Muhari, Orsolya; Österborg, Anders; Szekely, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    New drugs targeting important cellular signaling pathways are currently being developed for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It is therefore of interest to analyze their in vitro killing capacity in manufacturer-independent, comparative experiments. We here report on the sensitivity of CLL cells to a panel of emerging targeted therapeutics using high-throughput screening based on an automated fluorescence digital scanning system. Fresh CLL cells from 42 patients with indolent or progressive CLL were cultured for 72 hours on microtiter plates in a unique primary cell culture medium. Antitumor effects of 31 small therapeutic molecules (and, as controls, 29 cytostatic agents) at equimolar concentration were compared in a fluorescence survival assay. In vitro sensitivity to each drug exhibited considerable interpatient variability. The highest mean direct killing was observed for one survivin inhibitor (YM-155), two bcl-2 inhibitors (ABT-199, ABT-737), and one selective CDK inhibitor (dinaciclib). Their killing capacity was, in contrast to most cytostatic agents, similarly high in refractory versus untreated CLL patients and was significantly higher on cells with the 17p deletion/TP53 mutation than on cells with other cytogenetic abnormalities (p = 0.02). Sensitivity of bone marrow and lymph node cells was highly correlated with that of blood cells. Even though direct killing may not be the only therapeutic effector function in vivo, results from this head-to-head comparison may help to identify drugs of particular interest for intensified clinical development. PMID:26325331

  1. Size matters: management of stress responses and chronic stress in beaked whales and other marine mammals may require larger exclusion zones.

    Wright, Andrew J; Deak, Terrence; Parsons, E C M

    2011-01-01

    Marine mammal management traditionally focuses on lethal takes, but non-lethal (or not immediately lethal) impacts of human disturbance, such as prolonged or repeated activation of the stress response, can also have serious conservation implications. The physiological stress response is a life-saving combination of systems and events that maximises the ability of an animal to kill or avoid being killed. However, "chronic stress" is linked to numerous conditions in humans, including coronary disease and infertility. Through examples, including beaked whales and sonar exposure, we discuss increasing human disturbance, mal-adaptive stress responses and chronic stress. Deep-diving and coastal species, and those targeted by whalewatching, may be particularly vulnerable. The various conditions linked with chronic stress in humans would have troubling implications for conservation efforts in endangered species, demands management attention, and may partly explain why some species have not recovered after protective measures (e.g., smaller protected areas) have been put into place. PMID:20045527

  2. Utilization of high temperature compost in space agriculture: the model compost kills Escherichia coli

    Oshima, Tairo; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yoshii, Takahiro

    The author and his colleagues have proposed the use of high temperature composting in space inhabitation. Composting has many advantages over burning in organic waste treatments. Composting is self-heating processes and needs no extra fuel. Composting requires no sophis-ticated equipment such as an incinerator. Composting emits no hazardous gases such as NOx, SOx and dioxines which are often produced by burning. The final product can be used as fer-tilizer in space farm land; resources recycling society can be constructed in space stations and space cities. In addition to these advantages, composting and compost soil may contribute to the environmental cleanup. During composting processes, harmful compounds to agricultural plants and animals can be destroyed. Seeds of weeds can be killed by high heat. Likewise pathogenic microbes in the waste can be eliminated during fermentation inside the composts. Recently we measured the survivability of E. coli in compost. E. coli was used as the represen-tative of the Gram-negative bacteria. Since many pathogenic strains belong to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bac-teria. When E. coli cells were mixed in the compost pile of which inside temperature reaches up to 75oC, they died within a short period as expected. However, E. coli DNA was detected even after a day in high temperature compost. RNA has a shorter life-span than DNA, but was detected after incubation in compost for several hours. In addition to sterilizing effects due to high temperature, we found our compost soil has E. coli killing activity. When mixed with the compost soil at room temperature, E. coli died gradually. Extract of the compost soil also killed E. coli at room temperature, but it took a few days to eliminate E. coli completely. During the killing process, total number of living bacteria did not change, indicating that the killing activity is limited to some specific

  3. Effect of Acute and Chronic Gamma Irradiation on in vitro Growth of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a perennial herb that belongs to the family of Asteraceae. It is a natural sweetener plant known as sweet leaf, which is estimated to be 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. In this study, micropropagation and in vitro mutagenesis of this natural herb was successfully conducted. It was found that shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l Kinetin showed the highest shoot induction and multiplication after 3 weeks of culture. Radiosensitivity test was conducted to identify the LD50 for in vitro stevia shoots and to select effective doses to be used for the in vitro mutagenesis. Shoot tips were irradiated with acute and chronic gamma radiation at 0, 10.00, 20.00, 30.00, 40.00, 60.00, and 80.00 Gy. At 60 Gy and 80 Gy, the shoot tips demonstrated 0 % survival, all were killed. LD50 for stevia (the dose that killed 50 % of the irradiated explants) was at 29 Gy. In this study, LD 50 for the stevia (the dose that killed 50 % of the irradiated explants) was at 29 Gy for acute irradiation and was at 45 Gy for chronic irradiation. The effective doses were selected at 10, 20 and 30 Gy. These three selected doses were applied for the in vitro mutagenesis of the stevia shoots. (author)

  4. Persistence of the bacterial pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease monocytes and macrophages lacking a functional NADPH oxidase1

    Chu, Jessica; Song, Helen H.; Zarember, Kol A.; Mills, Teresa A.; Gallin, John I.

    2013-01-01

    Granulibacter bethesdensis is a Gram-negative pathogen in patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), a deficiency in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Repeated isolation of genetically identical strains from the same patient over years, and prolonged waxing and waning seropositivity in some subjects, raises the possibility of long-term persistence. G. bethesdensis resists killing by serum, CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and antimicrobial peptides, indicating resistance to non-oxid...

  5. Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice.

    Giménez, R.; Raïch, J.; Aguilar, J.

    1991-01-01

    1. Spiroperidol binding (dopamine D2 receptors) and quinuclidinyl benzilate binding (muscarinic receptors) in striata of 19-month old mice was analyzed for animals that had received chronic administration of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) incorporated into the chow consumed (100 or 500 mg kg-1 added per day) for the 7 months before they were killed. 2. Treated animals displayed an increase in the dopamine receptor densities of 11% for those receiving 100 mg kg-1 and 18% for those ...

  6. KILL DANTE!

    2012-01-01

    鬼泣DMC本届的东京电玩展,可说是动作游戏的天下。Capcom带来了《生化危机4》、《鬼泣DMC》。Konami有《潜龙谍影螺起复仇》,加上世嘉旗下的《如龙5》与索尼的《战神超凡》,足以让动作游戏爱好者们笑得合不拢嘴。

  7. Chronic daily headaches

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  8. Management of chronic paronychia

    Vineet Relhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic paronychia is an inflammatory disorder of the nail folds of a toe or finger presenting as redness, tenderness, and swelling. It is recalcitrant dermatoses seen commonly in housewives and housemaids. It is a multifactorial inflammatory reaction of the proximal nail fold to irritants and allergens. Repeated bouts of inflammation lead to fibrosis of proximal nail fold with poor generation of cuticle, which in turn exposes the nail further to irritants and allergens. Thus, general preventive measures form cornerstone of the therapy. Though previously anti-fungals were the mainstay of therapy, topical steroid creams have been found to be more effective in the treatment of chronic paronychia. In recalcitrant cases, surgical treatment may be resorted to, which includes en bloc excision of the proximal nail fold or an eponychial marsupialization, with or without nail plate removal. Newer therapies and surgical modalities are being employed in the management of chronic paronychia. In this overview, we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to chronic paronychia, discuss the challenges chronic paronychia presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management.

  9. Action spectra for ultraviolet photosensitized killing of mammalian cells by misonidazole and para-nitroacetophenone

    Chinese hamster fibroblasts in monolayer culture were exposed to ulraviolet radiation at 313, 334, 365, 380, and 405 nm in the presence of either misonidazole or para-nitroacetophenone, drugs which act as both photosensitizers and radiosensitizers of cell killing. Survival was measured by a colony-forming assay. The resulting action spectra for cell death photosensitized by the drugs (the reciprocals of the exposures required at each wavelength to reduce cell survival to a given level) closely match their absorption spectra over a range of three orders of magnitude. These results demonstrate that cells can be killed upon excitation of misonidazole or para-nitroacetophenone in the absence of any other types of energy deposition or biomolecular damage

  10. Public conceptions of publicness in the wake of the Copenhagen killings

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , various conceptions of publicness and public space have been articulated. Indeed, one may view the killings as a ‘critical discourse moment’ (Chilton, 1987; Gamson and Modigliani, 1989) in which a range of discourses have been employed to help interpret, understand and deal with what happened. In several...... of these discourses, conceptions of publicness play a central part. This article sets out to investigate the conceptions of publicness that were articulated in the Danish public spheres following the attacks. The article maps out some of the key different and partly contradictory notions of publicness...... that the reactions to the killings brought to the fore. The investigation thus focuses on the articulation of normative expectations and ideals of public spheres, on the limitations and restrictions that were acknowledged, and on the main societal problems and (inter)national contexts to which publicness was viewed...

  11. Differential protective effects of antioxidants against cell killing and mutagenesis of Salmonella typhimurium by gamma radiation

    A commercial mixture of phenolic antioxidants containing BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and PG (propyl gallate), commonly used in the food industry, was found to protect Salmonella typhimurium against killing and induction of his+ mutations by gamma radiation. The protective effect was apparent only when irradiation was performed in the presence of oxygen and no protection could be detected in its absence. When each of the components of the antioxidant mixture was tested separately, only PG displayed a protective effects. The amount of protection provided by the mixture of antioxidants was close to the protection afforded by hypoxia. Also, protection against cell killing was very similar in magnitude to protection against induction of mutations. The protective effect could be detected only when antioxidants were added to the cells before irradiation. No protection was afforded upon addition immediately after irradiation. (author)

  12. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  13. A comment on "bats killed in large numbers at United States wind energy facilities"

    Huso, Manuela M.P.; Dalthorp, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Widespread reports of bat fatalities caused by wind turbines have raised concerns about the impacts of wind power development. Reliable estimates of the total number killed and the potential effects on populations are needed, but it is crucial that they be based on sound data. In a recent BioScience article, Hayes (2013) estimated that over 600,000 bats were killed at wind turbines in the United States in 2012. The scientific errors in the analysis are numerous, with the two most serious being that the included sites constituted a convenience sample, not a representative sample, and that the individual site estimates are derived from such different methodologies that they are inherently not comparable. This estimate is almost certainly inaccurate, but whether the actual number is much smaller, much larger, or about the same is uncertain. An accurate estimate of total bat fatality is not currently possible, given the shortcomings of the available data.

  14. Targeted nanoparticles for enhanced X-ray radiation killing of multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Luo, Yang; Hossain, Mainul; Wang, Chaoming; Qiao, Yong; An, Jincui; Ma, Liyuan; Su, Ming

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes a nanoparticle enhanced X-ray irradiation based strategy that can be used to kill multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In the proof-of-concept experiment using MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) as an example, polyclonal antibody modified bismuth nanoparticles are introduced into bacterial culture to specifically target P. aeruginosa. After washing off uncombined bismuth nanoparticles, the bacteria are irradiated with X-rays, using a setup that mimics a deeply buried wound in humans. Results show that up to 90% of MDR P. aeruginosa are killed in the presence of 200 μg ml-1 bismuth nanoparticles, whereas only ~6% are killed in the absence of bismuth nanoparticles when exposed to 40 kVp X-rays for 10 min. The 200 μg ml-1 bismuth nanoparticles enhance localized X-ray dose by 35 times higher than the control with no nanoparticles. In addition, no significant harmful effects on human cells (HeLa and MG-63 cells) have been observed with 200 μg ml-1 bismuth nanoparticles and 10 min 40 kVp X-ray irradiation exposures, rendering the potential for future clinical use. Since X-rays can easily penetrate human tissues, this bactericidal strategy has the potential to be used in effectively killing deeply buried MDR bacteria in vivo.This paper describes a nanoparticle enhanced X-ray irradiation based strategy that can be used to kill multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In the proof-of-concept experiment using MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) as an example, polyclonal antibody modified bismuth nanoparticles are introduced into bacterial culture to specifically target P. aeruginosa. After washing off uncombined bismuth nanoparticles, the bacteria are irradiated with X-rays, using a setup that mimics a deeply buried wound in humans. Results show that up to 90% of MDR P. aeruginosa are killed in the presence of 200 μg ml-1 bismuth nanoparticles, whereas only ~6% are killed in the absence of bismuth nanoparticles when exposed to 40 kVp X

  15. 'David and Goliath' of the soil food web - Flagellates that kill nematodes

    Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Rønn, Regin

    2008-01-01

    Nematodes and flagellates are important bacterial predators in soil and sediments. Generally, these organisms are considered to be competitors for bacterial food. We studied the interaction among flagellates and nematodes using axenic liquid cultures amended with heat-killed bacteria as food and ...... bacterial feeder can control the abundance of another, suggests a new perspective on how bacterial diversity and trophic interactions are linked in the soil food web. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008......Nematodes and flagellates are important bacterial predators in soil and sediments. Generally, these organisms are considered to be competitors for bacterial food. We studied the interaction among flagellates and nematodes using axenic liquid cultures amended with heat-killed bacteria as food and...

  16. Two special classes of space-times admitting a non-null valence two Killing spinor

    Bergh, Norbert Van den

    2009-01-01

    Non-conformally flat space-times admitting a non-null Killing spinor of valence two are investigated in the Geroch-Held-Penrose formalism. Contrary to popular belief these space-times are not all explicitly known. It is shown that the standard construction hinges on the tacit assumption that certain integrability conditions hold, implying two algebraic relations, KS1 and KS2, for the spin coefficients and the components of the Ricci spinor. An exhaustive list of (conformal classes of) space-times, in which either KS1 or KS2 are violated, is presented. The resulting space-times are each other's Sachs transforms, in general admit no Killing vectors and are characterized by a single arbitrary function.

  17. Spacetime characterizations of $\\Lambda$-vacuum metrics with a null Killing 2-form

    Mars, Marc

    2016-01-01

    An exhaustive list of four-dimensional $\\Lambda$-vacuum spacetimes admitting a Killing vector whose self-dual Killing two-form ${\\cal F}$ is null is obtained assuming that the self-dual Weyl tensor is proportional to the tensor product of ${\\cal F}$ by itself. Our analysis complements previous results concerning the case with non-null ${\\cal F}$. We analyze both cases with $\\Lambda$ vanishing or not. In the latter case we prove that $\\Lambda< 0$ must hold necessarily, and we find a characterization of the Einstein spacetimes conformal to pp-waves. In the former case we obtain spacetime characterizations of vacuum plane waves and of the stationary vacuum Brinkmann spacetimes. At the light of the full set of results, old and new, we reformulate the case with non-null ${\\cal F}$ and $\\Lambda= 0$. We finally present a table collecting the results for both null, and non-null, ${\\cal F}$.

  18. A Case of Intraspecific Killing in Passerines: The House Sparrow (Passer Domesticus

    Halliez Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Even if intraspecific conflict is a well-known behaviour in birds, intraspecific killing among passerines is very rare in the literature. Cases of intraspecific predation among passerines constitute a very small percentage of published reports, and many of the cases are based on circumstantial evidence. In March 2013, we witnessed a group of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus kill a conspecific male adult in the village of Gonsans (France, Doubs department. During the reproductive season three explanations of others studies (lack of food, weak condition and territorial behaviour during could be relevant in our case. In conclusion, it appears that our observation is a very rare one and the second one for the House Sparrow.

  19. Phagocytosis and Killing of Carbapenem-Resistant ST258 Klebsiella pneumoniae by Human Neutrophils.

    Kobayashi, Scott D; Porter, Adeline R; Dorward, David W; Brinkworth, Amanda J; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N; DeLeo, Frank R

    2016-05-15

    Carbapenem-resistantKlebsiella pneumoniaestrains classified as multilocus sequence type 258 (ST258) are among the most widespread multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired pathogens. Treatment of infections caused by these organisms is difficult, and mortality is high. The basis for the success of ST258, outside of antibiotic resistance, remains incompletely determined. Here we tested the hypothesis that ST258K. pneumoniaehas enhanced capacity to circumvent killing by human neutrophils, the primary cellular defense against bacterial infections. There was limited binding and uptake of ST258 by human neutrophils, and correspondingly, there was limited killing of bacteria. On the other hand, transmission electron microscopy revealed that any ingested organisms were degraded readily within neutrophil phagosomes, thus indicating that survival in the neutrophil assays is due to limited phagocytosis, rather than to microbicide resistance after uptake. Our findings suggest that enhancing neutrophil phagocytosis is a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of infection caused by carbapenem-resistant ST258K. pneumoniae. PMID:26768252

  20. [Subpopulations and phagocytic activity of monocytes in chronic gastroduodenitis in children].

    Agafonova, E V; Malanicheva, T G; Denisova, S N

    2013-01-01

    There was conducted a study of the phagocytic activity, immunophenotype and peripheral blood monocytes by flow cytometry in children with chronic gastroduodenitis associated with Helicobacter pylori, as well as the association of Helicobacter pylori with fungi of the genus Candida and markers of secondary immune deficiency. The differential changes in the structure of circulating profile of monocytes were revealed, that indicate the pathogenetic significance of these disorders in chronic gastroduodenitis with H. pylori etiology, as well as at association of Helicobacter pylori with fungi of the genus Candida. Violations of the phagocytic activity of monocytes in chronic gastroduodenitis in children are associated with depression of different stages of phagocytosis--capture functions, mobilization, killing, intracellular biocidity. A severe depression in phagocytic activity of monocytes occurs in CGD associated with Hp and fungi of the genus Candida. PMID:24501955

  1. Clinical Studies on Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis with Acupuncture and Mild Moxibustion

    Yu Yang; Kang Jingli; Duan Shumin

    2005-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and mild moxibustion on chronic prostatitis and to probe into the mechanism of the therapy. Two hundred patients with chronic prostatitis were randomly divided into two groups so as to observe respectively the changes in clinical symptoms, count of WBC and lecithin corpuscles in succus prostaticus, prostatic capcules and internal echo, tenderness and elasticity of prostate by palpation before and after treatment. After treatment, a remarkable improvement was found in clinical symptoms, succus prostaticus test and ultrasonic examination in the treatment group with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) as compared to the control group. The treatment of chronic prostatitis with acupuncture and mild moxibustion can remove the stagnation of succus prostaticus, improve the blood circulation in prostate, inhibit or kill the pathogenic micro-organisms, strengthen or regulate the immune function of the patients, improve local blood circulation, eliminate the accumulation of secretion and relieve the obstruction of the prostatic ducts.

  2. Killed but Metabolically Active Bacillus anthracis Vaccines Induce Broad and Protective Immunity against Anthrax▿

    Skoble, Justin; Beaber, John W.; Gao, Yi; Lovchik, Julie A.; Sower, Laurie E.; Liu, Weiqun; Luckett, William; Johnny W. Peterson; Calendar, Richard; Daniel A Portnoy; Lyons, C. Rick; Dubensky, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. We have developed a novel whole-bacterial-cell anthrax vaccine utilizing B. anthracis that is killed but metabolically active (KBMA). Vaccine strains that are asporogenic and nucleotide excision repair deficient were engineered by deleting the spoIIE and uvrAB genes, rendering B. anthracis extremely sensitive to photochemical inactivation with S-59 psoralen and UV light. We also introduced point mutations into the lef and cya genes, which ...

  3. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius Kills Streptococcus pneumoniae Planktonic Cells and Pneumococcal Biofilms

    Sharmila J Talekar; Sopio Chochua; Katie Nelson; Klugman, Keith P.; Quave, Cassandra L; Vidal, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribe...

  4. Deprive to kill: Glutamine closes the gate to anticancer monocarboxylic drugs

    Cardaci, Simone; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Killing properties of antitumor drugs can be enhanced by strategies targeting biochemical adaptations of cancer cells. Recently, we reported that depriving cancer cells of glutamine is a feasible approach to enhance antitumor effects of the alkylating analog of pyruvic acid, 3-bromopyruvate, which rely on the induction of autophagic cell death by metabolic-oxidative stress. 3-bromopyruvate chemopotentiation is the result of its increased intracellular uptake mediated by the monocarboxylate tr...

  5. AUTHORITY PERCEPTION OF THE GROUPS WHICH MAINTAIN CUSTOMS OF BLOOD FEUD AND HONOR KILLING

    AKTAŞ, Hasan Emir

    2015-01-01

    Blood feuds and honor killings suggest a systematic and collective process of trial and punishment in tribal communities based on customary norms. Customary murders usually occur in tribal groups in which central authority is either weak or totally absent. In the former case, tribal people experience a conflict between norms of the central state and those of the local group. On the other hand, the acts of tribal groups violating legitimate legal and administrative system differ from similar u...

  6. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells

    Shihui Li; Niancao Chen; Gaddes, Erin R.; Xiaolong Zhang; Cheng Dong; Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one fu...

  7. Wormholes admitting conformal Killing vectors and supported by generalized Chaplygin gas

    Kuhfittig, Peter K.F. [Milwaukee School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    When Morris and Thorne first proposed that traversable wormholes may be actual physical objects, they concentrated on the geometry by specifying the shape and redshift functions. This mathematical approach necessarily raises questions regarding the determination of the required stress-energy tensor. This paper discusses a natural way to obtain a complete wormhole solution by assuming that the wormhole (1) is supported by generalized Chaplygin gas and (2) admits conformal Killing vectors. (orig.)

  8. Quantification, qualification, and microbial killing efficiencies of antimicrobial chlorine-based substances produced by iontophoresis.

    Davis, C P; Shirtliff, M.E.; Trieff, N. M.; Hoskins, S L; Warren, M M

    1994-01-01

    The dependence of microbial killing on chloride ions present in solutions undergoing iontophoresis is addressed. A 400-microA current was applied to vials containing synthetic urine or saline, and the production of chlorine-based substances (CBSs) was detected by the N,N-diethyl-p-phenylene diamine colorimetric method. It was found that as the time of current application increased, the total concentration of CBSs also increased. The iontophoretic current converted (through oxidation) chloride...

  9. Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors Enhance Chemotherapy Killing in Gastrointestinal/Genitourinary Cancer Cells

    Booth, Laurence; ROBERTS, JANE L.; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Conley, Adam; Durrant, David E.; Das, Anindita; Fisher, Paul B.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.; Grant, Steven; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with clinically relevant chemotherapies to kill gastrointestinal/genitourinary cancer cells. In bladder cancer cells, regardless of H-RAS mutational status, at clinically achievable doses, PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion with doxorubicin/mitomycin C/gemcitabine/cisplatin/paclitaxel to cause cell death. In pancreatic tumor cells expressing mutant active K-RA...

  10. Human milk as a source of tumor killing molecules. From MAL to HAMLET.

    Mossberg, Anki

    2010-01-01

    HAMLET (Human alphalactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells), a complex between the partially unfolded alphalactalbumin and oleic acid, was discovered by serendipity when anti-adhesive properties of human milk were examined. HAMLET kills tumor cells but not healthy differentiated cells. Native alphalactalbumin (HLA) can be conveted to HAMLET by a two-step process including: 1) calcium ion removal inducing a teritary change of the protein structure. 2) incorporation of oleic acid into the apo...

  11. LuIII Parvovirus Selectively and Efficiently Targets, Replicates in, and Kills Human Glioma Cells

    Paglino, Justin C.; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2012-01-01

    Because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. To identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI). MVMi, MVMc, MVM-G17, tumor virus X (TVX), canine parvovirus (CPV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), rat parvovirus 1A (RPV1A), and H-3 were relatively ineff...

  12. The osmolyte xylitol reduces the salt concentration of airway surface liquid and may enhance bacterial killing

    Zabner, Joseph; Seiler, Michael P.; Launspach, Janice L.; Karp, Philip H.; Kearney, William R.; Look, Dwight C.; Smith, Jeffrey J.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    The thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) contains antimicrobial substances that kill the small numbers of bacteria that are constantly being deposited in the lungs. An increase in ASL salt concentration inhibits the activity of airway antimicrobial factors and may partially explain the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). We tested the hypothesis that an osmolyte with a low transepithelial permeability may lower the ASL salt concentration, thereby enhancing i...

  13. UV- Killed Staphylococcus aureus Enhances Adhesion and Differentiation of Osteoblasts on Bone-associated Biomaterials

    Somayaji, Shankari N.; Huet, Yvette M.; Gruber, Helen E.; Hudson, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Titanium alloys (Ti) are the preferred material for orthopaedic applications. However, very often, these metallic implants loosen over a long period and mandate revision surgery. For implant success, osteoblasts must adhere to the implant surface and deposit a mineralized extracellular matrix. Here, we utilized UV-killed Staphylococcus aureus as a novel osteoconductive coating for Ti surfaces. S. aureus expresses surface adhesins capable of binding to bone and biomaterials directly. Furthermo...

  14. INCAPABILITY OF FORMALIN BASED FIXATIVE TO KILL MAGGOT IN MUTILATED HUMAN CARRION

    Oladele, A.A.; Sanya, J.O.; Raji, M.O; Ekundina, V.O

    2015-01-01

    Background: Embalming is a process used to temporarily preserve a human cadaver to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at funerals; thus, are agents that prevent autolysis and putrefaction. The outbreak of maggots from a heap of inadequately embalmed bodies due to deep cuts and bodies involved in inferno, necessitated the need to re-investigate the efficacy of formalin based embalming fluid and its inability to kill maggots. Methodology: Various strength of Formaldehy...

  15. Critical Analysis of Compositions and Protective Efficacies of Oral Killed Cholera Vaccines

    Kabir, Shahjahan

    2014-01-01

    Two cholera vaccines, sold as Shanchol and Dukoral, are currently available. This review presents a critical analysis of the protective efficacies of these vaccines. Children under 5 years of age are very vulnerable to cholera and account for the highest incidence of cholera cases and more than half of the resulting deaths. Both Shanchol and Dukoral are two-spaced-dose oral vaccines comprising large numbers of killed cholera bacteria. The former contains Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 cells, and...

  16. P. falciparum In Vitro Killing Rates Allow to Discriminate between Different Antimalarial Mode-of-Action

    Sanz, Laura M.; Crespo, Benigno; De-Cózar, Cristina; Ding, Xavier C.; Jose L Llergo; Burrows, Jeremy N; García-Bustos, Jose F.; Gamo, Francisco-Javier

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy is still the cornerstone for malaria control. Developing drugs against Plasmodium parasites and monitoring their efficacy requires methods to accurately determine the parasite killing rate in response to treatment. Commonly used techniques essentially measure metabolic activity as a proxy for parasite viability. However, these approaches are susceptible to artefacts, as viability and metabolism are two parameters that are coupled during the parasite life cycle but can be differen...

  17. Political reforms in Turkey and EU membership: honor killings and Kurdish language rights

    Erdem, Deniz

    2009-01-01

    Turkey became an official candidate for European Union (EU) membership in 1999. Between 1999-2004, Turkey passed seven harmonization packages to comply with the EU acquis and to abide by the Copenhagen criteria. This thesis explores the extent to which the harmonization laws are implemented in Turkey. The gap is analyzed by examining the closure of Kurdish private language courses and penalty reductions given to honor killings by using content analysis of the newspapers and pertinent Internet...

  18. Vancomycin prophylaxis of experimental Streptococcus sanguis. Inhibition of bacterial adherence rather than bacterial killing.

    Bernard, J. P.; Francioli, P.; Glauser, M P

    1981-01-01

    Using a strain of Streptococcus sanguis tolerant to vancomycin to infect aortic vegetations in rats, we found that prophylactic intravenous vancomycin given 30 min before bacterial challenge decreased the incidence of endocarditis from 88 to 8% (P less than 10(-5)). Because peak vancomycin serum levels were below the minimal bactericidal concentration, mechanisms of protection other than bacterial killing were investigated. S. sanguis were incubated with inhibitory concentration of vancomycin...

  19. Invasion and Killing of Human Endothelial Cells by Viridans Group Streptococci

    Stinson, Murray W.; Alder, Susan; Kumar, Sarmishtha

    2003-01-01

    Colonization of the cardiovascular endothelium by viridans group streptococci can result in infective endocarditis and possibly atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. We investigated the ability of selected oral streptococci to infect monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in 50% human plasma and to produce cytotoxicity. Planktonic Streptococcus gordonii CH1 killed HUVEC over a 5-h period by peroxidogenesis (alpha-hemolysin) and b...

  20. Mice Lacking Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Demonstrate Impaired Killing of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Gyurko, Robert; Boustany, Gabriel; Huang, Paul L; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Genco, Caroline A.; Gibson III, Frank C.

    2003-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a primary etiological agent of generalized severe periodontitis, and emerging data suggest the importance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in periodontal tissue damage, as well as in microbial killing. Since nitric oxide (NO) released from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been shown to possess immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, and antibacterial effects in experimental models, we challenged iNOS-deficient (iNOS−/−) mice with P. gingivalis by using a subcutaneous c...