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Sample records for ac metal-enclosed switchgear

  1. The 6.9-kV, 60-kA, metal-enclosed switchgear with Magne-blast circuit breaker

    Intended for use in thermal or atomic power plants with large capacity, metal-enclosed switchgear incorporating a ''Magne-blast'' circuit breaker rated 6.9 kV, 60 kA, 750 MVA, has been worked out. Their ratings, characteristic features, construction and test results are described here. The development of aseismatic metal-enclosed switchgear with specifications peculiar to atomic power plants is also going on with good results. (auth.)

  2. Distribution switchgear

    Stewart, Stan

    2004-01-01

    Switchgear plays a fundamental role within the power supply industry. It is required to isolate faulty equipment, divide large networks into sections for repair purposes, reconfigure networks in order to restore power supplies and control other equipment.This book begins with the general principles of the Switchgear function and leads on to discuss topics such as interruption techniques, fault level calculations, switching transients and electrical insulation; making this an invaluable reference source. Solutions to practical problems associated with Distribution Switchgear are also included.

  3. Vacuum switchgear for power station auxiliary switchboards

    Sizewell B is the first UK power station in which vacuum switchgear is used for the auxiliary switchboards. Previously the 3.3kV, 6.6kV or 11kV switchgear has used air-break circuit breakers and fused air-break contactors, known as motor starting devices or fused switching devices (FSD). The use of vacuum interrupters is therefore a new technology in this application, although it has been established in the UK distribution network and in industrial installations from the mid 1970s. Vacuum switchgear was already in use in the USA for power station auxiliary switchgear at the time that it was proposed for Sizewell B. The Sizewell B high voltage auxiliary switchgear comprises eight Unit and Station Auxiliary Switchboards at 3.3kV and 11kV, and four 3.3kV Essential Switchboards for the essential safety related circuits, making a total of 65 circuit breakers plus FSD panels. (Author)

  4. 30 CFR 56.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... MINES Electricity § 56.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  5. 30 CFR 57.12026 - Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12026 Grounding transformer and switchgear enclosures. Metal fencing and metal buildings enclosing transformers and switchgear shall be grounded....

  6. Single-chip microcontrollers for switchgear control

    Watson, Karan; Russell, B. Don; Jagadish, Usha

    1991-01-01

    A switchgear controller utilizing a microcontroller is described. The primary goal was to mimic the functions and performance of the generic controller board with a microcontroller board which will cause the power automation system to consume less power. The code for the microcontroller implementation on a development board has been developed, and the signal conditioning for the signals to the microcontroller has been designed and tested. The implementation of this decision system for data gathering, command control, fault detection, and circuit protection, when compared to other implementations, provides more functions and better response while reducing weight, volume, and power consumption.

  7. Intelligent MV Switchgear as an Element of Smart Grid Network

    Janusz Ropa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the family of intelligent switchgears, developed by a consortium formed by Tele and Radio Research Institute, Transformex sp. o.o., Elektromontaż Lublin and Łódź University of Technology, has been presented as an element of a Smart Grid power network. The switchgear has been equipped with innovative, hybrid current-voltage transducers made using multilayer printed circuit board technology. In the paper the concept of the switchgear, the construction of the transducers and the electronic module integrating the transducer with protection relay input circuit have been described. The intelligent bay controller implemented in the switchgear contains several modules such as Smart Metering, Smart Control, Smart Communication (IEC 61850 and integrates easily with Smart Grid power networks. The bay controller is additionally equipped with a circuit breaker (CB diagnostics module (Smart Diagnostics, which analyses CB parameters during its operation. It generates early warning signals about imminent failure likely to happen between periodic inspections and in this way enhances the reliability and safety of network operation. The switchgear contains also the fault recorder and criterion recorder (Smart Recorder/Logger, that facilitates diagnosing the failure events.

  8. Research of position measuring system for high voltage switchgear

    Ji, Yilin; Qian, Zheng; Pan, Kaikai

    2016-01-01

    The contact position's accurate measurement is the key part of the realization of high voltage switchgear's on-line monitoring. Based on the position measurement, the speed and trip of the switchgear could also be obtained. Thus, the health level and the operation status can be evaluated. The insulation condition and the fault symptom can also be identified. In this paper, the on-line measuring principle for the contact position is presented at first. The indirect measuring method is adopted, and the incremental photoelectric encoder is utilized to realize the measurement of angular displacement. The position could be calculated by establishing the relationship between the angular displacement and the contact's linear displacement. After that, the technical difficulties of the on-line measuring system are demonstrated. The selection of encoder, the difficult parts of hardware design and software design are all discussed deeply. The lab test of the whole measuring system is processed at last, and the measuring results are satisfactory. It will provide powerful support for the realization of on-line monitoring equipment of the high voltage switchgear.

  9. Optimum Shape Design of Metal-Enclosed 550 kV Disconnectors Based on Response Surface Method and Finite Element Analysis

    R. Gong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimum shape design of 550 kV disconnectors in Gas Insulated Switchgears (GIS are firstly presented employing the Finite Element Method (FEM for electric field analysis coupled with an optimal design method. For effective analysis, the FEM is conducted in transient quasistatic electric field, using a finite element FORTRAN code. The structure parameters of disconnectors that provide the required electric field strength are obtained by the Response Surface Method (RSM and the optimal values are presented by the variation in maximal electric field strength. The RSM and optimal design methods are also conducted by FORTRAN codes. The optimal result reveals that a uniform electric field distribution is achieved in 550 kV disconnectors. Additionally, the optimal result of disconnectors is verified by the proposed disconnector undertaken power frequency withstanding voltage of 740 kV for 1 minute, lightening impulse of 1675 kV, and operating impulse of 1300 kV, respectively.

  10. 30 CFR 56.12019 - Access to stationary electrical equipment or switchgear.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to stationary electrical equipment or... MINES Electricity § 56.12019 Access to stationary electrical equipment or switchgear. Where access is necessary, suitable clearance shall be provided at stationary electrical equipment or switchgear....

  11. Simulation Analysis of Transient Earth Voltages Aroused by Partial Discharge in Switchgear

    Man Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the properties of Transient Earth Voltages (TEV Aroused by Partial Discharge in Switchgear by Simulation. The mechanism of TEV aroused by partial discharge in switchgears is analyzed. The Finite Integration Theory (FIT was employed to simulate the propagation of TEV in the switchgear. The simulation results show that the pulse width of TEV increases as the pulse width of PD pulse increases and the amplitude of TEV is proportional to the PD pulse amplitude. There are time differences between the TEV signals of different detecting points when the TEV propagating on the switchgear’s surface. Based on the simulation, a method of locating the PD of switchgear is proposed by positioning multi-sensors on the external surface of switchgear.

  12. STRENGTHENING OF TRENCH COVER PLATES FOR SWITCHGEAR BUILDING

    The objective of this calculation is to strengthen the existing trench cover plates of the Electrical Switchgear Building (BLDG 5010) of the Exploratory Studies Facility. A remodeling effort will change the portion of the facility that has the trenches for electrical cables to a craft/shop area. The users of the building will be using a forklift in this area (Clark CGP 30 forklift with a capacity of 3 tons). The trench covers require strengthening to support the wheel loads from the forklift. The output of this calculation will be sketches revising the floor plate details of DWG YMP-025-1-7007-ST103,2. (Details 4 and 5)

  13. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  14. Short-Circuit Withstand Current Rating for Low Voltage Switchgear : Short-Circuit Current Rating (SCCR)

    Schütt, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this thesis was to observe the short-circuit currents at electrical distribution boards. The purpose was to investigate different methods of protecting switchgears from dam-ages caused by short-circuit currents. Manufactures of switchgears need to indicate the rated short-circuit withstand current of their assembly. This thesis is presenting methods of defining the right value of the short-circuit withstand current. This thesis presents theoretical information about the cau...

  15. The Development of Computer-Aided Design for Electrical Equipment Selection and Arrangement of 10 Kv Switchgear

    Chernaya Anastassiya; Sokolova Elvira

    2015-01-01

    The paper intends to give an overview of a computer-aided design program application. The research includes two main parts: the development of a computer-aided design for an appropriate switchgear selection and its arrangement in an indoor switchgear layout. Matlab program was used to develop a computer-aided design system. The use of this program considerably simplifies the selection and arrangement of 10 kV switchgear.

  16. Temperature Rise Comparison of Switchgear in SF6, N2, and Air

    Feng Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the heat conduction equation, fluid flow governing equation and radiation heat transfer equation, a multi-physics coupled mathematical model is established, the convection heat transfer problem between solid and fluid is solved by wall function. The three dimensional thermal field in a type of switchgear filled respectively with SF6, N2, and air are calculated and analyzed to discuss the feasibility of using air or N2 as the substitution of SF6 by the finite volume method. The results show that the temperature field in three gases are similar in the switchgear. The temperature rise of current-carrying loop is the highest in SF6 and is the lowest in the air. So the conclusion could be made that air or N2 can replace SF6 as the insulating gas of switchgear on the perspective of temperature rise.

  17. Earthquake design of switchgear cabinets of the VVER-440/213 at Paks

    The electrical and instrumentation and control area of NPP Paks is upgraded with new switchgear cabinets. In connection with the emergency power supply a rectifier switchgear cabinet is installed. The electric components inside, especially the extensive control electronics, are designed according to the German safety standard KTA 3703 (1986) as well as to withstand a high level earthquake. Investigated switchgear cabinets constructed as steel frames have plan dimensions of 800 x 1600 mm and heights of 2200 mm as well as total masses of approximately 1400 kgs. For the required earthquake design of the switchgear cabinets with safety relevant components inside the present seismic design basis of Parks is used. Proof of global stability of the steel frame as well as the determination of earthquake loading for the electric components mounted to the steel frame are established by Finite-Element-Calculations. The functionability of electric components during and after an earthquake is tested with real components by experimental earthquake simulation. For similar cabinets and equal or similar electric components the functionability is proved by analogy. This contribution presents the course of calculation and performance of tests as well as selected results. (author). 3 refs., 9 figs

  18. 30 CFR 57.12019 - Access to stationary electrical equipment or switchgear.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to stationary electrical equipment or... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12019 Access to stationary electrical equipment or switchgear. Where access is necessary, suitable clearance shall be provided at stationary...

  19. 6.9-kV, 63-KA metal-clad switchgear with vacuum circuit breakers for nuclear power plants

    The technological advancement for larger capacities of vacuum circuit breakers in recent years has truly been prominent. Based on data of a series of in-house tests made so far and on performance in the field, Toshiba Corporation has developed a metal-clad switchgear with vacuum circuit breakers for nuclear power plants. Metal-clad switchgears for nuclear power plants are strongly required to have high reliability and large capacities. This paper describes results of a series of reliability tests made on the vacuum circuit breaker and resistance to earthquakes of the metal-clad switchgear required for use in a nuclear power plant

  20. High energy arcing fault fires in switchgear equipment : a literature review.

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Brown, Jason W.; Wyant, Francis John

    2008-10-01

    In power generating plants, switchgear provide a means to isolate and de-energize specific electrical components and buses in order to clear downstream faults, perform routine maintenance, and replace necessary electrical equipment. These protective devices may be categorized by the insulating medium, such as air or oil, and are typically specified by voltage classes, i.e. low, medium, and high voltage. Given their high energy content, catastrophic failure of switchgear by means of a high energy arcing fault (HEAF) may occur. An incident such as this may lead to an explosion and fire within the switchgear, directly impact adjacent components, and possibly render dependent electrical equipment inoperable. Historically, HEAF events have been poorly documented and discussed in little detail. Recent incidents involving switchgear components at nuclear power plants, however, were scrupulously investigated. The phenomena itself is only understood on a very elementary level from preliminary experiments and theories; though many have argued that these early experiments were inaccurate due to primitive instrumentation or poorly justified methodologies and thus require re-evaluation. Within the past two decades, however, there has been a resurgence of research that analyzes previous work and modern technology. Developing a greater understanding of the HEAF phenomena, in particular the affects on switchgear equipment and other associated switching components, would allow power generating industries to minimize and possibly prevent future occurrences, thereby reducing costs associated with repair and downtime. This report presents the findings of a literature review focused on arc fault studies for electrical switching equipment. The specific objective of this review was to assess the availability of the types of information needed to support development of improved treatment methods in fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plant applications.

  1. High energy arcing fault fires in switchgear equipment: a literature review

    In power generating plants, switchgear provide a means to isolate and de-energize specific electrical components and buses in order to clear downstream faults, perform routine maintenance, and replace necessary electrical equipment. These protective devices may be categorized by the insulating medium, such as air or oil, and are typically specified by voltage classes, i.e. low, medium, and high voltage. Given their high energy content, catastrophic failure of switchgear by means of a high energy arcing fault (HEAF) may occur. An incident such as this may lead to an explosion and fire within the switchgear, directly impact adjacent components, and possibly render dependent electrical equipment inoperable. Historically, HEAF events have been poorly documented and discussed in little detail. Recent incidents involving switchgear components at nuclear power plants, however, were scrupulously investigated. The phenomena itself is only understood on a very elementary level from preliminary experiments and theories; though many have argued that these early experiments were inaccurate due to primitive instrumentation or poorly justified methodologies and thus require re-evaluation. Within the past two decades, however, there has been a resurgence of research that analyzes previous work and modern technology. Developing a greater understanding of the HEAF phenomena, in particular the affects on switchgear equipment and other associated switching components, would allow power generating industries to minimize and possibly prevent future occurrences, thereby reducing costs associated with repair and downtime. This report presents the findings of a literature review focused on arc fault studies for electrical switching equipment. The specific objective of this review was to assess the availability of the types of information needed to support development of improved treatment methods in fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plant applications.

  2. KTA 3705: Switchgear, transformers and distribution systems for electric power supply to the safety system in a nuclear power plant

    The KTA safety guide explains the overriding requirements for the design and dimensioning, and the design and verification of component-specific requirements for switchgear, transformers and distribution systems. (orig./CB)

  3. Insulation Technology in Dry Air and Vacuum for a 72kV Low Pressured Dry Air Insulated Switchgear

    Yoshida, Tadahiro; Koga, Hiromi; Harada, Takakazu; Miki, Shinichi; Arioka, Masahiro; Sato, Shinji; Yoshida, Satoru; Inoue, Naoaki; Maruyama, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Toshie

    A new 72kV rated low pressured dry air insulated switchgear applying electromagnetic actuation and function that supports CBM has been developed. First, dielectric characteristics in dry air under lightning impulse application has been investigated at bare and insulator covered electrodes. Dependence of the breakdown electric field strength on the effective area has been clarified to apply the configuration design of the insulation mold for the vacuum interrupter. In addition, moisture volume dependence on surface resistance has been clarified to decide moisture volume in gas pressure tank. Next, a new vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) has been designed. To keep dimensions from former 72kV SF6 gas insulated switchgear, distance between contacts in vacuum interrupter is needed to be shorter than that of former switchgear. Voltage withstand capability between electrodes practically designed for vacuum interrupter has been investigated under dc voltage application simulated the small capacitive current breaking test. Gap configuration including contacts and slits has been optimized and distance has been shortened 11% from former switchgear. As a result, the new low pressured dry air insulated switchgear has been designed comparably in outer size to former SF6 gas insulated switchgear. Using dry air as an insulation medium with low pressure has been able to reduce the environmental burden.

  4. Study on the characteristic decomposition components of air-insulated switchgear cabinet under partial discharge

    Gui, Yingang; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Yinjun; Chen, Lincong

    2016-07-01

    Air-insulated switchgear cabinet plays a critical role in entire power transmission and distribution system. Its stability directly affects the operational reliability of the power system. And the on-line gas detection method, which evaluates the insulation status of insulation equipment by detecting the decomposition components of filled air in cabinet, becomes an innovative way to ensure the running stability of air-insulated switchgear cabinet. In order to study the characteristic gas types and production regularity of decomposition components under partial discharge, three insulation defects: needle-plate, air-gap and impurity defect are proposed to simulate the insulation defects under partial discharge in air-insulated switchgear cabinet. Firstly, the generation pathways and mechanism of composition components are discussed. Then CO and NO2 are selected as the characteristic decomposition components to characterize the partial discharge due to their high concentration and chemical stability. Based on the different change regularity of CO and NO2 concentration under different insulation defect, it provides an effective way to evaluate and predict the insulation defect type and severity in the field.

  5. Ingledow 500 kV substation : using mixed technology switchgear solutions for replacement

    Wallner, C.; Glaubitz, P. [Siemens AG, Munich (Germany); Messinger, T. [British Columbia Transmission Corp., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The reliability of the 500 kV equipment at the Ingledow substation operated by BC Hydro Transmission System is of critical importance due to the energy interchange with the Bonneville Power Authority in the United States and the major role of the substation in serving the energy needs of British Columbia's densely populated Lower Mainland. Presently, the 500 kV switchyard includes 10 airblast circuit breakers and the associated current transformers which are all approaching their end of service-life. In response to environmental and safety concerns, the British Columbia Transmission Corporation adopted a policy whereby new oil-filled transformers are no longer acceptable, and the replacement of existing oil-filled transformers must be oil-free. The result is that the current transformers must be either bushing-type or sulphur-hexafluoride (SF6) type. The replacement strategies for the substation equipment consider economical, environmental and seismic issues. They have just as strong an influence on the decision process as the technical, operational and reliability aspects for the particular case or switchgear replacement in the transmission system. The Ingledow case demonstrates the advantages of using mixed technology switchgear, with its compact design flowing from gas insulated switchgear (GIS) for replacement of equipment in an outdoor switchyard. The advantages of the MTS in this case offer the possibility of future reconfiguration to improve the system reliability within the existing switchyard space. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Study on the Application of an Ultra-High-Frequency Fractal Antenna to Partial Discharge Detection in Switchgears

    Chenguo Yao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultra-high-frequency (UHF method is used to analyze the insulation condition of electric equipment by detecting the UHF electromagnetic (EM waves excited by partial discharge (PD. As part of the UHF detection system, the UHF sensor determines the detection system performance in signal extraction and recognition. In this paper, a UHF antenna sensor with the fractal structure for PD detection in switchgears was designed by means of modeling, simulation and optimization. This sensor, with a flat-plate structure, had two resonance frequencies of 583 MHz and 732 MHz. In the laboratory, four kinds of insulation defect models were positioned in the testing switchgear for typical PD tests. The results show that the sensor could reproduce the electromagnetic waves well. Furthermore, to optimize the installation position of the inner sensor for achieving best detection performance, the precise simulation model of switchgear was developed to study the propagation characteristics of UHF signals in switchgear by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. According to the results of simulation and verification test, the sensor should be positioned at the right side of bottom plate in the front cabinet. This research established the foundation for the further study on the application of UHF technique in switchgear PD online detection.

  7. A New Type of Dehumidifier for Enclosed High-voltage Switchgear Cabinet

    Jing Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate the internal condensation of enclosed switchgear cabinet, this paper introduced a subminiature and high-performance dehumidifier based on semiconductor refrigeration technology. This equipment utilized a Fuzzy self-tuning PID intelligent controller to monitor the humidity change in the cabinet continuously and judged the dehumidifier start-stop automatically. Besides, real-time communication with a host computer through RS485 interface was also considered. Experiments showed that this design could effectively reduce the internal humidity, eliminate the condensation, and provide a practical and effective solution to prevent the power device accidents caused by wet and condensation.  

  8. Solid Insulated Switchgear and Investigation of its Mechanical and Electrical Reliability

    Sato, Junichi; Kinoshita, Susumu; Sakaguchi, Osamu; Miyagawa, Masaru; Shimizu, Toshio; Homma, Mitsutaka

    SF6 gas is applied widely to medium voltage switchgear because of its high insulation reliability and down-sizing ability. However, SF6 gas was placed on the list of greenhouse gases under the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. Since then, the investigation and development concerning SF6-free or less has carried out activity. Therefore, we paid attention to the solid material which has higher dielectric strength than SF6, and we have newly developed solid insulated switchgear (SIS) achieved by molding all main circuit. A new epoxy casting material is applied, which contains a great deal of spherical silica and a small amount of rubber particles. This new material has the high mechanical strength, high thermal resistance, high toughness, and also high dielectric strength because of directly molding the vacuum bottle, down-sizing and reliability. This paper describes about the technology of a new epoxy casting material which achieves the SIS. In addition, the mechanical and electrical reliability test of SIS applied a new epoxy resin are carried out, and effectiveness of the development material and the mechanical and electrical reliability of SIS are verified.

  9. Optimised compact SF6 switchgear, mobile substations and modules for improved substation economics

    Mikes, E.G. [Areva T and D gas insulated substations, Oberetfelder (Switzerland); Montillet, G.F. [Areva T and D, Charleroi, PA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    One of the key elements of the electrical transmission and subdistribution networks in dense industrial areas and cities are gas insulated substations (GIS). More economical and ecological aspects in new designs are increasingly forcing the selection of smaller optimised switchgear. This paper discussed new spring mechanisms, gasket design, monitoring systems, and eco-design. Utilities are looking for new substations, upgrades, refurbishments and more efficient solutions for an extension to the current expanding infrastructure. For temporary installations, mines and some specific industries mobile substations are a great opportunity. The paper discussed several types of designs, including mobile GIS and one platform solutions for small and midsize substations; prefabricated and container solutions; hybrid switchgear modules with integrated control and monitoring functions; and optimization of GIS solutions for different station layouts having combined-functions such as circuit breaker/disconnector units. It was concluded that the search for the ongoing enhancement of the solutions in terms of cost-effectiveness and increased availability by utilities demonstrate that the system's rated voltage level and single-line-diagram configuration and in some cases the geographical position are the critical elements that determine the choice between several alternatives. 13 refs, 16 figs.

  10. Abatement cost of SF6 emissions from medium voltage switchgear. Validation of recent studies for the European Commission

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-05-15

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is a gas with applications including use as an insulator and switching medium in medium voltage (MV) switchgear. While having certain unique properties, it is also a greenhouse gas, with a 22,800 times greater impact than CO2 and an atmospheric lifetime of over 3,000 years. Although the use of SF6 in MV switchgear can be avoided, according to recent studies for the European Commission, the abatement costs are high. This study validates the calculated cost levels as well as the general feasibility of determining a fixed cost figure for this purpose. This analysis yields a result which differs from the earlier studies, particularly with respect to the cost aspect, but also in other areas. CE Delft concludes that for the majority of applications cost-effective SF6-free options are available, leading to abatement costs for the use of SF6 in MV switchgear that range from - 40 to 0 euro/tCO2 eq., for all types of switchgear, with voltage levels below 25 kV and situated on relatively dry locations.

  11. 6.9-kV, 63-kA metal-clad switchgear with vacuum circuit breakers for nuclear power plants

    Based on data of a series of in-house tests made so far and on performance in the field, Toshiba Corporation has developed a metal-clad switchgear with vacuum circuit breakers for nuclear power plants. Metal-clad switchgear for nuclear power plants are required to have high reliability and large capacities. This paper describes results of a series of reliability tests made on the vacuum circuit breaker and resistance to earthquakes of the metal-clad switchgear required for use in a nuclear power plant. 4 refs

  12. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear. Final report

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Inc., Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  13. Design of a New Built-in UHF Multi-Frequency Antenna Sensor for Partial Discharge Detection in High-Voltage Switchgears

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a new built-in ultrahigh frequency (UHF antenna sensor was designed and applied in a high-voltage switchgear for partial discharge (PD detection. The casing of the switchgear was initially used as the ground plane of the antenna sensor, which integrated the sensor into the high-voltage switchgear. The Koch snowflake patch was adopted as the radiation patch of the antenna to overcome the disadvantages of common microstrip antennas, and the feed position and the dielectric layer thickness were simulated in detail. Simulation results show that the antenna sensor possessed four resonant points with good impedance matching from 300 MHz to 1000 MHz, and it also presented good multi-frequency performance in the entire working frequency band. PD detection experiments were conducted in the high-voltage switchgear, and the fabricated antenna sensor was effectively built into the high-voltage switchgear. In order to reflect the advantages of the built-in antenna sensor, another external UHF antenna sensor was used as a comparison to simultaneously detect PD. Experimental results demonstrated that the built-in antenna sensor possessed high detection sensitivity and strong anti-interference capacity, which ensured the practicability of the design. In addition, it had more high-voltage switchgear PD detection advantages than the external sensor.

  14. Design of a New Built-in UHF Multi-Frequency Antenna Sensor for Partial Discharge Detection in High-Voltage Switchgears.

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cheng, Zheng; Gui, Yingang

    2016-01-01

    In this study a new built-in ultrahigh frequency (UHF) antenna sensor was designed and applied in a high-voltage switchgear for partial discharge (PD) detection. The casing of the switchgear was initially used as the ground plane of the antenna sensor, which integrated the sensor into the high-voltage switchgear. The Koch snowflake patch was adopted as the radiation patch of the antenna to overcome the disadvantages of common microstrip antennas, and the feed position and the dielectric layer thickness were simulated in detail. Simulation results show that the antenna sensor possessed four resonant points with good impedance matching from 300 MHz to 1000 MHz, and it also presented good multi-frequency performance in the entire working frequency band. PD detection experiments were conducted in the high-voltage switchgear, and the fabricated antenna sensor was effectively built into the high-voltage switchgear. In order to reflect the advantages of the built-in antenna sensor, another external UHF antenna sensor was used as a comparison to simultaneously detect PD. Experimental results demonstrated that the built-in antenna sensor possessed high detection sensitivity and strong anti-interference capacity, which ensured the practicability of the design. In addition, it had more high-voltage switchgear PD detection advantages than the external sensor. PMID:27472331

  15. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    I. I. Sergey; E. G. Ponomarenko; W. M. Sammur; P. I. Klimkovich

    2005-01-01

    The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wi...

  16. Repeated Strike Process During Disconnector Operation in Ultra-High Voltage Gas-Insulated Switchgear

    Guan, Yonggang; Cai, Yuanji; Chen, Weijiang; Liu, Weidong; Li, Zhibing; Yue, Gongchang; Zhang, Junmin

    2016-03-01

    Very fast transient over-voltage (VFTO), induced by disconnector operations in gas-insulated switchgears, has become the limiting dielectric stress at ultra-high voltage levels. Much work has been done to investigate single-strike waveforms of VFTO. However, little study has been carried out investigating the repeated strike process, which would influence VFTO significantly. In this paper, we carried out 450 effective experiments in an ultra-high voltage test circuit, and conducted calculations through the Monte Carlo simulation method, to investigate the repeated strike process. Firstly, the mechanism of the repeated strike process is proposed, based on the experimental results. Afterwards, statistical breakdown characteristics of disconnectors are obtained and analyzed. Finally, simulations of the repeated strike process are conducted, which indicate that the dielectric strength recovery speed and polarity effect factor have a joint effect on VFTO. This study enhances the understanding of the nature of VFTO, and may help to optimize the disconnector designed to minimize VFTO. supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51277106) and in part by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2011CB209405)

  17. Overview on Development of Compact Switchgear Assemblies at Home and Abroad%紧凑型成套开关设备国内外发展水平

    王海斌; 张文兵

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the conformation of compact switchgear assemblies and discussed the technical characteristics of compact switchgear assemblies. Through the analysis of technical characteristics and parameters of compact switchgear assemblies at home and abroad, this paper emphatically discussed the development level. Moreover, it summarized the main technical characteristics of compact switchgear assemblies of every company, on this basis explained the development trend of compact switchgear assemblies in the world.%笔者介绍了紧凑型成套开关设备的组成形态,论述了紧凑型成套开关设备的技术特点,通过对国内外紧凑型成套开关设备技术特点及参数的分析,重点论述了紧凑型成套开关设备的发展水平.总结了各个公司紧凑型成套开关设备的主要技术特点,在此基础上阐述了紧凑型成套开关设备的发展趋势.

  18. Switchgear, transformers, distribution systems for power supply to the safety system of nuclear power plants. KTA safety code, version 6/99

    This KTA safety code is applicable to switchgear, transformers and distribution systems for power supply to the safety systems of stationary nuclear power plants. The scope of application of the superior requirements according to section 3 of this safety code extends to and includes the power circuit brakers of the electric mains. The scope of application of the component-specific requirements regarding design and inspection of switchgear, transformers and distribution systems according to sections 4 and 5 of this safety code extends to and includes the primary voltage clamps of the transformers of the mains. (orig./CB)

  19. A cost effective battery bank for I(sup 2)T testing and evaluation of electrical switchgear

    Reass, W. A.

    The electrical design and mechanical construction of a 50 kA step switched battery bank. Individual fuses protect each of the forty parallel isolated strings of three series (12 V) batteries. Step current waveforms of 12.5 kA, 25 kA, 37.5 kA, and 50 kA are produced by 8 sets of pneumatically driven 20 pole step switches and current limiting stainless steel trombone resistors. Inexpensive, yet conservatively designed, Group 65 Motorcraft car batteries are used to give an I(sup 2)t capability of better than 5 x 10(exp 9). The battery bank has well over 1500 shots, with testing of commercial switchgear continuing. In addition to the battery bank engineering data, results of repetitive testing of vacuum interrupters at their I(sup 2)t limit will be provided.

  20. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    I. I. Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wires by flexible thread levels.Diagrams are constructed with the purpose to find ymax and criteria of electro-dynamic resistance of flexible buses (permissible impulse of electro-dynamic forces and current of electro-dynamic resistance is determined.

  1. Development of 1100 kV GIS switchgear; Entwicklung einer gasisolierten Schaltanlage fuer 1100 kV

    Holaus, W.; Keller, M.; Sologuren, D.; Riechert, U.; Kruesi, U. [ABB Schweiz AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The development of a 1100 kV gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) can be based on vast experience with 550 kV and 800 kV switchgear. A GIS for ultra-high voltage (UHV) shall be based on single-phase enclosure and use as many mature parts from other products as possible. The choice of the SF6 gas pressure for an UHV GIS is crucial for the design and the mechanical robustness suggests choosing a rather low gas pressure. The GIS components do scale differently with increasing rated voltage, ranging from less than proportional to rated voltage up to squared with rated voltage. Insulators are scaling approximately with BIL and are proposed as asymmetrical, cone-shaped insulators. A UHV GIS circuit breaker using 4 interrupting units for 300 kV connected in series with the closing resistor placed in a separate, parallel tank is proposed because of its minimum drive energy requirement and small tank dimensions. In addition, the flat layout allows good accessibility for maintenance. For an optimal layout, the UHV GIS disconnector is designed as 90 angle-disconnector using an existing single pole drive. A VFT resistor is neither required nor specified. The dimensioning of the switching gap is based on the pre-strike behaviour. Static GIS components are scaling with BIL and shall be designed in parallel and in 3D so to reach a minimum set of different parts. Testing is a very challenging part of an UHV GIS development; specifically for background PD noise level and disconnector switching duties. As no single laboratory is able to carry out all the required tests, additional effort for transport, auxiliary equipment, test duration and test material has to be taken into account. (orig.)

  2. Gas-insulated switchgears and environmental protection. Hydropower station rejuvenated by energy efficient engineering; Gasisolierte Schaltanlagen und Umweltschutz. Wasserkraftwerk mit energieeffizienter Technik verjuengt

    Langlotz, Kati; Heinemann, Lothar [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Hochspannungsprodukte

    2009-09-21

    Some decades of experience are the fundament of a fully developed technology. This will exemplary be shown for the ABB gas insulated switchgear portfolio for a voltage range between 52 and 170kV which was continuously and consequently enhanced according to the market needs. As a consequence, competence and creativity over more than four decades has been established a worldwide acceptance of this technology. Finally actual market trends are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  3. THE STUDY ON MEASURING TECHNIQUE OF PARTIAL DISCHARGE IN GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEAR USING ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY METHOD WITH EXTERNAL SENSORS

    2005-01-01

    Objective In order to find early latent faults and prevent catastrophic failures, diagnosis of insulation condition by measuring technique of partial discharge(PD) in gas insulated switchgear (GIS) is applied in this paper, which is one of the most basic ways for diagnosis of insulation condition. Methods Ultra high frequency(UHF) PD detection method by using internal sensors has been proved efficient, because it may avoid the disturbance of corona, but the sensor installation of this method will be limited by the structure and operation condition of GIS.There are some of electromagnetic (E-M) waves leak from the place of insulation spacer, therefore, the external sensors UHF measuring PD technique is applied, which isn't limited by the operation condition of GIS. Results This paper analyzes propagated electromagnetic (E-M) waves of partial discharge pulse excited by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The signal collected at the outer point is more complex than that of the inner point, and the signals' amplitude of outer is about half of the inner, because it propagates through spacer and insulation slot. Set up UHF PD measuring system. The typical PD in 252kV GIS bus bar was measured using PD detection UHF technique with external sensors. Finally, compare the results of UHF measuring technique using external sensors with the results of FDTD method simulation and the traditional IEC60270 method detection. Conclusion The results of experiment shows that the UHF technique can realize the diagnosis of insulation condition, the results of FDTD method simulation and the result UHF method detection can demonstrate each other, which gives references to further researches and application for UHF PD measuring technique.

  4. ACAC Converters for UPS

    Rusalin Lucian R. Păun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose a new control technique forsingle – phase ACAC converters used for a on-line UPSwith a good dynamic response, a reduced-partscomponents, a good output characteristic, a good powerfactorcorrection(PFC. This converter no needs anisolation transformer. A power factor correction rectifierand an inverter with the proposed control scheme has beendesigned and simulated using Caspoc2007, validating theconcept.

  5. Fault Diagnosis of High Voltage Switchgears by Decomposition Products of SF6%应用SF6气体分解产物的高压开关设备故障诊断

    颜湘莲; 王承玉; 杨韧; 季严松; 苏镇西; 姚强

    2011-01-01

    全封闭式组合电器(gas insulated switchgear,GIS)、SF6断路器等高压开关设备广泛应用于110kV及以上电压等级的电网中,设备故障诊断及状态判断是亟待解决的关键问题。分析SF6开关设备发生放电、过热等故障产生的气体分解产物,提出不同故障类型的分解产物特征气体,比较设备故障诊断现有判据,提出开关设备故障现场预判的参考指标及综合诊断依据。给出基于SF6气体分解产物的开关设备故障诊断应用案例,分析悬浮电位放电、零件连接异常和导体异常发热故障等设备潜伏性缺陷诊断和GIS设备故障间隔定位,结果表明SF6气体分解产物的开关设备故障诊断技术具有可行性和广阔的应用前景。%High voltage switchgears such as gas insulted switchgear (GIS) and circuit breaker (CB) are widely applied to power networks in voltage grades of 110 kV and above, thus the fault diagnosis of HV switchgears and the state judgment of their states are key problems to be solved urgently. By means of analyzing gas decomposition products produced by such faults as overheat and discharging occurred in SF6-filled HV switchgears, it is proposed to distinguish different fault types by characteristic gases in decomposition product; comparing with existing criteria for equipment fault diagnosis, the reference indices for on-site prejudgment of HV switchgear faults and the foundation for synthetical diagnosis are proposed. Application cases of HV switchgear fault diagnosis based on decomposition products of SF6 gas are given, the diagnosis of latent defect in HV switchgear such as discharge caused by floating potential, abnormal joint of parts and abnormal heating of conductors as well as the fault location in GIS are analyzed. Research results show that the diagnosis of HV switchgear faults based on decomposition products of SF6 gas is feasible and possesses expectable application prospect.

  6. A fully enclosed, compact standard lightning impulse generator for testing ultra-high-voltage-class gas-insulated switchgears with high capacitance

    Wen, Tao; Zhang, Qiaogen; Zhang, Lingli; Zhao, Junping; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Xiaoang; Guo, Can; You, Haoyang; Chen, Weijiang; Yin, Yu; Shi, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    At present, conducting standard lightning impulse (LI) tests in the field for gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) equipment is difficult because of the high capacitance of the test equipment and large circuit inductance of traditional impulse devices, which leads to a wavefront time Tf ≥ 2.5 μs. A novel fully enclosed, compact standard LI generator for testing ultra-high-voltage-class GIS equipment with high capacitance is presented to solve the problem of Tf exceeding the standard during LI voltage tests for actual large-sized equipment. The impulse generator is installed in a metal vessel filled with SF6 or SF6/N2 gas mixture at a pressure of 0.3-0.5 MPa, providing a more compact structure and a lower series inductance. A newly developed conical voltage sensor is used to accurately measure the output voltage waveform. Two test modes (via bushing docking and direct docking) for the GIS test based on the impulse generator are introduced. Calculation results show that the impulse generator can generate an LI test waveform following the present IEC standard for the test of equipment with capacitance >10 000 pF.

  7. AC power supply systems

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  8. AcEST: DK950971 [AcEST

    Full Text Available optera acutorost... 37 0.66 tr|B1ACS6|B1ACS6_BALBN DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Balaenoptera ...bonaerens... 37 0.66 tr|B1ACS5|B1ACS5_BALED DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Balaenoptera edeni... GN=... 37 0.66 tr|B1ACS4|B1ACS4_BALBO DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Balaenoptera borealis ... 37 0.66 tr|B1ACS3|B1ACS3..._BALMU DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Balaenoptera musculus ... 37 0.86 tr|B1ACS1|B1ACS1_MEGNO DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Megapt...1ACS2_BALPH DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Balaenoptera physalus ... 37 1.1 tr|B1ACT6|B1ACT6_MESPE DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Me

  9. AC1 Wing

    Adrian DOBRE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The AC1 wing replaces the old wing of the wind tunnel model AEROTAXI, which has been made at scale 1:9. The new wing is part of CESAR program and improves the aerodynamic characteristics of the old one. The geometry of the whole wing was given by FOI Sweden and position of AC1 wing must coincide with the structure of the AEROTAXI model.

  10. AC1 Wing

    Adrian DOBRE

    2010-01-01

    The AC1 wing replaces the old wing of the wind tunnel model AEROTAXI, which has been made at scale 1:9. The new wing is part of CESAR program and improves the aerodynamic characteristics of the old one. The geometry of the whole wing was given by FOI Sweden and position of AC1 wing must coincide with the structure of the AEROTAXI model.

  11. 高压开关设备中铝合金铸造工艺发展综述%General Description of the Technological Development of Aluminum Alloy Casting in High-voltage Switchgear

    张猛; 陈丽芬

    2011-01-01

    笔者通过高压开关设备产品中铸造工艺几十年的发展过程,叙述了中国高压开关行业的铸造专业发展史,体现了中国的改革开放给企业及技术人员带来的挑战及机遇,并使铸造专业技术人员有了对高压开关设备产品中铸造铝合金零件的铸造工艺设计开始了从无到有、逐步发展、壮大的一种探索过程.总结了铸造铝硅合金不同类型零件的铸造工艺设计要点、发展应用过程,同时指出了其以后的发展方向.%Through the several decades of development of casting technology in high-voltage switchgear, this paper narrated the developing history of casting industry of Chinese high-voltage switchgear field, indicated the challenge and opportunities China's reform had brought to Chinese enterprises and technicians. Furthermore, it made the casting professional technicians starting the exploration for the casting technology of casting aluminum alloy components in high-voltage switchgear industry from preliminary stage to mature stage. Moreover, it summarized the key points of the casting technological design and developing application process of different types of components of casting aluminum silicon alloy, and also pointed out the future development trends.

  12. Application of Electric Heating in SF6 Switchgear%电加热方式在SF_6开关设备中的应用

    李松琴

    2012-01-01

    Due to liquefaction of SF6 gas under super low temperature, the SF6 gas density within the SF6 switch equipment comes down, reduced the breaking capacity of SF6 switehgear and insulation level, unable to ensure the reliable operation of SF6 switch device. For this purpose, the writers made use of SF6 in electric heating device on the SF6 switchgear gas heating temperature can be always higher than the SF6 gas liquefaction of SF6 gas temperature of the solution. At the same time, this article on ultra-low temperature environment of the other solutions also analyzed.%由于SF6气体在超低温下产生部分液化,使得SF6开关设备内的SF6气体密度下降,降低了SF6开关设备的开断能力和绝缘水平,无法保证SF6开关设备的可靠运行。为此,本文作者提出了采用电加热装置对SF6开关设备中的SF6气体进行加热,使SF6气体的温度可以始终高于SF6气体液化温度的解决方案。同时,本文对超低温环境下的其他解决方案也进行了分析比较。

  13. Untersuchungen zur Beeinflussung des durch Störlichtbögen verursachten Überdrucks in elektrischen Anlagen

    Schmale, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Fault arcs in electrical installations occur extremely seldom. However, they can not be avoided totally. Insulation failure, flashover, malfunction or maloperation by service personnel can lead to powerful fault arcs. As a result switchgear installations and even substation buildings may be endangered by thermal and mechanical stress. Metal enclosed switchgears can withstand some hundred mbar overpressure, substation buildings e. g. constructed of bricks may be damaged by overpressures exceed...

  14. ac bidirectional motor controller

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  15. KYN44-12型中置柜联锁装置的改进设计%Improved Design of Interlocking Device of KYN44-12 Type Switchgear

    张红光; 王玲

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced design principle of interlocking device of 12 kV switchgear, analyzed existing problems and shortcomings of the interlocking device of switchgear in actual operation, and put forward improved and perfect design method of the interlocking device. The practical application showed that the improved device has more perfect functions, more security, which meets with requirements of the five prevention interlocking.%介绍了12 kV中置柜联锁装置的设计原则,分析了现有中置柜联锁装置在实际运行中存在的问题和不足,提出了改进和完善中置柜联锁装置的设计方法.实际应用表明,改进后的中置柜联锁装置的功能更加完善,安全性更加可靠,完全达到了五防闭锁要求.

  16. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Ciovati, G.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  17. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  18. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity

  19. Hermetisk AC-Krets

    Hirsch, Carl; Smirnoff, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Under sex månader våren 2007 har ett samarbete mellan Volvo Lastvagnar och två studenter från KTH, inriktning Integrerad produktutveckling vid institutionen för maskinkonstruktion, pågått i form av ett examensarbete på 20 poäng. Dagens AC-system i Volvos lastbilar avger 20-40 g/år av köldmediet R134a som är en kraftfull växthusgas. Detta sker främst genom diffusion via slangar och tätningsmaterial. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att ta fram förslag på tekniska lösningar på ett nytt AC-syst...

  20. Applied use of combustion turbine generators as a station blackout alternate AC power source

    In response to the 10 CFR 50.63 Station Blackout Rule and NRC Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.155, Arizona Public Service Company (APS) opted to install dual 13.8kV, 3400kW black start combustion turbine generators (CTG's) as an alternate AC (AAC) power source at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS). These CTG's provide AC power to critical plant loads in the event of a Station Blackout (SBO) in any one of the three PVNGS units. The AAC power source entered service in the fall of 1993 for the first PVNGS unit. Connection of the AAC source for the other two nuclear units will be complete by mid-1995. Two redundant CTGs were used to provide assurance that the AAC system availability requirements of RG 1.155 of 95% were met. A CTG site was chosen near an existing source of diesel fuel oil that was reasonably distant from the plant switchyard. The CTG's were installed along with a prefabricated turbine control room (TCR) which houses the CTG control equipment and associated power distribution equipment and battery systems. Cables were routed from the CTG site to each of the PVNGS units utilizing both new and existing underground duct banks. The cables were sized for the combined output of both CTG's at maximum power output for site worst case conditions. At each of the PVNGS units, additional switchgear cubicles were added to provide an interface with the existing plant power distribution system at a point upstream of the safety related power system. A test program was developed by engineering that tested all aspects of the installation and proved its capability to fulfill its purpose. Testing ranged from verifying emergency lighting adequacy to emissions testing and a complete simulation of a SBO. CTG performance was evaluated and verified to meet all expectations

  1. Vacuum switchgear for fusion experiments

    A frequently encountered switch application is the interruption of a high level, pulsed, dc current followed by a fast rising recovery voltage. A 7 in. vacuum interrupter with an axial magnetic field has proven to be an effective switch for currents up to 25 kA. Beyond 25 kA, a parallel configuration becomes necessary. The influence of the axial magnetic field on the behavior of parallel vacuum interrupters and test results up to 50 kA are discussed. Also, test results on experimental devices with novel electrode geometries such as the rod-array vacuum interrupter and the Amsler contact interrupter are presented. Interrupters which can carry large dc currents on a continuous basis are frequently required in fusion applications. This requirement occurs in superconducting coil protection circuits and generally involves recovery voltages of 5 kV or less. A specially designed vacuum interrupter with water cooled electrodes has been used to extend the continuous current rating of a commercial interrupter from 1200 A to 13 kA. Two second generation devices with special electrode materials are currently being developed for use with a special actuator and are intended to extend the continuous rating to 25 kA

  2. Superconducting ac cable

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings >= 2000 MVA have been developed. The cable design especially considered was of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope and flexible hollow coaxial cable cores pulled into the former. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-Al composite wires and a HDPE-tape wrapped electrical insulation. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminations for 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of our cable design. (orig.)

  3. High performance AC drives

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  4. Ac Hybrid Charge Controller

    Shalini S. Durgam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary needs for socio-economic development in any nation in the world is the provision of reliable electricity supply systems with lower carbon footprint levels. The purpose of this work is the development of a hybrid Power system that harnesses the renewable energy in sun and electricity to generate electricity. The working model can able to run on dual mode- solar and electricity. It can also be driven independently either by solar or electricity. The battery can be charge from solar panel (40W or by power supply. The household single phase A.C. power supply of 230V is converted into 12V D.C. using step down transformer and rectifying circuit. The working model can achieve energy saving, low carbon emission, environmental protection for the upcoming future of human life.

  5. AcEST: BP920072 [AcEST

    Full Text Available YMU001_000132_F11 525 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000132_F11. BP920072 - Show ... YGMYGEGEKALETFADMEKSGIVPDSVVFIAII 617 Query: 139 NACSR SCLFHECHSYFEAMSTHHGIVPCLEHHSCVV 32 ACS S L E + FE M ... KLMTRDVVSWNTLIAGYAQVGQNEGLFCTFSDMLGQRVKPDLITFVIVLNACSR ... 125 VF+ + +D VSWN++I+GY Q G F M+ + D IT++++++ +R S ... YGVHGYGKKAIQIFEEMLANGASP 384 Query: 166 DLITFVIVLNACSR SCLFHECHSYFEAMSTHHGIVPCLEHHSCVV 32 +TFV VL ACS L E ... KLMTRDVVSWNTLIAGYAQVGQNEGLFCTFSDMLGQRVKPDLITFVIVLNACSR S 122 +VFDK R + WN L G E + + M V+ D T+ VL AC S Sbjc ...

  6. Switching Tests of Energized GIS Disconnectors in UHV AC Pilot Demonstration Project%特高压交流试验示范工程GIS隔离开关带电操作试验

    李志兵; 陈维江; 王浩; 孙岗; 张翠霞; 刘洪涛; 马国明; 岳功昌; 胡榕; 时卫东; 孙泽来; 张建功

    2012-01-01

    In order to verify the safety of switching of gas insulated switchgear (GIS) disconnectors energized in ultra high voltage(UHV) AC Pilot Demonstration Project, we experimentally investigated switching of all GIS disconnectors energized in Changzhi, Nanyang, and Jingmen substations, and monitored very fast transient overvoltage (VFTO) and transient enclosure voltage (TEV) generated . The tests results show that switching of UHV GIS disconnectors energized is safe, the effect of TEV on secondary equipment should be paid attention to, and damping resistor in disconnector can mitigate VFTO and TEV significantly, The tests provide technical support for the future switching of GIS disconnector energized in UHV substations.%为验证我国特高压交流试验示范工程金属封闭开关设备(gas insulated switchgear,GIS)中隔离开关带电操作的安全性,在长治、南阳和荆门变电站对所有特高压GIS隔离开关进行了带电操作试验。在前期特高压GIS和复合型气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备(hypid gas insulated switchgear,HGIS)中特快速瞬态过电压(very fast transi-ent overvoltage,VFTO)实测研究基础上,开展现场典型运行方式下隔离开关带电操作,监测产生的VFTO和暂态壳体电位(transient enclosure voltage,TEV)。试验初步得出了特高压变电站实际VFTO和TEV水平及分布,结果表明:特高压GIS隔离开关的带电操作是安全的,但应注意产生的TEV对二次设备的影响,阻尼电阻能够有效抑制VFTO和TEV。带电操作试验的开展为今后特高压GIS隔离开关的带电操作提供了依据。

  7. AcEST: DK950147 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0007_O05 706 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0007_O05. 5' end seq ... _MEDTR Peptidase, trypsin-like serine and cysteine proteases ... OS=Medicago truncatula GN=MtrDRAFT_AC149576g3v2 PE ... _MEDTR Peptidase, trypsin-like serine and cysteine proteases ... (Fragment) OS=Medicago truncatula GN=MtrDRAFT_AC14 ...

  8. AcEST: DK959344 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0004_G23 714 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0004_G23. 5' end seq ... _MEDTR Peptidase, trypsin-like serine and cysteine proteases ... OS=Medicago truncatula GN=MtrDRAFT_AC149576g3v2 PE ... _MEDTR Peptidase, trypsin-like serine and cysteine proteases ... (Fragment) OS=Medicago truncatula GN=MtrDRAFT_AC14 ...

  9. AcEST: DK949716 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0006_L20 613 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0006_L20. 5' end seq ... _MEDTR Peptidase, trypsin-like serine and cysteine proteases ... OS=Medicago truncatula GN=MtrDRAFT_AC149576g3v2 PE ... _MEDTR Peptidase, trypsin-like serine and cysteine proteases ... (Fragment) OS=Medicago truncatula GN=MtrDRAFT_AC14 ...

  10. AcEST: BP920905 [AcEST

    Full Text Available EM + + D ++S L AC Sbjct: 374 NSAYKLFERMPKKNVVAWNAIISGYSQHGHPHEALALFIEMQAQGIKPDSFAIVSVLPAC 433 Query: 71 SHSSTLNDGKLIHFYILMNNFE...EM++ ++ + V + S L +C Sbjct: 255 SSERIFEKIAKKNAVSWTAMISSYNRGEFSEKALRSFSEMIKSGIEPNLVTLYSVLSSCG 314 Query: 68 HSSTLNDGKLIHFYILMNNFE...VVVMSCLKACS 69 ++ +F RRD VTW A+I GYA HG E A+ LF+ M+ EN+ + V +S L+AC+ Sbjct: 656 DSRLMFEKSLRRDFVTWNAMICGYAHHGKGEEAIQLFERMILEN...ELEKMHNKRLQEMCVSWNSIISGYVMKEQSEDAQMLFTRMME 596 Query: 122 ENVDTDGVVVMSCLKACSHSSTLNDGKLIHFYILMNNFE ...FCEADT-NVITWNAMIASYVHCEQSEKAIALFDRMVSENFKPSSITLVTLLMAC 543 Query: 71 SHSSTLNDGKLIHFYILMNNFEL 3 ++ +L G++

  11. Induction Motor Control through AC/DC/AC Converters

    Elfadili, Abderrahim; Giri, Fouad; Ouadi, Hamid; El Magri, Abdelmounime; Dugard, Luc; Abouloifa, Abdelmajid

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling inductions motors driven through AC/DC rectifiers and DC/AC inverters. The control objectives are threefold: (i) forcing the motor speed to track a reference signal, (ii) regulating the DC Link voltage, (iii) assuring a satisfactory power factor correction (PFC) with respect to the power supply net. First, a nonlinear model of the whole controlled system is developed in the Park-coordinates. Then, a nonlinear multi-loop controller is synthesized using th...

  12. AC drives for industrial plants. Plant kudoyo AC drive sochi

    Miyazaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Yamada, S. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    Features and product series of AC drives for industrial plants were outlined. Configurations and features of various types of AC drives were briefly discussed which are put into market to meet various requirements for industrial plants and wide ranges of output voltage and capacity. The following product series were outlined; the power bipolar transistor inverter for 3.5-600 kVA in output capacity, IGBT inverter for AC 400 V in output voltage and 1,000 kVA or less, GTO inverter for AC 600 V and 700-2,000 kVA, and cycloconverter for AC 1,000-3,000 V and 1,000 kW-20 MW. The following subjects were outlined as current technical trends of AC drives for industrial plants; increasing in capacity of voltage-source PWM inverters, downsizing of converters through highly efficient cooling and highly dense mounting, spreading of sensorless vector controls, and development of high-voltage large-capacity PWM inverters. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. AcEST: BP915640 [AcEST

    Full Text Available YMU001_000074_A01 462 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000074_A01. BP915640 CL3685C ... y: 462 GPLILRACLVYMQGAPVGSLAEDGIVSAATGKDMEQSTVGFRLMLAKI IHRLIAAFKEVG 283 G IL+AC YM+G +GSL +D V ++VGF+LMLAK ... : 1032 GYYILKACDAYMKGYLIGSLTKDASVIDERSS-ANSTSVGFKLMLAKI APKLFSALSEVG 1090 Query: 282 AYCDAYE 262 A C+ ++ Sb ... uery: 453 ILRACLVYMQGAPVGSLAEDGIVSAATGKDMEQSTVGFRLMLAKI IHRLIAAFKEVGAYC 274 +L AC YM+G PVGS A G ST GF++ML+K ... ame = -1 Query: 423 GAPVGSLAEDGIVSAATGKDMEQSTVGFRLMLAKI I----HRLIAAFKEVGAYCD 271 G P+ L D +S GK + S RL + L+ ...

  14. AcEST: DK955197 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0022_H07 532 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0022_H07. 5' end seq ... KDEVTALPLLK 192 Query: 194 RFAFGIACELLMSRYEKEEQEMLEEPF TTMMKGILQLPIKLPGTRFSKAIVAANMLRARF 373 R+ F +AC+L S ... KDEVMALPLLK 192 Query: 194 RFAFGIACELLMSRYEKEEQEMLEEPF TTMMKGILQLPIKLPGTRFSKAIVAANMLRARF 373 R+ F +AC+L S ... KDEVKVLP 189 Query: 185 LMKRFAFGIACELLMSRYEKEEQEMLEEPF TTMMKGILQLPIKLPGTRFSKAIVAANMLR 364 L++ F IA L + +Q+ ... KDEATVLP 177 Query: 185 LMKRFAFGIACELLMSRYEKEEQEMLEEPF TTMMKGILQLPIKLPGTRFSKAIVAANMLR 364 L+K F +A L E+ QE ...

  15. Speed Control of DC Motor using AC/AC/DC Converter Based on Intelligent Techniques

    Rakan Kh Antar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available    This paper describes the application of ac/ac/dc and ac/dc converters to control the speed of a separately excited DC motor. Artificial neural network and PI controller are trained to select the desired values of firing angles for triggering thyristors of the ac/ac/dc and ac/dc bridge converters in order to control the speed of the dc motor at a desired value with constant and different load torques in order to obtain the best speed response. Simulation results show that the rising time for ac/dc and ac/ac/dc converters at 250rpm are reduced about 79% and 89% respectively, while delay time it reduced about 69% and 64% respectively. Therefore, speed response of the dc motor is more efficient for closed loop system compared with open loop also the response of ac/ac/dc converter is better than ac/dc converter.

  16. Nuclear structure of $^{231}$Ac

    Boutami, R; Mach, H; Kurcewicz, W; Fraile, L M; Gulda, K; Aas, A J; García-Raffi, L M; Løvhøiden, G; Martínez, T; Rubio, B; Taín, J L; Tengblad, O

    2008-01-01

    The low-energy structure of 231Ac has been investigated by means of gamma ray spectroscopy following the beta-decay of 231Ra. Multipolarities of 28 transitions have been established by measuring conversion electrons with a mini-orange electron spectrometer. The decay scheme of 231Ra --> 231Ac has been constructed for the first time. The Advanced Time Delayed beta-gamma-gamma(t) method has been used to measure the half-lives of five levels. The moderately fast B(E1) transition rates derived suggest that the octupole effects, albeit weak, are still present in this exotic nucleus.

  17. AcEST: BP920800 [AcEST

    Full Text Available DLNLALQVHSRMVRFGFNAEVEACGALINMYGKCGKVLYAQRVFDDT 298 Query: 206 RQQDVISWNDIISACAQRGHGTEALENFSQMLHEGIVPNSMTFTSVMQA---CNSIEGG...G L +A S F ++ +D+ISW +I +Q EA+ F Sbjct: 217 SEKNEATSNCLINGYMGLGNLEQAESLFNQMPVKDIISWTTMIKGYSQNKRYREAIAVFY 276 Query: 119 QMLHEG...EKAWRIFDGVSCKNLPSWNAIITGCVQGGLLEEAIDLYRHMK 281 Query: 110 HEGIVPNSMTFTSVMQAC---NSIEGGR 36 + + PN +T +V+ AC +...N IIS AQ G +EA+E ++ M Sbjct: 383 DITIGNAVVVMYAKLGLVDSARAVFNWLPNTDVISWNTIISGYAQNGFASEAIEMYNIME 442 Query: 110 HEG...EIDLGEQIHSLSVKTGFESDMYVSGVLIDMYSKYGWLEKARRVLEML 406 Query: 206 RQQDVISWNDIISACAQRGHGTEALENFSQMLHEGIVPNSMTFTSVMQACNSIEGG

  18. AcEST: DK945549 [AcEST

    Full Text Available AGGCGATTTCATCTTTTCTGAGAACCCTGATTTTGTGATTGTGTAATTACA ACTGTGGAACAGAAGGATGAGAAGTCTACTGACACAACAAGATATCTCTGGAGAGGAGA...A AATTGAGAAGGTTTGAGTTCTCAACAATGGGCTATGAGGCAATAATGGGAAGGCACCGAT TGTGGGCTTGTATAGGTTTTGAC...LCTG 239 L++R+LRR + + ++ G AC+ DP +P PLC+G Sbjct: 108 LQQRELRRKLLADSGALNTNSVNGPRNWKACVQQDPSSRPGTPLCSG 154 >sp|A6UUY8|RNZ_META3...49 Tissue type young leaves Developmental stage sporophyte Contig ID CL454Contig1 Sequence GATGAGCGA...CCACCTGTGCAACCGTCAGCGCCTTTGTGCACTGGTG CAATGTCCTGTGGTTACCTTGTTTGGAATCTTAATTGTTCTCATGTAT

  19. AcEST: BP917632 [AcEST

    Full Text Available YMU001_000103_D10 554 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000103_D10. BP917632 - Show ... YSKCKIHQKALELLVLML 154 Query: 466 KDSLEPDEVTYLNVLKACARE EDLKV 543 +D++ P+ TY +VL++C D+++ Sbjct: 155 RDNVRPN ... 185 Query: 415 GHSDSS--KEALKLLTQMRKDSLEPDEVTYLNVLKACARE EDLK 540 + EA KL +M+ ++ PDE+ N++ AC R +++ Sbjct: 18 ...

  20. AcEST: DK961189 [AcEST

    Full Text Available OS=A... 127 7e-29 sp|Q94B08|GCP1_ARATH Germination-specific cysteine protease 1 OS... 125 2e-28 sp|P00785|AC...IRNSWGLNWGDSGYVKLQRNIDDPFGKCGIAMMPSYP 347 >sp|Q94B08|GCP1_ARATH Germination-specific cysteine protease 1 OS=

  1. AcEST: DK946687 [AcEST

    Full Text Available YMU02A01NGRL0013_G11 544 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0013_G11. 5' end seq ... + G P+ TY+ + AC+ E Sbjct: 97 YSFNYMIRGLTNTWN-------DHEA ---ALSLYRRMKFSGLKPDKFTYNFVFIACAKLE 146 Query: 214 A ... Sbjct: 71 LIPKAVELGDFNYSSFLFSVTEEPNHYSFNYMIRGLTNTWNDHEA ALSLYRRMKFSGLKP 130 Query: 469 DGATFSCVLRACGNVGALDV ...

  2. AcEST: DK949372 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0005_N02 627 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0005_N02. 5' end seq ... 363 DQLREKTC-GVDKFDDIVMACXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXKARVHAYGVCD DPEYFYDYVQ 539 Q++EK G+ FDDIV+AC KA+VHA+ VCD DP+YFYD ... 264 QQVQEKKVPGITFFDDIVVACGSGGSIAGLSLGSYLSNLKAKVHAFAVCD DPDYFYDYTQ 323 Query: 540 GLLDGMNANIASRDIVNVIDAKGLG ...

  3. Apuntes de Acústica

    Martín Domingo, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Esta publicacion contiene unos apuntes para la parte de Acústica de las asignaturas de la ETSAM, junto con cierta cantidad de material adicional que excede el ámbito del curso. Aunque está lejos de ser completa y de estar libre de errores, el autor espera sea útil.

  4. SSTI Clark ACS Technology Demonstrations

    Freesland, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    SSTI Clark, one of two spacecraft built under NASA's Small Satellite Technology Initiative, includes seven ACS technology demonstrations. The technologies redefine the performance cost envelope, providing improved sensor and actuator performance at reduced costs. Six sensing technologies are being flown consisting of both hardware and algorithmic demonstrations: autonomous star tracker, hemispherical resonating gyro, GPS attitude determination, miniature horizon sensors, low cost course sun s...

  5. Energy saving in ac generators

    Nola, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit cuts no-load losses, without sacrificing full-load power. Phase-contro circuit includes gate-controlled semiconductor switch that cuts off applied voltage for most of ac cycle if generator idling. Switch "on" time increases when generator is in operation.

  6. AcEST: DK950895 [AcEST

    Full Text Available |A7SFA3|A7SFA3_NEMVE Predicted protein OS=Nematostella vectens... 210 5e-53 tr|Q0CVA9|Q0CVA9_ASPTN ATP-citrate synthase subunit...stX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q54YA0 Definition sp|Q54YA0|ACLY_DICDI Probable ATP-citrate synthase OS=Dictyos...PIDYSWAQELGLIRKPAAFISTI 404 >sp|Q8X097|ACL1_NEUCR Probable ATP-citrate synthase subunit 1 OS=Neurospora cras...IRKPASFMTSI 844 >sp|Q9P7W3|ACL1_SCHPO Probable ATP-citrate synthase subunit 1 OS=Schizosaccharomyces pombe G....done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q54YA0|ACLY_DICDI Probable ATP-citrate synthase OS=Dictyos

  7. AcEST: BP914304 [AcEST

    Full Text Available IDEHTFVFTLRAC 4 V+ NA++ Y G+ E A++ + +M+ E++ + TF+ LRAC Sbjct: 670 VTWNAMICGYAHHGKGEEAIQLFERMILENIKPNHVTFISI...KSLRRDFVTWNAMICGYAHHGKGEEAIQLFERMILENIKPN 703 Query: 339 NLTYVSLFKACGNVLDFGQG-RTIHGEARANGFSSDRFICTTLI...TFVFTLRAC 4 +F + + V+ N ++ +YV A +++M + D TL+AC Sbjct: 484 QIFERMCDRDNVTWNTIIGSYVQDENESEAFDLFKRMNLCGIVSDGACL...K + A+Q+ + R + +W++MI++ +A + ++ M Sbjct: 93 LGNSLINFYSKFEDVASAEQVFRRMTLRDVVTWSSMIAAYAGNNHPAKAFDTFERMTDAN 152... + R + +W++MI++ +A + ++ M Sbjct: 93 LGNSLINFYSKFEDVASAEQVFRRMTLRDVVTWSSMIAAYAGNNHPAKAFDTFERM

  8. AcEST: BP911793 [AcEST

    Full Text Available + +VSWN +++ Y QHG + ++L+ M+AE T N + + A Sbjct: 58 EAKFVFERIQNKDVVSWNCIINGYSQHGPSGSSHVMELFQRMRAENTAPNAHTFAGVF... N + + A Sbjct: 58 EAKFVFERIQNKDVVSWNCIINGYSQHGPSGSSHVMELFQRMRAENTAPNAHTFAGVFTA 117 Query: 359 CIQTGNLELCKQM...D VT S+LSACSH G + +G YF Sbjct: 602 IIGGSAQHGRGQDALQLFERMKMEGVKPDIVTFVSLLSACSHAGLLEEGRRYF 654 Score = 115 bit...53 QTGNLELCKQMHFNIVSAGNELNPSLASSLIRTYGNCGSMLDAHAVFDSLPLPDIVSWNV 174 Q +E+ K++ F+++ N S +++I Y CG + +A +FD +P D VSW Sbjct: 324 QGERME... L+ M +E + I+LV +L AC+ TG+LE + +H Sbjct: 498 VITWNAMIASYVHCEQSEKAIALFDRMVSENFKPSSITLVTLLMACVNTGSLER

  9. AcEST: BP921649 [AcEST

    Full Text Available 40 + ++LV YAK L + ++ +P R W+ +I+ + + ++E AL+ + M+ G Sbjct: 144 VASSLVGMYAKFNLFENSLQVFDEMPERDVASWNTVISCFYQSGEAEKALELFGRME...LDCYKEM 52 ++L +GNALVD YAKCG L A ++ +R+ R V W+ +I Y + E A D +K M Sbjct: 461 KNLFVGNALVDMYAKCGALEDARQIFERMCDRDNVTWNTIIGSYVQDEN...RD+ WNA+I Sbjct: 237 LEQGKQIHCYAIRSG-IESDVLVVNGLVNMYAKCGNVNTAHKLFERMPIRDVASWNAIIG 295 Query: 411 GYVNHGRAEVALDCFGKME...SNDVV-GNALVNMYAKCGNVNSAYKLFERMPKKNVVAWNAIIS 396 Query: 411 GYVNHGRAEVALDCFGKME... HGR + AL F +M+ EG PD +TF +L AC G + + + + Sbjct: 603 IGGSAQHGRGQDALQLFERMKMEGVKPDIVTFVSLLSACSHAGLLEEGRRYFCSM

  10. AcEST: BP919669 [AcEST

    Full Text Available D + RDV SW ++S + + G+ ++F M G +P+ Sbjct: 148 LVGMYAKFNLFENSLQVFDEMPERDVASWNTVISCFYQSGEAEKALELFGRMESSGFEPN 20...+ +++AC L + +G+E+H + K+G EL V Sbjct: 190 EKALELFGRMESSGFEPNSVSLTVAISACSRLLWLERGKE...F Sbjct: 468 IY---VVNSLIDSYGKCSHVEDAERIFEECTIGDLVSFTSMITAYAQYGQGEEALKLFLE 524 Query: 226 MVGEGTKPDSISLLVVLRA-YNF...+ IR DV W +LMSGY+K D ++F ++ Sbjct: 44 SLINVYFTCKDHCSARHVFENFDIRSDVYIWNSLMSGYSKNSMFHDTLEVFKRLLNCSIC 103 Query: 208 KPDSISLLVVLRAYNF...KPD Sbjct: 261 VDMYAKCGCIETAVEVFEKLTRRNVFSWAALIGGYAAYGYAKKATTCLDRIEREDGIKPD 320 Query: 199 SISLLVVLRAYNFLGFP

  11. AcEST: DK957916 [AcEST

    Full Text Available PQKQPVPAVSHSPQKSSTPPTPAATKPKEEPSVPKEVPKLQQGKLEKT 967 Query: 577 --TTEASQGIPVEEG...G E+ P+ P Sbjct: 1974 QEQGRAPSQDQEAPSPEALPSPGQEPAAGASPRRGELRRGSSAESALPRAGP 2025 >sp|Q05175|BASP_RAT Brain ac... +P AP P Sbjct: 388 ERETAASAGPQG----AFPEPRPAQPSAGPEPRPAQPSAGPEPRPAQPSAAPEPRP---- 439 Query: 571 GQTTE... L ++ +A+ +E AP Sbjct: 406 IVTTPEPEGSGEEDVPKPDEIPEKEVTEEELIKVSTAAPAKASPEEEVVKATTLAPSEED 465 Query: 550 VSPYIASGQTTE... Query: 424 KGQAYEAIPDPHVDPAAGVHERLAQLQLGDEPEATKPKEAPG-VSPYI--ASGQTTEASQ 594 K A E P + + G E + E EA P A G +P

  12. AcEST: DK956923 [AcEST

    Full Text Available CCATAGTCTCAA CAGCGATAAGCAGGAAATGCATGCAGTGACCATGGGTAAGAAAAGGGTCATGGTGGGCGC CATTAACACGATACTTATCCTA...CTCCTCTTGCAGTTTATGAAGCAATGTTCTTCCTCTTC TAGTCATGATGATGATGGCGATGCCTTTGCGGATGACACTCTAAGCAGACGCAACGAT...AC GGTCGAGTCTGCTCCTCGACATTGGCCAAGGCGAATGCTGGGCAGCCAAGAACCTGCCTC CAACAAGACTTCATATGGTATTCCTGAT...H At1g73965 (CLE13 / CLAVATA3/ESR-Related 13) (CLE13) OS=Arabidopsis thaliana Align length 25 Sco...icant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q6NMF0|Q6NMF0_ARATH At1g73965 (CLE13 / CLAVATA3/ESR-Related 1... 49 3e-04

  13. AcEST: BP921492 [AcEST

    Full Text Available + AL +G+ +H Sbjct: 286 DVASWNAIIGGYSLNSQHHEALAFFNRMQVRGIKPNSITMVSVLPACAHLFAL... ++ L +GK +H Sbjct: 178 NLVSWTAMVSGYAQGGFADEALRMFYEMQGEDVKANYVTVASVLPACAQLSDLQQGKEIH 237 Query: 153 AC...FDRMPEK 171 Query: 333 DVVSWSAMIAMYGQQGCGKEAFQLFQEMACEGGMPNRVTYVSILDACASVAALPEGKLVH 154 +V+W+++++ + Q G EA Q+F +M G P+ T+VS+L ACA...333 DVVSWSAMIAMYGQQGCGKEAFQLFQEMACE-GGMPNRVTYVSILDACASVAALPEGKLV 157 +V +W+AMI+ YG G G++A +LF +M + G +PN VT+V++L ACA...SKL 85 Query: 288 GCGKEAFQLFQEMACEGGMPNRVTYVSILDACASVAALPEGKLVHACFMESELELDVVVG 109 ++ M P+ T+ S++ +CA ++AL G

  14. Performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    The effect of negative to positive electrode materials' weight ratio on the electrochemical performance of both activated carbon (AC)/AC and AC/graphite capacitors has been investigated, especially in the terms of capacity and cycle-ability. The limited capacity charge mode has been proposed to improve the cycle performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite. (author)

  15. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  16. AcEST: DK952954 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0015_H21 616 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0015_H21. 5' end seq ... LIHAHIVCSCNDVDNFVRSTLVNLYSKCGSIEDAHNVFAKLATRRSVDWSMMIS ... 541 ++ Q K +HA I + D + V + L+++Y+KCGSI DA F +++T+ ... LIHAHIVCSCNDVDNFVRSTLVNLYSKCGSIEDAHNVFAKLATRRSVDWSMMIS GS 547 + + IHA S D ++ LV LYS+CG IE+++ F + ++ W+ ++S ... LIHAHIVCSCNDVDNFVRSTLVNLYSKCGSIEDAHNVFAKLATRRSVDWSMMIS ... 541 DL + IH+ I+ + ++ +V S L+++Y+K G ++ A ++ + A + ... EA+ LF +M G+ P + + L AC Sbjct: 243 RVFDGLRLKDHSSWVAMIS GLSKNECEAEAIRLFCDMYVLGIMPTPYAFSSVLSACKKIE 302 Query ...

  17. AcEST: BP912540 [AcEST

    Full Text Available YMU001_000020_B03 501 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000020_B03. BP912540 - Show ... 2 EELTVHHTASVGDVEALKALLAEGADKDEKDSEGRTALHFACGYGEVMCAE VLLEAGVAV 181 EE VH TAS+GDVE LKA LA G +KDE+DSEGRTAL ... ry: 14 VHHTASVGDVEALKALLAEGADKDEKDSEGRTALHFACGYGEVMCAE VLLEAGVAVDAVD 193 +H A V ++ LL GAD KD G LH AC YG AE ... uery: 26 ASVGDVEALKALLAEGADKDEKDSEGR--TALHFACGYGEVMCAE VLLEAGVAVDAVDKN 199 + GD+E +K L + + + +D EGR T LHFA ... ry: 14 VHHTASVGDVEALKALLAEGADKDEKDSEGRTALHFACGYGEVMCAE VLLEAGVAVDAVD 193 +H A ++E + LL GAD + +D G LH A YG ...

  18. AcEST: DK948526 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0003_I19 675 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0003_I19. 5' end seq ... IAMVRTTTPVYV 214 Query: 542 ALALFNQARVSSLPIIDDNGSLIDIY ARSDITALARDDTY 661 AL +F Q RVS+LP++D+ G ++DIY ++ D+ ... LA + TY Sbjct: 215 ALGIFVQHRVSALPVVDEKGRVVDIY SKFDVINLAAEKTY 254 >sp|Q09138|AAKG1_PIG 5'-AMP-acti ... IAMVRTTTPVYV 215 Query: 542 ALALFNQARVSSLPIIDDNGSLIDIY ARSDITALARDDTY 661 AL +F Q RVS+LP++D+ G ++DIY ++ D+ ... LA + TY Sbjct: 216 ALGIFVQHRVSALPVVDEKGRVVDIY SKFDVINLAAEKTY 255 >sp|O54950|AAKG1_MOUSE 5'-AMP-ac ...

  19. AcEST: DK962916 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0015_C06 596 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0015_C06. 5' end seq ... NA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0015_C06. 5' end sequence. Acce ssion DK962916 Tissue type prothallia with plantlet ... 2 Query: 317 MPKSKEPCSQEACDIQTCLVKNNFITERCFPVIEALQACCE K 442 MP+ K+PC ++AC+IQ CL NN++ +C VI+ L+ CC + Sbjct ... me = +2 Query: 335 PCSQEACDIQTCLVKNNFITERCFPVIEALQACCE K 442 PC +EAC IQ CL+ + + +C VI+ L CC K Sbjct: 4 PCQ ... = +2 Query: 326 SKEPCSQEACDIQTCLVKNNFITERCFPVIEALQACCE KCNSK 454 + E C+ CD +TC +K F +C AL CCE KC K Sbjct: 4 ...

  20. AcEST: DK955705 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0023_N02 635 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0023_N02. 5' end seq ... NA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0023_N02. 5' end sequence. Acce ssion DK955705 Tissue type prothallia with plantlet ... 2 Query: 296 MPKSKEPCSQEACDIQTCLVKNNFITERCFPVIEALQACCE K 421 MP+ K+PC ++AC+IQ CL NN++ +C VI+ L+ CC + Sbjct ... me = +2 Query: 314 PCSQEACDIQTCLVKNNFITERCFPVIEALQACCE K 421 PC +EAC IQ CL+ + + +C VI+ L CC K Sbjct: 4 PCQ ... = +2 Query: 305 SKEPCSQEACDIQTCLVKNNFITERCFPVIEALQACCE KCNSK 433 + E C+ CD +TC +K F +C AL CCE KC K Sbjct: 4 ...

  1. AcEST: DK961330 [AcEST

    Full Text Available FWVPCMHTPIKQEKHTHA 405 +AR P W +++PI+ ++C++ P + AK+ PL DVTH+F+V + +QE Sbjct: 61 VARRTRP-SWHEDNPINYVQCDISDPDD...+IL +D PGGPWKVYG Sbjct: 4 WWAGAIGAAKKKLEEDDAPPKHS---SVALIVGVTGIIGNSLAEILPLADTPGGP...AWHEDNPINYIQCDISDPDDSLAKLSPLTDVTHVFYVTCANR--STEPENCE 117 Query: 406 MATHMFENIIGVLLTHAPNLQHVCMQTSDKHY-... : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q7MXT7 Definition sp|Q7MXT7|LPXD_PORGI UDP-3-O-[3-hydroxymyristoyl] glucosamine N-ac...lue sp|Q7MXT7|LPXD_PORGI UDP-3-O-[3-hydroxymyristoyl] glucosamine N-... 34 0.62 sp|P60369|KR103_HUMAN Kerati

  2. AcEST: BP913772 [AcEST

    Full Text Available N VT V L C+ G G+ H Sbjct: 350 NVVTWSAVIAGYAQRGLGFEALDVFRQMRLCGSEPNVVTLVSLLSGCALAGTLLHGKETH 409 Query: 376 IEIER--RGLLEVDP-...VFNKLSVQDIVSW 236 + + A ++G+++H I RRGL + PV+ + LV MY R G L Q VF+++ +D+VSW Sbjct: 296 ASLAALEQGKLIHGYILRRGLDSILPVI-S... TF M+ +PN+VT V VL+AC+ + Q + Sbjct: 250 SWSAMIACYAKNGKAFEALRTFREMMRETKDSSPNSVTMVSVLQACASLA...MIEGGVAPNAVTFVVVLRACSQTGSYSQSQTFFEAMSKNF 50 + G A G + F+ M + GV PNAVTFV VLR CS G + Q F++M F Sbjct: 312 ALNGLAMNGFGEKCLELFSL...L YA G + + +F++ D+ +TA + + Sbjct: 48 IHAAILRHNLLLHPRYPVLNLKLHRAYASHGKIRHSLALFHQTIDP

  3. Speed Control of DC Motor using AC/AC/DC Converter Based on Intelligent Techniques

    Rakan Kh Antar

    2013-01-01

       This paper describes the application of ac/ac/dc and ac/dc converters to control the speed of a separately excited DC motor. Artificial neural network and PI controller are trained to select the desired values of firing angles for triggering thyristors of the ac/ac/dc and ac/dc bridge converters in order to control the speed of the dc motor at a desired value with constant and different load torques in order to obtain the best speed response. Simulation results show that the rising time fo...

  4. Universality of ac conduction in disordered solids

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    non-power-law universalities. It is argued that ac universality reflects an underlying percolation determining dc as well as ac conductivity in the extreme disorder limit. Three analytical approximations to the universal ac conductivities are presented and compared to computer simulations. Finally......The striking similarity of ac conduction in quite different disordered solids is discussed in terms of experimental results, modeling, and computer simulations. After giving an overview of experiment, a macroscopic and a microscopic model are reviewed. For both models the normalized ac conductivity...... as a function of a suitably scaled frequency becomes independent of details of the disorder in the extreme disorder limit, i.e., when the local randomly varying mobilities cover many orders of magnitude. The two universal ac conductivities are similar, but not identical; both are examples of unusual...

  5. Short term dynamic aperture with AC dipoles

    Mönig, Saskia; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Coello De Portugal, Jaime; Langner, Andy; Tomas, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic aperture of an accelerator is determined by its non-linear components and errors. Control of the dynamic aperture is important for a good understanding and operation of the accelerator. The AC dipole, installed in the LHC for the diagnostic of linear and non-linear optics, could serve as a tool for the determination of the dynamic aperture. However, since the AC dipole itself modifies the non-linear dynamics, the dynamic aperture with and without AC dipole are expected to differ. The effect of the AC dipole on the dynamic aperture is studied within this note.

  6. DESARROLLO RURAL A.C.

    Alfredo Aguilar Valdés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el diagnostico situacional de una Empresa de Servicios Profesionales en el caso de: Instituto de Promoción Para el Desarrollo Rural A.C., a través de la Metodología “UALAE” así como la oportunidad que como empresa presenta. Este estudio se realizó en el municipio de Saltillo, Coahuila, México. Adoptó esta Metodología UALAE y se difundió su opinión. El Instituto de Promoción Para el Desarrollo Rural A.C., está formado por profesionistas y productores cuya finalidad es la de contribuir al desarrollo del medio rural con proyectos de viabilidad técnica, económica y social, sobre la base de necesidades reales y al aprovechamiento sustentable del potencial de los recursos naturales. Su buen funcionamiento es indispensable e importante para el desarrollo de los productores agropecuarios principalmente, debido a que se ven muy beneficiados con todos los servicios que se les brinda, se han logrado buenos proyectos, buenas capacitaciones y un gran crecimiento de sus productos. Mediante el proceso de asistencia técnica a organizaciones de productores, se induce la formulación adecuada de proyectos viables desde el punto visto del mercado, la rentabilidad económica, las tecnologías disponibles y de la organización social.

  7. ac electroosmosis in rectangular microchannels.

    Campisi, Michele; Accoto, Dino; Dario, Paolo

    2005-11-22

    Motivated by the growing interest in ac electroosmosis as a reliable no moving parts strategy to control fluid motion in microfluidic devices for biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip, we study transient and steady-state electrokinetic phenomena (electroosmosis and streaming currents) in infinitely extended rectangular charged microchannels. With the aid of Fourier series and Laplace transforms we provide a general formal solution of the problem, which is used to study the time-dependent response to sudden ac applied voltage differences in case of finite electric double layer. The Debye-Huckel approximation has been adopted to allow for an algebraic solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann problem in Fourier space. We obtain the expressions of flow velocity profiles, flow rates, streaming currents, as well as expressions of the complex hydraulic and electrokinetic conductances. We analyze in detail the dependence of the electrokinetic conductance on the extension of linear dimensions relative to the Debye length, with an eye on finite electric double layer effects. PMID:16351310

  8. AcEST: DK960083 [AcEST

    Full Text Available ome P450 71D7 OS=Solanum chacoense ... 96 1e-19 sp|Q9SAB6|C71AI_ARATH Cytochrome ...... 96 2e-19 sp|P93530|C71D6_SOLCH Cytochrome P450 71D6 OS=Solanum chacoense ... 94 5e-19 sp|Q9T0K2|C71AK_AR... paten... 176 1e-42 tr|Q9AXP9|Q9AXP9_POPJC Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Populus jackii... 176 2e-42 tr|Q40907|Q40907_POPKI Cinnamic ac...8 KVVQQSRGAWEDEALRVIQDLKA 160 >tr|Q9AXP9|Q9AXP9_POPJC Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Populus jackii GN=C4H PE=2 ...e-42 tr|A9PBZ7|A9PBZ7_POPTR Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Popul... 176 2e-4

  9. AcEST: DK955376 [AcEST

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0022_O23 611 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0022_O23. 5' end seq ... LMDETRAAGIKL 210 Query: 602 AIC 610 A+C Sbjct: 211 AVC ... 213 >tr|A9SM81|A9SM81_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=P ... C 610 VLELMD A+ KGLKVA+C Sbjct: 196 VLELMDAAREKGLKVAVC ... 213 >tr|Q8L7U1|Q8L7U1_ARATH AT4g39970/T5J17_140 OS ... LKVAIC 610 LMDEA+A G K+A+C Sbjct: 182 RLMDEAKAAGKKLAVC ... 197 >tr|Q680K2|Q680K2_ARATH MRNA, complete cds, cl ... LKVAIC 610 LMDEA+A G K+A+C Sbjct: 182 RLMDEAKAAGKKLAVC ... 197 >tr|Q8LAS1|Q8LAS1_ARATH Putative uncharacteriz ...

  10. AcEST: BP913416 [AcEST

    Full Text Available GCATGTAGTTTGGA CAGAGATG ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swi...AC_BACFN Uronate isomerase OS=Bacteroides fragilis (... 30 4.5 sp|Q3ITT7|SYA_NATPD Alanyl-tRNA synthetase OS=Natronomonas phar...C++ N IP+ M C Sbjct: 417 LSYPRHEYFRRTLCNLLGCDVENGEIPLSEMERVC 451 >sp|Q3ITT7|SYA_NATPD Alanyl-tRNA synthetase OS=Natronomonas phar...ng, Webb Miller, and David J. Lipman (1997), Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database searc...148,809,765 total letters Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences

  11. AcEST: BP920845 [AcEST

    Full Text Available 45|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000142_D08. (514 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 seq...P7 OS=Magnapor... 33 1.0 sp|Q7VF68|SYH_HELHP Histidyl-tRNA synthetase OS=Helicobacter hep... 31 3.8 sp|P1305...90 FTGFLVLHSEPRQQPQVDL 1608 >sp|A4QX49|DBP7_MAGGR ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP7 OS=Magnaporthe grise...T PT VT+H + T+ AC+ A+TT+ H H Sbjct: 481 PPKETKPTK------PVTNHTESTVGKACYITSAANTTITLHKLH 519 >sp|Q7VF68|SYH_HELHP His...rot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching.................................

  12. AcEST: DK953324 [AcEST

    Full Text Available |LSRR_PHOLL Transcriptional regulator lsrR OS=Photorhab... 30 6.1 sp|A0JY64|ATPB_ARTS2 ATP synthase subunit beta OS=Arthroba...cter s... 30 6.1 sp|A1R7V3|ATPB_ARTAT ATP synthase subunit beta OS=Arthroba...ATP synthase subunit beta OS=Arthrobacter sp. (strain FB24) GN=atpD PE=3 SV=1 Len...KD 372 Query: 311 HLHFTHRGKQRL 346 H + R KQ L Sbjct: 373 HYNTAVRVKQIL 384 >sp|A1R7V3|ATPB_ARTAT ATP synthase subunit beta OS=Arthroba...T and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Ac

  13. AcEST: DK945049 [AcEST

    Full Text Available R 148 >sp|Q9X5X3|ATCU_SINMW Copper-transporting P-type ATPase OS=Sinorhizobium medicae (strain WSM419) GN=ac...|Q4EPP8|Q4EPP8_LISMO Heavy metal-binding protein OS=Listeria m... 34 3.2 tr|A6AST1|A6AST1_VIBHA Copper-trans..... 31 2.7 sp|Q4X0S7|DPH1_ASPFU Diphthamide biosynthesis protein 1 OS=Asper... 30 4.5 sp|A2VDJ0|T131L_HUMAN Transmembran...P58342|ATCU2_RHIME Copper-transporting ATPase 2 OS=Rhizobium meliloti Align length 75 Score (bit) 34.7 E-val...sophila ... 30 7.8 >sp|P58342|ATCU2_RHIME Copper-transporting ATPase 2 OS=Rhizobium me

  14. AcEST: BP916217 [AcEST

    Full Text Available inase kinase 7-interacting protein 3 OS=Mus musculus Align length 119 Score (bit) 35.0 E-value 0.16 Report B...visiae GN... 30 6.8 >sp|Q571K4|TAB3_MOUSE Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7-interacting protein 3 OS=Mus musculus...protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein 3 OS=Mus musculus GN=Map3k7ip3 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 716 Sco...(3)malignant brain tumor-like 2 prot... 31 2.3 sp|P33234|ADIY_ECOLI HTH-type transcriptional regulator adiY ...ZZC3_PSEU2 Membrane protein, putative OS=Pseudomonas... 35 2.5 tr|Q5U7D5|Q5U7D5_9BACI OpuAC OS=Halobacillus trueperi GN=opu

  15. AcEST: DK947388 [AcEST

    Full Text Available Lipman (1997), Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Ac...ids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK947388|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU02A01NGRL0015_L18, 5' (587 letters) Databa... generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK947388|Adiantum c...apillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU02A01NGRL0015_L18, 5' (587 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta...-ribosylation factor 1 OS=Salix bakko GN... 268 1e-71 sp|P49076|ARF_MAIZE ADP-ribosylation factor OS=Zea may

  16. SINGLE PHASE HIGH FREQUENCY AC CONVERTER FOR INDUCTION HEATING APPLICATION

    M.A INAYATHULLAAH,; Dr. R. Anita

    2010-01-01

    The proposed topology reduces the total harmonic distortion (THD) of a high frequency AC/AC Converter well below the acceptable limit. This paper deals with a novel single phase AC/DC/AC soft switching utility frequency AC to high frequency AC converter. In this paper a single phase full bridge inverter with Vienna rectifier as front end is used instead of conventional diode bridge rectifier to provide continuous sinusoidal input current with nearly unity power factor at the source side with ...

  17. Characterization of AcMNPV with a deletion of ac69 gene

    Jianhao Ke

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ORF69 (Ac69 of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV is conserved in some baculovirus genomes. Although it has been shown that Ac69 has cap 0-dependent methyltransferase activity and is not required for budded virus production in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cells, its role in occlusion-derived virus synthesis and virus oral infectivity is not known. This paper describes generation of an ac69 knockout AcMNPV bacmid mutant and analyses of the influence of ac69 deletion on the viral infectivity in Sf-9 cells and Trichoplusia ni larvae so as to investigate the role of ac69 in the viral life cycle. Results indicated that ac69 deletion has little effect on the production rates and morphogenesis of budded virus and occlusion-derived virus in Sf-9 cells. In addition, animal experiment revealed that the deletion mutant did not affect AcMNPV infectivity for Trichoplusia ni larvae in LD50 and LT50 bioassay when administered orally. These results suggest that ac69 may be dispensable for viral infectivity both in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Noise reduction in AC-coupled amplifiers

    Serrano Finetti, Roberto Ernesto; Pallàs Areny, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    AC-coupled amplifiers are noisier than dc-coupled amplifiers because of the thermal noise of the resistor(s) in the ac-coupling network and the increased contribution of the amplifier input noise current i(n). Both contributions, however, diminish if the corner frequency f(c) of the high-pass filter observed by the signal is lowered, the cost being a longer transient response. At the same time, the presence of large resistors in the ac-coupling network suggests that the use of FET-input ampli...

  19. Guiding Principles in Selecting AC To DC Converters For Power Factor Corrections in AC Transmission System

    Ibekwe B.E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ac to dc converters’ power factors correction in ac transmission system were investigated. The studies include: phase-controlled converter; pulse width modulated (PWM converter and ac input current shaped converter. Using Fourier series, power factors of these converters were calculated and simulated using MATLAB. The resulting curves are displayed in the hard copies for practical guides in the choice of converters; and comparatively, current shaped type is the best.

  20. The Effect of the Feedback Controller on Superconducting Tokamak AC Losses + AC-CRPP user manual

    Superconducting coils in a Tokamak are subject to AC losses when the field transverse to the coil current varies. A simple model to evaluate the AC losses has been derived and benchmarked against a complete model used in the ITER design procedure. The influence of the feedback control strategy on the AC losses is examined using this model. An improved controller is proposed, based on this study. (author)

  1. A Simple Load Power Estimator For Quasi-Direct AC-AC Converter System

    Marian GAICEANU; Emil ROSU

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a simple load power estimator for the three-phase quasi-direct acac converter system is reported. Since the ac-ac converter control by means of pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is based on the power balance concept, its load power should be known. Two control boards, based on the dSMC (digital Smart Motion Controller) 30 MIPS 32-bit fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP), were involved in the ac-ac system driving. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation ...

  2. Transport AC losses in YBCO coated conductors

    Majoros, M [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ye, L [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Velichko, A V [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Coombs, T A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Sumption, M D [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Collings, E W [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Transport AC loss measurements have been made on YBCO-coated conductors prepared on two different substrate templates-RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate) and IBAD (ion-beam-assisted deposition). RABiTS samples show higher losses compared with the theoretical values obtained from the critical state model, with constant critical current density, at currents lower than the critical current. An origin of this extra AC loss was demonstrated experimentally by comparison of the AC loss of two samples with different I-V curves. Despite a difference in I-V curves and in the critical currents, their measured losses, as well as the normalized losses, were practically the same. However, the functional dependence of the losses was affected by the ferromagnetic substrate. An influence of the presence of a ferromagnetic substrate on transport AC losses in YBCO film was calculated numerically by the finite element method. The presence of a ferromagnetic substrate increases transport AC losses in YBCO films depending on its relative magnetic permeability. The two loss contributions-transport AC loss in YBCO films and ferromagnetic loss in the substrate-cannot be considered as mutually independent.

  3. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. V. The full ACS strong-lens sample

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wayth, Randall; Schlegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the definitive data for the full sample of 131 strong gravitational lens candidates observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope by the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. All targets were selected for higher redshift emission lines and lower redshift c

  4. AC losses in filamentary YBCO/hastelloy

    Full text: The AC hysteresis loss of a long YBCO thin-film superconducting strip in a perpendicular AC magnetic field can be reduced by subdividing the film into narrow parallel strips (filaments). The hysteresis loss depends on the film critical current density Jc, the film thickness d, the filament width 2a and the lateral spacing L between filaments as well as on the AC magnetic field amplitude Hm. In addition, if the film is deposited onto a YSZ/hastelloy substrate to form a flexible tape, eddy current loss occurs in the hastelloy metal. The eddy current loss depends on the resistivity p of the hastelloy, the width 2w and thickness dm of the hastelloy substrate as well as on the frequency f and amplitude Hm. We have calculated the hysteresis and eddy current losses as a function of Jc, d, 2a, L, p, w, dm, f, and Hm to find optimal design parameters for a YBCO/hastelloy tape. As the AC loss is related to the loss component X'' of the AC susceptibility, we have measured X'' at different frequencies f and amplitudes Hm for several filamentary designs of YBCO/hastelloy tapes and compared our experimental results with our model calculations

  5. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  6. AC loss performance of CS insert coil

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) model coil and the CS insert coil were fabricated, and the test was carried out. The AC loss measurement of the coil is one of the most important tests to determine coil performance. The AC loss of a short sample conductor for the CS insert coil was measured by using the calorimetric method, and the coupling time constants of the conductor were estimated to be 30 ms and 20 ms for pulse and discharge tests, respectively. The AC loss of the CS insert coil was measured by using the calorimetric method for pulse and discharge tests. The coupling time constant estimated from the result of the pulse tests was 34 ms and almost equal to that of the short sample. The coupling time constant for the discharge test was estimated to be 140 ms and about 4 times that of the pulse test. (author)

  7. ACS air bearing test-bed design

    Glitt, Sascha

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about the construction and design of a new air bearing test-bed to verify the programmed ACS attitude control algorithm and to validate the ACS MATLAB/SimuLink¬ model of NPSAT1, the second small satellite currently under development at the Naval Postgraduate School Space Systems Academic Group. The software was already verified and validated using a comparable air bearing test-bed. But due to changes in hardware from commercial magnetic torque rods to custom, NPS-built, magneti...

  8. The Effective AC Response of Nonlinear Composites

    WEI En-Bo; GU Guo-Qing

    2001-01-01

    A perturbative approach is used to study the AC response of nonlinear composite media, which obey a current-field relation of the form J = σ E + χ|E|2 E with components having nonlinear response at finite frequencies. For a sinusoidal applied field, we extend the local potential in terms of sinusoidal components at fundamental frequency and high-order harmonic frequencies to treat the nonlinear composites. For nonlinear composite media vith a low concentrations of spherical inclusions, we give the formulae of the nonlinear effective AC susceptibility χ*3ω at the third harmonic frequency.

  9. AC loss in superconducting tapes and cables

    Oomen, Marijn Pieter

    High-temperature superconductors are developed for use in power-transmission cables, transformers and motors. The alternating magnetic field in these devices causes AC loss, which is a critical factor in the design. The study focuses on multi-filament Bi-2223/Ag tapes exposed to a 50-Hz magnetic field at 77 K. The AC loss is measured with magnetic, electric and calorimetric methods. The results are compared to theoretical predictions based mainly on the Critical-State Model. The loss in high- temperature superconductors is affected by their characteristic properties: increased flux creep, high aspect ratio and inhomogeneties. Filament intergrowths and a low matrix resistivity cause a high coupling-current loss especially when the filaments are fully coupled. When the wide side of the tape is parallel to the external magnetic field, the filaments are decoupled by twisting. In a perpendicular field the filaments can be decoupled only by combining a short twist pitch with a transverse resistivity much higher than that of silver. The arrangement of the inner filaments determines the transverse resistivity. Ceramic barriers around the filaments cause partial decoupling in perpendicular magnetic fields at power frequencies. The resultant decrease in AC loss is greater than the accompanying decrease in critical current. With direct transport current in alternating magnetic field, the transport-current loss is well described with a new model for the dynamic resistance. The Critical- State Model describes well the magnetisation and total AC loss in parallel magnetic fields, at transport currents up to 0.7 times the critical current. When tapes are stacked face-to-face in a winding, the AC-loss density in perpendicular fields is greatly decreased due to the mutual shielding of the tapes. Coupling currents between the tapes in a cable cause an extra AC loss, which is reduced by a careful cable design. The total AC loss in complex devices with many tapes is generally well

  10. YBCO thin films in ac and dc films

    Shahzada, S

    2001-01-01

    We report studies on the dc magnetization of YBCO thin films in simultaneously applied dc and ac fields. The effect of the ac fields is to decrease the irreversible magnetization drastically leading to complete collapse of the hysteresis loops for relatively small ac fields (250e). The magnitude of the decrease depends on the component of the ac field parallel to the c-axis. The decrease is non-linear with ac amplitude and is explained in the framework of the critical state response of ultra thin films in perpendicular geometry. The ac fields increase the relaxation rapidly at short times while the long time response appears unaffected. (author)

  11. SINGLE PHASE HIGH FREQUENCY AC CONVERTER FOR INDUCTION HEATING APPLICATION

    M.A INAYATHULLAAH,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed topology reduces the total harmonic distortion (THD of a high frequency AC/AC Converter well below the acceptable limit. This paper deals with a novel single phase AC/DC/AC soft switching utility frequency AC to high frequency AC converter. In this paper a single phase full bridge inverter with Vienna rectifier as front end is used instead of conventional diode bridge rectifier to provide continuous sinusoidal input current with nearly unity power factor at the source side with extremely low distortion.. This power converter is more suitable and acceptable for cost effective high frequency (HF consumer induction heating applications.

  12. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx. PMID:26672449

  13. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  14. Performance of Halbach magnetized brushless AC motors

    Zhu, Z.Q.; Xia, Z.P.; Shi, Y.F.; Howe, D.; Pride, A.; X. J. Chen

    2003-01-01

    The steady-state performance of Halbach magnetized brushless ac machines when operated in constant torque and flux-weakening modes is investigated both theoretically and experimentally, with particular emphasis on the influence of cross-coupling magnetic saturation on the torque capability.

  15. Ac-dc converter firing error detection

    Each of the twelve Booster Main Magnet Power Supply modules consist of two three-phase, full-wave rectifier bridges in series to provide a 560 VDC maximum output. The harmonic contents of the twelve-pulse ac-dc converter output are multiples of the 60 Hz ac power input, with a predominant 720 Hz signal greater than 14 dB in magnitude above the closest harmonic components at maximum output. The 720 Hz harmonic is typically greater than 20 dB below the 500 VDC output signal under normal operation. Extracting specific harmonics from the rectifier output signal of a 6, 12, or 24 pulse ac-dc converter allows the detection of SCR firing angle errors or complete misfires. A bandpass filter provides the input signal to a frequency-to-voltage converter. Comparing the output of the frequency-to-voltage converter to a reference voltage level provides an indication of the magnitude of the harmonics in the ac-dc converter output signal

  16. AC loss in superconducting tapes and cables

    Oomen, Marijn Pieter

    2000-01-01

    The present study discusses the AC loss in high-temperature superconductors. Superconducting materials with a relatively high critical temperature were discovered in 1986. They are presently developed for use in large-scale power-engineering devices such as power-transmission cables, transformers an

  17. A Comparison Between Two Average Modelling Techniques of AC-AC Power Converters

    Pawel Szczesniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative evaluation of two modelling tools for switching AC-AC power converters is presented. Both of them are based on average modelling techniques. The first approach is based on the circuit averaging technique and consists in the topological manipulations, applied to a converters states. The second approach makes use of state-space averaged model of the converter and is based on analytical manipulations using the different state representations of a converter. The two modelling techniques are applied to a same AC-AC converter called matrix-reactance frequency converter based on buck-boost topology. These techniques are compared on the basis of their rapidity, quantity of calculations and transformations and its limitations.

  18. Digital model for harmonic interactions in AC/DC/AC systems

    Guarini, A.P.; Rangel, R.D.; Pilotto, L.A.S.; Pinto, R.J.; Passos Junior, R. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The main purpose of this paper is to present a model for calculation of HVdc converter harmonics taking into account the influence of the harmonic interactions between the ac systems in dc link transmissions. The ideas and methodologies used in the model development take into account the dc current ripple and ac voltage distortion in the ac systems. The theory of switching functions is applied to contemplate for the frequency conversions between the ac and dc sides, in an iterative process. It is possible then to obtain, even in balanced situations, non-characteristic harmonics that are produced by frequencies originated in the other terminal, which can be significant in a strongly coupled system, such as back-to-back configuration. (author) 9 refs., 3 figs.

  19. High voltage AC/AC electrochemical capacitor operating at low temperature in salt aqueous electrolyte

    Abbas, Qamar; Béguin, François

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that an activated carbon (AC)-based electrochemical capacitor implementing aqueous lithium sulfate electrolyte in 7:3 vol:vol water/methanol mixture can operate down to -40 °C with good electrochemical performance. Three-electrode cell investigations show that the faradaic contributions related with hydrogen chemisorption in the negative AC electrode are thermodynamically unfavored at -40 °C, enabling the system to work as a typical electrical double-layer (EDL) capacitor. After prolonged floating of the AC/AC capacitor at 1.6 V and -40°C, the capacitance, equivalent series resistance and efficiency remain constant, demonstrating the absence of ageing related with side redox reactions at this temperature. Interestingly, when temperature is increased back to 24 °C, the redox behavior due to hydrogen storage reappears and the system behaves as a freshly prepared one.

  20. Rapid cycling synchrotron magnet with separate ac and dc circuit

    In present rapid cycling synchrotron magnets ac and dc currents flow in the same coil to give the desired field. The circuit reactance is made zero at dc and the operating frequency by running the magnet in series with an external parallel resonant LC current. We propose to return the ac flux in a gap next to the synchrotron. The dc coil encloses the ac magnetic circuit and thus links no ac flux. A shorted turn between the dc coil and ac flux enhances the separation of the two circuits. Several interesting developments are possible. The dc coil could be a stable superconductor to save power. The ac flux return gap could be identical with the synchrotron gap and contain a second synchrotron. This would double the output of the system. If the return flux gap were used for a booster, the ac coil power could be greatly reduced or radiation hardening of the ac coil could be simplified

  1. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration. (au)

  2. Implementation of Low Frequency Ac to High Frequency Ac with Single Stage Zvs-Pwm Inverter

    S. Arumugam S. Ramareddy M. Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel soft-switching pulse width modulation (PWM) utility frequency AC to high frequency (HF) AC power conversion circuit incorporating boost-active clamp single stage inverter topology. This power converter is more suitable and acceptable for cost effective HF consumer induction heating applications. Its operating principle is presented. The operating performances of this high frequency inverter using the latest insulated gate bipolar transistors are illustrated, which ...

  3. Adaptive Nonlinear Control of Induction Motors through AC/DC/AC Converters

    Elfadili, Abderrahim; Giri, Fouad; El Magri, Abdelmounime; Dugard, Luc; Chaoui, Fatima Zara

    2012-01-01

    The problem of controlling induction motors, together with associated AC/DC rectifiers and DC/AC inverters, is addressed. The control objectives are threefold: (i) the motor speed should track any reference signal despite mechanical parameter uncertainties and variations; (ii) the DC Link voltage must be tightly regulated; (iii) the power factor correction (PFC) w.r.t. the power supply net must be performed in a satisfactory way. First, a nonlinear model of the whole controlled system is deve...

  4. Robust control of synchronous motors through AC/DC/AC converters

    El Magri, Abdelmounime; Giri, Fouad; Abouloifa, Abdelmajid; Chaoui, Fatima Zara

    2010-01-01

    The problem of controlling synchronous motors, driven through AC/DC rectifiers and DC/AC inverters is addressed. The control objectives are three fold: (i) forcing the motor speed to track a varying reference signal in presence of motor parameter uncertainties;(ii) regulating the DC Link voltage; (iii )assuring a satisfactory power factor correction (PFC) with respect to the power supply net .First, a nonlinear model of the whole controlled system is developed in the Park-coordinates. Then, a...

  5. A new class of hybrid AC/AC direct power converters

    Klumpner, Christian; Wijekoon, Thiwanka; Wheeler, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Variable voltage and variable frequency conversion of electrical energy from an AC source to an AC load is done in traditional power converters via a DC-link where an energy storage element (electrolytic capacitors) is situated. Despite its well-known benefits, it has the disadvantage of being bulky and to limit the converter lifetime. On the other hand, Direct Power Conversion (DPC) is an attractive concept, which doesn’t need an energy storage buffer, but has two main disadvantages: reduced...

  6. Design of Three Phase Matrix Converter AC-AC Utility Power Supply using SPWM Technique

    Sagar.S.Pawar; Prakash.T.Patil

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the control analysis and design of an three phase matrix AC-AC utility power supply .The SPWM modulation techniques is used to control the desired output voltage and gives the control output voltage and reduced input harmonic distortions .In this Matrix converter Input is directly connected to output no DC link components is required. Simulation had been done using mat lab simulink and Simulated results are observed

  7. Design of Three Phase Matrix Converter AC-AC Utility Power Supply using SPWM Technique

    Sagar. S. Pawar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the control analysis and design of an three phase matrix AC-AC utility power supply .The SPWM modulation techniques is used to control the desired output voltage and gives the control output voltage and reduced input harmonic distortions .In this Matrix converter Input is directly connected to output no DC link components is required. Simulation had been done using mat lab simulink and Simulated results are observed

  8. A Comparison Between Two Average Modelling Techniques of AC-AC Power Converters

    Pawel Szczesniak

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative evaluation of two modelling tools for switching AC-AC power converters is presented. Both of them are based on average modelling techniques. The first approach is based on the circuit averaging technique and consists in the topological manipulations, applied to a converters states. The second approach makes use of state-space averaged model of the converter and is based on analytical manipulations using the different state representations of a converter. The two m...

  9. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion...... will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration....

  10. AC losses in a HTS coil carrying DC current in AC external magnetic field

    We electrically measured AC losses in a Bi2223/Ag-sheathed pancake coil excited by a DC current in AC external magnetic field. Losses in the coil contain two kinds of loss components that are the magnetization losses and dynamic resistance losses. In the measurement, current leads to supply a current to the coil were specially arranged to suppress electromagnetic coupling between the coil current and the AC external magnetic field. A double pick-up coils method was used to suppress a large inductive voltage component contained in voltage signal for measuring the magnetization losses. It was observed that the magnetization losses were dependent on the coil current and that a peak of a curve of the loss factor vs. amplitude of the AC external magnetic field shifted to lower amplitude of the AC magnetic field as the coil current increased. This result suggests the full penetration magnetic field of the coil tape decreases as the coil current increases. The dynamic resistance losses were measured by measuring a DC voltage appearing between the coil terminals. It was observed that the DC voltage appearing in the coil subject to the AC external magnetic field was much larger than that in the coil subject to DC magnetic field

  11. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  12. AC LED的研究现状与发展%Current research and development of AC LED

    满瑞; 李秋俊

    2012-01-01

    介绍了AC LED的特征及其工作原理,分析了AC LED相比于DC LED的优缺点,概述了AC LED在国内外的研究进展及其应用现状,讨论了AC LED技术发展过程中面临的挑战,并展望了其发展趋势.%The characteristics and operation principles of AC LED were presented.The advantages and disadvantages of AC LED compared with the DC LED were analyzed.The development and the latest application of AC LED were described.The challenges of the competition with the traditional light source were discussed,as well as the development trend of AC LED.

  13. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC08 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC08 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15080-1 FCL-AC08P ...(Link to Original site) FCL-AC08F 616 FCL-AC08Z 291 FCL-AC08P 907 - - Show FCL-AC08 Library FCL (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-...-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-AC08Q....Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-AC08P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-AC08 (FCL-AC08Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-...ignificant alignments: (bits) Value FCL-AC08 (FCL-AC08Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-AC08Q.Seq.d/ 1322 0.0 SFA226 (S

  14. Fractional ac Josephson effect in unconventional superconductors

    For certain orientations of Josephson junctions between two px-wave or two d-wave superconductors, the subgap Andreev bound states produce a 4π-periodic relation between the Josephson current I and the phase difference ψ: I propor to sin(ψ/2) . Consequently, the ac Josephson current has the fractional frequency eV/h where V is the dc voltage. In the tunneling limit, the Josephson current is proportional to the first power (not square) of the electron tunneling amplitude. Thus, the Josephson current between unconventional superconductors is carried by single electrons, rather than by Cooper pairs. The fractional ac Josephson effect can be observed experimentally by measuring frequency spectrum of microwave radiation from the junction

  15. AC motor drive system for electric cars

    Morohoshi, Yukinobu; Yoshinori, Naoto; Naito, Hironobu (Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1989-08-10

    Various main circuit equipment with large capacity GTO thyristors are outlined for AC and DC electric cars. The configuration of a PWM converter system is presented for the AC main motor drive system of the Shinkansen trains, and its following features are described: the high power factor control capable of keeping a power factor 100% constantly, energy saving by power regenerative braking, the small triple structure with large capacity reverse-conducting GTO thyristors of 4,500V/3,000A, and the reduction of equivalent interfering current and harmonic current by three phase-triple phase difference operation. Furthermore, a control logic equipment with 16 bit MPU and a main transformer are outlined, and the verification test results of the control logic equipment by an analog model simulation and the combinational test results of the commercial equipment are reported. Prototype VVVF inverter system for DC electric cars is also presented. 6 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. β-delayed fission from 230Ac

    ThO2 is irradiated with 60 MeV/u 18O beams. 230Ra is produced via the multi-nucleon transfer and dissipative fragmentation reactions of the target. 230Ra is radio-chemical separated from ThO2 and the other reaction products. The thin Ra sources are prepared. The mica fission track detectors are exposed to the Ra sources. γ-rays of Ra decay in the sources are measured by a HPGe detector. The mica foil is etched in HF solution. The etched mica foil is scanned with an optical microscope. The fission tracks that should come from β-delayed fission of 230Ac are observed. The β-delayed fission probability of 230Ac is determined to be (1.19 +- 0.85) x 10-8

  17. AC Dielectrophoresis Using Elliptic Electrode Geometry

    S. M. Rezaul Hasan; Aanan Khurma

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents negative AC dielectrophoretic investigations using elliptic electrode geometry. Simulations of the electric field gradient variation using various ratios of the semimajor and the semiminor axis were carried out to determine the optimum elliptic geometry for the dielectrophoretic electrokinetics of specimen in an assay with laminar (low Reynolds number) fluid flow. Experimental setup of the elliptic electrode assembly using PCB fabrication and electrokinetic accumulation of...

  18. Entropy production in ac-calorimetry

    Garden, Jean-Luc; Richard, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    In calorimetry and particularly in heat capacity measurements, different characteristic relaxation time constants may perturb the experiment which cannot be considered at thermodynamic equilibrium. In this case, thermodynamics of irreversible processes has to be taken into account and the calorimetric measurements must be considered as dynamic. In a temperature modulated experiment, such as ac-calorimetry, these non-equilibrium experiments give rise to the notion of frequency dependent comple...

  19. Lazy AC-Pattern Matching for Rewriting

    Belkhir, Walid; 10.4204/EPTCS.82.3

    2012-01-01

    We define a lazy pattern-matching mechanism modulo associativity and commutativity. The solutions of a pattern-matching problem are stored in a lazy list composed of a first substitution at the head and a non-evaluated object that encodes the remaining computations. We integrate the lazy AC-matching in a strategy language: rewriting rule and strategy application produce a lazy list of terms.

  20. Development of a hardware-based AC microgrid for AC stability assessment

    Swanson, Robert R.

    As more power electronic-based devices enable the development of high-bandwidth AC microgrids, the topic of microgrid power distribution stability has become of increased interest. Recently, researchers have proposed a relatively straightforward method to assess the stability of AC systems based upon the time-constants of sources, the net bus capacitance, and the rate limits of sources. In this research, a focus has been to develop a hardware test system to evaluate AC system stability. As a first step, a time domain model of a two converter microgrid was established in which a three phase inverter acts as a power source and an active rectifier serves as an adjustable constant power AC load. The constant power load can be utilized to create rapid power flow transients to the generating system. As a second step, the inverter and active rectifier were designed using a Smart Power Module IGBT for switching and an embedded microcontroller as a processor for algorithm implementation. The inverter and active rectifier were designed to operate simultaneously using a synchronization signal to ensure each respective local controller operates in a common reference frame. Finally, the physical system was created and initial testing performed to validate the hardware functionality as a variable amplitude and variable frequency AC system.

  1. GIS在局部放电下的SF6气体分解产物实验研究%Experimental Study on Relationship of SF6 Decomposition Products and Partial Discharge in Gas Insulated Switchgear

    鲁钢; 郭江涛; 孙福军; 颜湘莲; 陈海伦

    2013-01-01

    A 126 kV AC power frequency power supply,a GIS partial discharge testing platform,and a gas detection system are designed to simulate the fault state of discharge to ground.Subsequently,SF6 decomposed characteristic gas components induced by partial discharge are analyzed quantitatively,where the intensity of partial discharge is monitored with the pulse current method.The results show that:①The characteristic gas components from partial discharge-induced SF6 decomposition are SOF2,SO2,and S2OF10;②The volume fractions of SOF2 and SO2 exhibit positive correlation with duration and intensity of partial discharge; ③Adsorbent imposes effect on measurement of SF6 decomposition products.%笔者使用自行设计126 kV交流工频电源和GIS局部放电实体实验平台以及气体分析检测系统,模拟对地放电故障状态,对局部放电引起的SF6分解物特征组份气体进行定性定量分析,用脉冲电流法对局部放电强度进行监视,得到局部放电引起SF6气体分解物特征组份及变化规律.研究表明:局部放电致使SF6气体发生分解,特征组分为SOF2、SO2、S2OF10,SOF2、SO2与局放持续时间、局放强度呈现正相关性,吸附剂对于SF6分解物检测有影响.

  2. GRID-CONNECTECD DOUBLE-STAGE AC-AC POWER CONVERTER FOR CSP RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Sorrentino, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the renewable energy sources have known a state of their advanced diffusion considering their advantages compared to the traditional energy sources like fossil fuels. For this reason the combined heat and power (CHP) plant fueled by renewable sources are widely used. The purpose of this Ph.D. thesis is the design of a new Grid-connected Double-Stage AC-DC/DC-AC Power Converter (DSACPC) for a Concentrating Solar plant for Combined generation of Heat and Power (CS-CHP), th...

  3. Implementation of Low Frequency Ac to High Frequency Ac with Single Stage Zvs-Pwm Inverter

    S. Arumugam S. Ramareddy M. Sridhar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel soft-switching pulse width modulation (PWM utility frequency AC to high frequency (HF AC power conversion circuit incorporating boost-active clamp single stage inverter topology. This power converter is more suitable and acceptable for cost effective HF consumer induction heating applications. Its operating principle is presented. The operating performances of this high frequency inverter using the latest insulated gate bipolar transistors are illustrated, which includes HFAC power regulation ranges and actual efficiency characteristics based on zero voltage soft switching operation ranges.. The simulation circuits are models are developed and they are simulated using ORCAD.

  4. Implementation and Control of an AC/DC/AC Converter for Double Wound Flywheel Application

    Oliveira, J. G.; Schettino, H.; Gama, V; Carvalho, R.; H. Bernhoff

    2012-01-01

    An all-electric driveline based on a double wound flywheel, connected in series between main energy storage and a wheel motor, is presented. The flywheel works as a power buffer, allowing the battery to deliver optimized power. It also separates electrically the system in two sides, with the battery connected to the low voltage side and the wheel motor connected to the high voltage side. This paper presents the implementation and control of the AC/DC/AC converter, used to connect the flywheel...

  5. Realization of a Direct Soft Switching AC/AC Converter for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    Vuorsalo, Simo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, realization and testing of a three-phase to one-phase direct AC/AC converter, also known as the matrix converter. The switching is using the soft-switching strategy which is also known in the literature as the Zero Current Switching strategy. To achieve ZCS, the circuit needs resonant behavior which is achieved by the transmitter primary side that is an LC circuit. This circuit acts as a tank circuit and the switching frequency is the resonant frequency of th...

  6. AcEST Contig - AcEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credit s ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us AcEST AcEST C ... c.jp/togodb/view/archive_acestcontig#en Data acquisit ion method - Data analysis method - Number of data ... entries 4,298 entries Data it em Description Contig ID ID of contig sequence of A ... ris Number of clones The number of EST clones constit uting the contig sequence of Adiantum capillus-vene ... ris Definit ion Definit ion Link to clone list In the TogoDB edi ...

  7. Three-Level AC-DC-AC Z-Source Converter Using Reduced Passive Component Count

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, Feng; Tan, Pee-Chin;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a three-level ac-dc-ac Z-source converter with output voltage buck-boost capability. The converter is implemented by connecting a low cost front-end diode rectifier to a neutral-point-clamped inverter through a single X-shaped LC impedance network. The inverter is controlled to...... low cost alternative to sensitive applications that need to ride-through frequent input voltage sags. For confirming the converter performance, experimental testing using a constructed laboratory prototype is performed with its captured results presented in a later section of the paper....

  8. Three-Level AC-DC-AC Z-Source Converter Using Reduced Passive Component Count

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, Feng; Tan, Pee-Chin;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a three-level ac-dc-ac Z-source converter with output voltage buck-boost capability. The converter is implemented by connecting a low-cost front-end diode rectifier to a neutral-point-clamped inverter through a single X-shaped LC impedance network. The inverter is controlled to...... semiconductor commutations, and hence, no increase in switching losses. The proposed converter therefore offers a low-cost alternative to applications that need to ride through frequent input voltage sags. For confirming the converter performance, experimental testing using a constructed laboratory prototype is...

  9. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC03 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC03 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16477-1 FCL-AC03P ...(Link to Original site) FCL-AC03F 538 FCL-AC03Z 570 FCL-AC03P 1108 - - Show FCL-AC03 Library FCL (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-...7-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-AC03Q....Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-AC03P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-AC03 (FCL-AC03Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-...AC/FCL-AC03Q.Seq.d/ AATTTTTAAAAAAAAAAGAAAATAAAAAAAAAAATAATATTTTATTAGTCATTATAAAAT TGTGAAT

  10. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC20 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC20 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15117-1 FCL-AC20Z ...(Link to Original site) - - FCL-AC20Z 600 - - - - Show FCL-AC20 Library FCL (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-A... http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-AC20Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-...AC20Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-AC20 (FCL-AC20Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-...Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FCL-AC20 (FCL-AC20Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-

  11. Levantamiento del campo acústico de una fuente sonora subacuática en el tanque hidroacústico del Instituto de Acústica

    Ranz Guerra, Carlos; Cobo, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    6 pp.-- PACS nrs.: 43.30.Jx, 43.30.Sf.-- Comunicación presentada en los siguientes congresos: Acústica 2000, II Congreso Iberoamericano de Acústica. XXXI Congreso Nacional de Acústica: TecniAcústica 2000. II Congreso Ibérico de Acústica. II Jornadas Iberoamericanas de Acústica. EAA Symposium on Architectural Acoustics.

  12. An ac biased superconducting flux transformer

    The coupled motion of the vortex lattice of two electrically insulated, superimposed, superconducting thin films (primary and secondary) in a perpendicular magnetic field, is predicted to exhibit a Josephson-like behavior. For a dc applied current flowing in the primary film, the voltage difference between the time-averaged primary and secondary flux flow voltages obeys the equations of a resistively shunted junction model. If an ac current is superimposed on the dc current. Shapiro-type steps are predicted in the current-voltage characteristic. In contrast to the conventional Josephson effect, the voltage positions of these steps can be tuned by the applied magnetic field. (orig.)

  13. Flexible AC transmission systems modelling and control

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Pal, Bikash

    2012-01-01

    The extended and revised second edition of this successful monograph presents advanced modeling, analysis and control techniques of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. In the six years since the first edition of the book has been published research on the FACTS has continued to flourish while renewable energy has developed into a mature and

  14. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  15. Mapa acústico parcial de Benetusser

    MORILLA CASTELLANOS, EMILIO

    2012-01-01

    Se establece el mapa de ruido del municipio de Benetússer para evaluar y conocer su exposición al ruido ambiental y así poder dar cumplimiento a la Directiva Europea sobre Gestión y Evaluación de Ruido Ambiental (2002/49/CE) y a la Ley nacional 37/2003 del Ruido. Los mapas estratégicos de ruido nos aportan la información fundamental para diagnosticar la situación acústica y para la gestión del ruido ambiental.

  16. Research on the Mechanical State Evaluation Method of High Voltage Switchgear Based on Kendall Correlation Coefficient%基于肯德尔相关系数的高压开关设备机械状态评估方法研究

    孙银山; 张文涛; 张一茗; 于维娟; 刘逸凡

    2014-01-01

    智能高压开关设备在线评估技术是进行故障诊断和实施状态检修的前提和基础,采用了一种基于肯德尔相关系数计算曲线相似度的方法,以本公司自主研制开发的126kV智能隔离断路器为研究对象,在大量现场实验数据的基础上对智能隔离断路器机械状态评估进行了分析和探索。实验结果表明具有非常良好的实用性和可移植性,执行速度快,可靠性高等诸多优点,在开关设备评估中具有很好的应用前景。%Online evaluation technique for the intelligent high voltage switchgear is the premise and foundation for fault diagnosis and implementation of condition-based maintenance.With respect to the intelligent 126kV disconnecting circuit breaker developed by our company,this paper uses a method for calculating the curve similarity based on Kendall correlation coefficient to analyze and explore the evaluation of mechanical state of the intelligent discounting circuit breaker on the basis of lots of site experiment data. Experimental results indicate that this evaluation approach has excellent usability and transportability,high execution speed and high reliability,and has a good perspective of application in the evaluation of switching devices.

  17. AC electric motors control advanced design techniques and applications

    Giri, Fouad

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of AC motor control lies in the multivariable and nonlinear nature of AC machine dynamics. Recent advancements in control theory now make it possible to deal with long-standing problems in AC motors control. This text expertly draws on these developments to apply a wide range of model-based control designmethods to a variety of AC motors. Contributions from over thirty top researchers explain how modern control design methods can be used to achieve tight speed regulation, optimal energetic efficiency, and operation reliability and safety, by considering online state var

  18. AC Own Motion Percentage of Randomly Sampled Cases

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of Appeals Council (AC) own motion review actions taken on un-appealed favorable hearing level decisions...

  19. Estudio acústico del Conservatorio de Piles

    VILLA MORANT, SARA

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es realizar un estudio acústico general de la "Casa de la Cultura" de Piles, sobre todo de los recintos que más lo requieren, como la sala principal de música. El edificio, al tratarse de una construcción antigua, no reúne las especificaciones acústicas establecidas en el Código Técnico vigente en la actualidad. En primer lugar, se realiza el estudio del acondicionamiento acústico de la sala principal, entendiéndose como acondicionamiento acústico la definición de...

  20. Study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms in an epoxy polymer

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer

    2015-11-01

    The AC conductivity of an epoxy resin was investigated in the frequency range 10^{-1} - 106 Hz at temperatures ranging from -100 to 120 °C. The frequency dependence of σ_{ac} was described by the law: σ_{ac}=ω \\varepsilon0\\varepsilon^''_{HN}+Aωs. The study of temperature variation of the exponent (s) reveals two conduction models: the AC conduction dependence upon temperature is governed by the small polaron tunneling mechanism (SPTM) at low temperature (-100 -60 °C) and the correlated barrier hopping (CHB) model at high temperature (80-120 °C).

  1. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  2. An improved AC-amplifier for electrophysiology

    Jorgovanović Nikola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the design, simulation and test results of a new AC amplifier for electrophysiological measurements based on a three op-amp instrumentation amplifier (IA. The design target was to increase the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR, thereby improving the quality of the recorded physiological signals in a noisy environment. The new amplifier actively suppresses the DC component of the differential signal and actively reduces the common mode signal in the first stage of the IA. These functions increase the dynamic range of the amplifier's first stage of the differential signal. The next step was the realization of the amplifier in a single chip technology. The design and tests of the new AC amplifier with a differential gain of 79.2 dB, a CMRR of 130 dB at 50 Hz, a high-pass cutoff frequency at 0.01 Hz and common mode reduction in the first stage of the 49.8 dB are presented in this paper.

  3. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC29 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC29 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15392-1 FCL-AC29P ...(Link to Original site) FCL-AC29F 104 FCL-AC29Z 591 FCL-AC29P 695 - - Show FCL-AC29 Library FCL (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-...-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-AC29Q....Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-AC29P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-AC29 (FCL-AC29Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-...roducing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSC293 (VSC293Q) /CSM/VS/VSC2-D/VSC293Q.Seq.d/ 1063 0.0 FCL-AC29 (FCL-

  4. A Non-linear Controller for Single-Phase AC-AC Power Converter to meet UPS Performance Index

    Abdelhafid Ait Elmahjoub

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on AC-AC power converter that can be used for uninterruptible power supply (UPS. The converter is built on two stages: a AC-DC input stage and a DC-AC output stage. The two blocks are connected by an intermediate DC bus. The aim of control is threefold: i power factor correction ii regulation of DC bus iii generating a sinusoidal voltage at the output. The synthesis of controllers has been achieved through the technique of nonlinear backstepping control. A detailed analysis of the stability control system is presented. The performances of regulators have been validated by numerical simulation in MATLAB / SIMULINK.

  5. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  6. Effective ac response in weakly nonlinear composites

    Wei Enbo [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yang Zidong [College of Power Engineering, University of Shanghai Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Gu Guoqing [Information College of Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2004-01-07

    The perturbation method is developed to deal with the problem of determining the effective nonlinear conductivity of Kerr-like nonlinear media under an external ac electric field. As an example, we have considered the cylindrical inclusion embedded in a host under the sinusoidal external field E{sub 1} sin (<{omega}t) + E{sub 3} sin (3<{omega}t) with frequencies{omega} and 3{omega}. The potentials of composites at higher harmonics are derived in both local inclusion particle and host regions. The effective responses of bulk nonlinear composites at basic frequency and harmonics are given for cylindrical composites in the dilute limit. Moreover, the relationships between the nonlinear effective responses at the basic frequency and the third harmonics are derived.

  7. Josephson arrays for dc and ac metrology

    Large series arrays of underdamped SIS tunnel junctions are the basic element of the primary dc voltage standards used at present. The development of versatile quantum voltmeters for dc and ac metrology requires the preparation of large and perfect series arrays of overdamped Josephson junctions. Overdamped junctions can be realized by externally shunted SIS junctions or by internally shunted SNS or SINIS junctions. Arrays of up to 8000 SINIS junctions or 30000 SNS junctions were successfully operated at the 1 V dc level. In addition to being used in large arrays for voltage metrology and oscillators, the described junction types may become very useful for the preparation of highly integrated single-flux-quantum digital devices. (author)

  8. An ac bridge readout for bolometric detectors

    Rieke, F. M.; Lange, A. E.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a bolometer readout circuit which greatly improves the low-frequency stability of bolometric detectors. The circuit uses an ac bias voltage and two matched bolometers and allows stable dc bolometer operation for integration times greater than 10 s. In astronomical applications the readout allows for qualitatively different observation modes (e.g. staring or slow-drift scanning) which are particularly well suited for space observations and for the use of arrays. In many applications the readout can increase sensitivity. The authors present noise spectra for 4He temperature bolometers with no excess noise at frequencies greater than 0.1 Hz. The measured optical responsivity of a bolometer operated with the present readout is the same as that of a bolometer operated with a conventional readout.

  9. Cooperative Frequency Control for Autonomous AC Microgrids

    Shafiee, Qobad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.; Nasirian, Vahidreza; Davoudi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Distributed secondary control strategies have been recently studied for frequency regulation in droop-based AC Microgrids. Unlike centralized secondary control, the distributed one might fail to provide frequency synchronization and proportional active power sharing simultaneously, due to having...... different control parameters. This paper introduces a cooperative algorithm that regulates the system frequency while maintaining the power sharing properties of droop control. Dynamic consensus protocol is used to estimate the average of normalized active powers in the entire MG. This estimation is then...... added to primary control, compensating the frequency drop caused by the droop mechanism. The proposed controller is fully distributed, meaning that each source exchange information with only its direct neighbors through a sparse communication network. This controller has a unique feature that it does...

  10. Mapa Acústico del Gran Madrid

    Santiago Páez, José Salvador; Perera, P

    2006-01-01

    El desarrollo urbanístico de Madrid desde los años 1980 a finales de la década de los 90 hizo que su Ayuntamiento, que ya había promovido la realización entre 1985 y 1991 de un Mapa Acústico parcial de la ciudad, pensase en extender el ámbito de éste a todo el término municipal. Siguiendo el mismo criterio anterior, se superpuso una cuadrícula sobre el plano de Madrid, y se llevaron a cabo registros sonoros de 5 minutos en cada vértice de la misma, en los puntos de medición fuera del área ant...

  11. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    Overhead lines at transmission level are the backbone of any national power grid today. New overhead line projects however are at the same time subject to ever greater public resistance due to the lines environmental impact. As full undergrounding of transmission lines at extra high voltage (EHV......) levels are still not seen as possibility, the future expansion of transmission grids are dependent on new solutions with lessened environment impact, especially with regard to the visual impact. In the present Thesis, composite materials and composite based overhead line components are presented and...... analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  12. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to date...... cable models, perform highly accurate field measurements for validating the model and identifying possible disadvantages of the cable model. Furthermore the project suggests and implements improvements and validates them against several field measurements. It is shown in this paper how a new method for...... calculating the frequency dependent cables impedance greatly improves the modeling procedure and gives a highly accurate result for high frequency simulations....

  13. Nonlinear ac conductivity of interacting 1d electron systems

    Rosenow, Bernd; Nattermann, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    We consider low energy charge transport in one-dimensional (1d) electron systems with short range interactions under the influence of a random potential. Combining RG and instanton methods, we calculate the nonlinear ac conductivity and discuss the crossover between the nonanalytic field dependence of the electric current at zero frequency and the linear ac conductivity at small electric fields and finite frequency.

  14. 78 FR 39345 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    2013-07-01

    ... will transfer to AWN all remaining tangible and intangible assets owned, leased or held by ACS Wireless.... \\6\\ ACS Group will cause certain of its other subsidiaries to transfer wireless spectrum licenses and...'' as the power to exercise a controlling influence over the management or policies of a company,...

  15. Operation of AC Adapters Visualized Using Light-Emitting Diodes

    Regester, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    A bridge rectifier is a diamond-shaped configuration of diodes that serves to convert alternating current(AC) into direct current (DC). In our world of AC outlets and DC electronics, they are ubiquitous. Of course, most bridge rectifiers are built with regular diodes, not the light-emitting variety, because LEDs have a number of disadvantages. For…

  16. Flexible AC transmission systems: the state of the art

    Edris, Abdel-Aty [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Electric Systems Division

    1994-12-31

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) is a concept promoting the use of power electronic controllers to enhance the controllability and usable capacity of AC transmission. This paper presents the state of the art of FACTS and the status of the current projects for the application of the FACTS controllers in transmission systems. (author) 8 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Search for β-delayed fission of 228Ac

    Radium was radiochemically separated from natural thorium. Thin 228Ra→β-228Ac sources were prepared and exposed to mica fission track detectors, and measured by an HPGe γ-ray detector. The β-delayed fission events of 228Ac were observed and its β-delayed fission probability was found to be (5±2)x10-12

  18. Improved Design Methods for Robust Single- and Three-Phase ac-dc-ac Power Converters

    Qin, Zian

    proposed new active power decoupling method, the ripple power in the converter can be compensated in a more efficient and more compact way. Then, Chapter 5 changes the scope of the thesis to three-phase converters, and the nine-switch converter, as a reduced switch version of two three-phase full......-bridges connected back-to-back, is studied. Application criteria of the nine-switch converter are investigated for reducing the relatively high stress introduced by the less number of switches. In Chapter 6 a rotating speed controller design method is proposed for improving the thermal loading of the three...... to users. Their performances including cost, efficiency, reliability, and so on, therefore are more important concerns than they were. The objective of this thesis is to study and propose advanced design methods for robust ac-dc-ac converters, which are widely used interfaces in energy conversion...

  19. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures § 86.162-00 Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2. The alternative air conditioning test procedures AC1 and AC2 are approved by the Administrator... requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and meet the requirements of § 86.163-00. Air conditioning...

  20. Ac response of a coupled double quantum dot

    Xu Jie; W.Z. Shangguan; Zhan Shi-Chang

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phase-breaking process on the ac response of a coupled double quantum dot is studied in this paper based on the nonequilibrium Green function formalism. A general expression is derived for the ac current in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. The ac conductance is numerically computed and the results are compared with those in [Anatram M P and Datts S 1995 Phys. Rev. B 51 7632]. Our results reveal that the inter-dot electron tunnelling interplays with that between dots and electron reservoirs, and contributes prominently to the ac current when inter-dot tunnelling coupling is much larger than the tunnelling coupling between dots and electron reservoirs. In addition, the phase-breaking process is found to have a significant effect on the ac transport through the coupled double dot.

  1. Determination for β-delayed fission probability of 230Ac

    袁双贵; 杨维凡; 徐岩冰; 肖永厚; 罗亦孝

    2002-01-01

    The 230Ra has been produced via 232Th-2p reaction induced by 60 MeV/u 18O ion irradia-tion of natural thorium. The radium was radiochemically separated from the mixture of thorium andreaction products. Thin Ra sources in which 230Ac was got through 230Ra β- → 230Ac were pre-pared for observing fission fragments from β-delayed fission of 230Ac. The sources were exposedto the mica fission track detectors and measured by the HPGe γ detector. The precursor 230Ac wasidentified by means of observed two fission events as well as γ spectra, and the β-delayed fissionprobability of 230Ac was obtained to be (1.19±0.85) × 10-8.

  2. Development of YBCO HTS cable with low AC loss

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables using YBCO tapes are expected to be more economical because AC losses will be much smaller than conventional cables. To reduce AC loss, 10 mm wide YBCO tapes were divided into five strips using a YAG laser. Using narrower strips and optimizing the space between the strips were effective in reducing AC loss. A 1 m conductor was fabricated, and AC loss was 0.048 W/m at 1 kA and 50 Hz. Based on the successful AC loss reduction in the 1 m conductor, we will fabricate a 10 m HTS cable with a three-layer HTS conductor, electrical insulation, and a one-layer HTS shield and cupper protection layer for overcurrent. In addition, we have developed a prototype of the HTS cable joint that can withstand an overcurrent condition of 31.5 kA for 2 s

  3. Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC) for Small Animal PET Imaging

    El Ali, Henrik H.; Bodholdt, Rasmus Poul; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær;

    2012-01-01

    performed. Methods: Ten NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous implantation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were scanned consecutively in small animal PET and CT scanners (MicroPETTM Focus 120 and ImTek’s MicroCATTM II). CT-based AC, PET-based AC and uniform AC methods were compared. Results: The activity...... bladder 18 ± 3% (15–21%). The FBP reconstructed images showed almost the same attenuation levels as the MAP reconstructed images for all organs. Conclusions: The annihilation photons are suffering attenuation even in small subjects. Both PET-based and CT-based are adequate as AC methods. The amplitude of...... the AC recovery could be overestimated using the uniform map. Therefore, application of a global attenuation factor on PET data might not be accurate for attenuation correction....

  4. A Simple Load Power Estimator For Quasi-Direct AC-AC Converter System

    Marian GAICEANU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simple load power estimator for the three-phase quasi-direct acac converter system is reported. Since the ac-ac converter control by means of pulsewidth modulation (PWM is based on the power balance concept, its load power should be known. Two control boards, based on the dSMC (digital Smart Motion Controller 30 MIPS 32-bit fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP, were involved in the ac-ac system driving. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation at the load changes can be reduced. In this way a small DC link capacitor is required to handle the dc voltage error control. The feed-forward (Sul and Lipo, 1990 current component provides fast correction of the reference control to load power variation. In order to obtain the feed-forward current component, the load power must to be known. In this paper the load power is estimated from the dc link, indirectly, through a dc load current estimator. In this way the author overcomes the use of the serial communication between control boards (Gaiceanu, 2004 in order to deliver the load power information from the inverter side. The load current estimator is based on the DC link voltage and on the load current of the supply converter. This method presents certain advantages instead of using measured method, which requires a low pass filter: no time delay, the feed-forward current component has no ripple, no additional hardware, and more fast control response. Through simulation and experimental results the performances of the proposed load current estimator scheme are demonstrated.

  5. Sustainable AC/AC hybrid electrochemical capacitors in aqueous electrolyte approaching the performance of organic systems

    Abbas, Qamar; Babuchowska, Paulina; Frąckowiak, Elżbieta; Béguin, François

    2016-09-01

    A high energy hybrid AC/AC electrochemical capacitor has been realized in aqueous Li2SO4+KI electrolyte mixture. Owing to the redox processes associated with the 2I-/I2 system, the positive electrode operates in narrow potential range and displays high capacity. During prolonged potentiostatic floating at 1.6 V, the hybrid cell demonstrates remarkably stable capacitance and resistance. Analyses by temperature programmed desorption after floating at 1.6 V proved that oxidation of the positive AC electrode is prevented by the use of Li2SO4+KI, which enables the maximum potential of this electrode to be shifted below the water oxidation potential. When charged at 0.2 A g-1 up to U = 1.6 V, the hybrid cell displays a high capacitance of 75 F g-1 (300 F g-1 per mass of one electrode) compared to 47 F g-1 (188 F g-1 per mass of one electrode) for a symmetric cell in Li2SO4. At 0.2 A g-1 up to 1.6 V, the hybrid capacitor in Li2SO4+KI displays an energy density of 26 Wh kg-1 which approaches the energy density of 30.9 Wh kg-1 measured when the same carbon is implemented in a capacitor using TEABF4/ACN electrolyte and charged up to 2.5 V.

  6. HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

    Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R

    1982-09-01

    Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.

  7. La acústica submarina y su desarrollo desde la creación del Instituto de Acústica

    Ranz Guerra, Carlos; Cobo, Pedro; Carbó, Rafael; Santiago Páez, José Salvador; Soler, A. M.; Briones, J. M.; Jimeno, I.; Muñoz, N; Camarasa, M.; Recuero López, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    PACS: 43.30.Xm; 43.30.Yj; 43.30.Vh; 43.30.Nb; 43.30.Ma.-- Publicado en el Vol. XXXI, núm. 3-4, tercer y cuarto trimestre 2000 de la Revista de Acústica: Número especial dedicado al XXV Aniversario del Instituto de Acústica del C.S.I.C.

  8. Safe-commutation principle for direct single-phase AC-AC converters for use in audio power amplification

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative safe commutation principle for a single phase bidirectional bridge, for use in the new generation of direct single-stage AC-AC audio power amplifiers. As compared with the bridge commutation with load current or source voltage sensing, in this approach it is not...

  9. Numerical estimation of AC loss in superconductors with ripple current

    Highlights: •The loss energy density with ripple current is numerically calculated. •Irie–Yamafuji model is used for magnetic field dependence of critical current. •Calculated result of cylindrical superconductor agrees with theoretical result. •AC loss of strip superconductor becomes large at small ripple current amplitude. •Strip superconductor should be used as a form of hollow cylinder to reduce AC loss. -- Abstract: The loss energy density (AC loss) with ripple current is numerically calculated by finite element method for cylindrical and strip superconductors based on Irie–Yamafuji model in which the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density is taken into account for design of DC transmission cable system. It is confirmed that calculated result of the AC loss in the cylindrical superconductor with the ripple current agrees well with theoretical estimation which was reported in the previous work. On the contrary, the AC loss in the strip superconductor with the ripple current is obtained only by numerical calculation. It is found that the AC loss in the strip superconductor of the ripple current becomes larger than that without DC current at small ripple current amplitude, since the penetration depth of magnetic field becomes large. Therefore, it is recommended that strip superconductor is better to use as cylindrical hollow superconductor for DC transmission cable system to reduce the AC loss

  10. Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC for Small Animal PET Imaging

    Henrik H. El Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a correction for annihilation photon attenuation in small objects such as mice is necessary. The attenuation recovery for specific organs and subcutaneous tumors was investigated. A comparison between different attenuation correction methods was performed. Methods: Ten NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous implantation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 were scanned consecutively in small animal PET and CT scanners (MicroPETTM Focus 120 and ImTek’s MicroCATTM II. CT-based AC, PET-based AC and uniform AC methods were compared. Results: The activity concentration in the same organ with and without AC revealed an overall attenuation recovery of 9–21% for MAP reconstructed images, i.e., SUV without AC could underestimate the true activity at this level. For subcutaneous tumors, the attenuation was 13 ± 4% (9–17%, for kidneys 20 ± 1% (19–21%, and for bladder 18 ± 3% (15–21%. The FBP reconstructed images showed almost the same attenuation levels as the MAP reconstructed images for all organs. Conclusions: The annihilation photons are suffering attenuation even in small subjects. Both PET-based and CT-based are adequate as AC methods. The amplitude of the AC recovery could be overestimated using the uniform map. Therefore, application of a global attenuation factor on PET data might not be accurate for attenuation correction.

  11. Analytical description of AC losses for high temperature superconductors

    Full text: AC losses for high temperature superconductors have been calculated by considering the effects of the temperature distribution and the flux flow resistance. Maxwell's equations and thermal diffusion equation are used to calculate the distribution of magnetic field and the temperature inside the superconductors, respectively. The flux flow effect on the AC losses is calculated by using the extended critical state model. An analytical expression of the AC losses is obtained using a superposition approximation in which the cases of complete and incomplete magnetic field penetration have been distinguished. The expression can well explain the experimental observations of the frequency dependence of the AC losses per cycle in high temperature superconductors. It is clearly shown from the analytical expression that the effect of the thermal distribution inside the superconductors is different from the effect caused by flux flow resistance. In the case of incomplete magnetic penetration, the temperature distribution results in the increase of the AC losses per cycle upon frequency whereas the flux flow leads to the decrease of the AC losses per cycle upon frequency. In the case of complete magnetic penetration the results are opposite to those in the previous case. Due to the extremely strong flux flow in high temperature superconducting materials, the effect of the flux flow on the AC losses is dominant, and the overall dependence of AC losses per cycle upon frequency is controlled by the flux flow. On the other hand, because the inhomogeneous distribution of the temperature inside the superconductors which is normal higher in the center than near the edge, there is an upper limit for the frequency beyond which the superconductivity will be totally destroyed by AC losses. Analytical expressions for the critical frequency, distributions of magnetic field and critical current density are also obtained

  12. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

    Pekik Argo Dahono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

  13. An Improved AC-BM Algorithm for Monitoring Watch List

    Mo Yiwen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the expanding of database of the watch list of anti-money laundering, improving the speed in matching between the watch list and the database of account holders and clients’ transaction is especially important. This paper proposes an improved AC-BM Algorithm, a matching algorithm of subsection, to improve the speed of matching. Experiment results show the time performance of the improved algorithm is better than traditional BM algorithm, AC algorithm and the AC-BM algorithm. It can improve the efficiency of on-line monitoring of anti-money laundering.  

  14. DC and AC biasing of a transition edge sensor microcalorimeter

    We are developing AC-biased transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for use in large arrays with frequency-domain multiplexing. Using DC bias, we have achieved a resolution of 17 eV FWHM at 2.6 keV with a decay time of 90 μs and an effective detector diameter of 300 μm. We have successfully measured thermal pulses with a TES microcalorimeter operated with an AC bias. We present here preliminary results from a single pixel detector operated under DC and AC bias conditions

  15. Study on radioimmunoassay of Bt Cry1Ac protein

    Bt Cry1Ac protein was extracted from incubation of Bacillus thuringiensis HD-73, and cutting into more specific protein segment with high insect-resistance. High-affinity multi-colonial antibodies of Bt Cry1 Ac protein were obtained after injected it into New Zealand rabbits. By 125I labeling of Bt Cry1 Ac protein, a RIA kit was established. In this method, centrifuge for separation was not necessary due to the use of magnetic micro-particle and the specifications of the kit were found equal to those of imported ELISA. (authors)

  16. Operation of AC Adapters Visualized Using Light-Emitting Diodes

    Regester, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    A bridge rectifier is a diamond-shaped configuration of diodes that serves to convert alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC). In our world of AC outlets and DC electronics, they are ubiquitous. Of course, most bridge rectifiers are built with regular diodes, not the light-emitting variety, because LEDs have a number of disadvantages. For educational purposes, however, an LED-based rectifier is ideal because it allows students to literally see the rectifier operating. Here I'll discuss the practical aspects of building a full AC adapter incorporating an LED-based rectifier and ideas on how to use it in class.

  17. Theoretical analysis of ac losses in high temperature superconducting bulks

    Ac loss behavior in HTS bulk materials is studied by developing an analytic method. The self-heating effect on the distributions of temperature in HTS bulks has been calculated. A critical frequency which sets the upper limit for driving frequency of the external field in sustaining a superconducting state is obtained. Our model provides useful information of understanding the experimental phenomena, including an anomalous ac loss behavior, a retardation of the inner field respect to the external ac field, etc., in HTS bulk materials

  18. Advanced DC/AC inverters applications in renewable energy

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2013-01-01

    DC/AC inversion technology is of vital importance for industrial applications, including electrical vehicles and renewable energy systems, which require a large number of inverters. In recent years, inversion technology has developed rapidly, with new topologies improving the power factor and increasing power efficiency. Proposing many novel approaches, Advanced DC/AC Inverters: Applications in Renewable Energy describes advanced DC/AC inverters that can be used for renewable energy systems. The book introduces more than 100 topologies of advanced inverters originally developed by the authors,

  19. Stochastic Dynamics of DC and AC Driven Dislocation Kinks

    Vardanyan, A.; Kteyan, A.

    2013-02-01

    Dynamics of a pinned dislocation kink controlled by the acting DC and AC forces is studied analytically. The motion of the kink, described by sine-Gordon (sG) equation, is explored within the framework of McLaughlin-Scott perturbation theory. Assuming weakness of the acting AC force, the equation of motion of the dislocation kink in the pinning potential is linearized. Based on the equations derived, we study stochastic behavior of the kink, and determine the probability of its depinning. The dependencies of the depinning probability on DC and AC forces are analyzed in detail.

  20. Observation of β-delayed fission from 230Ac

    β-delayed fission for 230Ac was searched. 230Ra was produced via multinucleon transfer reaction by 60 MeV/u 18O ion irradiation of 232Th target. Thin 230Ra→230Ac sources of 108 atoms were acquired through radiochemical separations. The mica track detectors were used to record the fission events. The β-delayed fission nucleus 230Ac was identified via the observed two fission events and the measured γ-ray spectra. Its β-delayed fission probability was obtained to be (1.19 +- 0.85) x 10-8

  1. Neurinoma central do nervo acústico

    Paulo Pinto Pupo

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta o caso de uma paciente com 45 anos, com hipertensão arterial, queixando-se de tonturas e surdez progressiva à esquerda que, ao exame neurológico, apresentava síndrome protuberancial, com hemi-anestesia táctil e dolorosa à direita respeitando a face, hemiparesia direita, ataxia de tipo sensitivo nos membros da direita, paralisia facial de tipo periférico, hipoacusia, paresia de motor ocular externo à esquerda, síndrome vertiginosa e nistagmo horizontal ao olhar para a direita. À necrópsia foi encontrado um tumor na hemicalota protuberancial esquerda e foco malácico adjacente, secundário a distúrbio circulatório. O tumor, intimamente dependente das raízes intraprotuberanciais do nervo acústico, se apresentava com as características histológicas dos neurinomas. Além dessas particularidades, a lesão do feixe central da calota e conseqüente degeneração "hipertrófica" da oliva bulbar constituem outro aspecto de grande interêsse dêste caso.

  2. AC Impedance Behaviour of Black Diamond Films

    Haitao YE; Olivier GAUDIN; Richard B.JACKMAN

    2005-01-01

    The first measurement of impedance on free-standing diamond films from 0.1 Hz to 10 MHz up to 300℃ were reported. A wide range of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) materials were investigated, but here we concentrate are well fitted to a RC parallel circuit model and the equivalent resistance and capacitance for the diamond films have been estimated using the Zview curve fitting. The results show only one single semicircle response at each temperature measured. It was found that the resistance decreases from 62 MΩ at room temperature to 4 kΩ at300℃, with an activation energy around 0.51 eV. The equivalent capacitance is maintained at the level of 100 pF up to 300℃ suggesting that the diamond grain boundaries are dominating the conduction. At 400℃, the impedance at low frequencies shows a linear tail, which can be explained that the AC polarization of diamond/Au interface occurs.

  3. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC22 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC22 (Link to dictyBase) - G03266 DDB0186811 Contig-U14995-1 FCL-...AC22P (Link to Original site) FCL-AC22F 430 FCL-AC22Z 521 FCL-AC22P 951 - - Show FCL-AC22 Library FC...L (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-AC22 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G03266 dictyBase ID DDB0186811 ...Link to Contig Contig-U14995-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-...AC22Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-AC22P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-

  4. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC23 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC23 (Link to dictyBase) - G01760 DDB0186002 Contig-U16043-1 FCL-...AC23P (Link to Original site) FCL-AC23F 132 FCL-AC23Z 582 FCL-AC23P 714 - - Show FCL-AC23 Library FC...L (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-AC23 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G01760 dictyBase ID DDB0186002 ...Link to Contig Contig-U16043-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-...AC23Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-AC23P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-

  5. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  6. American Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Estimates for Coastal Geographies

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population every year. These data have been apportioned...

  7. Performance of an x-ray microcalorimeter under ac biasing

    Frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) is an attractive option for the readout of imaging arrays of microcalorimeters. Implementation of FDM requires ac biasing of the individual microcalorimeters. In this letter we present a small signal model for the behavior of a microcalorimeter under ac bias. Moreover, we have measured the behavior of the same microcalorimeter under ac (at 46 kHz) and dc bias. These experiments show that the performance of the device is very similar in terms of energy resolution, pulse shapes, and current-voltage characteristics. The measured energy resolution at 5.89 keV is 6.9 eV for ac bias and 5.5 eV for dc bias. The effective time constant in both cases is 100 μs

  8. Dc to ac converter operates efficiently at low input voltages

    1965-01-01

    Self-oscillating dc to ac converter with transistor switching to produce a square wave output is used for low and high voltage power sources. The converter has a high efficiency throughout a wide range of loads.

  9. Ferromagnetic resonance driven by an ac current: a brief review

    Excitation of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) by an ac current has been observed in macroscopic ferromagnetic films for decades and typically relies on the ac Oersted field of the current to drive magnetic moments into precession and classical rectification of ac signals to detect the resonance. Recently, current-driven ferromagnetic resonances have attracted renewed attention with the discovery of the spin-transfer torque (STT) effect due to its potential applications in magnetic memory and microwave technologies. Here STT associated with the ac current is used to drive magnetodynamics on the nanoscale that enables FMR studies in sample volumes smaller by a factor of 1000 compared to conventional resonance techniques. In this paper, we briefly review the basics of STT-FMR technique and the results of various STT-FMR experiments.

  10. c-axis ac susceptibility in high-Tc superconductors

    We have investigated the angle and magnetic field dependence of the ac susceptibility in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 and YBa2Cu3O7 single crystals at low external fields. The ac field was applied perpendicular to the CuO2 planes. The first and third harmonics of the ac susceptibility exhibit remarkably sharp features when the dc field component perpendicular to the CuO2 planes passes a threshold field Hth. Hth is strongly temperature dependent, but is independent of the parallel field component. We propose a simple model which excellently explains the data. Within this model the peak structures are related to the irreversibility line. We discuss the implications of the model for the interpretation of the ac susceptibility. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. A precursor of β-delayed fission:230Ac

    2002-01-01

    The 230Ra has been produced via multinucleon transfer and dissipativefragmentation of heavy target in the 60 MeV/u 18O ion reaction with natural thorium.The radium was radiochemically separated from irradiated thorium targets. 230Acwas obtained by 230Ra β-→ 230Ac. Thin Ra sources were prepared for observing fissionfragments from β-delayed fission of 230Ac. The sources were exposed to the micafission track detectors and measured by a HPGe γ detector. The two fission eventswere obtained and could been assigned to theβ-delayed fission of 230Ac. The β-delayedfission probability of 230Ac was determined to be (1.19+0.85) × 10-8.

  12. AC susceptibility of polycrystalline (Bi-Pb 2223 superconductors

    H. Salamati

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available   The temperature dependence of ac susceptibility of (Bi-Pb2223 polycrystalline samples was measured as a function of frequency and ac field amplitude. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the AC susceptibility near the transition temperature (Tc has been done employing Bean’s critical state model. The observed variation of intergranular critical current densities (Jc with temperature indicates that the weak links are superconductor- normal metal-superconductor (SNS type for this sample. The frequency effect on AC susceptibility was also measured. As the frequency increases, (TP shifts to higher temperatures. This effect can be interpreted in terms of flux creep. The temperature T, and field, , dependence of activation energy obtained from the Arrhenius plot for the frequency ( f and ( TP , can be described as: U(Hac,T=U0(1-T/TCHac-0.18

  13. Fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization

    Anodization techniques by alternating current (ac) are introduced in this review. By using ac anodization, laminated alumina films are fabricated. Different types of alumina films consisting of 50–200 nm layers were obtained by varying both the ac power supply and the electrolyte. The total film thickness increased with an increase in the total charge transferred. The thickness of the individual layers increased with the ac voltage; however, the anodization time had little effect on the film thickness. The laminated alumina films resembled the nacre structure of shells, and the different morphologies exhibited by bivalves and spiral shells could be replicated by controlling the rate of increase of the applied potentials. (paper)

  14. Dynamics of a nanowire superlattice in an ac electric field

    Zhang, Aizhen; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan; M. Willatzen

    2005-01-01

    With a one-band envelope function theory, we investigate the dynamics of a finite nanowire superlattice driven by an ac electric field by solving numerically the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We find that for an ac electric field resonant with two energy levels located in two different minibands, the coherent dynamics in nanowire superlattices is much more complex as compared to the standard two-level description. Depending on the energy levels involved in the transitions, the coheren...

  15. Muc5ac mucin expression during rat skin development

    V. Ferretti; Á. Segal-Eiras; Barbeito, C.G.; Croce, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Some mucin genes have been detected during human embryonic and fetal organ development; however, little is known about mucin expression in epidermal development, neither in humans nor in other species. The present research was developed to explore Muc5ac skin expression during prenatal and postnatal rat development. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting (WB) and RT-PCR were employed. By IHC, Muc5ac protein was found early in embryonic epidermis from day 13 of gestation until seven days...

  16. Scaling and universality of ac conduction in disordered solids

    Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, Jeppe

    2000-01-01

    Recent scaling results for the ac conductivity of ionic glasses by Roling et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2160 (1997)] and Sidebottom [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3653 (1999)] are discussed. We prove that Sidebottom's version of scaling is completely general. A new approximation to the universal ac conduct...... conductivity arising in the extreme disorder limit of the symmetric hopping model, the "diffusion cluster approximation," is presented and compared to computer simulations and experiments....

  17. Autonomous Operation of Hybrid Microgrid With AC and DC Subgrids

    Chiang Loh, Poh; Li, Ding; Kang Chai, Yi;

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates on power-sharing issues of an autonomous hybrid microgrid. Unlike existing microgrids which are purely ac, the hybrid microgrid studied here comprises dc and ac subgrids interconnected by power electronic interfaces. The main challenge here is to manage power flows among all...... converters. Suitable control and normalization schemes are now developed for controlling them with the overall hybrid microgrid performance already verified in simulation and experiment....

  18. Fractal AC circuits and propagating waves on fractals

    Akkermans, Eric; Dunne, Gerald; Rogers, Luke G; Teplyaev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We extend Feynman's analysis of the infinite ladder AC circuit to fractal AC circuits. We show that the characteristic impedances can have positive real part even though all the individual impedances inside the circuit are purely imaginary. This provides a physical setting for analyzing wave propagation of signals on fractals, by analogy with the Telegrapher's Equation, and generalizes the real resistance metric on a fractal, which provides a measure of distance on a fractal, to complex impedances.

  19. AC resistivity of d-wave ceramic superconductors

    Li, Mai Suan; Dominguez, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    We model d-wave ceramic superconductors with a three-dimensional lattice of randomly distributed $\\pi$ Josephson junctions with finite self-inductance. The linear and nonlinear ac resistivity of the d-wave ceramic superconductors is obtained as function of temperature by solving the corresponding Langevin dynamical equations. We find that the linear ac resistivity remains finite at the temperature $T_p$ where the third harmonics of resistivity has a peak. The current amplitude dependence of t...

  20. ISTTOK upgrade towards AC and remote operation

    ISTTOK has performed one of the earliest experiments of AC tokamak operation showing that long discharges could be produced merely with inductive current drive. However, due to the design of the machine, the data acquisition system and the power supplies, a limit of 250 ms (six times the nominal forward shot duration) is currently imposed.In this paper the relevant constrains to attain current operation up to the limit of the stable toroidal magnetic field (3s) are discussed and the work being carried out to achieve this goal is presented.The conditions that shall be accomplished are: (i) removing the power deposited on the limiters; (ii) density control through gas puffing and monitoring the recycling from the walls; (iii) assessment of the free magnetic flux available on the iron core (Wmax=0.2 Vs); (iv) reformulation of the data acquisition system towards an event driven philosophy maintaining the actual distributed architecture but allowing a real-time control; (v) active control of the equilibrium magnetic fields implementing a digital plasma position estimator and actuator through new power supplies for the poloidal magnetic fields. As a new high level software was needed to implement all this features, the ISTTOK data acquisition system and control has been totally redesigned in JAVA/SQL database technology and time stamps events were adopted to catalogue the data. This software has been design keeping in mind the needs for remote participation and operation of the machine. Therefore, a cooperative environment has been implemented where several persons can be connected together to the platform, programming their own devices and exchanging knowledge or opinions through an embedded chat

  1. ISTTOK upgrade towards AC and remote operation

    Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Carvalho, B.; Sousa, J.; Valcárcel, D.; Neto, A.; Fortunato, J.; Carvalho, I.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    2006-12-01

    ISTTOK has performed one of the earliest experiments of AC tokamak operation showing that long discharges could be produced merely with inductive current drive. However, due to the design of the machine, the data acquisition system and the power supplies, a limit of 250 ms (six times the nominal forward shot duration) is currently imposed. In this paper the relevant constrains to attain current operation up to the limit of the stable toroidal magnetic field (3s) are discussed and the work being carried out to achieve this goal is presented. The conditions that shall be accomplished are: (i) removing the power deposited on the limiters; (ii) density control through gas puffing and monitoring the recycling from the walls; (iii) assessment of the free magnetic flux available on the iron core (Wmax=0.2 Vs); (iv) reformulation of the data acquisition system towards an event driven philosophy maintaining the actual distributed architecture but allowing a real-time control; (v) active control of the equilibrium magnetic fields implementing a digital plasma position estimator and actuator through new power supplies for the poloidal magnetic fields. As a new high level software was needed to implement all this features, the ISTTOK data acquisition system and control has been totally redesigned in JAVA/SQL database technology and time stamps events were adopted to catalogue the data. This software has been design keeping in mind the needs for remote participation and operation of the machine. Therefore, a cooperative environment has been implemented where several persons can be connected together to the platform, programming their own devices and exchanging knowledge or opinions through an embedded chat.

  2. Simulation of the Relaxation Potential Profile of an ac-dc-ac Test

    Kerry N. Allahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relaxation period of the accelerated ac-dc-ac test for coatings is associated with the transient electrochemistry that occurs when the immersed coated system is allowed to return to a stable open-circuit condition after being subjected to a cathodic potential. A mathematical model of the transient electrochemistry that occurs during this relaxation period is presented for coated aluminum. Expressions for the corrosion potential and corrosion current as functions of the local pH at the metal-coating interface were developed using reported experimental results. These expressions enabled the simulation of the transient electrochemistry under the constraint of balanced anodic and cathodic current densities. Regression of the transient relaxation potential profiles to exponential decay functions provided time-constant characterization of the profiles. Simulated results are presented that demonstrate the influences of the coating's porosity and thickness, the applied dc potential and the metal-coating interface condition on the time-constants associated with the relaxation profile. Interpretation of experimentally reported relaxation potential profiles supported the analysis of the simulated results.

  3. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi; /Texas U.

    2008-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f {approx} 20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  4. Controlo de um conversor AC-DC-AC para turbinas eólicas baseadas no PMSG

    Bulhosa, João Paulo Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    A dissertação teve como objectivo o estudo e implementação do controlo de um conversor AC-DC-AC, constituído por um conversor DC/DC elevador e um inversor de tensão monofásico, para efectuar a ligação à rede de turbinas eólicas baseadas no gerador síncrono de ímanes permanentes. O controlo global do conversor AC-DC-AC seguiu uma estratégia na qual o controlo do conversor elevador e do inversor de tensão monofásico é implementado de modo independente. O primeiro visa maximizar a potência ex...

  5. Safe-commutation principle for direct single-phase AC-AC converters for use in audio power amplification

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an alternative safe commutation principle for a single phase bidirectional bridge, for use in the new generation of direct single-stage AC-AC audio power amplifiers. As compared with the bridge commutation with load current or source voltage sensing, in this approach it is not required to do any measurements, thus making it more reliable. Initial testing made on the prototype prove the feasibility of the approach. (au)

  6. Monoclonal antibodies AC-43 and AC-29 disrupt Plasmodium vivax development in the Indian malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: culicidae)

    Manoj Chugh; B R Gulati; S K Gakhar

    2010-03-01

    A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was generated against the midgut proteins of Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. The mAbs AC-43 and AC-29 significantly inhibited Plasmodium vivax development inside the mosquito midgut. The number of oocysts that developed was reduced by 78.6% when mosquitoes ingested a combination of these two mAbs along with the blood meal. AC-43 mAb binds to the epitope common in 97, 80 and 43 kDa polypeptides from the midgut protein extract, as indicated by western blot analysis. Similarly, the mAb AC-29 recognized 52, 44, 40 and 29 kDa polypeptides. These female midgut-specific polypeptides are shared between An. culicifacies and An. stephensi, two major vectors of malaria in India. Deglycosylation assays revealed that -linked carbohydrates are the major components in epitopes corresponding to AC-43 and AC-29. Gold particle labelling revealed that both these mAbs preferentially bind to glycoproteins at the apical microvilli and the microvillus-associated network present inside transverse sections of the gut epithelium. These regions are particularly known to have receptors for ookinetes, which enable them to cross this epithelial barrier and provide them with certain necessary chemicals or components for further development into oocysts. Therefore, these glycoproteins appear to be potential candidates for a vectordirected transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV).

  7. Temas de Física para Ingeniería: Acústica

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    Acústica, fluidos y termodinámica: "Acústica". Ondas sonoras, propagación. Sonidos puros, sonidos complejos y ruidos. Velocidad de propagación del sonido. Intensidad del sonido y potencia acústica. Impedancia acústica y transmisión del sonido. Medición del campo acústico: niveles. Audición. Interferencia de ondas sonoras y pulsaciones. Tubos sonoros. Efecto Doppler.

  8. Analysis of AC loss in superconducting power devices calculated from short sample data

    Rabbers, J.J.; Haken, ten, Bennie; Kate, ten, F.J.W.

    2003-01-01

    A method to calculate the AC loss of superconducting power devices from the measured AC loss of a short sample is developed. In coils and cables the magnetic field varies spatially. The position dependent field vector is calculated assuming a homogeneous current distribution. From this field profile and the transport current, the local AC loss is calculated. Integration over the conductor length yields the AC loss of the device. The total AC loss of the device is split up in different compone...

  9. Electrical Switchgear Building No. 5010-ESF Fire Hazards Technical Report

    The purpose of this Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report (hereinafter referred to as Technical Report) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas to ascertain whether the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety objectives are met. The objectives, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Change 2, Fire Safety, Section 4.2, establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event; (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of the employees, the public, and the environment; (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding defined limits established by DOE; and (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related event

  10. Behaviour analysis of AC-600 passive safety systems

    Southwest Center of Reactor Engineering Research and Design has finished the first step conceptual design of 600 mwe advanced PWR (AC-600). The main research emphases of AC-600 conceptual design include the advanced reactor core, the passive safety systems and the simplification. The passive safety systems of AC-600 consist of two reactor make up water tanks, two accumulators, two emergency feedwater tanks, two emergency natural draft air condensers, a containment water jacket and an enhanced primary cycle natural circulation flow system. 25% of the rated reactor power can be removed by the natural circulation cooling. The full pressure reactor make up water tanks are able to provide enough borated water which would be injected into the reactor coolant system during small LOCA. The coolant natural circulations can be established in the primary system and the passive secondary emergency feedwater system, removing residual heat from the reactor core to the atmosphere when station blackout occurs. It is indicated from analysis that the containment diameter of AC-600 is about 35 m. The large tanks and the large vertical distances between the tanks and reactor core are the main reason of using the big containment. It is also indicated from analysis that the low head safety injection pumps are required in AC-600 design to assure the recirculation system operation when large LOCA occurs. The reliability of AC-600 engineered safety systems is increased because the function of the passive safety systems is conducted through the immutable natural laws. The paper discusses the natural circulation ability and safety behavior of the passive safety systems during LOCA or station blackout for AC-600. The passive limits to excess reactivity and thermal hydraulic transients are also preliminarily discussed. Figs and tabs