WorldWideScience

Sample records for abuse disclosure considerations

  1. Sexual abuse in Malawi: patterns of disclosure.

    Mason, Carole; Kennedy, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Potential human immunodeficiency virus transmission makes prompt disclosure of child sexual abuse in Africa critical. The pattern of disclosure of 133 children presenting to the largest hospital in Malawi were analyzed. Eighty percent presented early enough for effective use of HIV postexposure prophylaxis. Seventy-five percent of children made a disclosure of child sexual abuse; 29% spontaneously and 47% after prompting. Disclosures were most commonly made to a parent, and age did not affect the pattern of disclosure. The number of children reporting child sexual abuse is increasing, possibly because of increasing awareness, availability of services, and fear of HIV. Although prompt disclosure rates were relatively high, facilitating easier disclosure of child sexual abuse by a free telephone help-line and better training of teachers may be helpful. PMID:24641596

  2. Influences of Disclosure Among Child Sexual Abuse Victims

    Jones, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Child forensic interviews are essential in eliciting disclosures in child abuse cases. Due to the nature of abuse and the child victims, barriers are inevitable to obtaining a full disclosure. This research describes the barriers as well as the factors that increase the likelihood of eliciting a disclosure during child forensic interviews. Previous research has found that factors more likely to induce a disclosure are having a supportive primary caregiver, an investigation which was instigate...

  3. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  4. Disclosure of Sexual Abuse in Sport Organizations: A Case Study

    Parent, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The disclosure of sexual abuse in the world of sports is a process that has not been widely documented. This article presents the results of a document analysis of sport organization policies and interviews conducted with 27 sport stakeholders. The interviews focus on these stakeholders' perceptions of how the disclosure process would unfold if a…

  5. Ambivalence of Nonoffending Guardians after Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure

    Bolen, Rebecca M.; Lamb, J. Leah

    2004-01-01

    A concern in the intervention with sexually abused children is the support of their nonoffending guardians after disclosure of the abuse. Approximately a third of nonoffending guardians respond with vacillation in support, and these nonoffending guardians are at greater risk for having their children removed. This article reconceptualizes…

  6. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  7. Caregiver Needs Following Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse.

    van Toledo, Annik; Seymour, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Caregiver support is vital in improving outcomes for child sexual abuse victims; however, the disclosure can significantly affect caregivers, thus impacting their ability to meet their children's needs. To maximize the support from caregivers, their own needs following disclosure need to be met. This study investigated the impact of child sexual abuse disclosure and associated needs as identified by caregivers. Sixty needs assessment forms were collected from families who accessed a parenting support pilot program run in New Zealand. These forms were completed by nonoffending caregivers during an assessment session with their counselor and consisted of both open-ended and Likert scale questions focusing on both the needs of the child and the family. Caregivers identified a range of impacts of the disclosure on their children, themselves, and other families members and the related support that may be needed. In particular, caregivers identified that they needed support with child behavior management and with their own coping. The findings suggest that interventions with caregivers following disclosure of child sexual abuse may be a valuable adjunct to therapy provided directly to the child. PMID:27266536

  8. Adolescents' Experiences of sexual abuse - Prevalence, abuse characteristics, disclosure, health and ethical aspects

    Priebe, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis was to investigate aspects of self-reported sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence in a population-based study of Swedish high school students. The aim of this thesis was first to investigate the lifetime prevalence of sexual abuse of varying severity and characteristics as well as the associations between sexual abuse, gender, socio-demographic characteristics and consensual sexual experiences. The next aim was to investigate disclosure rates and...

  9. The disclosure of sexual abuse during middle childhood : a forensic social work perspective / Yolanda van Huyssteen

    Van Huyssteen, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Working with sexually abused children and conducting forensic assessments is a difficult task for many professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse. In this specialised field, it is imperative that professionals are aware of the disclosure process, as well as what contributes to, or hampers the disclosure of sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the disclosure of sexual abuse during middle childhood years from a forensic social work perspective. Resear...

  10. Interviewing Children versus Tossing Coins: Accurately Assessing the Diagnosticity of Children's Disclosures of Abuse

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Scurich, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to evaluating children's abuse disclosures and review research demonstrating that children's disclosure of genital touch can be highly probative of sexual abuse, with the probative value depending on disclosure spontaneity and children's age. We discuss how some commentators understate the probative value of…

  11. Barriers to disclosure of abuse among rural women.

    Kershner, Marion; Anderson, Jon E

    2002-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the prevalence of abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual) in women seeking care in rural medical clinics and WIC voucher pick-up sites, and to discover ways of improving the response of health care providers to violence. Data were collected in 8 medical clinics and 17 WIC supplemental food program sites in 9 counties of west central Minnesota during January and February 1997. Fifteen percent of respondents reported having had a discussion about abuse with a health care provider. Six of the 8 symptoms and injuries most associated with abuse indicate diminished emotional health. A series of barriers are identified as substantial obstacles to obtaining help and revealing abuse to health care providers. The most frequently reported barriers were self-reliance, reliance on God, and reliance on friends and family. These findings show that a large percentage of rural women experience abuse and that their health is adversely affected. The barriers to disclosure of abuse reported in this study illustrate the complexity of disclosing abusive relationships in rural and other settings. Low screening levels suggest that rural health care providers can develop additional opportunities to discuss abuse with their patients. PMID:11915526

  12. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  13. The Continuum of Disclosure: Exploring Factors Predicting Tentative Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations During Forensic Interviews and the Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Research.

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D

    2016-01-01

    When a child sexual abuse investigation ensues, many children do not disclose readily to professionals. Defining disclosure beyond the disclosure versus nondisclosure dichotomy is essential, yet little research exists on factors associated with a continuum of disclosure, including active and tentative disclosure. Through the coding of 196 forensic interviews using content analysis and subsequent regression analysis, findings suggest that children of color, children abused by adults, unintentional initial disclosure, and those lacking family support were more likely to tentatively disclose in this study. Implications include a need to understand tentative disclosure as part of a normal continuum of disclosure within court proceedings and investigations of abuse allegations. PMID:27266535

  14. Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration

    Closson, Forrest T.; Lichenstein, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal ...

  15. Strategies and Outcomes of HIV Status Disclosure in HIV-Positive Young Women with Abuse Histories

    Clum, Gretchen A.; Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualit...

  16. Disclosure of abuse among female patients within general psychiatric care - a cross sectional study

    Örmon, K.; Sunnqvist, C.; Bahtsevani, C.; Levander, M. Torstensson

    2016-01-01

    Background Experiences of abuse are common among women in general psychiatric care. Even so, there are to our knowledge no previous national or international studies exploring disclosure in a general psychiatric setting of female patient’s experiences of abuse to staff or to formal and informal networks. This study aimed to explore women’s disclosure of experiencing physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse during their most recent contact with staff at a general psychiatric clinic. The study a...

  17. Health professionals’ beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure: a critical incident technique study

    Taylor J., Bradbury-Jones C., Kroll T. & Duncan F

    2013-01-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professiona...

  18. [Occult child abuse (opinions, considerations, personal observations)].

    Paci, A; Migliaccio, P; Paci, G

    1999-01-01

    At the beginning of the statement the authors point out some lesser aspects of child's ill-treatment (previously suggested by them in other occasions) as expressions of very strict educational systems which strongly limit childrens' freedom or impose them several extrascholastic activities (such as: athletics, music with participation in competitive examination, studies of foreign languages, Latin and so on) where the child must excel in (composex of the "leader-child"). Then these authors suggest using the term "abuse" to mean lexically every excessive, undue, arbitrary use and not only "sexual". They point out the seriousness of abuse as far as juvenile exploitation is concerned both in case of manual labour and prostitution. But the pay particularly attention to the problem of sport when it is gone in for too intensively (as athletics). These authors infact sum up the harms that sport can cause when it is gone in for during the age under the stabilized puberty. Physical harms may occur especially during the practice of risky sports such as: Alpine skiing, cycling on the road, swimming combined with diving, fencing, boxing) and during tiring condition, while psychic harms can entail a fall in scholastic performances, irritability, insomnia, anxiety. The authors depreciate the behaviour of those parents who stimulate their children' aggressiveness during competitions and scold them when their performances are insufficient, or give them forbidden stimulants of hormonal anabolic drugs instead of taking care of their children in order to keep away from the arms mentioned above. However, after all these observations and considerations about competitive sports in juvenile age, these authors can firmly state that all this could be meant as an important aspects of the juvenile exploitation that must be taken in great consideration. PMID:11293144

  19. Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration

    Richard Lichenstein

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:437–439.

  20. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON ABUSE OF DOMINANT POSITION

    Ovidiu Maican

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 82 (formerly 86 EC contains four essential elements (an undertaking, a dominant position, an abuse of that position and the abuse must affect trade between member states. The term undertakings is subject to the same broad interpretation as that applied to article 81 (formerly 85 EC and covers the same activities, both public and private.The Community interest must be also taken into account. Although it is not clear precisely what this element of article 86 requires, it will clearly curtail the scope of the exception provided under this article. Although abusive behavior of undertakings in a dominant position is prohibited, it must be recalled that merely being in a strong position is not a problem in itself. It is necessary for major players in a market to be aware of their position because practices which would not fall foul of article 82 (formerly 86 EC, where an undertaking is not dominant, will do so where dominance is established. A refusal to deal by a non-dominant undertaking would not be an abuse within article 82 (formerly 86 EC, but it will be so where the undertaking is dominant.

  1. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    Sciolla, A.; Glover, DA; Loeb, TB; Zhang, M.; Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low-income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peritrauma variable of abuse severity and the posttrauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African-American and Latina women with h...

  2. A Psychosocial Understanding of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure Among Female Children in South Africa.

    Mathews, Shanaaz; Hendricks, Natasha; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is endemic in South Africa, driven by high levels of gender-based violence and underscored by structural and social factors. This article aims to develop an understanding of the process of disclosure in a sample of female children and their caregivers. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 31 female children aged 8-17 years and their caregivers at 3 intervals after presentation to a sexual assault treatment center. Nearly half of the children failed to disclose the sexual abuse immediately, fearing caregivers' reaction. Most children purposefully disclosed to a confidant through a process of identifying an intermediary to tell caregivers on their behalf. The process of disclosure was influenced by multiple factors, such as a fear of the caregiver's reaction and disbelief, which is related to parental style. Disclosure was found to be a dynamic process that unfolds and not a single or static event and influenced by multiple factors which all impact on recovery. Our findings highlight the need to address social norms on sexual abuse in order to improve responses to disclosure to facilitate post-sexual-abuse adjustment for the child and the family. PMID:27561120

  3. Expected Consequences of Disclosure Revealed in Investigative Interviews with Suspected Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Malloy, Lindsay C.; Brubacher, Sonja P.; Lamb, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored the expected consequences of disclosure discussed by 204 5- to 13-year-old suspected victims of child sexual abuse during the course of investigative interviews conducted using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol. Expected consequences were mentioned in nearly half of all interviews, with older children and those…

  4. Mapping the Maze: An Art Therapy Intervention following Disclosure of Sexual Abuse

    Pifalo, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Disclosures of child sexual abuse create an immediate crisis within the child's family unit. Reactions of nonoffending caregivers in particular may prevent them from being emotionally available to respond immediately to the needs of the child victim. This article describes an art therapy intervention of visual mapping used in a support group of…

  5. Is Anybody Listening? The Literature on the Dialogical Process of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure Reviewed.

    Reitsema, A M; Grietens, H

    2016-07-01

    We conducted an exploratory review of the current literature on child sexual abuse disclosure in everyday contexts. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of relevant publications on the process of child sexual abuse disclosure, in order to generate new directions for future research and clinical practice. The findings of the exploratory review show that disclosure is a relational process, which is renegotiated by each interaction and evolves over an extended period of time. The characteristics and reactions of the interaction partner appear to be as critical to this process as the behavior and words of children themselves. Methodological limitations of the review and the publications are discussed, as well as directions for future research and implications for practice. PMID:25951841

  6. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible. PMID:25846196

  7. Health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure:a critical incident technique study

    Taylor J., Bradbury-Jones C., Kroll T. & Duncan F

    2013-01-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professiona...

  8. 'Negotiating the dance of disclosure': a grounded theory study of psychologists’ experiences of childhood sexual abuse disclosures from clients in adult mental health

    Ross, Emma Margaret Helen

    2010-01-01

    Hearing disclosures of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a clinical reality for many therapists. Psychologists within mental health services are working increasingly with clients who have traumatic histories, including the presence of CSA. Recently there has been a drive towards improving services for adult survivors of CSA, with an emphasis on asking health and social care service-users about abuse. Recent research has demonstrated that the experience of talking about CSA in psy...

  9. Social workers' knowledge base with regard to sexual abuse disclosures during the intake interview : a pilot study / Hester Susanna Boonzaaier

    Boonzaaier, Hester Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse is a problem that manifests in all spheres of our society, a social problem that often crosses the desk of a social worker rendering services to children and families. The researcher can still remember how daunting her first experience was when she dealt with an allegation of child sexual abuse. Now, in hindsight she believes that if she had more in-depth knowledge when dealing with children who has been sexually abused and their disclosure thereof, it would ...

  10. Disclosure and Psychological Well-Being of Sexually Abused Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Lam, Kindy Yuk-Ip

    2015-01-01

    The role of disclosure on psychological well-being of adolescents with child sexual abuse experience was investigated in a subsample of 74 disclosers among 800 adolescents recruited in the community in Hong Kong. The results supported that CSA experiences have differential impact on adolescents' psychological well-being. Family characteristics of the disclosers accounted for only a small amount of the variance in an array of psychological well-being measures. CSA characteristics were robust predictors of disclosers' sexual eroticism and externalizing behavioral symptoms. Disclosers' cognitive appraisal of CSA experience and quality of parental attachment were strong predictors of their self-esteem and internalizing behavioral problems. After controlling for the aforementioned factors, negative disclosure experience still significantly predicted lower self-esteem, higher sexual anxiety, more internalizing behavior, and more severe post-traumatic stress disorder responses. Research to understand the factors that generate negative disclosure experiences is needed for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of disclosure. PMID:26479960

  11. Managing Opioid Abuse in Older Adults: Clinical Considerations and Challenges.

    Loreck, David; Brandt, Nicole J; DiPaula, Bethany

    2016-04-01

    Opioid use disorder is a public health epidemic. There is increasing attention being given to opioid abuse and overdose in the United States. The overall use of illicit substances by older adults is on the rise and in part can be attributed to the aging of Baby Boomers. Furthermore, much attention is being given to prescription opioid drug overdose, but it is important to note that heroin-related deaths have also increased sharply. Heroin use is part of a larger substance abuse problem, with more than nine in 10 individuals who use heroin also using at least one other drug (e.g., cocaine, prescription opioid medication). The current article highlights treatment approaches, namely buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone, and naltrexone; insurance considerations; and resources to aid in understanding and managing this public health crisis. PMID:27027362

  12. Impact of interviewers' supportive comments and children's reluctance to cooperate during sexual abuse disclosure.

    Lewy, Jennifer; Cyr, Mireille; Dion, Jacinthe

    2015-05-01

    In the field of child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure, many studies have been conducted on the impact of interviewers' questioning style, but few have examined the impact of interviewers' supportive comments on children's cooperative and reluctant disclosure of substantive details. This field study used a sample of children ranging from 4 to 13 years of age who have all disclosed CSA. The first objective was to examine if the interviewer's and the child's comments during CSA interviews would vary as a function of the use of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Protocol. The second objective was to identify the strongest correlates of the proportion of details disclosed by the children during forensic interviews. A total of 90 matched NICHD Protocol and non-Protocol interviews done by the same interviewers were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using verbal subscales. The goal was to explore if differences exist between the interviewers' supportive and non-supportive comments as well as children's cooperative and reluctant statements during investigative interviews conducted prior to or after the NICHD Protocol training. Results of a MANCOVA showed that the use of the NICHD Protocol had no influence on interviewers' and children's demeanors. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis controlling for relevant variables (e.g., child's age and NICHD Protocol) showed that children's reluctance and interviewers' non-support were associated with a lesser proportion of details. Overall, these results indicate that in order to promote detailed disclosure of CSA, interviewers should decrease their non-supportive comments and learn to deal more effectively with children's reluctance during forensic interviews. As such, protocols and training should encourage investigative interviewers to devote more time identifying early signs of children's verbal reluctance and to understand the negative impact of non-supportive comments on the disclosure of

  13. What Influences Believing Child Sexual Abuse Disclosures? The Roles of Depicted Memory Persistence, Participant Gender, Trauma History, and Sexism

    DeMarni Cromer, Lisa; Freyd, Jennifer J.

    2007-01-01

    This vignette study investigated factors that influence believing child sexual abuse disclosures. College student participants (N = 318) in a university human subject pool completed measures about their own trauma history and responded to questions about sexist attitudes. Participants then read vignettes in which an adult disclosed a history of…

  14. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  15. Elder Abuse Alert. Considerations About A Hidden Problem

    Stevenson, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    This publication will introduce you to the causes and types of elder abuse, the reasons why it often goes unreported, and profiles of victims and abusers. You will also learn about Adult Protective Services and the procedures and guidelines for reporting suspected abuse.

  16. Health professionals’ beliefs about domestic abuse and the impact these have on their responses to disclosure:A critical incident technique study

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Duncan, Fiona; Kroll, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. This briefing summaries a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health ...

  17. Special Considerations for Substance Abuse Intervention with Latino Youth

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 10% of Latino youth who are twelve and older are in need of substance abuse treatment for alcohol or illicit drug use. Ethnic differences exist with regard to susceptibility to drug use, attitudes regarding drugs, and drug resistance strategies. The failure of some substance abuse prevention programs can be traced in part to their lack of…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation

    Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

  19. Formulation considerations for the development of medications with abuse potential.

    Mansbach, Robert S; Moore, Richard A

    2006-06-01

    The availability of increasingly sophisticated drug formulations and delivery devices has created new opportunities in drug development. These newer approaches can result in improved drug bioavailability, or they can alter key pharmacokinetic parameters in such a way as to decrease dosing interval, decrease variability, or blunt maximal concentrations that are associated with adverse events of particular concern. Special formulations or devices can also provide for easier or more convenient dosing in subpopulations of interest, such as children or the elderly. Although the key principles of abuse potential assessment and the underlying neurochemistry and pharmacology are relatively well understood, evaluation of the influences of drug formulation have received much less study. Because dose and formulation - and even the therapeutic indication - are refined over the course of development, it is usually difficult to conduct more than a cursory evaluation of the influence of formulation on the underlying abuse potential of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Industrial sponsors would benefit from further research in areas of formulation science and pharmacokinetics that would improve the predictability of prescription drug abuse. In particular, validation of new pharmacokinetic parameters and standardization of methods to understand the consequences of product tampering could assist in gaining a better assessment of risk for controlled release formulations. Such methods could apply not only to innovator products, but also to those wishing to develop generic versions with similar pharmaceutical performance. This article proposes several factors that may be of use to industrial sponsors in making formulation choices for drugs with the potential for abuse. PMID:16472940

  20. Delay in disclosure of non-parental child sexual abuse in the context of emotional and physical maltreatment: A pilot study.

    Tashjian, Sarah M; Goldfarb, Deborah; Goodman, Gail S; Quas, Jodi A; Edelstein, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The present pilot study sought to identify predictors of delays in child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure, specifically whether emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure contributes to predicting delays over and above other important victim factors. Alleged CSA victims (N=79), whose parental figures were not the purported sexual abuse perpetrators, were interviewed and their case files reviewed, across two waves of a longitudinal study. Regression analyses indicated that experiencing both emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure was uniquely predictive of longer delays in disclosure of CSA perpetrated by someone other than a parental figure. Victim-CSA perpetrator relationship type and sexual abuse duration also significantly predicted CSA disclosure delay, whereas victim age at the time of the police report, victim gender, and victims' feelings of complicity were not significant unique predictors. Child abuse victims' expectations of lack of parental support may underlie these findings. Parent-child relationships are likely crucial to timely disclosure of CSA, even when a parent is not the CSA perpetrator. PMID:27380625

  1. Substance abuse and crime: considerations for a comprehensive forensic assessment.

    Esbec, Enrique; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong link between drug use and crime, but this relationship is complex. Drug use does not necessarily lead to an increase in crimes, such as theft, rape or assault, even among regular users or addicts. However, in cases of individuals who consume drugs excessively and commit crimes, both factors are linked. Poverty, personality disorders, social and cultural variables, relationships with other users and previous incarceration or drug use are all factors. These issues play an important role in understanding the risk of crime and drug use. Most addicts should be held liable for most criminal behaviour motivated by addiction, but that addiction can, in some cases, affect one's capacity for self-control over one's actions. This paper examines the current response of the Spanish Criminal Justice System to various aspects of drug abuse, focusing on court decisions related with the nature and enforcement of drug laws. It also addresses aspects of criminal responsibility for drug abuse and drug-related crimes and suggests legislation on drugs, sentencing alternatives for drug offenses, and drug treatment options. Expert evidence plays a crucial role in this area in the court. PMID:26990390

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING DISCLOSURE AND HELP-SEEKING PRACTICES OF NIGERIAN WOMEN RESIDENT IN ENGLAND WITH LIVED EXPERIENCE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND ABUSE

    Femi-Ajao, Omolade Ibiyinka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence and abuse is a public health problem affecting more than one third of all women globally. It usually takes place between individuals in intimate relationships and/or within the family. In the United Kingdom (UK), while theoretical and policy interventions have led to an increase in domestic violence and abuse service provision for women, there is paucity of research on the disclosure and help-seeking practices of women from ethnic minority populations. Aim: To id...

  3. Application Use, Online Relationship Types, Self-Disclosure, and Internet Abuse among Children and Youth: Implications for Education and Internet Safety Programs

    Blau, Ina

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between Internet abuse (IA)--self-disclosure, online application usage, and relationship types--traditional long-distance, purely virtual, and migratory mixed-mode. An online questionnaire was administered to 2884 children and youth. According to the hypotheses, applications differed in their relationships…

  4. Child sexual abuse : Disclosure, social support and subjective health in adulthood

    Jonzon, Eva MC

    2006-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a known risk factor for ill-health. It is assumed that the health consequences are worse if the abuse has been considered severe or if the child has been exposed to cumulative trauma, e.g. physical abuse or other stressful life events. However, symptom development seems to vary widely between individuals. According to developmental theories the dynamic interplay between environmental and individual conditions creates a course toward either healthy...

  5. Practical and ethical considerations for using social media in community consultation and public disclosure activities.

    Galbraith, Kyle L

    2014-10-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly integrated into both the clinical and the research dimensions of emergency medicine. They can provide methods for sharing crucial information to targeted individuals or groups in a rapid fashion. As a result, investigators conducting emergency research under the exception from prospective informed consent requirements are beginning to turn to social media platforms as they engage in required community consultation and public disclosure activities before their research begins. At present, there are limited data regarding how effectively social media have been used for performing those consultation and disclosure activities. This article offers investigators four specific areas to consider before using social media in consultation and outreach efforts. First, understand the forms of outreach social media platforms can provide. Second, recognize how those outreach methods relate to the specific goals of community consultation and public disclosure. Third, consider whether or not the intended audiences of community consultation and public disclosure will be available via social media. Finally, think about how social media outreach efforts will be measured and assessed before consultation and disclosure activities are under way. PMID:25308139

  6. Caregiver Perceptions of Sexual Abuse and Its Effect on Management after a Disclosure

    Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Sealy, Yvette M.; Laraque, Danielle; Rojas, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine caregiver management strategies for child sexual abuse (CSA) when presented with hypothetical scenarios that vary in physical invasiveness. Methods: One hundred fifty three caregivers were given 3 scenarios of CSA with 7 management strategies presented in the 21-item Taking Action Strategies (TAS)…

  7. Characteristics of Sexual Assault and Disclosure among Women in Substance Abuse Recovery Homes

    Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Jason, Leonard A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore…

  8. Characteristics of Sexual Assault and Disclosure Among Women in Substance Abuse Recovery Homes

    Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Leonard A. Jason

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore community interventions that promote positive recovery from substance use and sexual assault. One model that promotes successful substance use recovery is...

  9. At the Time of Disclosure: A Manual for Front-Line Community Workers Dealing with Sexual Abuse Disclosures in Aboriginal Communities. Aboriginal Peoples Collection, Technical Series = A l'etape de la divulgation: guide pour les travailleurs communautaires de premiere ligne a qui des actes de violence sexuelle sont divulgues dans les collectivites Autochtones. Collection sur les Autochtones, serie technique.

    Bopp, Judie; Bopp, Michael

    This manual was developed to assist front-line community workers (including teachers) with issues concerning the disclosure and investigation of sexual abuse allegations in Canadian aboriginal communities. Written in English and French, this document examines the needs of individuals, families, and communities dealing with sexual abuse. Part 1…

  10. HPLC-MS/MS investigation of biochemical markers for the disclosure of erythropoietin abuse in sports

    Appolonova, S. A.; Dikunets, M. A.; Rodchenkov, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    The polypeptide hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which is a forbidden doping drug, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The hypothesis about the influence of EPO on the asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)-dimethylargininedime-thylaminohydrolase (DDAH)-NO-synthase system was verified. Changes in this system can serve as indirect biochemical markers of the presence of the forbidden EPO drug in the organism. In the test group, the concentrations of biochemical markers varied from 10 to 40 μg/ml for ADMA and symmetrical DMA (SDMA) and from 0.5 to 10 μg/ml for arginine and citrulline. A single intravenous administration of r-HuEPO (Epocrin, 2000 ME/day) for two volunteers reliably increased ADMA, SDMA, arginine, and citrulline concentrations to 40-270 μg/ml, 40-240μg/ml, 10-60 μg/ml, and 12-140 μg/ml, respectively, with respect to the reference values. The simultaneous increase in arginine, methylarginines, and citrulline contents could be an indirect marker of EPO abuse. The method is recommended for fast screening analysis.

  11. Parental Substance Abuse and Child Well-Being: A Consideration of Parents' Gender and Coresidence

    Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…

  12. Abuse

    ... Paying for Care Insurance Medicare Medicare Part D Benefits Medicaid Tax Deductions & Credits Legal Matters Planning Ahead Legal Documents alz.org » Caregiver Center » Safety » Abuse Text size: A A A Special Situations First Responders Traveling In a Disaster Abuse Find your local Chapter ...

  13. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    Dennis C. Turk; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; John S Brownstein; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.

    2012-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many ...

  14. Alcohol abuse and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections: Consideration of Virulence Factors and Impaired Immune Responses

    Bhatty, Minny; Pruett, Stephen B.; Swiatlo, Edwin; Nanduri, Bindu

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance in the world. Both acute and chronic alcohol consumption have diverse and well documented effects on the human immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infections like bacterial pneumonia. S. pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology of community acquired pneumonia world-wide. The frequency and severity of pneumococcal infections in individuals with a history of alcohol abuse is much higher than the general population. Despit...

  15. Leader identity as an antecedent of the frequency and consistency of transformational, consideration, and abusive leadership behaviors.

    Johnson, Russell E; Venus, Merlijn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Mao, Changguo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang

    2012-11-01

    Drawing from identity-based theories of leadership, we examined relations of leader identity with leader behavior and perceived effectiveness. To do so, we employed multiwave methodology to examine the differential impact of leaders' chronic collective, relational, and individual identities on the frequency and consistency of their subsequent transformational, consideration, and abusive behaviors over a 3-week period. We also examined the relative importance of these leadership behaviors for predicting perceived leader effectiveness as rated by subordinates and peers. Results indicated that leaders' collective and individual identities were uniquely related to transformational and abusive behaviors, respectively. We also observed a significant collective by individual identity interaction, such that abusive behaviors were most frequent when a strong individual identity was paired with a weak collective identity. Frequency of transformational behaviors accounted for the largest proportion of variance in perceived leader effectiveness, followed by frequency of abusive behaviors and consistency of transformational behaviors. We discuss the implications of these findings for leadership theory and development. PMID:22730903

  16. Physician recruitment programs--fraud and abuse, tax, and antitrust considerations.

    Andressen, D C

    1988-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, physician recruitment incentive programs perform a valuable function for both hospitals and physicians, but fraud and abuse, tax, and antitrust laws impose significant restrictions on such programs. This article addresses some of the issues that hospitals and physicians must consider before participating in recruitment incentive programs. PMID:10302569

  17. Adolescent and Elderly Substance Abusers and Their Similarities: Considerations for Treatment.

    Frissell, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Contends that adolescent and elderly populations both exhibit attitudes, behavior, feelings, and reasons for alcohol and drug abuse that appear to be similar. Suggests that study of pediatrics can play role in development of geriatric movement by sharing common issues of both groups. Applies Erikson's stages of development to illustrate similarity…

  18. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. PMID:25550167

  19. Cultural Considerations in the Treatment of Mental Illness among Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: The Case of Bali, Indonesia

    Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational…

  20. Mandatory Reporting Laws and Identification of Child Abuse and Neglect: Consideration of Differential Maltreatment Types, and a Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Reports

    Ben Mathews

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory reporting laws have been created in many jurisdictions as a way of identifying cases of severe child maltreatment on the basis that cases will otherwise remain hidden. These laws usually apply to all four maltreatment types. Other jurisdictions have narrower approaches supplemented by differential response systems, and others still have chosen not to enact mandatory reporting laws for any type of maltreatment. In scholarly research and normative debates about mandatory reporting laws and their effects, the four major forms of child maltreatment—physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect—are often grouped together as if they are homogenous in nature, cause, and consequence. Yet, the heterogeneity of maltreatment types, and different reporting practices regarding them, must be acknowledged and explored when considering what legal and policy frameworks are best suited to identify and respond to cases. A related question which is often conjectured upon but seldom empirically explored, is whether reporting laws make a difference in case identification. This article first considers different types of child abuse and neglect, before exploring the nature and operation of mandatory reporting laws in different contexts. It then posits a differentiation thesis, arguing that different patterns of reporting between both reporter groups and maltreatment types must be acknowledged and analysed, and should inform discussions and assessments of optimal approaches in law, policy and practice. Finally, to contribute to the evidence base required to inform discussion, this article conducts an empirical cross-jurisdictional comparison of the reporting and identification of child sexual abuse in jurisdictions with and without mandatory reporting, and concludes that mandatory reporting laws appear to be associated with better case identification.

  1. Quando o silêncio é rompido: o processo de revelação e notificação de abuso sexual infantil When the silence is broken: the process of disclosure and reporting of child sexual abuse

    Samara Silva dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir o processo de revelação e notificação de situações de abuso sexual envolvendo crianças e adolescentes, a partir da análise de publicações relacionadas a essa temática. Os estudos indicam que a revelação e a notificação do abuso sexual são momentos difíceis para a vítima e para seus familiares porque geralmente envolvem alguém próximo à criança e apresentam reflexos no sistema familiar, como rompimento de vínculo, culpabilização e perda de suporte financeiro. Vários fatores que podem facilitar ou inibir a revelação e notificação do abuso são discutidos, como, por exemplo, a reação materna. Destaca-se a importância de um trabalho integrado no atendimento às vítimas, no encaminhamento das questões judiciais e no fortalecimento da rede de apoio às famílias.The aim of this article is to discuss the process of disclosure and reporting of cases of sexual abuse involving children and adolescents, based on the analysis of publications related to that topic. Studies suggest that the disclosure and reporting of sexual abuse is a difficult moment for the victims and their families because it usually involves someone close to the child. It provokes changes in the family system, such as disruption of ties, guilt and loss in financial support. Several factors that may facilitate or inhibit the disclosure and reporting of sexual abuse are discussed such as the mother's reaction. It is highlighted the importance of an integrated work in the service that deals with these situations, involving the victims care, in the forwarding of the processes and in the strengthening of the supporting network for families.

  2. Are Some Individuals Diagnosed with ADHD Prone to Alcohol Abuse?: Consideration of Two Possible Mediating Factors for this Susceptibility

    Maxwell, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Some studies conducted on ADHD have found a statistically significant relationship between those diagnosed with the disorder and a higher susceptibility to abuse alcohol. However, other studies have found no such correlation, or have found this to be true of only a nonstatistically significant subset of the population of individuals with ADHD.…

  3. Disclosure requirements for merger and acquisition transactions

    The legal disclosure requirements for merger and acquisition transactions involving Canadian public companies are described. The focus is on issues regarding merger and acquisition related disclosure, including the potential consequences of failing to provide proper information, Ontario Securities Commission Policy 9.1 considerations regarding valuation, review, and approval, cross border considerations and financing a merger and acquisition transaction. Legal and practical consequences for failing to provide proper disclosure, including the steps involved in establishing the due diligence defence, are also discussed

  4. Teachers Who Abuse: The Impact on School Communities.

    Skinner, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 16 teachers and 10 children who had been abused in schools revealed a range of levels of awareness and disclosure as well as responses to disclosure of abuse. Difficulties for teachers in delineating acceptable and unacceptable behavior point to a need for improved guidelines and legislation. (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  5. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues The Role of Culture in Elder ... factor in all types of elder abuse, including physical mistreatment, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. It is also a ...

  6. 42 CFR 2.65 - Procedures and criteria for orders authorizing disclosure and use of records to criminally...

    2010-10-01

    ... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Court Orders Authorizing Disclosure and Use § 2.65..., rape, kidnapping, armed robbery, assault with a deadly weapon, and child abuse and neglect. (2)...

  7. 45 CFR 164.512 - Uses and disclosures for which an authorization or opportunity to agree or object is not required.

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate government authority authorized by law to receive reports of child abuse or neglect; (iii) A... paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (c) Standard: Disclosures about victims of abuse, neglect or domestic violence—(1) Permitted disclosures. Except for reports of child abuse or neglect permitted by paragraph...

  8. Elder Abuse

    ... nursing home . Types of Abuse There are many types of abuse: Physical abuse happens when someone causes bodily harm by hitting, pushing, or slapping. Emotional abuse , sometimes called psychological abuse, can include a caregiver saying hurtful words, ...

  9. Disrupted Disclosure

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie

    While projects of governance by transparency have become widespread over the past decades, theyare usually investigated and theorized in isolation from the wider field of visibility and surveillancein which they are embedded. Building on theories of governance, visibility and surveillance...... appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices...

  10. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  11. Child abuse and neglect

    Kiran, K

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important public health problems and recent estimates of their prevalence suggest that they are considerably more common than had hitherto been realized. Intervening to change parenting practices may, however, be important in their treatment. Despite their frequent occurrence among dental patients, neglect is the least known and identified type of abuse. The present case reports a 3-year-old girl suffering from abuse and neglect. The girl had dental neglect and als...

  12. Physical Abuse

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Physical Abuse Physical abuse is physical force or violence that results in ... may be acquaintances, sons, daughters, grandchildren, or others. Physical abuse that is perpetrated by spouses or intimate partners ...

  13. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  14. Sexual Abuse

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role ... Abuse and Neglect Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. (1996). Assessing physical and sexual abuse in health care settings. In L.A. Baumhover & S. ...

  15. Assessment for self-blame and trauma symptoms during the medical evaluation of suspected sexual abuse.

    Melville, John D; Kellogg, Nancy D; Perez, Nadia; Lukefahr, James L

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe behavioural and emotional symptoms and to examine the effect of abuse-related factors, family responses to disclosure, and child self-blame on these symptoms in children presenting for medical evaluations after disclosure of sexual abuse. A retrospective review was conducted of 501 children ages 8-17. Trauma symptoms were determined by two sets of qualitative measures. Abstracted data included gender, ethnicity, and age; severity of abuse and abuser relationship to child; child responses regarding difficulty with sleep, school, appetite/weight, sadness, or self-harm, parent belief in abuse disclosure, and abuse-specific self-blame; responses to the Trauma Symptom Checklist in Children-Alternate; and the parent's degree of belief in the child's sexual abuse disclosure. Overall, 83% of the children had at least one trauma symptom; 60% had difficulty sleeping and one-third had thoughts of self-harm. Child age and abuse severity were associated with 3 of 12 trauma symptoms, and abuse-specific self-blame was associated with 10 trauma symptoms, after controlling for other variables. The children of parents who did not completely believe the initial disclosure of abuse were twice as likely to endorse self-blame as children of parents who completely believed the initial disclosure. Screening for behavioural and emotional problems during the medical assessment of suspected sexual abuse should include assessment of self-blame and family responses to the child's disclosures. In addition, parents should be informed of the importance of believing their child during the initial disclosure of abuse and of the impact this has on the child's emotional response to the abuse. PMID:24630439

  16. Dissociation Predicts Later Attention Problems in Sexually Abused Children

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Hall, Erin; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goals of this research are to develop and test a prospective model of attention problems in sexually abused children that includes fixed variables (e.g., gender), trauma, and disclosure-related pathways. Methods: At Time 1, fixed variables, trauma variables, and stress reactions upon disclosure were assessed in 156 children aged…

  17. Support and Profiles of Nonoffending Mothers of Sexually Abused Children

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Hebert, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Maternal support offered to sexually abused children following disclosure may be a crucial factor in children's recovery. A person-centered approach was used to examine how profiles of nonoffending mothers could better describe their ability to support their children after disclosure. Cluster analyses based on a total of 226 nonoffending…

  18. eSelf Disclosure

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The initial module incorporated into the application was the eDisclosure module to track regulatory audit disclosure reports that come through EPA's Central Data...

  19. Disclosure on the Internet

    The key issues surrounding regulatory enforcement of Internet disclosure in the petroleum industry were discussed under three headings, i.e. (1) content problems, such as intellectual property, trademarks, copyright, licence limitations, accuracy of promotional and other information; (2) disclosure problems, including web site information, employee disclosure, electronic mail, and third party disclosures; and (3) regulatory issues that range from the Internet as the vehicle for stock manipulation, to transnational aspects, lack of editorial oversight, and multi-jurisdictional enforcement issues

  20. Elder Abuse

    ... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...

  1. Child Abuse

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  2. 31 CFR 21.110 - Certification and disclosure.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification and disclosure. 21.110 Section 21.110 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NEW RESTRICTIONS ON... disclosure form, if required, with each submission that initiates agency consideration of such person for:...

  3. Costly Disclosures in a Voluntary Disclosure Model with an Opponent

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes voluntary disclosure equilibria when the voluntary disclosure model presented inWAGENHOFER (1990) is modified so as to include fixed disclosure costs as used in VERRECCHIA (1983). It turns out that incorporating both disclosure and proprietary costs rules out full disclosure equi

  4. 42 CFR 2.1 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records.

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of drug abuse patient records were initially authorized by section...

  5. Sexual abuse: consequences and correlations with the victim's age, duration of abuse and support within victim's environment

    Tanja Šraj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Professionals have shown extreme interest in psychological consequences of sexual abuse for more than 20 years. Besides researching consequnces of an abuse, thier interest has also been focused on relations to other characteristics of sexual abuse. We examined correlations of short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse with time variables (age of the victim at the beginning, ending and disclosure of sexual abuse, duration of sexual abuse and support of the victim after disclousure in the sample of 78 victims of sexual abuse.Results suggest the correlation between age of the victim with some of the long-term consequences. There is tendency toward positive correlation between duaration of sexual abuse and long-term consequences. The support of the victim negativly correlated with long-term consequences. We suggest further research on the consequences and other characteristic of sexual abuse on a larger sample.

  6. 政府环保网站信息公开的实践与思考%Practice and Consideration on Information Disclosure of the Government Environmental Protection Website

    孔雁波

    2015-01-01

    The government environmental protection website is the first information disclosure platform of the environmental protection department of the government and also is an important channel for community assess to the environmental information.In order to give full play to the function of information disclosure and transfer the governmental voice for the first time to society through the government environmental protection website,the paper discussed four aspects about environmental information disclosure with practical experience:releasing information,organizing environmental information,spreading government environmental information more efficiently,ensuring environmental information disclosure.%政府环保网站是政府环保部门信息公开的第一平台,也是社会获取环境信息的重要渠道。为充分发挥政府环保网站环境信息公开的功能,将政府的声音在第一时间传递给社会,结合实践经验,文章从发布环境信息、整理环境信息、提升环境信息传播能力、保障环境信息公开四个方面给出建议。

  7. Legal Considerations over Rampant Child Abuses at Chinese Kindergartens%由幼儿教师虐童案件频发引起的法律思考

    党颖

    2015-01-01

    随着“虐童”事件的频繁发生,看到目前我国幼儿教育违法现象面临的现状,研究探索引起“虐童”事件频繁发生的原因,提出可行性对策:健全儿童保护法律制度,遏制“虐童”思想的萌生;政府加大投资力度,提高幼儿教师待遇;利用幼儿教师职业培训提高幼儿教师队伍整体素质;加强幼儿教师及幼儿家长的法制教育。%With child abuses happening with increasing frequency in China , and in light of the notorious illegal practices inherent in China ’ s preschool education , this paper presents a discussion on the causes of child abuses and proposes relevant countermeasures to address rampant child abuses in Chinese kindergartens .Such measures include improving the legal system of the protection of children and safeguard children ’ s rights and interests accord-ing to the law, increasing government investment in preschool education and enhancing kindergarten teachers ’ wel-fare and benefits , boosting the overall quality of preschool teachers by introducing pertinent professional training programs, and strengthening legal education on both kindergarten school teachers and children ’s parents.

  8. 由幼儿教师虐童案件频发引起的法律思考%Legal Considerations over Rampant Child Abuses at Chinese Kindergartens

    党颖

    2015-01-01

    With child abuses happening with increasing frequency in China , and in light of the notorious illegal practices inherent in China ’ s preschool education , this paper presents a discussion on the causes of child abuses and proposes relevant countermeasures to address rampant child abuses in Chinese kindergartens .Such measures include improving the legal system of the protection of children and safeguard children ’ s rights and interests accord-ing to the law, increasing government investment in preschool education and enhancing kindergarten teachers ’ wel-fare and benefits , boosting the overall quality of preschool teachers by introducing pertinent professional training programs, and strengthening legal education on both kindergarten school teachers and children ’s parents.%随着“虐童”事件的频繁发生,看到目前我国幼儿教育违法现象面临的现状,研究探索引起“虐童”事件频繁发生的原因,提出可行性对策:健全儿童保护法律制度,遏制“虐童”思想的萌生;政府加大投资力度,提高幼儿教师待遇;利用幼儿教师职业培训提高幼儿教师队伍整体素质;加强幼儿教师及幼儿家长的法制教育。

  9. Atendimento a mães de vítimas de abuso sexual e abusadores: considerações teóricas e práticas Treatment of mothers of sexual abuse victims and abusers: theoretical and practical considerations

    Débora Dalbosco Dell'Aglio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi levantar informações sobre o atendimento psicológico prestado às mães de crianças e adolescentes vítimas de abuso sexual, bem como aos autores dessa violência. A literatura mostra a importância de incluir familiares não abusivos no tratamento da vítima, tendo em vista seu envolvimento na situação. Além disso, aponta que a discussão sobre o atendimento psicológico aos perpetradores também é necessário para que se possa intervir no ciclo da violência, prevenindo novas vítimas. Por fim, são discutidos os sentimentos de mães e perpetradores frente à revelação do abuso, objetivos do tratamento em cada caso e os aspectos psicológicos relacionados. São também apresentados alguns estudos nacionais e internacionais sobre experiências de tratamentos e algumas dificuldades práticas para o andamento dos tratamentos e para se realizar estudos sobre essa temática, sobretudo no Brasil.The aim of this article was to gather information about the psychological care provided to mothers of children and adolescent victims of sexual abuse and the perpetrators of such violence. The literature demonstrates the importance of including non abusive relatives in the treatment of victims, due to their involvement with the situation. Discussing psychological support to the perpetrators is also necessary to intervene in the cycle of violence, preventing new victims. The paper focuses on the feelings of mothers and perpetrators at the moment of the abuse disclosure, the goals of the provided care in each case, and related psychological aspects. It also presents some national and international studies that report the experiences of these processes. Some practical barriers in the progress of the psychological care, as well as the difficulties of conducting studies on this topic, especially in Brazil, are reported.

  10. Drug Abuse

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  11. Elder abuse

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  12. CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE AMONG JUNIOR COLLEG E STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA , INDIA

    Omkar S; Vaishali V

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a serious problem globally. Approximately 150 million girls and 73 million boys are being victimized for sexual abuse. Disclosure by the children and reporting by the parents regarding exposure to sexual violence found to be poor. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cu rrent study is aimed to find the magnitude of childhood sexual abuse among junior college male students and the various types of sexual abuse experienced. METHODOLOGY: TYPE OF STUDY: ...

  13. Firm Traits and Web Based Disclosures in Top Nigerian Firms

    Bello Ayuba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of the internet as a medium of dissemination of information to stakeholders is increasingly gaining grounds. This study extends existing literature on web disclosures by investigating the characteristics that predict the extent of web-based disclosures. In this study, corporate websites of top Nigerian firms are used as sources of data, while a regression analysis is employed to examine the extent of prediction. Results indicate that the firm size and industry type are significant determinants of web disclosures. However, other firm traits such as ownership dispersion and financial performance do not significantly explain the extent of internet disclosures. The study recommends that a regulatory template for corporate web disclosures be put in place by government regardless of the size or industry classification of the firm. This is with a view to considerably reduce agency conflicts arising from information asymmetry in publicly listed firms in Nigeria.

  14. Voluntary Disclosure and Risk Sharing

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the disclosure strategy of firms that face uncertainty regarding the investor's response to a voluntary disclosure of the firm's private information.This paper distinguishes itself from the existing disclosure literature in that firms do not use voluntary disclosures to separate

  15. Child abuse

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  16. Protecting children in research: Safer ways to research with children who may be experiencing violence or abuse.

    Randall, Duncan; Anderson, Anna; Taylor, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Children participating in research, like other children, may be being maltreated. There is also potential for exposure to abuse during research. Research training, practices and protocols to respond to disclosure and discovery of abuse to protect both researchers and children may not be sufficiently robust. Our aim was to compare and contrast research practices reported in the literature related to protecting children and to recommend safer ways to conduct research. The simultaneous increase in research with children, along with an increased willingness to listen to child victims of abuse, means that researchers must consider the protection of children in the research setting. Twenty-three papers were identified in a literature review. These studies reported a wide variation of ethical considerations, methods, methodology and came from different disciplines. From the 23 papers, two overarching themes were identified: social justice and research and safer research. To make research safer teams should consider training, safety protocols and support for child protection, which includes support to report safeguarding concerns to social care. Further work is required to ensure that training, protocols and support are effective in facilitating researchers to identify and make appropriate child abuse referrals. Ethics practices in abuse research need further debate. PMID:26105062

  17. Disclosure of information in criminal proceedings: a comparative analysis of national and international criminal procedural systems and human rights law

    Fiori, Brando

    2015-01-01

    Disclosure and the procedure regulating it represent a subject matter in which crime control and human rights find their synthesis. Disclosure is a complex subject that covers different branches of law as it involves aspects of a procedural nature as well as considerations that belong to the realm of human rights law. This work scrutinises and evaluates the regulation of disclosure in five criminal procedural systems in order to gain knowledge of the different ways in which the disclosure of ...

  18. Proactive Public Disclosure

    Boll, Karen; Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses proactive public disclosure of taxpayer information and how this may form a new strategy for securing tax compliance by tax administrators. It reports a case study from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration in which consumers of services–over a short period of time...... proactive public disclosure is compatible with the Duty of Confidentiality, but incompatible with Good Public Governance. Furthermore, the analyses show that there are a number of strong organizational rationales for using proactive public disclosure, despite its apparent incompatibility with Good Public...... Governance. The article is innovative in that it combines a legal and organizational approach to analyse a new regulatory strategy within tax administration....

  19. Maternal Perceptions Of And Responses To Child Sexual Abuse

    Rakovec-Felser Zlatka; Vidovič Lea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Several researches indicate that most child victims delay disclosing of sexual abuse for significant periods of time. There are numerous reasons as to why children are avoiding the disclosure of the abuse. The aim of this study was to determine how a mother’s response to a child’s allegations impacts the child’s willingness to disclose sexual abuse. Methods We conducted a retrospective quantitative and qualitative analysis of 73 court-referred cases of child sexual abuse w...

  20. General considerations on the care to the elderly victim of abuse Consideraciones generales sobre la atención al anciano víctima de maltrato

    Odalis Fernández López

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A clear indicator of the magnitude of the aging world population, of which Cuba is not free, is that the average age of the population tends to grow every day. Despite the scientific and technical progress achieved in the field of medical science and health policy efforts to improve the health and welfare of the population, there are still conditions that generate negative phenomena such as violence and its various manifestations, it also affects the elderly. Many need medical care after an act of violence, but most are not identified as such and act is much less reported to the authorities, for which the perpetrators are not prosecuted by law. It is common to find some resistance in its recognition that comes from the clash of such data or suspicion and social representation of the family classic and institutions for the elderly. The prevention and treatment of abuse of older persons in an aging world is everyone's business. Given what is referred to this work is performed in order to provide general comments on senior citizen care mistreated.Una muestra evidente de la magnitud del envejecimiento de la población mundial, y de lo cual Cuba no está exenta, es que la edad media de la población tiende a crecer cada día más. A pesar del avance científico técnico alcanzado en el campo de las ciencias médicas y de los esfuerzos de las políticas sanitarias para mejorar las condiciones de salud y bienestar de la población, aún subsisten condiciones que generan fenómenos negativos, como la violencia y sus diferentes manifestaciones, que también afecta a los ancianos. Muchos necesitan atención médica después de un acto de violencia, pero la mayoría no son identificados como tal y el acto es mucho menos denunciado a las autoridades, por lo cual los victimarios no son juzgados por las leyes. Es frecuente encontrar una cierta resistencia en su reconocimiento, que proviene del choque entre tales datos o sospechas y la representación social

  1. Financial Disclosure Tracking System

    US Agency for International Development — USAID's FDTS identifies personal service contractors and local employees who should file disclosure reports. It tracks late filers and identifies those who must...

  2. How to Handle Abuse

    ... abuse: physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse: Physical abuse is hitting hard with a hand or an ... choking, painful grabbing, and kicking also can be physical abuse. Sexual abuse: Your body has private parts. These ...

  3. Inhalant Abuse

    ... she is likely to try other kinds of drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana. Symptoms How can I tell if my child is abusing inhalants? It can be hard to recognize the signs of inhalant abuse. Teenagers who use inhalants may have some of the ...

  4. Abusive Relationships

    ... leaving. Where to Get Help Ending abuse and violence in teen relationships is a community effort with plenty of ... other ways to get involved in making sure dating abuse doesn’t happen to people in your school. Reviewed by: D'Arcy Lyness, PhD Date reviewed: May ... For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  5. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  6. Survivors' Perspectives on the Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on Families of Origin

    Wind, Leslie H.; Sullivan, James M.; Levins, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse rose to public attention in 2002 through the disclosure of abuse by Catholic priests within the Archdiocese of Boston and a simultaneous cover-up by church hierarchy. Similar patterns have since been described in other Catholic dioceses and in other faith denominations. While recent studies have examined the impact…

  7. Medical error and disclosure.

    White, Andrew A; Gallagher, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Errors occur commonly in healthcare and can cause significant harm to patients. Most errors arise from a combination of individual, system, and communication failures. Neurologists may be involved in harmful errors in any practice setting and should familiarize themselves with tools to prevent, report, and examine errors. Although physicians, patients, and ethicists endorse candid disclosure of harmful medical errors to patients, many physicians express uncertainty about how to approach these conversations. A growing body of research indicates physicians often fail to meet patient expectations for timely and open disclosure. Patients desire information about the error, an apology, and a plan for preventing recurrence of the error. To meet these expectations, physicians should participate in event investigations and plan thoroughly for each disclosure conversation, preferably with a disclosure coach. Physicians should also anticipate and attend to the ongoing medical and emotional needs of the patient. A cultural change towards greater transparency following medical errors is in motion. Substantial progress is still required, but neurologists can further this movement by promoting policies and environments conducive to open reporting, respectful disclosure to patients, and support for the healthcare workers involved. PMID:24182370

  8. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    Yoon Soo Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.

  9. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations.

    Park, Yoon Soo; Yang, Eunbae B

    2015-01-01

    In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure - release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public - in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations - 1) fairness and validity, 2) impact on passing levels, and 3) utility of item disclosure - by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers' right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration. PMID:26374693

  10. Defensive Disclosure under Antitrust Enforcement

    Bhaskarabhatla, Ajay; Pennings, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe formulate a simple model of optimal defensive disclosure by a monopolist facing uncertain antitrust enforcement and test its implications using unique data on defensive disclosures and patents by IBM during 1955-1989. Our results indicate that stronger antitrust enforcement leads to more defensive disclosure, that quality inventions are disclosed defensively, and that defensive disclosure served as an alternative but less successful mechanism to patenting at IBM in appropriatin...

  11. Disclosure regimes and corporate governance

    Wüstemann, Jens

    2004-01-01

    As there is a strong relationship of disclosure regimes and corporate governance the internationally varying distribution of information rights can be interpreted as a function of different systems of corporate governance. A disclosure system comprises all legally recognized information claims that a system of corporate governance or a financial system furnishes financial contracting parties with: Both public disclosure and disclosure via private information channels may serve value-relevant ...

  12. Defensive Disclosure under Antitrust Enforcement

    Bhaskarabhatla, Ajay; Pennings, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a simple model of optimal defensive disclosure by a dominant firm facing uncertain antitrust enforcement and test its implications using unique data on defensive disclosures and patents by IBM. Our results indicate that stronger antitrust enforcement leads to more defensive disclosure, that quality inventions are also disclosed defensively, and that defensive disclosure served as an alternative, but less successful, mechanism to patenting at IBM in appropriating returns from R&D....

  13. Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse

    ... Traumatic Stress Disorder Reporting Domestic Abuse Reporting Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect Traumatic Brain Injury Family & Relationships There’s more to a military family than moving and deployments — take us along through each phase of your military ... Care and Youth Programs Parenting Military Youth on ...

  14. Factors Associated with Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence among Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Bjarne Jansson; Stephen Lawoko; Leah Okenwa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Though the prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) remains high in less developed countries, data suggest that these figures may represent an underestimation considering that many women are unwilling to disclose abuse. This paper aims to determine women's willingness to report abuse, factors determining willingness to disclose IPV, and to whom such disclosure is made. Methods: A total of 911 women visiting reproductive health facility responded to the questionnaire...

  15. Peer abuse

    Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan

    2011-01-01

    Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan nbsp;Olweus According to Olweus bullying is an aggressive behavior that: a is intended to cause harm or distress b occurs repeatedly over nbsp;time and c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of nbsp;abuse namely child maltreatment and domestic violence Bullying behaviors may be ...

  16. BDSM Disclosure and Stigma Management: Identifying Opportunities for Sex Education

    Bezreh, Tanya; Weinberg, Thomas S.; Edgar, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    While participation in the activities like bondage, domination, submission/sadism, masochism that fall under the umbrella term BDSM is widespread, stigma surrounding BDSM poses risks to practitioners who wish to disclose their interest. We examined risk factors involved with disclosure to posit how sex education might diffuse stigma and warn of risks. Semi-structured interviews asked 20 adults reporting an interest in BDSM about their disclosure experiences. Most respondents reported their BDSM interests starting before age 15, sometimes creating a phase of anxiety and shame in the absence of reassuring information. As adults, respondents often considered BDSM central to their sexuality, thus disclosure was integral to dating. Disclosure decisions in nondating situations were often complex considerations balancing desire for appropriateness with a desire for connection and honesty. Some respondents wondered whether their interests being found out would jeopardize their jobs. Experiences with stigma varied widely. PMID:22754406

  17. Opportunities for computer abuse

    Willison, Robert; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the ‘insider’ threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer abuse. Against this backdrop, a number of researchers have addressed the extent to which security managers are cognizant of the very nature of systems risk. In particular, they note how security pr...

  18. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  19. Drug abuse

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  20. A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...

  1. Secondary Market Disclosure.

    Jones, Robert J.; Zehner, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    In late 1994, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued new rules applicable to issuers of municipal securities (including school districts) concerning disclosure to the investment community. Describes how SEC's existing Rule 15c2-12 has been implemented. Discusses its purpose, jurisdiction, obligated persons, written…

  2. Student Self-Disclosure

    Lucas, Janet; DeGenaro, William

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two essays that focus on the challenges presented by students' self-disclosures in their writing. The authors have read each other's essays and provided their brief responses. This cross talk between the writers continues, in a more deliberate way, the cross talk generated by their essays.

  3. Skull fracture and the diagnosis of abuse.

    Hobbs, C J

    1984-01-01

    Eighty nine children under 2 years of age with skull fracture were studied retrospectively--29 children with definite non-accidental injury serially recorded by the Departments of Paediatrics and Forensic Medicine, and 60 children consecutively admitted to hospital with skull fractures after accidents. There were 20 deaths including 19 among abused children. Multiple injuries and an inadequate history assisted in diagnosing abuse. Fracture characteristics found considerably more often in abus...

  4. Non-heterosexual disclosure at the workplace

    Voergård-Olesen, Rikke Karen; Eskerod, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    situations. Perceptions of cultural norms, especially heterosexual-normativity, but also norms for private life chats á là how did you spend the weekend? were highly influential on behaviors. In addition, perceptions of professional identity norms influenced: My colleagues know but I find it difficult to......Many organizations state that they would like to develop a more inclusive culture when it comes to sexual orientation. In order to do this insight into non-heterosexual behaviors and considerations concerning disclosure is a prerequisite. As sexual orientation generally is invisible each person has...... informants and across situations in the working life, e.g. at the job-interview, dealing with customers, at lunch breaks, at workplace-related parties. The empirical study shows that disclosure is not a matter of ‘once and for all’. Non-heterosexuals are on a continuous basis confronted with choice...

  5. 32 CFR 310.25 - Disclosure accounting.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure accounting. 310.25 Section 310.25....25 Disclosure accounting. (a) Disclosure accountings. (1) Keep an accurate record of all disclosures... accounting is required even if the individual has consented to the disclosure of the information....

  6. 32 CFR 806b.49 - Disclosure accountings.

    2010-07-01

    ... 771 10 , Accounting of Disclosures. Retain disclosure accountings for 5 years after the disclosure, or... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure accountings. 806b.49 Section 806b.49... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.49 Disclosure accountings. System managers must keep...

  7. 12 CFR 37.6 - Disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... disclosures in appendix A to this part will satisfy the short form disclosure requirements of this section. (b... satisfy the long form disclosure requirements of this section. (c) Disclosure requirements; timing and... shall make the long form disclosures in writing before the customer completes the purchase of...

  8. The disclosure of unanticipated outcomes of care and medical errors: what does this mean for anesthesiologists?

    Souter, Karen J; Gallagher, Thomas H

    2012-03-01

    The disclosure of unanticipated outcomes to patients, including medical errors, has received considerable attention of late. The discipline of anesthesiology is a leader in patient safety, and as the doctrine of full disclosure gains momentum, anesthesiologists must become acquainted with these philosophies and practices. Effective disclosure can improve doctor-patient relations, facilitate better understanding of systems, and potentially decrease medical malpractice costs. However, many physicians remain wary of discussing errors with patients due to concern about litigation, the communication challenges of disclosure, and loss of self-esteem. As a result, harmful errors are often not disclosed to patients. Disclosure poses special challenges for anesthesiologists. There is often very limited time before the anesthetic in which to build the patient-physician relationship, and anesthesiologists usually function within complex health care teams. Other team members such as the surgeon may have different perspectives on what the patient should be told about operating room errors. The anesthesiologist may still be physically caring for the patient while the surgeon has the initial discussion with the family about the event. As a result the anesthesiologist may be excluded from the planning or conduct of the important initial disclosure conversations. New disclosure strategies are needed to engage anesthesiologists as active participants in the disclosure of unanticipated outcomes. Anesthesiologists should be aware of the emerging best practices surrounding disclosure, as well as the training opportunities and disclosure support resources that are increasingly available. Innovative models should be developed that promote collaboration between all perioperative team members in the disclosure process. There are important opportunities for anesthesiologists to play a leading role in defining specialty-specific disclosure practices and to more effectively meet patients

  9. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  10. 78 FR 60559 - Pay Ratio Disclosure

    2013-10-01

    ...) [57 FR 48126]; Executive Compensation Disclosure; Securityholder Lists and Mailing Requests, Release... Commission's executive compensation disclosure rules differ from tax accounting and reporting standards.\\20... employee compensation that is not currently required for disclosure, accounting or tax purposes....

  11. Public Disclosure and Bank Failures

    Eduardo Levy Yeyati; Tito Cordella

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of public disclosure of banks’ risk exposure on banks’ risk taking incentives and its implications in terms of soundness of the banking system. We find that, when banks have a complete control over the volatility of their loan portfolio, public disclosure reduces the probability of banking crises. When asset risk is driven largely by exogenous factors beyond the control of bank managers, however, information disclosure may increase banking sector fragility, as t...

  12. Year 2000 disclosure issues

    The legal dilemma that the year 2000 (Y2K) problem presents with regard to disclosure requirements is examined. In particular, this paper reviews the complexities involved for customers, suppliers and business partners to communicate about Y2K issues. The review prominently features the many levels of statutory, regulatory and legal overlay that must be considered before any communication takes place . One of the major barriers to disclosure is the threat that any statements made by one company or individual to another may give rise to various forms of liability, including limitation, defamation, misrepresentation, detrimental reliance, collateral contracts and warranties or representations. The paper also describes recent Canadian and U.S. Y2K disclosure requirements for public companies. While the legislation is intended to promote the voluntary sharing of Y2K information, it also sets out conditions limiting the extent to which Y2K statements can be used as the basis for liability. Canadian regulatory bodies also have several policies in effect that compel issuers of new securities to emphasize uncertainties which are likely to be factors in Y2K, and public companies to discuss and analyze risks, events and uncertainties within the management discussion and analysis section of their annual reports that would cause reported financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or conditions, should those uncertainties materialize. 8 refs

  13. Year 2000 disclosure issues

    Bradley, N.; Kratz, M.P.J. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The legal dilemma that the year 2000 (Y2K) problem presents with regard to disclosure requirements is examined. In particular, this paper reviews the complexities involved for customers, suppliers and business partners to communicate about Y2K issues. The review prominently features the many levels of statutory, regulatory and legal overlay that must be considered before any communication takes place . One of the major barriers to disclosure is the threat that any statements made by one company or individual to another may give rise to various forms of liability, including limitation, defamation, misrepresentation, detrimental reliance, collateral contracts and warranties or representations. The paper also describes recent Canadian and U.S. Y2K disclosure requirements for public companies. While the legislation is intended to promote the voluntary sharing of Y2K information, it also sets out conditions limiting the extent to which Y2K statements can be used as the basis for liability. Canadian regulatory bodies also have several policies in effect that compel issuers of new securities to emphasize uncertainties which are likely to be factors in Y2K, and public companies to discuss and analyze risks, events and uncertainties within the management discussion and analysis section of their annual reports that would cause reported financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or conditions, should those uncertainties materialize. 8 refs.

  14. Through the eyes of the wounded: a narrative analysis of children's sexual abuse experiences and recovery process.

    Foster, Jennifer M; Hagedorn, W Bryce

    2014-01-01

    Numerous children receive counseling for sexual abuse, yet their personal perspectives related to the abuse, the impact of making the disclosure, and the recovery process are noticeably absent from the scholarly literature. This study addressed this gap by analyzing trauma narratives written by children as part of a counseling intervention. Qualitative analysis revealed three themes: memories of the abuse, the disclosure and subsequent events, and the healing journey. Children's descriptions of their thoughts, feelings, and beliefs about their experiences are delineated and recommendations are provided for counseling professionals to increase the efficacy of care provided. PMID:24819252

  15. Design and implementation of website information disclosure assessment system.

    Ying-Chiang Cho

    Full Text Available Internet application technologies, such as cloud computing and cloud storage, have increasingly changed people's lives. Websites contain vast amounts of personal privacy information. In order to protect this information, network security technologies, such as database protection and data encryption, attract many researchers. The most serious problems concerning web vulnerability are e-mail address and network database leakages. These leakages have many causes. For example, malicious users can steal database contents, taking advantage of mistakes made by programmers and administrators. In order to mitigate this type of abuse, a website information disclosure assessment system is proposed in this study. This system utilizes a series of technologies, such as web crawler algorithms, SQL injection attack detection, and web vulnerability mining, to assess a website's information disclosure. Thirty websites, randomly sampled from the top 50 world colleges, were used to collect leakage information. This testing showed the importance of increasing the security and privacy of website information for academic websites.

  16. Design and implementation of website information disclosure assessment system.

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Internet application technologies, such as cloud computing and cloud storage, have increasingly changed people's lives. Websites contain vast amounts of personal privacy information. In order to protect this information, network security technologies, such as database protection and data encryption, attract many researchers. The most serious problems concerning web vulnerability are e-mail address and network database leakages. These leakages have many causes. For example, malicious users can steal database contents, taking advantage of mistakes made by programmers and administrators. In order to mitigate this type of abuse, a website information disclosure assessment system is proposed in this study. This system utilizes a series of technologies, such as web crawler algorithms, SQL injection attack detection, and web vulnerability mining, to assess a website's information disclosure. Thirty websites, randomly sampled from the top 50 world colleges, were used to collect leakage information. This testing showed the importance of increasing the security and privacy of website information for academic websites. PMID:25768434

  17. Opportunities for computer abuse

    Willison, Robert Andrew; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the `insider' threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer...... for the offender. To achieve this goal a model known as the `Crime Specific Opportunity Structure' is advanced. Focussing on the opportunities for computer abuse, the model addresses the nature of such opportunities with regards to the organisational context and the threats posed by rogue employees. Drawing...

  18. The consequences of incomplete disclosure

    The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs

  19. 38 CFR 1.576 - General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ..., conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. 1.576 Section 1.576 Pensions... and address of the person or agency to whom the disclosure is made; (2) Retain the accounting made... longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is made; (3) Except for disclosures made...

  20. Teaching Self-Disclosure through an Activity Exploring Disclosure Research and Online Dating Sites

    Baker, Nicole Marie; Hastings, Sally O.

    2013-01-01

    Most interpersonal communication course textbooks include a section or chapter on the topic of self-disclosure. Students are normally introduced to elements of self-disclosure, such as a definition, functions, or reasons for self-disclosure, risks of self-disclosure, and the role of self-disclosure in relationships. Historically, research on…

  1. Disclosure of information in criminal proceedings : a comparative analysis of national and international criminal procedural systems and human rights law

    Fiori, Brando

    2015-01-01

    Disclosure and the procedure regulating it represent a subject matter in which crime control and human rights find their synthesis. Disclosure is a complex subject that covers different branches of law as it involves aspects of a procedural nature as well as considerations that belong to the realm o

  2. Disclosure Decisions: HIV-Positive Persons Coping With Disease-Related Stressors

    Rodkjaer, Lotte; Sodemann, Morten; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to investigate how Danish HIV-positive persons live with their disease, focusing on HIV-related stressors. Using the Glaserian method, we analyzed textual data from in-depth interviews with 16 HIV-positive persons. Decisions about disclosure appeared to...... be a major concern and a determining factor for HIV-related stress. Consequently, we developed a substantive theory about disclosure decisions in which three different strategies could be identified: (a) disclosing to everyone (being open); (b) restricting disclosure (being partly open); and (c......) disclosing to no one (being closed). Disclosure was a continuum; none of the three strategies automatically relieved HIV-related stress. The theory describes the main determinants and consequences of each strategy. Our study demonstrates the importance of recurrent individual considerations about disclosure...

  3. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    2010-04-01

    ... loss of revenue finally calculated by CBP shall result in denial of the prior disclosure. (d) Effective... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prior disclosure. 162.74 Section 162.74 Customs... disclosure. (a) In general—(1) A prior disclosure is made if the person concerned discloses the...

  4. 14 CFR 1212.203 - Disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... Records § 1212.203 Disclosures. (a) The system manager shall keep a disclosure accounting for each... (2) In accordance with § 1212.203(g) (1) and (2), below. (c) The disclosure accounting required by...) The name and address of the recipient person or Agency. (d) The disclosure accounting shall...

  5. The Role of Theory in Explaining Motivation for Corporate Social Disclosures: Voluntary Disclosures vs ‘Solicited’ Disclosures

    Sandra van der Laan

    2009-01-01

    Corporate social disclosures (CSD) are primarily voluntary in nature and subsequently provide an area forresearch into motivational aspects of disclosures. The main focus of prior research has been whethercorporate social disclosures constitute a discharge of accountability or are part of a process of legitimation.Prior research, however, ignores the emergence of an alternate style of corporate social disclosure, the‘solicited’ disclosure. Increasingly companies are requested to report on the...

  6. Donor type and parental disclosure following oocyte donation

    John Stephenson; Eric Blyth; Wendy Kramer; Jennifer Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the perspectives of parents of children conceived via oocyte donation regarding donor anonymity and disclosure of the nature of their conception to their children. Methods:Information was gathered by means of an anonymous online survey initiated by theDonorSiblingRegistry, in which108 parents with143 children conceived following oocyte donation and aged between one year and15 yearsparticipated.Results:Parental use of an anonymous or open-identity donor-and regardless of parental choice of donor-makes very little difference to the timing of parental disclosure to their donor-conceived child about their conception.The median age of children at disclosure is about3.5years;UK/Australian parents seem more ready to tell their children at an early stage(median age around two years) thanNorth American parents(median age around4.5 years), although about three quarters of all children have been told by the age of six years.Considerable ambiguity among parents who intend to disclose to their children as to the optimal age of disclosure is evidenced.Conclusions:Parents’ experiences of disclosure to children at different ages need to be more thoroughly examined in order to establisha coherent body of knowledge that may facilitate improved evidence-based parental decision making.

  7. Uncovering sexual abuse: evaluation of the effectiveness of The Victims of Violence and Abuse Prevention Programme.

    Donohoe, J

    2010-02-01

    Discusses factors inhibiting open talk around a client's history of abuse including gender, age and diagnosis. * Evaluates the helpfulness of a training course designed to reduce and overcome these factors. * Aim of the evaluation is to help replicate the training nationally, following the positive impact found. Abstract Despite the high prevalence of sexual abuse among users of mental health services, it appears that mental health professionals are frequently unaware of clients' abuse histories. In order to address this, a Mental Health Trusts Collaboration Project of nine trusts was formed, which piloted delivering the Department of Health's Victims of Violence & Abuse Prevention Programme one-day education and training course regarding enquiring about histories of sexual abuse to various mental health practitioners. This hoped to educate practitioners in factors associated with victims and offenders, improve confidence and competence in asking about client's history of abuse and to increase awareness of the importance of asking. The purpose of this paper is to describe the impact of this course on mental health professionals' practice and attitudes in one of these nine trusts. It was found that since the delivery of the course, 44% (n= x) of professionals had been asking about abuse in 75-100% of cases. Gender, age and diagnosis of both the service users and the practitioners were all identified as factors potentially affecting practitioners' willingness to ask about abuse. Most importantly, 93% (n= x) of participants were found to feel they have the skills and knowledge to enquire about abuse and respond to disclosure in the appropriate way and 77% (n= x) of participants felt that this training had changed their clinical practice. The aim of this evaluation is to prove the effectiveness of the Department of Health's education and training course, which will help towards replicating the project nationally. PMID:20100302

  8. Prevent Child Abuse America

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  9. Child Sexual Abuse

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  10. What is Elder Abuse?

    ... to another, but broadly defined, abuse may be: Physical Abuse —inflicting physical pain or injury on a senior, ... abrasions, and burns may be an indication of physical abuse, neglect, or mistreatment. Unexplained withdrawal from normal activities, ...

  11. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    Raka Jain; Arpita Verma

    2016-01-01

    The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clini...

  12. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    Raka Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clinical care.

  13. Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon's Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure (RAID) system is a miniature, low-power, real-time, active radiation badge. It is designed for monitoring personnel,...

  14. Corporate Governance Disclosure in Malaysia

    ONG, Wei Jiin

    2006-01-01

    This research provides evidence on corporate governance disclosure in Malaysia based on a sample of 25 Malaysian public listed companies on the Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI) in the year 1998 and 2005 that are listed on the Bursa Malaysia. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine whether after the launch of the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (HLFC, 2000) following the 1997/98 financial crisis, corporate governance in Malaysia has improved in terms of disclosure information ...

  15. Risk Disclosure by Financial Institutions

    Financial and Payment System Department

    1997-01-01

    Public disclosure by financial institutions has long provided information about business performance through the publication of financial statements. In recent years, however, a number of financial institutions have come to focus on disclosure of a wider range of information, including their management policies. This is partly attributable to the expansion of derivatives transactions, which has made risk management techniques increasingly important in the management of financial institutions,...

  16. Sexual Orientation, Disclosure and Earnings

    Plug, Erik; Berkhout, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Gay/bisexual workers tend to earn less than other men. Does this occur because of discrimination or because of selection? In this paper we address this question and collect new information on workplace disclosure to separate out discrimination effects from selection effects. Using a large sample of recently graduated men in the Netherlands, we find that gay/bisexual workers earn about 3 to 4 percent less than other men. Our disclosure estimates, however, provide little evidence that the labor...

  17. Data Disclosure for Chemical Evaluations

    Lutter, Randall; Barrow, Craig; Borgert, Christopher J.; Conrad, James W.; Edwards, Debra; Felsot, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Public disclosure of scientific data used by the government to make regulatory decisions for chemicals is a practical step that can enhance public confidence in the scientific basis of such decisions. Objectives: We reviewed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) current practices regarding disclosure of data underlying regulatory and policy decisions involving chemicals, including pesticides. We sought to identify additional opportunities for the U.S. EPA to disclose da...

  18. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse

    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.)

  19. Disclosure of intimate partner violence to informal social support network members: a review of the literature.

    Sylaska, Kateryna M; Edwards, Katie M

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a review of the published literature to date on rates, experiences, and correlates of victims' disclosure of or help seeking for intimate partner violence to informal social support network members (e.g., friends, family, classmates, and coworkers). Research indicates that the majority of individuals disclose to at least one informal support and that victims' disclosure is associated with a number of demographic (e.g., victims' sex, age, race), intrapersonal (e.g., victims' feelings of shame/embarrassment, perception of control over abuse), and situational (e.g., violence frequency and severity, if abuse is witnessed) factors. Following disclosure, victims experience a wide range of positive (e.g., believing the victim's reports, validating the victim's experiences) and negative (e.g. disbelieving, blaming the victim) social reactions, with positive reactions rated as the most common and most helpful forms of support by victims. Finally, a review of psychological correlates associated with reactions to disclosure indicates that positive social reactions are associated with more psychological health benefits and fewer negative health symptoms, whereas negative social reactions were associated with increased negative psychological health symptoms. Future research methodologies and implications for violence prevention, intervention, and policy are discussed. PMID:23887351

  20. Child sexual abuse in religiously affiliated and secular institutions: a retrospective descriptive analysis of data provided by victims in a government-sponsored reappraisal program in Germany

    Spröber, Nina; Schneider, Thekla; Rassenhofer, Miriam; Seitz, Alexander; Liebhardt, Hubert; König, Lilith; Fegert, Jörg M

    2014-01-01

    Background The disclosure of widespread sexual abuse committed by professional educators and clergymen in institutions in Germany ignited a national political debate, in which special attention was paid to church-run institutions. We wanted to find out whether the nature of the abuse and its effect on victims differed depending on whether the abuse had been experienced in religiously affiliated versus secular institutions. Methods In 2010, the German government established a hotline that vict...

  1. 22 CFR 1003.1 - General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions.

    2010-04-01

    ... disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. (a) The Inter-American Foundation will... person or agency to whom the disclosure is made; (2) Retain the accounting made under paragraph (c)(1) of... accounting of the disclosure was made. (d) The parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any...

  2. Exploratory Evaluation of a School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    Barron, Ian G.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, efficacy studies of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programs display a series of methodological shortcomings. Few studies include adolescent participants, recording of disclosures has been inconsistent, and no studies to date have assessed presenter adherence to program protocols or summated the costs of program…

  3. Multiple Forensic Interviews during Investigations of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Block, Stephanie D.; Foster, E. Michael; Pierce, Matthew W.; Berkoff, Molly C.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2013-01-01

    In suspected child sexual abuse some professionals recommend multiple child interviews to increase the likelihood of disclosure or more details to improve decision-making and increase convictions. We modeled the yield of a policy of routinely conducting multiple child interviews and increased convictions. Our decision tree reflected the path of a…

  4. The Clinical-Forensic Dichotomy in Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Moving toward an Integrative Model

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Meyer, Susanne K.; Haney, Penny; McLeod, Sara K.

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of an approach to evaluation that can be undertaken in a clinical setting when concerns regarding child sexual abuse are unclear or ambiguous and other systems are not involved, thus providing an option for the nondisclosing child often discussed in the "delayed disclosure" literature. This approach can also be appropriate for a…

  5. Extended Evaluations in Cases of Child Sexual Abuse: How Many Sessions Are Sufficient?

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2010-01-01

    This article provides new findings from a national study involving 18 forensic interview sites of 137 children who were randomly assigned to a four or eight session extended evaluation. Cases assigned to the eight session protocol were significantly more likely to be classified "credible disclosure" of sexual abuse (56.6%) than cases assigned to…

  6. The impact of intellectual capital disclosure on cost of equity capital: A case of French firms

    Mohamed Ali Boujelbene

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the impact of intellectual capital disclosure (IC on cost of Equity capital. The empirical research is based on companies listed in the French SBF 120 stock market index. The findings confirm our hypotheses that stipulate the existence of a significant and negative association between intellectual capital disclosure with its two components (human capital, structural and the cost of equity. However, the negative impact of the relational capital disclosure is not validated. The results in this paper are of considerable importance to both policy makers and firms. In fact, the understanding of the impact of Intellectual capital disclosure on cost of equity capital helps policy makers in the evaluation of the costs and benefits of disclosure. Moreover, with regard to managers of firms, the results show the benefit of enhanced IC disclosure regarding the reduction in their cost of capital. This study is one of the very first to provide empirical evidence of the association between Cost of equity capital and the level of disclosure in the three individual intellectual capital categories (human; structural and relational capital.

  7. 38 CFR 17.504 - Disclosure methods.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure methods. 17.504 Section 17.504 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.504 Disclosure methods. (a) Disclosure...

  8. 32 CFR 701.111 - Disclosure accounting.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure accounting. 701.111 Section 701.111... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.111 Disclosure accounting. Disclosure accounting allows the individual to determine what agencies or persons have been...

  9. Sibling Self-Disclosure in Early Adolescence.

    Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin; Bukowski, William M.; Rinaldi, Christina M.; Lehoux, Pascale M.

    2000-01-01

    Studied sibling-directed self-disclosure of 40 preadolescents through interviews, a questionnaire, and subjects' daily diaries. Found that warmth in sibling relationship was most strongly associated with sibling disclosure, but not with rivalry, conflict, or power. Daily sibling disclosures were more strongly associated with reports of unhappy…

  10. 12 CFR 230.4 - Account disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Account disclosures. 230.4 Section 230.4 Banks... IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.4 Account disclosures. (a) Delivery of account disclosures—(1) Account opening. (i) General. A depository institution shall provide account disclosures to a...

  11. 12 CFR 707.4 - Account disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Account disclosures. 707.4 Section 707.4 Banks... § 707.4 Account disclosures. (a) Delivery of account disclosures—(1) Account opening. (i) General. A credit union must provide account disclosures to a member or potential member before an account is...

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  13. Childhood sexual abuse.

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Aktepe, Evrim

    2009-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  15. Helping children to the other side of silence: A study of the impact of the stay safe programme on Irish children's disclosures of sexual victimisation.

    MacIntyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based safety skills programme - The Stay Safe Programme - in facilitating the disclosure of sexual abuse among sexually victimized children and adolescents in Dublin. Method. A cohort of 145 children who had participated in the Stay Safe Programme prior to their referral to a sexual abuse assessment unit were compared with a cohort of 443 children who had not participated in the prevention programme on a rang...

  16. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  17. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  18. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  19. Prevalence and Pedagogy: Understanding Substance Abuse in Schools

    Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…

  20. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  1. CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE AMONG JUNIOR COLLEG E STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA , INDIA

    Omkar S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious problem globally. Approximately 150 million girls and 73 million boys are being victimized for sexual abuse. Disclosure by the children and reporting by the parents regarding exposure to sexual violence found to be poor. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cu rrent study is aimed to find the magnitude of childhood sexual abuse among junior college male students and the various types of sexual abuse experienced. METHODOLOGY: TYPE OF STUDY: Descriptive Cross sectional study . STUDY SETTING: Junior college of Rural Malkapur Maharashtra . STUDY SUBJECTS: Male students enrolled in Junior college during year 2012 to 2013 . RESULTS: It was found that more than half of male junior college students were the victims of verbal sexual assault. Threatening by the abuser and fe ar and poor knowledge associated with the assault leads to poor disclosure and poor identification of victims and perpetrators. CONCLUSION: Awareness program on child sexual abuse for students, teachers and parents must be adopted to prevent assault and to identify victims of child sexual abuse

  2. Child abuse - physical

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  4. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  5. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  6. Abuse during Pregnancy

    ... partner may try to hurt your body. This physical abuse can include hitting, slapping, kicking, choking, pushing or ... your unborn baby in grave danger. During pregnancy, physical abuse can lead to miscarriage and vaginal bleeding . It ...

  7. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ... a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not lead to physical dependence and withdrawal, the feelings these drugs give people can cause them to use the drugs more and more ...

  8. 76 FR 3913 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... and projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including consideration of personnel... Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus, Baltimore, MD...

  9. 76 FR 65517 - National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meeting

    2011-10-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meeting... projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including consideration of personnel..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus, Baltimore, MD 21223. Contact...

  10. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  11. Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Later Sexual Exploitation/High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Prevention/Treatment Programs

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...

  12. Drug and Substance Abuse

    ... are common in later life. The Most Common Types of Drug and Substance Abuse Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications Abuse Among ... older population than in younger people. But, other types of substance abuse, such as inappropriate use of prescription and over- ...

  13. Child Abuse and Neglect

    Yaşar Tıraşçı; Süleyman Gören

    2007-01-01

    Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

  14. Preventing Child Abuse

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  15. Financial Disclosure : A Closer Look

    Ermans, C.J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The central concern of this paper is the company's financial disclosure process.We briefly discuss this phenomenon.Furthermore, the research in this area is surveyed and discussed.Most of the research so far has been quantitative.Some early studies are discussed including their validity and their sh

  16. Sexual orientation, disclosure and earnings

    E. Plug; P. Berkhout

    2008-01-01

    Gay/bisexual workers tend to earn less than other men. Does this occur because of discrimination or because of selection? In this paper we address this question and collect new information on workplace disclosure to separate out discrimination effects from selection effects. Using a large sample of

  17. The Role of Theory in Explaining Motivation for Corporate Social Disclosures: Voluntary Disclosures vs ‘Solicited’ Disclosures

    Sandra van der Laan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social disclosures (CSD are primarily voluntary in nature and subsequently provide an area forresearch into motivational aspects of disclosures. The main focus of prior research has been whethercorporate social disclosures constitute a discharge of accountability or are part of a process of legitimation.Prior research, however, ignores the emergence of an alternate style of corporate social disclosure, the‘solicited’ disclosure. Increasingly companies are requested to report on their interactions with society invarious forms. Non-government organisations (NGOs, regulatory agencies, ethical or socially responsibleinvestment fund managers and other researchers are requesting social information from corporations. Thisshift from voluntary information provision to demanded information can be viewed as a natural consequenceof the increasing pressures on corporations to be ‘responsible’, particularly in light of intensified world wideattention on unethical corporate behaviour and corporate collapse. These contemporary variants of socialdisclosure are worthy of scrutiny when considering these ‘solicited’ disclosures potentially reduce acorporation’s power in defining the scope and nature of disclosures. Two theories, which are similar andderived from the broader political economy perspective, are commonly offered as explanations of motivationsfor social disclosures. Stakeholder theory offers an explanation of accountability to stakeholders. Legitimacytheory, on the other hand, suggests voluntary disclosures are part of a process of legitimation. This paperargues that these theoretical perspectives may provide greater insights into managerial motivation fordisclosure if they are linked more explicitly to the nature of corporate social disclosure under examination:voluntary or solicited.

  18. Protecting children in research: Safer ways to research with children who may be experiencing violence or abuse

    Taylor, Julie; Anderson, Anna; Randall, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Children participating in research, like other children, may be being maltreated. There is also potential for exposure to abuse during research. Research training, practices and protocols to respond to disclosure and discovery of abuse to protect both researchers and children may not be sufficiently robust. Our aim was to compare and contrast research practices reported in the literature related to protecting children and to recommend safer ways to conduct research. The simultaneous increase ...

  19. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  20. Child Abuse in India

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  1. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    2010-04-01

    ... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.226 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The... this section for at least five years from the date of disclosure for which the accounting is made, or... be maintained for disclosure of the accounting of disclosures....

  2. 41 CFR 51-9.202 - Accounting of disclosures.

    2010-07-01

    ... RULES 9.2-Disclosure of Records § 51-9.202 Accounting of disclosures. (a) Except for disclosures made pursuant to paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 51-9.201 of this part, an accurate accounting of each disclosure... is longer. The accounting will include the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure, and the...

  3. 5 CFR 297.403 - Accounting of disclosure.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of disclosure. 297.403 Section... PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS Disclosure of Records § 297.403 Accounting of disclosure. (a) The Office or..., agency, or other entity to whom the disclosure is made. (c) Except for the accounting of disclosure...

  4. Capital Market Implications of Corporate Disclosure: German Evidence

    Grüning, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between annual report disclosure, market liquidity, and capital cost for firms registered on the Deutsche Börse. Disclosure is comprehensively measured using the innovative Artificial Intelligence Measurement of Disclosure (AIMD). Results show that annual report disclosure enhances market liquidity by changing investors’ expectations and inducing portfolio adjustments. Trading frictions are negatively associated with disclosure. The study provides evid...

  5. Body disclosure and self-disclosure--relating two modes of interpersonal encounter.

    Sussman, S A

    1977-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between body-disclosure and self-disclosure. The author drew upon current research in self-disclosure and body image and hypothesized that self-disclosure and body-disclosure would be directly related. Ss who volunteered for the experiment were matched for sex, past disclosure, and willingness to disclose to someone of the opposite sex. A social nudity experience was provided for one group, an outing day was provided for the second group, and a third group recieved no treatment. Testing included a tape recorded self-disclosure dialogue and ratings of self- and body attitudes. Finally, the Ss were asked to write their subjective "experience of the experiment." Ss who had undergone a body-disclosure experience disclosed more to each other than did Ss in the other groups. Ss also tended to like themselves better after the social nudity experience. Furthermore, they described the body-disclosing day as a peak experience. PMID:925176

  6. Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.

    Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

    2013-10-01

    Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23192527

  7. Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?

    Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

    2011-09-01

    Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

  8. The Effects of Similarity and Actual Levels of Self-Disclosure and Self-Disclosure Flexibility on Perceptions of Interpersonal Attraction and Adjustment.

    Winum, Paul C.; Banikiotes, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated how individuals perceive others who systematically vary in both level of disclosure and disclosure flexibility. Subjects were 52 students rated high or low in self-disclosure and disclosure flexibility. Found a similarity effect for disclosure flexibility and highest ratings for medium-high disclosure and high disclosure flexibility…

  9. Disclosure of executive remuneration in large banks

    Schott, Max

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this thesis analyzes and quantifies the magnitude of executive remuneration disclosure of the world?s 245 largest exchange-listed banks, using annual reports as the primary source of information, and the diverse disclosure rules in the 31 countries in which these banks are domiciled. Descriptive statistics suggests that banks located in common law countries have higher (more than three times in terms of the quantifying proxy) disclosure compared to banks in civil law countri...

  10. Synergy disclosures in mergers and acquisitions

    Dutordoir, Marie; Roosenboom, Peter; Teixeira de Vasconcelos, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe examine bidding firms’ motives for disclosing a synergy forecast when announcing a merger or acquisition. Our sample consists of 1,990 M&A deals, of which 345 announce synergy estimates. Our results suggest that synergy disclosures serve to obtain a more favorable market reception for deals that would otherwise induce highly negative bidder announcement returns. After controlling for the endogeneity of the disclosure decision, synergy forecast disclosures result in approximatel...

  11. Value relevance of IFRS mandatory disclosure requirements

    Ioannis Tsalavoutas; Dionysia Dionysiou

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address recent calls for research regarding the valuation implications of mandatory disclosure requirements (cf. Hassan et al., 2009; Leuz and Wysocki, 2008; Schipper, 2007). Design/methodology/approach – The paper measures compliance with all International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) mandatory disclosure requirements for a sample of firms. The paper subsequently explores whether the compliance scores (i.e. the mandatory disclosure levels) ar...

  12. HIV disclosure in the workplace

    Degroote, S.; Vogelaers, D.; Koeck, R.; Borms, R.; De Meulemeester, L.; Vandijck, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: As HIV is currently a chronic and manageable disease, an increasing amount of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are (again) active on the labour market. Since research on this topic is scarce, this study aimed to explore experiences of PLHIV in the workplace, especially concerning disclosure and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and validated in collaboration with Sensoa (Flemish expertise centre for sexual health) and participants were recru...

  13. Disclosure of stress test results

    Berlin, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Should regulatory bank examinations be made public? Regulators have argued that the confidentiality of the examination process promotes frank exchanges between bankers and examiners and that public disclosure of examination results could have a chilling effect. I examine the tradeoffs in a world in which examination results can be kept confidential, but regulatory interventions are observable by market participants, as they typically are for stress tests. Inducing banks to communicate truthfu...

  14. 5 CFR 2100.10 - Conditions of disclosure and accounting of certain disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions of disclosure and accounting... ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME PRIVACY ACT PROCEDURES § 2100.10 Conditions of disclosure and accounting of... Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, unless when such disclosure is: (a) To those officers and employees...

  15. Maltreated and abused children

    HOUFOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    According to the statistics there are forty thousand of battered and abused children in the Czech Republic. Maltreatment and abuse are not revealed in most cases and thus they accompany the children during their whole childhood. The reason is that children cannot defend themselves. The maltreatment or the abuse of a child is revealed only if somebody from the child?s neighbourhood observes anything suspicious and decides to report it, which is both a moral and a legal obligation. A person, wh...

  16. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-01-01

    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  17. HIV-positive parents, HIV-positive children, and HIV-negative children’s perspectives on disclosure of a parent’s and child’s illness in Kenya

    Grace Gachanja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV disclosure from parent to child is complex and challenging to HIV-positive parents and healthcare professionals. The purpose of the study was to understand the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. Sixteen HIV-positive parents, seven HIV-positive children, and five HIV-negative children completed semistructured, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the Van Kaam method; NVivo 8 software was used to assist data analysis. We present data on the process of disclosure based on how participants recommended full disclosure be approached to HIV-positive and negative children. Participants recommended disclosure as a process starting at five years with full disclosure delivered at 10 years when the child was capable of understanding the illness, or by 14 years when the child was mature enough to receive the news if full disclosure had not been conducted earlier. Important considerations at the time of full disclosure included the parent’s and/or child’s health statuses, number of infected family members’ illnesses to be disclosed to the child, child’s maturity and understanding level, and the person best suited to deliver full disclosure to the child. The results also revealed it was important to address important life events such as taking a national school examination during disclosure planning and delivery. Recommendations are made for inclusion into HIV disclosure guidelines, manuals, and programs in resource-poor nations with high HIV prevalence.

  18. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  19. Child Sexual Abuse

    HROBAŘOVÁ, Petra

    2008-01-01

    My thesis deals with the problems of sexual abuse of children. It is divided into nine chapters, each of which has a subhead. In the first part, I focused on the term of child sexual abuse. In the second part, I focused on the problem of sexual abuse of children by family members. In the third part, I explained the term of commercial sexual violence committed against children. In the fourth part, I focused on the victims of sexual abuse and in the following part, I focused on the perpetrators...

  20. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  1. Substance Abuse in the Military

    ... DrugFacts » Substance Abuse in the Military DrugFacts: Substance Abuse in the Military Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ... alcohol and tobacco use, and especially prescription drug abuse, are much more prevalent and are on the ...

  2. Iranian EFL teachers' perceptions of teacher self-disclosure

    Ali Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teacher self-disclosure (TSD as a communication behavior can influence students' learning by increasing their engagement and class participation as well as helping them establish effective interpersonal relationships. Owning to its context-sensitive and culture-dependent nature, however, TSD topics, purposes, and considerations may vary cross-culturally. This study was an attempt to explore Iranian EFL teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD as well as to investigate whether there was a significant difference between male and female teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD. To this end, the Appropriateness of Teacher Self-Disclosure Scale was distributed among 68 Iranian EFL teachers (34 females and 34 males from six language institutes. The results of the study indicated the extent to which the Iranian EFL teachers perceived TSD topics, purposes, and considerations to be appropriate or inappropriate. Furthermore, the study found convergence and divergence between male and female teachers' perceptions in terms of the topics used in TSD, the purposes TSD serves in classroom, and considerations the teachers take into account when practicing TSD. The results of the study suggest that Iranian EFL teachers can practice TSD as a pedagogical tool to enhance learning although they should be wary of its consequences in some aspects as TSD is contingent upon context and culture.

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications and Counseling Considerations.

    Elliott, David J.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Presents special considerations in counseling fetal alcohol syndrome children and their mothers. Preventive counseling must begin before conception. Adequate education, counseling, testing, treatment, and followup of patients and their families is essential to reduce or eliminate problems associated with maternal alcohol abuse. (JAC)

  4. Bioethical considerations.

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2014-11-01

    The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472

  5. 7 CFR 400.409 - Unauthorized disclosure.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized disclosure. 400.409 Section 400.409... Unauthorized disclosure. Anyone having access to the records identifying a participant's SSN or EIN will abide... section 6109(f), Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 6109(f) and the Privacy Act of 1974 (5...

  6. 48 CFR 9903.202 - Disclosure requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.202 Disclosure requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure requirements. 9903.202 Section 9903.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  7. Interpersonal Liking and Self-Disclosure.

    Gelman, Richard; McGinley, Hugh

    1978-01-01

    Females viewed a female stranger who discussed opinions about social issues. Subjects rated stranger on Interpersonal Judgment Scale and indicated on Jourard Self-Disclosure Questionnaire topics they would discuss with her. Topics subjects would discuss were positively related to their level of disclosure and attraction toward the stranger.…

  8. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  9. 16 CFR 432.5 - Prohibited disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited disclosures. 432.5 Section 432.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.5 Prohibited disclosures. No performance characteristics...

  10. 31 CFR 103.54 - Disclosure.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure. 103.54 Section 103.54 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.54 Disclosure. All reports...

  11. Full disclosure when bad things happen.

    Simons, Sherri Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full disclosure of errors to family members of patients in the NICU starts the healing process and helps to restore confidence and faith in caregivers. By facilitating and encouraging full disclosure, managers help initiate the healing process for all involved and can better ensure regulatory compliance. PMID:17402605

  12. Self Disclosure in Self Descriptive Essays

    Burhenne, Diane; Mirels, Herbert L.

    1970-01-01

    This study sought to ascertain degree to which self disclosing behavior would be predicted by scores on the Jourard Self Disclosure Questionnaire and by scores on the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale (SDS). Data revealed no relationship between Questionnaire scores and judges' ratings of self disclosure; a significant negative relationship…

  13. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    Sexual abuse - children ... boys are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser ... anus or vagina Tongue kissing Oral sex Intercourse Sexual abuse can also happen without physical contact, such as: ...

  14. Irish child sexual abuse victims attending a specialist centre

    O'Riordan, Beth; Carr, Alan.; Turner, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    We profiled a cohort of CSA cases referred for assessment to a specialist child sexual abuse (CSA) centre in a national paediatric hospital in Ireland. Historical and clinical data were drawn from records of 171 cases. The majority of cases were referred by social workers following purposeful disclosure of CSA. Three quarters of the cases were female with a mean age of 9 years. They were from a wide spectrum of socioeconomic groups and many had suffered a range of family adversities. In most ...

  15. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  16. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  17. Battling Sexual Abuse

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse

    ... example, by a friend, neighbor, child care person, teacher, or stranger. When sexual abuse has occurred, a child can develop many distressing ... t tell children to 'always do everything the teacher or baby-sitter tells you to ... of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. ...

  19. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The...... aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n...

  20. Typological and Integrative Models of Sexual Abuse

    Demidova L.Y.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the basic typological and integrative theoretical models that explain the occurrence of child sexual abuse and the differences detected among the perpetrators of crimes against sexual integrity of minors. A comprehensive review of the theoretical concepts of sexual abuse in our country, in fact has not been carried out, and in this paper for the first time we made such an attempt. It is shown that the existing notions of sexual abuse largely overlap each other, but each of the models somehow takes into account the factors not explicitly addressed in other concepts. Systematic consideration of the theoretical models of sexual abuse can generalize and systematize the available data on the mechanisms of pedophile behavior. This review provides an opportunity to develop a new benchmark in the study of sexual abuse, get closer to building the most accurate and comprehensive model. In turn, this may contribute to solving the questions about the factors, dynamics, and the prevention of criminal sexual conduct against children

  1. The risks of partner violence following HIV status disclosure, and health service responses: narratives of women attending reproductive health services in Kenya

    Manuela Colombini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For many women living with HIV (WLWH, the disclosure of positive status can lead to either an extension of former violence or new conflict specifically associated with HIV status disclosure. This study aims to explore the following about WLWH: 1. the women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV risks following disclosure to their partners; 2. an analysis of the women's views on the role of health providers in preventing and addressing IPV, especially following HIV disclosure. Methods: Thirty qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively selected WLWH attending clinics in Kenya. Data were coded using NVivo 9 and analyzed thematically. Results: Nearly one third of the respondents reported experiencing physical and/or emotional violence inflicted by their partners following the sero-disclosure, suggesting that HIV status disclosure can be a period of heightened risk for partner stigma and abuse, and financial withdrawal, and thus should be handled with caution. Sero-concordance was protective for emotional and verbal abuse once the partner knew his positive status, or knew the woman knew his status. Our results show acceptance of the role of the health services in helping prevent and reduce anticipated fear of partner stigma and violence as barriers to HIV disclosure. Some of the approaches suggested by our respondents included couple counselling, separate counselling sessions for men, and facilitated disclosure. The women's narratives illustrate the importance of integrating discussions on risks for partner violence and fear of disclosure into HIV counselling and testing, helping women develop communication skills in how to disclose their status, and reducing fear about marital separation and break-up. Women in our study also confirmed the key role of preventive health services in reducing blame for HIV transmission and raising awareness on HIV as a chronic disease. However, several women reported receiving no

  2. Child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting intervention preservice content preferred by student teachers.

    Goldman, Juliette D G; Grimbeek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The importance of preservice university teacher training about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting intervention is addressed in educational literature, although very little is known about student teachers' learning interests and preferences in this area. In this article, student teachers refer to students in university who are training to become teachers whose training includes teaching experiences in schools. This study examines the content about child sexual abuse and its intervention that student teachers believe they should learn. Results based on quantitative analyses show the relative importance of gender in determining responses to questions about university training and, to a lesser extent, the importance of a previous acquaintance with victims of sexual abuse, previous employment, and the length of the university course. Results based on qualitative data show that content knowledge preferred by elementary/primary and secondary school student teachers includes the teacher's role in mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse and signs, experiences, and responses to student disclosure. Student teachers prefer content examples of school professionals' responses and procedures after disclosure and prefer direct learning content from intervening school professionals. These outcomes could usefully guide teachers and educators who design intervention curricula on child sexual abuse for preservice teachers. PMID:24393087

  3. 28 CFR 802.20 - Accounting of disclosures.

    2010-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 802.20 Accounting of disclosures. (a) We will provide an... accounting will include: (1) The date, nature, and purpose of the disclosure; and (2) The name and address of the person or entity to whom the disclosure is made. (c) You may request access to an accounting...

  4. 10 CFR 1008.18 - Accounting for disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... Parties § 1008.18 Accounting for disclosures. (a) For each disclosure of information contained in a system... accounting of: (1) The date, nature, and purposes of each disclosure of a record made to any person or to... longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is made. (c) The accounting described in...

  5. 44 CFR 6.22 - Accounting of disclosures.

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting of each disclosure shall be made and retained for 5 years after the disclosure or for the life of... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 6... OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Disclosure of Records §...

  6. 20 CFR 401.80 - Accounting for disclosures.

    2010-04-01

    ... entity to whom the disclosure is made. (c) You may request access to an accounting of disclosures of your... an accounting of a disclosure of a record made under paragraph (g) of § 401.110. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 401.80...

  7. 5 CFR 2100.12 - Accounting of disclosure.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of disclosure. 2100.12 Section... PROCEDURES § 2100.12 Accounting of disclosure. (a) The AFRH or agency will maintain a record of disclosures... made. (c) Except for the accounting of disclosure made to agencies, individuals, or entities in...

  8. 36 CFR 703.5 - Records exempt from disclosure.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records exempt from disclosure. 703.5 Section 703.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE OR PRODUCTION OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Availability of Library of Congress Records § 703.5 Records exempt from disclosure. (a) The public disclosure of...

  9. 34 CFR 682.205 - Disclosure requirements for lenders.

    2010-07-01

    ... section; or (ii) The plain language disclosure approved by the Secretary under paragraph (g) of this... or electronic means. (g) Plain language disclosure. The plain language disclosure text, as approved... satisfied for subsequent loans if the borrower is sent the plain language disclosure text and an...

  10. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799

  11. Exploring the Impact of Childhood Abuse on HIV Social and Attitudinal Factors Among Adults With and Without this History in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV. PMID:26271817

  12. Child Abuse and Other Traumatic Experiences, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Health Problems in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Clark, Duncan B.; Thatcher, Dawn L.; Martin, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We prospectively examined the health effects of child abuse and other traumatic events, with objective health indicators and consideration of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods Adolescents (n = 668) were recruited from clinical and community sources. At baseline, we examined child abuse and other traumas, AUD, health-related symptoms, physical findings, and blood assays. Subjects were assigned to Trauma Classes (TC), including witnessing violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse....

  13. Child sexual abuse--the interface with genitourinary medicine.

    Rogers, D.J.; Roberts, R E

    1995-01-01

    Whenever a child is seen in a genitourinary clinic the possibility that the child is the victim of child sexual abuse must be considered. This article considers the definition and postulated prevalence of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. A proposed management plan is then detailed with a review of the significance of the medical findings. Finally consideration is given to the ethical dilemmas which such cases pose.

  14. Invisible Abuse: Utah's Response to Emotional Child Abuse

    Sirrine, Janae

    2010-01-01

    The very nature of emotional child abuse makes it difficult to detect and report. Nevertheless, scholars and professionals in the field of child welfare have identified emotional abuse as being equally detrimental to children as physical abuse and neglect. Many states, including Utah, have unclear definitions of emotional child abuse. The purpose of this study is to interpret how Utah has used its statute on emotional abuse in the court system and whether the current definition of emotional c...

  15. Child Abuse in India

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

  16. Are Norms of Disclosure of Online and Offline Personal Information Associated with the Disclosure of Personal Information Online?

    Mesch, Gustavo S.; Beker, Guy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether norms of self-disclosure of one's online and offline identity are linked to online disclosure of personal and intimate information. We expected online disclosure of personal and intimate information to be associated with norms of online disclosure. Secondary analysis of the 2006 Pew and American Life Survey of…

  17. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  18. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  19. Educators, Schools, and Child Abuse.

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The booklet provides an overview on the school-related issues involved in child abuse and neglect. Definitions, causes, and effects of abuse and neglect are reviewed in the first chapter; guidelines for identifying physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment are offered in chapter 2. Aspects of reporting abuse are noted as are…

  20. Gay-related Development, Early Abuse and Adult Health Outcomes Among Gay Males

    Friedman, Mark S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Stall, Ron; Cheong, JeeWon; Wright, Eric R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between timing of gay-related developmental milestones, early abuse, and emergence of poor health outcomes in adulthood among 1,383 gay/bisexual men in the Urban Men’s Health Study. Latent Profile Analysis grouped participants as developing early, middle or late based on the achievement of four phenomena including age of first awareness of same-sex sexual attractions and disclosure of sexual orientation. Participants who developed early were more likely, comp...

  1. HIV Stigma Among Substance Abusing People Living with HIV/AIDS: Implications for HIV Treatment

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; Hilary L Surratt

    2014-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54....

  2. Infantile abuse: Radiological diagnosis

    Ana Teresa Araujo Reyes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Infantile abuse is a frequent problem, that must be suspected to bediagnosed, the children victims of infantile abuse can present anytype of injury, nevertheless there are associated injuries common toan inferred trauma that constitute radiological patterns highly specific for abuse, among them are the metafisial injuries, posterior costal fractures and first costal arc fractures, fractures of the toracolumbar region, fractures without apparent explanation, fractures in different stage of evolution, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenquimatose contusion and diffuse axonal injury, which combined with the history of the trauma, the age, the development of mental abilities, as well as the mechanism guides the injury diagnose.

  3. Domestic Abuse and Child Health

    Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

  4. Children, contact and domestic abuse

    Morrison, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the issue of children’s contact with non-resident parents has been increasingly debated. The policy gaze has focused on contested contact when there are allegations of domestic abuse. Some commentators argue that in circumstances of domestic abuse, contact with an abusive father may not be in the ‘best interests’ of the child. To support these claims they point to evidence that domestic abuse adversely affects children, and domestic abuse often continues followi...

  5. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  7. Effects of Drug Abuse

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  8. Other Drugs of Abuse

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  9. Drug abuse first aid

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000016.htm Drug abuse first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... Diarrhea Hallucinations Nausea and vomiting Restlessness Shaking Death First Aid 1. Check the patient's airway, breathing, and pulse. ...

  10. Enterprise risk management and disclosure

    Nicoleta Farcane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper deals with aspects regarding risk and uncertainty. Many risk management methods are today implemented in organizations. This perspective reveals that managers are linked in different forms to the activities they are managing, depending on the conditions and levels of uncertainty they are in. Actually, these multiple levels of uncertainty lead to the conclusion that any situation in an organizational system can be classified in two different models of organizational phenomena: the organizational phenomena that are putting managers and stakeholders in conditions of risk and the organizational phenomena that are putting them in condition of uncertainty. Using content analyze in this paper we survey the disclosure level of risk management information in the annual report of top Romanian listed companies.

  11. Drug abuse in athletes

    Reardon CL; Creado S

    2014-01-01

    Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines t...

  12. Detecting Medicare Abuse

    David Becker; Daniel Kessler; Mark McClellan

    2004-01-01

    This paper identifies which types of patients and hospitals have abusive Medicare billings that are responsive to law enforcement. For a 20 percent random sample of elderly Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized from 1994-98 with one or more of six illnesses that are prone to abuse, we obtain longitudinal claims data linked with Social Security death records, hospital characteristics, and state/year-level anti-fraud enforcement efforts. We show that increased enforcement leads certain types of t...

  13. Sexual abuse and incest

    Şahin, Figen; Taşar, Medine Ayşin

    2012-01-01

    Incest which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abuse an...

  14. Sexual abuse and incest

    Medine Ayşin Taşar; Figen Şahin

    2012-01-01

    Incest, which is the severest form of child sexual abuse is defined as the sexual behaviours between close relatives whose marriage is illegal or describes inappropriate sexual behaviours within a family relation framework. Incestous relation is accepted as a taboo, therefore it is frequently a secret within the family and is a chronic process which is hard to recognize. It is important to recognize and prevent incest because it is more difficult to be revealed compared to other forms of abus...

  15. CREATIVE DISCLOSURE: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Cuzdriorean Dan Dacian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study extends the study conducted by Vladu, Grosanu and Cuzdriorean (2012 and reached similar conclusions. This particular research was conducted with the scope of assessing the impact of: positive bias, persuasive language, creative visual manipulation and performance comparisons over the unsophisticated users of accounting opinion. We have chosen this particular category since retail investors have been identified as relying on the information provided in corporate annual reports for decision making (Wills, 2008. Based on their relative inexperience and limited knowledge of these investors it is plausible that they can be mislead easily comparing to more sophisticated users of accounting information, as financial analysts. The main argument for conducting such a research is the fact that little research was conducted so far and the effects of creative disclosure on investment decision cannot be assessed so far. Based on this, we conducted a laboratory experiment where participants where provided with an informational set of financial data and required to make an investment decision. Our results document that the users perceptions is strongly affected by creative disclosure, contradictory with previous results documented in the literature, that their opinion cannot be influenced since they relay mostly on numerical information and less on the narrative segments of the financial statements. Even if our sample compressed few participants, we consider the results conclusive. A further research can extend the sample and test if our research hypothesis can be validated. Another possible spring of research can deal with the assessing of the opinion of the users of accounting information that are not considered unsophisticated, as financial analysts.

  16. Dental care of patients with substance abuse.

    Bullock, K

    1999-07-01

    Patients who abuse alcohol, crack, heroin or prescription drugs, are likely to interact with the dental professional. The dentist should therefore be able to identify problems of abuse and provide informed care and referral. Substance abuse should be a consideration in all patients who present with dental trauma and those who present with frequent vague complaints, multiple pain medication allergies, and regimens with multiple narcotic medications. Polydrug use, either prescription or illicit, is also a possibility, and effective treatment requires prompt recognition. Dentists should be alert to drug-seeking behavior within the context of pain management, and because pain severity is an objective experience, each patient must be treated carefully and sensitively. Unrelieved or unremitting pain can be a relapse trigger and therefore adequate pain control is a necessity in the recovering chemically dependent patient. New modalities, such as coanalgesia with low-dose ketamine in the opioid addicted have been shown to work effectively. In the post-dental surgical patient with chemical dependency, agents with less psychoactive activity than their drugs of abuse, such as extended-release morphine (MS Contin) have been tried with variable success. An informed treatment plan includes recognition of substance abuse, appropriate intervention, and referral. This plan may include universal screening, followed by brief interventional therapy for positive patients and in some cases, pharmacological pain control. On discharge from the office, instructions concerning referral to a substance abuse program or, in the case of the patient who may require more immediate treatment, to the emergency department are important. PMID:10516924

  17. Intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policy

    Nielsen, Christian; Farooq, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to document the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policies of biotechnology firms listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during the period between 2001 and 2010. The firms’ intellectual capital disclosures were computed from the annual...... financial reports, while data on dividend policies was retrieved from Worldscope. This paper defines dividend policies by three variables: (1) Dividend payout ratio, (2) Decision to pay dividend, and (3) Increase in dividend payout. The results show that firms with higher intellectual capital disclosures...... not only have high payout ratios, but also have a greater likelihood of increasing and paying dividends. Our findings are consistent with our hypothesis that lower information asymmetries of firms with high intellectual capital disclosure lead to more favourable dividend policies. In opposition to the...

  18. 16 CFR 432.2 - Required disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.2 Required disclosures. (a) Whenever any direct or indirect... sound power amplification equipment in any product brochure or manufacturer specification sheet,...

  19. Mother Reports of Maternal Support Following Child Sexual Abuse: Preliminary Psychometric Data on the Maternal Self-Report Support Questionnaire (MSSQ)

    Smith, Daniel W.; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Jones, Lisa M.; Cross, Theodore; McCart, Michael R.; Ralston, M. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Maternal support is an important factor in predicting outcomes following disclosure of child sexual abuse; however, definition of the construct has been unclear and existing measures of maternal support are utilized inconsistently and have limited psychometric data. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid…

  20. Officially Reported Characteristics of Spouse Abuse Victims Seeking Assistance in Utah, 1992

    Thompson, Kevin D.

    1994-01-01

    Spouse abuse is a significant social problem that has recently received considerable attention by family researchers. National studies have estimated the incidence of spouse abuse in the United States, but few studies have been conducted at the state or local level Data were obtained from the Utah Division of Family Services Domestic Violence Client Record (Fonn 741 -S) reporting system. A total of 1,363 primary victims of spouse abuse was identified for the calendar year 1992 It is pos...

  1. The Comparison of Identity Formation Styles in Teenagers with/without Substance Abuse

    Frarid Ahmadi; Ebrahim Taghipoor; Anahita Khodabakhshi, K

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this research was the study of the role of identity formation styles on substance abuse behavior of referred people to addiction withdrawal and DIC centers of Tehran city and its comparison with non addicted people. Method: The research design was causal effect research method, which 100 substance abusers compared with 100 non substance abusers. The sampling method was cluster random sampling and both groups were matched in consideration of age. Bersinesky’s identity making q...

  2. Domestic abuse as a transgressive practice: understanding nurses' responses through the lens of abjection

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Domestic abuse is a worldwide public health issue with long-term health and social consequences. Nurses play a key role in recognising and responding to domestic abuse. Yet there is considerable evidence that their responses are often inappropriate and unhelpful, such as trivialising or ignoring the abuse. Empirical studies have identified several reasons why nurses’ responses are sometimes wanting. These include organisational constraints, e.g. lack of time and privacy; and interpersonal fac...

  3. Financial Reporting and Supplemental Voluntary Disclosures.

    Bagnoli, Mark; Watts, Susan G.

    2006-01-01

    Using a Verreccia [1983]-type model, we study the optimal voluntary disclosure strategy of a manager with private information that helps the market interpret financial information the firm is required to report. In equilibrium, the manager’s disclosure strategy enhances upward or mitigates downward revisions in the market’s estimate of firm value conditional on the firm’s financial reports. Hence, what the manager discloses (large or small values of her private information) and the probabilit...

  4. The Many Faces of Information Disclosure

    Boot, Arnoud W.A.; Thakor, Anjan V.

    1998-01-01

    We examine the effects of a variety of mandatory information disclosure regimes on the expected revenues of issuing firms and on their endogenously-arising incentives for financial innovation. The main question we ask is: what kind of information and how much of it should firms be asked to disclose? The analysis uses a noisy rational expectations model in which some investors can choose to become informed at their own expense. Information disclosure then potentially affects the information-ad...

  5. Disclosure policy and intraday spread patterns

    Frank Heflin; Kenneth W. Shaw; John J. Wild

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the relation between financial analysts’ ratings of firms’ disclosure policies and the intraday pattern in spreads between specialists’ bid and ask price quotes. Design/methodology/approach – Measure of the disclosure policy is based on financial analysts’ ratings of the quality of firms’ annual reports, quarterly and other information, and investor relations activities. The bid-ask spread is the ask price minus the bid price. Time-weighted bid-...

  6. Test score disclosure and school performance

    Camargo, Bráz Ministério de; Firpo, Sergio Pinheiro; Ponczek, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we test whether the disclosure of test scores has direct impacts on student performance, school composition and school inputs. We take advantage of the discontinuity on the disclosure rules of The National Secondary Education Examination (ENEM) run in Brazil by the Ministry of Education: In 2006 it was established that the 2005 mean score results would be disclosed for schools with ten or more students who took the exam in the previous year. We use a regression discontinuity des...

  7. Transparency in Central Bank Financial Statement Disclosures

    Kenneth Sullivan

    2000-01-01

    The IMF's development of the Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies and the introduction of safeguards assessments have increased emphasis on transparency of the disclosures made in central bank financial statements. This paper, which updates WP/00/186, looks at the disclosure requirements for central banks under International Financial Reporting Standards and provides practical guidance for those responsible for preparing central bank financial statements.

  8. Ethical, Legal, and Clinical Considerations when Disclosing a High-Risk Syndrome for Psychosis.

    Mittal, Vijay A; Dean, Derek J; Mittal, Jyoti; Saks, Elyn R

    2015-10-01

    There are complex considerations when planning to disclose an attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) diagnosis. In this review, we evaluate ethical, legal, and clinical perspectives as well as caveats related to full, non- and partial disclosure strategies, discuss societal implications, and provide clinical suggestions. Each of the disclosure strategies is associated with benefits as well as costs/considerations. Full disclosure promotes autonomy, allows for the clearest psychoeducation about additional risk factors, helps to clarify and/or correct previous diagnoses/treatments, facilitates early intervention and bolsters communication between providers but there are important considerations involving heritability, comorbidity, culture, and stigma. Non-disclosure advances nonmaleficence by limiting stigma and stress (which may inadvertently exacerbate the condition), and confusion (related to the rapidly evolving diagnosis) in a sensitive developmental period but is complicated by varying patient preferences and the possibility that, as new treatments without adverse effects become available, the risk with false positives no longer justifies the accompanying loss of autonomy. Partial disclosure balances ethical considerations by focusing on symptoms instead of labels, but evidence that laypersons may interpret this information as a pseudo-diagnosis and that symptoms alone also contribute to stigma limits the efficacy of this approach. In addition, there are notable societal considerations relating to disclosure involving conservatorship, the reach of insurance companies, and discrimination. We advocate a hybrid approach to disclosure and recommend future research aimed at understanding the effects of stigma on clinical course and a renewed focus on those help-seeking cases that do not transition but remain clinically relevant. PMID:25689542

  9. PENGARUH TINGKAT DISCLOSURE TERHADAP BIAYA EKUITAS

    Juniarti Juniarti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of disclodure level to cost of equity and the significancy of the influence to companies with bluechips and nonbluechips stock. Thirty listed companies in Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX selected based on certain criteria were used as research sample. Data are collected from documentation of financial statements and are analyzed by using statistical tool i.e. multiple regression. This research indicate that there is significant influence of disclosure level to cost of equity. However, this research cannot prove that there is a significant different of the influence of disclosure level to cost of equity to the companies with bluechips and nonbluechips stocks. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh tingkat disclosure terhadap biaya ekuitas dan signifikansi pengaruh tersebut pada perusahaan yang sahamnya tergolong sebagai saham bluechip dan non-bluechip. Sebanyak tiga puluh perusahaan yang terdaftar pada Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ yang memenuhi kriteria yang ditetapkan diambil sebagai sampel. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara mengambil dokumentasi laporan keuangan dari Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ dan diolah dengan menggunakan uji statistik regresi berganda. Penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan tingkat disclosure terhadap biaya ekuitas. Namun penelitian ini gagal untuk membuktikan akan adanya perbedaan signifikansi pengaruh tingkat disclosure pada biaya hutang pada perusahaan yang sahamnya tergolong sebagai saham bluechip dan nonbluechip. Kata kunci: Disclosure, Biaya ekuitas.

  10. Green electricity: Tracking systems for environmental disclosure

    Biewald, B.E.; Ramey, J.A. [Synapse Energy Economics, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    For the first time, electricity consumers in the US are beginning to choose their generation providers. One of the opportunities created by the introduction of retail choice in electricity is the chance for customers to influence the mix of generating resources through their purchasing decisions. Some environmentally aware consumers will want {open_quotes}clean,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}green,{close_quotes} or renewable power. While some suppliers will attempt to differentiate themselves according to their environmental performance, such claims for green electricity can be particularly difficult to verify given the complexity of the interconnected electric system. Because electricity is delivered over an integrated transmission grid and kilowatt-hours at the point of retail sale are indistinguishable from each other; disclosure requires tracking protocols to attribute generation at power plants to sales at the customers` meters. Fortunately, it is possible to implement a workable disclosure system. Some states have already included disclosure requirements in their electric industry restructuring orders and legislation. In this paper, a set of design criteria for an environmental disclosure system are presented along with two methods for disclosure: the company approach and the product approach. In addition, the authors discuss of power pools, data availability issues, and propose a company-based disclosure system using a {open_quotes}wholesale sales first{close_quotes} approach to transaction accounting.

  11. Capital Market Implications of Corporate Disclosure: German Evidence

    Michael Grüning

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between annual report disclosure, market liquidity, and capital cost for firms registered on the Deutsche Börse. Disclosure is comprehensively measured using the innovative Artificial Intelligence Measurement of Disclosure (AIMD. Results show that annual report disclosure enhances market liquidity by changing investors’ expectations and inducing portfolio adjustments. Trading frictions are negatively associated with disclosure. The study provides evidence for a capital-costreduction effect of disclosure based on the analysis of investors’ return requirements and market values. Altogether, no evidence is found that the information processing at the German capital market is structurally different from other markets.

  12. Use of Brief Interventions for Drug Abusing Teenagers within a Middle and High School Setting

    Winters, Ken C.; Leitten, Willa; Wagner, Eric; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Promising and encouraging results have been recently reported on the use of briefer interventions for adolescent drug abusers. Because middle- and high-school-based drug abuse intervention programs have grown in popularity over the past several decades, the use of brief interventions (BIs) in school settings merits consideration.…

  13. Why Do Teachers Choose to Implement or Reject Drug Abuse Prevention Programs?

    Campbell, James Reed; Swanchak, John

    State and local school systems have developed comprehensive drug abuse prevention programs that appear to have little influence on the rising tide of teenage drug abuse. Classroom teachers, as implementors of such programs, frequently veto them or change them considerably. Forty secondary teachers were selected as research subjects to examine this…

  14. Rethinking the Routine Provision of Psychotherapy to Children/Adolescents Labeled "Sexually Abused"

    Oellerich, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, children labeled sexually abused are routinely offered treatment at considerable financial cost. One result of this is that mental health professionals are being charged with exploiting the problem of child sexual abuse (CSA). Is the routine provision of psychotherapy for children and adolescents labeled…

  15. Theoretical Perspectives of Male Sexual Abuse: Conceptualization of a Case Study

    Diamanduros, Terry; Cosentino, Clare E.; Tysinger, P. Dawn; Tysinger, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the traumatic impact that sexual abuse can have on a young male's development by addressing mediating dispositions that can render a child vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Consideration is given to three different theoretical perspectives that are not exclusive to male victims but shed light…

  16. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 “Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients”

    Mattoo, Khurshid A.; Garg, Rishabh; Kumar, Shalabh

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs). To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%), signs of improper feeding (83%), changes in personal hygiene (69%), need for medical/dental treatment (78%), medication misuse (67%), changes in wills/deeds (26%), decubiti (10%), bruises (17%), skin tears (27%), and confusion (23%). Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups. PMID:26816460

  17. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 "Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients"

    Khurshid A Mattoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs. To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%, signs of improper feeding (83%, changes in personal hygiene (69%, need for medical/dental treatment (78%, medication misuse (67%, changes in wills/deeds (26%, decubiti (10%, bruises (17%, skin tears (27%, and confusion (23%. Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups.

  18. How Do People with Intellectual Disabilities View Abuse and Abusers?

    Northway, Ruth; Melsome, Melissa; Flood, Samantha; Bennett, Davey; Howarth, Joyce; Thomas, Becki

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what…

  19. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  20. Examining Risk Management and Risk Disclosures Practices in UK Public Companies

    Jiang, Nan

    2008-01-01

    Although the concepts of risk and risk management are not new in literature and managerial practice, it has only draw considerable attention recently. Linsley and Shrives (2006) suggest, "these attention has yet to be reflected in empirical research examining firms' risk reporting practices". This dissertation examines and discusses risk management and risk disclosures practices of fifteen UK listed companies from three different industries, over a period of five years from financial year 200...

  1. Substance abuse in later life.

    D'Archangelo, E.

    1993-01-01

    Substance abuse affects an appreciable portion of the elderly population. Elderly people have characteristics that could hinder identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of substance abuse. If physicians use strategies specific to the elderly, management is often successful.

  2. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    ... Home » Related Topics » Medical Consequences Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Drug addiction is a brain ... and lung disease can all be affected by drug abuse. Some of these effects occur when drugs are ...

  3. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  4. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    ... abused and controlling for other adversities. 1 o Victims of child sexual abuse were more likely to report having a psychiatric disorder in the last 12 months, which puts victims at a higher risk of a suicide attempt ...

  6. Substance Abuse and Mental Health

    ... More Drugs and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Abuse and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you ... related topics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Free Resources for parents and ...

  7. Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit provides information and strategies on how to: incorporate abuse prevention into programming; conduct staff...

  8. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  9. 15 CFR 30.74 - Voluntary self-disclosure.

    2010-01-01

    ... CBP, ICE, and the OEE of the voluntary disclosure, acknowledge the disclosure by letter, provide the... forth corrective measures required. (3) Refer the matter, if necessary, to the OEE for the...

  10. Explaining Pension Fund Product and Governance Disclosure in Australia

    Monica Guo-Sze Tan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fund disclosure is an important communication tool between trustees and fund members for product comparison and credibility verification. We examine what drives Australian not-forprofit superannuation funds to disclose their fund product information to the market. Our research derives a model that shows how the proprietary costs of disclosure and fund governance drive the disclosure of information about trustee, investment agents, fees, and overall practices. The research findings indicate that disclosure costs have a significant negative influence on voluntary disclosure, while board size has a weak positive relation with disclosure. Board independence is an unreliable and insignificant explanatory variable for voluntary disclosure. We discuss how the multi-layer agency relationship and institutional factors in the superannuation funds industry influence the power of these factors and their effects on voluntary disclosure.

  11. Working with the Abused Camper.

    Johnson, Rebecca Cowan

    1990-01-01

    Describes forms of and reasons behind child abuse. Describes camp staff's role as reporters of suspected abuse. Describes techniques for identifying and dealing with abuse victims. Recommends offering victims respect, support, advocacy, and unconditional love. Describes steps staff might take to maximize camp's effectiveness in helping abuse…

  12. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  13. Commentary: Gender, Disability, and Abuse.

    Goldson, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    This commentary discusses the research article "Gender Differences in Abused Children with and without Disabilities" (Sobsey and others) that follows, which found that children with disabilities are at greater risk for being maltreated, that boys are more frequently abused, and that boys with disabilities are sexually abused more frequently than…

  14. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  15. Acute Subdural Hematoma in Infants with Abusive Head Trauma: A Literature Review

    KARIBE, Hiroshi; KAMEYAMA, Motonobu; Hayashi, Toshiaki; NARISAWA, Ayumi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    The number of cases with child abuse is increasing in Japan, and abusive head trauma (AHT) is a major cause of death in abused children. Child abuse has been recognized by the late 19th century, and widely accepted as battered child syndrome in the middle of the 20th century. As terms, there had been considerable mechanistic controversies between shaken-baby and -impact syndrome until the beginning of the 21st century. In recent years, AHT has been utilized as a less mechanistic term. Most of...

  16. Child sexual abuse and subsequent relational and personal functioning: the role of parental support.

    Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the role of nonoffending parental support in the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and later romantic attachment, psychiatric symptoms, and couple adjustment. Of 348 adults engaged in stable romantic relationship, 59 (17%) reported sexual abuse. In this subgroup, 14% (n=8) reported parental intervention after the abuse was disclosed (i.e., support), 15% (n=9) reported a lack of parental intervention after abuse disclosure (i.e., nonsupport), and 71% (n=42) reported that their nonabusive parent(s) was(were) unaware of their abuse. Results indicated that, compared to other groups, CSA survivors with nonsupportive parents reported higher levels of anxious attachment, psychological symptoms, and dyadic maladjustment. In contrast, CSA survivors with supportive parent(s) expressed psychological and couple adjustment equivalent to non-abused participants, and lower attachment avoidance, relative to all other groups. Path analysis revealed that insecure attachment completely mediated the relationship between perceived parental support after CSA and later psychosocial outcomes. An actor-partner interdependence model showed different patterns for men and women and highlighted the importance of considering relational dynamics in dyads of CSA survivors. Overall, the results suggest that perceived parental support serves as a protective factor among those exposed to CSA. PMID:24199753

  17. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers: The Contribution of Parental Factors.

    Langevin, Rachel; Hébert, Martine; Allard-Dansereau, Claire; Bernard-Bonnin, Anne-Claude

    2016-04-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with emotion regulation deficits in childhood. Parents play a crucial role in the development of emotion regulation in their children, especially at younger ages. Close to 50% of mothers of sexually abused children report having been sexually victimized themselves as children. They are consequently at risk of experiencing significant distress following the disclosure of sexual abuse of their child. Parents' distress could interfere with their ability to provide support and to foster development of emotion regulation in their children. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship of parental factors (history of sexual victimization in childhood and the current level of distress) to sexually abused preschoolers' emotion regulation competencies. Emotion regulation was assessed in 153 preschoolers by their parents with the Emotion Regulation Checklist; 75 of these children were abused (14 boys); 78 were not abused (21 boys) and were part of a comparison group. Parents reported their level of distress using the Psychiatric Symptom Index. Results indicated that parental factors contributed to some dimensions of preschoolers' emotion regulation (namely displays of underregulation of emotion) above and beyond children's victimization status and gender (Cohen's ƒ(2) = .15). Identifying parental distress and history of sexual victimization as positively associated with emotional dysregulation in preschool children victims of CSA has important research and clinical implications. PMID:26915665

  18. Essays on the value of accounting disclosure on capital markets

    Platikanova, Petya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze how capital markets interpret accounting disclosure. In three empirical studies, I evaluate the role that accounting disclosure plays in evaluating financial prospects and facilitating pricing decisions. The present thesis contains three essays that analyze the market response to changes in accounting disclosure. I examine the relationship between financial disclosure and stock market reaction in three event studies, after: (1) a company's inclusion in...

  19. Defensive Disclosure of Patentable Inventions Under Antitrust Enforcement

    Bhaskarabhatla, Ajay; Pennings, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe formulate a simple model of optimal defensive disclosure by a dominant firm facing uncertain antitrust enforcement and test its implications using unique data on defensive disclosures and patents by IBM. Our results indicate that stronger antitrust enforcement leads to more defensive disclosure and that defensive disclosure served as an alternative, but less successful, mechanism to patenting at IBM in appropriating returns from R&D. We extend our analysis to two other exceptio...

  20. Medical confidentiality versus disclosure: Ethical and legal dilemmas.

    Agyapong, V I O

    2009-02-01

    A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.

  1. 20 CFR 401.125 - Disclosures prohibited by law.

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 401.125 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.125 Disclosures prohibited by law. We do not disclose information when a law specifically prohibits it. The Internal Revenue...

  2. 25 CFR 141.48 - Translation of disclosure statements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Translation of disclosure statements. 141.48 Section 141.48 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS... Translation of disclosure statements. Disclosure required by §§ 141.46 and 141.47 shall be made in...

  3. 4 CFR 83.6 - Accounting of certain disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ..., agency, or organization to whom the disclosure is made. (b) Such accounting shall be retained for at... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of certain disclosures. 83.6 Section 83.6... Accounting of certain disclosures. (a) With respect to each system of personnel records, GAO shall,...

  4. 22 CFR 308.11 - Accounting for disclosure of records.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accounting for disclosure of records. 308.11... subsection (b) of the Act. (e) For the purpose of this part, the system of accounting for disclosure is not a system of records under the definitions hereof and no accounting need be maintained for the disclosure...

  5. 31 CFR 1.25 - Accounting of disclosures.

    2010-07-01

    ... years or the life of the record, whichever is longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is... person or agency if an accounting of the disclosure was made. (See 5 U.S.C. 552(c).) (b) Accounting... accounting is required for disclosure of records: (1) To those officers and employees of the Department...

  6. 46 CFR 503.62 - Accounting of disclosures.

    2010-10-01

    ... Record of Identifiable Personal Information § 503.62 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The Secretary shall make an accounting of each disclosure of any record contained in a system of records in accordance with... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 503.62 Section...

  7. 8 CFR 103.30 - Accounting for disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.30 Accounting for disclosures. (a) An accounting of each disclosure of information for which accounting is required (see § 103.24 of this part) shall be attached to the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 103.30...

  8. 43 CFR 2.57 - Accounting for disclosures.

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosure for which the accounting is made. (b) Access to accountings. (1) Except for accountings of... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 2.57 Section 2... INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.57 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1) Where...

  9. 49 CFR 10.23 - Accounting of disclosures.

    2010-10-01

    ... accurate accounting of: (1) The date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure of a record to any person or... the disclosure is made; (b) Retains the accounting made under paragraph (a) of this section for at... an accounting of the disclosure was made....

  10. 22 CFR 1507.5 - Accounting for disclosure of records.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accounting for disclosure of records. 1507.5... § 1507.5 Accounting for disclosure of records. (a) With respect to each system of records under ADF... life of the record, whichever is longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is made....

  11. 12 CFR 792.61 - Accounting for disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 792.61 Section 792... Accounting for disclosures. (a) Each system manager identified in the “Notice of Systems of Records” must establish a system of accounting for all disclosures of information or records under the Privacy Act...

  12. 45 CFR 503.4 - Accounting of certain disclosures.

    2010-10-01

    ... any record that has been disclosed to the person or agency if an accounting of the disclosure was made... person or agency to whom the disclosure is made. (e) This accounting shall be retained for 5 years or the life of the record, whichever is longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is made....

  13. 22 CFR 1101.10 - Accounting for disclosures.

    2010-04-01

    ... address of the person or agency to whom the disclosure was made. Accounting records shall be maintained... Information Act. (d) If an accounting of the disclosure was made, the PA Officer shall inform any person or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accounting for disclosures. 1101.10 Section...

  14. 32 CFR 701.110 - Conditions of disclosure.

    2010-07-01

    ... considered a single agency. Note: No disclosure accounting required. (b) FOIA. Records must be disclosed if... disclosure accounting required. (c) Routine use. Each DON PA system of records notice identifies what records...: Disclosure accounting is required. (1) A routine use shall be compatible with and related to the purpose...

  15. 12 CFR 792.62 - Requests for accounting for disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests for accounting for disclosures. 792.62... § 792.62 Requests for accounting for disclosures. At the time of the request for access or correction or at any other time, an individual may request an accounting of disclosures made of the...

  16. 5 CFR 2606.207 - Accounting of disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... Ethics in Government Act, 18 U.S.C. 208(d) and 5 CFR parts 2634 and 2640 of OGE's executive branch... of disclosures for these records. (d) Except for the accounting of a disclosure made under subsection... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of disclosures....

  17. 48 CFR 9903.303 - Effect of filing Disclosure Statement.

    2010-10-01

    ... Disclosure Statement. 9903.303 Section 9903.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING... AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.303 Effect of filing Disclosure Statement. (a) A disclosure of a cost accounting practice by a contractor does not determine...

  18. 36 CFR 1121.11 - Accounting of disclosures.

    2010-07-01

    ... an accurate accounting of— (1) The date, nature and purpose of each disclosure of a record to any... to whom the disclosure is made. (b) This accounting shall be retained for at least five years or the life of the record, whichever is longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is made; (c)...

  19. 40 CFR 350.40 - Disclosure to health professionals.

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Disclosure of Trade Secret Information to Health Professionals § 350.40 Disclosure to health professionals. (a.... 350.40 Section 350.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  20. 25 CFR 700.267 - Disclosure of records.

    2010-04-01

    ... Information Act, reasonable efforts shall be made to assure that the records are accurate, complete, timely... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of records. 700.267 Section 700.267 Indians... Privacy Act § 700.267 Disclosure of records. (a) Prohibition of disclosure. No record contained in...

  1. ASPECTS REGARDING CORPORATE MANDATORY AND VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE

    Popa Adina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights theoretical aspects regarding corporate mandatory and voluntary disclosure. Since financial and business reporting are important information sources for different stakeholders, especially for publicly traded companies, the business reporting is increasingly oriented to the need of different users. In order to make rational investment decisions, users of corporate annual and interim reports require an extensive range of information. The increasing needs of the users persuade different international bodies and researchers to investigate the improvements that can be done in business reporting. The results of those studies usually were different reporting models. Because voluntary dimension of corporate disclosure involve the manifestation of free choice of the firm and its managers, we have considered as necessary to achieve a theoretical analysis of the main costs and profits of the voluntary disclosure policy.

  2. Infant crying and abuse

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  3. Drug abuse in athletes

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  4. New drugs of abuse.

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  5. Ethical considerations in human experimentation.

    Bernstein, J E

    1975-01-01

    An accepted practice in medical research has been the subordination of individual rights to the benefit of mankind. The Nazi experiments, and other recent abuses, have focused increased attention on the dignity and rights of human research subjects and have led to new regulations to control human experimentation. Central to establishing what constitutes permissible human experimentation are the issues of risk-benefit ratio and informed consent. Evaluating the risk-benefit ratio requires consideration of the nature of the experiment, the likelihood of its success, and the type of subjects to be utilized. Participation in a study requires voluntary "educated" informed consent. Certain categories of subjects, such as children and the mentally handicapped, require special protection in this regard. Finally, formal education in medical ethics and prohibiting publication of unethical studies are likely to prove more effective in curbing unethical experimentation than increasing government regulation. PMID:1150912

  6. Reflective Practice and Supervision in Child Abuse Prevention

    Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…

  7. The Comparison of Identity Formation Styles in Teenagers with/without Substance Abuse

    Frarid Ahmadi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this research was the study of the role of identity formation styles on substance abuse behavior of referred people to addiction withdrawal and DIC centers of Tehran city and its comparison with non addicted people. Method: The research design was causal effect research method, which 100 substance abusers compared with 100 non substance abusers. The sampling method was cluster random sampling and both groups were matched in consideration of age. Bersinesky’s identity making questionnaire administered in two samples. Results: The results showed that substance abusers were scored higher on normative and confused/avoidant identity formation also the non substance abusers were scored higher on information identity formation style. Conclusion: With different kind of intervention-training trials the parents and people who are effective on children’s identity formation can be mobilized, in order to prevention of identity formation styles which can planning teenagers’ substance abusing.

  8. Child sexual abuse

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  9. Wife abuse in rural Bangladesh.

    Dalal, Koustuv; Rahman, Fazlur; Jansson, Bjarne

    2009-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and gender problem, especially in low-income countries. The study focused on verbal abuse, physical abuse and abuse by restricting food provision to wives by their husbands by victim and perpetrator characteristics, emphasizing the socioeconomic context of rural Bangladesh. Using a cross-sectional household survey of 4411 randomly selected married women of reproductive age, the study found that a majority of the respondents are exposed to verbal abuse (79%), while 41% are exposed to physical abuse. A small proportion (5%) of the women had suffered food-related abuse. Risk factors observed were age of the wife, illiteracy (of both victims and perpetrators), alcohol misuse, dowry management, husband's monetary greed involving parents-in-law, and wife's suspicions concerning husband's extramarital affairs. Well-established risk factors for wife abuse, along with dowry and husband's monetary greed, have a relatively high prevalence in rural Bangladesh. PMID:19534836

  10. Prioritising Disclosures in the Annual Report

    Riise Johansen, Thomas; Plenborg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon information economics, this paper presents a relative assessment of 24 of the most common disclosure items in the management commentary and notes sections of the annual report. We design and conduct an Internet survey using a large representative sample of users with an investment...... responsibility and corporate governance, the least demanded disclosure items in the management commentary, are also costly items to prepare. Further, preparers do not consider indirect costs (i.e. competitive position costs and potential litigation costs) of information provided in the management commentary to...

  11. 19 CFR 201.29 - Commission disclosure of individual records, accounting of record disclosures, and requests for...

    2010-04-01

    ... disclosure required by 5 U.S.C. 552, the Privacy Act Officer shall keep an accurate accounting of: (1) The... individual requesting an accounting of disclosure of his or her records should make the request in writing to... and in the letter that it is a Privacy Act request for an accounting of disclosure of records....

  12. Factors Associated with Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence among Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Bjarne Jansson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though the prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV remains high in less developed countries, data suggest that these figures may represent an underestimation considering that many women are unwilling to disclose abuse. This paper aims to determine women’s willingness to report abuse, factors determining willingness to disclose IPV, and to whom such disclosure is made.Methods:A total of 911 women visiting reproductive health facility responded to the questionnaire, and the collected data was analyzed using multivariate analysis. Results: About 54% (n=443 of the participating women reported that would not disclose IPV. Among those willing to disclose abuse, 68% (n=221 would opt to disclose to close relatives in contrast to 32% (n=103 who would disclose to some form of institutions (i.e. religious leaders, law enforcement officers. Ethnicity, woman’s own use of alcohol and autonomy in decision making such as having a say on household purchases, money use and visitation, independently predicted willingness to disclose IPV. Conclusions:The role of family is still important in the Nigeria context and the implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  13. A Method of Eliminating Information Disclosure in View Publishing

    LIU Guohua; GAO Shihong

    2006-01-01

    Although it is convenient to exchange data by publishing view, but it may disclose sensitive information. The problem of how to eliminate information disclosure becomes a core problem in the view publishing process. In order to eliminate information disclosure, deciding view security algorithm and eliminating information disclosure algorithm are proposed, and the validity of the algorithms are proved by experiment. The experimental results showing, deciding view security algorithm can decide the safety of a set of views under prior knowledge, and eliminating information disclosure algorithm can eliminate disclosure efficiently.

  14. Does Quality of Non-Financial Information Disclosure Influence Firms’ Profitability in Malaysia?

    Zam Zuriyati Mohamad; Hatijah Mohamed Salleh; Nur Diyana Ismail; Ibrahim Tamby Chek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the level of quality of Non-Financial Information disclosure in Malaysia. Non-Financial Information disclosure in this study refers to Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure, Intellectual Capital disclosure, Risk Management disclosure and Corporate Governance disclosure. This study also aims to examine the influence of quality of Non-Financial Information on firm’s profitability. It further identifies which Non Financial Information disclosure has...

  15. Sleep disturbances in sexual abuse victims: a systematic review.

    Steine, Iris M; Harvey, Allison G; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne M; Grønli, Janne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger H; Eid, Jarle; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-02-01

    An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences. PMID:21600813

  16. Temperament of Juvenile Delinquents with History of Substance Abuse

    Hsueh-Ling Chang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiological factors and interrelations of juvenile delinquents, with psychiatricmorbidity and substance abuse have been continuously debated.Cloninger’s Tridimensional Theory of Temperament has been reported topredict patterns of substance abuse and comorbidity. In the current study, weaimed to examine the usability of the theory in predicting juvenile delinquencyand substance abuse.Methods: Sixty consecutive and newly incarcerated male delinquents with history ofsubstance abuse were recruited from a juvenile correctional facility in northwesternTaiwan from January 2002 through December 2003. All subjectswere assessed of their temperament, behavioral problems, and psychiatricdisorders on an individual base.Results: The juvenile delinquent subjects with childhood history of attention deficitand hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were significantly younger, consumedless betel nuts, and had more siblings with history of drug abuse.Conclusion: Consistent with the results of Cloninger’s studies, novelty seeking positivelycorrelated to the amount of substance abuse, while harm avoidance inverselycorrelated in juvenile delinquents. Endemic trend of choice of substanceabuse needs to be taken into consideration in future research projects.

  17. Interpersonal attraction and rewarding aspects of disclosure content and level.

    Daher, D M; Banikiotes, P G

    1976-04-01

    The relationship between self-disclosure and interpersonal attraction was viewed within the context of theories of social penetration and social exchange. The effects of similarity of disclosure level and similarity in content of disclosure on interpersonal attraction were assessed. Specifically, 24 high-self-disclosing subjects and 24 low-self-disclosing subjects were presented with four bogus inventories manipulated on the variables of agreement in content and amount of disclosure. The reward potential of various factors within the disclosure process were measured by the subject's attraction to these four hypothetical strangers. Results indicated that along with amount of disclosure, similarity in the content of the disclosed material and similarity between the subject's and another's level of disclosure had a positive influence on attraction. PMID:1271221

  18. Carbon Disclosures: Comparability, the Carbon Disclosure Project and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol

    Jane Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate carbon disclosures have become increasingly commonplace and are often presented as a useful voluntary mechanism for internal and external decision making. The production of the data is said to assistcorporations position themselves strategically in terms of the carbon risks and opportunities they may face. External to the firm, carbon disclosures hold the promise of assisting capital allocation decisions that are ‘carbon responsible’. It is claimed that the process of disclosure can sensitise the market to globalenvironmental problems such as climate change. In order to consider these claims, the broad purpose of this paper is to question whether the voluntary information that is produced can live up to its expectations and provide a meaningful basis for climate change related decision making. To that end, this exploratory studyexamines the carbon disclosures of Australasian mining companies over three years in compliance with a voluntary carbon disclosure regime – the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP – and assesses those disclosureswith respect to comparability, an important criterion for information usefulness.

  19. Voluntary Disclosure Programs for Tax Evaders

    Schmittdiel, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model that can explain why governments may want to choose to offer a voluntary disclosure program that allows people who withheld taxes to turn themselves in without punishment. We find that such a leniency rule not only increases government revenue when it comes as a surprise, but even when taxpayers anticipate it.

  20. 22 CFR 127.12 - Voluntary disclosures.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary disclosures. 127.12 Section 127.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES...) The complete identities and addresses of all persons known or suspected to be involved in...

  1. 50 CFR 600.235 - Financial disclosure.

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Council Membership § 600.235 Financial... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial disclosure. 600.235 Section 600.... Financial interest in harvesting, processing, or marketing (1) includes: (i) Stock, equity, or...

  2. 28 CFR 80.14 - Disclosure.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure. 80.14 Section 80.14 Judicial... the identity of the requesting issuer or domestic concern, the identity of the foreign country in... release shall not disclose either the identity of any foreign sales agents or other types of...

  3. Corporate Risk Disclosure and Corporate Governance

    Kaouthar Lajili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, research which integrates corporate governance and risk management has been limited. Yet, risk exposure and management are increasingly becoming the core function of modern business enterprises in various sectors and industries domestically and globally. Risk identification and management are crucial in any business strategy design and implementation. From the investors’ point of view, knowledge of the risk profile, risk appetite and risk management are key elements in making sound portfolio investment decisions. This paper examines the relationships between corporate governance mechanisms and risk disclosure behavior using a sample of Canadian publicly-traded companies (TSX 230. Results show that Canadian public companies are more likely to disclose risk management information over and above the mandatory risk disclosures, if they are larger in size and if their boards of directors have more independent members. Minority voting control ownership structures appear to negatively impact risk disclosure and CEO incentive compensation shows mixed results. The paper concludes that more research is needed to further assess the impact of various governance mechanisms on corporate risk management and disclosure behavior.

  4. A Note on Quality Disclosure and Competition

    Jansen, Jos

    Competitive pressure is lower in markets where goods are more differentiated. I analyze how a change in the degree of horizontal product differentiation affects the incentives of duopolists to disclose quality information. If disclosure is costly, then a firm discloses high qualities but conceals...

  5. Adolescent Homosexuality and Concerns Regarding Disclosure.

    Harrison, Therese W.

    2003-01-01

    With threats of being labeled abnormal or facing rejection, homosexual adolescents are pressured to hide their sexual identities. To provide optimal anticipatory guidance and support, professionals must understand the natural development of sexual attraction and the disclosure concerns and risks for developing homosexual adolescents (e.g., risk…

  6. Is Financial Disclosure in Your Future?

    American School Board Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The New York City Board of Education is enforcing a requirement that all community school board members file detailed financial disclosure statements. This requirement is being challenged by the president of the New York City School Boards Association, who claims that it invades privacy. (TE)

  7. Some Effects of Similarity Self-Disclosure

    Murphy, Kevin C.; Strong, Stanley R.

    1972-01-01

    College males were interviewed about how college had altered their friendships, values, and plans. The interviewers diclosed experiences and feelings similar to those revealed by the students. Results support Byrne's Law of Similarity in generating interpersonal attraction in the interview and suggest that the timing of self-disclosures is…

  8. Strategic Disclosure of Demand Information by Duopolists

    Jansen, Jos; Pollak, Andreas

    . Subsequently, we analyze the firms' behavior in a laboratory experiment. We find that subjects often use selective disclosure strategies, and this finding appears to be robust to changes in the information structure, the mode of competition, and the degree of product-market conduct that is largely consistent...

  9. 16 CFR 259.2 - Advertising disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising disclosures. 259.2 Section 259.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDE CONCERNING FUEL ECONOMY... advertised. Fuel economy estimates assigned to “unique nameplates” (see 40 CFR 600.207-86(a)(2)) apply...

  10. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  11. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse

    Lacher, Simone; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    PRINCIPLES Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. METHODS Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to...

  12. Knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland.

    Mathoma, Anikie M; Maripe-Perera, Dorcas B; Khumalo, Lindiwe P; Mbayi, Bagele L; Seloilwe, Esther S

    2006-02-01

    This study sought to explore the phenomenon of child sexual abuse by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding this problem in Botswana and Swaziland. Although there are no published studies on child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland, literature elsewhere has indicated that child abuse and prostitution prevail in Southern African Development Community countries and that children still continue to be rape victims within and outside the family structure [Muwanigwa, V. (1996). Child Abuse Demands More Preventive Measures. Harare: Zimbabwe. (Southern Africa News Features Southern African Research and Documentation Center)]. In Botswana in 1998, there were 300 cases of child abuse reported, of which 33 were sexual abuse cases. The same year in Swaziland, >50% of child abuse cases were sexual abuse related. In addition, the same year in Swaziland, >50% of sexual abuse case patients reporting for counseling were children younger than 21 years. Respondents of the study included 8 men (1 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) and 10 women (3 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) who were parents aged between 26 and 70 years; they were determined by way of purposive sampling. A focused interview guide with open-ended questions was used to collect data, and measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Analysis of data was facilitated by categorization of themes and concepts and coding systems. The results of the study showed that the respondents acknowledged the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland and further demonstrated their knowledge of the predisposing factors, perpetrators of the problem, and effects of sexual abuse on children. They placed major emphases on community involvement in fighting against the problem; appropriate education of children, parents, families, and community members about child sexual abuse; and improvement on the laws that protect children against sexual abuse to

  13. Medical Diagnosis of the Sexually Abused Child.

    Bays, Jan; Chadwick, David

    1993-01-01

    This article on medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child summarizes clinical research on physical findings in nonabused children, abused children, and abused children with independent confirmation of abuse. A classification of physical findings is proposed along a continuum of certainty that sexual abuse has occurred. (Author/JDD)

  14. Dental Treatment Abuse

    Chalakkal, Paul; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep

    2014-01-01

    These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry.

  15. Dental treatment abuse.

    Chalakkal, Paul; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep

    2014-07-01

    These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. PMID:25177645

  16. Intimacy as an interpersonal process: the importance of self-disclosure, partner disclosure, and perceived partner responsiveness in interpersonal exchanges.

    Laurenceau, J P; Barrett, L F; Pietromonaco, P R

    1998-05-01

    H. T. Reis and P. Shaver's (1988) interpersonal process model of intimacy suggests that both self-disclosure and partner responsiveness contribute to the experience of intimacy in interactions. Two studies tested this model using an event-contingent diary methodology in which participants provided information immediately after their social interactions over 1 (Study 1) or 2 (Study 2) weeks. For each interaction, participants reported on their self-disclosures, partner disclosures, perceived partner responsiveness, and degree of intimacy experienced in the interaction. Overall, the findings strongly supported the conceptualization of intimacy as a combination of self-disclosure and partner disclosure at the level of individual interactions with partner responsiveness as a partial mediator in this process. Additionally, in Study 2, self-disclosure of emotion emerged as a more important predictor of intimacy than did self-disclosure of facts and information. PMID:9599440

  17. Drug abuse in athletes.

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with "advances" in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  18. Self-Reported Childhood Physical Abuse and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: The Moderating Role of Psychopathic Traits

    Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.; Cashman-Brown, Sarah; CAINE, ERIC D.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas considerable evidence links childhood physical abuse with later perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), research to identify moderators of this relationship will increase our understanding of which victims of childhood abuse are at risk for later IPV. The present study examined dimensions of psychopathy as moderators of the relationship between physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of IPV in a sample of criminal offenders. Results indicated that, among individuals with...

  19. Breaking the cycle of abuse.

    Egeland, B; Jacobvitz, D; Sroufe, L A

    1988-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify variables that distinguish mothers who broke the cycle of abuse from mothers who were abused as children and who also abused their own children. Based on maternal interviews and questionnaires completed over a 64-month period, measures of mothers' past and current relationship experiences, stressful life events, and personality characteristics were obtained. Abused mothers who were able to break the abusive cycle were significantly more likely to have received emotional support from a nonabusive adult during childhood, participated in therapy during any period of their lives, and to have had a nonabusive and more stable, emotionally supportive, and satisfying relationship with a mate. Abused mothers who reenacted their maltreatment with their own children experienced significantly more life stress and were more anxious, dependent, immature, and depressed. PMID:3168615

  20. Child Physical Abuse : Characteristics, Prevalence, Health and Risk‐taking

    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    The home is supposed to provide support and safety for children but can also be the place where children suffer abuse and other adverse treatment by their parents. Violence against children in homes has been banned in Sweden for more than 30 years but it is still a considerable problem in the society and a threat to public health. The overall aim of this thesis was to create comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon Child Physical Abuse (CPA) in Sweden after the ban on corporal punishment. Th...

  1. Views of sexual abuse professionals about sex offender notification policies.

    Levenson, Jill S; Fortney, Timothy; Baker, Juanita N

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the views of 261 sexual abuse professionals regarding sex crime policies. Few participants believe that community notification is very effective in reducing sex offenses, but about half believe that all sex offenders should be subject to public disclosure. About one quarter of respondents opine that sex offenders should not be allowed to live in their communities, but a majority do not view residential housing restrictions for sex offenders as effective at reducing recidivism. Most believe in the helpfulness of therapeutic intervention. More than half say that they will support sex offender policies even without scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Criminal justice professionals are more likely to approve of these laws compared to mental health professionals. Those with more conservative political leanings also favor more restrictive policies. There are few differences attributable to gender, parenting status, or victimization experiences. PMID:19131567

  2. Therapeutic approach to sexual abuse.

    Furniss, T; Bingley-Miller, L; Bentovim, A

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the development of a treatment project for sexually abused children and their families. We review incidence data which indicate that sexual abuse of children is likely to be a far more frequent problem than has been recognised and cause an appreciable degree of psychological damage. Professional responses to this are confused and treatment facilities limited. Sexual abuse is seen as an expression of severe relationship problems in the family and therapeutic provision is...

  3. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-01-01

    According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports and widespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem. Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, ...

  4. ART TEACHERS AND ABUSED CHILDREN

    Vesela Bilić, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a basic overview of how art teachers can use art drawings (artistic expression) to identify and assist children who are traumatized by abuse. Children's exposure to different forms of child abuse in families (physical, emotional and sexual abuse and neglect), and exposure to traditional (bullying) or electronic (cyberbullying) peer violence may result in  serious consequences for the child's health, welfare and functioning in life and school. Since th...

  5. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    Shearman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  6. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  7. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Bonevski Dimitar; Novotni Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering...

  8. Nurses' perceptions about child abuse

    Ahmad Saifan; Intima A Alrimawi; Ibrahim Bashaireh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the efforts to protect children around the world, child abuse and neglect remain serious and global problems. In Palestine, child abuse is hidden under the community culture, does not appear in the Ministry of Health official reports, and little is known about nurses’ perceptions towards this phenomenon.Objectives: To identify nurses’ perceptions about child abuse definition, whether they faced such cases during their work, and how they managed them.Methods: Data were coll...

  9. 45 CFR 705.95 - Accounting of the disclosures of records.

    2010-10-01

    ..., and purpose of the disclosure. (b) No accounting is required for disclosures of records to those... need be maintained for disclosure of the accounting of disclosures. (e) Upon request of an individual... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting of the disclosures of records....

  10. 32 CFR 701.121 - Processing “routine use” disclosures.

    2010-07-01

    ... and maintain a disclosure accounting of the information released. (See § 701.111.) (b) Failure to cite...” disclosures. (a) “Routine use” disclosure. Individuals or organizations may seek a “routine use” disclosure of information from a DON PA system of records if the system provides for such a disclosure. (1) The request...

  11. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  12. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  13. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  14. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  15. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    ... Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), alcohol abuse and other substance abuse ...

  16. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated...

  17. Epidemiology Abuse: Epidemiological and Psychosocial Models of Drug Abuse

    Jacobs, Phillip E.

    1976-01-01

    In a paper presented at the National Drug Abuse Conference April 4-7, 1975, New Orleans, Louisiana, epidemiological and psychosocial approaches to drug abuse are discussed. An approach reflecting an appreciation of the psychological/social/political realities involved in addiction as well as a grounding in epidemiological principles and data is…

  18. Abusing National Privilege

    2011-01-01

    As U.S. mortgage finance giants-Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac-try to sell their huge backlog of foreclosed homes, they face foreclosures themselves as the U.S. Government contemplates cutting their government-backed support as indicated by a white paper issued by the Obama administration in February. Zhang Monan, an associate research fellow with the State Information Center, said the downfall of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac is the result of abuses of privileges the two companies have enjoyed since their inception.

  19. Conference Proceedings: Public disclosure in the petroleum industry

    Legal aspects and issues regarding public disclosure by Canadian and U.S. enterprises, including the petroleum industry, were the themes of this conference. Proper and complete transaction disclosure is mandatory to provide shareholders, investment advisors and other interested persons with the necessary information to make informed and reasoned investment decisions. Among the issues dealt with were disclosure of information about reserves, finding and development costs, disclosure requirements for merger and acquisition transactions, disclosure on the Internet, market making and market manipulation, insider trading, and the consequences of incomplete disclosure. Discussion of relevant Canadian and U.S. corporate and securities laws, regulations, rules and policies are featured as appropriate. The conference attracted 13 contributions. refs

  20. Carbon disclosure project report 2009 : Canada 200

    The carbon disclosure project conducts an annual survey to determine the strategies and actions of major cap companies in relation to climate change. This report discussed initiatives implemented by Canada's largest companies to prepare for a carbon-constrained future. The report documented results from 97 companies. The aim of the report was to help companies make use of the disclosures as reference points for future carbon markets and regulations relating to reporting requirements. Results of the survey demonstrated that Canada's low-carbon and high-carbon impact sectors have implemented several significant initiatives and best practices for operations. However, widespread engagement in a comprehensive manner has yet to be achieved. Many respondents were in the process of developing a more balanced risk-opportunity agenda in relation to climate change, and nearly half of all respondents have implemented governance arrangements or personal incentives in both both the high-carbon and low-carbon impact sectors. 5 tabs., 26 figs.

  1. Drug Abuse and the Schools

    Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    1971-01-01

    In reviewing some of the background information regarding the extent of drug abuse and the types of measures presently being used, this article describes in more detail the role of the school in drug abuse. Emphasis is placed on drug education from the viewpoint of youth. (Author)

  2. Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema

    Harsh Golwala

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.

  3. Caregiver Stress and Elder Abuse

    ... how to report it: The National Center on Elder Abuse 1225 I Street, N.W., Suite 725 Phone: (202) 898-2586 Washington, D.C. 20005 Email: NCEA@nasua.org http://www.elderabusecenter.org National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse 1101 Vermont Ave. NW, Suite 1000 Phone: ( ...

  4. Personality Development Following Sexual Abuse.

    Tong, Liz; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The follow-up study evaluated 37 girls and 12 boys (aged 5-19 years) who had been sexually abused an average of 2.6 years previously. Results found that, compared to control children, abused children had less confidence, fewer friends, more aggression, increased sexual awareness, and more behavior and academic problems. (Author/JDD)

  5. The abuse of nuclear power

    Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

  6. Optimal bid disclosure in license auctions with downstream interaction

    Fan, Cuihong; Jun, Byoung Heon; Wolfstetter, Elmar G.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on license auctions for process innovations in oligopoly assumed that the auctioneer reveals the winning bid and stressed that this gives firms an incentive to signal strength through their bids, to the benefit of the innovator. In the present paper we examine whether revealing the winning bid is optimal. We consider three disclosure rules: full, partial, and no disclosure of bids, which correspond to standard auctions. We show that more information disclosure increases the tot...

  7. Disclosure of Personal Data in Ubiquitous Social Networking

    Sapuppo, Antonio

    variation of human data sensitivity under different circumstances, for ensuring accuracy of selective disclosure of personal data. By taking into account the proposed design guidelines and identified influential factors, this dissertation seeks to provide relevant insights into data disclosure for......Ubiquitous social networking focuses on developing possible advantageous relationships such as friendships, partnerships and business relations in the physical world, by uncovering hidden connections that people share with others nearby. The foundation of these services is based on disclosure of...

  8. Disclosure on corporate governance in the European Union

    Vander Bauwhede, Heidi; Willekens, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    Disclosure on Corporate Governance in the European Union Heidi Vander Bauwhede and Marleen Willekens* ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: In this paper, we examine the determinants of the level of disclosure on corporate governance practices among European listed companies in the time period preceding the adoption of the European Union recommendations and Action Plan. Research Findings/Results: Using ratings on corporate governance disclosure i...

  9. Risk Disclosure and Risk Management of UK Real Estate Companies

    Chen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation aims to research on the different approaches of risk disclosure and risk management currently adopted by the UK real estate companies. Literature review has been done on topics such as information disclosure, Corporate governance and risk disclosure in the UK, risk reporting debates, risk management and the Enterprise Risk Management. In the past years, we have witnessed many enterprise scandals due to careless risk management practice. The needs for more efficient corpo...

  10. Determinants of voluntary CSR disclosure: Empirical evidence from Germany

    Gamerschlag, Ramin; Möller, Klaus; Verbeeten, Frank

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, companies spend a great deal of effort on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosures. CSR disclosure relates to the provision of information on companies' environmental and social performance. From an economic perspective, companies might disclose this information to avoid or decrease potential political costs. We construct a CSR disclosure index based on the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. Using content analysis, we analyze 130 listed German compan...

  11. Institutional investor influence on global climate change disclosure practices

    Julie Cotter; Muftah M Najah

    2012-01-01

    Using a stakeholder engagement perspective, we investigate the collective influence of institutional investors on a comprehensive set of climate change disclosures for a global sample of large companies. The proposition tested in this paper is that the influence of these powerful stakeholders is positively associated with climate change disclosure via corporate communications channels. We find the extent and quality of climate change disclosures to be associated with three indicators of corpo...

  12. Taxes on the Internet: Deterrence Effects of Public Disclosure

    Slemrod, Joel; Thoresen, Thor Olav; Bø, Erlend Eide

    2013-01-01

    Supporters of public disclosure of personal tax information point to its deterrent effect on tax evasion, but this effect has not been empirically explored. Although Norway has a long tradition of public disclosure of tax filings, it took a new direction in 2001 when anyone with access to the Internet could obtain individual information on income, wealth, and income and wealth taxes paid. We exploit this change in the degree of exposure to identify the effects of public disclosure on income r...

  13. Disclosure, venture capital and entrepreneurial spawning

    Douglas Cumming; April Knill

    2012-01-01

    Venture capital (VC) funds have been facing increasing regulatory scrutiny since the 2007 financial crisis, particularly with respect to calls for increased disclosure requirements. In this paper, we examine the effect of more stringent securities regulation on the supply and performance of VC, as well as on new business creation (i.e., entrepreneurial spawning). Using country-level and investment-level data from 34 countries over the years 2000–2008, we find that more stringent securities re...

  14. Credit card pricing developments and their disclosure

    Mark Furletti

    2003-01-01

    Public data, proprietary issuer data, and data collected by the author from a review of over 150 lender-borrower contracts from 15 of the largest issuers in the U.S. suggest that, over the past 10 years, credit card issuers have drastically changed the way that they price their product. This paper outlines the history and dynamics of credit card pricing over the past 10 years and examines how new pricing methods are addressed by current regulatory disclosure requirements.

  15. Risk Behavior Disclosure During HIV Test Counseling

    Torrone, Elizabeth Ann; Thomas, James C.; Maman, Suzanne; Pettifor, Audrey E; Kaufman, Jay S.; Sena, Arlene C.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    Individualized risk assessments during HIV testing are an integral component of prevention counseling, a currently recommended behavioral intervention for patients in high-risk settings. Additionally, aggregate risk assessment data are the source of aggregate behavioral statistics that inform prevention programs and allocation of resources. Consequently, inaccurate or incomplete risk behavior disclosure during test counseling may impact the efficacy of the counseling intervention, as well as ...

  16. Selective Disclosures in the Public Capital Markets

    Choi, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Publicly-traded corporations contain a wealth of non-public material information. Insider trading prohibitions limit the ability of corporate insiders to profit from this information advantage through trades in their own corporations' securities. Some may view the SEC's recently promulgated Regulation FD as complementary to restrictions on insider trading, limiting the ability of firms to confer on outsiders a similar inside information advantage through selective disclosures. The employment ...

  17. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruite...

  18. OPERATIONAL RISK DISCLOSURE IN ROMANIAN COMMERCIAL BANKS

    Roxana HERGHILIGIU

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the actual operational risk disclosure in Romanian banks. Therefore we focus on the operational risk information that Romanian banks reveal and if they conform to the requirements of the National Bank of Romania. The study methodology consists in testing the annual financial reports for Romanian commercial banks. The analysis shows that the financial reports of Romanian banks are not in consonance with the requirements of the National Bank of Romania relating to oper...

  19. Operational Risk Disclosures in Hungarian Commercial Banks

    Herghiligiu Roxana

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the current operational risk disclosure in Hungarian banks. Therefore, we focus on the operational risk items that Hungarian banks disclose and if they comply with the requirements of the International Bank of Settlements. The survey methodology was adopted by testing the annual financial reports for Hungarian commercial banks. The analysis shows that Hungarian banks, primarily, do not meet the requirements of the International Bank of Settlement, relating to operati...

  20. Is the environmental disclosure profitable for agrofirms?

    Riviere-Giordano, Géraldine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to question the environmental reporting relevance, or in other wise its usefulness in the financial decisions taking. Considering that the investors trust depends on the demonstration of the disclosure reliability, this paper proposes the audit of the environmental reporting as a way to solve the problem of the reporting quality, which is regularly accused to be partial, convenient and focalised on good actions. As the financial audit, this new audit mission is then p...

  1. Culture and Corporate Governance Statement Disclosure

    Theo Christopher; Salleh Hassan

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on Corporate Governance Statement disclosure in the annual reports of the major airline companies in Malaysia and Australia. The cultural research of Hofstede (1980) and the accounting value dimensions of Gray (1988) imply that Malaysian Airlines, from a large power distance country, will disclose less Corporate Governance Statement information in their annual report than Qantas Airlines, from a small power distance country. The results obtained fr...

  2. Disclosure of price-sensitive information

    Schaumburg-Müller, Peer; Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the European Court’s judgment of 28 June 2012, C-19/11, Daimler AG, the article analyses the effect of a series of intermediate steps leading up to a price-sensitive event which is subject to public disclosure on the date on which that duty is triggered. The article concludes...... to handle the Daimler judgment’s consequences with regard to “intermediate steps” in practical terms. In light of the Court’s relatively restrictive interpretation, a listed company in a similar situation really only has three options: (1) Delay: The company can delay disclosure of the inside information...... “on its own responsibility” in order not to damage the company’s legitimate interests – cf. on this Article 6(2) of Directive 2003/6/EC, which provides that “An issuer may, on his own responsibility, delay the public disclosure of inside information … so as not to prejudice his legitimate interests...

  3. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse.

    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships. PMID:23194141

  4. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Bonevski Dimitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

  5. Drug abuse among the students

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  6. Schizophrenia, Substance Abuse, and Violent Crime

    Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Context Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. Objective To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Main Outcome Measure Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). Results In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1

  7. The Impact of High-Profile Sexual Abuse Cases in the Media on a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Flannery, Dustin D; Stephens, Clare L; Thompson, Amy D

    2016-01-01

    High-profile media cases of sexual abuse may encourage disclosures of abuse from victims of unrelated assaults and also influence parental concerns, leading to increased emergency department visits. In the region of the study authors' institution, there are two recent high-profile sexual abuse cases with media coverage: Earl Bradley, a Delaware pediatrician, and Jerry Sandusky, a Pennsylvania college football coach. This is a retrospective cohort study of children evaluated for sexual abuse at a pediatric emergency department. Patients were classified as either presenting during a media period or non-media period. The media periods were one-month periods immediately following breaking news reports, when the cases were highly publicized in the media. The non-media periods were the 12-month periods directly preceding the first reports. The median number of emergency department visits per month during a non-media period was 9 visits (interquartile range 6-10). There were 11 visits in the month following the Sandusky case and 13 visits following the Bradley case. There was no statistical difference in number of emergency department visits for sexual abuse between the periods (p = .09). These finding have implications regarding use of resources in pediatric EDs after high-profile sexual abuse cases. PMID:27561119

  8. ‘An analysis of corporate disclosure and potential improvements in disclosure in quoted companies in the automotive industry’.

    Dissak Delon, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This work is an attempt to assess the effectiveness and impact of disclosure levels in quoted companies in the automotive industry. Changing practices and behaviors is not always the end result desired, but merely a mean to reach the desired end. National and International accounting bodies are aiming to require from firms more disclosure of past and prospective information. The first chapter is exploring some theoretical foundations and empirical studies on disclosure, also looking at th...

  9. Disclosing HIV diagnosis to children in Odi district, South Africa: Reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure

    Johanna M. Mahloko; Madiba, Sphiwe E

    2012-01-01

    Background: The increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and survival of HIV- infected children has posed challenges to caregivers on disclosing the HIV diagnosis to children. Objectives: The objectives of this study was to determine the reasons of caregivers for the disclosure and non-disclosure of the HIV diagnosis to children on ART and to determine the caregivers’ perceptions of children’s reaction to disclosure. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 149 caregi...

  10. Familial Influences on Recantation in Substantiated Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P; Rivard, Jillian R; Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A

    2016-08-01

    The underlying reasons for recantation in children's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been debated in recent years. In the present study, we examined the largest sample of substantiated CSA cases involving recantations to date (n = 58 cases). We specifically matched those cases to 58 nonrecanters on key variables found to predict recantation in prior research (i.e., child age, alleged parent figure perpetrator, and caregiver unsupportiveness). Bivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when they were (1) initially removed from home postdisclosure and (2) initially separated from siblings postdisclosure. Multivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed belief in the children's allegations and more likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed disbelief in the allegations and when visitations with the alleged perpetrator were recommended at their first hearing. Results have implications for understanding the complex ways in which social processes may motivate some children to retract previous reports of sexual abuse. PMID:27234520

  11. The child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.

    Summit, R C

    1983-01-01

    Child victims of sexual abuse face secondary trauma in the crisis of discovery. Their attempts to reconcile their private experiences with the realities of the outer world are assaulted by the disbelief, blame and rejection they experience from adults. The normal coping behavior of the child contradicts the entrenched beliefs and expectations typically held by adults, stigmatizing the child with charges of lying, manipulating or imagining from parents, courts and clinicians. Such abandonment by the very adults most crucial to the child's protection and recovery drives the child deeper into self-blame, self-hate, alienation and revictimization. In contrast, the advocacy of an empathic clinician within a supportive treatment network can provide vital credibility and endorsement for the child. Evaluation of the responses of normal children to sexual assault provides clear evidence that societal definitions of "normal" victim behavior are inappropriate and procrustean, serving adults as mythic insulators against the child's pain. Within this climate of prejudice, the sequential survival options available to the victim further alienate the child from any hope of outside credibility or acceptance. Ironically, the child's inevitable choice of the "wrong" options reinforces and perpetuates the prejudicial myths. The most typical reactions of children are classified in this paper as the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome. The syndrome is composed of five categories, of which two define basic childhood vulnerability and three are sequentially contingent on sexual assault: (1) secrecy, (2) helplessness, (3) entrapment and accommodation, (4) delayed, unconvincing disclosure, and (5) retraction. The accommodation syndrome is proposed as a simple and logical model for use by clinicians to improve understanding and acceptance of the child's position in the complex and controversial dynamics of sexual victimization. Application of the syndrome tends to challenge entrenched

  12. What natural capital disclosure for integrated reporting? Designing & modelling an Integrated Financial - Natural Capital Accounting and Reporting Framework.

    Houdet, Joel; Burritt, Roger; N. Farrell, Katharine; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Ramin, Kurt; Spurgeon, James; Atkins, Jill; Steuerman, David; Jones, Michael; Maleganos, John; Ding, Helen; Ochieng, Cosmas; Naicker, Kiruben; Chikozho, Claudious; Finisdore, John

    2014-01-01

    Business and government leaders from around the world are increasingly sounding the alarm about the need for effective management of business dependencies and impacts on ecosystems. As a consequence, financial institutions have recently made a formal commitment to work towards integrating natural capital considerations into their decision-making processes, including helping improve the accounting and disclosure practices of reporting organisations. Though various frameworks and standards have...

  13. [Child abuse in the family].

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  14. Spiritual abuse: an additional dimension of abuse experienced by abused Haredi (ultraorthodox) Jewish wives.

    Dehan, Nicole; Levi, Zipi

    2009-11-01

    This article aims to conceptualize spiritual abuse as an additional dimension to physical, psychological, sexual, and economic abuse. Growing out of an interpretivist participatory action research study in a therapeutic Haredi (Jewish ultraorthodox) group of eight abused women, spiritual abuse has been defined as any attempt to impair the woman's spiritual life, spiritual self, or spiritual well-being, with three levels of intensity: (a) belittling her spiritual worth, beliefs, or deeds; (b) preventing her from performing spiritual acts; and (c) causing her to transgress spiritual obligations or prohibitions. The concept and its typology are illustrated by means of examples from the women's abusive experiences and may be of theoretical and therapeutic worldwide relevance. PMID:19809096

  15. Genetic differentials of child abuse: Is your case rare or real?

    Shur, Natasha; Carey, John C

    2015-12-01

    The clinical geneticist can be called upon to play a role in the medical evaluation of children with clinical findings concerning for child abuse. This Introduction describes a case of suspected child abuse in an 8-month-old baby referred to clinical genetics to exclude osteogenesis imperfecta. The experience from this case raised medical and ethical considerations and prompted consideration of the role of the clinical geneticist in distinguishing rare mimics of child abuse from real cases. From this single case, and a discussion regarding similar cases, arose the idea of this issue in Seminars in Medical Genetics, Genetic Differentials of Child Abuse: Is Your Case Rare or Real? In thinking about child abuse from a clinical genetics perspective, we categorize clinical presentations into fractures, skin lesions, hemorrhage, growth disturbances, and concern for caregiver-fabricated illness (previously known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy). In this Introduction, we also discuss recent questions regarding Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and infantile fractures and concerns about caregiver-fabricated illness in the context of mitochondrial or other rare diseases. The goal is that this issue on child abuse and genetics will serve as a resource to help distinguish the rare causes from the real cases of child abuse, and those critical distinctions and correct diagnoses may be life-saving for some infants and children. PMID:26513547

  16. Child abuse, a case report

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  17. The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari

    1996-01-01

    This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…

  18. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  19. CUTANEOUS COMPLICATIONS OF INJECTION DRUG ABUSE

    Bimal; De, Anuradha; Sandeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse is a worldwide problem with disastrous consequences for the patient, family and society at large. The case of injection drug abusers seems a little different as cutaneous complications may occur. Considering these complications the present article attempts to review the adverse effects of parenteral drug abuse on the skin including the common skin and soft tissue infections secondary to the drug abuse.

  20. Perceived Benefit from Child Sexual Abuse.

    McMillen, Curtis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies adult perceptions of benefit from child sexual abuse in 154 low-income women who were sexually abused as children. Almost half reported some perceived benefit. Benefits fell into four main categories: protecting children from abuse, self-protection, increased knowledge of child sexual abuse, and having a stronger personality. Degree of…

  1. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  2. Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent’s gender and timing of childhood abuse

    Romero-Martínez, Angel; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mot...

  3. The dark side of family communication: a communication model of elder abuse and neglect.

    Lin, Mei-Chen; Giles, Howard

    2013-08-01

    To further address the potential factors that lead up to elder abuse in domestic settings, this paper proposes a model from a communication approach to explain dyadic influences between the family caregiver and the elderly care receiver that give rise to the abuse. That is, dysfunctional communication between the caregivers and care receivers may, therefore, increase the likelihood of elder abuse. Grounded in Bugental and her colleagues' work (1993, 1999, 2002) on child abuse, we propose a power-oriented communication model based, in part, on research in the fields of family violence and intergenerational communication to explain the likelihood of occurrence of elder abuse in family caregiving situations. We argue that certain risk factors pertaining to caregivers' characteristics--those who perceive high stress in caregiving, have mental health issues, have a history of substance abuse, and/or display verbal aggressiveness--may be more likely to attribute considerable power to those elderly under their custodianship. At the same time, such caregivers tend to feel powerless and experience loss of control when interacting with their elderly counterparts. When an elderly care receiver displays noncompliant behaviors, caregivers may be prone to employ abusive behaviors (in our model, it refers to physical abuse, verbal abuse, or communication neglect) to seek such compliance. Consequences of such abuse may result in lower self-esteem or lower confidence in one's ability to manage his/her life. It is suggested that researchers and practitioners investigate both parties' interactions closely and the role of elderly care receivers in order to detect, intervene, and prevent elder abuse. PMID:23388449

  4. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  5. Outcome measures of interventions in the study of children of substance-abusing parents.

    Kumpfer, K L

    1999-05-01

    Children of substance-abusing parents, including children of alcoholics (COAs), are one of the highest risk groups of youth for substance-abuse problems. For both genetic and family environmental reasons, COAs and children of drug abusers are very vulnerable to becoming alcohol or other drug abusers.1,2 With drug use rates increasing in the past 7 years,3 prevention practitioners must work harder to identify and evaluate effective ways to prevent future substance abuse in these at-risk children. Most prevention programs designed specifically for COAs or children of drug abusers have struggled with identifying, attracting, maintaining, and measuring outcomes. This article focuses on general and unique measurement methods and instrument problems in prevention interventions for children of substance-abusing parents. Part I covers the need for improved measurement in research and practice with children of substance-abusing parents and recommended measures for different hypothesized outcome variables. Part II covers considerations in selecting measures, and Part III covers how to select measures. This article concludes with recommendations to improve measurement in research and practice. PMID:10224200

  6. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  7. Alcohol Advertising Bans and Alcohol Abuse: An International Perspective

    Henry Saffer

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the effect on alcohol abuse of banning broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages. The effect of a ban cannot be studied using data from one country because the adoption of new advertising bans is an infrequent event and requires many years for adjustment. However, an international data set can be used since there is considerable variation in the use of advertising bans across countries. The data used in this study are a pooled time series...

  8. Child abuse and neglect: Training needs of student teachers

    Kee, Bronagh Mc; Dillenburger, Karola

    2009-01-01

    Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiplechoice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting; policies, procedures, and legislative frameworks; and direct work with children. Considerable gaps in knowledge were found. Results between student ...

  9. Disclosing HIV diagnosis to children in Odi district, South Africa: Reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure

    Johanna M. Mahloko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART and survival of HIV- infected children has posed challenges to caregivers on disclosing the HIV diagnosis to children. Objectives: The objectives of this study was to determine the reasons of caregivers for the disclosure and non-disclosure of the HIV diagnosis to children on ART and to determine the caregivers’ perceptions of children’s reaction to disclosure. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 149 caregivers of children between 4–17 years who receive ART from a district hospital in South Africa. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis of data. Results: The prevalence of disclosure was 40% and the mean age of disclosure was 9.3 years. Reasons for disclosure included that the child was not adhering to treatment (n = 59; 39%; the child was consistently asking questions about the treatment and nature of the disease (n = 59; 39%. Reasons for non-disclosure were that the child was too young (n = 90; 72%; the child would tell others about diagnosis (n = 90; 21.1%; the child would be socially rejected (n = 90; 18.6%; fear of negative consequences for the child (n = 90; 13.3%; and caregivers do not know how to tell or approach disclosure (n = 90; 8.9%. Conclusion: Caregivers disclosed the diagnosis so that their child would adhere to ART medication; non-disclosing caregivers delayed disclosure because their children were too young to understand the HIV diagnosis. Disclosure of HIV to children should be integrated into regular discussions with caregivers of children in ART settings to improve their knowledge and skills to manage disclosure.

  10. Disclosure: What is the point and for whom?

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Today mental health is embedded in a discourse of disclosure. Many people with lived experience of mental illness have decided to move out of the closet to talk about their personal experiences. Aims To look at the context of disclosure and on the questions of why disclose and for whom...

  11. 76 FR 76628 - Disclosure of Certain Credit Card Complaint Data

    2011-12-08

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Chapter X Disclosure of Certain Credit Card Complaint Data AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... statement (the ``Policy Statement'') that addresses the CFPB's proactive disclosure of credit card complaint data. The CFPB receives credit card complaints from consumers under the terms of the Consumer...

  12. 29 CFR 2520.104b-1 - Disclosure.

    2010-07-01

    ... of this chapter, and section 414(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and 26 CFR 1.414(f) (40 FR... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure. 2520.104b-1 Section 2520.104b-1 Labor... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 RULES AND REGULATIONS...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6111-3 - Disclosure of reportable transactions.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of reportable transactions. 301.6111-3 Section 301.6111-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Records § 301.6111-3 Disclosure of reportable transactions. (a) In general. Each material advisor,...

  14. 26 CFR 1.707-8 - Disclosure of certain information.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of certain information. 1.707-8 Section 1.707-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.707-8 Disclosure of certain information....

  15. 28 CFR 17.42 - Positions requiring financial disclosure.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Positions requiring financial disclosure. 17.42 Section 17.42 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY... financial disclosure. (a) The Assistant Attorney General for Administration, in consultation with...

  16. 21 CFR 1304.45 - Internet Web site disclosure requirements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internet Web site disclosure requirements. 1304.45... OF REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.45 Internet Web site disclosure requirements. (a) Each online... the following information on the homepage of each Internet site it operates, or on a page...

  17. 5 CFR 185.121 - Disclosure of documents.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of documents. 185.121 Section 185.121 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.121 Disclosure of documents. (a) Upon written request to the...

  18. 18 CFR 701.311 - Accounting for disclosures.

    2010-04-01

    ... longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is made. (b) Access to accounting. (1) Except for... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for... ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.311 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting....

  19. 48 CFR 30.202-8 - Subcontractor disclosure statements.

    2010-10-01

    ... subcontractor's Disclosure Statement must be made in accordance with 48 CFR 9903.202-2 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontractor disclosure... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements...

  20. 48 CFR 9903.202-6 - Adequacy of Disclosure Statement.

    2010-10-01

    ... COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.202-6 Adequacy of Disclosure... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequacy of Disclosure Statement. 9903.202-6 Section 9903.202-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING...

  1. 48 CFR 430.202-8 - Subcontractor Disclosure Statements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontractor Disclosure... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 430.202-8 Subcontractor Disclosure Statements. (a) The Secretary, without the power to redelegate,...

  2. 48 CFR 9903.202-5 - Filing Disclosure Statements.

    2010-10-01

    ... COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.202-5 Filing Disclosure... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing Disclosure Statements. 9903.202-5 Section 9903.202-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING...

  3. Disclosure regulation in duopoly markets : Proprietary costs and social welfare

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable argu

  4. 36 CFR 1008.10 - Accounting for disclosures.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting for disclosures... ACT § 1008.10 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1) Where a record is...), an accounting shall be made. (2) The accounting shall record: (i) The date, nature, and purpose...

  5. 25 CFR 700.269 - Accounting for disclosures.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 700.269 Section 700.269... Privacy Act § 700.269 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1) Where a record is...), an accounting shall be made. (2) The accounting shall record (i) the date, nature, and purpose...

  6. Going-Public and the Influence of Disclosure Environment

    Marra, T.A.; Suijs, J.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes how differences in disclosure environments affect the firms choice between private and public capital. Disclosure regulations prescribe to what extent the firm has to release confidential information that may lead to the firm incurring proprietary cost. We examine which firms go

  7. 76 FR 1542 - Disclosure of Records or Information

    2011-01-11

    ... matter of policy, ACUS makes discretionary disclosures of records or information exempt from disclosure... management, it will promptly identify such records in its ``Freedom of Information Reference Guide'' and... and the Privacy Act. (b) Definitions. As used in this subpart: (1) ``Request for access to a...

  8. Determinants of voluntary CSR disclosure: Empirical evidence from Germany

    R. Gamerschlag (Ramin); K. Möller (Klaus); F.H.M. Verbeeten (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, companies spend a great deal of effort on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosures. CSR disclosure relates to the provision of information on companies' environmental and social performance. From an economic perspective, companies might disclose this information to av

  9. 16 CFR 1015.12 - Disclosure to Congress.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure to Congress. 1015.12 Section 1015...) § 1015.12 Disclosure to Congress. (a) All records of the Commission shall be disclosed to Congress upon a request made by the chairman or ranking minority member of a committee or subcommittee of Congress...

  10. 18 CFR 401.119 - Disclosure to Congress.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure to Congress. 401.119 Section 401.119 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... Disclosure to Congress. All records of the Commission shall be disclosed to Congress upon an...

  11. 21 CFR 20.87 - Disclosure to Congress.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure to Congress. 20.87 Section 20.87 Food... INFORMATION Limitations on Exemptions § 20.87 Disclosure to Congress. (a) All records of the Food and Drug Administration shall be disclosed to Congress upon an authorized request. (b) An authorized request for Food...

  12. 39 CFR 10.4 - Financial disclosure reports.

    2010-07-01

    ... particular calendar year is required to file a public report in accordance with 5 CFR 2634.204(c). (b) Person... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial disclosure reports. 10.4 Section 10.4... submission of reports. At the time of their nomination, Governors complete a financial disclosure...

  13. Determinants of Sustainability Disclosure in the Global Forest Industry

    N. Li; Toppinen, A.; Tuppura, A.; Puumalainen, K.; Hujala, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the current patterns and determinants of sustainability disclosure in the global forest industry. Under the extensive quantifiable measures and occurrences of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) framework, a content analysis is performed on the voluntary disclosure of 66 largest forest companies worldwide to evaluate their economic, environmental and social performance. By taking industry and firm characteristics into ...

  14. 12 CFR 560.210 - Disclosures for variable rate transactions.

    2010-01-01

    .... A savings association must provide the initial disclosures described at 12 CFR 226.19(b) and the adjustment notices described at 12 CFR 226.20(c) for variable rate transactions, as described in those... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosures for variable rate transactions....

  15. 77 FR 8721 - Home Mortgage Disclosure (Regulation C)

    2012-02-15

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1003 RIN 3170-AA06 Home Mortgage Disclosure (Regulation C) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... requirements of Regulation C (Home Mortgage Disclosure) to reflect a change in the asset-size exemption... 1975, as amended (HMDA; 12 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.) requires most mortgage lenders located in...

  16. Factors Assisting Female Clients' Disclosure of Incest during Counseling.

    Josephson, Gilda S.; Fong-Beyette, Margaret L.

    1987-01-01

    Explored specific behaviors and characteristics of counselors that relate to adult, female clients' disclosure of incest during counseling. Suggests that factors related to initial disclosure and exploration of incest are client readiness, direct questioning by the counselor, specific counselor characteristics, and positive counselor reactions to…

  17. 16 CFR 23.22 - Disclosure of treatments to gemstones.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of treatments to gemstones. 23.22... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.22 Disclosure of treatments to gemstones. It is unfair or deceptive to fail to disclose that a gemstone has been treated if: (a) The treatment is...

  18. 34 CFR 82.110 - Certification and disclosure.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification and disclosure. 82.110 Section 82.110 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING General § 82.110... representation is forwarded. Submitting an erroneous certification or disclosure constitutes a failure to...

  19. Elements of Employment Related Disclosure of Disability after Brain Injury

    Burnhill, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the elements of disclosing a disability in the workplace. Those few studies had a primary focus on reasonable accommodations (RA) where the disclosure process was either secondary or tertiary to the study. Further, there have been no studies to date which have examined elements of disclosure for individuals with brain…

  20. 77 FR 20011 - Fair Credit Reporting Act Disclosures

    2012-04-03

    ... PROTECTION RIN 3170-AA06 Fair Credit Reporting Act Disclosures AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice regarding charges for certain disclosures under the Fair Credit Reporting Act... charges under Section 612(f) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (``FCRA'') will increase from $11.00 to...

  1. 77 FR 74831 - Fair Credit Reporting Act Disclosures

    2012-12-18

    ... PROTECTION Fair Credit Reporting Act Disclosures AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice regarding charges for certain disclosures under the Fair Credit Reporting Act. SUMMARY: The Bureau... Section 612(f) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) will remain unchanged at $11.50 for 2013....

  2. Modeling veterans healthcare administration disclosure processes : CY 2012 summary.

    Beyeler, Walter Eugene; DeMenno, Mercy B.; Finley, Patrick D.

    2013-09-01

    As with other large healthcare organizations, medical adverse events at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities can expose patients to unforeseen negative risks. VHA leadership recognizes that properly handled disclosure of adverse events can minimize potential harm to patients and negative consequences for the effective functioning of the organization. The work documented here seeks to help improve the disclosure process by situating it within the broader theoretical framework of issues management, and to identify opportunities for process improvement through modeling disclosure and reactions to disclosure. The computational model will allow a variety of disclosure actions to be tested across a range of incident scenarios. Our conceptual model will be refined in collaboration with domain experts, especially by continuing to draw on insights from VA Study of the Communication of Adverse Large-Scale Events (SCALE) project researchers.

  3. Modeling Risk for Child Abuse and Harsh Parenting in Families with Depressed and Substance-abusing Parents

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Lawrence, Hannah R.; Milletich, Robert R.; Hollis, Brittany F.; Henson, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with substance abusing parents are at considerable risk for child maltreatment. The current study applied an actor-partner interdependence model to examine how father only (n = 52) and dual couple (n = 33) substance use disorder, as well as their depressive symptomology influenced parents’ own (actor effects) and the partner's (partner effects) overreactivity in disciplinary interactions with their children, as well as their risk for child maltreatment. Parents completed the Center f...

  4. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    ... as family disintegration, loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences ...

  5. The Prognosis of Child Abuse

    Lynch, Margaret A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the prognosis for abused children in terms of death, re-injury, permanent physical damage, growth failure, intellectual retardation, and personality and behavior problems. Discusses problems of collecting data and inadequacies of intervention treatments. (JB)

  6. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    ... emotionally abused. They may have: Problems in school Eating disorders, leading to weight loss or poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ...

  7. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  8. The sexually abused battered child.

    Hobbs, C J; Wynne, J M

    1990-01-01

    A total of 130 children were identified in whom both evidence of sexual abuse and non-accidental, non-genital physical injuries (bruises, fractures, scratches, burns and scalds, including failure to thrive) were found. There were 77 girls and 53 boys with mean ages 5.7 and 6.8 years respectively and the peak age between the second and seventh birthdays; this reflects previous reports indicating that physical and sexual abuse predominantly involves young children. Patterns of injury that sugge...

  9. Personality development after physical abuse.

    Oates, R K

    1984-01-01

    Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...

  10. Understanding URL Abuse for Profit

    Chachra, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale online scam campaigns pose a significant security threat to casual Internet users. Attackers simultaneously abuse millions of URLs to swindle visitors by selling counterfeit goods, by phishing to steal user credentials for various online services, or even by infecting user machines with malware. In this dissertation, I address the problem of studying these large-scale fraudulent ecosystems that heavily rely on URL abuse for profit. I demonstrate the feasibility of analyzing ground...

  11. Attitudes towards child sexual abuse

    Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to develop a measurement instrument aimed to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse, and to measure attitudes and associating personal, social and cultural factors among three different samples of Norwegian adults. Additional aims were to explore the relation between participants’ knowledge-seeking on the one hand, their experiences, attitudes and actual knowledge about abuse on the other hand.Three studies are presented based on the same data m...

  12. Child Abuse and Disabled Children

    Obilade, Titilola T.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract for presentation given at the Annual General Scientific Meeting/Workshop of the Medical Women’s Association of Nigeria in Lagos, Nigeria, on December 28, 2004. Children with disabilities are a population at a higher risk of abuse and maltreatment. Studies have shown that children with disabilities are 3.4 times more likely to be abused than nondisabled peers. These disabilities include children who are visually-impaired, hearing-impaired, chronically-ill, developmentally ...

  13. Can disclosures lead consumers to resist covert persuasion? The important roles of disclosure timing and type of response

    M.C. Campbell; G.S. Mohr; P.W.J. Verlegh

    2013-01-01

    While sponsorship disclosure is proposed as a remedy for covert marketing, i.e., tactics such that the persuasive nature of the communication is not clear to consumers, little is known about whether or when disclosures prompt consumers to correct for persuasion. Three experiments reveal that covert

  14. HIV stigma among substance abusing people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for HIV treatment.

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-08-01

    HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54.7%) were associated with higher HIV stigma across all domains. 49.9% of the sample reported antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion (the unlawful sale and trading of ARV medications); diverters endorsed significantly higher stigma related to disclosure. 54.1% of the sample reported ≥95% ARV adherence; these individuals reported significantly lower stigma for self-acceptance, disclosure, and social relationships. Multivariate linear regression showed that depression and social support demonstrated significant main effects across stigma domains. Findings suggest that interventions to decrease HIV related stigma may be an important component of initiatives to increase engagement in HIV care. PMID:24983302

  15. Drug abuse in slum population.

    Ghulam, Ram; Verma, Kamal; Sharma, Pankaj; Razdan, Monica; Razdan, Rahul Anand

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health problem throughout the world including India, but prevalence and pattern of abuse varies from country to country and in different types of population. Slums have their own social and economic problems so that substance abuse may be different in this population and might be related with these problems. The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence and pattern substances in slum population. Prakash Chandra Sethi Nagar slum area of Indore district was selected for the purpose of this study. In first phase of the study, first a camp was organized to sensitize local leaders, key persons, and local inhabitants about drug abuse at Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. After that basic information was gathered with the key persons in Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. In second phase by house-to-house survey, all members of the family were interviewed in detail and information was recorded on semi-structured proforma. We observed prevalence rate of 560/1000 populations, 78.2% were males, 28.2% were females, and two-third abusers were laborers (72%). In order of frequency, tobacco was the most common substance abused in 53.9% population followed by gutka (nontobacco pan masala). Other drugs in order of frequency were alcohol 46.5%, cannabis 8.9%, opiates 4.9%, sedative and hypnotic 2.0%, solvents 1.0%, and cocaine in 0.1%. Slum population has higher prevalence rates than general population. PMID:26985110

  16. 6 CFR 5.27 - Requests for an accounting of record disclosures.

    2010-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.27 Requests for an accounting of record disclosures. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section), you may make a request for an accounting of any disclosure that.... This accounting contains the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure, as well as the name...

  17. 49 CFR 15.17 - Consequences of unauthorized disclosure of SSI.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consequences of unauthorized disclosure of SSI. 15... SECURITY INFORMATION § 15.17 Consequences of unauthorized disclosure of SSI. Violation of this part is... SSI to remedy unauthorized disclosure or an order to cease future unauthorized disclosure....

  18. 28 CFR 2.55 - Disclosure of file prior to parole hearing.

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 2.14 the Commission only considers information concerning significant developments or changes in... disclosure for interim hearings will be limited to such information. (c) Exemption to disclosure (18 U.S.C... of disclosure. When a timely request has been made for disclosure, if any document or summary of...

  19. Ethical Considerations about EHR-Mediated Results Disclosure and Pathology Information Presented via Patient Portals.

    Davis, Kristina A; Smith, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) now include patient portals where patients can obtain clinical reports, including notes, radiology reports, and laboratory/anatomic pathology results. Although portals increase patient access to information, no guidelines have been developed for hospitals about appropriate delays in posting different types of pathology reports to the EHR. Delays exist as a matter of policy to allow physicians time to answer questions and provide emotional support when discussing sensitive results with patients. Some types of results are more sensitive than others, however, including results of cancer, genetic, and HIV testing. Ethical questions about patient access to test results online are discussed. PMID:27550567

  20. Erythropoietin use and abuse.

    John, M Joseph; Jaison, Vineeth; Jain, Kunal; Kakkar, Naveen; Jacob, Jubbin J

    2012-03-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient's disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge. PMID:22470858